Sample records for adductor policis muscle

  1. Jaw adductor muscles across lepidosaurs: a reappraisal. (United States)

    Daza, Juan Diego; Diogo, Rui; Johnston, Peter; Abdala, Virginia


    The exact homologies of tetrapod jaw muscles remain unresolved, and this provides a barrier for phylogenetic analysis and tracing character evolution. Here, lepidosaur jaw muscles are surveyed using direct examination of species from 23 families and published descriptions of species from 10 families. A revised nomenclature is applied according to proposed homologies with Latimeria. Among lepidosaurs, variation was found in many aspects of jaw muscle anatomy. The superficial layers mm. levator and retractor anguli oris (LAO and RAO) are present in Sphenodon but not all squamates. The external jaw adductor muscles universally present in lepidosaurs are homologous with the main adductor muscle, A2, of Latimeria and include four layers: superficialis (A2-SUP), medialis (A2-M), profundus (A2-PRO), and posterior (A2-PVM). The A2-SUP appears divided in Agamidae, Gekkota, Xantusiidae, and Varanidae. The A2-M is layered lateromedial in lizards but anteroposterior in snakes. The names pseudotemporalis (PS) and pterygomandibularis (PTM) are recommended for subdivisions of the internal adductors of reptiles and amphibians, because the homology of this muscle with the A3' and A3 ″ of Latimeria remains inconclusive. The intramandibularis of lepidosaurs and Latimeria (A-ω) are homologous. The distribution of six jaw muscle characters was found to plot more parsimoniously on phylogenies based on morphological rather than and molecular data. Character mapping indicates that Squamata presents reduction in the divisions of the A2-M, Scincoidea presents reduction or loss of LAO, and two apomorphic features are found for the Gekkota.

  2. A Rare Case of Adductor Longus Muscle Rupture (United States)

    van de Kimmenade, R. J. L. L.; van Bergen, C. J. A.; van Deurzen, P. J. E.; Verhagen, R. A. W.


    An adductor longus muscle rupture is a rare injury. This case report describes a 32-year-old patient with an adductor longus rupture. The trauma mechanism was a hyperabduction movement during a soccer game. Nonoperative treatment was initiated. After a follow-up of 4 years, the patient was without pain but a small swelling was still visible. This report describes the anatomy, pathophysiology, and evidence-based treatment of adductor longus rupture. PMID:25918663

  3. A Rare Case of Adductor Longus Muscle Rupture

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    R. J. L. L. van de Kimmenade


    Full Text Available An adductor longus muscle rupture is a rare injury. This case report describes a 32-year-old patient with an adductor longus rupture. The trauma mechanism was a hyperabduction movement during a soccer game. Nonoperative treatment was initiated. After a follow-up of 4 years, the patient was without pain but a small swelling was still visible. This report describes the anatomy, pathophysiology, and evidence-based treatment of adductor longus rupture.

  4. Adductor pollicis muscle: potential anthropometric parameter in hospitalized individuals

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    Teresa Cristina Abranches Rosa


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the measurement of adductor pollicis muscle thickness as a parameter for the assessment of nutritional status in patients admitted to a University Hospital in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul State. This is a prospective cross-sectional study with 64 adults and elderly patients. We evaluated the percentage of weight loss based on the usual weight, arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, arm muscle circumference, laboratory parameters and measurement of adductor pollicis muscle thickness. The measurements were performed only once, in the first 72 hours of hospitalization. Data were analyzed using statistical software BioEstat 5.0, with a significance level of 0.05. The average thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle was 17.5 + 5.3 mm. We found a significant negative association of muscle with age. There was a significant association between the measure of muscle and parameters such as body mass index, arm circumference, arm muscle circumference, albumin and nutritional status assessed by physical examination. The adductor pollicis muscle allows easy measurement, direct assessment, fast results, low cost and good correlation with anthropometric parameters. However, further studies should be conducted to validate this new method.

  5. Isokinetic imbalance of adductor-abductor hip muscles in professional soccer players with chronic adductor-related groin pain. (United States)

    Belhaj, K; Meftah, S; Mahir, L; Lmidmani, F; Elfatimi, A


    This study aims to compare the isokinetic profile of hip abductor and adductor muscle groups between soccer players suffering from chronic adductor-related groin pain (ARGP), soccer players without ARGP and healthy volunteers from general population. Study included 36 male professional soccer players, who were randomly selected and followed-up over two years. Of the 21 soccer players eligible to participate in the study, 9 players went on to develop chronic ARGP and 12 players did not. Ten healthy male volunteers were randomly selected from the general population as a control group. Comparison between the abductor and adductor muscle peak torques for players with and without chronic ARGP found a statistically significant difference on the dominant and non-dominant sides (p muscle significantly stronger than the adductor muscle. In the group of healthy volunteers, the adductor muscle groups were significantly stronger than the abductor muscle groups on both dominant and non-dominant sides (p muscle strength was also significantly decreased on the affected side. This imbalance appears to be a risk factor for adductor-related groin injury. Therefore, restoring the correct relationship between these two agonist and antagonist hip muscles may be an important preventative measure that should be a primary concern of training and rehabilitation programmes.

  6. Heat treatment of scallop adductor muscle using superheated steam. (United States)

    Abe, T; Miyashita, K


    Scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) adductor muscles were heated using superheated steam (150 and 200 degrees C), boiling (98 degrees C), and normal steaming (95 degrees C). The amounts of amino acids, water-soluble peptides, and nucleotides, expressed as extractive nitrogen in scallop products, are very important elements of quality and taste. After 15-min heating of scallop muscles with normal steaming and boiling, respective losses of 50% and 64% of the extractive nitrogen were observed. However, most extractive nitrogen (> 86%) remained in the scallop muscles treated with superheated steam at 150 and 200 degrees C. Protective effects of superheated steam against elution loss of nitrogen compounds were also observed in amino acid analyses of the heated products. The scallop-muscle surface temperature during treatment with superheated steam increased more quickly than that with normal steaming and boiling. The rapid water loss and the surface protein denaturation engendered formation of a 30-mum-thick film covering the surface, which prevented extractive nitrogen loss from internal tissues. Superheated steam treatment at 200 degrees C caused browning, surface shrinkage, and 47% weight loss. In marked contrast, the appearance and the weight loss of sample treated at 150 degrees C were almost the same as those of normal steaming and boiling-treated samples. These results suggested that superheated steaming at 150 degrees C is an optimal heat treatment of scallop adductor muscles.

  7. Why adductor magnus muscle is large: the function based on muscle morphology in cadavers. (United States)

    Takizawa, M; Suzuki, D; Ito, H; Fujimiya, M; Uchiyama, E


    The aim of this study was to examine anatomical properties of the adductor magnus through a detailed classification, and to hypothesize its function and size to gather enough information about morphology. Ten cadaveric specimens of the adductor magnus were used. The muscle was separated into four portios (AM1-AM4) based on the courses of the corresponding perforating arteries, and its volume, muscle length, muscle fiber length and physiological cross-sectional area were assessed. The architectural characteristics of these four portions of the adductor magnus were then classified with the aid of principal component analysis. The results led us into demarcating the most proximal part of the adductor magnus (AM1) from the remaining parts (AM2, AM3, and AM4). Classification of the adductor magnus in terms of architectural characteristics differed from the more traditional anatomical distinction. The AM2, AM3, and AM4, having longer muscle fiber lengths than the AM1, appear to be designed as displacers for moving the thigh through a large range of motion. The AM1 appears instead to be oriented principally toward stabilizing the hip joint. The large mass of the adductor magnus should thus be regarded as a complex of functionally differentiable muscle portions.

  8. Primary hydatid disease in adductor muscles. (United States)

    Sarisoy, Hasan Tahsin; Memisoglu, Kaya; Tamer, Gulden Sonmez; Sarlak, Ahmet Yilmaz


    Primary muscular Echinococcus infection is very rare without involvement of thoracic and abdominal organs. In this case a 31-year-old man who had a growing mass in the postero-medial part of his right thigh was examined. The mass was diagnosed as hydatid cyst using ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and serological tests. It was removed surgically and there has been no recurrence one year after the surgery. The MRI imaging characteristics may differ depending on the life cycle stage of the parasite. In this case report, we discuss the imaging characteristics of the muscular hydatid cyst with special emphasis on the MRI findings. In regions where hydatidosis is endemic, a mass found in body muscles should be considered as a muscular hydatid cyst.

  9. Obturator neurolysis using 65% alcohol for adductor muscle spasticity

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    Anju Ghai


    Full Text Available Spasticity is motor alteration characterized by muscle hypertonia and hyperreflexia. It is an important complication of spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy, and multiple sclerosis. If uncorrected, fibrosis and eventually bony deformity lock the joint into a fixed contracture. Chemical neurolysis using various agents is one of the therapeutic possibilities to alleviate spasticity. We are, hereby, reporting 3 patients in whom 65% alcohol was used as neurolytic agent for the treatment of hip adductor spasticity, and the effect lasted for a variable period.


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    Swapna Sebastian


    Full Text Available Objective:The study aimed at differentiating Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia (ADSD from Muscle Tension Dysphonia (MTD using acoustic measurements . Method: Perceptual as well as acoustic analysis of the voice was done on 12 patients of Adductor Spasmodic dysphonics and Muscle tension dysphonics each. The age of these patients ranged between 30 to 64 years . Results: Adductor spasmodic dysphonics statistically differed from muscle tension dysphonia in the acoustic parameters of voice break, harmonic to noise ratio, and jitter. The parameters which showed maximum significance of differences were voice break which was presented only by the adductor spasmodic dysphonics and harmonic to noise ratio which was affected in muscle tension dysphonia. Conclusion: Voice breaks were found to be more sensitive in discriminating adductor spasmodic dysphonia from muscle tension dysphonia in the present study. Percentage of voice break correlated with perceptual assessment of severity.

  11. The Isolated Effect of Adductor Canal Block on Quadriceps Femoris Muscle Strength After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Johan Kløvgaard; Jæger, Pia; Dahl, Jørgen Berg;


    BACKGROUND: Using peripheral nerve block after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), without impeding mobility, is challenging. We hypothesized that the analgesic effect of adductor canal block (ACB) could increase the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the quadriceps femoris muscle after...

  12. The hip adductor muscle group in caviomorph rodents: anatomy and homology. (United States)

    García-Esponda, César M; Candela, Adriana M


    Anatomical comparative studies including myological data of caviomorph rodents are relatively scarce, leading to a lack of use of muscular features in cladistic and morphofunctional analyses. In rodents, the hip adductor muscles constitute an important group of the hindlimb musculature, having an important function during the beginning of the stance phase. These muscles are subdivided in several distinct ways in the different clades of rodents, making the identification of their homologies hard to establish. In this contribution we provide a detailed description of the anatomical variation of the hip adductor muscle group of different genera of caviomorph rodents and identify the homologies of these muscles in the context of Rodentia. On this basis, we identify the characteristic pattern of the hip adductor muscles in Caviomorpha. Our results indicate that caviomorphs present a singular pattern of the hip adductor musculature that distinguishes them from other groups of rodents. They are characterized by having a single m. adductor brevis that includes solely its genicular part. This muscle, together with the m. gracilis, composes a muscular sheet that is medial to all other muscles of the hip adductor group. Both muscles probably have a synergistic action during locomotion, where the m. adductor brevis reinforces the multiple functions of the m. gracilis in caviomorphs. Mapping of analyzed myological characters in the context of Rodentia indicates that several features are recovered as potential synapomorphies of caviomorphs. Thus, analysis of the myological data described here adds to the current knowledge of caviomorph rodents from anatomical and functional points of view, indicating that this group has features that clearly differentiate them from other rodents.

  13. Surgical Management of a Completely Avulsed Adductor Longus Muscle in a Professional Equestrian Rider

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    Conal Quah


    Full Text Available Avulsion injuries of the adductor longus muscle tendon are rare and a challenge to manage especially in athletes. There has been little published literature on the outcome of conservative and operative treatment for these injuries. We report the first case of an acute adductor longus avulsion injury which was surgically repaired in a professional equestrian rider. Return to full preinjury function was achieved at 3 months with surgical repair using 3 suture anchors.

  14. Contractile speed and fatigue of adductor pollicis muscle in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C J; Jongen, P J; van der Woude, L H; de Haan, A


    The purpose of the study was to investigate differences in contractile speed, force, and fatigability of the adductor pollicis muscle between 12 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 8 sedentary control subjects matched for age and gender. There were no differences between the patients with MS a

  15. Stabilization and stability of twitch force during mechanomyography of the adductor pollicis muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, G; Fidler, [No Value; Wierda, JMKH


    Objective. In order to study the stabilization time, the increase in twitch force during stabilization and the maintenance of stability during mechanomyography of the adductor pollicis muscle, neuromuscular function was monitored in 20 patients anaesthetized without the use of a neuromuscular blocki

  16. Extraction and Identification of the Pigment in the Adductor Muscle Scar of Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas.

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    Shixin Hao

    Full Text Available In this study, UV (ultraviolet and IR (infrared radiation spectral analysis were integrated to identify the pigment in the adductor muscle scar of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The pigment was extracted from the adductor muscle scars of cleaned oyster shells that were pulverized, hydrolyzed in hot hydrochloric acid, purified with diethyl ether, and dissolved in 0.01 mL/L NaOH. The maximum absorption of the pigment in the UV absorption spectrum within the range of 190-500 nm was observed between 210-220 nm. The UV absorbance decreased with increasing wavelength which was consistent with the UV spectral absorption characteristics of melanin. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy scanning revealed characteristic absorption peaks that emerged near 3440 cm-1 and 1630 cm-1, which was consistent with infrared scanning features of eumelanin (a type of melanin. This study has demonstrated for the first time that the pigment in the adductor muscle scar of the Pacific oyster is melanin, hinting that the adductor muscle could be another organ pigmenting the mollusc shell with melanin other than mantle.

  17. Symphysis Pubis Osteomyelitis with Bilateral Adductor Muscles Abscess

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    Saad M. Alqahtani


    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis of the pubis symphysis is a rare condition. There have been various reports in the literature of inflammation and osteomyelitis as well as septic arthritis of pubic symphysis. However, due to the fact that these conditions are rare and that the usual presenting symptoms are very nonspecific, osteomyelitis of the pubic symphysis is often misdiagnosed, thus delaying definitive treatment. We present a case that to our knowledge is the first case in literature of osteomyelitis of the pubic symphysis in a 17-year-old boy with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA, which was initially misdiagnosed and progressed to bilateral adductor abscesses. A high suspicion of such condition should be considered in a JIA patient who presents with symphysis or thigh pain.

  18. Recurrent Myonecrosis Involving Adductor Muscle Group Bilaterally: A Rare Complication of Diabetes Mellitus

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    Manzoor Bhat


    Full Text Available Diabetic myonecrosis is a rare and underdiagnosed complication of long-standing, uncontrolled diabetes. It usually occurs in patients with long-standing diabetes in the presence of microvascular complications. Thigh muscles are more commonly affected and the usual presentation is thigh swelling with or without pain, systemic features being rare. Magnetic resonance imaging is the gold standard for diagnosis. Most patients recover spontaneously with bed rest, adequate analgesia and good glycemic control. We present a case of recurrent myonecrosis of adductor muscles of the thigh in a patient with long standing type 2 diabetes mellitus who recovered with conservative management.

  19. A chemical assessment of freshness in stored adductor muscle from scallops

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    A.E. Massa


    Full Text Available The postmortem catabolism of adenosine triphosphate (ATP in cold-stored adductor muscles from scallops (Zygochlamys patagónica was studied. Changes in the pH of stored muscles were also studied. The ATP content increased for a short time after death and afterwards decreased up to 24 hr of storage. Thereafter, the nucleotide level remained unchanged up to the end of storage. The ADP content slightly decreased up to 48 hr and after that remained unchanged. The AMP slowly accumulated to around 15% of the total nucleotide concentration when the ATP decreased. Small amounts of IMP were detected in all samples. Conversely, adenosine (Ado was not detected. Inosine (HxR increased slightly after 48 hr of storage and hypoxanthine (Hx increased significantly after 24 hr. The 260/250 absorbance ratio of muscle extracts and the pH of stored muscles fell sharply up to 24 hr and then decreased slowly up to the end of storage. The hypoxanthine concentration and the 260/250 absorbance ratio could be reliable indicators of storage age in adductor muscles from scallops.

  20. Coordination among thigh muscles including the vastus intermedius and adductor magnus at different cycling intensities. (United States)

    Saito, Akira; Watanabe, Kohei; Akima, Hiroshi


    Although many studies have been focused on muscle synergies in the lower limbs, synergies of the thigh muscles during cycling have not been investigated in detail. We examined synergies of the thigh muscles including the vastus intermedius (VI) and adductor magnus (AM) while cycling. Eight healthy men pedaled at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of maximal aerobic power output at a constant cadence of 60 rpm. Surface electromyography (EMG) recorded signals from the deep VI and the three superficial quadriceps femoris (QF) muscles, the two hamstrings and the AM. The root mean square of the EMG signal was averaged every 2° of crank rotation and normalized by the peak value for each muscle. We used factor analysis to assess normalized EMG recordings while cycling and to identify thigh muscle synergies. The VI, the superficial QF muscles and the AM dominated the first muscle synergy at all power output levels. The AM also formed a second synergy with the two hamstrings at all power output levels. These results suggest that the VI coordinates with the other QF and AM muscles, and that the AM coordinates with the QF and hamstring muscles while cycling.

  1. Force depression following muscle shortening in sub-maximal voluntary contractions of human adductor pollicis. (United States)

    Rousanoglou, Elissavet N; Oskouei, Ali E; Herzog, Walter


    Mechanical properties of skeletal muscles are often studied for controlled, electrically induced, maximal, or supra-maximal contractions. However, many mechanical properties, such as the force-length relationship and force enhancement following active muscle stretching, are quite different for maximal and sub-maximal, or electrically induced and voluntary contractions. Force depression, the loss of force observed following active muscle shortening, has been observed and is well documented for electrically induced and maximal voluntary contractions. Since sub-maximal voluntary contractions are arguably the most important for everyday movement analysis and for biomechanical models of skeletal muscle function, it is important to study force depression properties under these conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine force depression following sub-maximal, voluntary contractions. Sets of isometric reference and isometric-shortening-isometric test contractions at 30% of maximal voluntary effort were performed with the adductor pollicis muscle. All reference and test contractions were executed by controlling force or activation using a feedback system. Test contractions included adductor pollicis shortening over 10 degrees, 20 degrees, and 30 degrees of thumb adduction. Force depression was assessed by comparing the steady-state isometric forces (activation control) or average electromyograms (EMGs) (force control) following active muscle shortening with those obtained in the corresponding isometric reference contractions. Force was decreased by 20% and average EMG was increased by 18% in the shortening test contractions compared to the isometric reference contractions. Furthermore, force depression was increased with increasing shortening amplitudes, and the relative magnitudes of force depression were similar to those found in electrically stimulated and maximal contractions. We conclude from these results that force depression occurs in sub

  2. Detection of localized methylmercury contamination by use of the mussel adductor muscle in Minamata Bay and Kagoshima Bay, Japan. (United States)

    Haraguchi, K; Ando, T; Sato, M; Kawaguchi, C; Tomiyasu, T; Horvat, M; Akagi, H


    Based on our previous finding that the concentrations of total mercury in mussel adductor muscle approximated those of methylmercury, we compared concentrations of total mercury in the adductor muscle of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, collected from four sites around Minamata City from 1993 to 1995 and four sites in Kagoshima Bay from 1997 to 1998, to assess the level of localized methylmercury contamination. Though the input of mercury from the chemical plant had stopped by around 1970, concentrations of total mercury in the mussel adductor muscle were higher at two sites (26-121 ng/g, n = 135) near the main fallout of wastewater from the chemical plant in Minamata Bay than at the other sites, i.e. two sites 1-5 km from the former sites in Minamata City (6-28 ng/g, n = 52), and all sites in Kagoshima Bay (2-30 ng/g, n = 287). The localized methylmercury contamination around the chemical plant in Minamata Bay was documented also by our sensitive analysis of mercury concentrations in seawater and sediment samples. The survey of concentrations of total mercury in the mussel adductor muscle seems to be useful for monitoring the methylmercury contamination in coastal areas.

  3. Contractile properties of the striated adductor muscle in the bay scallop Argopecten irradians at several temperatures. (United States)

    Olson, J M; Marsh, R L


    The isometric and isotonic contractile properties of the cross-striated adductor muscle of the bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) were measured in vitro at 10, 15 and 20 degrees C. The length at which twitch force was maximal as a function of the closed length in situ (L0/Lcl) averaged 1.38 +/- 0.01 (mean +/- S.E.M.) at 10 degrees C. This length is very close to the typical length at maximum gape during natural swimming at this temperature. Passive force was very low over the range of lengths measured here; at L0, passive force averaged approximately 0.08 N cm-2, or only 0.5% of the corresponding peak twitch force. The mean peak isometric twitch force (Ptw,max) at 10 degrees C was 21.43 +/- 0.68 N cm-2 (S.E.M.), and the ratio of peak twitch force to tetanic force (Ptw,max/P0) averaged 0.89 +/- 0.01. Temperature did not affect either twitch force (Ptw), once fatigue was taken into account, or Ptw,max/P0. In contrast, the time-related properties of twitch contractions (latent period, tL; time to peak tension, tPtw; and time from peak tension to half-relaxation, t50%R) were positively modified by temperature at all temperatures measured (Q10 > 1.8). All three properties were more temperature-sensitive over the range 10-15 degrees C than over the range 15-20 degrees C. The force-velocity relationships of the striated adductor muscle were fitted to the hyperbolic-linear (HYP-LIN) equation. The force-velocity curves of the striated adductor muscle of the scallop were strongly influenced by temperature. Maximal velocity at zero force (Vmax), and therefore maximal power output, increased significantly with temperature. The Q10 over the temperature range 10-15 degrees C (1.42) was significantly lower than that over the range 15-20 degrees C (2.41). The shape of the force-velocity relationship, assessed through comparisons of the power ratio (Wmax/VmaxP0), was not influenced by temperature.

  4. Tenotomies of the adductor muscles with and without neurectomies of N. obturatorius in patients with spastic cerebral palsy: A comparative study

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    Poposka Anastasika


    Full Text Available Objective: The hip dislocation especially in spastic form of cerebral palsy frequently occurs. It results in significant morbidity in terms of pain in the dislocated hip and destabilization of the pelvis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the migration percentage in patients where only tenotomies of the adductor muscles were performed compared to patients where tenotomies of the adductor muscles were combined with neurectomy of the obturator nerve. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 50 patients (80 hips divided in two groups. In 32 patients (47 hips tenotomies of the adductor muscles were performed, in 18 patients (33 hips tenotomies of the adductormuscles were combined with neurectomy of the obturator nerve in order to prevent and to decrease the incidence of hip dislocation. We used the Reimers’ hip migration percentage to evaluate the stability of the articulation. Results: In the group where tenotomies of the adductor muscles were combined with neurectomy of the obturator nerve, we cannot find a statistically significant difference when compared to the group where only tenotomies of the adductor muscles were performed. In the two year follow up period after the operations, a decrease of the migration percentage was noted in both groups of patients with gradual increase in the following period. Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the end result when performing tenotomies of the adductor muscles combined with neurectomy of the obturator nerve compared with tenotomies of the adductor muscles only

  5. Gene expression analyses of essential catch factors in the smooth and striated adductor muscles of larval, juvenile and adult great scallop (Pecten maximus). (United States)

    Andersen, Øivind; Torgersen, Jacob S; Pagander, Helene H; Magnesen, Thorolf; Johnston, Ian A


    The scallop adductor muscle consists of striated fibres responsible for the fast closure of the shells, and smooth fibres able to maintain tension in a prolonged state of contraction called catch. Formation of the force-bearing catch linkages has been demonstrated to be initiated by dephosphorylation of the key catch-regulating factor twitchin by a calcineurin-like phosphatase, while the involvement of other thick filament proteins is uncertain. Here we report on the development of catchability of the adductor smooth muscle in the great scallop (Pecten maximus) by analysing the spatio-temporal gene expression patterns of the myosin regulatory light chain (MLCr), twitchin, myorod and calcineurin using whole mount in situ hybridization and real-time quantitative PCR. The MLCr signal was identified in the retractor and adductor muscles of the pediveliger larvae, and the juvenile and adult scallop displayed abundant mRNA levels of MLCr in the smooth and striated adductor muscles. Twitchin was mainly expressed in the smooth adductor muscle during metamorphosis, whereas the adult striated adductor muscle contained seven-folds higher twitchin mRNA levels compared to the smooth portion. Calcineurin expression predominated in the gonads and in the smooth adductor, and five-folds higher mRNA levels were measured in the smooth than in the striated fibres at the adult stage. In contrast to the other genes examined, the expression of myorod was confined to the smooth adductor muscle suggesting that myorod plays a permissive role in the molluscan catch muscles, which are first required at the vulnerable settlement stage as a component of the predator defence system.

  6. The colour of the adductor muscle as a predictor of pork quality in the loin. (United States)

    Warriss, P D; Brown, S N; Paściak, P


    The relation between measurements of colour made in the m. adductor (AD) at 45min or 20 h post mortem and the quality, assessed subjectively in terms of colour and waterholding capacity, of the m. longissimus (LD) in the loin was examined. The study used data from 100 pig carcasses exhibiting a wide range of meat quality from extreme PSE (pale, soft and exudative) to extreme DFD (dark, firm and dry). The subjective assessments were confirmed by objective measures of paleness (reflectance) and waterholding capacity (drip loss in storage) in the LD. Lightness (L(∗)) measured at 20h post mortem in the AD was the best potential predictor of loin muscle quality, explaining 59% of the variation in subjective and objective quality measures. Comparable measurements at 45min post mortem explained between 21% and 44% of the variation. The equation that described the relation between AD Lightness (L(∗)) and subjectively assessed LD quality was derived. This could be used to transpose the AD L(∗) values from a population of slaughtered pigs into nominal subjective scores for the LD, allowing the frequency of the five subjective quality groups (extremely DFD, slightly DFD, normal, slightly PSE, and extremely PSE) in the population of carcasses to be defined.

  7. Characteristics of the Aragonitic Layer in Adult Oyster Shells, Crassostrea gigas: Structural Study of Myostracum including the Adductor Muscle Scar

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    Seung-Woo Lee


    Full Text Available Myostracum, which is connected from the umbo to the edge of a scar, is not a single layer composed of prismatic layers, but a hierarchically complex multilayered shape composed of minerals and an organic matrix. Through the analysis of the secondary structure, the results revealed that a β-antiparallel structure was predominant in the mineral phase interface between the myostracum (aragonite and bottom folia (calcite. After the complete decalcification and deproteinization, the membrane obtained from the interface between the myostracum buried in upper folia, and the bottom folia was identified as chitin. The transitional zone in the interface between the adductor muscle scar and folia are verified. The myostracum disappeared at the edge of the scar of the posterior side. From this study, the entire structure of the myostracum from the adult oyster shell of Crassostrea gigas could be proposed.

  8. What are the stimulation parameters that affect the extent of twitch force potentiation in the adductor pollicis muscle? (United States)

    Mettler, Joni A; Griffin, Lisa


    Muscle force potentiation affects force output during electrical stimulation. Few studies have examined stimulation train parameters that influence potentiation such as pulse number, stimulation frequency, train duration, and force-time integral and peak force produced during the train. Pulse-matched trains (100 pulses) at 7.5, 15, 25, 30, 50, and 100 Hz, and trains of varying pulse number (50, 100, and 200 pulses) at 30 and 50 Hz were delivered to the ulnar nerve of 10 (5 male, 5 female; 23.4 ± 0.9 years), healthy individuals in random order. Single twitches of the adductor pollicis muscle were elicited before and after each train with a rest interval of at least 5 min between each train. No differences in potentiation occurred across the pulse-matched trains at frequencies of 15-50 Hz (38.9 ± 5.4-44.6 ± 5.5%). Twitch force potentiation following the highest (100 Hz) and lowest (7.5 Hz) frequency trains were not significantly different and were lower than the other 100 pulse-matched trains. As pulse number increased, potentiation increased for both the 30 and 50-Hz trains. There was a significant positive correlation between force potentiation and force-time integral produced by the stimulation train, r = 0.70. The results indicate that potentiation magnitude is dependent on the force-time integral produced during the test train and the number of pulses delivered, independent of stimulation frequency.

  9. Effects of free oxygen radicals on Ca2+ release mechanisms in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of scallop (Pecten jacobaeus) adductor muscle. (United States)

    Burlando, B; Viarengo, A; Pertica, M; Ponzano, E; Orunesu, M


    In vitro oxyradical effects on SR Ca2+ regulation were studied by using a SR-containing cell-free preparation from scallop (Pecten jacobaeus) adductor muscle. Ca2+ variations were fluorimetrically detected after incubation with Fluo-3 in the presence of ATP. Exposure to Fe3+/ascorbate produced dose-dependent Ca2+ release from SR vesicles, eventually leading to massive Ca2+ loss. Exposure to hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase also caused Ca2+ release but at a much slower rate. Pre-incubations with catalase or with the hydroxyl radical scavenger KMBA led to a significant decrease in the Fe3+/ascorbate-induced Ca2+ release rate and to a delay of massive Ca2+ loss. Pre-incubations with GSH or DTT strongly reduced the Ca2+ release caused by Fe3+/ascorbate and, moreover, they prevented massive Ca2+ loss from SR vesicles. Addition of GSH or DTT after Fe3+/ascorbate promptly reduced the Ca2+ release rate and delayed massive Ca2+ release. Pre-incubation with the SR Ca2+ channel blocker ruthenium red strongly reduced the Ca2+ release caused by Fe3+/ascorbate, and also prevented massive Ca2+ loss. In the presence of ruthenium red, Fe3+/ascorbate treatments followed by Ca2+ addition revealed that Ca2+ uptake inhibition was slower than Ca2+ release. Taken together, data showed that free radicals and, in particular, hydroxyl radicals, affected the scallop SR Ca2+ regulation. This mainly occurred through Ca2+ channel opening, most likely triggered by sulfhydryl oxidation, which eventually led to massive Ca2+ release from SR vesicles. The demonstration of a specific effect of oxyradicals on SR Ca2+ channels is in line with their possible involvement in cell signaling.

  10. NMR-Based Metabolomic Investigations on the Differential Responses in Adductor Muscles from Two Pedigrees of Manila Clam Ruditapes philippinarum to Cadmium and Zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbao Yu


    Full Text Available Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the most important economic species in shellfishery in China due to its wide geographic distribution and high tolerance to environmental changes (e.g., salinity, temperature. In addition, Manila clam is a good biomonitor/bioindicator in “Mussel Watch Programs” and marine environmental toxicology. However, there are several pedigrees of R. philippinarum distributed in the marine environment in China. No attention has been paid to the biological differences between various pedigrees of Manila clams, which may introduce undesirable biological variation in toxicology studies. In this study, we applied NMR-based metabolomics to detect the biological differences in two main pedigrees (White and Zebra of R. philippinarum and their differential responses to heavy metal exposures (Cadmium and Zinc using adductor muscle as a target tissue to define one sensitive pedigree of R. philippinarum as biomonitor for heavy metals. Our results indicated that there were significant metabolic differences in adductor muscle tissues between White and Zebra clams, including higher levels of alanine, glutamine, hypotaurine, phosphocholine and homarine in White clam muscles and higher levels of branched chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine, succinate and 4-aminobutyrate in Zebra clam muscles, respectively. Differential metabolic responses to heavy metals between White and Zebra clams were also found. Overall, we concluded that White pedigree of clam could be a preferable bioindicator/biomonitor in marine toxicology studies and for marine heavy metals based on the relatively high sensitivity to heavy metals.

  11. Differential proteomic responses in hepatopancreas and adductor muscles of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis to stresses induced by cadmium and hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Priscilla T.Y. [Swire Institute of Marine Science and School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Wang Yu [Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy, University of Hong Kong, Sassoon Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Mak, Sarah S.T.; Ng, W.C. [Swire Institute of Marine Science and School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Leung, Kenneth M.Y., E-mail: [Swire Institute of Marine Science and School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)


    This study aimed to reveal the proteomic responses in the hepatopancreas and adductor muscle of a common biomonitor, Perna viridis after 14-day exposure to two model chemicals, cadmium (Cd; a toxic metal) and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}; a pro-oxidant), using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with multivariate statistical analyses. Unique sets of tissue-specific protein expression signatures were revealed corresponding to the two treatment groups. In the hepatopancreas, 15 and 2 spots responded to Cd and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatments respectively. 6 and 7 spots were differentially expressed in the adductor muscle for Cd and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatments, respectively. 15 differentially expressed spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis. These proteins are involved in glycolysis, amino acid metabolism, energy homeostasis, oxidative stress response, redox homeostasis and protein folding, heat-shock response, and muscle contraction modulation. This is the first time, to have demonstrated that Cd exposure not only leads to substantial oxidative stress but also results in endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatopancreas of the mussel. Such notable stress responses may be attributable to high Cd accumulation in this tissue. Our results suggested that investigations on these stress-associated protein changes could be used as a new and complementary approach in pollution monitoring by this popular biomonitor species.

  12. Increase in twitch force of the adductor pollicis muscle with stabilized preload at constant thumb abduction before and after administration of muscle relaxant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, G; Wierda, JMKH; Fidler, [No Value


    Objective. To determine whether the twitch force of the adductor pollicis remains stable when 0.1 Hz single twitch stimulation is started after stabilization of the thumb preload at a constant degree of thumb abduction; also to study any possible increase in twitch force before the onset of and afte

  13. Clinical recovery of two hip adductor longus ruptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Petersen, Jesper; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann


    was evaluated using hip-strength assessments, self-report and ultrasonography until complete muscle-strength recovery of the hip adductors had occurred. The player was able to participate in a full soccer training session without experiencing pain 15 weeks after the first rupture, and 12 weeks after the second...... rupture. Full hip adductor muscle-strength recovery was obtained 52 weeks after the first rupture and 10 weeks after the second rupture. The adductor longus injuries, as verified by initial ultrasonography (10 days post-injury), showed evidence of a complete tendon rupture in both cases, with an almost......BACKGROUND: Non-operative treatment of acute hip adductor longus ruptures in athletes has been described in the literature. However, very limited information concerning the recovery of this type of injury exists. This case represented a unique possibility to study the recovery of two acute adductor...

  14. Surgical technique for treatment of recalcitrant adductor longus tendinopathy. (United States)

    Gill, Thomas J; Carroll, Kaitlin M; Makani, Amun; Wall, Andrew J; Dumont, Guillaume D; Cohn, Randy M


    Chronic groin pain in the athlete can be a difficult problem to manage. Adductor dysfunction is the most common cause of groin pain in athletes, with the adductor longus being the tendon most commonly involved. The most reproducible finding for adductor longus tendinopathy is tenderness along the tendon with passive abduction and resisted hip adduction in extension. Magnetic resonance imaging and injection of a corticosteroid and anesthetic into the proximal muscle-tendon junction are both helpful in confirming the diagnosis. Nonoperative treatment may consist of protected weight bearing, ice application, ultrasonography, electrical stimulation, and gentle stretching with progressive strengthening. However, nonoperative management is not always successful. In these instances, surgical treatment can be quite effective. We present the indications, surgical technique, and rehabilitation protocol of adductor tenotomy for chronic tendinopathy. This can prove a useful tool for the treatment of recalcitrant groin pain attributable to the adductor longus.

  15. PET/CT imaging in polymyalgia rheumatica: praepubic 18F-FDG uptake correlates with pectineus and adductor longus muscles enthesitis and with tenosynovitis (United States)

    Sprlakova-Pukova, Andrea; Bortlicek, Zbynek; Fojtik, Zdenek; Kazda, Tomas; Joukal, Marek; Koukalova, Renata; Vasina, Jiri; Eremiasova, Jana; Nemec, Petr


    diminished in all patients (15/15, 100%) after treatment with steroids. Conclusions Increased praepubic 18F-FDG uptake in patients with PMR is relatively common and this region should be systematically evaluated during differential diagnosis of rheumatic and malignant disease. Praepubic inflammation is probably related to enthesitis and tenosynovitis at the origin of pectineus and adductor longus muscles ventrally from the pubis. PMID:28265227

  16. The spread of injectate during saphenous nerve block at the adductor canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H L; Andersen, S L; Tranum-Jensen, J


    by comparative dissections of the same limbs. RESULTS: The spread of the injectates was determined by the fascial limits and the muscles surrounding the adductor canal. The anteromedial limit of the adductor canal (the roof) was found to be a continuous fascia, with a thin proximal part and a thicker distal part...

  17. Adductor canal block versus femoral nerve block for analgesia after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Pia; Zaric, Dusanka; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm;


    Femoral nerve block (FNB), a commonly used postoperative pain treatment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), reduces quadriceps muscle strength essential for mobilization. In contrast, adductor canal block (ACB) is predominately a sensory nerve block. We hypothesized that ACB preserves quadriceps...... muscle strength as compared with FNB (primary end point) in patients after TKA. Secondary end points were effects on morphine consumption, pain, adductor muscle strength, morphine-related complications, and mobilization ability....

  18. Effect of Adductor Canal Block Versus Femoral Nerve Block on Quadriceps Strength, Mobilization, and Pain After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grevstad, Jens Ulrik; Mathiesen, Ole; Valentiner, Laura Risted Staun;


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is often associated with severe pain. Different regional anesthetic techniques exist, all with varying degrees of motor blockade. We hypothesized that pain relief provided by the adductor canal block (ACB) could increase functional muscle....... CONCLUSION: Adductor canal block provides a clinically relevant and statistically significant increase in quadriceps muscle strength for patients in severe pain after TKA....

  19. Effects of spaceflight in the adductor longus muscle of rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. A study employing neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and conventional morphological techniques (light and electron microscopy) (United States)

    D'Amelio, F.; Daunton, N. G.


    The effects of spaceflight upon the "slow" muscle adductor longus were examined in rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light microscopic observations revealed myofiber atrophy and segmental necrosis accompanied by cellular infiltrates composed of macrophages, leukocytes and mononuclear cells. Neural cell adhesion molecule immunoreactivity (N-CAM-IR) was seen on the myofiber surface and in regenerating myofibers. Ultrastructural alterations included Z band streaming, disorganization of myofibrillar architecture, sarcoplasmic degradation, extensive segmental necrosis with apparent preservation of the basement membrane, degenerative phenomena of the capillary endothelium and cellular invasion of necrotic areas. Regenerating myofibers were identified by the presence of increased amounts of ribosomal aggregates and chains of polyribosomes associated with myofilaments. The principal electron microscopic changes of the neuromuscular junctions showed axon terminals with a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles replaced by microtubules and neurofilaments, degeneration of axon terminals, vacant axonal spaces and changes suggestive of axonal sprouting. The present observations suggest that alterations such as myofibrillar disruption and necrosis, muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight.

  20. Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis in athletes: a review


    Valent, Alessandro; Frizziero, Antonio; Bressan, Stefano; Zanella, Elena; Giannotti, Erika; Masiero, Stefano


    Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis is common in male athletes, especially in soccer players. It may be worsened by physical activity and it usually limits sport performance. The management goal in the acute phase consists of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs and physical rehabilitation. In the early stages of rehabilitation, strengthening exercises of adductors and abdominal muscles, such as postural exercises, have been suggested. In the sub-acute phase, muscu...

  1. Espessura do músculo adutor do polegar: um método rápido e confiável na avaliação nutricional de pacientes cirúrgicos Adductor pollicis muscle thickness: a fast and reliable method for nutritional assessment in surgical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia Bragagnolo


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar se a medida da espessura do músculo adutor do polegar é confiável para avaliação nutricional de pacientes cirúrgicos e se correlaciona bem com outros parâmetros antropométricos, bioquímicos e clínicos. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal, com avaliação de 87 pacientes candidatos à procedimento cirúrgico de grande porte no trato gastrointestinal. Eles foram submetidos à avaliação nutricional através da avaliação subjetiva global, antropometria (circunferência do braço, prega cutânea triciptal, e circunferência muscular do braço, albumina sérica, linfocitometria e pela medida da espessura do músculo adutor do polegar em ambas as mãos. RESULTADOS: A média da espessura da mão dominante (direita foi de 12,64 ± 3,19 mm e da mão não dominante 12,23 ± 2,9 mm. Para desnutrição, a sensibilidade da espessura do músculo adutor do polegar direita foi de 72,37% e da esquerda de 77,33% para os pontos de cortes encontrados com a curva Receiver Operating Characteristic (13,4 e 13,1 mm respectivamente. Para ambas as mãos a especificidade foi de 100%. Encontrou-se correlação significativa (pOBJECTIVE: Investigate whether the right adductor pollicis muscle thickness is a reliable method to evaluate the nutritional status of surgical patients and whether it correlates or not correlate to other anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical parameters. METHODS: Cross-sectional study evaluating 87 patients candidates to major operations of the gastrointestinal tract. All were submitted to global subjective evaluation, traditional anthropometry (arm circumpherence ; triceps skin fold; and arm muscle circumpherence, serum albumin, lymphocytes and measurement of in both hands. RESULTS: The mean right adductor pollicis muscle thickness in dominant hand was 12,64 ± 3,19 mm and in non-dominant hand (EMAPND 12,23 ± 2,9 mm. Sensitivity was 72,37% for left adductor pollicis muscle and 77,33% for left adductor pollicis

  2. The Jaw Adductor Resultant and Estimated Bite Force in Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. G. Perry


    Full Text Available We reconstructed the jaw adductor resultant in 34 primate species using new data on muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA and data on skull landmarks. Based on predictions by Greaves, the resultant should (1 cross the jaw at 30% of its length, (2 lie directly posterior to the last molar, and (3 incline more anteriorly in primates that need not resist large anteriorly-directed forces. We found that the resultant lies significantly posterior to its predicted location, is significantly posterior to the last molar, and is significantly more anteriorly inclined in folivores than in frugivores. Perhaps primates emphasize avoiding temporomandibular joint distraction and/or wide gapes at the expense of bite force. Our exploration of trends in the data revealed that estimated bite force varies with body mass (but not diet and is significantly greater in strepsirrhines than in anthropoids. This might be related to greater contribution from the balancing-side jaw adductors in anthropoids.

  3. The anatomy and fibre type composition of the human adductor pollicis in relation to its contractile properties. (United States)

    Round, J M; Jones, D A; Chapman, S J; Edwards, R H; Ward, P S; Fodden, D L


    We have examined the anatomy and fibre type composition of the human adductor pollicis in muscles taken post mortem. Histochemical staining of muscle fibres showed that type I fibres predominated in all cases with a mean occurrence of 80%. This composition is similar to that of the soleus muscle and unlike that of the quadriceps which has approximately equal proportions of the two fibre types. Comparing the contractile characteristics, however, the adductor pollicis has similar properties to the quadriceps and both are quite distinct from those of the slowly contracting soleus muscle. The lack of correlation between fibre composition, as revealed by histochemical staining, and contractile properties in these muscles must mean that fibres of the same type from different muscles do not necessarily have the same contractile speed. The results also suggest that the type I fibres of the human adductor pollicis are faster than those of both the soleus and quadriceps muscles.

  4. Extensibility of hip adductors in children with cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Lespargot, A; Renaudin, E; Khouri, N; Robert, M


    The passive extension of relaxed hip adductor muscles was measured in 20 normal children and 10 children (aged nine to 13 years) with cerebral palsy (CP) by a method that could distinguish between shortening of the muscle body and tendon. No muscle-body contracture occurred in the children with CP during treatment (physiotherapy plus moderate stretching on an apparatus for six hours a day); only the tendons were short. However, four children showed signs of muscle-body contracture after interrupting treatment for six to eight weeks. It is possible that muscle-body contracture can be prevented by non-surgical methods, although tendon shortening can, at present, only be treated surgically.

  5. Evolutionary Trends in the Jaw Adductor Mechanics of Ornithischian Dinosaurs. (United States)

    Nabavizadeh, Ali


    Jaw mechanics in ornithischian dinosaurs have been widely studied for well over a century. Most of these studies, however, use only one or few taxa within a given ornithischian clade as a model for feeding mechanics across the entire clade. In this study, mandibular mechanical advantages among 52 ornithischian genera spanning all subclades are calculated using 2D lever arm methods. These lever arm calculations estimate the effect of jaw shape and difference in adductor muscle line of action on relative bite forces along the jaw. Results show major instances of overlap between taxa in tooth positions at which there was highest mechanical advantage. A relatively low bite force is seen across the tooth row among thyreophorans (e.g., stegosaurs and ankylosaurs), with variation among taxa. A convergent transition occurs from a more evenly distributed bite force along the jaw in basal ornithopods and basal marginocephalians to a strong distal bite force in hadrosaurids and ceratopsids, respectively. Accordingly, adductor muscle vector angles show repeated trends from a mid-range caudodorsal orientation in basal ornithischians to a decrease in vector angles indicating more caudally oriented jaw movements in derived taxa (e.g., derived thyreophorans, basal ornithopods, lambeosaurines, pachycephalosaurs, and derived ceratopsids). Analyses of hypothetical jaw morphologies were also performed, indicating that both the coronoid process and lowered jaw joint increase moment arm length therefore increasing mechanical advantage of the jaw apparatus. Adaptive trends in craniomandibular anatomy show that ornithischians evolved more complex feeding apparatuses within different clades as well as morphological convergences between clades.

  6. Impacto na qualidade vocal da miectomia parcial e neurectomia endoscópica do músculo tireoaritenóideo em paciente com disfonia espasmódica de adução Impact in vocal quality in partial myectomy and neurectomy endoscopic of thyroarytenoid muscle in patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Hiroshi Tsuji


    Full Text Available A disfonia espasmódica de adução é um distúrbio vocal grave, caracterizado por espasmos dos músculos laríngeos durante a fonação, produzindo voz quebrada, tensa, forçada e estrangulada. Seus sintomas decorrem da contração intermitente e involuntária dos músculos tireoaritenóideos durante a fonação, o que resulta em pregas vocais tensas, pressionadas uma contra a outra, e no aumento da resistência glótica. OBJETIVO: Apresentar os resultados preliminares do impacto na qualidade vocal da cirurgia de Neurectomia do ramo tireoaritenóideo do laríngeo inferior, via endoscópica, associada à miectomia parcial do músculo tireoaritenóideo com laser de CO2. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A cirurgia foi realizada em 7 pacientes (6 mulheres e 1 homem, com idades variando entre 22 e 75 anos, com diagnóstico de disfonia espasmódica de adução. Os pacientes foram submetidos ao VHI (Voice Handicap Index no pré e pós-operatório. RESULTEDOS E CONCLUSÃO: A melhora vocal foi conseguida em todos os pacientes estudados não ocorrendo deterioração da qualidade vocal ao longo do período pós-operatório. Houve uma diferença evidente no VHI antes e após a cirurgia. Essa técnica cirúrgica mostrou-se eficaz e inovadora no tratamento da disfonia espasmódica de adução.Impact in vocal quality in partial myectomy and neurectomy endoscopic of thyroarytenoid muscle in patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia the adductor spasmodic dysphonia is a severe vocal disorder characterized by muscle laryngeal spasms during speech, producing phonatory breaks, forced, strained and strangled voice. Its symptoms come from involuntary and intermittent contractions of thyroarytenoid muscle during speech, which causes vocal fold strain, pressed one against another and increased glottic resistance. AIM: report the results in the impact in vocal quality in neurectomy of the thyroarytenoid branch of the inferior laryngeal nerve by endoscopic route associated with

  7. Speech Intelligibility in Severe Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia (United States)

    Bender, Brenda K.; Cannito, Michael P.; Murry, Thomas; Woodson, Gayle E.


    This study compared speech intelligibility in nondisabled speakers and speakers with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) before and after botulinum toxin (Botox) injection. Standard speech samples were obtained from 10 speakers diagnosed with severe ADSD prior to and 1 month following Botox injection, as well as from 10 age- and gender-matched…

  8. Experiment K-7-18: Effects of Spaceflight in the Muscle Adductor Longus of Rats Flown in the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Part 1; A Study Employing Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules (N-CAM) Immunocytochemistry and Conventional Morphological Techniques (Light and Electron Microscopy) (United States)

    Daunton, N. G.; DAmelio, F.; Wu, L.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Krasnov, I. B.; Hyde, T. M.; Sigworth, S. K.


    The effects of spaceflight upon the 'slow' muscle adductor longus was examined in rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. Three groups - synchronous, vivarium and basal served as controls. The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, N-CAM immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light microscopic observations revealed myofiber atrophy, contraction bands and segmental necrosis accompanied by cellular infiltrates composed of macrophages, leucocytes and mononuclear cells. N-CAM immunoreactivity was seen (N-CAM-IR) on the myofiber surface, satellite cells and in regenerating myofibers reminiscent of myotubes. Ultrastructural alterations included Z band streaming, disorganization of myofibrillar architecture, sarcoplasmic degradation, extensive segmental necrosis with preservation of the basement membrane, degenerative phenomena of the capillary endothelium and cellular invasion of necrotic areas. Regenerating myofibers were identified by the presence of increased amounts of ribosomal aggregates and chains of polyribosomes associated with myofilaments that displayed varied distributive patterns. The principal electron microscopic changes of the neuromuscular junctions consisted of a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles, degeneration of axon terminals, increased number of microtubules, vacant axonal spaces and axonal sprouting. The present observations indicate that major alterations such as myofibrillar disruption and necrosis, muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight.

  9. Unique use of botulinum toxin to decrease adductor tone and allow surgical excision of vulvar carcinoma. (United States)

    Guo, Y; Shin, K


    Here, we present the case of an 86-year-old woman with vulvar carcinoma requiring surgical resection and with Parkinson's disease with severe spasticity and contractures of the lower extremities. Because of the patient's severe contractures and spasticity (her knees could only be separated by 2 cm with sustained abducting force), surgical positioning and access to the vulva were impossible. The patient was admitted, intending to undergo surgery after injection with botulinum toxin (BTX) to hip adductors and intensive physical therapy. After confirmed healed hip arthroplasty, the patient underwent BTX injection (400 U) to her bilateral adductor brevis, adductor longus, adductor magnus, and semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscles on day 2 of her hospital stay. On day 3, a physical therapist began a twice-a-day stretching program. An adjustable abduction brace was custom-made to provide sustained stretching. On day 9, the patient underwent wide local excision of vulvar carcinoma with the abductor brace in place. The patient tolerated the surgery well and was discharged home on day 11 with continuous physical therapy. Upon discharge, the distance between the patient's knees was 14 cm. This unique case demonstrated a new indication for BTX treatment in the preoperative setting to allow surgical positioning and access.

  10. The adductor part of the adductor magnus is innervated by both obturator and sciatic nerves. (United States)

    Takizawa, Megumi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Ito, Hajime; Fujimiya, Mineko; Uchiyama, Eiichi


    The hip adductor group, innervated predominantly by the obturator nerve, occupies a large volume of the lower limb. However, case reports of patients with obturator nerve palsy or denervation have described no more than minimal gait disturbance. Those facts are surprising, given the architectural characteristics of the hip adductors. Our aim was to investigate which regions of the adductor magnus are innervated by the obturator nerve and by which sciatic nerve and to consider the clinical implications. Twenty-one lower limbs were examined from 21 formalin-fixed cadavers, 18 males and 3 females. The adductor magnus was dissected and was divided into four parts (AM1-AM4) based on the locations of the perforating arteries and the adductor hiatus. AM1 was supplied solely by the obturator nerve. AM2, AM3, and AM4 received innervation from both the posterior branch of the obturator nerve and the tibial nerve portion of the sciatic nerve in 2 (9.5%), 20 (95.2%), and 6 (28.6%) of the cadavers, respectively. The double innervation in more than 90% of the AM3s is especially noteworthy. Generally, AM1-AM3 corresponds to the adductor part, traditionally characterized as innervated by the obturator nerve, and AM4 corresponds to the hamstrings part, innervated by the sciatic nerve. Here, we showed that the sciatic nerve supplies not only the hamstrings part but also the adductor part. These two nerves spread more widely than has generally been believed, which could have practical implications for the assessment and treatment of motor disability.

  11. Defining the Location of the Adductor Canal Using Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Wan Yi; Bjørn, Siska; Strid, Jennie Maria Christin;


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The precise location of the adductor canal remains controversial among anesthesiologists. In numerous studies of the analgesic effect of the so-called adductor canal block for total knee arthroplasty, the needle insertion point has been the midpoint of the thigh......, determined as the midpoint between the anterior superior iliac spine and base of patella. "Adductor canal block" may be a misnomer for an approach that is actually an injection into the femoral triangle, a "femoral triangle block." This block probably has a different analgesic effect compared...... with an injection into the adductor canal. We sought to determine the exact location of the adductor canal using ultrasound and relate it to the midpoint of the thigh. METHODS: Twenty-two volunteers were examined using ultrasound. The proximal end of the adductor canal was identified where the medial border...

  12. Obturator internus muscle strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caoimhe Byrne, MB BCh, BAO


    Full Text Available We report 2 cases of obturator internus muscle strains. The injuries occurred in young male athletes involved in kicking sports. Case 1 details an acute obturator internus muscle strain with associated adductor longus strain. Case 2 details an overuse injury of the bilateral obturator internus muscles. In each case, magnetic resonance imaging played a crucial role in accurate diagnosis.

  13. Activation-induced force enhancement in human adductor pollicis. (United States)

    Oskouei, Ali E; Herzog, Walter


    It has been known for a long time that the steady-state isometric force after muscle stretch is bigger than the corresponding force obtained in a purely isometric contraction for electrically stimulated and maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). Recent studies using sub-maximal voluntary contractions showed that force enhancement only occurred in a sub-group of subjects suggesting that force enhancement for sub-maximal voluntary contractions has properties different from those of electrically-induced and maximal voluntary contractions. Specifically, force enhancement for sub-maximal voluntary contractions may contain an activation-dependent component that is independent of muscle stretching. To address this hypothesis, we tested for force enhancement using (i) sub-maximal electrically-induced contractions and stretch and (ii) using various activation levels preceding an isometric reference contraction at 30% of MVC (no stretch). All tests were performed on human adductor pollicis muscles. Force enhancement following stretching was found for all subjects (n=10) and all activation levels (10%, 30%, and 60% of MVC) for electrically-induced contractions. In contrast, force enhancement at 30% of MVC, preceded by 6s of 10%, 60%, and 100% of MVC was only found in a sub-set of the subjects and only for the 60% and 100% conditions. This result suggests that there is an activation-dependent force enhancement for some subjects for sub-maximal voluntary contractions. This activation-dependent force enhancement was always smaller than the stretch-induced force enhancement obtained at the corresponding activation levels. Active muscle stretching increased the force enhancement in all subjects, independent whether they showed activation dependence or not. It appears that post-activation potentiation, and the associated phosphorylation of the myosin light chains, might account for the stretch-independent force enhancement observed here.

  14. Vocal aging and adductor spasmodic dysphonia: Response to botulinum toxin injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Cannito


    Full Text Available Michael P Cannito, Joel C Kahane, Lesya ChornaSchool of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USAAbstract: Aging of the larynx is characterized by involutional changes which alter its biomechanical and neural properties and create a biological environment that is different from younger counterparts. Illustrative anatomical examples are presented. This natural, non-disease process appears to set conditions which may influence the effectiveness of botulinum toxin injection and our expectations for its success. Adductor spasmodic dysphonia, a type of laryngeal dystonia, is typically treated using botulinum toxin injections of the vocal folds in order to suppress adductory muscle spasms which are disruptive to production of speech and voice. A few studies have suggested diminished response to treatment in older patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. This retrospective study provides a reanalysis of existing pre-to-post treatment data as function of age. Perceptual judgments of speech produced by 42 patients with ADSD were made by two panels of professional listeners with expertise in voice or fluency of speech. Results demonstrate a markedly reduced positive response to botulinum toxin treatment in the older patients. Perceptual findings are further elucidated by means of acoustic spectrography. Literature on vocal aging is reviewed to provide a specific set of biological mechanisms that best account for the observed interaction of botulinum toxin treatment with advancing age.Keywords: vocal aging, adductor spasmodic dysphonia, botulinum toxin, voice quality, speech fluency

  15. Adductor longus tendon rupture mistaken for incarcerated inguinal hernia. (United States)

    Aerts, Bas R J; Plaisier, Peter W; Jakma, Tijs S C


    An incarcerated inguinal hernia is a common diagnosis, since the risk of an inguinal hernia incarcerating or strangulating is around 0.3-3%. An acute rupture of the adductor longus tendon is rarely seen and mostly affects (semi-) professional sportsmen. We present a case of a patient with an assumed incarcerated inguinal hernia which turned out to be a proximal adductor longus tendon rupture. If patients without a history of inguinal hernia present themselves with acute groin pain after suddenly exorotating the upper leg, a rupture of the adductor longus tendon should be considered. Both surgical and non-surgical treatment can be performed.

  16. Elbow joint adductor moment arm as an indicator of forelimb posture in extinct quadrupedal tetrapods. (United States)

    Fujiwara, Shin-ichi; Hutchinson, John R


    Forelimb posture has been a controversial aspect of reconstructing locomotor behaviour in extinct quadrupedal tetrapods. This is partly owing to the qualitative and subjective nature of typical methods, which focus on bony articulations that are often ambiguous and unvalidated postural indicators. Here we outline a new, quantitatively based forelimb posture index that is applicable to a majority of extant tetrapods. By determining the degree of elbow joint adduction/abduction mobility in several tetrapods, the carpal flexor muscles were determined to also play a role as elbow adductors. Such adduction may play a major role during the stance phase in sprawling postures. This role is different from those of upright/sagittal and sloth-like creeping postures, which, respectively, depend more on elbow extensors and flexors. Our measurements of elbow muscle moment arms in 318 extant tetrapod skeletons (Lissamphibia, Synapsida and Reptilia: 33 major clades and 263 genera) revealed that sprawling, sagittal and creeping tetrapods, respectively, emphasize elbow adductor, extensor and flexor muscles. Furthermore, scansorial and non-scansorial taxa, respectively, emphasize flexors and extensors. Thus, forelimb postures of extinct tetrapods can be qualitatively classified based on our quantitative index. Using this method, we find that Triceratops (Ceratopsidae), Anhanguera (Pterosauria) and desmostylian mammals are categorized as upright/sagittally locomoting taxa.

  17. Optimal volume of local anaesthetic for the adductor canal block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, P.; Jenstrup, M. T.; Lund, J.;


    Background: Theoretically, the ideal volume of local anaesthetic for adductor canal block (ACB) would ensure sufficient filling ofthe canal and avoid proximal spread to the femoral triangle. In this dose-finding study, we aimed to investigate the minimaleffective volume for an ACB needed to fill...... the adductor canal distally in at least 95% of patients (ED95). Methods: We performed a blinded trial, enrolling 40 healthy men. All subjects received an ACB with lidocaine 1%. Volumes wereassigned sequentially to the subjects using the continual reassessment method followed by Bayesian analysis to determine...... theED95. Distal filling of the adductor canal was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (primary outcome). Secondary outcomeswere the effect of volume on proximal spread to the femoral triangle (also assessed by magnetic resonance imaging), quadricepsmuscle weakness (decrease by ≥25% from baseline...

  18. Rupture of adductor longus tendon due to ciprofloxacin. (United States)

    Mouzopoulos, George; Stamatakos, Mihalis; Vasiliadis, George; Skandalakis, Panagiotis


    We present a rare case of spontaneous rupture of the adductor longus tendon induced by ciprofloxacin. A 35-year-old man was diagnosed with pneumonia and was recommended ciprofloxacin 500 mg iv twice a day for 7 days. Three days after receiving the initial dose, he developed discomfort in his left medial thigh, and pain and swelling in the same area followed ten days later. He consulted us when he noted a palpable mass on the medial side of his left thigh, and MRI study revealed adductor longus tendon rupture. There was no obvious underlying disease or other factor causing fragility of his adductor longus tendon. We review the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to fluoroquinolone-related tendon rupture as well as the risk factors and discuss proper management.

  19. A comparison of adductor pollicis fatigue in older men and women. (United States)

    Cheng, Arthur; Ditor, David S; Hicks, Audrey L


    Sex differences in fatigue resistance of the adductor pollicis (AP) muscle were studied in 24 older adults who were divided into three groups: 12 older men (69.8 +/- 4.60 years), 6 older women not on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (70.2 +/- 4.02 years), and 6 older women on HRT (68.7 +/- 6.47 years). Fatigue in the AP muscle was induced using an intermittent (5 s contraction, 5 s rest) submaximal voluntary contraction (50% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)) protocol, which was continued until exhaustion (i.e., when subjects could either no longer maintain a 5-s contraction at 50% MVC or when the MVC was deemed to be lower than the target force). There was no effect of HRT on MVC or time to fatigue (TTF); therefore, the older women were pooled as one subject group. At baseline, men were stronger than women for MVC (75.9 +/- 18.8 N in men vs. 56.8 +/- 10.0 N in women; P 0.20), nor was there a significant relationship between baseline muscle force and TTF (r = 0.14). There was also no difference in the pattern of fatigue and recovery between the men and women. These results suggest that there is no difference in endurance or fatigue characteristics of the AP muscle in men and women over the age of 65 years, and that baseline muscle force does not predict fatigue resistance in this muscle.

  20. Unilateral versus bilateral thyroarytenoid Botulinum toxin injections in adductor spasmodic dysphonia: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiola Jesuloba


    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives In this preliminary prospective study, we compared unilateral and bilateral thyroarytenoid muscle injections of Botulinum toxin (Dysport in 31 patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia, who had undergone more than 5 consecutive Dysport injections (either unilateral or bilateral and had completed 5 concomitant self-rated efficacy and complication scores questionnaires related to the previous injections. We also developed a Neurophysiological Scoring (NPS system which has utility in the treatment administration. Method and materials Data were gathered prospectively on voice improvement (self-rated 6 point scale, length of response and duration of complications (breathiness, cough, dysphagia and total voice loss. Injections were performed under electromyography (EMG guidance. NPS scale was used to describe the EMG response. Dose and unilateral/bilateral injections were determined by clinical judgment based on previous response. Time intervals between injections were patient driven. Results Low dose unilateral Dysport injection was associated with no significant difference in the patient's outcome in terms of duration of action, voice score (VS and complication rate when compared to bilateral injections. Unilateral injections were not associated with any post treatment total voice loss unlike the bilateral injections. Conclusion Unilateral low dose Dysport injections are recommended in the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

  1. Measurement of the thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle as a predictor of outcome in critically ill patients La medición del espesor del músculo aductor del pulgar como un predictor de resultados en pacientes críticamente enfermos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Caporossi


    Full Text Available Objective: Malnutrition is associated with complications and prolonged hospital stay in critically ill patients. We assessed whether the measurement of the thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle (TAPM, a new tool to assess malnutrition is a valuable prognostic indicator in critically ill patients. Methods: Open cohort study including 248 patients admitted for either medical or surgical intensive care treatment in a tertiary hospital. Two were discharged for having age below 18 years-old and therefore 246 subjects of both sexes completed the entire analysis. Subjective global assessment and APACHE II scores were used to score the patients. TAPM of both hands was measured at admission with a caliper and correlated with mortality, days of mechanical ventilation, and length of hospital stay (LOS. Results: There was a significant correlation (R = 0.84, p Objetivo: La desnutrición se asocia con complicaciones y estancia hospitalaria prolongada en pacientes críticamente enfermos. Se evaluó si la medición del espesor del músculo aductor del pulgar (TAPM, una nueva herramienta para evaluar la desnutrición es valioso como indicador pronóstico en los pacientes críticamente enfermos. Métodos: Estudio abierto de cohorte que incluyó 248 pacientes ingresados para tratamiento de atención médica o quirúrgica intensiva en un hospital de tercer nivel. Dos de ellos fueron excluidos por tener menos de 18 años de edad y por lo tanto 246 sujetos de ambos sexos completaron todo el análisis. La valoración subjetiva global y puntuaciones de APACHE II se utilizaron en los pacientes. El TAPM de ambas manos se midió al ingreso con una pinza y se correlacionó con la mortalidad, los días de ventilación mecánica, y la duración de la estancia hospitalaria (LOS. Resultados: Se encontró una correlación significativa (r = 0,84, p < 0,001 entre TAPM de la mano derecha y la mano izquierda. Los pacientes con desnutrición severa mostraron TAPM tanto de la

  2. Adductor Canal Block versus Femoral Nerve Block and Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia Therese; Nielsen, Zbigniew Jerzy Koscielniak; Henningsen, Lene Marianne;


    : The authors hypothesized that the adductor canal block (ACB), a predominant sensory blockade, reduces quadriceps strength compared with placebo (primary endpoint, area under the curve, 0.5-6 h), but less than the femoral nerve block (FNB; secondary endpoint). Other secondary endpoints were...

  3. The growth patterns of three hindlimb muscles in the chicken. (United States)

    Helmi, C; Cracraft, J


    This study was designed to investigate the growth patterns of three hindlimb muscles of the chicken relative to the functional-biomechanical demands of increasing body size. The biceps femoris, a bipennate non-postural muscle, grew relatively faster in terms of wet and dry weight than did the parallel-fibred adductor superficialis or the unipennate adductor profundus, both postural muscles. All three muscles exhibited positive allometry (relative to body weight) in muscle length but only biceps femoris and adductor profundus showed positive allometry in cross sectional area adductor superficialis having isometric growth in this parameter. In biceps femoris and adductor superficialis the lengths of the longest and shortest fasciculi grew at equal rates, whereas in adductor profundus the shortest fasciculi grew faster than the longest. We conclude that muscle weight alone is an insufficient indicator of changing function in growing muscle. Hence, growth studies should include other functionally relevant parameters such as cross sectional area, which is proportional to the force-producing capabilities of the muscle, or fibre (fasciculus) length, which is indicative of the absolute amount of stretching or shortening that is possible and of the contraction velocity.

  4. The Effect of Local Anesthetic Volume Within the Adductor Canal on Quadriceps Femoris Function Evaluated by Electromyography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grevstad, Ulrik; Jæger, Pia; Sørensen, Johan Kløvgaard;


    BACKGROUND: Single-injection adductor canal block (ACB) provides analgesia after knee surgery. Which nerves that are blocked by an ACB and what influence-if any-local anesthetic volume has on the effects remain undetermined. We hypothesized that effects on the nerve to the vastus medialis muscle...... (which besides being a motor nerve innervates portions of the knee) are volume-dependent. METHODS: In this assessor- and subject-blinded randomized trial, 20 volunteers were included. On 3 separate days, subjects received an ACB with different volumes (10, 20, and 30 mL) of lidocaine 1%. In addition......L was used (P = 0.0001). No statistically significant differences were found between volume and effect on the vastus lateralis (P = 0.81) or in muscle strength (P = 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: For ACB, there is a positive correlation between local anesthetic volume and effect on the vastus medialis muscle. Despite...

  5. Parrotfish grazing ability: interspecific differences in relation to jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae on an Okinawan coral reef. (United States)

    Nanami, Atsushi


    Parrotfishes (family Labridae: Scarini) are regarded to have important roles for maintaining the ecosystem balance in coral reefs due to their removal of organic matter and calcic substrates by grazing. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the interspecific differences in grazing ability of five parrotfish species (Chlorurus sordidus, C. bowersi, Scarus rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni) in relation to interspecific differences in jaw-lever mechanics and the relative weight of the adductor mandibulae (muscles operating jaw closing). The grazing ability was calculated by using stomach contents (CaCO3 weight/organic matter weight) defined as the grazing ability index (GAI). There were significant interspecific differences in GAI (C. sordidus = C. bowersi > S. rivulatus > S. niger = S. forsteni). Teeth of C. sordidus and C. bowersi were protrusive-shape whereas teeth of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were flat-shape. C. sordidus and C. bowersihave jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force and have a larger weight of adductor mandibulae. S. rivulatus has jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force but a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae that produce an intermediate biting force. In contrast, S. niger and S. forsteni have jaw-lever mechanics producing a lesser biting force and have a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae. Feeding rates and foray size of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were greater than C. sordidus and C. bowersi. The degree in bioerosion (GAI × feeding rate) was the largest for S. rivulatusand the smallest for S. forsteni. The degree in bioerosion for C. sordidus was larger than S. niger whereas relatively equal between C. bowersi and S. niger. These results suggest that interspecific difference in GAI was explained by interspecific differences in teeth shape, jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae. The interspecific difference in the degree of bioerosion suggests the

  6. The dependence of force enhancement on activation in human adductor pollicis. (United States)

    Oskouei, Ali E; Herzog, Walter


    It has been well recognized that the steady-state isometric force after active muscle/fiber stretch is greater than the corresponding isometric force for electrically stimulated muscles and maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). However, recent evidence obtained for sub-MVC suggests that force enhancement properties are different from those observed for electrically induced and MVC. Specifically, it appears that force enhancement is activation-dependent and that there is a subject-specific threshold for force enhancement in sub-MVC. To address these suggestions, the relationship between force enhancement and voluntary activation during stretch was investigated in 11 healthy subjects. Human adductor pollicis muscles were studied and force enhancement was measured while muscle activation during the steady-state isometric phase was controlled at a level of 30% of MVC. In order to study the effects of activation on force enhancement, subjects performed stretch contractions at 0, 10, 30, 60, and 100% of maximal voluntary effort while the steady-state isometric force after stretch, obtained at 30% of activation in all cases, was compared to the corresponding values measured in the isometric reference contractions. There was no force enhancement if muscle stretching occurred passively but all subjects showed force enhancement when muscle stretching occurred at maximal voluntary effort. When increasing the level of activation during the stretch phase, force enhancement increased, and the number of subjects who showed force enhancement increased as well. We conclude from these results that force enhancement during voluntary contractions is activation-dependent with a threshold that is subject-specific.

  7. The precision and torque production of common hip adductor squeeze tests used in elite football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Light, N; Thorborg, K


    OBJECTIVES: Decreased hip adductor strength is a known risk factor for groin injury in footballers, with clinicians testing adductor strength in various positions and using different protocols. Understanding how reliable and how much torque different adductor squeeze tests produce will facilitate...... choosing the most appropriate method for future testing. In this study, the reliability and torque production of three common adductor squeeze tests were investigated. DESIGN: Test-retest reliability and cross-sectional comparison. METHODS: Twenty elite level footballers (16-33 years) without previous...... or current groin pain were recruited. Relative and absolute test-retest reliability, and torque production of three adductor squeeze tests (long-lever in abduction, short-lever in adduction and short-lever in abduction/external rotation) were investigated. Each participant performed a series of isometric...

  8. Changes in Adductor Strength After Competition in Academy Rugby Union Players. (United States)

    Roe, Gregory A B; Phibbs, Padraic J; Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben L; Read, Dale B; Weakley, Jonathon J; Darrall-Jones, Joshua D


    This study determined the magnitude of change in adductor strength after a competitive match in academy rugby union players and examined the relationship between locomotive demands of match-play and changes in postmatch adductor strength. A within-subject repeated measures design was used. Fourteen academy rugby union players (age, 17.4 ± 0.8 years; height, 182.7 ± 7.6 cm; body mass, 86.2 ± 11.6 kg) participated in the study. Each player performed 3 maximal adductor squeezes at 45° of hip flexion before and immediately, 24, 48, and 72 hours postmatch. Global positioning system was used to assess locomotive demands of match-play. Trivial decreases in adductor squeeze scores occurred immediately (-1.3 ± 2.5%; effect size [ES] = -0.11 ± 0.21; likely, 74%) and 24 hours after match (-0.7 ± 3%; ES = -0.06 ± 0.25; likely, 78%), whereas a small but substantial increase occurred at 48 hours (3.8 ± 1.9%; ES = 0.32 ± 0.16; likely, 89%) before reducing to trivial at 72 hours after match (3.1 ± 2.2%; ES = 0.26 ± 0.18; possibly, 72%). Large individual variation in adductor strength was observed at all time points. The relationship between changes in adductor strength and distance covered at sprinting speed (VO2max ≥ 81%) was large immediately postmatch (p = 0.056, r = -0.521), moderate at 24 hours (p = 0.094, r = -0.465), and very large at 48 hours postmatch (p = 0.005, r = -0.707). Players who cover greater distances sprinting may suffer greater adductor fatigue in the first 48 hours after competition. The assessment of adductor strength using the adductor squeeze test should be considered postmatch to identify players who may require additional rest before returning to field-based training.

  9. Shortened cortical silent period in adductor spasmodic dysphonia: evidence for widespread cortical excitability. (United States)

    Samargia, Sharyl; Schmidt, Rebekah; Kimberley, Teresa Jacobson


    The purpose of this study was to compare cortical inhibition in the hand region of the primary motor cortex between subjects with focal hand dystonia (FHD), adductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD), and healthy controls. Data from 28 subjects were analyzed (FHD n=11, 53.25 ± 8.74 y; AdSD: n=8, 56.38 ± 7.5 y; and healthy controls: n=941.67 ± 10.85 y). All subjects received single pulse TMS to the left motor cortex to measure cortical silent period (CSP) in the right first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscle. Duration of the CSP was measured and compared across groups. A one-way ANCOVA with age as a covariate revealed a significant group effect (p<0.001). Post hoc analysis revealed significantly longer CSP duration in the healthy group vs. AdSD group (p<0.001) and FHD group (p<0.001). These results suggest impaired intracortical inhibition is a neurophysiologic characteristic of FHD and AdSD. In addition, the shortened CSP in AdSD provides evidence to support a widespread decrease in cortical inhibition in areas of the motor cortex that represent an asymptomatic region of the body. These findings may inform future investigations of differential diagnosis as well as alternative treatments for focal dystonias.

  10. Prevalence of saphenous nerve injury after adductor-canal-blockade in patients receiving total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Maja; Jæger, Pia; Hilsted, K L;


    BACKGROUND: Adductor-canal-blockade is a new technique for pain relief after knee surgery. This block could cause nerve injury and the aim of this follow-up study was to determine the prevalence of saphenous nerve injury in patients receiving adductor-canal-blockade for pain treatment after total...... knee arthroplasty. METHODS: All patients included in two former studies of adductor-canal-blockade following total knee arthroplasty were invited to participate in this follow-up study 3-6 months after surgery. We examined the cutaneous area on the medial aspect of the lower leg (medial crural branch......, 76 patients could not discriminate between blunt and sharp stimulation with a needle, 81 patients could not discriminate between cold and warmth, and 82 patients displayed an altered sensation to light brush. CONCLUSION: We found no indications of saphenous nerve injury caused by the adductor-canal...

  11. Effects of adductor-canal-blockade on pain and ambulation after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenstrup, M T; Jæger, P; Lund, J;


    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with intense post-operative pain. Besides providing optimal analgesia, reduction in side effects and enhanced mobilization are important in this elderly population. The adductor-canal-blockade is theoretically an almost pure sensory blockade. We...... hypothesized that the adductor-canal-blockade may reduce morphine consumption (primary endpoint), improve pain relief, enhance early ambulation ability, and reduce side effects (secondary endpoints) after TKA compared with placebo....

  12. An anatomic and clinical study of the adductor magnus tendon-descending genicular artery bone flap. (United States)

    Huang, Dong; Wang, Hai-Wen; Xu, Da-Chuan; Wang, Hong-Gang; Wu, Wei-Zhi; Zhang, Hui-Ru


    The composite tissue flap of the descending genicular vessels with the adductor magnus tendon is a newly developed, reliable method to repair the Achilles tendon and relevant skin defects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomy of the adductor magnus tendon-descending genicular artery bone flap, and the feasibility and value for the repair of the Achilles tendon and relevant skin defects. There were 34 adult specimens used for the anatomy of this flap. The descending genicular artery originates 10.5 ± 1.6 cm above the adductor tubercle, with a diameter of 1.8 ± 0.6 mm and a length of 1.2 ± 0.5 cm. Its articular branch is distributed in the adductor magnus tendon and the medial condyle of the femur. The saphenous branch has a diameter of 1.1 ± 0.3 mm and is distributed in the skin of the upper medial calf. A total of 16 cases of trauma-induced Achilles tendon damage and calcaneus and skin defects were repaired with the vascularized adductor magnus tendon bone flap, including the reconstruction of Achilles tendon insertion and repair of relevant skin defects. All of the composite tissue flaps were viable, the skin sensation of the flaps was recovered, and all patients walked with a normal gait. Our results suggested that the adductor magnus tendon-descending genicular artery bone flap is an alternative method to repair composite tissue defects of the Achilles tendon.

  13. Parrotfish grazing ability: interspecific differences in relation to jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae on an Okinawan coral reef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Nanami


    Full Text Available Parrotfishes (family Labridae: Scarini are regarded to have important roles for maintaining the ecosystem balance in coral reefs due to their removal of organic matter and calcic substrates by grazing. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the interspecific differences in grazing ability of five parrotfish species (Chlorurus sordidus, C. bowersi, Scarus rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni in relation to interspecific differences in jaw-lever mechanics and the relative weight of the adductor mandibulae (muscles operating jaw closing. The grazing ability was calculated by using stomach contents (CaCO3 weight/organic matter weight defined as the grazing ability index (GAI. There were significant interspecific differences in GAI (C. sordidus = C. bowersi > S. rivulatus > S. niger = S. forsteni. Teeth of C. sordidus and C. bowersi were protrusive-shape whereas teeth of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were flat-shape. C. sordidus and C. bowersihave jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force and have a larger weight of adductor mandibulae. S. rivulatus has jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force but a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae that produce an intermediate biting force. In contrast, S. niger and S. forsteni have jaw-lever mechanics producing a lesser biting force and have a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae. Feeding rates and foray size of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were greater than C. sordidus and C. bowersi. The degree in bioerosion (GAI × feeding rate was the largest for S. rivulatusand the smallest for S. forsteni. The degree in bioerosion for C. sordidus was larger than S. niger whereas relatively equal between C. bowersi and S. niger. These results suggest that interspecific difference in GAI was explained by interspecific differences in teeth shape, jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae. The interspecific difference in the degree of bioerosion suggests

  14. 类似内收肌附丽病的抗肌萎缩蛋白病骨骼肌磁共振成像特点%Magnetic resonance imaging of dystrophinopathy that mimics adductor enthesopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑艺明; 李文竹; 王朝霞; 张巍; 吕鹤; 肖江喜; 袁云


    目的:报道4例类似内收肌附丽病的抗肌萎缩蛋白病的下肢骨骼肌磁共振成像特点。方法:4例来自不同家系,年龄为5到11岁的男孩,临床表现为肌痛或者肢体力弱或者发现肌酸激酶升高,经基因检查确诊为抗肌萎缩蛋白病。4例患者血清肌酸激酶为4087~32700 IU /L(正常值75~175 IU /L),其中3例患者接受骨骼肌活检,提示肌营养不良样病理改变,伴不同程度的肌纤维膜抗肌萎缩蛋白缺失。基因检查结果示4例患者均存在抗肌萎缩蛋白基因(Duchenne muscular dystrophy,DMD)致病突变,其中3例为框外突变,分别为45号外显子缺失、49-52外显子缺失、以及62号外显子重复突变,另外1例为 c.2665C >T 致无义突变。对所有患者进行双侧大腿骨骼肌磁共振成像检查并评分。结果:4例患者双侧大腿骨骼肌磁共振成像检查结果,T1加权像示大腿骨骼肌脂肪化改变轻重不等(2分至13分),主要受累肌肉为大收肌及股二头肌长头;短反转时间反转恢复序列(short time in-version recovery,STIR)示所有患者大腿长收肌均出现显著高信号改变,提示存在明显水肿,该影像学表现类似内收肌附丽病。有两例患者为双侧长收肌均受累,另两例为单侧受累。此外,其中两例患者还出现其他肌肉水肿改变,包括大收肌、半腱肌、缝匠肌以及股直肌等。所有患者韧带附着处均未见异常改变。结论:抗肌萎缩蛋白病患者大腿骨骼肌磁共振成像可以表现为类似内收肌附丽病患者长收肌水肿改变,提示抗肌萎缩蛋白病患者长收肌可能容易出现运动拉伤。%Objective:To report thigh muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)tests of four Chinese patients with dystrophinopathy with edema changes in adductor longus muscles that mimics adductor en-thesopathy.Methods:Four boys,who were from four unrelated families

  15. Abdominal muscle and quadriceps strength in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease



    Background: Quadriceps muscle weakness is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but is not observed in a small hand muscle (adductor pollicis). Although this could be explained by reduced activity in the quadriceps, the observation could also be explained by anatomical location of the muscle or fibre type composition. However, the abdominal muscles are of a similar anatomical and fibre type distribution to the quadriceps, although they remain active in COPD. Cough gastric pre...

  16. Arthroscopic pubic symphysis debridement and adductor enthesis repair in athletes with athletic pubalgia: technical note and video illustration. (United States)

    Hopp, Sascha; Tumin, Masjudin; Wilhelm, Peter; Pohlemann, Tim; Kelm, Jens


    We elaborately describe our novel arthroscopic technique of the symphysis pubis in athletes with osteitis pubis and concomitant adductor enthesopathy who fail to conservative treatment modalities. The symphysis pubis is debrided arthroscopically and the degenerated origin of adductor tendon (enthesis) is excised and reattached. With our surgical procedure the stability of the symphysis pubis is successfully preserved and the adductor longus enthesopathy simultaneously addressed in the same setting.

  17. Abnormal motor cortex excitability during linguistic tasks in adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia. (United States)

    Suppa, A; Marsili, L; Giovannelli, F; Di Stasio, F; Rocchi, L; Upadhyay, N; Ruoppolo, G; Cincotta, M; Berardelli, A


    In healthy subjects (HS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied during 'linguistic' tasks discloses excitability changes in the dominant hemisphere primary motor cortex (M1). We investigated 'linguistic' task-related cortical excitability modulation in patients with adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia (ASD), a speech-related focal dystonia. We studied 10 ASD patients and 10 HS. Speech examination included voice cepstral analysis. We investigated the dominant/non-dominant M1 excitability at baseline, during 'linguistic' (reading aloud/silent reading/producing simple phonation) and 'non-linguistic' tasks (looking at non-letter strings/producing oral movements). Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the contralateral hand muscles. We measured the cortical silent period (CSP) length and tested MEPs in HS and patients performing the 'linguistic' tasks with different voice intensities. We also examined MEPs in HS and ASD during hand-related 'action-verb' observation. Patients were studied under and not-under botulinum neurotoxin-type A (BoNT-A). In HS, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited larger MEPs during 'reading aloud' than during the other 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. Conversely, in ASD, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited increased-amplitude MEPs during 'reading aloud' and 'syllabic phonation' tasks. CSP length was shorter in ASD than in HS and remained unchanged in both groups performing 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. In HS and ASD, 'linguistic' task-related excitability changes were present regardless of the different voice intensities. During hand-related 'action-verb' observation, MEPs decreased in HS, whereas in ASD they increased. In ASD, BoNT-A improved speech, as demonstrated by cepstral analysis and restored the TMS abnormalities. ASD reflects dominant hemisphere excitability changes related to 'linguistic' tasks; BoNT-A returns these excitability changes to normal.

  18. The connective tissue of the adductor canal--a morphological study in fetal and adult specimens. (United States)

    de Oliveira, Flavia; de Vasconcellos Fontes, Ricardo Bragança; da Silva Baptista, Josemberg; Mayer, William Paganini; de Campos Boldrini, Silvia; Liberti, Edson Aparecido


    The adductor canal is a conical or pyramid-shaped pathway that contains the femoral vessels, saphenous nerve and a varying amount of fibrous tissue. It is involved in adductor canal syndrome, a claudication syndrome involving young individuals. Our objective was to study modifications induced by aging on the connective tissue and to correlate them to the proposed pathophysiological mechanism. The bilateral adductor canals and femoral vessels of four adult and five fetal specimens were removed en bloc and analyzed. Sections 12 microm thick were obtained and the connective tissue studied with Sirius Red, Verhoeff, Weigert and Azo stains. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photomicrographs of the surfaces of each adductor canal were also analyzed. Findings were homogeneous inside each group. The connective tissue of the canal was continuous with the outer layer of the vessels in both groups. The pattern of concentric, thick collagen type I bundles in fetal specimens was replaced by a diffuse network of compact collagen bundles with several transversal fibers and an impressive content of collagen III fibers. Elastic fibers in adults were not concentrated in the thick bundles but dispersed in line with the transversal fiber system. A dynamic compression mechanism with or without an evident constricting fibrous band has been proposed previously for adductor canal syndrome, possibly involving the connective tissue inside the canal. The vessels may not slide freely during movement. These age-related modifications in normal individuals may represent necessary conditions for this syndrome to develop.

  19. Homology of the jaw muscles in lizards and snakes-a solution from a comparative gnathostome approach. (United States)

    Johnston, Peter


    Homology or shared evolutionary origin of jaw adductor muscles in lizards and snakes has been difficult to establish, although snakes clearly arose within the lizard radiation. Lizards typically have temporal adductors layered lateral to medial, and in snakes the muscles are arranged in a rostral to caudal pattern. Recent work has suggested that the jaw adductor group in gnathostomes is arranged as a folded sheet; when this theory is applied to snakes, homology with lizard morphology can be seen. This conclusion revisits the work of S.B. McDowell, J Herpetol 1986; 20:353-407, who proposed that homology involves identity of m. levator anguli oris and the loss of m. adductor mandibulae externus profundus, at least in "advanced" (colubroid) snakes. Here I advance the folded sheet hypothesis across the whole snake tree using new and literature data, and provide a solution to this homology problem.

  20. Effectiveness of active physical training as treatment for long-standing adductor-related groin pain in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, P; Uhrskou, P; Ulnits, L;


    Groin pain is common among athletes. A major cause of long-standing problems is adductor-related groin pain. The purpose of this randomised clinical trial was to compare an active training programme (AT) with a physiotherapy treatment without active training (PT) in the treatment of adductor-rela...

  1. Effect of adductor-canal-blockade on established, severe post-operative pain after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, P; Grevstad, Ulrik; Henningsen, Maja;


    In this proof-of-concept study, we investigated the effect of the predominantly sensory adductor-canal-blockade on established pain in the early post-operative period after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We hypothesised that the adductor-canal-blockade would reduce pain during flexion of the knee...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Kumar .N


    Full Text Available Background: Sacroiliac joint dysfunction (SIJD is a common problem that causes pain and disability. Adductor pull back exercise is widely used for treating sacroiliac joint dysfunction. No yet research has been directly examined the efficacy of adductor pull back exercise for sacroiliac joint dysfunction. The purpose of the study to find the efficacy of adductor pull back exercise on pain and functional disability for subjects with sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Methods: An experimental study design, 40 subjects with unilateral Sacroiliac joint dysfunction were randomized into two groups: study group (n=20, and control group (n=20. Subjects in study group received adductor pull back exercise along with conventional exercise and Subjects in control group received conventional exercise. The duration of treatment was given for two weeks, three times a day, total six days per week. Outcome measures such as pain was measured using Visual analog scale (VAS, and functional disability was measured using Oswestry Disability Index questionnaire (ODI before and after 2 weeks of the treatment in both the groups. Results: When means were analyzed using Independent ‘t’ test as a parametric and Mann Whitney U test as a non-parametric test, there is a statistically significant improvements in means of VAS, and ODI within the groups. When means were compared using Independent ‘t’ and Mann Whitney U test, there is a significant difference in post-means of VAS and ODI between the groups. Conclusion: The present study concludes that the 2 weeks of adductor pull back exercise along with conventional exercise found statistically and clinically significant effect on improving pain, functional disability for subjects with sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Adductors pull back exercise along with conventional exercise techniques shown to have greater percentage of improvement in improving pain and functional disability for subjects with sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

  3. A pilot study to assess adductor canal catheter tip migration in a cadaver model. (United States)

    Leng, Jody C; Harrison, T Kyle; Miller, Brett; Howard, Steven K; Conroy, Myles; Udani, Ankeet; Shum, Cynthia; Mariano, Edward R


    An adductor canal catheter may facilitate early ambulation after total knee arthroplasty, but there is concern over preoperative placement since intraoperative migration of catheters may occur from surgical manipulation and result in ineffective analgesia. We hypothesized that catheter type and subcutaneous tunneling may influence tip migration for preoperatively inserted adductor canal catheters. In a male unembalmed human cadaver, 20 catheter insertion trials were divided randomly into one of four groups: flexible epidural catheter either tunneled or not tunneled; or rigid stimulating catheter either tunneled or not tunneled. Intraoperative patient manipulation was simulated by five range-of-motion exercises of the knee. Distance and length measurements were performed by a blinded regional anesthesiologist. Changes in catheter tip to nerve distance (p = 0.225) and length of catheter within the adductor canal (p = 0.467) were not different between the four groups. Two of five non-tunneled stimulating catheters (40 %) were dislodged compared to 0/5 in all other groups (p = 0.187). A cadaver model may be useful for assessing migration of regional anesthesia catheters; catheter type and subcutaneous tunneling may not affect migration of adductor canal catheters based on this preliminary study. However, future studies involving a larger sample size, actual patients, and other catheter types are warranted.

  4. Acoustic Variations in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia as a Function of Speech Task. (United States)

    Sapienza, Christine M.; Walton, Suzanne; Murry, Thomas


    Acoustic phonatory events were identified in 14 women diagnosed with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD), a focal laryngeal dystonia that disturbs phonatory function, and compared with those of 14 age-matched women with no vocal dysfunction. Findings indicated ADSD subjects produced more aberrant acoustic events than controls during tasks of…

  5. Diagnostics and treatment of adductor-related groin pain in athletes - new insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weir, A.


    The work contained within this thesis presents new insights into the diagnostics and treatment of long-standing adductor-related groin pain (LSARGP) in athletes. In the Netherlands a novel treatment programme using heat, manual therapy according to Van den Akker, stretching and a return to running p

  6. Adductor canal block for postoperative pain treatment after revision knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia; Koscielniak-Nielsen, Zbigniew J; Schrøder, Henrik M


    BACKGROUND: Revision knee arthroplasty is assumed to be even more painful than primary knee arthroplasty and predominantly performed in chronic pain patients, which challenges postoperative pain treatment. We hypothesized that the adductor canal block, effective for pain relief after primary tota...

  7. Radiological findings in symphyseal and adductor-related groin pain in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branci, Sonia; Thorborg, Kristian; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann;


    Long-standing symphyseal and adductor-related groin pain is a common problem for many athletes, and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Radiological evaluation of symptomatic individuals is a cornerstone in the diagnostic workup, and should be based on precise and reliable diagnostic terms and...

  8. Effect of adductor canal block on pain in patients with severe pain after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grevstad, Jens Ulrik; Mathiesen, Ole; Lind, T;


    BACKGROUND: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with varying degrees of pain. A considerable proportion (25-40%) of patients experience severe pain, despite a comprehensive multimodal analgesic regimen. We hypothesized that adductor canal block (ACB) would reduce pain in this patient...

  9. Adductor canal blockade for moderate to severe pain after arthroscopic knee surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espelund, M; Grevstad, U; Jaeger, P;


    BACKGROUND: The analgesic effect of the adductor canal block (ACB) after knee surgery has been evaluated in a number of trials. We hypothesized that the ACB would provide substantial pain relief to patients responding with moderate to severe pain after arthroscopic knee surgery. METHODS: Fifty...

  10. The efficacy of adductor canal blockade after minor arthroscopic knee surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espelund, M; Fomsgaard, J S; Haraszuk, J;


    BACKGROUND: Adductor canal blockade (ACB) has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of post-operative pain after major knee surgery. We hypothesised that the ACB would reduce pain and analgesic requirements after minor arthroscopic knee surgery. METHODS: Seventy-two patients scheduled...

  11. Adductor spasmodic dysphonia and botulinum toxin treatment : The effect on well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, TPM; Luteijn, F; van Rossum, M; Drost, HA; De Jong, RJB


    Adductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD) is a controversial and enigmatic voice disorder. It is generally accepted that it has a neurologic, although undetermined, cause, and it is accompanied by much psychological and physical distress. In this prospective study, standardized psychometric tests were use

  12. Analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided adductor canal blockade after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espelund, Malene; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Haraszuk, Jørgen Peter;


    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery is associated with moderate to severe postoperative pain, which may be ameliorated by peripheral nerve blocks. The adductor canal block (ACB) is an almost exclusively sensory nerve block that has been demonstrated to reduce pain and opioid...

  13. Motor innervation of respiratory muscles and an opercular display muscle in Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens. (United States)

    Gorlick, D L


    Horseradish peroxidase was used to identify motor neurons projecting to the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, levator operculi, adductor operculi, and dilator operculi muscles in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. These muscles participate in the production of respiratory and feeding movements in teleost fishes. The dilator operculi is also the effector muscle for gill-cover erection behavior that is part of Betta's aggressive display. The motor innervation of these muscles in Betta was compared to that previously described for carp. Motor neurons of the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, and dilator operculi are located in the trigeminal motor nucleus, and motor neurons of the adductor operculi and levator operculi are located in the facial motor nucleus in Betta and in carp. The trigeminal motor nucleus in both species is divided into rostral and caudal subnuclei. However, there are substantial differences in the organization of the subnuclei, and in the distribution of motor neurons within them. In Betta, the rostral trigeminal subnucleus consists of a single part but the caudal subnucleus is divided into two parts. Motor neurons for the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles are located in the lateral part of the caudal subnucleus; the medial part of the caudal subnucleus contains only dilator operculi motor neurons. The single caudal subnucleus in carp is located laterally, and contains motor neurons of both the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles. Differences in the organization of the trigeminal motor nucleus may relate to the use of the dilator operculi muscle for aggressive display behavior by perciform fishes such as Betta but not by cypriniform fishes such as carp. Five species of perciform fishes that perform gill-cover erection behavior had a Betta-like pattern of organization of the caudal trigeminal nucleus and a similar distribution of dilator operculi motor neurons. Goldfish, which like carp are

  14. Adductor canal block versus femoral nerve block for total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (United States)

    Wang, Duan; Yang, Yang; Li, Qi; Tang, Shen-Li; Zeng, Wei-Nan; Xu, Jin; Xie, Tian-Hang; Pei, Fu-Xing; Yang, Liu; Li, Ling-Li; Zhou, Zong-Ke


    Femoral nerve blocks (FNB) can provide effective pain relief but result in quadriceps weakness with increased risk of falls following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Adductor canal block (ACB) is a relatively new alternative providing pure sensory blockade with minimal effect on quadriceps strength. The meta-analysis was designed to evaluate whether ACB exhibited better outcomes with respect to quadriceps strength, pain control, ambulation ability, and complications. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Wan Fang, China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI) and the Cochrane Database were searched for RCTs comparing ACB with FNB after TKAs. Of 309 citations identified by our search strategy, 12 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Compared to FNB, quadriceps maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was significantly higher for ACB, which was consistent with the results regarding quadriceps strength assessed with manual muscle strength scale. Moreover, ACB had significantly higher risk of falling versus FNB. At any follow-up time, ACB was not inferior to FNB regarding pain control or opioid consumption, and showed better range of motion in comparison with FNB. ACB is superior to the FNB regarding sparing of quadriceps strength and faster knee function recovery. It provides pain relief and opioid consumption comparable to FNB and is associated with decreased risk of falls. PMID:28079176

  15. Research-to-policy translation for prevention of disordered weight and shape control behaviors: A case example targeting dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building. (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Yu, Kimberly; Tran, Alvin; Mayer, Beth


    New approaches to universal eating disorders prevention and interventions targeting macro-environmental change are greatly needed, and research-to-policy translation efforts hold promise for advancing both of these goals. This paper describes as a policy-translation case example an academic-community-government partnership of the Strategic Training Initiative for the Prevention of Eating Disorders, Multi-Service Eating Disorders Association, and the office of Massachusetts Representative Kay Khan, all based in Massachusetts, USA. The partnership's research-to-policy translation project focused on dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building, which have been linked with serious injury and death in consumers. Youth and people of all ages with eating disorders and body dysmorphic disorder may be especially vulnerable to use these products due to deceptive promises of fast and safe weight loss and muscle gain. The research-to-policy translation project was informed by a triggers-to-action framework to establish the evidentiary base of harm to consumers, operationalize policy solutions to mitigate harm through legislation, and generate political will to support action through legislation introduced in the Massachusetts legislature to restrict sales of weight-loss and muscle-building dietary supplements. The paper concludes with lessons learned from this unique policy translation effort for the prevention of disordered weight and shape control behaviors and offers recommendations for next steps for the field to advance research and practice for universal, macro-environmentally targeted prevention.

  16. Colgajo póstero-medial de muslo (adductor: a propósito de un caso Postero-medial thigh flap (adductor flap: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gómez-Escolar Larrañaga


    Full Text Available En pacientes con úlceras masivas o confluentes en la región glútea, puede ser necesaria la amputación de la extremidad inferior y la reconstrucción mediante colgajos totales de muslo para la cobertura del defecto. Esta técnica es muy agresiva y además de las evidentes secuelas físicas que crea puede generar importantes trastornos psíquicos para el paciente. Presentamos el caso de una paciente con una gran úlcera por decúbito en la región isquio-trocantéreosacra en la que se empleó el colgajo Adductor como alternativa a la amputación de la extremidad inferior.Amputation of the lower extremity and total thigh flaps may be necessary for coverage in patients with massive multiple or confluent sores in the buttock region. This is an aggressive technique with important physical and psychological consequences for the patient. The Adductor flap was used as an alternative of the amputation in a patient with a big ischial-trocantericsacral pressure sore.

  17. Muscle strain injuries. (United States)

    Garrett, W E


    One of the most common injuries seen in the office of the practicing physician is the muscle strain. Until recently, little data were available on the basic science and clinical application of this basic science for the treatment and prevention of muscle strains. Studies in the last 10 years represent action taken on the direction of investigation into muscle strain injuries from the laboratory and clinical fronts. Findings from the laboratory indicate that certain muscles are susceptible to strain injury (muscles that cross multiple joints or have complex architecture). These muscles have a strain threshold for both passive and active injury. Strain injury is not the result of muscle contraction alone, rather, strains are the result of excessive stretch or stretch while the muscle is being activated. When the muscle tears, the damage is localized very near the muscle-tendon junction. After injury, the muscle is weaker and at risk for further injury. The force output of the muscle returns over the following days as the muscle undertakes a predictable progression toward tissue healing. Current imaging studies have been used clinically to document the site of injury to the muscle-tendon junction. The commonly injured muscles have been described and include the hamstring, the rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, and adductor longus muscles. Injuries inconsistent with involvement of a single muscle-tendon junction proved to be at tendinous origins rather than within the muscle belly. Important information has also been provided regarding injuries with poor prognosis, which are potentially repairable surgically, including injuries to the rectus femoris muscle, the hamstring origin, and the abdominal wall. Data important to the management of common muscle injuries have been published. The risks of reinjury have been documented. The early efficacy and potential for long-term risks of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents have been shown. New data can also be applied to the field

  18. Skeletal muscle CT of lower extremities in myotonic dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Imai, Terukuni; Sadashima, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi; Tanabe, Masaya


    We evaluated the leg and thigh muscles of 4 control subjects and 10 patients with myotonic dystrophy using computed tomography. Taking previous reports about the skeletal muscle CT of myotonic dystrophy into account, we concluded that the following 5 features are characteristic of myotonic dystrophy: 1. The main change is the appearance of low-density areas in muscles; these areas reflect fat tissue. In addition, the muscle mass decreases in size. 2. The leg is more severely affected than the thigh. 3. In the thigh, although the m. quadriceps femoris, especially the vastus muscles, tends to be affected, the m. adductor longus and magnus tend to be preserved. 4. In the leg, although the m. tibialis anterior and m. triceps surae tend to be affected, the m. peroneus longus, brevis, and m. tibialis posterior tend to be preserved. 5. Compensatory hypertrophy is often observed in the m. rectus femoris, m. adductor longus, m. adductor magnus, m. peroneus longus, and m. peroneus brevis, accompanied by the involvement of their agonist muscles.

  19. Continuous adductor-canal-blockade for adjuvant post-operative analgesia after major knee surgery: preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, J; Jenstrup, M T; Jæger, P;


    Because both the saphenous nerve and in part the obturator nerve are traversing the adductor canal of the thigh, we hypothesised that repeated administration of a local anaesthetic (LA) into this aponeurotic space could be a useful option for post-operative analgesia after knee replacement surgery....... A systematic search of the literature pertinent to the blockade of the saphenous and/or obturator nerves for pain relief after knee surgery was conducted. Further, pain and opioid requirements were evaluated in eight patients receiving a continuous blockade of the saphenous and obturator nerve (adductor-canal......-blockade) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Finally, we performed cross-sectional MR scans of the adductor canal after injection of ropivacaine 30ml in one patient. The systematic literature search revealed only one controlled study, where selective blockade of the saphenous nerve was investigated...

  20. First observation of a muscle spindle in fish. (United States)

    Maeda, N; Miyoshi, S; Toh, H


    In many groups of vertebrates, the muscle spindle is a specialized sensory organ for the detection of muscle stretching. The structure of the spindle varies among vertebrate classes. Moreover, Barker has asserted that Amphibia are the most primitive vertebrates to possess muscle spindles. Extensive studies, made mainly on the locomotor myotome, seem to show that the muscle receptors of fish are less specialized than those of more advanced animals, and that muscle spindles are absent. However, little attention has been paid to the jaw-closing muscle. We report here our finding of a very simple muscle spindle with a single intrafusal fibre in the well-developed jaw-closing muscle, adductor mandibulae, in a primitive teleostean, Oncorhynchus masou (Brevoort).

  1. Effect of Total Dose of Lidocaine on Duration of Adductor Canal Block, Assessed by Different Test Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia; Koscielniak-Nielsen, Zbigniew J.; Hilsted, Karen Lisa;


    BACKGROUND: The binary aims of this study were to investigate the effect of total dose of lidocaine on duration of an adductor canal block (ACB) and to validate different methods used to assess nerve blocks. METHODS: We performed 2 blinded, randomized, controlled crossover trials, including healthy...

  2. Adductor Canal Block With 10 mL Versus 30 mL Local Anesthetics and Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia; Koscielniak-Nielsen, Zbigniew J; Hilsted, Karen Lisa;


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adductor canal block (ACB) is predominantly a sensory nerve block, but excess volume may spread to the femoral triangle and reduce quadriceps strength. We hypothesized that reducing the local anesthetic volume from 30 to 10 mL may lead to fewer subjects with quadriceps...

  3. The results of adductor magnus tenodesis in adolescents with recurrent patellar dislocation. (United States)

    Malecki, Krzysztof; Fabis, Jaroslaw; Flont, Pawel; Niedzielski, Kryspin Ryszard


    Recurrent dislocation of the patella is a common orthopaedic problem which occurs in about 44% of cases after first-time dislocation. In most cases of first-time patellar dislocation, the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) becomes damaged. Between 2010 and 2012, 33 children and adolescents (39 knees) with recurrent patellar dislocation were treated with MPFL reconstruction using the adductor magnus tendon. The aim of our study is to assess the effectiveness of this surgical procedure. The outcomes were evaluated functionally (Lysholm knee scale, the Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale, and isokinetic examination) and radiographically (Caton index, sulcus angle, congruence angle, and patellofemoral angle). Four patients demonstrated redislocation with MPFL graft failure, despite the fact that patellar tracking was found to be normal before the injury, and the patients had not reported any symptoms. Statistically significant improvements in Lysholm and Kujala scales, in patellofemoral and congruence angle, were seen (P magnus tendon in children and adolescents with recurrent patellar dislocation.

  4. MRI findings in soccer players with long-standing adductor-related groin pain and asymptomatic controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branci, Sonia; Thorborg, Kristian; Bech, Birthe Højlund


    BACKGROUND: Soccer players are commonly affected by long-standing adductor-related groin pain (ARGP), but the clinical significance of MRI findings in these athletes is largely unknown. Our aims were (1) to evaluate whether MRI findings are associated with long-standing ARGP in soccer players, (2......) to assess MRI findings in asymptomatic soccer players and non-soccer playing controls. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 28 male soccer players with long-standing ARGP, 17 male asymptomatic soccer players and 20 male asymptomatic non-soccer playing athletes of matching age and athletic exposure...... soccer players displayed different positive MRI findings, and asymptomatic soccer players had significantly higher odds (OR ranging from 6.3 to 13.3) for BMO, adductor tendinopathy and degenerative changes than non-soccer players. CONCLUSIONS: ARGP in soccer players was associated with central disc...

  5. A mini-invasive adductor magnus tendon transfer technique for medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction: a technical note. (United States)

    Sillanpää, Petri J; Mäenpää, Heikki M; Mattila, Ville M; Visuri, Tuomo; Pihlajamäki, Harri


    Patellar dislocations are associated with injuries to the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL). Several techniques for MPFL reconstruction have been recently published with some disadvantages involved, including large skin incisions and donor site morbidity. Arthroscopic stabilizing techniques carry the potential of inadequate restoration of MPFL function. We present a minimally invasive technique for MPFL reconstruction using adductor magnus tendon autograft. This technique is easily performed, safe, and provides a stabilizing effect equal to current MPFL reconstructions. Skin incision of only 3-4 cm is located at the level of the proximal half of the patella. After identifying the distal insertion of the adductor magnus tendon, a tendon harvester is introduced to harvest the medial two-thirds of the tendon, while the distal insertion is left intact. The adductor magnus tendon is cut at 12-14 cm from its distal insertion and transferred into the patellar medial margin. Two suture anchors are inserted through the same incision at the superomedial aspect of the patella in the anatomic MPFL origin. The graft is tightened at 30 degrees knee flexion. Aftercare includes 4 weeks of brace treatment with restricted range of motion.

  6. Tridimensional assessment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia pre- and post-treatment with Botulinum toxin. (United States)

    Dejonckere, P H; Neumann, K J; Moerman, M B J; Martens, J P; Giordano, A; Manfredi, C


    Spasmodic dysphonia voices form, in the same way as substitution voices, a particular category of dysphonia that seems not suited for a standardized basic multidimensional assessment protocol, like the one proposed by the European Laryngological Society. Thirty-three exhaustive analyses were performed on voices of 19 patients diagnosed with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (SD), before and after treatment with Botulinum toxin. The speech material consisted of 40 short sentences phonetically selected for constant voicing. Seven perceptual parameters (traditional and dedicated) were blindly rated by a panel of experienced clinicians. Nine acoustic measures (mainly based on voicing evidence and periodicity) were achieved by a special analysis program suited for strongly irregular signals and validated with synthesized deviant voices. Patients also filled in a VHI-questionnaire. Significant improvement is shown by all three approaches. The traditional GRB perceptual parameters appear to be adequate for these patients. Conversely, the special acoustic analysis program is successful in objectivating the improved regularity of vocal fold vibration: the basic jitter remains the most valuable parameter, when reliably quantified. The VHI is well suited for the voice-related quality of life. Nevertheless, when considering pre-therapy and post-therapy changes, the current study illustrates a complete lack of correlation between the perceptual, acoustic, and self-assessment dimensions. Assessment of SD-voices needs to be tridimensional.

  7. Everyday listeners' impressions of speech produced by individuals with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. (United States)

    Nagle, Kathleen F; Eadie, Tanya L; Yorkston, Kathryn M


    Individuals with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) have reported that unfamiliar communication partners appear to judge them as sneaky, nervous or not intelligent, apparently based on the quality of their speech; however, there is minimal research into the actual everyday perspective of listening to ADSD speech. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impressions of listeners hearing ADSD speech for the first time using a mixed-methods design. Everyday listeners were interviewed following sessions in which they made ratings of ADSD speech. A semi-structured interview approach was used and data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Three major themes emerged: (1) everyday listeners make judgments about speakers with ADSD; (2) ADSD speech does not sound normal to everyday listeners; and (3) rating overall severity is difficult for everyday listeners. Participants described ADSD speech similarly to existing literature; however, some listeners inaccurately extrapolated speaker attributes based solely on speech samples. Listeners may draw erroneous conclusions about individuals with ADSD and these biases may affect the communicative success of these individuals. Results have implications for counseling individuals with ADSD, as well as the need for education and awareness about ADSD.

  8. Perioperative complications and safety of type II thyroplasty (TPII) for adductor spasmodic dysphonia. (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Kenji; Hatakeyama, Hiromitsu; Yanagida, Saori; Nishizawa, Noriko; Oridate, Nobuhiko; Fukuda, Satoshi; Homma, Akihiro


    Type II thyroplasty (TPII) is one of the surgical options offered in the management of adductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD); however, there have been no detailed reports of its safety and associated complications during the perioperative period. Our aim was to assess the complications and safety of TPII. TPII was performed for consecutive 15 patients with AdSD from April 2012 through May 2014. We examined retrospectively the perioperative complications, the degree of surgical invasion, and recovery process from surgery. All patients underwent successful surgery under only local anesthesia. Vocal fold erythema was observed in 14 patients and vocal fold edema in 10 patients; however, all of them showed complete resolution within 1 month. No patient experienced severe complications such as acute airway distress or hemorrhage. Fourteen patients were able to have oral from the 1st postoperative morning, with the remaining patient able to have oral intake from the 2nd postoperative day. In addition, no patient experienced aspiration postoperatively. In conclusion, only minor complications were observed in association with TPII in this study. No dysphagia was observed postoperatively, which is an advantage over other treatments. The results of our study suggest that TPII is a safe surgical treatment for AdSD.

  9. Evaluation of voice quality in adductor spasmodic dysphonia before and after botulinum toxin treatment. (United States)

    Langeveld, T P; van Rossum, M; Houtman, E H; Zwinderman, A H; Briaire, J J; Baatenburg de Jong, R J


    In this prospective study, the efficacy of botulinum toxin (Botox) injections in patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD) was assessed by 3 different modalities: perceptual and acoustic analyses and subjective self-assessment. This was done by comparing AdSD patients' pretreatment and posttreatment values and comparing these values with those of normal control speakers. In contrast to most other studies, the posttreatment status was defined as the optimal voice quality as judged by the patient. The aim of the study was to assess to what extent Botox injections actually improve voice quality and function. The AdSD subjects rated a significantly improved voice quality and function after Botox treatment. However, the results were never within normal limits. Perceptually, the characteristic and severely impaired AdSD voice improved, but another "type" of pathological voice was detected after Botox treatment. Acoustic analyses demonstrated a significant improvement, as well. Nevertheless, the "optimally" treated AdSD voice still remained significantly deviant as compared to normal voice production. Currently, Botox injection is the therapy of first choice for AdSD. Although significant improvement could be measured in our study perceptually, acoustically, and subjectively, the optimal voice that was achieved never fully matched normal voice quality or function.

  10. "An Investigation Into The Interrater Reliability Of The Modified Ashworth Scale In The Assessment Of Muscle Spasticity In Hemiplegic Patients "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nokhostin-Ansari


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Spasticity is a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes (muscle tone with exaggerated tendon jerks, resulting from hyperexcitability of the stretch reflex. The measurement of spasticity is necessary to determine the effect of treatments. The Modified Ashworth Scale is the most widely used method for assessing muscle spasticity in clinical practice and research. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interrater reliability of Modified Ashworth Scale in hemiplegic patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty subjects (16 males, 14 females with a mean age of 59.40 (SD =14.013 recruited. Shoulder adductor , elbow flexor , wrist dorsiflexor , hip adductor , knee extensor and ankle plantarflexor on the hemiplegic side were tested by two physiotherapists. Results: In the upper limb, the interrater reliability for shoulder adductor and elbow flexor muscles was fair (0.372 and 0.369, respectively. The reliability for the wrist flexors was good (0.612. The difference in Kappa value for the proximal muscle (shoulder adductor; 0.372 and the distal muscle (wrist flexor; 0.612 was significant (²X=33.87, df=1, p0.05. The mean value for the upper limb (0.505 and the lower limb (0,.516 was not significantly different (²X=0.1407, df=1, p>0.05. Conclusion: The interrater reliability of Modified Ashworth Scale was not good . The limb, upper or lower, had no significant effect on the reliability. In the upper limb, the reliability for the proximal and distal muscle was significantly different. However. The difference in the lower limb was not significant.When using the scale, one should consider it's limitation.

  11. Vocal outcome after endoscopic thyroarytenoid myoneurectomy in patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. (United States)

    Gandhi, Sachin; Remacle, Marc; Mishra, Prasun; Desai, Vrushali


    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) remains one of the most difficult of laryngeal pathologies to treat. With limited role for speech therapy, various surgical modalities have been tried with various success rates. The objective of the study is to report the results of vocal outcome after thyroarytenoid myoneurectomy in patients of adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ASD). 15 patients of ASD were selected. GRBAS, and voice handicap index (VHI) were used for perceptual evaluation of voice. Thyroarytenoid myoneurectomy was performed by vaporizing the muscular layer of the vocal fold with CO2 laser, at an intensity of 6 W with 1.2 mm diameter in scanner mode. Voice analysis was repeated at 12, 24 and 48 months follow-up. Preoperative GRBAS scores and VHI score of all the patients were poor. At 12 months 12/15 (80 %) patients having strain score of 0. There was marked improvement in VHI scores at 6 months. 10/15 (67 %) patients have been followed up for 24 months. 5/10 (50 %) patients have strain (S) value of 0. VHI scoring of 5/10 (50 %) patients was <30. Two of the four patients completed 48 months follow-up had a strain (S) value of 0, one patient has strain value of 1 and one patient had strain value of 2. 2/4 patients had VHI score of <30; one patient had that of 40. Trans-oral CO2 laser thyroarytenoid myoneurectomy shows significant long-term improvement in voice quality in terms of reduced speech brakes, effort and strain in voice.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admilson Clayton Barbosa


    Full Text Available In the southern escarpment of the Serra da Mantiqueira, northeast geographic divider between the State of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, there was an environmental accident caused by the disruption of an adductor whose purpose is to lead the water from a reservoir located at an altitude of 1820 m to the machine house where there is an electric generator located at 750 m.  This accident resulted in the formation of a scar on the hillside forest, with removal of soil and vegetation. To reverse the erosion processes, a methodology was developed consisting of the use of four barriers (numbered I to IV formed by seedlings of Bambusa mutiplex (Lour., whose purpose was to divert the water runoff in order to provide the regeneration of native vegetation. Stalks of bamboo intercropped with Bambusa multiplex were used to contain debris in two gullies formed by erosion. The development of vegetation was monitored for 18 months and evaluated by the application of a Leopold Matrix composed of 5 points, which are: erosion, regeneration of vegetation, success of bamboo planting, installed conservation structures and functionality. The purpose of the matrix was to demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions using bamboo. The result of the classification matrix enabled the quantitative and qualitative classification of the interventions, resulting in five levels, where the barriers I, II and IV were considered to be of very high efficiency, and barrier III was considered to be of high efficiency. The contention of the gully was considered to be of medium to very high efficiency.

  13. The adductor magnus ''mini-hamstring'': MRI appearance and potential pitfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broski, Stephen M.; Murthy, Naveen S.; Collins, Mark S. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Krych, Aaron J. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Obey, Mitchel R. [Mayo School of Graduate Medical Education, Rochester, MN (United States)


    To examine the anatomic MRI characteristics of the adductor magnus mini hamstring (AMMH) and explore its involvement in cases of hamstring avulsion. An IRB-approved retrospective review of patients undergoing ''hamstring protocol'' MRI between March 2009 and June 2014 was performed. Two musculoskeletal radiologists recorded multiple AMMH anatomic characteristics and involvement in cases of hamstring avulsion. Seventy-six AMMHs were analyzed in 66 patients [35 females and 31 males, mean age 49.3 ± 15.2 years (range 17-81)]. Eleven percent of AMMHs were poorly visualized, 51 % visualized, and 37 % well visualized. Seven percent demonstrated round, 73 % ovoid, and 21 % flat/lenticular tendon morphologies. Most (88 %) demonstrated typical origins. Average cross-sectional area (CSA) was 22.4 ± 10.6 mm{sup 2} (range 6-56), diameter was 7.2 ± 2.5 mm (range 2.9-15), medial distance from the semimembranosus tendon was 7.5 ± 2.5 mm (range 3-14), and tendon length was 6.8 ± 3.3 cm (range 1.2-14.1). There was no gender difference in AMMH anatomic measurements or correlation between age and CSA or diameter. Of 17 complete hamstring avulsion cases, the AMMH was intact in 13, partially torn in 3, and completely torn in 1. The AMMH is a constant finding with variable anatomic characteristics. It is visualized or well visualized by MRI in 88 % of cases and is a sizable tendon located in close proximity to the semimembranosus tendon. Because it is uncommonly completely torn (6 %) in cases of complete hamstring avulsion, radiologists should be aware of its presence and appearance to avoid diagnostic confusion. (orig.)

  14. Influences of laryngeal afferent inputs on intralaryngeal muscle activity during vocalization in the cat. (United States)

    Shiba, K; Yoshida, K; Nakajima, Y; Konno, A


    The present study was undertaken to elucidate the possible role of the laryngeal afferent inputs in the regulation of intralaryngeal muscle activity during vocalization. We studied the influences of airflow and/or pressure applied to the larynx on intralaryngeal muscle activity during vocalization in ketamine-anesthetized cats. Vocalization was induced by airflow applied to the upper airway, which was isolated from the lower airway, during pontine call site stimulation. When the upper airway was open to the atmosphere through the nostrils and mouth, the airflow increased not only the vocal fold adductor and tensor activities but also the duration of these activities. The adductor and tensor activities were increased suddenly at a critical subglottic pressure level equivalent to the subglottic pressure threshold for vocalization. These effects were significantly reduced by sectioning of the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve or by lidocaine application to the laryngeal mucosa. Sustained pressure applied to the isolated upper airway, when the mouth and nostrils were occluded, did not affect adductor or tensor activities. These results indicate that the afferent inputs evoked by vocal fold stretching or vibration play an important role in the motor control of intralaryngeal and respiratory muscles during vocalization.

  15. Does bony hip morphology affect the outcome of treatment for patients with adductor-related groin pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian; Nyvold, Per


    was assessed by a standardised clinical outcome combining patient-reported activity, symptoms and physical examination. Anterioposterior pelvic radiographs were obtained and the centre-edge angle of Wiberg, α angle, presence of a crossover sign and Tönnis grade of osteoarthritis were assessed by a blinded...... of the exercise treatment programme with results lasting 8-12 years. The entity of adductor-related groin pain in physically active adults can be treated with AT even in the presence of morphological changes to the hip joint....

  16. Eccentric and Isometric Hip Adduction Strength in Male Soccer Players With and Without Adductor-Related Groin Pain An Assessor-Blinded Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Branci, Sonia; Nielsen, Peter Martin;


    investigated. PURPOSE: To investigate whether isometric and eccentric hip strength are decreased in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain compared with asymptomatic soccer controls. The hypothesis was that players with adductor-related groin pain would have lower isometric and eccentric hip adduction.......5 ± 2.5 years, and the mean age of the asymptomatic controls was 22.9 ± 2.4 years. Isometric hip strength (adduction, abduction, and flexion) and eccentric hip strength (adduction) were assessed with a handheld dynamometer using reliable test procedures and a blinded assessor. RESULTS: Eccentric hip...... adduction strength was lower in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain in the dominant leg (n = 21) compared with asymptomatic controls (n = 16), namely 2.47 ± 0.49 versus 3.12 ± 0.43 N·m/kg, respectively (P

  17. [Gait analysis in cerebral palsy patients--correlations between disorders of muscle coordination and gait abnormalities]. (United States)

    Güth, V; Abbink, F; Cloppenburg, E


    Electromyographic and gait investigations of 35 patients and 32 healthy persons were evaluated in order to get hints upon the origin of anomalous movements of the pelvis and the spine with following results: a. The amount of the spine motions of CP-patients is significantly greater than that of health persons. The motions of the pelvis of the patients also seems to be greater, but there is no significance. b. The average electromyographical activity of the hip abductors of CP-patients is not remarkably diminished, that of the hip adductors is not increased. We also found no signs of an atrophy of the hip adductors or a hypertrophy of the hip adductors. c. There is no correlation between the disturbances of coordination of the entire lower leg measured by electromyography and the amount of the pathologic motions. d. We found a distinct correlation between the disturbances especially of the hip ab- and adductors and the amount of the pathologic motions. This amount is the smaller, the worse is the coordination of these two groups of muscles. The topics a-c do not allow to find the origin of the Duchenne- and Trendelenburg limpings of CP-patients, topic d also gives explanation of this fact. In opposition we may suppose here that the bad timing of the coordination resp. the corresponding permanent electrical activity of the hip ab- and adductors has a stabilizing influence upon the pelvis and the spine. As the most probable origin of the increased Duchenne limping we not suppose the increased motions of the stance phase. Our following investigations will deal with this hypothesis.

  18. Effect of passive muscle stretching in osteoarthritis of the hip. (United States)

    Leivseth, G; Torstensson, J; Reikerås, O


    1. Twenty-five minute daily muscle stretching, perpendicular to the fibre direction of the adductor muscles without movement of the hip, was performed in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip. 2. Before and after treatment hip abduction was measured and muscle biopsies were taken for analysis of fibre cross-sectional areas of type 1 and type 2 fibres as well as adenosine 5'-triphosphate, creatine phosphate and glycogen contents. 3. From the results it is concluded that passive muscle stretching leads to a significant increase in hip abduction of 8.3 degrees (P less than 0.05). There was also a significant increase of type 1 and type 2 fibre cross-sectional area and of glycogen content after the treatment period (P less than 0.05), but the concentrations of adenosine 5'-triphosphate and creatine phosphate did not change significantly.

  19. Immediate effect of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on hip adductor flexibility in female ballet dancers. (United States)

    Rubini, Ercole C; Souza, Andréa C; Mello, Mônica L; Bacurau, Reury F P; Cabral, Leonardo F; Farinatti, Paulo T V


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the immediate effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching on the flexibility of hip adductors in female ballet dancers. Forty-five subjects (age: 28.5 ± 8.0 years; minimum two years of ballet training) were randomly assigned to three groups: PNF (contract-release technique), Static, and Control. Subjects in the PNF and Static groups performed four sets of 30 second stretching with an interval of 30 seconds between sets. The control group stayed at rest for the same time spent by the PNF and Static groups during the stretching sessions. Maximal range of motion was measured before and immediately after the experimental and control protocols in all groups. The results indicated significant differences between pre- and post-stretching flexibility in both PNF and Static groups (p post-exercise flexibility were found between PNF and Static groups (p = 0.235). It is concluded that static and PNF stretching methods provoked similar post-exercise acute effects on the maximal range of motion of hip adductors in highly flexible female ballet dancers.

  20. Treatment Efficacy of Electromyography versus Fiberscopy-Guided Botulinum Toxin Injection in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia Patients: A Prospective Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Wook Kim


    Full Text Available Introduction. This study prospectively evaluates and compares the treatment efficacy of botulinum toxin injection under electromyography guidance (EMG group and percutaneous botulinum toxin injection under flexible fiberscopic guidance (fiberscopy group. Methods. Thirty patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD, who had never received treatment, were randomly allocated into EMG- or fiberscopy-guided botulinum toxin injections between March 2008 and February 2010. We assessed acoustic and aerodynamic voice parameters, and the voice handicap index (VHI before injection and at 1, 3, and 6 months after injection. Results. The mean total dosage of botulinum toxin was similar for both groups: 1.7 ± 0.5 U for the EMG group and 1.8 ± 0.4 U for the fiberscopy group (P>0.05. There were no significant differences in outcomes between the two groups in either the duration of effectiveness or complications such as breathy voice and aspiration. Conclusion. Botulinum toxin injection under fiberscopic guidance is a viable alternative to EMG-guided botulinum toxin injection for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia when EMG equipment is unavailable.

  1. [Participation of the primary motor cortex in programming of muscle activity during catching of falling object]. (United States)

    Kazennikov, O V; Lipshits, M I


    Object fell into the cup that sitting subject held between thumb and index fingers. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex was performed early before and during anticipatory grip force increasing. Comparison of current EMG activity of adductor pollicis brevis and first dorsal interosseous muscles and responses of these muscles on TMS showed that responses were increased before the raising of muscle activity. From the other side only slight augmentation of responses was observed during subsequent strong muscle activation. It is assumed that the increasing of the TMS responses that occurred before the initiation of muscle activity reflects the enhancement ofthe motor cortex excitability associated to specific processes related to the motor cortex participation in programming of the muscles activities.

  2. Isokinetic imbalance of hip muscles in soccer players with osteitis pubis. (United States)

    Mohammad, Walaa Sayed; Abdelraouf, Osama Ragaa; Elhafez, Salam Mohamed; Abdel-Aziem, Amr Almaz; Nassif, Nagui Sobhi


    In this study, we compared the isokinetic torques of hip flexors/extensors and abductors/adductors in soccer players suffering from osteitis pubis (OP), with normal soccer players. Twenty soccer male athletes with OP and 20 normal soccer athletes were included in this study. Peak torque/body weight (PT/BW) was recorded from hip flexor/extensor and abductor/adductor muscles during isokinetic concentric contraction modes at angular velocity of 2.1 rad · s(-1), for both groups. The results showed a significant difference between the normal and OP groups for hip flexors (P muscles (P > 0.05). Regarding the hip adductor/abductor PT ratio, there was no significant difference between the normal and OP groups of athletes (P > 0.05). The OP group displayed increase in hip flexor strength that disturbed the hip flexor/extensor torque ratio of OP. Therefore, increasing the hip extensor strength should be part of rehabilitation programmes of patients with OP.

  3. Fatigue-related firing of distal muscle nociceptors reduces voluntary activation of proximal muscles of the same limb. (United States)

    Kennedy, David S; McNeil, Chris J; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L


    With fatiguing exercise, firing of group III/IV muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation and force of the exercised muscles. These afferents can also act across agonist/antagonist pairs, reducing voluntary activation and force in nonfatigued muscles. We hypothesized that maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents after a fatiguing adductor pollicis (AP) contraction would decrease voluntary activation and force of AP and ipsilateral elbow flexors. In two experiments (n = 10) we examined voluntary activation of AP and elbow flexors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by ulnar nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex, respectively. Inflation of a sphygmomanometer cuff after a 2-min AP maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) blocked circulation of the hand for 2 min and maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents. After a 2-min AP MVC, maximal AP voluntary activation was lower with than without ischemia (56.2 ± 17.7% vs. 76.3 ± 14.6%; mean ± SD; P muscle afferents from the hand decreased voluntary drive and force of AP. Moreover, this effect decreased voluntary drive and torque of proximal unfatigued muscles, the elbow flexors. Fatigue-sensitive group III/IV muscle nociceptors act to limit voluntary drive not only to fatigued muscles but also to unfatigued muscles within the same limb.

  4. 3D configuration of mandibles and controlling muscles in rove beetles based on micro-CT technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dee [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of the Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Beijing (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhang, Kai [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhu, Peiping [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Wu, Ziyu [University of Science and Technology of China, National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Hefei (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Zhou, Hongzhang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of the Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Beijing (China)


    X-ray micro-CT is a powerful tool to visualize without damage details of the inner structures of beetles, the largest order of insects with a hard external skeleton. This contribution shows the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the head morphology of three rove beetle species (Insecta, Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) - Noddia sp., Creophilus maxillosus, and Hesperosoma sp. - using X-ray microtomography at a spatial resolution of 6 {mu}m. The details of skeletal muscle fiber insertions are described, giving a comprehensive overview of mandible mobility and organization. With the support of 3D rendering, we discuss the relationship among the mandible forms, the development of the muscles controlling the movement, and the head morphology. The well-developed posterior part of the head capsule is always accompanied by a well-developed mandible, a large adductor muscle, and a large apodeme for the wide areas of the muscle fiber attachment. In Noddia sp., muscles connected to the posterolateral angle of the head capsule are mainly short muscles, whereas in Creophilus maxillosus, the latter are mainly long muscles, and in Hesperosoma sp. no mandible adductor muscle fibers are present on the posterolateral angle of the head capsule. These results offer new invaluable information regarding the biting functions of beetle mandibles and the trend of their morphological change during their long-term evolution. (orig.)

  5. Feasibility and reliability of using an exoskeleton to emulate muscle contractures during walking. (United States)

    Attias, M; Bonnefoy-Mazure, A; De Coulon, G; Cheze, L; Armand, S


    Contracture is a permanent shortening of the muscle-tendon-ligament complex that limits joint mobility. Contracture is involved in many diseases (cerebral palsy, stroke, etc.) and can impair walking and other activities of daily living. The purpose of this study was to quantify the reliability of an exoskeleton designed to emulate lower limb muscle contractures unilaterally and bilaterally during walking. An exoskeleton was built according to the following design criteria: adjustable to different morphologies; respect of the principal lines of muscular actions; placement of reflective markers on anatomical landmarks; and the ability to replicate the contractures of eight muscles of the lower limb unilaterally and bilaterally (psoas, rectus femoris, hamstring, hip adductors, gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis posterior, and peroneus). Sixteen combinations of contractures were emulated on the unilateral and bilateral muscles of nine healthy participants. Two sessions of gait analysis were performed at weekly intervals to assess the reliability of the emulated contractures. Discrete variables were extracted from the kinematics to analyse the reliability. The exoskeleton did not affect normal walking when contractures were not emulated. Kinematic reliability varied from poor to excellent depending on the targeted muscle. Reliability was good for the bilateral and unilateral gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis posterior as well as the bilateral hamstring and unilateral hip adductors. The exoskeleton can be used to replicate contracture on healthy participants. The exoskeleton will allow us to differentiate primary and compensatory effects of muscle contractures on gait kinematics.

  6. Muscle activation patterns when passively stretching spastic lower limb muscles of children with cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Bar-On, Lynn; Aertbeliën, Erwin; Molenaers, Guy; Desloovere, Kaat


    The definition of spasticity as a velocity-dependent activation of the tonic stretch reflex during a stretch to a passive muscle is the most widely accepted. However, other mechanisms are also thought to contribute to pathological muscle activity and, in patients post-stroke and spinal cord injury can result in different activation patterns. In the lower-limbs of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) these distinct activation patterns have not yet been thoroughly explored. The aim of the study was to apply an instrumented assessment to quantify different muscle activation patterns in four lower-limb muscles of children with CP. Fifty-four children with CP were included (males/females n = 35/19; 10.8 ± 3.8 yrs; bilateral/unilateral involvement n =  32/22; Gross Motor Functional Classification Score I-IV) of whom ten were retested to evaluate intra-rater reliability. With the subject relaxed, single-joint, sagittal-plane movements of the hip, knee, and ankle were performed to stretch the lower-limb muscles at three increasing velocities. Muscle activity and joint motion were synchronously recorded using inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG) from the adductors, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius. Muscles were visually categorised into activation patterns using average, normalized root mean square EMG (RMS-EMG) compared across increasing position zones and velocities. Based on the visual categorisation, quantitative parameters were defined using stretch-reflex thresholds and normalized RMS-EMG. These parameters were compared between muscles with different activation patterns. All patterns were dominated by high velocity-dependent muscle activation, but in more than half, low velocity-dependent activation was also observed. Muscle activation patterns were found to be both muscle- and subject-specific (pmuscles into activation patterns (pmuscles with different patterns react differently to treatment.

  7. Botulinum toxin type A injections for the management of muscle tightness following total hip arthroplasty: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delanois Ronald E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of hip adductor, tensor fascia lata, and rectus femoris muscle contractures following total hip arthroplasties are quite common, with some patients failing to improve despite treatment with a variety of non-operative modalities. The purpose of the present study was to describe the use of and patient outcomes of botulinum toxin injections as an adjunctive treatment for muscle tightness following total hip arthroplasty. Methods Ten patients (14 hips who had hip adductor, abductor, and/or flexor muscle contractures following total arthroplasty and had been refractory to physical therapeutic efforts were treated with injection of botulinum toxin A. Eight limbs received injections into the adductor muscle, 8 limbs received injections into the tensor fascia lata muscle, and 2 limbs received injection into the rectus femoris muscle, followed by intensive physical therapy for 6 weeks. Results At a mean final follow-up of 20 months, all 14 hips had increased range in the affected arc of motion, with a mean improvement of 23 degrees (range, 10 to 45 degrees. Additionally all hips had an improvement in hip scores, with a significant increase in mean score from 74 points (range, 57 to 91 points prior to injection to a mean of 96 points (range, 93 to 98 at final follow-up. There were no serious treatment-related adverse events. Conclusion Botulinum toxin A injections combined with intensive physical therapy may be considered as a potential treatment modality, especially in difficult cases of muscle tightness that are refractory to standard therapy.

  8. Muscle Disorders (United States)

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  9. Muscle Cramps (United States)

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur ... minutes. It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves that malfunction. Sometimes ...

  10. Muscle coordination of mediolateral balance in normal walking. (United States)

    Pandy, Marcus G; Lin, Yi-Chung; Kim, Hyung Joo


    The aim of this study was to describe and explain how individual muscles control mediolateral balance during normal walking. Biomechanical modeling and experimental gait data were used to quantify individual muscle contributions to the mediolateral acceleration of the center of mass during the stance phase. We tested the hypothesis that the hip, knee, and ankle extensors, which act primarily in the sagittal plane and contribute significantly to vertical support and forward progression, also accelerate the center of mass in the mediolateral direction. Kinematic, force plate, and muscle EMG data were recorded simultaneously for five healthy subjects who walked at their preferred speeds. The body was modeled as a 10-segment, 23 degree-of-freedom skeleton, actuated by 54 muscles. Joint moments obtained from inverse dynamics were decomposed into muscle forces by solving an optimization problem that minimized the sum of the squares of the muscle activations. Muscles contributed significantly to the mediolateral acceleration of the center of mass throughout stance. Muscles that generated both support and forward progression (vasti, soleus, and gastrocnemius) also accelerated the center of mass laterally, in concert with the hip adductors and the plantarflexor everters. Gravity accelerated the center of mass laterally for most of the stance phase. The hip abductors, anterior and posterior gluteus medius, and, to a much lesser extent, the plantarflexor inverters, actively controlled balance by accelerating the center of mass medially.

  11. Adductor laryngeal breathing dystonia in NBIA treated with botulinum toxin-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Rai


    Full Text Available We report a rare case of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA presented with episodic inspiratory stridor. A 10-year-old boy presented with 3-year history of gradually progressive spastic gait and generalized dystonia (involving all four limbs, neck, jaw, and speech. MRI brain showed "Eye of Tiger" sign. He recently developed severe inspiratory stridor associated with almost gasping respiration. Direct video laryngoscopy showed paradoxical vocal cord closure during inspiration. He was treated with EMG-guided botulinum toxin-A injection given into bilateral thyroarytenoid muscles, resulting in dramatic response with complete disappearance of the stridor within a week. The effect lasted 18 months.

  12. Measurement of lower-limb muscle spasticity: intrarater reliability of Modified Modified Ashworth Scale. (United States)

    Ghotbi, Nastaran; Nakhostin Ansari, Noureddin; Naghdi, Soofia; Hasson, Scott


    The Modified Modified Ashworth Scale (MMAS) is a clinical instrument for measuring spasticity. Few studies have been performed on the reliability of the MMAS. The aim of the present study was to investigate the intrarater reliability of the MMAS for the assessment of spasticity in the lower limb. We conducted a test-retest study on spasticity in the hip adductors, knee extensors, and ankle plantar flexors. Each patient was measured by a hospital-based clinical physiotherapist. Twenty-three patients with stroke or multiple sclerosis (fourteen women, nine men) and a mean +/- standard deviation age of 37.3 +/- 14.1 years participated. The weighted kappa was moderate for the hip adductors (weighted kappa = 0.45, standard error [SE] = 0.16, p = 0.007), good for the knee extensors (weighted kappa = 0.62, SE = 0.12, p weighted kappa = 0.85, SE = 0.05, p weighted kappa = 0.87, SE = 0.03, p < 0.001). The reliability for the ankle plantar flexors was significantly higher than that for the hip adductors. The intrarater reliability of the MMAS in patients with lower-limb muscle spasticity was very good, and it can be used as a measure of spasticity over time.

  13. Skeletal muscle (United States)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  14. Isometric hip muscle strength in posttraumatic below-knee amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandrić Slavica


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Traumas and war injuries, next to chronic occlusive artery disease and diabetes mellitus-derived complications, are the most frequent cause of the lower limbs amputation. They affect mostly younger population that need a higher level of activities as compared with the elderly. Medical rehabilitation is very significant for the muscle performance improvement in this population providing their social reintegration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of below-knee amputation on the hip isometric muscle strength and effect of rehabilitation on improvement of hip muscle strength in below-knee amputees, secondary to war wounding. Methods. Forty below-knee amputees (after war wounding, average age 35.6±10.6 years, that were included in primary rehabilitation program with prosthetics, were examined. Objective parameters were used to evaluate therapeutical effects. Isometric muscle strength of hip flexors, extensors, abductors and adductors was measured by dynamometer and expressed in Newton (N at admission, control and discharge for each patient. Average length of the treatment was 51 ± 34.1 days. Results. For isometric hip flexors (t = - 1.99346, p < 0.05, extensors (t = -4.629073, p < 0.001, abductors (t = -4.9408, p < 0.001 and adductors (t = -2.00228, p < 0.05, muscle strength was significantly less on the amputated than on nonamputated side. The highest differences in muscle strength between amputated and nonamputated limbs were noted for hip abductors (26.6% and extensors (23.3%. There was significant improvement of mean values of strength for all examined hip muscles after rehabilitation and prosthetics for both legs in comparison to beginning of the therapy. The hip abductor on the amputated side was for 19.4% weaker after rehabilitation in comparison to the nonamputated limb. Conclusion. Decreases of isometric muscle strength in all examined hip muscles were observed, more in the amputated limb. Rehabilitation

  15. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.


    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  16. Muscle disorder (United States)

    Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...

  17. Jaw muscles of Old World squirrels. (United States)

    Thorington, R W; Darrow, K


    The jaw, suprahyoid, and extrinsic tongue muscles were studied in 11 genera, belonging to five tribes, of Old World squirrels. Significant variation in most of the adductor muscles is evident. The most primitive state of sciuromorphy is seen in the African tree squirrels Paraxerus and Funisciurus, especially as reflected in the anterior deep masseter. A derived state of sciuromorphy is found in five genera of Old World squirrels and perhaps evolved independently in each. Reduction of the temporalis muscle was observed in three genera, distantly related to one another. A unique arrangement of the superficial masseter is reported in the Asian giant tree squirrels, Ratufa. The arrangement of the masseter in the African pygmy squirrel, Myosciurus, is very similar to that of the South American pygmy squirrel, Sciurillus. We present hypotheses about the functional significance of these differences. In the derived state of sciuromorphy, which is found in three cases in squirrels that feed extensively on hard fruits, the anterior deep masseter is well positioned to increase the strength of the power stroke of the incisor bite. Among the pygmy squirrels, the position of the anterior deep masseter suggests that it plays a more significant role in molar chewing.

  18. Clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging of skeletal muscles in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies of adults

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    Nishikai, Masahiko; Akiya, Kumiko [National Tokyo Medical Center (Japan)


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of skeletal muscles in Japanese patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). MRI was performed in 23 adult patients with IIM, including 10 with polymyositis, 12 with dermatomyositis, and 1 with focal myositis. Seven (73%) of 11 patients with active IIM and 2 (17%) of 12 patients with inactive IIM showed hyperintensity of T2-weighted images and normal intensity of T1-weighted images, indicating 'edema-like abnormalities' (MRI findings for active myositis). Muscle lipomatosis and fibrosis were demonstrated in four patients and 1 patient, respectively. Considerable selectivity of muscles in developing inflammatory disorders was found. In quadriceps muscles, for example, vastus muscles seemed to be more often affected in DM patients, whereas adductors were more often affected in PM patients. Serial examination of muscle MRIs was carried out in 4 patients and the findings paralleled the disease activities. The muscle MRI findings did not necessarily correlate with other findings, such as the presence of muscle weakness, elevated serum creatine kinase levels, myogenic electromyogram, or muscle biopsy findings. The muscle MRI was considered to be an additional useful tool for the diagnosis, evaluation of disease activity, and planning treatment of IIM. (author)

  19. Muscle activation patterns when passively stretching spastic lower limb muscles of children with cerebral palsy.

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    Lynn Bar-On

    Full Text Available The definition of spasticity as a velocity-dependent activation of the tonic stretch reflex during a stretch to a passive muscle is the most widely accepted. However, other mechanisms are also thought to contribute to pathological muscle activity and, in patients post-stroke and spinal cord injury can result in different activation patterns. In the lower-limbs of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP these distinct activation patterns have not yet been thoroughly explored. The aim of the study was to apply an instrumented assessment to quantify different muscle activation patterns in four lower-limb muscles of children with CP. Fifty-four children with CP were included (males/females n = 35/19; 10.8 ± 3.8 yrs; bilateral/unilateral involvement n =  32/22; Gross Motor Functional Classification Score I-IV of whom ten were retested to evaluate intra-rater reliability. With the subject relaxed, single-joint, sagittal-plane movements of the hip, knee, and ankle were performed to stretch the lower-limb muscles at three increasing velocities. Muscle activity and joint motion were synchronously recorded using inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG from the adductors, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius. Muscles were visually categorised into activation patterns using average, normalized root mean square EMG (RMS-EMG compared across increasing position zones and velocities. Based on the visual categorisation, quantitative parameters were defined using stretch-reflex thresholds and normalized RMS-EMG. These parameters were compared between muscles with different activation patterns. All patterns were dominated by high velocity-dependent muscle activation, but in more than half, low velocity-dependent activation was also observed. Muscle activation patterns were found to be both muscle- and subject-specific (p<0.01. The intra-rater reliability of all quantitative parameters was moderate to good. Comparing RMS-EMG between

  20. Effects of static bicycle training on gross motor function, muscle strength and spasticity of adolescents with spastic cerebral palsy

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    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of an 8- week lower limb strengthening program on gross motor function, muscle strength and spasticity levels of both the quadriceps and hip adductors of adolescents 14 to 19 years of age with spastic cerebral palsy using a specific static bicycle (Thera-Vital exerciser. Eight students were assigned to the experimental group and another 8 to the control group. The strengthening program took place 3 times a week (6 sets of 10 to 15 full cycling circles. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM (dimensions D and E, an isometric hand-held dynamometer and Asworth scale were the measurement instruments used in the study. A multivariance analysis of variance (MANOVA was applied for identifying the statistical importance of the results of the intervention protocol. A statistically significant improvement in both gross motor function (p = 0.016 and muscle strength (p = 0.039 was found without a statistically significant alteration of the muscle tone of the quadriceps and hip adductors of the participants (p = 0.13 and p = 0.33. The results of the present study indicate that static bicycle is a safe and effective means of exercise since it improves the gross motor function of adolescents with cerebral palsy without increasing the muscle tone of the lower limb.

  1. Rehabilitation and Return to Sport Following Surgical Repair of the Rectus Abdominis and Adductor Longus in a Professional Basketball Player: A Case Report. (United States)

    Short, Steven M; Anloague, Philip A; Strack, Donald S


    Study Design Case report. Background Acute traumatic avulsion of the rectus abdominis and adductor longus is rare. Chronic groin injuries, often falling under the athletic pubalgia spectrum, have been reported to be more common. There is limited evidence detailing the comprehensive rehabilitation and return to sport of an athlete following surgical or conservative treatment of avulsion injuries of the pubis or other sports-related groin pathologies. Case Description A 29-year-old National Basketball Association player sustained a contact injury during a professional basketball game. This case report describes a unique clinical situation specific to professional sport, in which a surgical repair of an avulsed rectus abdominis and adductor longus was combined with a multimodal impairment- and outcomes-based rehabilitation program. Outcomes The patient returned to in-season competition at 5 weeks postoperation. Objective measures were tracked throughout rehabilitation and compared to baseline assessments. Measures such as the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score and numeric pain-rating scale revealed progress beyond the minimal important difference. Discussion This case report details the clinical reasoning and evidence-informed interventions involved in the return to elite sport. Detailed programming and objective assessment may assist in achieving desired outcomes ahead of previously established timelines. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):697-706. Epub 3 Jul 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6352.

  2. Muscle biopsy (United States)

    ... Inflammatory diseases of muscle (such as polymyositis or dermatomyositis ) Diseases of the connective tissue and blood vessels ( ... disease that involves inflammation and a skin rash ( dermatomyositis ) Inherited muscle disorder ( Duchenne muscular dystrophy ) Inflammation of ...

  3. Muscle fiber type specific induction of slow myosin heavy chain 2 gene expression by electrical stimulation

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    Crew, Jennifer R.; Falzari, Kanakeshwari [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States); DiMario, Joseph X., E-mail: [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States)


    Vertebrate skeletal muscle fiber types are defined by a broad array of differentially expressed contractile and metabolic protein genes. The mechanisms that establish and maintain these different fiber types vary throughout development and with changing functional demand. Chicken skeletal muscle fibers can be generally categorized as fast and fast/slow based on expression of the slow myosin heavy chain 2 (MyHC2) gene in fast/slow muscle fibers. To investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control fiber type formation in secondary or fetal muscle fibers, myoblasts from the fast pectoralis major (PM) and fast/slow medial adductor (MA) muscles were isolated, allowed to differentiate in vitro, and electrically stimulated. MA muscle fibers were induced to express the slow MyHC2 gene by electrical stimulation, whereas PM muscle fibers did not express the slow MyHC2 gene under identical stimulation conditions. However, PM muscle fibers did express the slow MyHC2 gene when electrical stimulation was combined with inhibition of inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R) activity. Electrical stimulation was sufficient to increase nuclear localization of expressed nuclear-factor-of-activated-T-cells (NFAT), NFAT-mediated transcription, and slow MyHC2 promoter activity in MA muscle fibers. In contrast, both electrical stimulation and inhibitors of IP3R activity were required for these effects in PM muscle fibers. Electrical stimulation also increased levels of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} co-activator-1 (PGC-1{alpha}) protein in PM and MA muscle fibers. These results indicate that MA muscle fibers can be induced by electrical stimulation to express the slow MyHC2 gene and that fast PM muscle fibers are refractory to stimulation-induced slow MyHC2 gene expression due to fast PM muscle fiber specific cellular mechanisms involving IP3R activity.

  4. Modeling Muscles (United States)

    Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah


    Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…

  5. Mapping of intramuscular tenderness and muscle fiber orientation of muscles in the beef round. (United States)

    Senaratne, L S; Calkins, C R; de Mello, A S; Pokharel, S; Hinkle, J B


    Intramuscular tenderness variation and muscle fiber orientation of beef M. adductor femoris (AF), M. biceps femoris (BF), M. gracilis (GL), M. pectineus (PT), M. sartorius (SR), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. semitendinosus (SO), M. vastus intermedius (VI), M. vastus medialis (VM), and M. vastus lateralis (VL) were investigated. The USDA Choice boxed beef subprimals were purchased and aged for 14 d from boxed date. The AF, BF, GL, PT, SR, SM, SO, VI, VM, and VL (n = 10 each) were fabricated from subprimals. Crust-frozen AF, BF, SO, SM, and VL were cut into 2.54-cm steaks perpendicular to the long axis and grilled (71 degrees C). The PT, SR, VI, and VM were grilled (71 degrees C) as whole muscles, whereas the GL was grilled after cutting into anterior and posterior regions. Grilled muscles were cut into equal size sections perpendicular to long axis of muscles. Location-specific cores were prepared from each steak/section, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) was measured. The muscle fiber orientations of BF, PT, and VI were bipennate, SR and SO were fusiform, and AD, SM, VL, GL, and VM were unipennate. The overall mean WBSF values for BF, SO, AF, SM, PT, SR, GL, VI, VM, and VL were 5.62, 4.86, 4.18, 4.90, 3.76, 4.44, 4.75, 4.78, 4.24, and 6.53 kg, respectively. Based on WBSF values, PT was tender, BF and VL were tough, and VM, VI, SM, GL SR, AF, and SO were intermediate. The first 2 proximal steaks of long head BF were more tender than the rest (P Dry or moist heat oven roasting, as compared with grilling, significantly tenderized SO (P = 0.002) and VL (P beef round.

  6. PET/CT imaging in polymyalgia rheumatica: praepubic 18F-FDG uptake correlates with pectineus and adductor longus muscles enthesitis and with tenosynovitis

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    Rehak Zdenek


    Full Text Available The role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT is increasing in the diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR, one of the most common inflammatory rheumatic diseases. In addition to other locations, increased 18F-FDG accumulation has been detected in the praepubic region in some patients. However, a deeper description and pathophysiological explanation of this increased praepubic accumulation has been lacking. The aim of the presented study is to confirm a decrease in praepubic 18F-FDG accumulation in response to therapy and to describe potential correlations to other 18F-FDG PET/CT scan characteristics during the course of disease. As a secondary objective, we describe the pathological aspects of the observed praepubic 18F-FDG uptake.

  7. Interactive effects of growth hormone and exercise on muscle mass in suspended rats (United States)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Grossman, Elena J.; Mukku, Venkat R.; Jiang, Bian; Pierotti, David J.; Rudolph, Ingrid


    Measures to attenuate muscle atrophy in rats in response to simulated microgravity (hindlimb suspension (HS)) have been only partially successful. In the present study, hypophysectomized rats were in HS for 7 days, and the effects of recombinant human growth hormone (GH), exercise (Ex), or GH+Ex on the weights, protein concentrations, and fiber cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of hindlimb muscles were determined. The weights of four extensor muscles, i.e., the soleus (Sol), medial (MG) and lateral (LG) gastrocnemius, and plantaris (Plt), and one adductor, i.e., the adductor longus (AL), were decreased by 10-22% after HS. Fiber CSAs were decreased by 34% in the Sol and by 1 17% in the MG after HS. In contrast, two flexors, i.e., the tibialis anterior (TA) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), did not atrophy. In HS rats, GH treatment alone maintained the weights of the fast extensors (MG, LG, Plt) and flexors (TA, EDL) at or above those of control rats. This effect was not observed in the slow extensor (Sol) or AL. Exercise had no significant effect on the weight of any muscle in HS rats. A combination of GH and Ex treatments yielded a significant increase in the weights of the fast extensors and in the CSA of both fast and slow fibers of the MG and significantly increased Sol weight and CSA of the slow fibers of the Sol. The AL was not responsive to either GH or Ex treatments. Protein concentrations of the Sol and MG were higher only in the Sol of Ex and GH+Ex rats. These results suggest that while GH treatment or intermittent high intensity exercise alone have a minimal effect in maintaining the mass of unloaded muscle, there is a strong interactive effect of these two treatments.

  8. Electromyographic analysis of thigh muscles during track cycling on a velodrome. (United States)

    Watanabe, Kohei; Sato, Takayuki; Mukaimoto, Takahiro; Takashima, Wataru; Yamagishi, Michio; Nishiyama, Tetsunari


    We aimed to investigate neuromuscular activation of thigh muscles during track cycling at various speeds. Eight male competitive cyclists volunteered to participate in this study. Surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and adductor magnus muscles of the bilateral legs was recorded during track cycling on velodromes with a 250-m track. The participants were instructed to maintain three different lap times: 20, 18 and 16 s. The average rectified value (ARV) was calculated from the sampled surface electromyography. Significantly higher ARVs were observed in the right compared to left leg for the biceps femoris muscle during both straight and curved sections at 18- and 16-s lap times (P muscle, significant changes in ARVs during the recovery phase with an increase in speed were seen in the right leg only (P muscles (P > 0.05). From our findings, it was suggested that during track cycling on a velodrome the laterality of the biceps femoris muscle activity is a key strategy to regulate the speed, and fixed neuromuscular strategies are adopted between straight and curved sections for thigh muscles.

  9. Organization of lumbosacral motoneuronal cell groups innervating hindlimb, pelvic floor, and axial muscles in the cat. (United States)

    Vanderhorst, V G; Holstege, G


    In a study on descending pathways from the nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) to hindlimb motoneurons (see accompanying paper), it appeared impossible, using data from the literature, to precisely determine which muscles were innervated by the motoneurons receiving the NRA fibers. This lack of data made it necessary to produce a detailed map of the lumbosacral motoneuronal cell groups in the cat. Therefore, 50 different muscles or muscle compartments of hindlimb, pelvic floor and lower back were injected with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in 135 cases. The respective muscles were divided into ten groups: I, sartorius and iliopsoas; II, quadriceps; III, adductors; IV, hamstrings; V, gluteal and other proximal muscles of the hip; VI, posterior compartment of the distal hindlimb; VII, anterior compartment of the distal hindlimb; VIII, long flexors and intrinsic muscles of the foot; IX, pelvic floor muscles; and X, extensors of the lower back and tail. The L4-S2 segments were cut and incubated, and labeled motoneurons were counted and plotted. A new method was developed that made it possible, despite variations in size and segmental organization between the different cases, to compare the results of different cases. The results show that the spatial interrelationship between the hindlimb and pelvic floor lumbosacral motoneuronal cell groups remains constant. This finding enabled the authors to compose an accurate overall map of the location of lumbosacral motoneuronal cell groups. The general distribution of the motoneuronal cell groups is also discussed in respect to their dorsoventral, mediolateral, and rostrocaudal position within the lumbosacral ventral horn.

  10. Compositional analysis of muscle in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy using MR imaging

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    Marden, Franklin A.; Siegel, Marilyn J.; Rubin, David A. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology at Washington University Medical Center, St. Louis (United States); Barnes-Jewish Hospital, Department of Radiology, St. Louis (United States); Connolly, Anne M. [St. Louis Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, St. Louis (United States); Barnes-Jewish Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, 660 S. Euclid, Box 8111, St. Louis (United States)


    Boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) present by age 5 years with weakness and, untreated, stop walking unaided by age 10 or 11 years. We used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to study age-related changes in the composition and distribution of diseased muscles. Eleven boys (mean 7.1{+-}1.6 years) with DMD underwent clinical and MR examinations. Quantitative muscle strength and timed functional testing was performed. Thigh muscles were scanned at three levels (hip, mid-thigh, and knee) using T1-weighted spin echo and short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. Outcome measures included intramuscular fatty infiltration, intermuscle fat deposition, edema, and muscle size. Ten boys completed the study. Older boys demonstrated more prominent fatty infiltration of muscles. Fatty infiltration occurred in a characteristic pattern with the gluteus and adductor magnus muscles most commonly involved and the gracilis most commonly spared. Similarly, patchy increases in free water content suggested a pattern of intramuscular edema or inflammation. Atrophy occurred in muscles heavily infiltrated with fat, and true hypertrophy selectively occurred in those that were spared. While fibrofatty changes have been described in DMD, this study further defines differential involvement and additionally suggests widespread edema or inflammation. Improved imaging techniques to quantify the degree and distribution of these changes may provide a basis for exploring mechanisms of action of medications and perhaps another means for selecting treatment regimens and monitoring their effects. (orig.)

  11. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation attenuates thigh skeletal muscles atrophy but not trunk muscles after spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Dolbow, David R; Cifu, David X; Gater, David R


    The current study examined the effects of 12weeks of surface neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and ankle weights on the cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of three thigh [Gracilis (Gra), Sartorious (Sar) and Adductor (Add)] as well as two trunk [hip flexor (HF) and back extensor (BE)] muscle groups in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Seven individuals with chronic motor complete SCI were randomly assigned into a resistance training +diet (RT+diet; n=4) or diet control (n=3) groups. The RT+diet group underwent twice weekly training with surface NMES and ankle weights for 12weeks. Training composed of four sets of 10 repetitions of leg extension exercise while sitting in their wheelchairs. Both groups were asked to monitor their dietary intake. Magnetic resonance images were captured before and after 12weeks of interventions. Gra muscle CSA showed no change before and after interventions. A significant interaction (P=0.001) was noted between both groups as result of 9% increase and 10% decrease in the Gra muscle CSA of the RT+diet and diet groups, respectively. Sar muscle CSA increased [1.7±0.4-2.5±0.5cm(2); P=0.029] in the RT+diet group with no change [2.9±1.4-2.6±1.3cm(2)] in the diet group; with interaction noted between both groups (P=0.002). Analysis of covariance indicated that Add muscle CSA was 38% greater in the RT+diet compared to the diet group (P=0.025) after 12weeks; a trend of interaction was also noted between both groups (P=0.06). HF and BE muscle groups showed no apparent changes in CSA in both groups. The results suggested that surface NMES can delay the process of progressive skeletal muscle atrophy after chronic SCI. However, the effects are localized to the trained thigh muscles and do not extend to the proximal trunk muscles.

  12. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter. (United States)

    Mori, Kent; Suzuki, Satoshi; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kimura, Junpei; Han, Sung-Yong; Endo, Hideki


    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids.

  13. Hoff Mann′s syndrome with unusually long duration: Report on clinical, laboratory and muscle imaging findings in two cases

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    Atchayaram Nalini


    Full Text Available Two adult men presented with the rare Hoffmann′s syndrome (HS. Case 1: A 35-year-old male patient had progressive stiffness of lower limbs of 13 years and generalized muscle hypertrophy and myalgia of 3 years duration. Had periorbital edema, dry skin, generalized muscle hypertrophy and spastic dysarthria with hoarseness. Muscle power was normal. Jaw jerk and deep tendon reflexes were exaggerated. Case 2: A 24-year-old male patient presented with muscle hypertrophy from childhood, slowness in motor activities and hearing impairment. For 6 months, he had severe muscle pains, cramps and further increase in hypertrophy. He had yellow tinged, dry skin, hoarseness of voice, gross muscle hypertrophy and minimal weakness. Both had markedly elevated serum creatine kinase (CK levels and high thyroid stimulating hormone, low free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine levels. Levothyroxine treatment demonstrated remarkable reduction in muscle bulk at 2 months in both and no symptoms at 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging of lower limbs in both cases revealed almost identical features with involvement of the muscles of posterior and adductor compartment of thighs and posterior and lateral compartments of the legs. Differential diagnosis of long duration muscle pseudohypertrophy and elevated CK levels should include HS.

  14. Cranial muscle development in the model organism ambystoma mexicanum: implications for tetrapod and vertebrate comparative and evolutionary morphology and notes on ontogeny and phylogeny. (United States)

    Ziermann, Janine M; Diogo, Rui


    There is still confusion about the homology of several cranial muscles in salamanders with those of other vertebrates. This is true, in part, because of the fact that many muscles present in early ontogeny of amphibians disappear during development and specifically during metamorphosis. Resolving this confusion is important for the understanding of the comparative and evolutionary morphology of vertebrates and tetrapods because amphibians are the phylogenetically most plesiomorphic tetrapods, concerning for example their myology, and include two often used model organisms, Xenopus laevis (anuran) and Ambystoma mexicanum (urodele). Here we provide the first detailed report of the cranial muscle development in axolotl from early ontogenetic stages to the adult stage. We describe different and complementary types of general muscle morphogenetic gradients in the head: from anterior to posterior, from lateral to medial, and from origin to insertion. Furthermore, even during the development of neotenic salamanders such as axolotls, various larval muscles become indistinct, contradicting the commonly accepted view that during ontogeny the tendency is mostly toward the differentiation of muscles. We provide an updated comparison between these muscles and the muscles of other vertebrates, a discussion of the homologies and evolution, and show that the order in which the muscles appear during axolotl ontogeny is in general similar to their appearance in phylogeny (e.g. differentiation of adductor mandibulae muscles from one anlage to four muscles), with only a few remarkable exceptions, as for example the dilatator laryngis that appears evolutionary later but in the development before the intermandibularis.

  15. The effects of hip muscle strengthening on knee load, pain, and function in people with knee osteoarthritis: a protocol for a randomised, single-blind controlled trial

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    Hunter David J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lower limb strengthening exercises are an important component of the treatment for knee osteoarthritis (OA. Strengthening the hip abductor and adductor muscles may influence joint loading and/or OA-related symptoms, but no study has evaluated these hypotheses directly. The aim of this randomised, single-blind controlled trial is to determine whether hip abductor and adductor muscle strengthening can reduce knee load and improve pain and physical function in people with medial compartment knee OA. Methods/Design 88 participants with painful, radiographically confirmed medial compartment knee OA and varus alignment will be recruited from the community and randomly allocated to a hip strengthening or control group using concealed allocation stratified by disease severity. The hip strengthening group will perform 6 exercises to strengthen the hip abductor and adductor muscles at home 5 times per week for 12 weeks. They will consult with a physiotherapist on 7 occasions to be taught the exercises and progress exercise resistance. The control group will be requested to continue with their usual care. Blinded follow up assessment will be conducted at 12 weeks after randomisation. The primary outcome measure is the change in the peak external knee adduction moment measured during walking. Questionnaires will assess changes in pain and physical function as well as overall perceived rating of change. An intention-to-treat analysis will be performed using linear regression modelling and adjusting for baseline outcome values and other demographic characteristics. Discussion Results from this trial will contribute to the evidence regarding the effect of hip strengthening on knee loads and symptoms in people with medial compartment knee OA. If shown to reduce the knee adduction moment, hip strengthening has the potential to slow disease progression. Trial Registration Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTR12607000001493

  16. Force enhancement during and following muscle stretch of maximal voluntarily activated human quadriceps femoris. (United States)

    Hahn, Daniel; Seiberl, Wolfgang; Schwirtz, Ansgar


    Force enhancement during and following muscle stretch has been observed for electrically and voluntarily activated human muscle. However, especially for voluntary contractions, the latter observation has only been made for adductor pollicis and the ankle joint muscles, but not for large muscles like quadriceps femoris. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of active muscle stretch on force production for maximal voluntary contractions of in vivo human quadriceps femoris (n = 15). Peak torques during and torques at the end of stretch, torques following stretch, and passive torques following muscle deactivation were compared to the isometric torques at corresponding muscle length. In addition, muscle activation of rectus femoris, vastus medialis and vastus lateralis was obtained using surface EMG. Stretches with different amplitudes (15, 25 and 35 degrees at a velocity of 60 degrees s(-1)) were performed on the plateau region and the descending limb of the force-length relation in a random order. Data analysis showed four main results: (1) peak torques did not occur at the end of the stretch, but torques at the end of the stretch exceeded the corresponding isometric torque; (2) there was no significant force enhancement following muscle stretch, but a small significant passive force enhancement persisted for all stretch conditions; (3) forces during and following stretch were independent of stretch amplitude; (4) muscle activation during and following muscle stretch was significantly reduced. In conclusion, although our results showed passive force enhancement, we could not provide direct evidence that there is active force enhancement in voluntarily activated human quadriceps femoris.

  17. Fibrosis, adipogenesis, and muscle atrophy in congenital muscular torticollis. (United States)

    Chen, Huan-Xiong; Tang, Sheng-Ping; Gao, Fu-Tang; Xu, Jiang-Long; Jiang, Xian-Ping; Cao, Juan; Fu, Gui-Bing; Sun, Ke; Liu, Shi-Zhe; Shi, Wei


    In the traditional view, muscle atrophy and interstitial fibrosis were regarded as the basic pathological features of congenital muscular torticollis (CMT). But in the ultrastructure study, the mesenchyme-like cells, myoblasts, myofibroblasts, and fibroblasts were found in the proliferation of interstitium of CMT. To investigate the characteristics of pathological features and the mechanisms of muscle atrophy in CMT, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 185 CMT patients from July 2009 to July 2011 in Shenzhen Children's Hospital in China and performed pathological studies. According to age, the 185 CMT patients were divided into 4 groups. All resected surgical specimens were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson trichromic staining. Sudan III staining was used for frozen sections, whereas immunohistochemical staining for S-100, calpain-1, ubiquitin, and 20S proteasome was carried out on 40 CMT specimens. Eight adductor muscle specimens from 8 patients with development dysplasia of the hip were taken as control group in the immunohistochemical staining. By Masson trichromic staining, the differences in the percent area of fibrous tissue in each CMT groups were significant. In Sudan III staining and immunostaining for S-100, adipocyte hyperplasia was the pathological feature of CMT. Moreover, compared with controls, most atrophic muscle fibers in CMT specimens were found to show strong immunoreactivity for calpain-1, ubiquitin, and 20S proteasome. With increasing age, fibrosis peaked at both sides and it was low in middle age group. Adipocytes increased with age. The characteristics of pathological features in CMT are changeable with age. The calpain and the ubiquitin-proteasome system may play a role in muscle atrophy of CMT. In the CMT, adipogenesis, fibrogenesis, and myogenesis may be the results of mesenchyme-like cells in SCM (sternocleidomastoid muscle). In conclusion, the present study furthermore supports maldevelopment of the

  18. The pectoral fin muscles of the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae: Functional and evolutionary implications for the fin-to-limb transition and subsequent evolution of tetrapods. (United States)

    Miyake, Tsutomu; Kumamoto, Minayori; Iwata, Masamitsu; Sato, Ryuichi; Okabe, Masataka; Koie, Hiroshi; Kumai, Nori; Fujii, Kenichi; Matsuzaki, Koji; Nakamura, Chiho; Yamauchi, Shinya; Yoshida, Kosuke; Yoshimura, Kohtaroh; Komoda, Akira; Uyeno, Teruya; Abe, Yoshitaka


    To investigate the morphology and evolutionary origin of muscles in vertebrate limbs, we conducted anatomical dissections, computed tomography and kinematic analyses on the pectoral fin of the African coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae. We discovered nine antagonistic pairs of pronators and supinators that are anatomically and functionally distinct from the abductor and adductor superficiales and profundi. In particular, the first pronator and supinator pair represents mono- and biarticular muscles; a portion of the muscle fibers is attached to ridges on the humerus and is separated into two monoarticular muscles, whereas, as a biarticular muscle, the main body is inserted into the radius by crossing two joints from the shoulder girdle. This pair, consisting of a pronator and supinator, constitutes a muscle arrangement equivalent to two human antagonistic pairs of monoarticular muscles and one antagonistic pair of biarticular muscles in the stylopod between the shoulder and elbow joints. Our recent kinesiological and biomechanical engineering studies on human limbs have demonstrated that two antagonistic pairs of monoarticular muscles and one antagonistic pair of biarticular muscles in the stylopod (1) coordinately control output force and force direction at the wrist and ankle and (2) achieve a contact task to carry out weight-bearing motion and maintain stable posture. Therefore, along with dissections of the pectoral fins in two lungfish species, Neoceratodus forsteri and Protopterus aethiopicus, we discuss the functional and evolutionary implications for the fin-to-limb transition and subsequent evolution of tetrapods. Anat Rec, 299:1203-1223, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Muscle atrophy (United States)

    ... a single nerve, such as carpal tunnel syndrome Guillain-Barre syndrome Nerve damage caused by injury, diabetes, toxins, ... chap 421. Read More Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) Guillain-Barré syndrome Hypotonia Muscle cramps Muscular dystrophy Polio Review ...

  20. Muscle injury: current perspectives and trends in Brazil,

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    Diego Costa Astur


    Full Text Available Objective:To evaluate the management, procedures and perspectives of sports physicians and orthopedists in Brazil with regard to diagnosing and treating muscle injuries.Methods:A questionnaire containing 20 questions relating to the topic of muscle injury was applied to sports physicians and orthopedists during the Second Brazilian Congress of Arthroscopy and Sports Traumatology, in 2013.Results:Completely answered questionnaires were received from 168 sports physicians and orthopedists. Doctors from all regions of Brazil with a mean of 11 years of experience of treating muscle injuries were interviewed. Lower limbs were affected in 97% of the cases, particularly the quadriceps, adductor and sural triceps. The injury occurred during the eccentric phase in 62% of the interviews; 39% underwent ultrasound examination and 37% magnetic resonance imaging (MRI for the injury to be diagnosed. Medication, rest and cryotherapy during the acute phase (87.5% and medication, rest and physiotherapy during treatment of the injury (56% were the prevalent options. The criteria for returning to sports were very subjective and disparate among the options presented, and most of the interviewees had already used some therapy that was adjuvant to traditional methods.Conclusion:The number of muscle injuries treated per year was greater than 30, independent of whether in the public or private sector. These injuries occurred mainly at the muscle–tendon junction, in the lower limbs and during the eccentric phase of muscle contraction. Ultrasound was the examination most performed, while MRI was considered ideal. For most of the interviewees, the preferred treatment involved rest, medication and physiotherapy. In addition, 52% believed that platelet-rich plasma was an efficient treatment and 42% said that they had already used it.

  1. The Effects of Knee Joint and Hip Abduction Angles on the Activation of Cervical and Abdominal Muscles during Bridging Exercises. (United States)

    Lee, Su-Kyoung; Park, Du-Jin


    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the flexion angle of the knee joint and the abduction angle of the hip joint on the activation of the cervical region and abdominal muscles. [Subjects] A total of 42 subjects were enrolled 9 males and 33 females. [Methods] The bridging exercise in this study was one form of exercise with a knee joint flexion angle of 90°. Based on this, a bridging exercise was conducted at the postures of abduction of the lower extremities at 0, 5, 10, and 15°. [Result] The changes in the knee joint angle and the hip abduction angle exhibited statistically significant effects on the cervical erector spinae, adductor magnus, and gluteus medius muscles. The abduction angles did not result in statistically significant effects on the upper trapezium, erector spinae, external oblique, and rectus abdominis muscles. However, in relation to the knee joint angles, during the bridging exercise, statistically significant results were exhibited. [Conclusion] When patients with both cervical and back pain do a bridging exercise, widening the knee joint angle would reduce cervical and shoulder muscle activity through minimal levels of abduction, permitting trunk muscle strengthening with reduced cervical muscle activity. This method would be helpful for strengthening trunk muscles in a selective manner.

  2. Troponin-like regulation in muscle thin filaments of the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus (Bivalvia: Mytiloida). (United States)

    Vyatchin, Ilya G; Shevchenko, Ulyana V; Lazarev, Stanislav S; Matusovsky, Oleg S; Shelud'ko, Nikolay S


    Muscles of bivalve molluscs have double calcium regulation--myosin-linked and actin-linked. While the mechanism of myosin-linked regulation is sufficiently studied, there is still no consensus on the mechanism of actin-linked regulation. Earlier we showed a high degree of Ca2+-sensitivity of thin filaments from the adductor muscle of the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus (Mytiloida). In order to elucidate the nature of this regulation, we isolated the fraction of minor proteins from the mussel thin filaments, which confers Ca2+-sensitivity to reconstituted actomyosin-tropomyosin. Proteins of this fraction, ABP-19, ABP-20, and ABP-28, were chromatographically purified and identified. According to the results of mass spectrometry and Western blot analysis, as well as by their functional properties, these mussel actin-binding proteins appeared to correspond to the troponin components from the skeletal muscles of vertebrates (TnC, TnI and TnT). The reconstituted mussel troponin complex confers to actomyosin-tropomyosin more than 80% Ca2+-sensitivity. The in vivo molar ratio of actin/tropomyosin/troponin was calculated to be 7:1:0.5, i.e., the content of troponin in mussel thin filaments is two times lower than in thin filaments of skeletal muscles of vertebrates. These data demonstrate that troponin-like regulation found in the catch muscle of the mussel C. grayanus is present at least in two suborders of bivalves: Pectinoida and Mytiloida.

  3. Recovery in mechanical muscle strength following resurfacing vs standard total hip arthroplasty - a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten; Aagaard, Per; Overgaard, S


    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of resurfacing vs standard total hip replacement on post-surgery hip and knee muscle strength recovery in a prospective randomised controlled trial at the Department of Orthopaedics, University Hospital, Odense, Denmark. METHODS: Forty-three patients were......-29%) with the affected side being weakest (P ≤ 0.05) and hip flexors being most affected. Asymmetry was present in half of the muscle groups at 26 wks (P ≤ 0.05), and remained present for the hip flexors and hip adductors at 52 wks (P ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: R-THA patients showed an attenuated and delayed recovery...... in maximal lower limb muscle strength (in 2/6 muscle groups) compared to S-THA. Notably, the attenuated strength recovery following R-THA was most markedly manifested in the late phase (1 yr) of post-surgical recovery, and appeared to be due to the detachment of the lower half of the gluteus maximus muscle...

  4. A clinical case and anatomical study of the innervation supply of the vastus medialis muscle. (United States)

    Ozer, H; Tekdemir, I; Elhan, A; Turanli, S; Engebretsen, L


    The innervation supply to the vastus medialis (VM) muscle, a component of quadriceps femoris (QF), is provided by a branch of the femoral nerve (FN) running along the muscle. The course of the nerve from lumbar roots to the muscle has been described by many researchers. It is known to ride along the femoral vein, artery and saphenous nerve and enter the adductor canal (Hunter's canal), and then to divide into branches that supply vastus medialis and the knee joint. Femoral mononeuropathy is uncommon, and is usually due to compression in the spinal level. Hematoma in the psoas and iliacus muscles, drug abuse, lithotomy position and limb lengthening are the other associated reasons for a mononeuropathy of the femoral nerve. Isolated vastus lateralis (VL) atrophies have been reported by a few authors, suggesting that compression of the nerve and direct violation of the nerve with injections might be the reason for mononeuropathy. Isolated VM atrophy has not been previously reported. The purpose of the study was to identify the anatomical structures around the FN branch which innervates the VM muscle.

  5. Test-retest reliability of innovated strength tests for hip muscles.

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    Christophe Meyer

    Full Text Available The burden of hip muscles weakness and its relation to other impairments has been well documented. It is therefore a pre-requisite to have a reliable method for clinical assessment of hip muscles function allowing the design and implementation of a proper strengthening program. Motor-driven dynamometry has been widely accepted as the gold-standard for lower limb muscle strength assessment but is mainly related to the knee joint. Studies focusing on the hip joint are less exhaustive and somewhat discrepant with regard to optimal participants position, consequently influencing outcome measures. Thus, we aimed to develop a standardized test setup for the assessment of hip muscles strength, i.e. flexors/extensors and abductors/adductors, with improved participant stability and to define its psychometric characteristics. Eighteen participants performed unilateral isokinetic and isometric contractions of the hip muscles in the sagittal and coronal plane at two separate occasions. Peak torque and normalized peak torque were measured for each contraction. Relative and absolute measures of reliability were calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient and standard error of measurement, respectively. Results from this study revealed higher levels of between-day reliability of isokinetic/isometric hip abduction/flexion peak torque compared to existing literature. The least reliable measures were found for hip extension and adduction, which could be explained by a less efficient stabilization technique. Our study additionally provided a first set of reference normalized data which can be used in future research.

  6. Acoustic characteristics of adductor spasmodic dysphonia%内收型痉挛性发音障碍的语音特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨扬; 王丽萍


    Objective To explore the acoustic characteristics of adductor spasmodic dysphonim Methods The acoustic characteristics,including acoustic signal of recorded voice,three-dimensional sonogranl patterns and subjective assessment of voice,between 10 patients(7 women,3 men)with adductor spasmodic dysphonia and 10 healthy volunteers(5 women,5 men),were compared.Results The main clinical manifestation of adductor spasmodic dysphonia included the disorders of sound quality,rhyme and fluency.It demonstrated the tension dysphonia when reading,acoustic jitter,momentary fluctuation of frequency and volume,voice squeezing,interruption,voice prolongation,and losing normal chime.Among 10 patients,there were l mild dysphonia(abnormal syllable number<25%),6 moderate dysphonia (abnormal syllable number 25%-49%),1 severe dysphonia(abnormal syllable number 50%-74%) and 2 extremely severe dysphonia (abnormal syllable number≥75%).The average reading time in 10 patients Was 49 S,with reading time extension and aphasia area interruption in acoustic signals,whereasc the average reading time in health control group was 30 S,without voice interruption.The aphasia ratio averaged 42%.The respective symptom syllable in different patients demonstrated in the three-dimensional sonograrm There were voice onset time prolongation,irregular,interrupted and even absent vowel formants. The consonant of symptom syllables displayed absence or prolongation of friction murmur in the block-friction murmur occasionally.Conclusions The acoustic characteristics of adductor spasmodic dysphonia is the disorders of sound quality,rhyme and fluency.The three-dimensional sonogTam of the symptom syllables show distinctive changes of proportional vowels or consonant phonemes.%目的 探讨内收型痉挛性发音障碍的语音特征.方法 采用嗓音和语音的声信号和三维语图分析及主观评价的方法对1O例内收型痉挛性发音障碍患者(女7例,男3例)的语音特征与10

  7. Qualidade de Vida em Voz: estudo na doença de Parkinson idiopática e na disfonia espasmódica adutora Quality of life in voice: a study in Parkinson's disease and in adductor spasmodic dysphonia

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    Bárbara Pereira Lopes


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o impacto causado pela alteração vocal na qualidade de vida (QV dos pacientes com doença de Parkinson (DP idiopática e com disfonia espasmódica adutora (DEA. MÉTODO: o estudo foi realizado com 56 indivíduos do sexo feminino, dos quais 28 compunham o grupo controle; 14, o grupo de DEA, no período anterior ao tratamento com toxina botulínica; e 14, o grupo de DP idiopática. Os participantes preencheram o questionário de Qualidade de Vida em Voz (QVV validado para o português brasileiro. Para verificar a diferença entre as médias dos grupos foi utilizado o método de análise de variância por postos de Kruskal-Wallis e o teste de Tamhane para comparações múltiplas, com significância PURPOSE: to evaluate the impact of voice disorders on quality of life of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. METHOD: the study consisted of 56 females, 28 in the control group; 14, the adductor spasmodic dysphonia group in the period prior to treatment with botulinum toxin; and 14, the group of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The participants filled in the Voice-Related Quality of life (V-RQOL questionnaire validated for Brazilian Portuguese. To check the difference between averages of the groups it was used the method of analysis of variance by Kruskal-Wallis and Tamhane test for multiple comparisons, with significance <0.05. RESULTS: the average age of the groups were 66.18 for the control group, 67.21 for the Parkinson's disease group and 59.7 for the adductor spasmodic dysphonia group, with no statistical difference between the groups. In the V-RQOL protocol the mean domain social-emotional, physical functioning and total score were higher in the control group, followed by group of Parkinson's disease and, finally, the group of adductor spasmodic dysphonia with statistically significant difference between them. In addition, there was statistical difference for each pair of groups

  8. Qualidade de Vida em Voz: estudo na doença de Parkinson idiopática e na Disfonia Espasmódica Adutora Quality of life in voice: a study in Parkinson's disease and in adductor spasmodic dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Pereira Lopes


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o impacto causado pela alteração vocal na qualidade de vida (QV dos pacientes com doença de Parkinson (DP idiopática e com disfonia espasmódica adutora (DEA. MÉTODO: o estudo foi realizado com 56 indivíduos do sexo feminino, dos quais 28 compunham o grupo controle; 14, o grupo de DEA, no período anterior ao tratamento com toxina botulínica; e 14, o grupo de DP idiopática. Os participantes preencheram o questionário de Qualidade de Vida em Voz (QVV validado para o português brasileiro. Para verificar a diferença entre as médias dos grupos foi utilizado o método de análise de variância por postos de Kruskal-Wallis e o teste de Tamhane para comparações múltiplas, com significância PURPOSE: to evaluate the impact of voice disorders on quality of life of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. METHOD: the study consisted of 56 females, 28 in the control group; 14, the adductor spasmodic dysphonia group in the period prior to treatment with botulinum toxin; and 14, the group of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The participants filled in the Voice-Related Quality of life (V-RQOL questionnaire validated for Brazilian Portuguese. To check the difference between averages of the groups it was used the method of analysis of variance by Kruskal-Wallis and Tamhane test for multiple comparisons, with significance <0.05. RESULTS: the average age of the groups were 66.18 for the control group, 67.21 for the Parkinson's disease group and 59.7 for the adductor spasmodic dysphonia group, with no statistical difference between the groups. In the V-RQOL protocol the mean domain social-emotional, physical functioning and total score were higher in the control group, followed by group of Parkinson's disease and, finally, the group of adductor spasmodic dysphonia with statistically significant difference between them. In addition, there was statistical difference for each pair of groups

  9. Muscle strain (image) (United States)

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  10. Musculotopic organization of the motor neurons supplying the mouse hindlimb muscles: a quantitative study using Fluoro-Gold retrograde tracing. (United States)

    Bácskai, Tímea; Rusznák, Zoltán; Paxinos, George; Watson, Charles


    We have mapped the motor neurons (MNs) supplying the major hindlimb muscles of transgenic (C57/BL6J-ChAT-EGFP) and wild-type (C57/BL6J) mice. The fluorescent retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold was injected into 19 hindlimb muscles. Consecutive transverse spinal cord sections were harvested, the MNs counted, and the MN columns reconstructed in 3D. Three longitudinal MN columns were identified. The dorsolateral column extends from L4 to L6 and consists of MNs innervating the crural muscles and the foot. The ventrolateral column extends from L1 to L6 and accommodates MNs supplying the iliopsoas, gluteal, and quadriceps femoris muscles. The middle part of the ventral horn hosts the central MN column, which extends between L2 and L6 and consists of MNs for the thigh adductor, hamstring, and quadratus femoris muscles. Within these longitudinal columns, the arrangement of the different MN groups reflects their somatotopic organization. MNs innervating muscles developing from the dorsal (e.g., quadriceps) and ventral muscle mass (e.g., hamstring) are situated in the lateral and medial part of the ventral gray, respectively. MN pools belonging to proximal muscles (e.g., quadratus femoris and iliopsoas) are situated ventral to those supplying more distal ones (e.g., plantar muscles). Finally, MNs innervating flexors (e.g., posterior crural muscles) are more medial than those belonging to extensors of the same joint (e.g., anterior crural muscles). These data extend and modify the MN maps in the recently published atlas of the mouse spinal cord and may help when assessing neuronal loss associated with MN diseases.

  11. Satellite cell activation in stretched skeletal muscle and the role of nitric oxide and hepatocyte growth factor. (United States)

    Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Liu, Xiaosong; Pulido, Antonio; Morales, Mark; Sakata, Tomowa; Dial, Sharon; Hattori, Akihito; Ikeuchi, Yoshihide; Allen, Ronald E


    In the present study, we examined the roles of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and nitric oxide (NO) in the activation of satellite cells in passively stretched rat skeletal muscle. A hindlimb suspension model was developed in which the vastus, adductor, and gracilis muscles were subjected to stretch for 1 h. Satellite cells were activated by stretch determined on the basis of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation in vivo. Extracts from stretched muscles stimulated BrdU incorporation in freshly isolated control rat satellite cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Extracts from stretched muscles contained the active form of HGF, and the satellite cell-activating activity could be neutralized by incubation with anti-HGF antibody. The involvement of NO was investigated by administering nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or the inactive enantiomer N(G)-nitro-D-arginine methyl ester HCl (D-NAME) before stretch treatment. In vivo activation of satellite cells in stretched muscle was not inhibited by D-NAME but was inhibited by L-NAME. The activity of stretched muscle extract was abolished by L-NAME treatment but could be restored by the addition of HGF, indicating that the extract was not inhibitory. Finally, NO synthase activity in stretched and unstretched muscles was assayed in muscle extracts immediately after 2-h stretch treatment and was found to be elevated in stretched muscle but not in stretched muscle from L-NAME-treated rats. The results of these experiments demonstrate that stretching muscle liberates HGF in a NO-dependent manner, which can activate satellite cells.

  12. The Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Athletic Pubalgia and Core Muscle Injury. (United States)

    Coker, Dana J; Zoga, Adam C


    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the standard of care imaging modality for a difficult, often misunderstood spectrum of musculoskeletal injury termed athletic pubalgia or core muscle injury. Armed with a dedicated noncontrast athletic pubalgia protocol and a late model phased array receiver coil, the musculoskeletal imager can play a great role in effective diagnosis and treatment planning for lesions, including osteitis pubis, midline pubic plate lesions, and rectus abdominis/adductor aponeurosis injury. Beyond these established patterns of MRI findings, there are many confounders and contributing pathologies about the pelvis in patients with activity related groin pain, including internal and periarticular derangements of the hip. The MRI is ideally suited to delineate the extent of expected injury and to identify the unexpected visceral and musculoskeletal lesions.

  13. The principal structure of male genital sclerites and muscles of bombycoid moths, with special reference to Anthelidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea). (United States)

    Zwick, Andreas


    Male genital structures and muscles of bombycoid moths have repeatedly been misidentified in the literature. Furthermore, the genital structures of some bombycoid families, such as the poorly known Australo-New Guinean Anthelidae, have essentially remained unstudied. Based on comparative morphology, this study details the principal arrangements of male genital sclerites and muscles in all bombycoid families, with particular focus on basic structures and their modifications in Anthelidae. Emphasis is placed on the homology of and fusions between these structures and their function, providing a basis for the interpretation of modifications in future phylogenetic and taxonomic studies. This includes the unique fusion of gnathos and valvae in several bombycoid families, the arrangement and extent of the fused tegumen and vinculum, as well as the homology of the "transtilla". Further, a modification of the valve adductor muscle (the segment IX sternum to valva muscle, m4) widely regarded as a synapomorphy of Bombycoidea is demonstrated to be non-existent, as is the presumed presence of the valve abductor muscle (the segment IX tergum to valva muscle, m2) in Saturniidae.

  14. Changes in motor cortex excitability associated with muscle fatigue in patients with Parkinson's disease

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    Milanović Slađan


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a standard technique for noninvasive assessment of changes in central nervous system excitability. The aim of this study was to examine changes in responses to TMS in patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease (PD during sustained submaximal isometric voluntary contraction [60% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC] of the adductor pollicis muscle, as well as during a subsequent recovery period. Methods. Cortical excitability was tested by single TMS pulses of twice of the motor threshold intensity applied over the vertex. Testing was carried out during the sustained contraction phase every 10 s before and every 5 s after the endurance point, as well as at rest and during brief 60% MVC contractions before (control, immediately after the sustained contraction, and at 5 min intervals during the recovery period. Results. Although the PD patients could sustain the contraction at the required level for as long period of time as the healthy subjects (though contraction level subsided more rapidly after the endurance point, effects of muscle fatigue on the responses to TMS were different. In contrast to the findings observed in the healthy people where motor evoked potentials (MEP and EMG silent period (SP in fatigued muscle gradually diminished during contraction up to the endurance point, and increased thereafter, in the majority of patients no changes occurred in MEP size (peak and area of the adductor pollicis muscle, either before or after the endurance point. On the other hand, changes in the SP of this muscle differed among the subjects, showing a gradual increase, a decrease or no changes in duration. The trends of changes in both MEP size and SP duration in the musculus brachioradialis varied among the tested PD patients, without any consistent pattern, which was in contrast with the findings in the healthy people where both measures showed a gradual increase from the beginning of

  15. Rectus abdominis muscle injuries in elite handball players: management and rehabilitation. (United States)

    Balius, Ramon; Pedret, Carles; Pacheco, Laura; Gutierrez, Josep Antoni; Vives, Joan; Escoda, Jaume


    Muscle injuries generally occur in two-joint muscles with a high percentage of type II fibers during the performance of eccentric activity. Some muscle injuries, such as those located in the adductor longus, a monoarticular muscle, as well as rectus abdominis do not fully comply with these requirements. This study examines five cases of elite handball players with ruptured rectus abdominals. Sonographically, lesions in rectus abdominis are shown as a disruption of the fibrillar pattern with a hematic suffusion that invades the entire lesion. In some of the cases, the ultrasound study was complemented with a MRI. A unified rehabilitation protocol was applied and the return to play time of each handball player ranged between 16 and 22 days, with an average of 18.2 days. Follow-up at 15 months showed no evidence of re-injury or residual discomfort and all of them are playing at their highest level. The aim of this study was to illustrate a feature of handball injury that, as in tennis and volleyball, is uncommon and so far has not been specifically reported. The phenomenon of contralateral abdominal hypertrophy in handball appears in the dominant arm as in tennis and volleyball.

  16. Mandibular and hyoid muscles of Galeomorph sharks (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii), with remarks on their phylogenetic intrarelationships. (United States)

    Soares, Mateus C; de Carvalho, Marcelo R


    The superorder Galeomorph comprises the orders Heterodontiformes, Orectolobiformes, Lamniformes, and Carcharhiniformes. Recent morphological and molecular support that it is a monophyletic taxon. The phyletic relationship within the Galeomorphi are also well resolved. However, only few morphological characters of the mandibular and hyoid muscles have been employed, and a detailed description of these muscles and their variations may contribute new interpretations of homology and to the discussion of different hypothesis of intrarelationships. This paper provides a detailed description of mandibular and hyoid arch muscles in galeomorph sharks, within a comparative elasmobranch framework, with the objective to discuss putative homologies that may elucidate our understanding of galeomorph evolution. Twenty-eight galeomorph species were dissected, described, illustrated and compared with other elasmobranchs and with data from the literature. The Galeomorphi are supported as monophyletic by presenting the m. levator labii superioris attached directly to the neurocranium, different from the attachment through a tendon in basal squalomorphs. Heterodontiformes and Orectolobiformes share particular variations in the position and insertion of the m. levator labii superioris and the presence of a well-defined m. levator hyomandibulae. Lamniformes and Carcharhiniformes show similar patterns in the position and attachment of the m. levator labii superioris, subdivision of the m. adductor mandibulae, and the presence of an almost indivisible m. levator hyomandibulae and m. constrictor hyoideus dorsalis, similar to the condition, albeit independently, in basal squalomorphs. No specific mandibular or hyoid arch muscle character was found to support the clade composed of Orectolobiformes, Lamniformes, and Carcharhiniformes, as advocated by recent phylogenetic analyses.

  17. Assessment of bioelectrical activity of synergistic muscles during pelvic floor muscles activation in postmenopausal women with and without stress urinary incontinence: a preliminary observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ptaszkowski K


    Full Text Available Kuba Ptaszkowski,1 Małgorzata Paprocka-Borowicz,2 Lucyna Słupska,2 Janusz Bartnicki,1,3 Robert Dymarek,4 Joanna Rosińczuk,4 Jerzy Heimrath,5 Janusz Dembowski,6 Romuald Zdrojowy6 1Department of Obstetrics, 2Department of Clinical Biomechanics and Physiotherapy in Motor System Disorders, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Health Center Bitterfeld/Wolfen gGmbH, Bitterfeld-Wolfen, Germany; 4Department of Nervous System Diseases, 5Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Health Science, 6Department and Clinic of Urology, Faculty of Postgraduate Medical Training, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Objective: Muscles such as adductor magnus (AM, gluteus maximus (GM, rectus abdominis (RA, and abdominal external and internal oblique muscles are considered to play an important role in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI, and the relationship between contraction of these muscles and pelvic floor muscles (PFM has been established in previous studies. Synergistic muscle activation intensifies a woman’s ability to contract the PFM. In some cases, even for continent women, it is not possible to fully contract their PFM without involving the synergistic muscles. The primary aim of this study was to assess the surface electromyographic activity of synergistic muscles to PFM (SPFM during resting and functional PFM activation in postmenopausal women with and without SUI.Materials and methods: This study was a preliminary, prospective, cross-sectional observational study and included volunteers and patients who visited the Department and Clinic of Urology, University Hospital in Wroclaw, Poland. Forty-two patients participated in the study and were screened for eligibility criteria. Thirty participants satisfied the criteria and were categorized into two groups: women with SUI (n=16 and continent women (n=14. The bioelectrical activity of PFM and SPFM (AM, RA, GM was

  18. Musculoskeletal Geometry, Muscle Architecture and Functional Specialisations of the Mouse Hindlimb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Charles

    Full Text Available Mice are one of the most commonly used laboratory animals, with an extensive array of disease models in existence, including for many neuromuscular diseases. The hindlimb is of particular interest due to several close muscle analogues/homologues to humans and other species. A detailed anatomical study describing the adult morphology is lacking, however. This study describes in detail the musculoskeletal geometry and skeletal muscle architecture of the mouse hindlimb and pelvis, determining the extent to which the muscles are adapted for their function, as inferred from their architecture. Using I2KI enhanced microCT scanning and digital segmentation, it was possible to identify 39 distinct muscles of the hindlimb and pelvis belonging to nine functional groups. The architecture of each of these muscles was determined through microdissections, revealing strong architectural specialisations between the functional groups. The hip extensors and hip adductors showed significantly stronger adaptations towards high contraction velocities and joint control relative to the distal functional groups, which exhibited larger physiological cross sectional areas and longer tendons, adaptations for high force output and elastic energy savings. These results suggest that a proximo-distal gradient in muscle architecture exists in the mouse hindlimb. Such a gradient has been purported to function in aiding locomotor stability and efficiency. The data presented here will be especially valuable to any research with a focus on the architecture or gross anatomy of the mouse hindlimb and pelvis musculature, but also of use to anyone interested in the functional significance of muscle design in relation to quadrupedal locomotion.

  19. Study on the findings of muscle CT in patients with Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD)

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    Sumida, Sawako; Osawa, Makiko; Okada, Noriko and others


    This study was carried out to investigate the process of muscle involvement according to age in patients with FCMD (Brain Dev 1981 ; 3:1 - 29) by CT scans. Fourteen patients with FCMD I (age: 5 months-12 years) and two patients with FCMD III or IV (age: 3, 4 years) were studied. The midcalf, midthigh, L3 and shoulder girdle level were the sites chosen. Two types of change were found in FCMD I. One of them was the attenuation of the density in muscle and the other one was decreased area of muscle as a result of low density which started from periphery of the muscle. The latter was found in m. psoas major after age 9, whilst the former was found in other muscles to some degree. The severity of the changes was related to age. In the case which was examined twice, the changes extended even better motor function had been attained. The changes in midcalf preceded those in midthigh, L3, shoulder girdle. The attenuation of density was found early and severely in m. triceps surae, m. adductor magnus, paravertebral muscles and m. subscapularis, whilst those in m. tibialis anterior and posterior, m. gracilis, m. sartorius, m. quadratus lumborum appeared later and relatively mild. The relationship between the process of extension of low density in muscle and joint contractures were also discussed. The changes in CT scan in FCMD III or IV were milder than those of FCMD I and there was no tendency that the change in midcalf preceded those of other scanned level.

  20. Difference in the recruitment of hip and knee muscles between back squat and plyometric squat jump.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihide Sugisaki

    Full Text Available Athletes who aim to improve both muscular endurance and power often perform exercises that involve similar joint actions under different lifting conditions, such as changes in the load or speed, which are implemented at different times during a periodized exercise program or simultaneously. The prescribed exercises are considered to recruit the same muscles even if the lifting conditions differ to each other. The present study aimed to clarify this by examining whether the recruitment of individual hip and knee muscles during the squat exercise differs between lifting conditions adopted for muscular endurance and power training regimens. Moderately trained men performed back squats (BS, with a load of approximately 60% of one repetition maximum, as a muscular endurance training exercise, and they performed plyometric squat jumping (PSJ for power training. During each exercise, the lower limb joint torques and the recruitment of five hip and knee muscles were determined with inverse-dynamics and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. While the maximal and mean knee joint torques were greater during PSJ than during BS (p<0.01, the T2 values for the quadriceps femoris muscle did not differ between the exercises. In contrast, the T2 values of the gluteus maximus and hip adductor muscles were higher during PSJ (p<0.05 than during BS, although there was no significant difference in the mean hip extension torque between the two exercises. The current results indicate that the individual use of the agonist muscles differs between BS and PSJ, and it does not always correspond with the joint kinetics during the exercises. Therefore, in addition to the exercise type, the lifting condition should also be taken into consideration as a determinant of the major muscles trained during a resistance exercise.

  1. Muscle disease. (United States)

    Tsao, Chang-Yong


    On the basis of strong research evidence, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most common severe childhood form of muscular dystrophy, is an X-linked recessive disorder caused by out-of-frame mutations of the dystrophin gene. Thus, it is classified asa dystrophinopathy. The disease onset is before age 5 years. Patients with DMD present with progressive symmetrical limb-girdle muscle weakness and become wheelchair dependent after age 12 years. (2)(3). On the basis of some research evidence,cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure are usually seen in the late teens in patients with DMD. Progressive scoliosis and respiratory in sufficiency often develop once wheelchair dependency occurs. Respiratory failure and cardiomyopathy are common causes of death, and few survive beyond the third decade of life. (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7). On the basis of some research evidence, prednisone at 0.75 mg/kg daily (maximum dose, 40 mg/d) or deflazacort at 0.9 mg/kg daily (maximum dose, 39 mg/d), a derivative of prednisolone (not available in the United States), as a single morning dose is recommended for DMD patients older than 5 years, which may prolong independent walking from a few months to 2 years. (2)(3)(16)(17). Based on some research evidence, treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, b-blockers, and diuretics has been reported to be beneficial in DMD patients with cardiac abnormalities. (2)(3)(5)(18). Based on expert opinion, children with muscle weakness and increased serum creatine kinase levels may be associated with either genetic or acquired muscle disorders (Tables 1 and 3). (14)(15)

  2. The Eccentric Torque Production Capacity of the Ankle, Knee, and Hip Muscle Groups in Patients with Unilateral Chronic Ankle Instability (United States)

    Negahban, Hossein; Moradi-Bousari, Aida; Naghibi, Saeed; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Shaterzadeh-Yazdi, Mohammad-Jafar; Goharpey, Shahin; Etemadi, Malihe; Mazaheri, Masood; Feizi, Awat


    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate eccentric torque production capacity of the ankle, knee and hip muscle groups in patients with unilateral chronic ankle instability (CAI) as compared to healthy matched controls. Methods In this case-control study, 40 participants (20 with CAI and 20 controls) were recruited based on convenient non-probability sampling. The average peak torque to body weight (APT/BW) ratio of reciprocal eccentric contraction of ankle dorsi flexor/plantar flexor, ankle evertor/invertor, knee flexor/extensor, hip flexor/extensor and hip abductor/adductor was determined using an isokinetic dynamometer. All subjects participated in two separate sessions with a rest interval of 48 to 72 hours. In each testing session, the torque production capacity of the ankle, knee, and hip muscle groups of only one lower limb was measured. At first, 3 repetitions of maximal eccentric-eccentric contraction were performed for the reciprocal muscles of a joint in a given movement direction. Then, the same procedure of practice and testing trials was repeated for the next randomly-ordered muscle group or joint of the same limb. Results There was no significant interaction of group (CAI and healthy controls) by limb (injured and non-injured) for any muscle groups. Main effect of limb was not significant. Main effect of group was only significant for eccentric torque production capacity of ankle dorsi flexor and hip flexor muscle groups. The APT/BW ratio of these muscles was significantly lower in the CAI group than the healthy controls (P<0.05). Conclusion CAI is associated with eccentric strength deficit of ankle dorsi flexor and hip flexor muscles as indicated by reduction in torque production capacity of these muscles compared to healthy controls. This strength deficit appeared to exist in both the injured and non-injured limbs of the patients. PMID:23802057

  3. "Target" and "Sandwich" Signs in Thigh Muscles have High Diagnostic Values for Collagen Ⅵ-related Myopathies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Fu; Yi-Ming Zheng; Su-Qin Jin; Jun-Fei Yi; Xiu-Juan Liu; He Lyn; Zhao-Xia Wang


    Background:Collagen Ⅵ-related myopathies are autosomal dominant and recessive hereditary myopathies,mainly including Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) and Bethlem myopathy (BM).Muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used to diagnosis muscular disorders.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of thigh muscles MRI for collagen Ⅵ-related myopathies.Methods:Eleven patients with collagen Ⅵ gene mutation-related myopathies were enrolled in this study.MRI of the thigh muscles was performed in all patients with collagen Ⅵ gene mutation-related myopathies and in 361 patients with other neuromuscular disorders (disease controls).Tl-weighted images were used to assess fatty infiltration of the muscles using a modified Mercuri's scale.We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the MRI features of collagen Ⅵ-related myopathies.The relationship between fatty infiltration of muscles and specific collagen Ⅵ gene mutations was also investigated.Results:Eleven patients with collagen Ⅵ gene mutation-related myopathies included six UCMD patients and five BM patients.There was no significant difference between UCMD and BM patients in the fatty infiltration of each thigh muscle except sartorius (P =0.033);therefore,we combined the UCMD and BM data.Mean fatty infiltration scores were 3.1 and 3.0 in adductor magnus and gluteus maximus,while the scores were 1.3,1.3,and 1.5 in gracilis,adductor longus,and sartorius,respectively.A "target" sign in rectus femoris (RF) was present in seven cases,and a "sandwich" sign in vastus lateralis (VL) was present in ten cases.The "target" and "sandwich" signs had sensitivities of 63.6% and 90.9% and specificities of 97.3% and 96.9% for the diagnosis of collagen Ⅵ-related myopathies,respectively.Fatty infiltration scores were 2.0-3.0 in seven patients with mutations in the triple-helical domain,and 1.0-1.5 in three of four patients with mutations in the N-or C-domain of the

  4. Eye muscle repair - discharge (United States)

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  5. Muscle strain treatment (United States)

    Treatment - muscle strain ... Question: How do you treat a muscle strain ? Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen ( ...

  6. Policy Problematization (United States)

    Webb, P. Taylor


    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  7. Muscle activation in young men during a lower limb aquatic resistance exercise with different devices. (United States)

    Borreani, Sebastien; Colado, Juan Carlos; Furio, Josep; Martin, Fernando; Tella, Víctor


    Little research has been reported on the effects of using different devices with resistance exercises in a water environment. This study compared muscular activation of lower extremity and core muscles during leg adduction performed at maximum velocity with drag and floating devices of different sizes. A total of 24 young men (mean age 23.20 ± 1.18 years) performed 3 repetitions of leg adduction at maximum velocity using 4 different devices (ie, large/small and drag/floating). The maximum amplitude of the electromyographic root mean square of the adductor longus, rectus abdominis, external oblique on the dominant side, external oblique on the nondominant side, and erector lumbar spinae were recorded. Electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Unexpectedly, no significant (P > 0.05) differences were found in the neuromuscular responses among the different devices used; the average activation of agonist muscle adequate for neuromuscular conditioning was 40.95% of MVIC. In addition, external oblique activation is greater on the contralateral side to stabilize the body (average, 151.74%; P < 0.05). Therefore, if maximum muscle activation is required, the kind of device is not relevant. Thus, the choice should be based on economic factors.

  8. Diminished Foot and Ankle Muscle Volumes in Young Adults With Chronic Ankle Instability (United States)

    Feger, Mark A.; Snell, Shannon; Handsfield, Geoffrey G.; Blemker, Silvia S.; Wombacher, Emily; Fry, Rachel; Hart, Joseph M.; Saliba, Susan A.; Park, Joseph S.; Hertel, Jay


    Background: Patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI) have demonstrated altered neuromuscular function and decreased muscle strength when compared with healthy counterparts without a history of ankle sprain. Up to this point, muscle volumes have not been analyzed in patients with CAI to determine whether deficits in muscle size are present following recurrent sprain. Purpose: To analyze intrinsic and extrinsic foot and ankle muscle volumes and 4-way ankle strength in young adults with and without CAI. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Five patients with CAI (mean age, 23.0 ± 4 years; 1 male, 4 females) and 5 healthy controls (mean age, 23.8 ± 4.5 years; 1 male, 4 females) volunteered for this study. Novel fast-acquisition magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to scan from above the femoral condyles through the foot and ankle. The perimeter of each muscle was outlined on each axial slice and then the 2-dimensional area was multiplied by the slice thickness (5 mm) to calculate the muscle volume. Plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, inversion, and eversion isometric strength were measured using a handheld dynamometer. Patients with CAI were compared with healthy controls on all measures of muscle volume and strength. Extrinsic muscle volumes of patients with CAI were also compared with a normative database of healthy controls (n = 24) by calculating z scores for each muscle individually for each CAI subject. Results: The CAI group had smaller total shank, superficial posterior compartment, soleus, adductor hallucis obliqus, and flexor hallucis brevis muscle volumes compared with healthy controls as indicated by group means and associated 90% CIs that did not overlap. Cohen d effect sizes for the significant group differences were all large and ranged from 1.46 to 3.52, with 90% CIs that did not cross zero. The CAI group had lower eversion, dorsiflexion, and 4-way composite ankle strength, all with group means and associated 90

  9. The adaptational strategies of the hindlimb muscles in the Tenrecidae species including the aquatic web-footed tenrec (Limnogale mergulus). (United States)

    Endo, Hideki; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Rakotondraparany, Felix; Sasaki, Motoki; Hasegawa, Masami


    The hindlimb muscles in four species of Tenrecidae (Oryzoryctinae: Talazac long-tailed tenrec and web-footed tenrec, Tenrecinae: lesser hedgehog tenrec, and streaked tenrec), were examined macroscopically. The weight ratios of the muscles to the body in the oryzoryctinid species are larger than those in Tenrecinae, since the Oryzoryctinae species have an obviously smaller body from the evolutionary point of view. It can be primarily pointed out that the adaptation of the body size is different between the two subfamilies, and secondarily, that functional adaptation to locomotion is complete within each subfamily. The weight data and the morphological findings demonstrate that the web-footed tenrec possesses an extraordinary large M. semimembranosus in comparison to the Talazac long-tailed tenrec in their weight ratios. This muscle may act as a strong flexor motor in the knee joint during the aquatic locomotion of the web-footed tenrec. Since the other muscles of the web-footed tenrec are similar to those of the Talazac long-tailed tenrec regards weight ratio data, we think that the web-footed tenrec may have derived from a terrestrial ancestor such as the long-tailed tenrecs. In Tenrecinae the streaked tenrec is equipped with larger Mm. adductores, M. semimembranosus and M. triceps surae than the lesser hedgehog tenrec. This species is adapted to fossorial life derived from non-specialized ancestors within the evolutionary lines of the spiny tenrecs.

  10. Muscle activity during stance phase of walking: comparison of males with transfemoral amputation with osseointegrated fixations to nondisabled male volunteers. (United States)

    Pantall, Annette; Ewins, David


    A recent development in prosthetics is the osseointegrated fixation (OF), with improvements in comfort, fatigue, hip movement, and ease of prosthetic attachment reported. However, little information is available regarding muscle function. This study reports on selected gait parameters of the residual limb during the stance phase of level overground walking, focusing on muscle activity. Five males with transfemoral amputation (TFA) with OFs were recruited. Ground reaction force (GRF), lower-limb kinematics, and surface electromyography (sEMG) from residual-limb muscles were recorded. sEMG data were also collected from a group of 10 nondisabled male subjects. Interstance variability of gait parameters was assessed by coefficient of multiple correlations. Repeatability of GRF and hip kinematics was high, whereas repeatability of the sEMG was low for four of the five individuals with TFA. Interstance variability of the sEMG for gluteus medius (GMED) was significantly greater in the group with TFA. The main difference in sEMG between the groups was the phase, with GMED and adductor magnus displaying greater differences than their counterparts in the nondisabled group. Results demonstrate that muscles in the residual limb retain aspects of their previous functional pattern.

  11. Muscle activity during stance phase of walking: Comparison of males with transfemoral amputation with osseointegrated fixations to nondisabled male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Pantall, DO(UK, PhD


    Full Text Available A recent development in prosthetics is the osseointegrated fixation (OF, with improvements in comfort, fatigue, hip movement, and ease of prosthetic attachment reported. However, little information is available regarding muscle function. This study reports on selected gait parameters of the residual limb during the stance phase of level overground walking, focusing on muscle activity. Five males with transfemoral amputation (TFA with OFs were recruited. Ground reaction force (GRF, lower-limb kinematics, and surface electromyography (sEMG from residual-limb muscles were recorded. sEMG data were also collected from a group of 10 nondisabled male subjects. Interstance variability of gait parameters was assessed by coefficient of multiple correlations. Repeatability of GRF and hip kinematics was high, whereas repeatability of the sEMG was low for four of the five individuals with TFA. Interstance variability of the sEMG for gluteus medius (GMED was significantly greater in the group with TFA. The main difference in sEMG between the groups was the phase, with GMED and adductor magnus displaying greater differences than their counterparts in the nondisabled group. Results demonstrate that muscles in the residual limb retain aspects of their previous functional pattern.

  12. Muscle Weakness (United States)

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Ryabykh, Sergey; Ochirova, Polina; Kenis, Vladimir; Hofstätter, Jochen G.; Grill, Franz; Ganger, Rudolf; Kircher, Susanne Gerit


    Marked ligamentous hyperlaxity and muscle weakness/wasting associated with awkward gait are the main deficits confused with the diagnosis of myopathy. Seven children (6 boys and 1 girl with an average age of 8 years) were referred to our department because of diverse forms of skeletal abnormalities. No definitive diagnosis was made, and all underwent a series of sophisticated investigations in other institutes in favor of myopathy. We applied our methodology through the clinical and radiographic phenotypes followed by targeted genotypic confirmation. Three children (2 boys and 1 girl) were compatible with the diagnosis of progressive pseudorheumatoid chondrodysplasia. The genetic mutation was correlated with the WISP 3 gene actively expressed by articular chondrocytes and located on chromosome 6. Klinefelter syndrome was the diagnosis in 2 boys. Karyotyping confirmed 47,XXY (aneuploidy of Klinefelter syndrome). And 2 boys were finally diagnosed with Morquio syndrome (MPS type IV A) as both showed missense mutations in the N-acetylgalactosamine-sulfate sulfatase gene. Misdiagnosis can lead to the initiation of a long list of sophisticated investigations. PMID:28210640

  13. Reconditioning aging muscles. (United States)

    Kraus, H


    Weakness or stiffness of key posture muscles can cause much of the disability seen in elderly patients. Too much tension and too little exercise greatly increase the natural loss of muscular fitness with age. A systematic program of exercise, stressing relaxation and stretching of tight muscles and strenghthening of weak muscles, can improve physical fitness. The program must be tailored to the patient, starting with relaxation and gentle limbering exercises and proceeding ultimately to vigorous muscle-stretching exercises. Muscle aches and pain from tension and muscle imbalance are to be expected. Relaxation relieves tension pain, and strengthening weak muscles and stretching tight muscles will correct muscle imbalance. To prevent acute muscle spasm, the patient should avoid excessive exertion and increase exercise intensity gradually.

  14. 扇贝闭壳肌薄层干燥的数学模型%Mathematic models of thin layer drying in scallop adductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞微微; 刘俊荣; 沈建; 丛海花


    The hot air convective drying characteristics of scallop adductor were investigated.The pretreated samples were dried at 45, 55, 65 and 75 ℃, and weighed in a 15 min interval in the first hour, in a 30 min interval in second hour, and in a 60 min interval thereafter at falling speed.Five thin layer drying models including Henderson-Pabis, Wang and Singh, Diamante et al., Page and Newton were established based on the experimental data for the test model by correlation coefficient(R),decision coefficient(R2),average deviation(eave), Chi-square test(χ2),root-mean-square error(RMSE)and lelative average deviation(P)in order to screen a suitable drying curve.It was found that four models(Henderson-Pabis, Diamante et al., Page and Newton)were proved to be effective.Furthermore, the effects of temperature on model constants of the four models were analyzed, and the three general models(Henderson-Pabis, Page, and Newton)including drying temperature as variable were effectively used to predict the drying process effectively in the drying temperature range from 45℃ to 75℃.The models were expressed as MRH=0.9673exp[-(7×10-5T-0.0009)]t, MRP=exp(-0.00323t0.0039T+0.7727)and MRN=exp[-(7×10-5T-0.0008)]t.%以栉孔扇贝Chlamys farreri闭壳肌为研究对象, 对其热风干燥特性进行了研究.将扇贝样品经处理后于45、 55、65、 75 ℃ 温度下进行热风干燥, 监测样品的质量变化, 所采取的监测频率为干燥开始的第1小时监测4次, 第2小时监测2次, 第3小时后每小时监测1次, 所有的干燥过程都处于降速阶段, 并用薄层干燥模型对测量结果进行处理, 选用Henderson-Pabis、Wang and Singh、Diamante et al.、Page、Newton 5种数学模型进行拟合, 通过计算相关系数(R)、 决定系数(R2)、 平均偏差(eave)、 卡方检验(χ2)、 均方根误差(RMSE)、 相对平均偏差(P)的大小, 来检验拟合程度.结果表明: 在45、55、65、75 ℃ 干燥温度下, Henderson

  15. Rectus abdominis muscle injuries in elite handball players: management and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balius R


    Full Text Available Ramon Balius1, Carles Pedret2, Laura Pacheco1, Josep Antoni Gutierrez3, Joan Vives4, Jaume Escoda11Consell Català de l’Esport, Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona; 2Centro Mapfre de Medicina del Tenis, Barcelona; 3Spanish National Handball Team, Spain; 4Granollers Handball Club, Granollers, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Muscle injuries generally occur in two-joint muscles with a high percentage of type II fibers during the performance of eccentric activity. Some muscle injuries, such as those located in the adductor longus, a monoarticular muscle, as well as rectus abdominis do not fully comply with these requirements. This study examines five cases of elite handball players with ruptured rectus abdominals. Sonographically, lesions in rectus abdominis are shown as a disruption of the fibrillar pattern with a hematic suffusion that invades the entire lesion. In some of the cases, the ultrasound study was complemented with a MRI. A unified rehabilitation protocol was applied and the return to play time of each handball player ranged between 16 and 22 days, with an average of 18.2 days. Follow-up at 15 months showed no evidence of re-injury or residual discomfort and all of them are playing at their highest level. The aim of this study was to illustrate a feature of handball injury that, as in tennis and volleyball, is uncommon and so far has not been specifically reported. The phenomenon of contralateral abdominal hypertrophy in handball appears in the dominant arm as in tennis and volleyball.Keywords: rectus abdominis, muscle injury, sonography, MRI, handball 

  16. Muscle injury: current perspectives and trends in Brazil☆☆☆ (United States)

    Astur, Diego Costa; Novaretti, João Vitor; Uehbe, Renato Kalil; Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Moraes, Eduardo Ramalho; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moises


    Objective To evaluate the management, procedures and perspectives of sports physicians and orthopedists in Brazil with regard to diagnosing and treating muscle injuries. Methods A questionnaire containing 20 questions relating to the topic of muscle injury was applied to sports physicians and orthopedists during the Second Brazilian Congress of Arthroscopy and Sports Traumatology, in 2013. Results Completely answered questionnaires were received from 168 sports physicians and orthopedists. Doctors from all regions of Brazil with a mean of 11 years of experience of treating muscle injuries were interviewed. Lower limbs were affected in 97% of the cases, particularly the quadriceps, adductor and sural triceps. The injury occurred during the eccentric phase in 62% of the interviews; 39% underwent ultrasound examination and 37% magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the injury to be diagnosed. Medication, rest and cryotherapy during the acute phase (87.5%) and medication, rest and physiotherapy during treatment of the injury (56%) were the prevalent options. The criteria for returning to sports were very subjective and disparate among the options presented, and most of the interviewees had already used some therapy that was adjuvant to traditional methods. Conclusion The number of muscle injuries treated per year was greater than 30, independent of whether in the public or private sector. These injuries occurred mainly at the muscle–tendon junction, in the lower limbs and during the eccentric phase of muscle contraction. Ultrasound was the examination most performed, while MRI was considered ideal. For most of the interviewees, the preferred treatment involved rest, medication and physiotherapy. In addition, 52% believed that platelet-rich plasma was an efficient treatment and 42% said that they had already used it. PMID:26229864

  17. Sustantial Observation on Foot Taeyang Meridian Muscle in Human Lower Limb from a Anatomical Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Sik Park


    Full Text Available Objective : This study was carried to identify the anatomical component of FTMM(Foot Taeyang Meridian Muscle in human lower limb, and further to help the accurate application to real acupuncture. Methods : FTM at the surface of the lower limb was labelled with latex. And cadaver was stripped off to demonstrate muscles, nerves and the others and to display the internal structures of FTMM, being divided into outer, middle, and inner layer. Results : FTMM in human lower limb is composed of muscles, nerves, ligaments etc. The internal composition of the FTMM in human lower limb are as follows : 1 Muscle : Gluteus maximus. biceps femoris, semitendinosus, gastrocnemius, triceps calf, fibularis brevis tendon, superior peroneal retinacula, calcaneofibular ligament, inferior extensor retinaculum, abductor digiti minimi, sheath of flexor tendon at outer layer, biceps femoris, semimembranosus, plantaris, soleus, posterior tibialis, fibularis brevis, extensor digitorum brevis, flexor digiti minimi at middle layer, and for the last time semimembranosus, adductor magnus, plantaris, popliteus, posterior tibialis, flexor hallucis longus, dorsal calcaneocuboidal ligament at inner layer. 2 Nerve : Inferior cluneal nerve, posterior femoral cutaneous n., sural cutaneous n., proper plantar branch of lateral plantar n. at outer layer, sciatic nerve, common peroneal n., medial sural cutaneous n., tibial n. at middle layer, and for the last time tibial nerve, flexor hallucis longus branch of tibial n. at inner layer. Conclusions : This study proves comparative differences from already established studies from the viewpoint of constituent elements of FTMM in the lower limb, and also in the aspect of substantial assay method. We can guess that there are conceptional differences between terms (that is, nerves which control muscles of FTMM and those which pass near by FTMM in human anatomy.

  18. Monetary Policy and Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iordachioaia Adelina-Geanina


    Full Text Available There is widespread agreement that monetary policy matters,but there is disagreement about how it should be conducted. Behind this disagreement lie differences in theoretical understandings. The paper contrasts the New Classical, Neo-Keynesian, and Post-Keynesian frameworks, there by surfacing the differences. The New Classical model has policy only affecting long run inflation. The Neo-Keynesian has policy impacting inflation, unemployment, and real wages. The Post-Keynesian model also impacts growth, so policy implicitly picks a quadruple. Inflation targeting is a sub-optimal policy frame because it biases decisions toward low inflation by obscuring the fact that policy also affects unemployment, real wages, and growth.

  19. Jaw-muscle architecture and mandibular morphology influence relative maximum jaw gapes in the sexually dimorphic Macaca fascicularis. (United States)

    Terhune, Claire E; Hylander, William L; Vinyard, Christopher J; Taylor, Andrea B


    Maximum jaw gape is a performance variable related to feeding and non-feeding oral behaviors, such as canine gape displays, and is influenced by several factors including jaw-muscle fiber architecture, muscle position on the skull, and jaw morphology. Maximum gape, jaw length, and canine height are strongly correlated across catarrhine primates, but relationships between gape and other aspects of masticatory apparatus morphology are less clear. We examine the effects of jaw-adductor fiber architecture, jaw-muscle leverage, and jaw form on gape in an intraspecific sample of sexually dimorphic crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis). As M. fascicularis males have relatively larger maximum gapes than females, we predict that males will have muscle and jaw morphologies that facilitate large gape, but these morphologies may come at some expense to bite force. Male crab-eating macaques have relatively longer jaw-muscle fibers, masseters with decreased leverage, and temporomandibular joint morphologies that facilitate the production of wide gapes. Because relative canine height is correlated with maximum gape in catarrhines, and males have relatively longer canines than females, these results support the hypothesis that male M. fascicularis have experienced selection to increase maximum gape. The sexes do not differ in relative masseter physiologic cross-sectional area (PCSA), but males compensate for a potential trade-off between muscle excursion versus muscle force with increased temporalis weight and PCSA. This musculoskeletal configuration is likely functionally significant for behaviors involving aggressive canine biting and displays in male M. fascicularis and provides additional evidence supporting the multifactorial nature of the catarrhine masticatory apparatus. Our results have implications for the evolution of craniofacial morphology in catarrhine primates and reinforce the importance of evaluating additional factors other than feeding behavior and diet

  20. 改良膝降动脉为蒂大收肌腱骨皮瓣修跟复合组织缺损%Repair of Achilles tendon composite defect using osteocutaneous flap of adductor magnus tendon pedicled with

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海文; 顾荣; 江新明; 曾德庆; 江吉勇


    目的 探讨改良膝降动脉为蒂的大收肌腱骨皮瓣修复跟区跟腱复合组织缺损方法及效果.方法对3例外伤致足跟区跟腱止点伴跟骨及皮肤软组织缺损的患者,采用以膝降动脉为蒂的隐动脉穿支皮瓣修复跟区皮肤缺损,以膝降动脉关节支为蒂的大收肌腱骨瓣移植修复跟区复合组织缺损.其中跟区皮肤缺损面积为7 cm×9 cm~5 cm×7 cm,跟腱缺损长度为6~8 cm,切取皮瓣面积为8 cm×10cm~6 cm×8cm,大收肌腱切取长度为7~9cm.结果 3例复合组织瓣全部顺利成活,术后随访6~12个月,皮瓣感觉恢复S3-4,双足提踵试验及单足提踵试验均阴性,步态恢复均正常.结论应用隐动脉穿支设计皮瓣,皮瓣设计于大腿内侧,改良了隐动脉皮瓣设计于小腿内侧,造成切口过大,分离血管蒂较长等缺点,疗效可靠,是目前较理想修复方法.%Objective To evaluate clinical effects of osteocutaneous flap of adductor magnus tendon pedicled with descending genicular artery on repair of Achilles tendon composite defect. Methods Osteocutaneous flap of adductor magnus tendon pedicied with descending genicular artery were individually designed and surgically used on 3 Cases with traumatic Achilles tendon defects, combined with soft tissue and Calcaneal bone damage. The area of skin defect was ranged from 7 cmx9 cm to 5 Cm x7 cm, and the length of Achilles tendon defect was 6 - 8 cm. During the operation , the flaps was designed as ScmxlOcm to 6cmx 8cm, with the cutting length of the adductor magnus tendon 7~ 9 cm . Results: All 3 cases were followed-up for 6 to 12 months. The transplanted tissue flap survived well. The texture, appearance and function of the flap were excellent. Conclusions It is a ideal way to repair of Achilles tendon composite defect, using osteocutaneous flap of adductor magnus tendon pedicled with descending genicular artery, which avoiding the severe surgical trauma and the extended isolation of vessels.

  1. Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: the value of magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of muscle involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Odete Esteves Hilário


    Full Text Available CONTEXT: One of the major current challenges related to juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy is the search for highly sensitive and specific non-invasive methods for diagnosis as well as for follow-up. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to describe typical magnetic resonance imaging findings and to investigate the usefulness of this method in detecting active muscle disease in juvenile dermatomyositis and juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients. DESIGN: Transverse study, blinded assessment. SETTING: University referral unit (Pediatric Rheumatology section, Department of Pediatrics, Universidade Federal de São Paulo / Escola Paulista de Medicina. SAMPLE: Thirteen patients (9 girls with dermatomyositis, as well as 13 patients (12 girls with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus and 10 normal children (5 girls, were enrolled in the study. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Qualitative and quantitative analyses of gluteus maximus, quadriceps, adductors and flexors were performed and evaluated by two radiologists, blinded to all clinical information. Spin-echo in T1, DP, T2 and IR was used in all MRI images. RESULTS: The different muscle groups presented non-uniform involvement in the patients. The patients with dermatomyositis presented acute and chronic muscular alterations, while those with lupus presented only chronic myopathy, especially atrophy. In the dermatomyositis group, the major alterations were found in the gluteus and flexor regions (signal intensity and fat replacement. The signal intensity was increased in all acute myopathies. CONCLUSION: The qualitative and quantitative resonance analyses are useful in detecting clinically active disease in patients with dermatomyositis.

  2. Sustained maximal voluntary contraction produces independent changes in human motor axons and the muscle they innervate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Milder

    Full Text Available The repetitive discharges required to produce a sustained muscle contraction results in activity-dependent hyperpolarization of the motor axons and a reduction in the force-generating capacity of the muscle. We investigated the relationship between these changes in the adductor pollicis muscle and the motor axons of its ulnar nerve supply, and the reproducibility of these changes. Ten subjects performed a 1-min maximal voluntary contraction. Activity-dependent changes in axonal excitability were measured using threshold tracking with electrical stimulation at the wrist; changes in the muscle were assessed as evoked and voluntary electromyography (EMG and isometric force. Separate components of axonal excitability and muscle properties were tested at 5 min intervals after the sustained contraction in 5 separate sessions. The current threshold required to produce the target muscle action potential increased immediately after the contraction by 14.8% (p<0.05, reflecting decreased axonal excitability secondary to hyperpolarization. This was not correlated with the decline in amplitude of muscle force or evoked EMG. A late reversal in threshold current after the initial recovery from hyperpolarization peaked at -5.9% at ∼35 min (p<0.05. This pattern was mirrored by other indices of axonal excitability revealing a previously unreported depolarization of motor axons in the late recovery period. Measures of axonal excitability were relatively stable at rest but less so after sustained activity. The coefficient of variation (CoV for threshold current increase was higher after activity (CoV 0.54, p<0.05 whereas changes in voluntary (CoV 0.12 and evoked twitch (CoV 0.15 force were relatively stable. These results demonstrate that activity-dependent changes in motor axon excitability are unlikely to contribute to concomitant changes in the muscle after sustained activity in healthy people. The variability in axonal excitability after sustained activity

  3. Policy stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard

    planning and execution and of event outcomes beyond the narrow confines of bed nights and legacies. Second, we introduce policies as an entry point to unlock discussions and manifestations of value and futures which connect to AWG. In order to exemplify the workings of the AWG event in these domains, we...... present three central policy stories from the field. The stories tell of how the event was first interested, then activated and finally evaluated. Besides adding a new understanding to policy-driven events as a locus of value creation, we also argue that the AWG 2016 offer speculative bets for new...

  4. Fiber-type susceptibility to eccentric contraction-induced damage of hindlimb-unloaded rat AL muscles (United States)

    Vijayan, K.; Thompson, J. L.; Norenberg, K. M.; Fitts, R. H.; Riley, D. A.


    Slow oxidative (SO) fibers of the adductor longus (AL) were predominantly damaged during voluntary reloading of hindlimb unloaded (HU) rats and appeared explainable by preferential SO fiber recruitment. The present study assessed damage after eliminating the variable of voluntary recruitment by tetanically activating all fibers in situ through the motor nerve while applying eccentric (lengthening) or isometric contractions. Muscles were aldehyde fixed and resin embedded, and semithin sections were cut. Sarcomere lesions were quantified in toluidine blue-stained sections. Fibers were typed in serial sections immunostained with antifast myosin and antitotal myosin (which highlights slow fibers). Both isometric and eccentric paradigms caused fatigue. Lesions occurred only in eccentrically contracted control and HU muscles. Fatigue did not cause lesions. HU increased damage because lesioned- fiber percentages within fiber types and lesion sizes were greater than control. Fast oxidative glycolytic (FOG) fibers were predominantly damaged. In no case did damaged SO fibers predominate. Thus, when FOG, SO, and hybrid fibers are actively lengthened in chronically unloaded muscle, FOG fibers are intrinsically more susceptible to damage than SO fibers. Damaged hybrid-fiber proportions ranged between these extremes.

  5. Methods to increase tenderness of individual muscles from beef rounds when cooked with dry or moist heat. (United States)

    Kolle, B K; McKenna, D R; Savell, J W


    Muscles (n=9) from beef rounds (n=40) were subjected to one of the four tenderization strategies: control, blade tenderization, enzymatic tenderization or salt/phosphate injection. Treated muscles were aged, cut into steaks, cooked using one of the two cooking methods (dry-heat or moist-heat), and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values were determined. For dry-heat cookery, injection with a salt and phosphate solution resulted in the lowest WBS values, however, WBS values for blade tenderization and enzymatic tenderization were comparable in the M. adductor, M. vastus lateralis, M. rectus femoris, and M. semimembranosus (cranial and caudal aspects). The M. gluteobiceps (cranial and caudal aspects, and ischiatic head) and M. semitendinosus showed little improvement in WBS values with any of the tenderization treatments. For moist-heat cookery, only the M. rectus femoris and M. semimembranosus, caudal aspect, showed significant decreases in WBS values, and those improvements were only associated with salt and phosphate injection and enzymatic tenderization. Within each cooking method and tenderization treatment, the M. rectus femoris, M. semimembranosus, cranial aspect had the lowest WBS values, whereas the M. gluteobiceps, ischiatic head and M. semimembranosus typically had the highest WBS values. All tenderization strategies increased the frequency of muscles being rated as "very tender" (WBSdry- and moist-heat cookery.

  6. Effects of microgravity on muscle and cerebral cortex: a suggested interaction (United States)

    D'Amelio, F.; Fox, R. A.; Wu, L. C.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.

    The ``slow'' antigravity muscle adductor longus was studied in rats after 14 days of spaceflight (SF). The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light and electron microscopy revealed myofiber atrophy, segmental necrosis and regenerative myofibers. Regenerative myofibers were N-CAM immunoreactive (N-CAM-IR). The neuromuscular junctions showed axon terminals with a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles, degenerative changes, vacant axonal spaces and changes suggestive of axonal sprouting. No alterations of muscle spindles was seen either by light or electron microscopy. These observations suggest that muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight. In a separate study, GABA immunoreactivity (GABA-IR) was evaluated at the level of the hindlimb representation of the rat somatosensory cortex after 14 days of hindlimb unloading by tail suspension (``simulated'' microgravity). A reduction in number of GABA-immunoreactive cells with respect to the control animals was observed in layer Va and Vb. GABA-IR terminals were also reduced in the same layers, particularly those terminals surrounding the soma and apical dendrites of pyramidal cells in layer Vb. On the basis of previous morphological and behavioral studies of the neuromuscular system after spaceflight and hindlimb suspension it is suggested that after limb unloading there are alterations of afferent signaling and feedback information from intramuscular receptors to the cerebral cortex due to modifications in the reflex organization of hindlimb muscle groups. We propose that the changes observed in GABA immunoreactivity of cells and terminals is an expression of changes in their modulatory activity to compensate for the alterations in the afferent information.

  7. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    During the past two decades Europe has experienced important changes and transformations in the way in which governments approach the issue of science, technology and innovation, and their relation to economic growth and competitiveness. This has to do with the European Union level as well...... as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  8. 有限度选择性脊神经后根切断术联合内收肌松解改善下肢痉挛型脑性瘫痪儿童的运动能力%Limited selective posterior rhizotomy combined with adductor tenotomy for the improvement of motor ability of children with spastic lower limbs in cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王博; 张新; 方秀统


    BACKGROUND: Selective posterior rhizotomy has been extensively acknowledged as an effective method of relieving lower limb spasticity in cerebral palsy. However, the postoperative complications such as reduced muscle strength and imbalance of the spine are of concern among surgeons and therapists. The combination of limited selective posterior rhizotomy (LSPR) with adductor tenotomy can decrease these complications without compromising the treatment effects.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of combination therapy of LSPR with adductor tenotomy on lower limb spasticity, gait and movement of the patients.DESIGN: A self-controlled trial and observational follow-up taking children with cerebral palsy as the subjects.SETTING: Orthopedic Department of First Hospital Affiliated to Dalian Medical University.PARTICIPANTS: Thirty children patients with cerebral palsy treated in the Orthopedics Department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Jilin University from January 2001 to December 2002 were recruited in this trial. They presented scissors gait, flexed knee and tiptoeing of different degree. There were 18 cases of brisk tendon reflex and ankle clonus, and 15 cases of positive Babinski' s sign. All the patients had no immobile soft tissue contracture and could either accomplish walking and crouching independently or walk with arms on assistant devices.INTERVENTIONS: The patients received LSPR of L5 and S1 dorsal roots together with bilateral adductor tenotomy. Muscle tone and strength, knee and Achilles tendon reflexes, ankle clonus and pathologic signs were recorded before and after operation. X-ray examination on lumbar spine and pelvic was also taken for detection of deformity. The patients' movements were assessed according to their standing and walking postures, standing and crouching movements before operation and on follow-up. During follow-up all the mentioned indices were recorded by reference to the original case history, hospital reexamination and

  9. Optical characterization of muscle (United States)

    Oliveira, Luís; Lage, Armindo; Pais Clemente, Manuel; Tuchin, Valery V.


    Optical characterization and internal structure of biological tissues is highly important for biomedical optics. In particular for optical clearing processes, such information is of vital importance to understand the mechanisms involved through the variation of the refractive indices of tissue components. The skeletal muscle presents a fibrous structure with an internal arrangement of muscle fiber cords surrounded by interstitial fluid that is responsible for strong light scattering. To determine the refractive index of muscle components we have used a simple method of measuring tissue mass and refractive index during dehydration. After performing measurements for natural and ten dehydration states of the muscle samples, we have determined the dependence between the refractive index of the muscle and its water content. Also, we have joined our measurements with some values reported in literature to perform some calculations that have permitted to determine the refractive index of the dried muscle fibers and their corresponding volume percentage inside the natural muscle.

  10. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Emerson Randolph


    Full Text Available The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies, such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some muscular dystrophies. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on their embryologic origins and the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease.

  11. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.


    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  12. Population policy. (United States)


    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  13. Muscle Volume Increases Following 16 Weeks of Resistive Exercise Training with the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and Free Weights (United States)

    Nash, R. E.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Evans, H.; Smith, S. A.; Hagan, R. D.


    Space flight-induced muscle atrophy, particularly in the postural and locomotorymuscles, may impair task performance during long-duration space missions and planetary exploration. High intensity free weight (FW) resistive exercise training has been shown to prevent atrophy during bed rest, a space flight analog. NASA developed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to simulate the characteristics of FW exercise (i.e. constant mass, inertial force) and to be used as a countermeasure during International Space Station (ISS) missions. PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of ARED and FW training to induce hypertrophy in specific muscle groups in ambulatory subjects prior to deploying ARED on the ISS. METHODS: Twenty untrained subjects were assigned to either the ARED (8 males, 3 females) or FW (6 males, 3 females) group and participated in a periodizedtraining protocol consisting of squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift(DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR, and DL muscle strength (1RM) was measured before, after 8 wks, and after 16 wks of training to prescribe exercise and measure strength changes. Muscle volume of the vastigroup (V), hamstring group (H), hip adductor group (ADD), medial gastrocnemius(MG), lateral gastrocnemius(LG), and deep posterior muscles including soleus(DP) was measured using MRI pre-and post-training. Consecutive cross-sectional images (8 mm slices with a 2 mm gap) were analyzed and summed. Anatomical references insured that the same muscle sections were analyzed pre-and post-training. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (pmuscle strength and volume between training devices. RESULTS: SQ, HR, and DL 1RM increased in both FW (SQ: 49+/-6%, HR: 12+/-2%, DL: 23+/-4%) and ARED (SQ: 31+/-4%, HR: 18+/-2%, DL: 23+/-3%) groups. Both groups increased muscle volume in the V (FW: 13+/-2%, ARED: 10+/-2%), H (FW: 3+/-1%, ARED: 3+/-1 %), ADD (FW: 15=/-2%, ARED: 10+/-1%), LG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 4+/-1%), MG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 5+/-2%), and DP (FW: 2

  14. Muscle glycogenolysis during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ruderman, N B; Gavras, H


    The interaction of epinephrine and contractions on muscle metabolism was studied in the isolated perfused rat hindquarter. Subtetanic contractions (180/min) through 20 min elicited glycogenolysis and increased phosphorylase a activity. In the soleus, a slow-twitch red muscle, these effects were...... transient, but when epinephrine at a physiological concentration (2.4 X 10(-8) M) was added to the perfusate, glycogenolysis and phosphorylase activity were sustained throughout contractions. At this high frequency of contractions, the effect of epinephrine was much smaller in the fast-twitch red fibers...... and not significant in the fast-twitch white fibers of the gastrocnemius muscle. However, during less frequent contractions (30/min) epinephrine increased glycogenolysis and phosphorylase a activity in fast-twitch muscle. The data suggest that epinephrine and muscle contractions exert a dual control of muscle...

  15. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul


    Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability...... of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence...

  16. Accessory piriformis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Develi


    Full Text Available Piriformis muscle originates from facies pelvica of sacrum and inserts on the trochanter major. It is one of the lateral rotator muscles of the hip and a landmark point in the gluteal region since n. ischiadicus descends to the thigh by passing close to the muscle. This contiguity may be associated with the irritation of the nerve which is known as piriformis syndrome. A rare anatomic variation of the muscle which observed on 74 years old male cadaver is discussed in this case report. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 182-183


    Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee


    This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best "treatment".

  18. Skeletal muscle development and regeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefte, S.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Torensma, R.; Hoff, J.W. Von den


    In the late stages of muscle development, a unique cell population emerges that is a key player in postnatal muscle growth and muscle regeneration. The location of these cells next to the muscle fibers triggers their designation as satellite cells. During the healing of injured muscle tissue, satell

  19. Muscle Adaptations Following Short-Duration Bed Rest with Integrated Resistance, Interval, and Aerobic Exercise (United States)

    Hackney, Kyle J.; Scott, Jessica M.; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd-Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, J. Brent; Everett, Meghan E.; Wickwire, Jason; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.


    Unloading of the musculoskeletal system during space flight results in deconditioning that may impair mission-related task performance in astronauts. Exercise countermeasures have been frequently tested during bed rest (BR) and limb suspension; however, high-intensity, short-duration exercise prescriptions have not been fully explored. PURPOSE: To determine if a high intensity resistance, interval, and aerobic exercise program could protect against muscle atrophy and dysfunction when performed during short duration BR. METHODS: Nine subjects (1 female, 8 male) performed a combination of supine exercises during 2 weeks of horizontal BR. Resistance exercise (3 d / wk) consisted of squat, leg press, hamstring curl, and heel raise exercises (3 sets, 12 repetitions). Aerobic (6 d / wk) sessions alternated continuous (75% VO2 peak) and interval exercise (30 s, 2 min, and 4 min) and were completed on a supine cycle ergometer and vertical treadmill, respectively. Muscle volumes of the upper leg were calculated pre, mid, and post-BR using magnetic resonance imaging. Maximal isometric force (MIF), rate of force development (RFD), and peak power of the lower body extensors were measured twice before BR (averaged to represent pre) and once post BR. ANOVA with repeated measures and a priori planned contrasts were used to test for differences. RESULTS: There were no changes to quadriceps, hamstring, and adductor muscle volumes at mid and post BR time points compared to pre BR (Table 1). Peak power increased significantly from 1614 +/- 372 W to 1739 +/- 359 W post BR (+7.7%, p = 0.035). Neither MIF (pre: 1676 +/- 320 N vs. post: 1711 +/- 250 N, +2.1%, p = 0.333) nor RFD (pre: 7534 +/- 1265 N/ms vs. post: 6951 +/- 1241 N/ms, -7.7%, p = 0.136) were significantly impaired post BR.

  20. Anatomical description of the muscles of the pelvic limb in the ostrich (Struthio camelus). (United States)

    Gangl, D; Weissengruber, G E; Egerbacher, M; Forstenpointner, G


    Dissections of 12 formalin-fixed ostriches were performed to give anatomical descriptions of the muscles and tendons of the pelvic, femoral, tibiotarsal, tarsometatarsal and digital regions. In the pelvic limb of the ostrich, 36 muscles can be determined. The ostrich lacks those muscles to the first and second toes (with exception of the M. flexor hallucis longus), which can be found in birds with four toes. The Mm. iliotrochantericus medius, plantaris, extensor proprius digiti IV and adductor digiti IV, which are present in other birds, are also absent, whereas the Mm. pectineus and femorotibialis accessorius additionally occur in the ostrich. The Pars supramedialis is a tendineous part of the M. gastrocnemius, on which the Mm. flexor cruris lateralis and flexor cruris medialis insert by means of a fascial sheet. The caudal part of the M. iliofibularis terminates within the caudal aspect of the superficial fascia cruris. The caudal heads of the Mm. flexor perforatus digiti III and flexor perforatus digiti IV as well as the M. flexor hallucis longus have a common origin on the Fossa poplitea of the femur. The lateral head of the M. flexor perforatus digiti IV and the femoral head of the M. flexor perforans et perforatus digiti III originate on the tendon of origin of the Caput laterale of the M. flexor perforatus digiti III. Furthermore, the last named tendon fuses with the tendon of insertion of the M. ambiens. The M. extensor proprius digiti III originates on a plate-like fascial sheet part of the dorsal joint capsule of the intertarsal joint.

  1. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.


    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  2. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A;


    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  3. Turning Marrow into Muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ In unexpected testimony2 to the versatility3 of the body's cells,researchers have found they can make bone marrow cells turn into muscle, causing mice with muscular dystrophy4 to produce correctly working muscle cells. The experiment suggests that a form of bone marrow transplant- - a well established surgical procedure5- - could in principle treat patients with a variety of diseases.

  4. Muscles, exercise and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K; Febbraio, Mark A


    During the past decade, skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ. Accordingly, we have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibres and exert either autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as myokines...

  5. Muscle contraction and force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Risbo, Jens; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.


    Muscle contraction studies often focus solely on myofibres and the proteins known to be involved in the processes of sarcomere shortening and cross-bridge cycling, but skeletal muscle also comprises a very elaborate ancillary network of capillaries, which not only play a vital role in terms...... contributor to force transfer within muscular tissue....

  6. Onion artificial muscles (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen; Lai, Hsi-Mei; Chang, Shing-Yun; Huang, Pin-Chun; Jeng, Huai-An


    Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0-50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of -30 μm; at voltages of 50-1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 μN at 1000 V.

  7. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.


    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  8. Muscle as a secretory organ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K


    Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent...... proteins produced by skeletal muscle are dependent upon contraction. Therefore, it is likely that myokines may contribute in the mediation of the health benefits of exercise....... evidence has identified skeletal muscle as a secretory organ. We have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and exert either autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine effects should be classified as "myokines." The muscle secretome consists...

  9. A muscle model for hybrid muscle activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klauer Christian


    Full Text Available To develop model-based control strategies for Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES in order to support weak voluntary muscle contractions, a hybrid model for describing joint motions induced by concurrent voluntary-and FES induced muscle activation is proposed. It is based on a Hammerstein model – as commonly used in feedback controlled FES – and exemplarily applied to describe the shoulder abduction joint angle. Main component of a Hammerstein muscle model is usually a static input nonlinearity depending on the stimulation intensity. To additionally incorporate voluntary contributions, we extended the static non-linearity by a second input describing the intensity of the voluntary contribution that is estimated by electromyography (EMG measurements – even during active FES. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN is used to describe the static input non-linearity. The output of the ANN drives a second-order linear dynamical system that describes the combined muscle activation and joint angle dynamics. The tunable parameters are adapted to the individual subject by a system identification approach using previously recorded I/O-data. The model has been validated in two healthy subjects yielding RMS values for the joint angle error of 3.56° and 3.44°, respectively.

  10. Legitimizing policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak


    , upholding and promoting humanitarian aspects of migration management. Legitimizing policies therefore become extremely important as governments have to appease national voters to remain in power and have to respect European regulations and international conventions. Doing so raises questions of social......The focus of this article is on representations of irregular migration in a Scandinavian context and how irregular migrants are constructed as a target group. A common feature in many (Western-)European states is the difficult attempt to navigate between an urge for control and respecting...

  11. Polymer artificial muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissaphern Mirfakhrai


    Full Text Available The various types of natural muscle are incredible material systems that enable the production of large deformations by repetitive molecular motions. Polymer artificial muscle technologies are being developed that produce similar strains and higher stresses using electrostatic forces, electrostriction, ion insertion, and molecular conformational changes. Materials used include elastomers, conducting polymers, ionically conducting polymers, and carbon nanotubes. The mechanisms, performance, and remaining challenges associated with these technologies are described. Initial applications are being developed, but further work by the materials community should help make these technologies applicable in a wide range of devices where muscle-like motion is desirable.

  12. Painful unilateral temporalis muscle enlargement: reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy. (United States)

    Katsetos, Christos D; Bianchi, Michael A; Jaffery, Fizza; Koutzaki, Sirma; Zarella, Mark; Slater, Robert


    An instance of isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy (reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy with fiber type 1 predominance) confirmed by muscle biopsy with histochemical fiber typing and image analysis in a 62 year-old man is reported. The patient presented with bruxism and a painful swelling of the temple. Absence of asymmetry or other abnormalities of the craniofacial skeleton was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and cephalometric analyses. The patient achieved symptomatic improvement only after undergoing botulinum toxin injections. Muscle biopsy is key in the diagnosis of reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy and its distinction from masticatory muscle myopathy (hypertrophic branchial myopathy) and other non-reactive causes of painful asymmetric temporalis muscle enlargement.

  13. Muscle Cramp - A Common Pain (United States)

    ... Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment Becoming a DO Video Library Muscle Cramp – A Common Pain Page Content Has a muscle ... body’s natural tendency toward self-healing. Causes of Muscle Cramps Muscle cramps can occur anywhere, anytime to anyone. “ ...

  14. Muscles and their myokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund


    In the past, the role of physical activity as a life-style modulating factor has been considered as that of a tool to balance energy intake. Although it is important to avoid obesity, physical inactivity should be discussed in a much broader context. There is accumulating epidemiological evidence...... or endocrine effects should be classified as 'myokines'. Given that skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the human body, our discovery that contracting skeletal muscle secretes proteins sets a novel paradigm: skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ producing and releasing myokines, which work in a hormone...... that a physically active life plays an independent role in the protection against type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, dementia and even depression. For most of the last century, researchers sought a link between muscle contraction and humoral changes in the form of an 'exercise factor', which could...

  15. Healthy Muscles Matter (United States)

    ... To help prevent sprains, strains, and other muscle injuries: Warm up and cool down . Before exercising or playing sports, warm-up exercises, such as stretching and light jogging, may make it less likely ...

  16. Muscle biopsy (image) (United States)

    A muscle biopsy involves removal of a plug of tissue usually by a needle to be later used for examination. Sometimes ... there is a patchy condition expected an open biopsy may be used. Open biopsy involves a small ...

  17. Neurogenic muscle cramps. (United States)

    Katzberg, Hans D


    Muscle cramps are sustained, painful contractions of muscle and are prevalent in patients with and without medical conditions. The objective of this review is to present updates on the mechanism, investigation and treatment of neurogenic muscle cramps. PubMed and Embase databases were queried between January 1980 and July 2014 for English-language human studies. The American Academy of Neurology classification of studies (classes I-IV) was used to assess levels of evidence. Mechanical disruption, ephaptic transmission, disruption of sensory afferents and persistent inward currents have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurogenic cramps. Investigations are directed toward identifying physiological triggers or medical conditions predisposing to cramps. Although cramps can be self-limiting, disabling or sustained muscle cramps should prompt investigation for underlying medical conditions. Lifestyle modifications, treatment of underlying conditions, stretching, B-complex vitamins, diltiezam, mexiletine, carbamazepine, tetrahydrocannabinoid, leveteracitam and quinine sulfate have shown evidence for treatment.

  18. Muscle as a secretory organ. (United States)

    Pedersen, Bente K


    Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent evidence has identified skeletal muscle as a secretory organ. We have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and exert either autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine effects should be classified as "myokines." The muscle secretome consists of several hundred secreted peptides. This finding provides a conceptual basis and a whole new paradigm for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, bones, and brain. In addition, several myokines exert their effects within the muscle itself. Many proteins produced by skeletal muscle are dependent upon contraction. Therefore, it is likely that myokines may contribute in the mediation of the health benefits of exercise.

  19. Changes in T2-weighted MRI of supinator muscle, pronator teres muscle, and extensor indicis muscle with manual muscle testing (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazuya; Akiyama, Sumikazu; Takamori, Masayoshi; Otsuka, D. Eng, Hiroshi; Seo, Yoshiteru


    [Purpose] In order to detect muscle activity with manual muscle testing, T2-weighted magnetic resonance (T2w-MR) images were detected by a 0.2 T compact MRI system. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 3 adult males. Transverse T2-weighted multi-slice spin-echo images of the left forearm were measured by a 39 ms echo-time with a 2,000 ms repetition time, a 9.5 mm slice thickness, 1 accumulation and a total image acquisition time of 4 min 16 s. First, T2w-MR images in the resting condition were measured. Then, manipulative isometric contraction exercise (5 sec duration) to the supinator muscle, the pronator teres muscle or the extensor indicis muscle was performed using Borg’s rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale of 15–17. The T2w-MR images were measured immediately after the exercise. [Results] T2w-MR image intensities increased significantly in the supinator muscle, the pronator teres muscle and the extensor indicis muscle after the exercise. However, the image intensities in the rest of the muscle did not change. [Conclusion] Using T2w-MR images, we could detect muscle activity in a deep muscle, the supinator muscle, and a small muscle, the extensor indicis muscle. These results also support the reliability of the manual muscle testing method. PMID:28356621

  20. A Beetle Flight Muscle Displays Leg Muscle Microstructure. (United States)

    Shimomura, Toshiki; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Vo Doan, Tat Thang; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi; Sato, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Madoka


    In contrast to major flight muscles in the Mecynorrhina torquata beetle, the third axillary (3Ax) muscle is a minor flight muscle that uniquely displays a powerful mechanical function despite its considerably small volume, ∼1/50 that of a major flight muscle. The 3Ax muscle contracts relatively slowly, and in flight strongly pulls the beating wing to attenuate the stroke amplitude. This attenuation leads to left-right turning in flight or wing folding to cease flying. What enables this small muscle to be so powerful? To explore this question, we examined the microstructure of the 3Ax muscle using synchrotron x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and immunoblotting analysis. We found that the 3Ax muscle has long (∼5 μm) myofilaments and that the ratio of thick (myosin) filaments to thin (actin) filaments is 1:5 or 1:6. These characteristics are not observed in the major flight muscles, which have shorter myofilaments (∼3.5 μm) with a smaller ratio (1:3), and instead are more typical of a leg muscle. Furthermore, the flight-muscle-specific troponin isoform, TnH, is not expressed in the 3Ax muscle. Since such a microstructure is suitable for generating large tension, the 3Ax muscle is appropriately designed to pull the wing strongly despite its small volume.

  1. Policy Feedback System (PFS) (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Policy Feedback System (PFS) is a web application developed by the Office of Disability Policy Management Information (ODPMI) team that gathers empirical data...

  2. Foot muscles strengthener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris T. Glavač


    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  3. Artificial muscles on heat (United States)

    McKay, Thomas G.; Shin, Dong Ki; Percy, Steven; Knight, Chris; McGarry, Scott; Anderson, Iain A.


    Many devices and processes produce low grade waste heat. Some of these include combustion engines, electrical circuits, biological processes and industrial processes. To harvest this heat energy thermoelectric devices, using the Seebeck effect, are commonly used. However, these devices have limitations in efficiency, and usable voltage. This paper investigates the viability of a Stirling engine coupled to an artificial muscle energy harvester to efficiently convert heat energy into electrical energy. The results present the testing of the prototype generator which produced 200 μW when operating at 75°C. Pathways for improved performance are discussed which include optimising the electronic control of the artificial muscle, adjusting the mechanical properties of the artificial muscle to work optimally with the remainder of the system, good sealing, and tuning the resonance of the displacer to minimise the power required to drive it.

  4. Signaling in muscle contraction. (United States)

    Kuo, Ivana Y; Ehrlich, Barbara E


    Signaling pathways regulate contraction of striated (skeletal and cardiac) and smooth muscle. Although these are similar, there are striking differences in the pathways that can be attributed to the distinct functional roles of the different muscle types. Muscles contract in response to depolarization, activation of G-protein-coupled receptors and other stimuli. The actomyosin fibers responsible for contraction require an increase in the cytosolic levels of calcium, which signaling pathways induce by promoting influx from extracellular sources or release from intracellular stores. Rises in cytosolic calcium stimulate numerous downstream calcium-dependent signaling pathways, which can also regulate contraction. Alterations to the signaling pathways that initiate and sustain contraction and relaxation occur as a consequence of exercise and pathophysiological conditions.

  5. Composition of Muscle Fiber Types in Rat Rotator Cuff Muscles. (United States)

    Rui, Yongjun; Pan, Feng; Mi, Jingyi


    The rat is a suitable model to study human rotator cuff pathology owing to the similarities in morphological anatomy structure. However, few studies have reported the composition muscle fiber types of rotator cuff muscles in the rat. In this study, the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were stained by immunofluorescence to show the muscle fiber types composition and distribution in rotator cuff muscles of the rat. It was found that rotator cuff muscles in the rat were of mixed fiber type composition. The majority of rotator cuff fibers labeled positively for MyHCII. Moreover, the rat rotator cuff muscles contained hybrid fibers. So, compared with human rotator cuff muscles composed partly of slow-twitch fibers, the majority of fast-twitch fibers in rat rotator cuff muscles should be considered when the rat model study focus on the pathological process of rotator cuff muscles after injury. Gaining greater insight into muscle fiber types in rotator cuff muscles of the rat may contribute to elucidate the mechanism of pathological change in rotator cuff muscles-related diseases. Anat Rec, 299:1397-1401, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises (United States)

    ... this page: // Pelvic floor muscle training exercises To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are a series of exercises ...

  7. Active vs. inactive muscle (image) (United States)

    ... may lose 20 to 40 percent of their muscle -- and, along with it, their strength -- as they ... have found that a major reason people lose muscle is because they stop doing everyday activities that ...

  8. Anti-smooth muscle antibody (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003531.htm Anti-smooth muscle antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the presence ...

  9. MRI appearance of muscle denervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, S. [University Hospital of Wales, Department of Radiology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Venkatanarasimha, N.; Walsh, M.A.; Hughes, P.M. [Derriford Hospital, Department of Radiology, Plymouth (United Kingdom)


    Muscle denervation results from a variety of causes including trauma, neoplasia, neuropathies, infections, autoimmune processes and vasculitis. Traditionally, the diagnosis of muscle denervation was based on clinical examination and electromyography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a distinct advantage over electromyography, not only in diagnosing muscle denervation, but also in determining its aetiology. MRI demonstrates characteristic signal intensity patterns depending on the stage of muscle denervation. The acute and subacutely denervated muscle shows a high signal intensity pattern on fluid sensitive sequences and normal signal intensity on T1-weighted MRI images. In chronic denervation, muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration demonstrate high signal changes on T1-weighted sequences in association with volume loss. The purpose of this review is to summarise the MRI appearance of denervated muscle, with special emphasis on the signal intensity patterns in acute and subacute muscle denervation. (orig.)

  10. Environmental education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Blum, Nicole


    This essay examines the relationship between research and policy and, more specifically, how researchers might relate to policy work. Given the current international policy focus on climate change, green growth and sustainability in general, it argues for strengthening and widening policy research...

  11. Translating Policy and Practice


    McCabe, Louise


    Abstract Global influences and demographic changes are leading policy makers in less developed countries to look to more developed regions for policy and service ideas. Policy and services ideas may then be `borrowed' via processes such as policy transfer (Dolowitz and Marsh, 1996). This article explores the establishment of day care for people with dementia in Kerala, India. During the development of this ...

  12. Food policy an ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter


    This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...

  13. EU Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrin, Julie; Giorgetti, Maria Letizia; Jensen, Camilla

    Following disregard in the 1980s, industrial policy has recently attracted policy attention at EU level. The objective of this study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee, is to establish the state of the art of a coordinated and integrated EU industrial policy...

  14. Accommodation: The role of the external muscles of the eye: A consideration of refractive errors in relation to extraocular malfunction. (United States)

    Hargrave, B K


    Speculation as to optical malfunction has led to dissatisfaction with the theory that the lens is the sole agent in accommodation and to the suggestion that other parts of the eye are also conjointly involved. Around half-a-century ago, Robert Brooks Simpkins suggested that the mechanical features of the human eye were precisely such as to allow for a lengthening of the globe when the eye accommodated. Simpkins was not an optical man but his theory is both imaginative and comprehensive and deserves consideration. It is submitted here that accommodation is in fact a twofold process, and that although involving the lens, is achieved primarily by means of a give - and - take interplay between adducting and abducting external muscles, whereby an elongation of the eyeball is brought about by a stretching of the delicate elastic fibres immediately behind the cornea. The three muscles responsible for convergence (superior, internal and inferior recti) all pull from in front backwards, while of the three abductors (external rectus and the two obliques) the obliques pull from behind forwards, allowing for an easy elongation as the eye turns inwards and a return to its original length as the abducting muscles regain their former tension, returning the eye to distance vision. In refractive errors, the altered length of the eyeball disturbs the harmonious give - and - take relationship between adductors and abductors. Such stresses are likely to be perpetuated and the error exacerbated. Speculation is not directed towards a search for a possible cause of the muscular imbalance, since none is suspected. Muscles not used rapidly lose tone, as evidenced after removal of a limb from plaster. Early attention to the need for restorative exercise is essential and results usually impressive. If flexibility of the external muscles of the eyes is essential for continuing good sight, presbyopia can be avoided and with it the supposed necessity of glasses in middle life. Early attention

  15. Calpains in muscle wasting. (United States)

    Bartoli, Marc; Richard, Isabelle


    Calpains are intracellular nonlysosomal Ca(2+)-regulated cysteine proteases. They mediate regulatory cleavages of specific substrates in a large number of processes during the differentiation, life and death of the cell. The purpose of this review is to synthesize our current understanding of the participation of calpains in muscle atrophy. Muscle tissue expresses mainly three different calpains: the ubiquitous calpains and calpain 3. The participation of the ubiquitous calpains in the initial degradation of myofibrillar proteins occurring in muscle atrophy as well as in the necrosis process accompanying muscular dystrophies has been well characterized. Inactivating mutations in the calpain 3 gene are responsible for limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A and calpain 3 has been found to be downregulated in different atrophic situations, suggesting that it has to be absent for the atrophy to occur. The fact that similar regulations of calpain activities occur during exercise as well as in atrophy led us to propose that the calpains control cytoskeletal modifications needed for muscle plasticity.

  16. Inflammatory muscle diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastaglia F


    Full Text Available The three major immune-mediated inflammatory myopathies, dermatomyositis (DM, polymyositis (PM and inclusion body myositis (IBM, each have their own distinctive clinical features, underlying pathogenetic mechanisms and patterns of muscle gene expression. In DM a complement-dependent humoral process thought to be initiated by antibodies to endothelial cells results in a microangiopathy with secondary ischemic changes in muscles. On the other hand, in PM and IBM there is a T-cell response with invasion of muscle fibers by CD8+ lymphocytes and perforin-mediated cytotoxic necrosis. In IBM degenerative changes are also a feature and comprise autophagia with rimmed vacuole formation and inclusions containing β-amyloid and other proteins whose accumulation may be linked to impaired proteasomal function. The relationship between the inflammatory and degenerative component remains unclear, as does the basis for the selective vulnerability of certain muscles and the resistance to conventional forms of immunotherapy in most cases of IBM. Patients with DM or PM usually respond to treatment with glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents but their use remains largely empirical. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy can be used to achieve disease control in patients with severe weakness or dysphagia, or in patients with immunodeficiency, but its use is limited by expense. Emerging therapies for resistant cases include TNFα inhibitors (etanercept, infliximab and monoclonal antibodies (rituximab, alemtuzumab. However, experience with these therapies is still limited and there is a need for randomized trials to test their efficacy and establish guidelines for their use in clinical practice.

  17. Physics in muscle research. (United States)

    Iwazumi, T


    Muscle is one of few organs whose performance can be measured by physical quantities. However, very few attempts have been made to apply theoretical physics to muscle. In this paper we will see how physical principles can be applied by taking advantage of unique properties of muscle structure. The first topic is to establish the stability conditions of sarcomere structure. The conclusions are then compared to some experimental facts. Next, we move on to the field theory fundamentals. The concept of energy density as a stress tensor is shown to be a powerful tool for the dielectric force theory to understand how proteins move under electric fields. By combining the structural stability theory and the dielectric force theory we arrive at a helical dipole array. We discuss the source of strong dipole fields and how the dipole strength could be controlled by Ca ions. The behavior of water and ions under electric fields is briefly discussed. The third topic is the mechanical stiffness of muscle in longitudinal and lateral directions. Some experimental data are shown and the physics of anisotropic stiffness is discussed. An appendix is provided to explain the pitfalls of experimenting with isolated components rather than organized structures (sarcomere).

  18. Metabolic Diseases of Muscle (United States)

    ... inside the cells, pro- ducing energy (ATP) for muscle contraction and other cellular functions. In meta- bolic myopathies, ... after exercising. The exercise-induced cramps (actually sharp contractions that may seem to ... Muscular Dystrophy Association offers a vast array of services ...

  19. Environmental policy in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, Shigeto; Weidner, H. (eds.)


    This book deals in English with the most important features of Japanese environmental policy in a number of individual articles by different authors. The various sections report on: 1. History and organization of environmental policy; 2. The role of non-governmental actors in environmental policy (large industries); 3. Special features of environmental policies and problems; 4. Classical pollution control areas: Regulations and effects; 5. Environmental problems in a broader perspective (nature conservation); 6. Policy areas with influence on environmental quality; 7. Environmental monitoring and reporting; 8. Japanese environmental policy in an international perspective (preventive policies, developing countries). (HSCH).

  20. Environmental policy performance revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar


    Studies of environmental policy performance tend to concentrate on the impact of particular policy institutions or of single policy instruments. However, environmental policies most often consist of a package of policy instruments. Further, these studies pay no or very little attention to policy....... On the basis of the typology, a hypothesis on their ability to expand green markets is generated and tested in a comparative analysis of the performance of organic food policies in Denmark, Sweden, the UK and the US, focusing on their impact on organic consumption. Our analysis demonstrates that cross...

  1. Electrical muscle stimulation for deep stabilizing muscles in abdominal wall. (United States)

    Coghlan, Simon; Crowe, Louis; McCarthyPersson, Ulrik; Minogue, Conor; Caulfield, Brian


    Low back pain is associated with dysfunction in recruitment of muscles in the lumbopelvic region. Effective rehabilitation requires preferential activation of deep stabilizing muscle groups. This study was carried out in order to quantify the response of deep stabilizing muscles (transverses abdominis) and superficial muscle in the abdominal wall (external oblique) to electrical muscle stimulation (EMS). Results demonstrate that EMS can preferentially stimulate contractions in the deep stabilizers and may have significant potential as a therapeutic intervention in this area, pending further refinements to the technology.

  2. Nerve-muscle interactions during flight muscle development in Drosophila (United States)

    Fernandes, J. J.; Keshishian, H.


    During Drosophila pupal metamorphosis, the motoneurons and muscles differentiate synchronously, providing an opportunity for extensive intercellular regulation during synapse formation. We examined the existence of such interactions by developmentally delaying or permanently eliminating synaptic partners during the formation of indirect flight muscles. When we experimentally delayed muscle development, we found that although adult-specific primary motoneuron branching still occurred, the higher order (synaptic) branching was suspended until the delayed muscle fibers reached a favourable developmental state. In reciprocal experiments we found that denervation caused a decrease in the myoblast pool. Furthermore, the formation of certain muscle fibers (dorsoventral muscles) was specifically blocked. Exceptions were the adult muscles that use larval muscle fibers as myoblast fusion targets (dorsal longitudinal muscles). However, when these muscles were experimentally compelled to develop without their larval precursors, they showed an absolute dependence on the motoneurons for their formation. These data show that the size of the myoblast pool and early events in fiber formation depend on the presence of the nerve, and that, conversely, peripheral arbor development and synaptogenesis is closely synchronized with the developmental state of the muscle.

  3. Influência da pedalada com os joelhos tangenciando o quadro da bicicleta sobre a ativação dos músculos do membro inferior Effects of cycling with the knees close to the bicycle frame on the lower limb muscle activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rico Bini


    Full Text Available A mudança da posição do corpo sobre a bicicleta tem sido relacionada a alterações na ativação dos músculos do membro inferior. Desta forma, o objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar a ativação dos músculos "Tibialis Anterior", "Gastrocnemius Medialis", "Biceps Femoris", "Rectus Femoris", "Vastus Lateralis", "Adductor Longus" e "Gluteus Maximus" nas seguintes situações: 1 posição de referência (posição preferida; 2 posição de adução (joelhos tangenciando o quadro da bicicleta; 3 posição de abdução (joelhos afastados do quadro da bicicleta. Seis atletas com experiência competitiva em ciclismo foram avaliados por meio da eletromiografia de superfície (EMG. Todos pedalaram em suas próprias bicicletas montadas em um ciclosimulador, com carga de trabalho normalizada pelo VO2 de forma que a taxa de troca respiratória se mantivesse entre 0,8 e 1,0. A ativação muscular foi analisada por meio da comparação da média do envelope RMS e do período de ativação para cada um dos músculos, nas três posições avaliadas. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para a média do envelope RMS e para o período de ativação dos músculos nas três posições avaliadas, à exceção do "Adductor Longus". Observou-se maior ativação (36 ± 6% deste músculo na posição de adução comparado a posição de abdução (25 ± 11% para um valor de significância de p = 0,02, sem diferenças em relação a posição de referência (27 ± 7%. Estes resultados sugerem que não ocorrem alterações substanciais na ativação dos principais músculos do membro inferior quando a posição dos joelhos no plano frontal é alterada e a carga de trabalho é mantida, à exceção do aumento da participação do "Adductor Longus".Cyclist's body position on the bike has been related to changes in muscle activation. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the activation of Tibialis Anterior, Gastrocnemius Medialis, Biceps

  4. Iliopsoas muscle injury in dogs. (United States)

    Cabon, Quentin; Bolliger, Christian


    The iliopsoas muscle is formed by the psoas major and iliacus muscles. Due to its length and diameter, the iliopsoas muscle is an important flexor and stabilizer of the hip joint and the vertebral column. Traumatic acute and chronic myopathies of the iliopsoas muscle are commonly diagnosed by digital palpation during the orthopedic examination. Clinical presentations range from gait abnormalities, lameness, and decreased hip joint extension to irreversible fibrotic contracture of the muscle. Rehabilitation of canine patients has to take into account the inciting cause, the severity of pathology and the presence of muscular imbalances.

  5. Muscle dysfunction in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Frank; Jones, L W; Andersen, J L


    implications of muscle dysfunction in cancer patients. The efficacy of exercise training to prevent and/or mitigate cancer-related muscle dysfunction is also discussed. DESIGN: We identified 194 studies examining muscular outcomes in cancer patients by searching PubMed and EMBASE databases. RESULTS: Muscle......, be powered to evaluate clinical outcomes associated with improvements in muscle function, or be promoted in advanced stage settings, aiming to reverse cancer-related muscle dysfunction, and thus potentially improve time-to-progression, treatment toxicity and survival....

  6. Muscle diseases: the muscular dystrophies. (United States)

    McNally, Elizabeth M; Pytel, Peter


    Dystrophic muscle disease can occur at any age. Early- or childhood-onset muscular dystrophies may be associated with profound loss of muscle function, affecting ambulation, posture, and cardiac and respiratory function. Late-onset muscular dystrophies or myopathies may be mild and associated with slight weakness and an inability to increase muscle mass. The phenotype of muscular dystrophy is an endpoint that arises from a diverse set of genetic pathways. Genes associated with muscular dystrophies encode proteins of the plasma membrane and extracellular matrix, and the sarcomere and Z band, as well as nuclear membrane components. Because muscle has such distinctive structural and regenerative properties, many of the genes implicated in these disorders target pathways unique to muscle or more highly expressed in muscle. This chapter reviews the basic structural properties of muscle and genetic mechanisms that lead to myopathy and muscular dystrophies that affect all age groups.

  7. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  8. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James


    the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory.......Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...

  9. Dismorfia muscular Muscle dysmorphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Seleri Marques Assunção


    Full Text Available Preocupações mórbidas com a imagem corporal eram tidas até recentemente como problemas eminentemente femininos. Atualmente estas preocupações também têm sido encontradas no sexo masculino. A dismorfia muscular é um subtipo do transtorno dismórfico corporal que ocorre principalmente em homens que, apesar da grande hipertrofia muscular, consideram-se pequenos e fracos. Além de estar associada a prejuízos sociais, ocupacionais, recreativos e em outras áreas do funcionamento do indivíduo, a dismorfia muscular é também um fator de risco para o abuso de esteróides anabolizantes. Este artigo aborda aspectos epidemiológicos, etiológicos e padrões clínicos da dismorfia muscular, além de tecer comentários sobre estratégias de tratamento para este transtorno.Morbid concern over body image was considered, until recently, a female issue. Nowadays, it has been viewed as a common male disorder. Muscle dysmorphia, a subtype of a body dysmorphic disorder, affects men who, despite having clear muscular hypertroph,y see themselves as frail and small. Besides being associated to major social, leisure and occupational dysfunction, muscle dysmorphia is also a risk factor for the abuse of steroids. This article describes epidemiological, etiological and clinical characteristics of muscle dysmorphia and comments on its treatment strategy.

  10. Creating an Artificial Muscle (United States)

    Bohon, Katherine; Krause, Sonja


    Striated skeletal muscle responds to a nerve impulse in less than 100 ms. In the past, polymeric gels and conducting polymers have been investigated for use as artificial muscle. However, the main problem with these materials is their relatively slow response (>3 seconds). On the other hand, electrorheological (ER) fluids are materials that change from a liquid to a solid upon application of an electric field. These fluids have a response on the order of a millisecond. A novel approach to artificial muscle utilizing the fast time response of ER fluids and the elasticity of polymeric gels has been investigated. A commercial sample of a two-part poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) dielectric gel was used. The PDMS was cured around two flexible electrodes 5 mm apart while a mixture of PDMS with solvent was cured between the electrodes. The solvents were either silicone oil or an ER fluid composed of crosslinked poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) particles in silicone oil. The mixtures investigated were 90/10, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 10/90 PDMS/solvent. Upon application of a 6.2 kV/cm DC electric field the gel was reversibly compressed. The time response of the gel was actuator has been created using the 60/40 PDMS/ER fluid mixture.

  11. Streamlining Policy Creation in Policy Frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hills, M.A.; Martí-Oliet, N.; Palomino, M.


    {\\it Policy frameworks} provide a technique for improving reuse in program analysis: the same language frontend, and a core analysis semantics, can be shared among multiple analysis policies for the same language, while analysis domains (such as units of measurement) can be shared among frameworks f

  12. [Energy policy rather than climate policy]. (United States)

    Kroonenberg, Salomon B


    Energy policy and climate policy are two different issues and should not be treated as if they were the same. Whether the climate gets warmer or colder, saving energy and developing sustainable forms of energy production remain of paramount importance because fossil hydrocarbons are likely to be exhausted soon. But climate policy is a fallacy: it is human arrogance to think we can control the climate by reducing emissions and by storing CO2 underground. In spite of rising CO2 levels, the climate has cooled down slightly over the past decade. Since the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) did not predict this, it is questionable whether they can reliably predict warming. Other factors such as solar activity are probably more important for climate than greenhouse gases. The danger of coupling energy policy to climate policy is evident: if the climate cools down, people will lose belief in the greenhouse effect and therefore also lose interest in saving energy.

  13. [Delayed post effort muscle soreness]. (United States)

    Coudreuse, J M; Dupont, P; Nicol, C


    Muscle intolerance to exercise may result from different processes. Diagnosis involves confirming first the source of pain, then potential pathological myalgia. Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), commonly referred as tiredness, occurs frequently in sport. DOMS usually develops 12-48 h after intensive and/or unusual eccentric muscle action. Symptoms usually involve the quadriceps muscle group but may also affect the hamstring and triceps surae groups. The muscles are sensitive to palpation, contraction and passive stretch. Acidosis, muscle spasm and microlesions in both connective and muscle tissues may explain the symptoms. However, inflammation appears to be the most common explanation. Interestingly, there is strong evidence that the progression of the exercise-induced muscle injury proceeds no further in the absence of inflammation. Even though unpleasant, DOMS should not be considered as an indicator of muscle damage but, rather, a sign of the regenerative process, which is well known to contribute to the increased muscle mass. DOMS can be associated with decreased proprioception and range of motion, as well as maximal force and activation. DOMS disappears 2-10 days before complete functional recovery. This painless period is ripe for additional joint injuries. Similarly, if some treatments are well known to attenuate DOMS, none has been demonstrated to accelerate either structural or functional recovery. In terms of the role of the inflammatory process, these treatments might even delay overall recovery.

  14. Agricultural policy, food policy, and communicable disease policy. (United States)

    Grant, Wyn


    Food and agricultural policy is an essential element of a communicable disease policy. The European Union has developed a more systematic and broadly based interest in questions of food safety and animal health and welfare linked to modernization of the Common Agricultural Policy, reflected in a new treaty obligation on animal welfare. Following the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis, moves were made to create a European competency, but implementation and enforcement resources reside with the member states. The European Animal Health Strategy is meant to lead to an EU animal health law, but this has already been constrained by fiscal austerity. The development of such a law may lead to a lowest common denominator formula that does little to enhance consumer protection or improve animal welfare. This is an inherent risk with top-down forms of Europeanization; more attention should be paid to lessons to be learned from bottom-up initiatives of the type used to counteract the bovine diarrhea virus. There will always be a tension among what is good policy for reducing the incidence of communicable disease, policy that is popular with EU citizens, and policy that is acceptable to member states.

  15. Painful Unilateral Temporalis Muscle Enlargement: Reactive Masticatory Muscle Hypertrophy


    Katsetos, Christos D.; Bianchi, Michael A.; Jaffery, Fizza; Koutzaki, Sirma; Zarella, Mark; Slater, Robert


    An instance of isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy (reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy with fiber type 1 predominance) confirmed by muscle biopsy with histochemical fiber typing and image analysis in a 62 year-old man is reported. The patient presented with bruxism and a painful swelling of the temple. Absence of asymmetry or other abnormalities of the craniofacial skeleton was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and cephalometric analyses. The patient achieved symptoma...

  16. IT Policy Archive (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CIO defines IT processes and policies. The CIO defines the development processes, milestones, review gates, and the overall policies for all capital planning,...

  17. Nordic cultural policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter


    A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity......A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity...

  18. National Environmental Policy Act (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...

  19. Do Policies Matter? (United States)

    Zemsky, Beth; Sanlo, Ronni L.


    This chapter provides an overview of nondiscrimination policies that include sexual orientation and gender identity and addresses how such policies might be used to improve campus climates for LGBT students, faculty, and staff.

  20. Hybrid Security Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Policy is defined as the rules and regulations set by the organization. They are laid down by management in compliance with industry regulations, law and internal decisions. Policies are mandatory. Security policies rules how the information is protected against security vulnerabilities and they are the basis for security awareness, training and vital for security audits. Policies are focused on desired results. The means of achieving the goals are defined on controls, standards and procedures.

  1. Innovation policies for tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette


    The nature, extent, and implications of innovation in tourism are increasingly investigated in academic research, but the policies that affect these transformations in the industry and at tourism destinations are not equally well conceptualised theoretically or analysed empirically. The purpose...... framework of policy instruments for innovation in tourism. New generations of policies instigate a mainstreaming of the innovation agenda in ways that proceed beyond the traditional policy concepts....

  2. Communication Policies in Yugoslavia. (United States)

    Lekovic, Zdravko; Bjelica, Mihalo

    This report on communication policies in Yugoslavia is part of a larger project, sponsored by UNESCO and intended to analyze communication policies as they exist at public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Included in this report are: (1) the premise of Yugoslavian communication policy; (2) historical development of…

  3. Language Policy and Methodology (United States)

    Liddicoat, Antony J.


    The implementation of a language policy is crucially associated with questions of methodology. This paper explores approaches to language policy, approaches to methodology and the impact that these have on language teaching practice. Language policies can influence decisions about teaching methodologies either directly, by making explicit…

  4. Open Access policy effectiveness


    Swan, Alma


    This presentation discusses the policy elements that are necessary for an effective open access policy, according to the findings of the analysis of the revamped ROARMAP tool for open access policies by PASTEUR4OA. It contains graphs, charts and numbers for evidence-based arguments

  5. PDH regulation in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian

    is determined by the overall content / activity of the regulatory proteins PDH kinase (PDK), of which there are 4 isoforms, and PDH phosphatase (PDP), of which there are 2 isoforms. The overall aim of the PhD project was to elucidate 4 issues. 1: Role of muscle type in resting and exercise-induced PDH...... in arm than leg muscles during exercise in humans may be the result of lower PDH-E1? content and not a muscle type dependent difference in PDH regulation. Both low muscle glycogen and increased plasma FFA are associated with upregulation of PDK4 protein and less exercise-induced increase in PDHa activity...... in human skeletal muscle. It may be noted that the increased PDK4 protein associated with elevated plasma FFA occurs already 2 hours after different dietary intake. A week of physical inactivity (bed rest), leading to whole body glucose intolerance, does not affect muscle PDH-E1? content, or the exercise...

  6. Muscle dysfunction in male hypogonadism. (United States)

    Chauhan, A K; Katiyar, B C; Misra, S; Thacker, A K; Singh, N K


    Twenty-eight consecutive male patients with primary and secondary hypogonadism (14 each) were evaluated clinically and electrophysiologically for muscle dysfunction. Although generalised muscle weakness was initially reported by only 9 patients, on direct questioning, it was recorded in 19. Objective weakness was found in 13 patients and it involved both the proximal and distal limb muscles. Quantitative electromyography showed evidence of myopathy in the proximal muscle in 25 patients, i.e., reduced MUP duration and amplitude with increased polyphasia in the deltoid and the gluteus maximus. There were no denervation potentials. None of the patients showed clinical neuropathy or NCV abnormalities. Thus, the profile of muscle involvement in hypogonadism closely simulates limb-girdle muscular dystrophy and other endocrine myopathies. The incidence of muscle involvement was higher in secondary hypogonadism. Diminished androgens in primary hypogonadism and diminished growth hormone in the secondary hypogonadism are probably responsible for the myopathy.

  7. Muscle strength in myasthenia gravis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cejvanovic, S; Vissing, J


    is related to disease duration or gender. The aim of this study was to quantify the strength of patients with MG and investigate whether it is related to disease duration. METHODS: Eight muscle groups were tested by manual muscle testing and with a hand-held dynamometer in 38 patients with generalized MG...... and 37 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. The disease duration was recorded and compared with strength measures. RESULTS: On average, muscle strength was decreased by 28% compared with controls (Pstrength measures in individual patients did not differ, suggesting that the muscle...... force reported was not subject to fatigue, but reflected fixed weakness. The male patients showed a greater reduction in muscle force in all eight muscle groups than women with MG (60% vs 77% of normal, Pstrength in shoulder abductors was most affected (51% vs 62...

  8. [Myoma of the breast muscle]. (United States)

    Peteiro, M C; Fernández-Redondo, V; Zulaica, A; Toribio, J


    A female patient presented with a tumoral lesion of the areola of the left breast; the lesion surrounded the nipple. Histopathologically there was proliferation of smooth muscle fibers of the middle and deep layers of the dermis; the papillary dermis was not affected. Myomas in this site do not present the typical characteristics of other kinds of leiomyomas, including those of the scrotum. Therefore, mamillary muscle myomas should not be considered authentic tumors, but rather smooth muscle hyperplasias.

  9. Muscle dysmorphia: current insights. (United States)

    Tod, David; Edwards, Christian; Cranswick, Ieuan


    Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people's beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scientific communities. Much of this empirical interest has surveyed nonclinical samples, and there is limited understanding of people with the condition beyond knowledge about their characteristics. Much of the existing knowledge about people with the condition is unsurprising and inherent in the definition of the disorder, such as dissatisfaction with muscularity and adherence to muscle-building activities. Only recently have investigators started to explore questions beyond these limited tautological findings that may give rise to substantial knowledge advances, such as the examination of masculine and feminine norms. There is limited understanding of additional topics such as etiology, prevalence, nosology, prognosis, and treatment. Further, the evidence is largely based on a small number of unstandardized case reports and descriptive studies (involving small samples), which are largely confined to Western (North American, British, and Australian) males. Although much research has been undertaken since the term "muscle dysmorphia" entered the psychiatric lexicon in 1997, there remains tremendous scope for knowledge advancement. A primary task in the short term is for investigators to examine the extent to which the condition exists among well-defined populations to help determine the justification for research funding relative to other public health issues. A greater variety of research questions and designs may contribute to a broader and more robust knowledge base than currently exists. Future work will help clinicians assist a group of people whose quality of life and health are placed at risk by their muscular preoccupation.

  10. Nutritional interventions to preserve skeletal muscle mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backx, Evelien M.P.


    Muscle mass is the main predictor for muscle strength and physical function. The amount of muscle mass can decline rapidly during periods of reduced physical activity or during periods of energy intake restriction. For athletes, it is important to maintain muscle mass, since the loss of muscle is as

  11. Cyber security policy guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Bayuk, nifer L; Rohmeyer, l; Sachs, cus; Schmidt, frey; Weiss, eph


    This book is a taxonomy and thesaurus of current cybersecurity policy issues, including a thorough description of each issue and a corresponding list of pros and cons with respect to identified stances on each issue. It documents policy alternatives for the sake of clarity with respect to policy alone, and dives into organizational implementation issues. Without using technical jargon, the book emphasizes the importance of critical and analytical thinking when making policy decisions.  It also equips the reader with descriptions of the impact of specific policy ch

  12. ROTC Policy Regarding Homosexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee S. Duemer


    Full Text Available This is a policy analysis, in a historical context, of how Association of American University institutions responded to Reserve Officer Training Corps policy excluding homosexuals. The time period for this study is 1982 to 1992. Qualitative methods are used to analyze data and arrive at conclusions. Secondary data provide additional depth and background. This study reveals seven different positions institutions have taken in response to ROTC policy, these include: supporting ROTC policy, neutrality, collective action, barring military recruiters from campus, distancing the institution from ROTC, and changing the campus climate. This includes examples taken from AAU institutions and rationales behind making policy decisions.

  13. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil


    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements...

  14. Policy and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.; Ejrnæs, Anders


    regimes in Europe – covering the 26 countries. A typology based on a cluster analysis of macro indicators of family policy – coverage of childcare, effective parental leave and spending on family policies. The cluster analysis is based on data from OECD family data base. Then follows an analysis...... of the impact of the different family policy regimes on mothers' employment strategies when they return into gainful employment, based on data from the European Social Survey, 2008. Findings – The authors have identified four different family policy models: extensive family policy, long parental leave, family...

  15. Toward transparent clinical policies. (United States)

    Shiffman, Richard N; Marcuse, Edgar K; Moyer, Virginia A; Neuspiel, Daniel R; Hodgson, Elizabeth Susan; Glade, Gordon; Harbaugh, Norman; Miller, Marlene R; Sevilla, Xavier; Simpson, Lisa; Takata, Glenn


    Clinical policies of professional societies such as the American Academy of Pediatrics are valued highly, not only by clinicians who provide direct health care to children but also by many others who rely on the professional expertise of these organizations, including parents, employers, insurers, and legislators. The utility of a policy depends, in large part, on the degree to which its purpose and basis are clear to policy users, an attribute known as the policy's transparency. This statement describes the critical importance and special value of transparency in clinical policies, guidelines, and recommendations; helps identify obstacles to achieving transparency; and suggests several approaches to overcome these obstacles.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kujawa


    Full Text Available The article describes the common EU policy on maritime transport, which comprises almost 80% of the volume of external trade of the Union and about 40% of internal transport needs. The first part of the paper presents the origins of the common maritime transport policy and the difficulties encountered during its initial formation. Subsequently, the evolution of the concepts of the policy and its current shape is discussed. The final, substantial part of the article describes the main aims and directions of the EU maritime transport policy and includes an evaluation of the effects of the policy.

  17. The effectiveness of monetary policy


    Robert H. Rasche; Marcela M. Williams


    This analysis addresses changing views of the role and effectiveness of monetary policy, inflation targeting as an "effective monetary policy," monetary policy and short-run (output) stabilization, and problems in implementing a short-run stabilization policy.

  18. Problematizations in Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Bacchi


    Full Text Available This article directs attention to the significance, for health promotion advocates, of reflecting on how “problems” are constituted, or brought into existence, as particular sorts of problems, within policies and policy proposals. To this end, it introduces a poststructural analytic strategy called “What’s the Problem Represented to be?” (WPR approach, and contrasts this perspective to the ways in which “problems” are commonly conceptualized in health policy analyses (e.g., “a problem stream,” “wicked problems”. Such a perspective offers a significant rethinking of the conventional emphasis on agenda setting and policy-making processes in considering the meaning of success or failure in health policy initiatives. The starting point is a close analysis of items that are “successful,” in the sense that they make the political agenda, to see how representations of “problems” within selected policies limit what is talked about as possible or desirable, or as impossible and undesirable. This form of analysis thus enables critical reflections on the substantive content of policy initiatives in health policy. The article takes a step back from policy process theories, frameworks, and models to offer reflections at the level of paradigms. Highlighting potential dangers and limitations in positivism, interpretivism, and critical realism, it uses international, Australian, and South Australian examples in health policy to explore what poststructural policy analysis contributes to understanding the broad political influences shaping contemporary modes of rule.

  19. Checking Security Policy Compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Gowadia, Vaibhav; Kudo, Michiharu


    Ensuring compliance of organizations to federal regulations is a growing concern. This paper presents a framework and methods to verify whether an implemented low-level security policy is compliant to a high-level security policy. Our compliance checking framework is based on organizational and security metadata to support refinement of high-level concepts to implementation specific instances. Our work uses the results of refinement calculus to express valid refinement patterns and their properties. Intuitively, a low-level security policy is compliant to a high-level security policy if there is a valid refinement path from the high-level security policy to the low-level security policy. Our model is capable of detecting violations of security policies, failures to meet obligations, and capability and modal conflicts.

  20. Policies for Renewable Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper builds on IEA publications, Deploying Renewables, Principles for Effective Policies and Deploying Renewables, Best and Future Policy Practice, that discuss the 'integrated policy approach,' whereby renewable energy technologies require different support policies at different stages of their maturity pathways. The paper discusses how the integrated policy approach applies to renewable heat. It attempts to provide guidance for policy-makers on renewable heat throughout the different phases of the policy lifecycle, allowing for the specific challenges of renewable heat and needs of the many stakeholders involved. Stimulating a market for heat involves challenges that are different and, often, more difficult to overcome than in the electricity and transport sectors.

  1. 发音中断分析用于内收性痉挛性发音障碍和肌紧张性发音障碍的鉴别诊断%Differential diagnosis of adductor spasmodic dysphonia and musde tension dysphonia using phonatory break analys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roy N; 郭颖


    @@ 内收性痉挛性发声障碍(adductor spasmodic dysphonia,ADSD)是一种神经源性的、活动引起的喉局部肌张力失调,患者在说话时会感受到声带不自主地过度内收,从而导致无力的发音中断和言语挤卡、发抖.当前,内收性痉挛性发声障碍的诊断几乎完全依靠其听觉特征,发音中断常被认为是诊断ADSD的绝对必要条件.

  2. Muscling out malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan


    of the pathogenic fungi concerned. There is a long history of using Metarhizium and Beauveria in insect biocontrol [6] with ‘Green Muscle', a broad consortium set up to control locusts using Metarhizium, as an excellent example (for more information, see ). Green Muscle developed from the initial conception that spores could be suspended in oil to facilitate germination in arid regions [7] , which made infecting mosquitoes feasible [4] . However, failures in biocontrol have been...... surveying as part of interdisciplinary programs, comparable to expeditions organised by the British Mycological Society ( [14] ). Finally...

  3. Elicitability of muscle cramps in different leg and foot muscles. (United States)

    Minetto, Marco Alessandro; Botter, Alberto


    To explore the efficacy of muscle motor point stimulation in eliciting muscle cramps, 11 subjects underwent eight sessions of electrical stimulation of the following muscles bilaterally: abductor hallucis flexor hallucis brevis, and both heads of the gastrocnemius muscles. Bursts of 150 square wave stimuli (duration: 152 micros; current intensity: 30% supramaximal) were applied. The stimulation frequency was increased from 4 pulses per second (pps) at increments of 2 pps until a cramp was induced. The number of cramps that could be elicited was smaller in flexor hallucis brevis than in abductor hallucis (16 vs. 22 out of 22 trials each; P muscles have different cramp susceptibility, and the intermuscle variability in the elicitability profile for electrically induced cramps supports the use of the proposed method for cramp research.

  4. Building Muscles, Keeping Muscles: Protein Turnover During Space Flight (United States)

    Ferrando, Arny; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)


    As we age we lose muscle mass and strength. The problem is a matter of use it or lose it and more - a fact to which any active senior can attest. An imbalance in the natural cycle of protein turnover may be a contributing factor to decreased muscle mass. But the answer is not so simple, since aging is associated with changes in hormones, activity levels, nutrition, and often, disease. The human body constantly uses amino acids to build muscle protein, which then breaks down and must be replaced. When protein turnover gets out of balance, so that more protein breaks down than the body can replace, the result is muscle loss. This is not just the bane of aging, however. Severely burned people may have difficulty building new muscle long after the burned skin has been repaired. Answers to why we lose muscle mass and strength - and how doctors can fix it - may come from space. Astronauts usually eat a well-balanced diet and maintain an exercise routine to stay in top health. During long-duration flight, they exercise regularly to reduce the muscle loss that results from being in a near-weightless environment. Despite these precautions, astronauts lose muscle mass and strength during most missions. They quickly recover after returning to Earth - this is a temporary condition in an otherwise healthy population. Members of the STS-107 crew are participating in a study of the effects of space flight, hormone levels, and stress on protein turnover. When we are under stress, the body responds with a change in hormone levels. Researchers hypothesize that this stress-induced change in hormones along with the near-weightlessness might result in the body synthesizing less muscle protein, causing muscles to lose their strength and size. Astronauts, who must perform numerous duties in a confined and unusual environment, experience some stress during their flight, making them excellent candidates for testing the researchers' hypothesis.

  5. Aging changes in the bones - muscles - joints (United States)

    ... because of changes in the muscle tissue and normal aging changes in the nervous system . Muscles may become rigid ... knee jerk or ankle jerk can occur. Some changes, such as a positive ... Involuntary movements (muscle tremors and fine movements called ...

  6. Infraspinatus muscle atrophy from suprascapular nerve compression. (United States)

    Cordova, Christopher B; Owens, Brett D


    Muscle weakness without pain may signal a nerve compression injury. Because these injuries should be identified and treated early to prevent permanent muscle weakness and atrophy, providers should consider suprascapular nerve compression in patients with shoulder muscle weakness.

  7. Trichinella spiralis in human muscle (image) (United States)

    This is the parasite Trichinella spiralis in human muscle tissue. The parasite is transmitted by eating undercooked ... produce large numbers of larvae that migrate into muscle tissue. The cysts may cause muscle pain and ...

  8. Sternalis muscle: a mystery still. (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Bowers, Maggi; Hullett, Joel


    Despite intensive anatomical research during the last century, anatomical structures or variations of these structures may still cause confusion or even iatrogenic injury. A matter of debate is the sternalis muscle. We present a review of the literature of the sternalis muscle with special emphasis on its clinical anatomy.

  9. Muscle ultrasound in neuromuscular disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pillen, S.; Arts, I.M.P.; Zwarts, M.J.


    Muscle ultrasound is a useful tool in the diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders, as these disorders result in muscle atrophy and intramuscular fibrosis and fatty infiltration, which can be visualized with ultrasound. Several prospective studies have reported high sensitivities and specificities in th

  10. The Basis of Muscle Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Musarò


    Full Text Available Muscle regeneration recapitulates many aspects of embryonic myogenesis and is an important homeostatic process of the adult skeletal muscle, which, after development, retains the capacity to regenerate in response to appropriate stimuli, activating the muscle compartment of stem cells, namely, satellite cells, as well as other precursor cells. Moreover, significant evidence suggests that while stem cells represent an important determinant for tissue regeneration, a “qualified” environment is necessary to guarantee and achieve functional results. It is therefore plausible that the loss of control over these cell fate decisions could lead to a pathological transdifferentiation, leading to pathologic defects in the regenerative process. This review provides an overview about the general aspects of muscle development and discusses the cellular and molecular aspects that characterize the five interrelated and time-dependent phases of muscle regeneration, namely, degeneration, inflammation, regeneration, remodeling, and maturation/functional repair.

  11. Muscle regeneration in mitochondrial myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, T O; Hauerslev, S; Jeppesen, T D;


    Mitochondrial myopathies cover a diverse group of disorders in which ragged red and COX-negative fibers are common findings on muscle morphology. In contrast, muscle degeneration and regeneration, typically found in muscular dystrophies, are not considered characteristic features of mitochondrial...... myopathies. We investigated regeneration in muscle biopsies from 61 genetically well-defined patients affected by mitochondrial myopathy. Our results show that the perturbed energy metabolism in mitochondrial myopathies causes ongoing muscle regeneration in a majority of patients, and some were even affected...... by a dystrophic morphology. The results add to the complexity of the pathogenesis underlying mitochondrial myopathies, and expand the knowledge about the impact of energy deficiency on another aspect of muscle structure and function....

  12. Complement activation promotes muscle inflammation during modified muscle use (United States)

    Frenette, J.; Cai, B.; Tidball, J. G.


    Modified muscle use can result in muscle inflammation that is triggered by unidentified events. In the present investigation, we tested whether the activation of the complement system is a component of muscle inflammation that results from changes in muscle loading. Modified rat hindlimb muscle loading was achieved by removing weight-bearing from the hindlimbs for 10 days followed by reloading through normal ambulation. Experimental animals were injected with the recombinant, soluble complement receptor sCR1 to inhibit complement activation. Assays for complement C4 or factor B in sera showed that sCR1 produced large reductions in the capacity for activation of the complement system through both the classical and alternative pathways. Analysis of complement C4 concentration in serum in untreated animals showed that the classical pathway was activated during the first 2 hours of reloading. Analysis of factor B concentration in untreated animals showed activation of the alternative pathway at 6 hours of reloading. Administration of sCR1 significantly attenuated the invasion of neutrophils (-49%) and ED1(+) macrophages (-52%) that occurred in nontreated animals after 6 hours of reloading. The presence of sCR1 also reduced significantly the degree of edema by 22% as compared to untreated animals. Together, these data show that increased muscle loading activated the complement system which then briefly contributes to the early recruitment of inflammatory cells during modified muscle loading.

  13. Intermuscular pressure between synergistic muscles correlates with muscle force. (United States)

    Reinhardt, Lars; Siebert, Tobias; Leichsenring, Kay; Blickhan, Reinhard; Böl, Markus


    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between muscle force generated during isometric contractions (i.e. at a constant muscle-tendon unit length) and the intermuscular (between adjacent muscles) pressure in synergistic muscles. Therefore, the pressure at the contact area of the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscle was measured synchronously to the force of the whole calf musculature in the rabbit species Oryctolagus cuniculus Similar results were obtained when using a conductive pressure sensor, or a fibre-optic pressure transducer connected to a water-filled balloon. Both methods revealed a strong linear relationship between force and pressure in the ascending limb of the force-length relationship. The shape of the measured force-time and pressure-time traces was almost identical for each contraction (r=0.97). Intermuscular pressure ranged between 100 and 700 mbar (70,000 Pa) for forces up to 287 N. These pressures are similar to previous (intramuscular) recordings within skeletal muscles of different vertebrate species. Furthermore, our results suggest that the rise in intermuscular pressure during contraction may reduce the force production in muscle packages (compartments).

  14. Shaping Policy Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broome, André; Seabrooke, Leonard


    International organizations (IOs) such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank are assumed to rely on ‘sympathetic interlocutors’ at the national level to drive through economic reforms that conform to global policy norms. In this article we answer the following question: How do...... sympathetic interlocutors for IOs emerge in the first place? We address this question by examining how IOs engage in teaching norms to national officials via transnational policy training in order to increase the number of domestic reformers who are sympathetic to their prescriptions for policy change. We...... provide a conceptual framework for understanding how IOs seek to use their own cognitive authority to foster ‘diagnostic coordination’ across technocratic economic policy communities. This encourages officials to adapt to a common policy language and delimits the policy space within which they identify...

  15. Implementing public employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Bredgaard, Thomas

    disciplining of the unemployed (work first) (cf.Bredgaard & Larsen, 2005; Sol & Westerweld, 2005). It is, however, remarkable that in the research field there seems to be a division of labour so that changes in public administration and changes in the substance of employment policies are dealt with separately....... But there is an interesting question to investigate here: whether and if so how, NPM-inspired reforms are related to changes in employment policy towards a work-first approach? Are changes in public management systems created as deliberate policy changes, or do they bring about more indirect and unintended policy changes...... an intended policy shift, there seems to be very little public discussion about them. Far-reaching policy changes become politically invisible and de-politicized. Our empirical case is the contracting out of the public employment services in Australia, the Netherlands and Denmark. The main question is what...

  16. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

      The connective tissue content of skeletal muscle is believed to be the major factor responsible for defining the eating quality of different meat cuts, although attempts to correlate quantifications based on traditional histological methods have not as yet been able to prove this relation....... Collagen, being the major protein in connective tissue, has been extensively investigated with regard to its relation to meat tenderness, but the results have been rather conflicting. Meat from older animals is tougher than that from younger animals, and changes in the properties of the collagen due...... that collagen plays a significant role in determining the tenderness of meat. What are we missing? Therefore, fundamental aspects of connective tissue research have been the centre of attention throughout this thesis. A holistic view has been applied, glancing at this complex tissue which has many facets...

  17. Guiding Economic Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Three top Chinese officials responsible for guiding China’s macroeconomic policies expound on the state of the economy In Premier Wen Jiabao’s recent govern- ment work report,he said that the major task this year would be to prevent over- all prices from rising rapidly.Along with this,he accentuated a prudent fiscal policy and a tight monetary policy. Following the premier’s work report,

  18. Monetary Policy Proving Effective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Hu Xiaolian,Vice Governor of the People's Bank of China,the country's central bank,published an article concerning China's managed floating exchange rate regime and the effectiveness of the monetary policy on the bank's website on July 26.She pointed out monetary policy,as an important instrument of China's macroeconomic control,has faced many challenges in recent years.A more flexible exchange rate regime will help improve the effectiveness of the policy.

  19. Counterterrorism policy in Colombia


    Self, Kevin A.


    The purpose of this thesis is to suggest a coherent, credible, and long-term counterterrorism policy in Colombia. The events of September 11, 2001 heightened U.S. awareness of Colombian terrorist organizations, the most powerful being the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). The U.S. counterterror approach in Colombia appears fragmented, with only minor changes to its previous drug control policies. In contrast, the Colombian government has developed and implemented a policy to ...

  20. Direct policy search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidrich-Meisner, V.; Igel, Christian


    process. Exploration is realized by stochastic perturbations, which can be applied at different levels. When considering direct policy search in the space of neural network policies, exploration can be applied on the synaptic level or on the level of neuronal activity. We propose neuroevolution strategies...... (NeuroESs) for direct policy search in RL. Learning using NeuroESs can be interpreted as modelling of extrinsic perturbations on the level of synaptic weights. In contrast, policy gradient methods (PGMs) can be regarded as intrinsic perturbation of neuronal activity. We compare these two approaches...

  1. The Policy Design Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Troels Fage


    attitudes have argued that this ‘policy design effect’ can be explained by a combination of self-interest patterns, public perceptions of the recipient group and whether eligibility under the policy is perceived as fair or arbitrary.The explanations, however, lack micro-level theory and testing as to why...... the design of a policy affects individual and public support. This article seeks to explain this policy design effect by theoretically outlining and testing how being proximate to recipients of a social benefit affects attitudes towards the benefit. A survey of attitudes towards spending on five social...

  2. Federalism and health policy. (United States)

    Nathan, Richard P


    This paper presents a cyclical theory of U.S. federalism and social policy: Many social policy initiatives are tested and refined at the state level, especially during conservative periods, and later morph into national policies. The paper describes such federalism cycles and offers an interpretation of why and how they occur, focusing on Medicaid. State activism has preserved and expanded Medicaid through policy innovation and resistance to retrenchment, especially in conservative periods, by taking advantage of the flexibility the program provides. I conclude that Medicaid's incremental/partnership approach is appropriate and feasible to build on for a future expansion of health care coverage.

  3. Development of Postural Muscles and Their Innervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. IJkema-Paassen


    Full Text Available Control of posture is a prerequisite for efficient motor performance. Posture depends on muscles capable of enduring contractions, whereas movements often require quick, forceful muscle actions. To serve these different goals, muscles contain fibers that meet these different tasks. Muscles with strong postural functions mainly consist of slow muscle fibers with a great resistance against fatigue. Flexor muscles in the leg and arm muscles are mainly composed of fast muscle fibers producing relatively large forces that are rapidly fatigable. Development of the neuromuscular system continues after birth. We discuss in the human baby and in animal experiments changes in muscle fiber properties, regression from polyneural into mononeural innervation, and developmental changes in the motoneurons of postural muscles during that period. The regression of poly-neural innervation in postural muscles and the development of dendrite bundles of their motoneurons seem to be linked to the transition from the immature into the adult-like patterns of moving and postural control.

  4. Muscle channelopathies and electrophysiological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherian Ajith


    Full Text Available Myotonic syndromes and periodic paralyses are rare disorders of skeletal muscle characterized mainly by muscle stiffness or episodic attacks of weakness. Familial forms are caused by mutation in genes coding for skeletal muscle voltage ionic channels. Familial periodic paralysis and nondystrophic myotonias are disorders of skeletal muscle excitability caused by mutations in genes coding for voltage-gated ion channels. These diseases are characterized by episodic failure of motor activity due to muscle weakness (paralysis or stiffness (myotonia. Clinical studies have identified two forms of periodic paralyses: hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hypoKPP and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (hyperKPP, based on changes in serum potassium levels during the attacks, and three distinct forms of myotonias: paramyotonia congenita (PC, potassium-aggravated myotonia (PAM, and myotonia congenita (MC. PC and PAM have been linked to missense mutations in the SCN4A gene, which encodes α subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channel, whereas MC is caused by mutations in the chloride channel gene (CLCN1. Exercise is known to trigger, aggravate, or relieve symptoms. Therefore, exercise can be used as a functional test in electromyography to improve the diagnosis of these muscle disorders. Abnormal changes in the compound muscle action potential can be disclosed using different exercise tests. Five electromyographic (EMG patterns (I-V that may be used in clinical practice as guides for molecular diagnosis are discussed.

  5. Factors in delayed muscle soreness. (United States)

    Abraham, W M


    The possible causes of delayed muscle soreness which occur 24 to 48 hr after exercise were examined from three different approaches, each designed to test an existing hypothesis. Surface electromyograms were used to evaluate the muscle spasm theory; the possibility of actual muscle cell damage was monitored by the presence of myoglobinuria, while the ratio of hydroxyproline/creatinine (OHP/Cr) in 24 hr urine collection was used as a marker for connective tissue involvement. In the first study, although all volunteers developed muscle soreness 24 and 48 hr after exercise, no change in the EMG activity of the sore muscles was observed. Myoglobin excretion was found in 88% of the subjects who developed soreness. However, in a second study, 92% of the subject who performed both moderate and heavy exercise but did not develop muscle soreness had myoglobinuria. In contrast, during a third experiment subjects on gelatin-free diets showed an increase (P less than .1) in the OHP/Cr between control (.020+/-.001) and 48 hr post-exercise (.002+/-.001, X+/-SE). Soreness resulted in all cases. When the OHP/Cr value is taken for the day of maximal soreness, the post-exercise mean increases to .024+/-.001 and the level of significance rises (P less than .005). These observations support the concept that exercise induced soreness may be related to disruption of the connective tissue elements in the muscle and/or their attachments.

  6. [Muscles and connective tissue: histology]. (United States)

    Delage, J-P


    Here, we give some comments about the DVD movies "Muscle Attitudes" from Endovivo productions, the movies up lighting some loss in the attention given to studies on the connective tissue, and especially them into muscles. The main characteristics of the different components in the intra-muscular connective tissue (perimysium, endomysium, epimysium) are shown here with special references to their ordered architecture and special references to their spatial distributions. This connective tissue is abundant into the muscles and is in continuity with the muscles in vicinity, with their tendons and their sheath, sticking the whole on skin. This connective tissue has also very abundant connections on the muscles fibres. It is then assumed that the connective tissue sticks every organs or cells of the locomotion system. Considering the elastic properties of the collagen fibres which are the most abundant component of connective tissue, it is possible to up light a panel of connective tissue associated functions such as the transmission of muscle contractions or the regulation of protein and energetic muscles metabolism.

  7. Skeletal Muscle Na+ Channel Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina eSimkin


    Full Text Available Five inherited human disorders affecting skeletal muscle contraction have been traced to mutations in the gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.4. The main symptoms of these disorders are myotonia or periodic paralysis caused by changes in skeletal muscle fiber excitability. Symptoms of these disorders vary from mild or latent disease to incapacitating or even death in severe cases. As new human sodium channel mutations corresponding to disease states become discovered, the importance of understanding the role of the sodium channel in skeletal muscle function and disease state grows.

  8. Bigorexia: bodybuilding and muscle dysmorphia. (United States)

    Mosley, Philip E


    Muscle dysmorphia is an emerging condition that primarily affects male bodybuilders. Such individuals obsess about being inadequately muscular. Compulsions include spending hours in the gym, squandering excessive amounts of money on ineffectual sports supplements, abnormal eating patterns or even substance abuse. In this essay, I illustrate the features of muscle dysmorphia by employing the first-person account of a male bodybuilder afflicted by this condition. I briefly outline the history of bodybuilding and examine whether the growth of this sport is linked to a growing concern with body image amongst males. I suggest that muscle dysmorphia may be a new expression of a common pathology shared with the eating disorders.

  9. Modern regional innovation policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Ortega-Argiles, Raquel


    This paper analyses the evolution of regional innovation policy into the mainstream of public policy. The paper examines the empirical and theoretical developments which have shifted much of the focus on innovation-related issues to matters of economic geography. As well as academic material we also

  10. Oil shortage policy; Olieschaarstebeleid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppelaar, R.; Van Meerkerk, B.; Polder, P.; Van den Bulk, J.; Kamphorst, F.


    This policy proposal addresses the deployment of options for decreasing Dutch dependency on oil by means of firm government policy. [Dutch] Dit beleidsvoorstel richt zich op het benutten van de mogelijkheden voor Nederland om via een sterke overheidsaanpak de afhankelijkheid van olie te verminderen.

  11. ICU visitation policies. (United States)

    Cleveland, A M


    Critically ill patients need their families more than ever, but rigid policies often restrict family visitation in ICU. Family visitation is not a "privilege" granted by hospitals, it is a necessary adjunct to the therapeutic regimen. Though changing outdated visitation policies can be difficult, it must be done. The clinical nurse specialist can play an important role in planning and implementing needed change.

  12. Intercultural Policies and Education (United States)

    Goncalves, Susana, Ed.; Carpenter, Markus A., Ed.


    Intercultural Policies and Education is concerned with educational challenges in multicultural societies. Educational policies, practices and strategies for fruitful coexistence in the multicultural school and classroom are explored and analysed through a collection of chapters designed and selected to provide readers with international,…

  13. Communication Policies in Hungary. (United States)

    Szecsko, Tamas; Fodor, Gabor

    This book is one of a series of studies--undertaken as part of the program adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO--related to the analysis of communication policies as they exist at the public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Discussed in this book about Hungary's communication policies are such topics as mass…

  14. Public Policy Agenda, 2009 (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2009


    The 2009 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  15. Public Policy Agenda, 2007 (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2007


    The 2007 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  16. Public Policy Agenda, 2010 (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010


    The 2010 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. This paper is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations, as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  17. Public Policy Agenda, 2008 (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2008


    The 2008 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  18. Public Policy and You (United States)

    Karolak, Eric


    This article is devoted to public policies and child care providers. The author talks about how these policies affect providers and their work with young children. The author stresses that child care providers should help legislators by keeping them aware of what goes on in the child care communities.

  19. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum


    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three-level defini...

  20. Science and technology policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Who is responsible for environmental and technological policy in Denmark? And how are those "policy-makers" made accountable to the public for their decisions?   This report attempts to answer these important questions by presenting the Danish contribution to the EU-funded project, Analysing Publ...

  1. Local youth policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gilsing


    Original title: Lokaal jeugdbeleid. Local authorities have been given an important role in youth policy in the Netherlands. They are expected to develop preventive youth policy to increase the opportunities of young people and prevent them dropping out from society. At the request of the Ministry o

  2. Morality and Foreign Policy. (United States)

    Kissinger, Henry


    Morality as an enduring element in United States foreign policy is discussed. In order to strengthen the steady purpose and responsible involvement of the American people, human rights policy must be presented in the context of a realistic assessment of world affairs. (RM)

  3. [Epidemiology and public policies]. (United States)

    Barata, Rita Barradas


    The present essay deals with the relation between epidemiology and public policies, highlighting the epidemiology position in the public health field, analyzing the impact of public policies over epidemiological profile and contributions from epidemiology to the lay down, implementation and evaluation of public health policies. In the first title, the essay debates the links between the epidemiology and public health field, the social determinants and political action framework proposed by the WHO's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, and different approaches of health policies. In the second title the essay analyses the reduction of child stunting in Brazil as an example of public policies that impact epidemiological profile. The third title presents three strategic topics for the application of public health policies: reduction of social inequalities in health, health promotion and regulation of products and services that have impact over health. The fourth title discusses the possibilities and difficulties to combine the epidemiological knowledge in the lay down, implementation and evaluation of public policies and, finally, material examples of such relation between epidemiology and public policies are presented.

  4. ATLAS Data Access Policy

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration


    ATLAS has fully supported the principle of open access in its publication policy. This document outlines the policy of ATLAS as regards open access to data at different levels as described in the DPHEP model. The main objective is to make the data available in a usable way to people external to the ATLAS collaboration.

  5. Science and Technology Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baark, Erik


    This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years.......This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years....

  6. Random maintenance policies

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, Toshio


    Exploring random maintenance models, this book provides an introduction to the implementation of random maintenance, and it is one of the first books to be written on this subject.  It aims to help readers learn new techniques for applying random policies to actual reliability models, and it provides new theoretical analyses of various models including classical replacement, preventive maintenance and inspection policies. These policies are applied to scheduling problems, backup policies of database systems, maintenance policies of cumulative damage models, and reliability of random redundant systems. Reliability theory is a major concern for engineers and managers, and in light of Japan’s recent earthquake, the reliability of large-scale systems has increased in importance. This also highlights the need for a new notion of maintenance and reliability theory, and how this can practically be applied to systems. Providing an essential guide for engineers and managers specializing in reliability maintenance a...

  7. Good Tourism Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Tourism policy matters in cultural tourism. The starting point of this paper is the observation that many tourism policy studies draw three inter-related conclusions. One, tourism policy must be inclusive and require the support of different stakeholders (Baker 2009; Bernhard Jørgensen and Munar...... 2009). Two, a balanced approach to tourism policy is needed to harness the benefits of tourism while mitigating negative effects (Budeanu 2009; Chang 1997; Jenkins 1997; Leheny 1995, Newby 1994; Teo and Yeoh, 1997). Three, tourism policies should accentuate and maintain the cultural uniqueness...... and authenticity of the destination (Morgan et al. 2011). It seems that many tourism authorities are ignorant of local interests, unaware of the touristification of local cultures and uninterested in promoting local cultures. But local cultures and communities are what that constitute cultural tourism....

  8. Approximate Modified Policy Iteration

    CERN Document Server

    Scherrer, Bruno; Ghavamzadeh, Mohammad; Geist, Matthieu


    Modified policy iteration (MPI) is a dynamic programming (DP) algorithm that contains the two celebrated policy and value iteration methods. Despite its generality, MPI has not been thoroughly studied, especially its approximation form which is used when the state and/or action spaces are large or infinite. In this paper, we propose three approximate MPI (AMPI) algorithms that are extensions of the well-known approximate DP algorithms: fitted-value iteration, fitted-Q iteration, and classification-based policy iteration. We provide an error propagation analysis for AMPI that unifies those for approximate policy and value iteration. We also provide a finite-sample analysis for the classification-based implementation of AMPI (CBMPI), which is more general (and somehow contains) than the analysis of the other presented AMPI algorithms. An interesting observation is that the MPI's parameter allows us to control the balance of errors (in value function approximation and in estimating the greedy policy) in the fina...

  9. Compensatory Hypertrophy of Skeletal Muscle: Contractile Characteristics (United States)

    Ianuzzo, C. D.; Chen, V.


    Describes an experiment using rats that demonstrates contractile characteristics of normal and hypertrophied muscle. Compensatory hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle is induced by surgical removal of the synergistic gastrocnemium muscle. Includes methods for determination of contractile properties of normal and hypertrophied muscle and…

  10. Contractile Properties of Esophageal Striated Muscle: Comparison with Cardiac and Skeletal Muscles in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Shiina


    Full Text Available The external muscle layer of the mammalian esophagus consists of striated muscles. We investigated the contractile properties of esophageal striated muscle by comparison with those of skeletal and cardiac muscles. Electrical field stimulation with single pulses evoked twitch-like contractile responses in esophageal muscle, similar to those in skeletal muscle in duration and similar to those in cardiac muscle in amplitude. The contractions of esophageal muscle were not affected by an inhibitor of gap junctions. Contractile responses induced by high potassium or caffeine in esophageal muscle were analogous to those in skeletal muscle. High-frequency stimulation induced a transient summation of contractions followed by sustained contractions with amplitudes similar to those of twitch-like contractions, although a large summation was observed in skeletal muscle. The results demonstrate that esophageal muscle has properties similar but not identical to those of skeletal muscle and that some specific properties may be beneficial for esophageal peristalsis.

  11. Knitting and weaving artificial muscles (United States)

    Maziz, Ali; Concas, Alessandro; Khaldi, Alexandre; Stålhand, Jonas; Persson, Nils-Krister; Jager, Edwin W. H.


    A need exists for artificial muscles that are silent, soft, and compliant, with performance characteristics similar to those of skeletal muscle, enabling natural interaction of assistive devices with humans. By combining one of humankind’s oldest technologies, textile processing, with electroactive polymers, we demonstrate here the feasibility of wearable, soft artificial muscles made by weaving and knitting, with tunable force and strain. These textile actuators were produced from cellulose yarns assembled into fabrics and coated with conducting polymers using a metal-free deposition. To increase the output force, we assembled yarns in parallel by weaving. The force scaled linearly with the number of yarns in the woven fabric. To amplify the strain, we knitted a stretchable fabric, exhibiting a 53-fold increase in strain. In addition, the textile construction added mechanical stability to the actuators. Textile processing permits scalable and rational production of wearable artificial muscles, and enables novel ways to design assistive devices. PMID:28138542

  12. Muscle glycogen stores and fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørtenblad, Niels; Westerblad, Håkan; Nielsen, Joachim


      Studies performed at the beginning of the last century revealed the importance of carbohydrate as a fuel during exercise, and the importance of muscle glycogen on performance has subsequently been confirmed in numerous studies. However, the link between glycogen depletion and impaired muscle...... function during fatigue is not well understood and a direct cause-and-effect relationship between glycogen and muscle function remains to be established. The use of electron microscopy has revealed that glycogen is not homogeneously distributed in skeletal muscle fibres, but rather localized in distinct...... pools. Furthermore, each glycogen granule has its own metabolic machinery with glycolytic enzymes and regulating proteins. One pool of such glycogenolytic complexes is localized within the myofibrils in close contact with key proteins involved in the excitation-contraction coupling and Ca2+ release from...

  13. Muscle Strength and Poststroke Hemiplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Otto H; Stenager, Egon; Dalgas, Ulrik


    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review (1) psychometric properties of criterion isokinetic dynamometry testing of muscle strength in persons with poststroke hemiplegia (PPSH); and (2) literature that compares muscle strength in patients poststroke with that in healthy controls assessed by criterion...... isokinetic dynamometry. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search of 7 databases was performed. STUDY SELECTION: Included studies (1) enrolled participants with definite poststroke hemiplegia according to defined criteria; (2) assessed muscle strength or power by criterion isokinetic dynamometry; (3) had...... undergone peer review; and (4) were available in English or Danish. DATA EXTRACTION: The psychometric properties of isokinetic dynamometry were reviewed with respect to reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Furthermore, comparisons of strength between paretic, nonparetic, and comparable healthy muscles...

  14. Sports Hernia: Misdiagnosed Muscle Strain (United States)

    ... next step in treatment. During surgery, the lower abdominal muscles and connective tissues are released and reattached. Some ... a Training Program Postdoctoral Training OPTI Clearinghouse OGME Development Physician Profiles Order Physician Credentialing Reports Professional Development ...

  15. Evaluation of muscle hyperactivity of the grimacing muscles by unilateral tight eyelid closure and stapedius muscle tone. (United States)

    Shiba, Masato; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Ban, Ryokuya; Nagai, Fumio


    Muscle hyperactivity of grimacing muscles, including the orbicularis oculi and corrugator supercilii muscles that cause crow's feet and a glabellar frown line with ageing, cannot be accurately evaluated by surface observation. In 71 subjects, this study investigated the extent to which grimacing muscles are innervated by the bilateral motor cortices, whether the corticofacial projection to the grimacing muscles affects the facially innervated stapedius muscle tone by measuring static compliance of the tympanic membrane, and whether unilateral tight eyelid closure with contraction of the grimacing muscles changes static compliance. Unilateral tight eyelid closure and its subsequent change in the contralateral vertical medial eyebrow position revealed that motor neurons of the orbicularis oculi and corrugator supercilii muscles were innervated by the bilateral motor cortices with weak-to-strong contralateral dominance. The orbicularis oculi, corrugator supercilii, and stapedius muscles innervated by the bilateral motor cortices had increased muscle hyperactivity, which lowered the vertical medial eyebrow position and decreased the static compliance of the tympanic membrane more than those innervated by the unilateral motor cortex. Unilateral enhanced tight eyelid closure with contraction of the grimacing muscles in certain subjects ipsilaterally decreased the static compliance with increased contraction of the stapedius muscle, which probably occurs to immobilise the tympanic membrane and protect the inner ear from loud sound. Evaluation of unilateral tight eyelid closure and the subsequent change in the contralateral vertical medial eyebrow position as well as a measurement of the static compliance for the stapedius muscle tone has revealed muscle hyperactivity of grimacing muscles.

  16. Simvastatin effects on skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Stride, Nis; Hey-Mogensen, Martin;


    Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) content, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity were measured in simvastatin-treated patients (n = 10) and in well-matched control subjects (n = 9).......Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) content, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity were measured in simvastatin-treated patients (n = 10) and in well-matched control subjects (n = 9)....

  17. Putting muscle in DNA methylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James P Reddington; Richard R Meehan


    Over 25 years ago seminal experiments from the labs of Peter Jones and Harold Weintraub demonstrated that alteration in the DNA modification state underlie the myogenic conversion of fibroblast cell lines [1,2].This paved the way for the identification of myogenic helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins in muscle differentiation,but the mechanism by which DNA methylation regulates muscle differentiation has remained elusive [3].

  18. Morphology of peroneus tertius muscle. (United States)

    Joshi, S D; Joshi, S S; Athavale, S A


    Peroneus tertius (PT) muscle is peculiar to man, and man is the only member among the primates in whom this muscle occurs. The muscle is variable in its development and attachment. Because of functional demands of bipedal gait and plantigrade foot, part of extensor digitorum brevis (EDB) has migrated upwards into the leg from the dorsum of foot. PT is a muscle that evolution is rendering more important. In a total of 110 cadavers, extensor compartment of leg and dorsum of foot were dissected in both the lower limbs and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and PT muscles were dissected and displayed. PT was found to be absent in 10.5% limbs, the incidence being greater on the right side. The remaining limbs in which the PT muscle was present had a very extensive origin from lower 3/4th of extensor surface of fibula (20% on right and in 17% on left), and the EDL was very much reduced in size. In approximately 12%, the tendon of PT was thick or even thicker than the tendon of EDL. In 4%, the tendon extended beyond fifth metatarsal up to metatarsophalangeal joint of fifth toe, and in 1.5%, it extended up to the proximal phalanx of little toe. In two cases (both on the right side), where PT was absent, it was replaced by a slip from lateral margin of EDL. We conclude that PT, which is preeminently human, is extending its purchase both proximally and distally.

  19. Muscle histochemistry in chronic alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Ferraz


    Full Text Available Twenty-two chronic acoholic patients were assessed by neurologic examination and muscle biopsy. The patients manifested proximal muscular weakness to a variable extent. One case presented as an acute bout of myopathy, according to the Manual Muscle Test, MMT. The most prominent histologic feature observed was muscle atrophy (95.3% better evidenced through the ATPase stain with the predominance of type II A fibers (71.4%. Lack of the mosaic pattern (type grouping seen in 76% of the cases and an important mitochondrial proliferation with intrasarcoplasmatic lipid accumulation in 63% of the patients. In case of acute presentation of muscle weakness the. pathological substrate is quite different, i.e. presence of myositis mainly interstitial characterized by lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate and several spots of necrosis like Zencker degeneration. Based on histologic criteria, our data suggest that: the main determinant of muscle weakness seen in chronic alcoholic patients is neurogenic in origin (alcoholic polineuropathy; the direct toxic action of ethanol under the skeletal muscle is closely related to the mitochondrial metabolism; the so-called acute alcoholic myopathy has probably viral etiology.

  20. Artificial muscle: facts and fiction. (United States)

    Schaub, Marcus C


    Mechanical devices are sought to support insufficient or paralysed striated muscles including the failing heart. Nickel-titanium alloys (nitinol) present the following two properties: (i) super-elasticity, and (ii) the potential to assume different crystal structures depending on temperature and/or stress. Starting from the martensite state nitinol is able to resume the austenite form (state of low potential energy and high entropy) even against an external resistance. This one-way shape change is deployed in self-expanding vascular stents. Heating induces the force generating transformation from martensite to the austenite state while cooling induces relaxation back to the martensite state. This two-way shape change oscillating between the two states may be used in cyclically contracting support devices of silicon-coated nitinol wires. Such a contractile device sutured to the right atrium has been tested in vitro in a bench model and in vivo in sheep. The contraction properties of natural muscles, specifically of the myocardium, and the tight correlation with ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria is briefly outlined. Force development by the nitinol device cannot be smoothly regulated as in natural muscle. Its mechanical impact is forced onto the natural muscle regardless of the actual condition with regard to metabolism and Ca2+-homeostasis. The development of artificial muscle on the basis of nitinol wires is still in its infancy. The nitinol artificial muscle will have to prove its viability in the various clinical settings.

  1. The Politics of Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Buur, Lars


    Economic transformation is driven by successfully implemented industrial policy, but industrial policy is inherently political. We cannot understand why some governments pursue and implement industrial policy better than others without understanding the politics. This article addresses...

  2. Satellite cells: the architects of skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Chang, Natasha C; Rudnicki, Michael A


    The outstanding regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle is attributed to the resident muscle stem cell termed satellite cell. Satellite cells are essential for skeletal muscle regeneration as they ultimately provide the myogenic precursors that rebuild damaged muscle tissue. Satellite cells characteristically are a heterogeneous population of stem cells and committed progenitor cells. Delineation of cellular hierarchy and understanding how lineage fate choices are determined within the satellite cell population will be invaluable for the advancement of muscle regenerative therapies.

  3. Simple technique for maximal thoracic muscle harvest. (United States)

    Marshall, M Blair; Kaiser, Larry R; Kucharczuk, John C


    We present a modification of technique for standard muscle flap harvest, the placement of cutaneous traction sutures. This technique allows for maximal dissection of the thoracic muscles even through minimal incisions. Through improved exposure and traction, complete dissection of the muscle bed can be performed and the tissue obtained maximized. Because more muscle bulk is obtained with this technique, the need for a second muscle may be prevented.

  4. Effect of acupuncture depth on muscle pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitakoji Hiroshi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While evidence supports efficacy of acupuncture and/or dry needling in treating musculoskeletal pain, it is unclear which needling method is most effective. This study aims to determine the effects of depth of needle penetration on muscle pain. Methods A total of 22 healthy volunteers performed repeated eccentric contractions to induce muscle soreness in their extensor digital muscle. Subjects were assigned randomly to four groups, namely control group, skin group (depth of 3 mm: the extensor digital muscle, muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle and non-segmental group (depth of 10 mm: the anterior tibial muscle. Pressure pain threshold and electrical pain threshold of the skin, fascia and muscle were measured at a point 20 mm distal to the maximum tender point on the second day after the exercise. Results Pressure pain thresholds of skin group (depth of 3 mm: the extensor digital muscle and muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle were significantly higher than the control group, whereas the electrical pain threshold at fascia of muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle was a significantly higher than control group; however, there was no significant difference between the control and other groups. Conclusion The present study shows that acupuncture stimulation of muscle increases the PPT and EPT of fascia. The depth of needle penetration is important for the relief of muscle pain.

  5. Monetary Policy Proving Effective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Hu Xiaolian,Vice Governor of the People’s Bank of China,the country’s central bank, published an article concerning China’s managed floating exchange rate regime and the effectiveness of the monetary policy on the bank’s website on July 26.She pointed out monetary policy,as an important instrument of China’s macroeconomic control,has faced many challenges in recent years.A more flexible exchange rate regime will help improve the effectiveness of the policy.Edited excerpts follow

  6. Cultural Policy in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gestur


    The article examines the history of cultural policy in Iceland from a Nordic comparative perspective. National cultural policy takes form in the 19th and early 20th century as a part of the nation-building, emphasising the Icelandic language as the core of national identity, building cultural...... on the continuing emphasis on central cultural institution and the Icelandic language. Since the 1970s Cold War conflicts have been replaced by a consensus on growing support to artists and an armth's length policy, and furthermore the 1990s have seen a strong move towards NPM and international participation....

  7. Designing collaborative policy innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Sørensen, Eva


    Recent approaches to enhancing public innovation suffer from two shortcomings: They overemphasize competition as a driver of innovation and overlook the fact that public sector innovation involves policy innovation as well as service innovation. Drawing on governance research and innovation theory......, the chapter investigates the extent to which and how collaboration between politicians and relevant stakeholders can spur the formulation, implementation and diffusion of new innovative policies. A case study of a process of collaborative policy innovation in a Danish municipality shows that collaborative...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mursa


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a common fiscal policy, designed to support the euro currency, has some significant drawbacks. The greatest danger is the possibility of leveling the tax burden in all countries. This leveling of the tax is to the disadvantage of countries in Eastern Europe, in principle, countries poorly endowed with capital, that use a lax fiscal policy (Romania, Bulgaria, etc. to attract foreign investment from rich countries of the European Union. In addition, common fiscal policy can lead to a higher degree of centralization of budgetary expenditures in the European Union.

  9. Time policies, urban policies and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernandes


    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, significant social and economic transformations had a relevant correspondence in processes of territorial complexification, urban fragmentation and spatial injustice. Literature and research shows that these processes have also a very important temporal dimension, associated to a transition from an industrial society of synchronized rhythms to more heterogeneous everyday experiences where more individualized time-space associations of a growing number of people are based on atypical agendas and working hours. This article, that is associated with the Urban-Net project Chronotope, profiting from its discussions and results, takes as central the relation between time policies, urban policies and planning, analyzing differences between Oporto/Portugal, Barcelona/Spain, Malmoe/Sweden and Toulouse/France.

  10. 手法配合常规理疗早期干预专业运动员股内收肌急性损伤的临床疗效观察%Clinical Observation of Manual Therapy Early Intervention on Professional Athletes Thigh Adductor Acute Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琼; 朱国苗; 王爱斌; 张鲁申


    [目的]观察手法配合常规理疗早期干预专业运动员股内收肌急性损伤的临床效果。[方法]采取前瞻性临床随机对照研究方法,将134名符合纳入标准的专业运动员随机分成观察组和对照组,观察组采用手法和常规理疗干预,对照组采用单纯常规理疗干预。采用简化McGil 疼痛量表(short-form McGil pain questionnaire,SF-MPQ)评估运动员治疗前、第1次治疗后及疗程结束后疼痛改善情况。[结果]第1次手法干预后,观察组SF-MPQ指数显著降低,与对照组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),疗程结束后观察组SF-MPQ 中疼痛分级量表(pain rating index,PRI)和疼痛视觉模拟评分量表(visual analogue scale,VAS)指数显著降低,与对照组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),但疼痛强度PPI指数(present pain index, PPI)与对照组相比无显著性差异(P=0.26)。[结论]手法配合常规理疗早期专业运动员股内收肌急性损伤具有显著的即刻镇痛效果,与常规理疗相比,手法配合常规理疗早期干预急性软组织损伤具有一定的优势。%[Objective]To observe the clinical effect of manual therapy early intervention on professional athletes thigh adductor acute injury. [Methods]A prospective randomized control ed clinical 134 cases met the inclusion criteria, at the same time did not meet the exclusion criteria of profession athletes, who were randomly divided into two groups, treatment and control groups, the manipulation group receiving manual therapy plus rountine physiotherapy intervention while the control one just routine physiotherapy intervention. Short-form McGil pain questionnaire(SF-MPQ) is used to evaluate pain be-fore and after the first treatment and the last treatment. [Results] After first intervention, the treatment group could statistical y significantly reduce the pain index(P<0.01). At the end of the treatment, compared with the control group

  11. Comparison of clinical characteristics of patients with adductor laryngeal dystonia in the focal and segmental types Comparação entre características clínicas de pacientes com distonia laríngea de adução nas formas focal e segmentar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Polacow Korn


    Full Text Available Dystonia is a central motor processing neurological disorder characterized by abnormal, often action-induced, involuntary movements or uncontrolled spasms. AIM: To compare patients with the diagnoses of focal and segmental adductor laryngeal dystonia at the Neurolarynx Outpatient Clinic of the Federal University of São Paulo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A clinical retrospective study of data collected from patient registries from 2003 to 2009. RESULTS: Of 34 patients, 25 presented focal dystonia and 9 presented segmental dystonia. There were 30 females (88. 2% and 4 males (11. 8%. A relation with a traumatic event was reported in 11 cases (32. 4%. Vocal tremor was observed in 21 patients (61. 8%. The mean age at onset, the age at diagnosis, and time between the onset and the diagnosis were respectively 55, 61. 3 and 6. 3 years. There was no statistical difference between patients with focal laryngeal adductor dystonia and segmental dystonia in the study data. CONCLUSIONS: There were no statistical differences among patients with focal adductor laryngeal dystonia and segmental dystonia relating to age of onset, age of diagnosis, gender, time between onset and diagnosis, presence of associated tremor, and relation to traumaA distonia é um transtorno neurológico do processamento motor central caracterizado por movimentos involuntários ou espasmos incontroláveis, induzidos por atividade. OBJETIVO: Comparar pacientes com o diagnóstico de distonia laríngea nas formas focal e distonia segmentar do Ambulatório de Neurolaringe. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo clínico retrospectivo a partir de levantamento dos prontuários entre 2003 e 2009. RESULTADOS: Dos 34 pacientes, 25 apresentaram distonia focal e 9 apresentaram distonia segmentar. Do total da amostra, 30 (88,2% eram do sexo feminino e 4 (11,8% do sexo masculino. A relação com situação traumática estava presente em 11 (32,4%. O tremor associado esteve presente em 21 pacientes (61,8%. A média da

  12. Epifascial accessory palmaris longus muscle. (United States)

    Tiengo, Cesare; Macchi, Veronica; Stecco, Carla; Bassetto, Franco; De Caro, Raffaele


    In hand reconstructive surgery the palmaris longus muscle is one of the most utilized donor site for tendon reconstruction procedures. However, its anatomic position is variable and anatomic variations may be responsible for median nerve compression. We report the case of a 40-year-old, right-handed woman, who presented with numbness and paresthesias in the palm and in the flexor aspect of the first, second, and third fingers of her right hand for the preceding 5 months, coinciding with increase of office work (typing). The clinical examination and radiological investigations (ultrasound and magnetic resonance) revealed a subcutaneous mass (15 mm x 2.3 mm x 6 cm), with a lenticular shape and definite edges at the level of the volar aspect of the distal third of the forearm. The fine-needle aspiration biopsy revealed the presence of striated muscle fibers. During surgery, a muscle belly was found in the epifascial plane. This muscle originated from subcutaneous septa in the middle forearm and inserted on to the superficial palmar aponeurosis with fine short tendon fibers. Exposure of the antebrachial fascia did not reveal any area of weakness or muscle herniation. The palmaris longus tendon, flexor digitorum superficialis tendons, and flexor carpi radialis tendon showed usual topography under the antebrachial fascia. The accessory muscle was excised and histology revealed unremarkable striated muscle fibers, limited by a thin connective sheath. The presence of an accessory palmaris longus (APL) located in the epifascial plane could be ascribed to an unusual migration of myoblasts during the morphogenesis. Although extremely rare, APL is worth bearing in mind as a possible cause of median nerve compression and etiology of a volar mass in the distal forearm.

  13. Evaluation and Policy Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Højlund, Steven


    This article examines how evaluation induces policy learning – a question largely neglected by the scholarly literature on evaluation and policy learning. Following a learner's perspective, the article attempts to ascertain who the learners are, and what, and how, learners actually learn from...... evaluations. In so doing, it focuses on what different types of learners actually learn within the context of the evaluation framework (the set of administrative structures defining the evaluation goals and process). Taking the empirical case of three EU programme evaluations, the patterns of policy learning...... emanating from them are examined. The findings are that only two types of actors involved in the evaluation are actually learning (programme units and external evaluators), that learners learn different things (programme overview, small-scale programme adjustments, policy change and evaluation methods...

  14. Bullying Policies and Laws (United States)

    ... Policies & Laws | Español Search WHAT IS BULLYING Definition The Roles Kids Play Other Types of Aggressive Behavior CYBER BULLYING What is Cyberbullying? Prevent Cyberbullying Report Cyberbullying WHO ...

  15. Exchange Risk Management Policy

    CERN Document Server


    At the Finance Committee of March 2005, following a comment by the CERN Audit Committee, the Chairman invited the Management to prepare a document on exchange risk management policy. The Finance Committee is invited to take note of this document.

  16. Solar energy policy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A number of memoranda and reports are collected which deal with evaluations of solar energy policy options, including direct and indirect labor impacts and costs of different options and consumer protection. (LEW)

  17. New food policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Andersen, Lill

    a need for restablishing public confidence in its food supply, its food science, its laws and its food control. In addition, the White Paper on Food Safety points towards a farm to fork policy in that 'as the food production chain is becoming increasingly complex, the health of consumers can ony......The urbanisation, technical changes, and the industrialisation of the food systems on one hand and increased income and changes in lifestyles on the other hand transform the way food is produced, marketed and consumed - those changes call for changes in the nature of food policy. Concerns over food...... safety have become an important driver of reform of food policy. In particular, the BSE crisis in 1996 had a significant impact on the formulation of a change in food safety policy in the EU. The White Paper on Food Safety was prepared by the EU commision as a response to the BSE scandal as the EU felt...

  18. Effective Vaccination Policies. (United States)

    Shaw, L; Spears, W; Billings, L; Maxim, P


    We present a framework for modeling the spread of pathogens throughout a population and generating policies that minimize the impact of those pathogens on the population. This framework is used to study the spread of human viruses between cities via airplane travel. It combines agent-based simulation, mathematical analysis, and an Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) optimizer. The goal of this study is to develop tools that determine the optimal distribution of a vaccine supply in the model. Using plausible benchmark vaccine allocation policies of uniform and proportional distribution, we compared their effectiveness to policies found by the EA. We then designed and tested a new, more effective policy which increased the importance of vaccinating smaller cities that are flown to more often. This "importance factor" was validated using U.S. influenza data from the last four years.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The state administration process and hence also the economy coordination effort requires the promotion of robust, consistent and transparent public policy, which must be accepted by all stakeholders of economic development. Public policy is a set of measures taken by the authorities legally constituted as public power. Under normal conditions these policy aims at improving living conditions of citizens by developing grounded strategies which are applied by measures implemented to stimulate economic development in all its complexity by harmonizing the efforts of the institutional and non-institutional bodies responsible for ensuring the overall public interest. In Romania, public policies, especially fiscal ones on which we dwell, not reached in many cases the expected effects primarily because of their superficial grounding, lack of transparency, unpredictability, poor communication and secondly as an effect of ineffective management of public financial resources.

  20. Energy Policy Act (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Energy Policy Act (EPA) addresses energy production in the United States, including: (1) energy efficiency; (2) renewable energy; (3) oil and gas; (4) coal; (5)...

  1. Social Media Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stohl, Cynthia; Etter, Michael; Banghart, Scott


    Three global developments situate the context of this investigation: the increasing use of social media by organizations and their employees, the burgeoning presence of social media policies, and the heightened focus on corporate social responsibility (CSR). In this study the intersection...... of these trends is examined through a content analysis of 112 publicly available social media policies from the largest corporations in the world. The extent to which social media policies facilitate and/or constrain the communicative sensibilities and values associated with contemporary notions of CSR...... negotiation and participation in the social responsibilities of corporations. Moreover, policies generally enact organizational communication practices that are contrary to international CSR guidelines (e.g., the UN Global Compact and other international agreements). Findings suggest that social media...

  2. Swedish Disarmament Policy



    NPIHP Partners Host Conference on Swedish Disarmament Policy Dec 05, 2012 The Nuclear Proliferation International History Project is pleased to announce a conference on Swedish nuclear disarmament policy, organized and hosted by Stockholm University on 26 november 2012. Organized by Stockholm University Professor Thomas Jonter, Emma Rosengren, Goran Rydeberg, and Stellan Andersson under the aegis of the Swedish Disarmament Resaerch Project, the conference featured keynote addresses by Hans Bl...

  3. Population and health policies


    Schultz, T.Paul


    The program evaluation literature for population and health policies is in flux, with many disciplines documenting biological and behavioral linkages from fetal development to late life mortality, chronic disease, and disability, though their implications for policy remain uncertain. Both macro- and microeconomics seek to understand and incorporate connections between economic development and the demographic transition. The focus here is on research methods, findings, and questions that econo...

  4. Industrial Policies in Colombia


    Melendez, Marcela; Perry, Guillermo


    This paper surveys and analyzes industrial policies in Colombia, finding extensive use of productive development policies (PDPs) and despite claims of only moderate government intervention. Rarely explicitly associated with the need to address market failures, PDPs are instead associated with economic reactivation and vaguely defined “competitiveness.” There are also PDPs that address government failures considered unlikely to be corrected by first-best interventions. Colombia has made progre...

  5. Age-related decline in muscle mass and muscle function in Flemish Caucasians: a 10-year follow-up. (United States)

    Charlier, Ruben; Knaeps, Sara; Mertens, Evelien; Van Roie, Evelien; Delecluse, Christophe; Lefevre, Johan; Thomis, Martine


    Aging is a complex process that is accompanied with changes in both muscle mass and muscle function (strength and performance). Therefore, the current longitudinal study aimed to provide a better insight in 10-year aging-related changes in whole-body muscle mass and strength performance of the leg extensors during the adult life span. Data were gathered within the framework of the first- (2002-2004: baseline) and third-generation Flemish Policy Research Center Sport (2012-2014: follow-up). Results are based on muscle characteristics data of 591 Flemish Caucasian adults (19-73 years, 381 men). Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) was determined with bioelectrical impedance analysis. Biodex Medical System 3® dynamometer was used to measure isometric (PTstatic120°) and isokinetic (PTdynamic60° and PTdynamic240°) strength, ballistic movement speed (S 20 %), and muscular endurance (work) of the knee extensors. Overall strength performance was higher at both evaluation moments in men compared to women (p < 0.01). But only S 20 % declined significantly faster in men compared to women (p < 0.01). Age and baseline strength performance were negatively related with the change in strength performance, even when corrected for SMM, protein intake, and energy expenditure during sports (E sport). In conclusion, strength performance was not associated with E sport in this study, but protein intake was associated with isometric strength in men, and with ballistic and isokinetic strength in women. Changes in S 20 % were significantly greater in men compared to women. Baseline values of strength performance and age were associated with changes in strength performance parameters, even after correction for SMM, protein intake, and E sport.

  6. Laughing: a demanding exercise for trunk muscles. (United States)

    Wagner, Heiko; Rehmes, Ulrich; Kohle, Daniel; Puta, Christian


    Social, psychological, and physiological studies have provided evidence indicating that laughter imposes an increased demand on trunk muscles. It was the aim of this study to quantify the activation of trunk muscles during laughter yoga in comparison with crunch and back lifting exercises regarding the mean trunk muscle activity. Muscular activity during laughter yoga exercises was measured by surface electromyography of 5 trunk muscles. The activation level of internal oblique muscle during laughter yoga is higher compared to the traditional exercises. The multifidus, erector spinae, and rectus abdominis muscles were nearly half activated during laughter yoga, while the activation of the external oblique muscle was comparable with the crunch and back lifting exercises. Our results indicate that laughter yoga has a positive effect on trunk muscle activation. Thus, laughter seems to be a good activator of trunk muscles, but further research is required whether laughter yoga is a good exercise to improve neuromuscular recruitment patterns for spine stability.

  7. Urban photovoltaic electricity policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at urban photovoltaic electricity policies. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy as a significant and sustainable renewable energy option. The objective of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. The goal of the study presented was to evaluate a standardised basis for urban policies regarding photovoltaic integration in a set of cities in the countries participating in the IEA's Task 10, Urban Scale PV. The investigation was focused on three topics: the present state of the policies, the prospects for future policies fostering photovoltaic deployment and the prospects for future policies to cope with large-scale photovoltaic integration. The first section analyses the state of the policies; this analysis is then confirmed in section 2, which deals with present obstacles to PV deployment and solutions to overcome them. The third section investigates future prospects for PV deployment with the question of mastering large scale integration. The report concludes that cities could formulate urban solutions by developing integrated, specific provisions for PV deployment in their urban infrastructure planning.

  8. Venue Shifts and Policy Change in EU Fisheries Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Princen, S.B.M.


    Over the past two decades profound changes have taken place in the European Union's (EU) fisheries policy. Partly these changes have occurred within the EU's Common Fisheries Policy itself, but partly policy change has been effected by the application of environmental legislation and policy instrume

  9. Muscle pathology in juvenile dermatomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilson Eduardo Calore

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study muscle biopsies, using histochemistry, on ten children with infantile dermatomyositis. DESIGN: Series of ten patients (of whom eight patients had received treatment and two had not were submitted to muscle biopsy in order to diagnose possible inflammatory myopathy or to detect recurrences. PLACE OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE STUDY: Public Health Service of São Paulo State. PARTICIPANTS: children with clinical features of inflammatory myopathy. INTERVENTION: biopsies were performed on the vastus lateralis using local anesthetic. Histochemistry was performed according to standardized methods. RESULTS: Architectural changes of the muscle fibers, necrosis of variable intensity and accentuated evidence of regeneration were observed in patients who had not received treatment (2 cases and in one case where muscular weakness persisted in spite of corticosteroid therapy. Necrosis and regeneration were minimal or absent in cases treated for one year or more (4 cases. In 3 cases with clinical and laboratorial recurrences, muscle necrosis and architectural changes were detected. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that muscle biopsy could aid in diagnosing infantile dermatomyositis as well as in detecting recurrences even in cases without clinical activity of the disease.

  10. Laser therapy of muscle injuries. (United States)

    Dawood, Munqith S; Al-Salihi, Anam Rasheed; Qasim, Amenah Wala'a


    Low-level lasers are used in general therapy and healing process due to their good photo-bio-stimulation effects. In this paper, the effects of diode laser and Nd:YAG laser on the healing process of practically managed skeletal muscle trauma has been successfully studied. Standard impact trauma was induced by using a specially designed mechanical device. The impacted muscle was left for 3 days for complete development of blunt trauma. After that it was irradiated by five laser sessions for 5 days. Two types of lasers were used; 785-nm diode laser and 1.064-nm Nd:YAG laser, both in continuous and pulsed modes. A special electronic circuit was designed and implemented to modulate the diode laser for this purpose. Tissue samples of crushed skeletal muscle have been dissected from the injured irradiated muscle then bio-chemically analyzed for the regeneration of contractile and collagenous proteins using Lowry assay for protein determination and Reddy and Enwemeka assay for hydroxyproline determination. The results showed that both lasers stimulate the regeneration capability of traumatized skeletal muscle. The diode laser in CW and pulsed modes showed better results than the Nd:YAG in accelerating the preservation of the normal tissue content of collagenous and contractile proteins beside controlling the regeneration of non-functional fibrous tissue. This study proved that the healing achieved by the laser treatment was faster than the control group by 15-20 days.

  11. Choosing a skeletal muscle relaxant. (United States)

    See, Sharon; Ginzburg, Regina


    Skeletal muscle relaxants are widely used in treating musculoskeletal conditions. However, evidence of their effectiveness consists mainly of studies with poor methodologic design. In addition, these drugs have not been proven to be superior to acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses support using skeletal muscle relaxants for short-term relief of acute low back pain when nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen are not effective or tolerated. Comparison studies have not shown one skeletal muscle relaxant to be superior to another. Cyclobenzaprine is the most heavily studied and has been shown to be effective for various musculoskeletal conditions. The sedative properties of tizanidine and cyclobenzaprine may benefit patients with insomnia caused by severe muscle spasms. Methocarbamol and metaxalone are less sedating, although effectiveness evidence is limited. Adverse effects, particularly dizziness and drowsiness, are consistently reported with all skeletal muscle relaxants. The potential adverse effects should be communicated clearly to the patient. Because of limited comparable effectiveness data, choice of agent should be based on side-effect profile, patient preference, abuse potential, and possible drug interactions.

  12. Climate policy decisions require policy-based lifecycle analysis. (United States)

    Bento, Antonio M; Klotz, Richard


    Lifecycle analysis (LCA) metrics of greenhouse gas emissions are increasingly being used to select technologies supported by climate policy. However, LCAs typically evaluate the emissions associated with a technology or product, not the impacts of policies. Here, we show that policies supporting the same technology can lead to dramatically different emissions impacts per unit of technology added, due to multimarket responses to the policy. Using a policy-based consequential LCA, we find that the lifecycle emissions impacts of four US biofuel policies range from a reduction of 16.1 gCO2e to an increase of 24.0 gCO2e per MJ corn ethanol added by the policy. The differences between these results and representative technology-based LCA measures, which do not account for the policy instrument driving the expansion in the technology, illustrate the need for policy-based LCA measures when informing policy decision making.

  13. Large eccentric strength increase using the Copenhagen Adduction exercise in football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishøi, L; Sørensen, C N; Kaae, N M


    demonstrated a 35.7% increase in EHAD (P  0.335). Compliance was 91.25%, and median muscle soreness ranged from 0 to 2. The CA......Hip adductor injuries are frequent in football, and players with low adductor strength appear to be at increased risk of injury. High adductor muscle activity has been shown in the Copenhagen Adduction exercise (CA); however, an associated strength gain has not been investigated. This study aims...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the correlations between muscle mass, muscle strength, physical performance, and muscle fatigue resistance in community-dwelling elderly people in order to elucidate factors which contribute to elderly’s performance of daily activities. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on community-dwelling elderly in Bandung from September to December 2014. One hundred and thirty elderly, 60 years old or above, were evaluated using bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure muscle mass; grip strength to measure muscle strength and muscle fatigue resistance; habitual gait speed to measure physical performance; and Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ to assess physical activity. Results: There were significant positive correlations between muscle mass (r=0,27, p=0,0019, muscle strength (r=0,26, p=0,0024, and physical performance (r=0,32, p=0,0002 with muscle fatigue resistance. Physical performance has the highest correlation based on multiple regression test (p=0,0025. In association with muscle mass, the physical activity showed a significant positive correlation (r=0,42, p=0,0000. Sarcopenia was identified in 19 (14.61% of 130 subjects. Conclusions: It is suggested that muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance influence muscle fatigue resistance.

  15. Therapeutic effects of massage and electrotherapy on muscle tone, stiffness and muscle contraction following gastrocnemius muscle fatigue (United States)

    Wang, Joong-San


    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of a combined intervention consisting of massage therapy and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on gastrocnemius muscle fatigue, assessing whether the intervention improved muscle tone, stiffness, and muscle contraction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 healthy males in their 20s who were equally divided into a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation group and a combined therapy group that received a combination of massage therapy and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Muscle fatigue was triggered on the gastrocnemius muscle, and the effects of intervention method on muscle tone, stiffness, and muscle contraction were examined over time. [Results] Lateral and medial gastrocnemius muscle tone and stiffness significantly increased and gastrocnemius muscle contraction significantly decreased in each group immediately after fatigue was triggered on the gastrocnemius muscle. There was no difference in the effects of the two intervention methods over time. [Conclusion] This study verified that a combined therapy of massage therapy and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation was able to be used effectively in improving muscle tone, stiffness, muscle contraction, thereby reducing gastrocnemius muscle fatigue. PMID:28210061

  16. "On the Effectiveness of Monetary Policy and Fiscal Policy"


    Arestis, Philip; Sawyer, Malcolm


    Within the framework of macroeconomic policy and theory over the past twenty years or so, a major shift has occurred regarding the relative importance given of monetary policy versus fiscal policy. The former has gained considerably in stature, while the latter is rarely mentioned. Further, monetary policy no longer focuses on attempts to control some monetary aggregate, as it did in the first half of the 1980s, but instead focuses on the setting of interest rates as the key policy instrument...

  17. Pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation using biofeedback. (United States)

    Newman, Diane K


    Pelvic floor muscle exercises have been recommended for urinary incontinence since first described by obstetrician gynecologist Dr. Arnold Kegel more than six decades ago. These exercises are performed to strengthen pelvic floor muscles, provide urethral support to prevent urine leakage, and suppress urgency. In clinical urology practice, expert clinicians also teach patients how to relax the muscle to improve bladder emptying and relieve pelvic pain caused by muscle spasm. When treating lower urinary tract symptoms, an exercise training program combined with biofeedback therapy has been recommended as first-line treatment. This article provides clinical application of pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation using biofeedback as a technique to enhance pelvic floor muscle training.

  18. Muscle after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Bo; Kristensen, Ida Bruun; Kjaer, Michael;


    The morphological and contractile changes of muscles below the level of the lesion after spinal cord injury (SCI) are dramatic. In humans with SCI, a fiber-type transformation away from type I begins 4-7 months post-SCI and reaches a new steady state with predominantly fast glycolytic IIX fibers...... years after the injury. There is a progressive drop in the proportion of slow myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform fibers and a rise in the proportion of fibers that coexpress both the fast and slow MHC isoforms. The oxidative enzymatic activity starts to decline after the first few months post-SCI. Muscles...... from individuals with chronic SCI show less resistance to fatigue, and the speed-related contractile properties change, becoming faster. These findings are also present in animals. Future studies should longitudinally examine changes in muscles from early SCI until steady state is reached in order...

  19. Torsional Carbon Nanotube Artificial Muscles (United States)

    Foroughi, Javad; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Wallace, Gordon G.; Oh, Jiyoung; Kozlov, Mikhail E.; Fang, Shaoli; Mirfakhrai, Tissaphern; Madden, John D. W.; Shin, Min Kyoon; Kim, Seon Jeong; Baughman, Ray H.


    Rotary motors of conventional design can be rather complex and are therefore difficult to miniaturize; previous carbon nanotube artificial muscles provide contraction and bending, but not rotation. We show that an electrolyte-filled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn, much thinner than a human hair, functions as a torsional artificial muscle in a simple three-electrode electrochemical system, providing a reversible 15,000° rotation and 590 revolutions per minute. A hydrostatic actuation mechanism, as seen in muscular hydrostats in nature, explains the simultaneous occurrence of lengthwise contraction and torsional rotation during the yarn volume increase caused by electrochemical double-layer charge injection. The use of a torsional yarn muscle as a mixer for a fluidic chip is demonstrated.

  20. Patching vs Packaging in Policy Formulation: Assessing Policy Portfolio Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Howlett


    Full Text Available Thinking about policy mixes is at the forefront of current research work in the policy sciences and raises many significant questions with respect to policy tools and instruments, processes of policy formulation, and the evolution of tool choices over time. Not least among these is how to assess the potential for multiple policy tools to achieve policy goals in an efficient and effective way. Previous conceptual work on policy mixes has highlighted evaluative criteria such as "consistency" (the ability of multiple policy tools to reinforce rather than undermine each other in the pursuit of individual policy goals, "coherence" (or the ability of multiple policy goals to co-exist with each other in a logical fashion, and "congruence" (or the ability of multiple goals and instruments to work together in a uni-directional or mutually supportive fashion as important design principles and measures of optimality in policy mixes. And previous empirical work on the evolution of existing policy mixes has highlighted how these three criteria are often lacking in mixes which have evolved over time as well as those which have otherwise been consciously designed. This article revisits this early design work in order to more clearly assess the reasons why many existing policy mixes are sub-optimal and the consequences this has for thinking about policy formulation processes and the practices of policy design.

  1. Repositioning forelimb superficialis muscles: tendon attachment and muscle activity enable active relocation of functional myofibers. (United States)

    Huang, Alice H; Riordan, Timothy J; Wang, Lingyan; Eyal, Shai; Zelzer, Elazar; Brigande, John V; Schweitzer, Ronen


    The muscles that govern hand motion are composed of extrinsic muscles that reside within the forearm and intrinsic muscles that reside within the hand. We find that the extrinsic muscles of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) first differentiate as intrinsic muscles within the hand and then relocate as myofibers to their final position in the arm. This remarkable translocation of differentiated myofibers across a joint is dependent on muscle contraction and muscle-tendon attachment. Interestingly, the intrinsic flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscles of the foot are identical to the FDS in tendon pattern and delayed developmental timing but undergo limited muscle translocation, providing strong support for evolutionary homology between the FDS and FDB muscles. We propose that the intrinsic FDB pattern represents the original tetrapod limb and that translocation of the muscles to form the FDS is a mammalian evolutionary addition.

  2. Relationship of Skeletal Muscle Development and Growth to Breast Muscle Myopathies: A Review. (United States)

    Velleman, Sandra G


    Selection in meat-type birds has focused on growth rate, muscling, and feed conversion. These strategies have made substantial improvements but have affected muscle structure, repair mechanisms, and meat quality, especially in the breast muscle. The increase in muscle fiber diameters has reduced available connective tissue spacing, reduced blood supply, and altered muscle metabolism in the breast muscle. These changes have increased muscle fiber degeneration and necrosis but have limited muscle repair mechanisms mediated by the adult myoblast (satellite cell) population of cells, likely resulting in the onset of myopathies. This review focuses on muscle growth mechanisms and how changes in the cellular development of the breast muscle may be associated with breast muscle myopathies occurring in meat-type birds.

  3. Resistance training induces qualitative changes in muscle morphology, muscle architecture, and muscle function in elderly postoperative patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, Charlotte; Andersen, Jesper L; Dalgas, Ulrik;


    beneficial qualitative changes in muscle fiber morphology and muscle architecture in elderly postoperative patients. In contrast, rehabilitation regimes based on functional exercises and neuromuscular electrical stimulation had no effect. The present data emphasize the importance of resistance training...

  4. Spontaneous waves in muscle fibres (United States)

    Günther, Stefan; Kruse, Karsten


    Mechanical oscillations are important for many cellular processes, e.g. the beating of cilia and flagella or the sensation of sound by hair cells. These dynamic states originate from spontaneous oscillations of molecular motors. A particularly clear example of such oscillations has been observed in muscle fibers under non-physiological conditions. In that case, motor oscillations lead to contraction waves along the fiber. By a macroscopic analysis of muscle fiber dynamics we find that the spontaneous waves involve non-hydrodynamic modes. A simple microscopic model of sarcomere dynamics highlights mechanical aspects of the motor dynamics and fits with the experimental observations.

  5. Muscle phosphoglycerate mutase deficiency revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naini, Ali; Toscano, Antonio; Musumeci, Olimpia;


    storage disease type X and novel mutations in the gene encoding the muscle subunit of PGAM (PGAM2). DESIGN: Clinical, pathological, biochemical, and molecular analyses. SETTING: Tertiary care university hospitals and academic institutions. Patients A 37-year-old Danish man of Pakistani origin who had...... PGAM deficiency, and molecular studies revealed 2 novel homozygous mutations, a nonsense mutation and a single nucleotide deletion. Pathological studies of muscle showed mild glycogen accumulation but prominent tubular aggregates in both patients. CONCLUSIONS: We found that glycogen storage disease...

  6. No Muscle Is an Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Jane A; Ørtenblad, Niels; Hogan, Michael C;


    Muscle fatigue has been studied with a variety approaches, tools and technologies. The foci of these studies have ranged tremendously, from molecules to the entire organism. Single cell and animal models have been used to gain mechanistic insight into the fatigue process. The theme of this review...... is the concept that the mechanisms of muscle fatigue do not occur in isolation in vivo: muscular work is supported by many complex physiological systems, any of which could fail during exercise and thus contribute to fatigue. To advance our overall understanding of fatigue, a combination of models and approaches...

  7. Muscle GLUT4 in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland-Fischer, Peter; Andersen, Per Heden; Lund, Sten


    test and later a muscle biopsy. Levels of GLUT4 total protein and mRNA content were determined in muscle biopsies by polyclonal antibody labelling and RT-PCR, respectively. RESULTS: GLUT4 protein content in the cirrhosis group was not different from that of the controls, but at variance......: In cirrhosis GLUT4 protein content was quantitatively intact, while limiting glucose tolerance. This indicates loss of redundancy of the major glucose transport system, possibly related to the markedly decreased expression of its gene. Hyper-insulinemia may be a primary event. Our findings implicate...

  8. Muscle cramps in liver disease. (United States)

    Mehta, Shivang S; Fallon, Michael B


    Muscle cramps are common in patients with liver disease and adversely influence quality of life. The exact mechanisms by which they occur remain unclear, although a number of pathophysiological events unique to liver disease may contribute. Clinical studies have identified alterations in 3 areas: nerve function, energy metabolism, and plasma volume/electrolytes. Treatments have focused on these particular areas with varied results. This review will focus on the clinical features of muscle cramps in patients with liver disease and review potential mechanisms and current therapies.

  9. Changes in muscle spindle firing in response to length changes of neighboring muscles. (United States)

    Smilde, Hiltsje A; Vincent, Jake A; Baan, Guus C; Nardelli, Paul; Lodder, Johannes C; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Cope, Tim C; Maas, Huub


    Skeletal muscle force can be transmitted to the skeleton, not only via its tendons of origin and insertion but also through connective tissues linking the muscle belly to surrounding structures. Through such epimuscular myofascial connections, length changes of a muscle may cause length changes within an adjacent muscle and hence, affect muscle spindles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of epimuscular myofascial forces on feedback from muscle spindles in triceps surae muscles of the rat. We hypothesized that within an intact muscle compartment, muscle spindles not only signal length changes of the muscle in which they are located but can also sense length changes that occur as a result of changing the length of synergistic muscles. Action potentials from single afferents were measured intra-axonally in response to ramp-hold release (RHR) stretches of an agonistic muscle at different lengths of its synergist, as well as in response to synergist RHRs. A decrease in force threshold was found for both soleus (SO) and lateral gastrocnemius afferents, along with an increase in length threshold for SO afferents. In addition, muscle spindle firing could be evoked by RHRs of the synergistic muscle. We conclude that muscle spindles not only signal length changes of the muscle in which they are located but also local length changes that occur as a result of changing the length and relative position of synergistic muscles.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Eržen


    Full Text Available The present contribution provides an overview of stereological methods applied in the skeletal muscle research at the Institute of Anatomy of the Medical Faculty in Ljubljana. Interested in skeletal muscle plasticity we studied three different topics: (i expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms in slow and fast muscles under experimental conditions, (ii frequency of satellite cells in young and old human and rat muscles and (iii capillary supply of rat fast and slow muscles. We analysed the expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms within slow rat soleus and fast extensor digitorum longus muscles after (i homotopic and heterotopic transplantation of both muscles, (ii low frequency electrical stimulation of the fast muscle and (iii transposition of the fast nerve to the slow muscle. The models applied were able to turn the fast muscle into a completely slow muscle, but not vice versa. One of the indicators for the regenerative potential of skeletal muscles is its satellite cell pool. The estimated parameters, number of satellite cells per unit fibre length, corrected to the reference sarcomere length (Nsc/Lfib and number of satellite cells per number of nuclei (myonuclei and satellite cell nuclei (Nsc/Nnucl indicated that the frequency of M-cadherin stained satellite cells declines in healthy old human and rat muscles compared to young muscles. To access differences in capillary densities among slow and fast muscles and slow and fast muscle fibres, we have introduced Slicer and Fakir methods, and tested them on predominantly slow and fast rat muscles. Discussing three different topics that require different approach, the present paper reflects the three decades of the development of stereological methods: 2D analysis by simple point counting in the 70's, the disector in the 80's and virtual spatial probes in the 90's. In all methods the interactive computer assisted approach was utilised.

  11. [Public policy analysis]. (United States)

    Subirats, J


    This article presents to public health professionals concepts and perspectives from political science relevant for creating a healthier public policy. Currently, there is no uniform vision of what constitutes public interest and the decisions of public administrations tend to be based on compromise. In public debate, what is paramount is the capacity to persuade. From the perspective of public policy analysis, the crucial issue is definition: the final decision depends on the definition of the problem that has emerged triumphant in the public debate among competing actors with different definitions of the problem. From a policy analysis perspective, the problems entering the agenda of public administration does not necessarily correspond to their severity, as competing actors try to impose their point of view. Because of its historical evolution, the Spanish political system has specific traits. The relatively weak democratic tradition tends to make the decision process less visibles, with strong technocratic elements and weaker social articulation. Both the juridical tradition and liberal rhetoric portray lobbying as contrary to public interest, when in fact it is constantly performed by powerful vested interest groups, through both personal contacts and economic connections. Regulatory policies, with concentrated costs and diffuse benefits, seem to be moving from Spain to the European Union. To promote healthier public policies, the development of civil society initiatives and the building of coalitions will play an increasingly greater role in the future.

  12. Contradictions of industrial policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitan, S.A.; Johnson, C.M.


    The authors feel that proposals for a new industrial policy have remained unfocused and their most constructive elements have been ignored. If industrial policy arguments emerged from another political context - as a vindication of government intervention instead of an alternative to it - the potential of such arguments for improving economic performance and industrial competitiveness would be considerably greater. Instead, industrial policy has sprouted from a neoliberal movement which in large measure accepts the notion that government intervention has contributed to our social and economic problems. The authors conclude that a constructive approach requires that we abandon the popular widsom that claims our social programs have failed. On the contrary, it requires that we heed evidence demonstrating that societal investments in education, training, and employment pay off. Further, concrete solutions to our economic and social problems will emerge only if proponents of industrial policy acknowledge - openly, vocally, and unabashedly - the importance of an expanded role for government. When industrial policy advocates address this underlying issue, they will build support for necessary public investments that could capture the returns associated with an adaptable workforce, a strong scientific base, and a sound infrastructure for commerce and trade.

  13. 大收肌腱移位重建内侧髌股韧带治疗儿童复发性髌骨脱位初期效果分析%A short-term follow-up study after reconstruction of medial patellofemoral ligament(MPFL) combined with adductor magnus tendon autograft for the treatment of recurrent dislocation of patella(RDP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯超; 王玉琨; 张建立; 朱振华; 郭源; 宋猛


    Objective To explore the technique and efficacy of the arthroscopic reconstruction of medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) combined with adductor magnus tendon autograft in treatment of recurrent dislocation of patella(RDP) in children.Methods Six cases of RDP were treated using arthroscopic reconstruction of MPFL combined with adductor magnus tendon autogmft beween Jan 2007to Jul 2010.The condition of patellofemoral joint and MPFL were detected with X-ray,CT and MRI preoperatively.The arthroscopic exanination was conducted before reconstruction to observe pateltofemoral congruence and patellar track,as well as articular cartilage.The MPFL was reconstructed followed by adductor magnus tendon autograft.Then arthroscopic examination was taken again for measurement of patellofemoral congruence and patellar track after surgery.Function training of knee joint was applied and subjective symptoms were further scored postoperatively.Results No infection,graft rejection and rupture were seen in all cases.Patients were followed up for 12-36 months (Average 18 months).Lysholm scores showed an improvement from 76.7 ± 8.7 in pre-surgery to 95.6 ± 5.7 ( P =0.000) in post-surgery.X-ray detection indicated excellent patella reduction without recurrence of dislocation or subluxaion.Conclusions The reconstruction of medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) combined with adductor magnus tendon autograft,is effective approach to treat RDP.%目的 探讨关节镜辅助下大收肌腱移位重建内侧髌股韧带(medial patellofemoral ligament,MPFL)治疗儿童复发性髌骨脱位(recurrent dislocation of patella,RDP)的手术技术和临床效果.方法 2008年1月至2010年7月收治了6例RDP(1例为双膝)的患儿,术前进行临床检查、X 线片、CT、MRI了解髌股关节及MPFL情况,并进行Lysholm评分,术中先用关节镜观察髌股关节的对合关系、运动轨迹及关节软骨情况,通过髌骨内侧缘切口确定MPFL髌骨止点,并在髌骨

  14. Myofascial force transmission between antagonistic rat lower limb muscles: Effects of single muscle or muscle group lengthening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Hanneke J.M; Rijkelijkhuizen, Josina M.; Huijing, Peter A.


    Effects of lengthening of the whole group of anterior crural muscles (tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus muscles (TA + EHL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL)) on myofascial interaction between synergistic EDL and TA + EHL muscles, and on myofascial force transmission between anterior c

  15. Muscle force recovery in relation to muscle oxygenation. (United States)

    Ufland, Pierre; Lapole, Thomas; Ahmaidi, Said; Buchheit, Martin


    The aim of this study was to investigate the relative contribution of human muscle reoxygenation on force recovery following a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Ten athletes (22·9 ± 4·0 years) executed a plantar-flexion sequence including two repeated MVCs [i.e. a 30-s MVC (MVC(30)) followed by a 10-s MVC (MVC(10))] separated by 10, 30, 60, 120 or 300 s of passive recovery. A 10-min passive recovery period was allowed between each MVC sequence. This procedure was randomly repeated with two different recovery conditions: without (CON) or with (OCC) arterial occlusion of the medial gastrocnemius. During OCC, the occlusion was maintained from the end of MVC(30) to the end of MVC(10). Muscle oxygenation (Near-infrared spectroscopy, NIRS, [Hb(diff) ]) was continuously measured during all MVC sequences and expressed as a percentage of the maximal changes in optical density observed during MVC(30). Maximal Torque was analysed at the start of each contraction. Torque during each MVC(10) was expressed as a percentage of the Torque during the previous MVC(30). Torque recovery was complete within 300 s after MVC(30) during CON (MVC(10) = 101·8 ± 5·0%); 88·6 ± 8·9% of the Torque was recovered during OCC (P = 0·005). There was also a moderate correlation between absolute level of muscle oxygenation and Torque (r = 0·32 (90% CI, 0·09;0·52), P = 0·02). Present findings confirm the role of human muscle oxygenation in muscular force recovery during repeated-maximal efforts. However, the correlation between absolute muscle oxygenation and force level during recovery is only moderate, suggesting that other mechanisms are likely involved in the force recovery process.

  16. Exercise-Induced Skeletal Muscle Damage. (United States)

    Evans, William J.


    Eccentric exercise, in which the muscles exert force by lengthening, is associated with delayed onset muscle soreness. How soreness occurs, how recovery proceeds, and what precautions athletes should take are described. (Author/MT)

  17. Pharmacology of airway smooth muscle proliferation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, Reinoud; Roscioni, Sara S.; Dekkers, Bart G. J.; Pera, Tonio; Schmidt, Martina; Schaafsma, Dedmer; Zaagsma, Johan; Meurs, Herman


    Airway smooth muscle thickening is a pathological feature that contributes significantly to airflow limitation and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma. Ongoing research efforts aimed at identifying the mechanisms responsible for the increased airway smooth muscle mass have indicated that hyperplasi

  18. Scientists Create Clothing with 'Knitted' Muscle Power (United States)

    ... 163272.html Scientists Create Clothing With 'Knitted' Muscle Power Fabric reacts to low voltage charge and could ... techniques that one day might help provide muscle power to disabled people or seniors who have trouble ...

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of facial muscles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrugia, M.E. [Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Bydder, G.M. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, CA 92103-8226 (United States); Francis, J.M.; Robson, M.D. [OCMR, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)


    Facial and tongue muscles are commonly involved in patients with neuromuscular disorders. However, these muscles are not as easily accessible for biopsy and pathological examination as limb muscles. We have previously investigated myasthenia gravis patients with MuSK antibodies for facial and tongue muscle atrophy using different magnetic resonance imaging sequences, including ultrashort echo time techniques and image analysis tools that allowed us to obtain quantitative assessments of facial muscles. This imaging study had shown that facial muscle measurement is possible and that useful information can be obtained using a quantitative approach. In this paper we aim to review in detail the methods that we applied to our study, to enable clinicians to study these muscles within the domain of neuromuscular disease, oncological or head and neck specialties. Quantitative assessment of the facial musculature may be of value in improving the understanding of pathological processes occurring within facial muscles in certain neuromuscular disorders.

  20. Study on distribution of terminal branches of the facial nerve in mimetic muscles (orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle). (United States)

    Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Shiozawa, Kei; Satoh, Kaneshige


    There have been many anatomical reports to date regarding the course of the facial nerve to the mimetic muscles. However, reports are relatively scarce on the detailed distribution of the terminal branches of the facial nerve to the mimetic muscles. In this study, we performed detailed examination of the terminal facial nerve branches to the mimetic muscles, particularly the branches terminating in the orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle. Examination was performed on 25 Japanese adult autopsy cases, involving 25 hemifaces. The mean age was 87.4 years (range, 60-102 years). There were 12 men and 13 women (12 left hemifaces and 13 right hemifaces). In each case, the facial nerve was exposed through a preauricular skin incision. The main trunk of the facial nerve was dissected from the stylomastoid foramen. A microscope was used to dissect the terminal branches to the periphery and observe them. The course and distribution were examined for all terminal branches of the facial nerve. However, focus was placed on the course and distribution of the zygomatic branch, buccal branch, and mandibular branch to the orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle. The temporal branch was distributed to the orbicularis oculi muscle in all cases and the marginal mandibular branch was distributed to the orbicularis oris muscle in all cases. The zygomatic branch was distributed to the orbicularis oculi muscle in all cases, but it was also distributed to the orbicularis oris muscle in 10 of 25 cases. The buccal branch was not distributed to the orbicularis oris muscle in 3 of 25 cases, and it was distributed to the orbicularis oculi muscle in 8 cases. There was no significant difference in the variations. The orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle perform particularly important movements among the facial mimetic muscles. According to textbooks, the temporal branch and zygomatic branch innervate the orbicularis oculi muscle, and the buccal branch

  1. New staff contract policy

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    Following discussion at TREF and on the recommendation of the Finance Committee, Council approved a new staff contract policy, which became effective on 1 January 2006. Its application is covered by a new Administrative Circular No. 2 (Rev. 3) 'Recruitment, appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of staff members'. The revised circular replaces the previous Circulars No. 9 (Rev. 3) 'Staff contracts' and No. 2 (Rev. 2) 'Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period for staff members'. The main features of the new contract policy are as follows: The new policy provides chances for long-term employment for all staff recruits staying for four years without distinguishing between those assigned to long-term or short-term activities when joining CERN. In addition, it presents a number of simplifications for the award of ICs. There are henceforth only 2 types of contract: Limited Duration (LD) contracts for all recruitment and Indefinite Contracts (IC) for...

  2. Evidence-based policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, Nina Holm


    A current ambition in welfare states as diverse as Denmark, the UK, and in the USA is to base political decision making on rigorous research (Cartwright et al 2009; Mulgan 2009; Bason 2010). Sound as this might seem the ambition has nevertheless been problematized by both policy-makers and the re......A current ambition in welfare states as diverse as Denmark, the UK, and in the USA is to base political decision making on rigorous research (Cartwright et al 2009; Mulgan 2009; Bason 2010). Sound as this might seem the ambition has nevertheless been problematized by both policy...... a full account, see Vohnsen 2011). These insights will be relevant for the anthropological researcher of legislative processes who wishes to move beyond a merely discursive approach to the study of policy and politics....

  3. Intrafusal muscle fibre types in frog spindles. (United States)

    Diwan, F H; Ito, F


    Muscle spindles from bullfrog semitendinosus, iliofibularis and sartorius muscles were examined with light and electron microscopy. Four types of intrafusal muscle fibre were identified according to their diameter, central nucleation and reticular zone arrangement: a large nuclear bag fibre, a medium nuclear bag fibre, and two types of small nuclear chain fibres with and without a reticular zone, respectively. It is suggested that they are comparable to the nuclear bag1, bag2 and chain fibres in mammalian muscle spindles.

  4. Mechanisms of exertional fatigue in muscle glycogenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, John; Haller, Ronald G


    concentrations of extracellular potassium in exercising muscle and (3) exaggerated accumulation of ADP during exercise that may inhibit sodium-potassium and calcium-ATPases. Disorders of muscle glycogenolysis and glycolysis reveal the crucial role of these metabolic processes for supplying both anaerobic...... and aerobic energy for muscle contraction; and the pathological fatigue that occurs when glycogenolysis and/or glycolysis is blocked imply an important role for theses metabolic pathways in normal muscle fatigue....

  5. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M


    caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial...... respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes "healthy aging" by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle....

  6. Mitochondrial signaling contributes to disuse muscle atrophy


    Powers, Scott K.; Wiggs, Michael P.; Duarte, Jose A.; Zergeroglu, A. Murat; Demirel, Haydar A.


    It is well established that long durations of bed rest, limb immobilization, or reduced activity in respiratory muscles during mechanical ventilation results in skeletal muscle atrophy in humans and other animals. The idea that mitochondrial damage/dysfunction contributes to disuse muscle atrophy originated over 40 years ago. These early studies were largely descriptive and did not provide unequivocal evidence that mitochondria play a primary role in disuse muscle atrophy. However, recent exp...

  7. Muscle mechanics and neuromuscular control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, AL


    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the properties of the mechanical system, especially muscle elasticity and limb mass, to a large degree determine force output and movement. This makes the control demands of the central nervous system simpler and more robust. In human triceps surae, a

  8. [Antisynthetase syndrome without muscle involvement]. (United States)

    Júdez Navarro, Enrique; Martínez Carretero, Myriam; Martínez Jiménez, Gonzalo Fidel


    Antisynthetase syndrome is a well defined syndrome characterized by the presence of interstitial lung disease in association with arthritis, miositis, mechanic's hands and Ruynaud's phenomenon in the presence of antisynthetase antibodies, especially Ac anti-Jo1. We described the case of a 68-year-old man with this syndrome in the absence of inflammatory muscle disease.

  9. Novel Analog For Muscle Deconditioning (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Ryder, Jeff; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd. Elizabeth; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa; Hackney, Kyle; Fiedler, James; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Bloomberg, Jacob


    Existing models (such as bed rest) of muscle deconditioning are cumbersome and expensive. We propose a new model utilizing a weighted suit to manipulate strength, power, or endurance (function) relative to body weight (BW). Methods: 20 subjects performed 7 occupational astronaut tasks while wearing a suit weighted with 0-120% of BW. Models of the full relationship between muscle function/BW and task completion time were developed using fractional polynomial regression and verified by the addition of pre-and postflightastronaut performance data for the same tasks. Splineregression was used to identify muscle function thresholds below which task performance was impaired. Results: Thresholds of performance decline were identified for each task. Seated egress & walk (most difficult task) showed thresholds of leg press (LP) isometric peak force/BW of 18 N/kg, LP power/BW of 18 W/kg, LP work/BW of 79 J/kg, isokineticknee extension (KE)/BW of 6 Nm/kg, and KE torque/BW of 1.9 Nm/kg.Conclusions: Laboratory manipulation of relative strength has promise as an appropriate analog for spaceflight-induced loss of muscle function, for predicting occupational task performance and establishing operationally relevant strength thresholds.

  10. Metabolic Adaptation to Muscle Ischemia (United States)

    Cabrera, Marco E.; Coon, Jennifer E.; Kalhan, Satish C.; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Saidel, Gerald M.; Stanley, William C.


    Although all tissues in the body can adapt to varying physiological/pathological conditions, muscle is the most adaptable. To understand the significance of cellular events and their role in controlling metabolic adaptations in complex physiological systems, it is necessary to link cellular and system levels by means of mechanistic computational models. The main objective of this work is to improve understanding of the regulation of energy metabolism during skeletal/cardiac muscle ischemia by combining in vivo experiments and quantitative models of metabolism. Our main focus is to investigate factors affecting lactate metabolism (e.g., NADH/NAD) and the inter-regulation between carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during a reduction in regional blood flow. A mechanistic mathematical model of energy metabolism has been developed to link cellular metabolic processes and their control mechanisms to tissue (skeletal muscle) and organ (heart) physiological responses. We applied this model to simulate the relationship between tissue oxygenation, redox state, and lactate metabolism in skeletal muscle. The model was validated using human data from published occlusion studies. Currently, we are investigating the difference in the responses to sudden vs. gradual onset ischemia in swine by combining in vivo experimental studies with computational models of myocardial energy metabolism during normal and ischemic conditions.

  11. Classification of the intrafusal muscle fibres in the frog muscle spindle: histochemical and immunofluorescent studies.


    Yoshimura, A; Fujitsuka, N; Sokabe, M; Naruse, K; Nomura, K; Diwan, F H; Ito, F


    Intrafusal muscle fibres from bull-frog semitendinosus, iliofibularis and sartorius muscles were classified into three types using the histochemical, immunofluorescent and morphological characteristics, with reference to the extrafusal muscle fibres, which were classified into five types in accordance with Rowlerson & Spurway (1988). Immunofluorescent reactions with antibodies against slow or fast myosins obtained from anterior or posterior latissimus dorsi muscles (ALD or PLD), respectively,...

  12. Quantitative muscle ultrasound and muscle force in healthy children: A 4-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.; Jansen, M; Janssen, H.; Raijmann, W.; Alfen, N. van; Pillen, S.


    INTRODUCTION: No longitudinal data on the normal development of muscle thickness (MT), quantitative muscle ultrasound echo intensity (EI), and muscle force (MF) in healthy children are yet available. METHODS: Reference values of MT, EI, and MF of 4 muscles from infancy to age 16 years were establish

  13. Muscle fatigue in fibromyalgia is in the brain, not in the muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Elisabeth; Amris, Kirstine; Bliddal, Henning


    To investigate relationships between perceived and objectively measured muscle fatigue during exhausting muscle contractions in women with fibromyalgia (FM) compared with healthy controls (HC).......To investigate relationships between perceived and objectively measured muscle fatigue during exhausting muscle contractions in women with fibromyalgia (FM) compared with healthy controls (HC)....

  14. Agricultural policy schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte


    in agricultural policy and they have different functions and impacts. Market price support and deficiency payments are two very important instruments in agricultural policy; however, they belong to two different support regimes or support systems. Market price support operates in the so-called high price system...... of direct support, while market prices are left undistorted at, or close to, world market level. The two different support systems have very different implications for agricultural production, financing, markets, and other aspects; still, there is an income transfer to agriculture in both systems. During...... the last decades, the composition of agricultural support has changed significantly. Market price support has decreased, and direct support has increased....

  15. [Chilean nuclear policy]. (United States)

    Bobadilla, E


    This official document is statement of the President of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, Dr. Eduardo Bobadilla, about the nuclear policy of the Chilean State, Thanks to the international policy adopted by presidents Aylwin (1990-1994) and his successor Frei Ruiz Tagle (1994-), a nuclear development plan, protected by the Chilean entrance to the nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty and Tlatelolco Denuclearization treaty, has started. Chile will be able to develop without interference, an autonomous nuclear electrical system and other pacific uses of nuclear energy. Chile also supports a new international treaty to ban nuclear weapon tests.

  16. Prostitution Policy Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Emerek, Ruth


    The Child and Woman Abuse Studies Unit at London Metropolitan University is working with the European Commission and the European Network on Gender Equality (ENEGE) to produce a report on prostitution policy in member states. In this report the data from Denmark are presented.......The Child and Woman Abuse Studies Unit at London Metropolitan University is working with the European Commission and the European Network on Gender Equality (ENEGE) to produce a report on prostitution policy in member states. In this report the data from Denmark are presented....

  17. Collaborative Policy Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Boch Waldorff, Susanne


    Governments all over the Western world currently face wicked problems that call for policy innovation. A new strand of research in public innovation points to collaboration between public authorities and relevant and affected stakeholders as an important driver of public innovation. A case study...... and policy ideas produced in collaborative governance arenas are not diffused to the formal political institutions of representative democracy because the participating politicians only to a limited extent function as boundary spanners between the collaborative governance arena and the decision making arenas...

  18. Auto Industry Development Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正> Decree No. 8The National Development and Reform CommissionThe People’s Republic of ChinaAccording to the Document [2004] 30 of the State Council, the Auto Industry Development Policy has passed the examination of the Sitate Development and Reform Commission and been approved by the State Council. Now it is issued and shall be effective as of the date of promulgation. The Auto Industrial Policies implemented since 1994 should end as of the date of this promulgation.MAKaiDirector of the National Development and Reform CommissionMay 21, 2004

  19. Dataset Lifecycle Policy (United States)

    Armstrong, Edward; Tauer, Eric


    The presentation focused on describing a new dataset lifecycle policy that the NASA Physical Oceanography DAAC (PO.DAAC) has implemented for its new and current datasets to foster improved stewardship and consistency across its archive. The overarching goal is to implement this dataset lifecycle policy for all new GHRSST GDS2 datasets and bridge the mission statements from the GHRSST Project Office and PO.DAAC to provide the best quality SST data in a cost-effective, efficient manner, preserving its integrity so that it will be available and usable to a wide audience.

  20. Breast muscle tissue characteristics in growing broilers (United States)

    Muscle cell development in broilers influences growth rate, breast meat yield, and meat quality. The objective of this study was to characterize muscle tissue changes in breast muscles from two commercial lines of broilers from 21 to 56 days of age. The experiment was designed as a 2×2×6 factorial...

  1. Intramuscular variation in fresh ham muscle color (United States)

    This experiment was conducted to characterize a defect involving pale muscle tissue in the superficial, ventral portion of ham muscles, resulting in two-toned appearance of cured ham products. Biceps femoris muscles (n = 200), representing 3 production systems, were obtained from the ham-boning lin...

  2. Muscle strength in patients with chronic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C.P.; Akkerman, L.; Wieringa, J.; Dijkstra, P.U.


    Objective: To analyse the influence of chronic pain on muscle strength. Design: Muscle strength of patients with unilateral nonspecific chronic pain, in an upper or lower limb, were measured according to a standardized protocol using a hand-held dynamometer. Before and after muscle strength measurem

  3. Primary psoas muscle abscess in pregnancy. (United States)

    Swanson, Amy; Lau, Kenneth K; Korman, Tony M; Kornman, Tony; Wallace, Euan M; Polyakov, Alex


    Primary iliacus-psoas muscle abscess formation is very uncommon during pregnancy. We present a case of a primary iliacus-psoas muscle abscess in pregnancy causing back pain with delayed diagnosis and treatment. Understanding the clinical presentation of iliacus-psoas muscle abscess helps with considering it in the differential diagnosis of back pain during pregnancy.

  4. Muscle MRI findings in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerevini, Simonetta; Caliendo, Giandomenico; Falini, Andrea [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Neuroradiology Unit, Head and Neck Department, Milan (Italy); Scarlato, Marina; Previtali, Stefano Carlo [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Neurology, INSPE and Division of Neuroscience, Milan (Italy); Maggi, Lorenzo; Pasanisi, Barbara; Morandi, Lucia [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico ' ' Carlo Besta' ' , Neuromuscular Diseases and Neuroimmunology Unit, Milan (Italy); Cava, Mariangela [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Radiology and Center for Experimental Imaging, Milan (Italy)


    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is characterized by extremely variable degrees of facial, scapular and lower limb muscle involvement. Clinical and genetic determination can be difficult, as molecular analysis is not always definitive, and other similar muscle disorders may have overlapping clinical manifestations. Whole-body muscle MRI examination for fat infiltration, atrophy and oedema was performed to identify specific patterns of muscle involvement in FSHD patients (30 subjects), and compared to a group of control patients (23) affected by other myopathies (NFSHD). In FSHD patients, we detected a specific pattern of muscle fatty replacement and atrophy, particularly in upper girdle muscles. The most frequently affected muscles, including paucisymptomatic and severely affected FSHD patients, were trapezius, teres major and serratus anterior. Moreover, asymmetric muscle involvement was significantly higher in FSHD as compared to NFSHD patients. In conclusion, muscle MRI is very sensitive for identifying a specific pattern of involvement in FSHD patients and in detecting selective muscle involvement of non-clinically testable muscles. Muscle MRI constitutes a reliable tool for differentiating FSHD from other muscular dystrophies to direct diagnostic molecular analysis, as well as to investigate FSHD natural history and follow-up of the disease. (orig.)

  5. Bones, Muscles, and Joints: The Musculoskeletal System (United States)

    ... decide to move, the motor cortex sends an electrical signal through the spinal cord and peripheral nerves to the muscles, causing them to contract. The motor cortex on the right side of the brain controls the muscles on the left side of the body and vice versa. The cerebellum coordinates the muscle ...

  6. Interleukin-6 myokine signaling in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura; Scheele, Camilla; Pedersen, Bente K


    been associated with stimulation of hypertrophic muscle growth and myogenesis through regulation of the proliferative capacity of muscle stem cells. Additional beneficial effects of IL-6 include regulation of energy metabolism, which is related to the capacity of actively contracting muscle...

  7. Effect of transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation on postoperative muscle mass and protein synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinge, O; Edvardsen, L; Jensen, F


    In an experimental study, 13 patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery were given postoperative transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation (TEMS) to the quadriceps femoris muscle on one leg; the opposite leg served as control. Changes in cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle protein...... muscle protein synthesis and muscle mass after abdominal surgery and should be evaluated in other catabolic states with muscle wasting....... synthesis were assessed by computed tomography and ribosome analysis of percutaneous muscle biopsies before surgery and on the sixth postoperative day. The percentage of polyribosomes in the ribosome suspension decreased significantly (P

  8. The relationship between exercise-induced muscle fatigue, arterial blood flow and muscle perfusion after 56 days local muscle unloading. (United States)

    Weber, Tobias; Ducos, Michel; Mulder, Edwin; Beijer, Åsa; Herrera, Frankyn; Zange, Jochen; Degens, Hans; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Jörn


    In the light of the dynamic nature of habitual plantar flexor activity, we utilized an incremental isokinetic exercise test (IIET) to assess the work-related power deficit (WoRPD) as a measure for exercise-induced muscle fatigue before and after prolonged calf muscle unloading and in relation to arterial blood flow and muscle perfusion. Eleven male subjects (31 ± 6 years) wore the HEPHAISTOS unloading orthosis unilaterally for 56 days. It allows habitual ambulation while greatly reducing plantar flexor activity and torque production. Endpoint measurements encompassed arterial blood flow, measured in the femoral artery using Doppler ultrasound, oxygenation of the soleus muscle assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy, lactate concentrations determined in capillary blood and muscle activity using soleus muscle surface electromyography. Furthermore, soleus muscle biopsies were taken to investigate morphological muscle changes. After the intervention, maximal isokinetic torque was reduced by 23·4 ± 8·2% (PBlood flow, tissue oxygenation, lactate concentrations and EMG median frequency kinematics during the exercise test were comparable before and after the intervention, whereas the increase of RMS in response to IIET was less following the intervention (P = 0·03). In conclusion, following submaximal isokinetic muscle work exercise-induced muscle fatigue is unaffected after prolonged local muscle unloading. The observation that arterial blood flow was maintained may underlie the unchanged fatigability.

  9. A Case Report of the Angiosarcoma Involving Epicranial Muscle and Fascia : Is the Occipitofrontalis Muscle Composed of Two Different Muscles? (United States)

    Kim, Ho Kyun; Lee, Hui Joong


    The occipitofrontalis muscle is generally regarded as one muscle composed of two muscle bellies joined through the galea aponeurotica. However, two muscle bellies have different embryological origin, anatomical function and innervations. We report a case of angiosarcoma of the scalp in a 63-year-old man whose MR showed that the superficial fascia overlying the occipital belly becomes the temporoparietal fascia and ends at the superior end of the frontal belly. Beneath the superficial fascia, the occipital belly of the occipitofrontalis muscle becomes the galea aponeurotica and inserts into the underside of the frontal belly. The presented case report supported the concept of which the occipitofrontalis muscle appears to be composed of two anatomically different muscles.

  10. Muscle damage induced by electrical stimulation. (United States)

    Nosaka, Kazunori; Aldayel, Abdulaziz; Jubeau, Marc; Chen, Trevor C


    Electrical stimulation (ES) induces muscle damage that is characterised by histological alterations of muscle fibres and connective tissue, increases in circulating creatine kinase (CK) activity, decreases in muscle strength and development of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Muscle damage is induced not only by eccentric contractions with ES but also by isometric contractions evoked by ES. Muscle damage profile following 40 isometric contractions of the knee extensors is similar between pulsed current (75 Hz, 400 μs) and alternating current (2.5 kHz delivered at 75 Hz, 400 μs) ES for similar force output. When comparing maximal voluntary and ES-evoked (75 Hz, 200 μs) 50 isometric contractions of the elbow flexors, ES results in greater decreases in maximal voluntary contraction strength, increases in plasma CK activity and DOMS. It appears that the magnitude of muscle damage induced by ES-evoked isometric contractions is comparable to that induced by maximal voluntary eccentric contractions, although the volume of affected muscles in ES is not as large as that of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. It seems likely that the muscle damage in ES is associated with high mechanical stress on the activated muscle fibres due to the specificity of motor unit recruitment (i.e., non-selective, synchronous and spatially fixed manner). The magnitude of muscle damage induced by ES is significantly reduced when the second ES bout is performed 2-4 weeks later. It is possible to attenuate the magnitude of muscle damage by "pre-conditioning" muscles, so that muscle damage should not limit the use of ES in training and rehabilitation.

  11. Functional morphology of the thoracolumbar transversospinal muscles. (United States)

    Cornwall, Jon; Stringer, Mark D; Duxson, Marilyn


    STUDY DESIGN. A qualitative and semiquantitative study of the morphology of the human thoracolumbar transversospinal (TSP) muscles. OBJECTIVE. To further define the functional morphology of the thoracolumbar TSP muscles. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. The TSP muscle group plays an important role in vertebral function but few studies have rigorously investigated their morphology throughout the thoracolumbar region and details on the location of motor endplates (MEPs) and fiber types are sparse. METHODS. Thoracolumbar TSP muscles were examined by microdissection in five cadavers (seven sides). MEPs were identified using acetylcholinesterase histochemistry in muscles between T5 and S4 unilaterally in two cadavers. The relative proportions of type I and type II skeletal muscle fibers were determined using immunohistochemistry on whole cross sections of every TSP muscle from one side of one cadaver (T5-S4). RESULTS.TSP morphology was homogeneous and consistent throughout the thoracolumbar region. Notable differences to standard descriptions included: (1) consistent attachments between muscles; (2) no discrete cleavage planes between muscles; and (3) attachment sites over the sacrum and to lumbar zygapophysial joints. Previously undescribed small muscles were found attaching to the medial sacrum. All TSP muscles were multipennate, with fibers arranged in parallel having one MEP per muscle fiber. Muscles were highly aerobic (mean proportion of type I fibers 89%), with the proportion of type I fibers decreasing caudally. A significantly greater proportion of type I fibers were found in the midthoracic compared to the low lumbar regions. CONCLUSION. The complex morphology of the TSP muscles indicates that they would be better classified as spinotransverse muscles. They are multipennate, highly aerobic, with fibers organized in parallel, an arrangement lending itself to "fine-tuning" of vertebral movements. Understanding their morphology has implications for investigation

  12. EU Competition Policy Since 1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry


    In spite of the evidence of strong influence on the incorporation of policy provisions from the U.S. antitrust into the recent competition policy reforms in the European Union (EU), few considerable attempts have been made to analyze the influence of U.S. antitrust on EU competition policy...... reforms, carry out a comparative analysis between EU and U.S. competition policies, detect convergence or divergence, and account for the degree of convergence and for the relevant mechanisms triggering convergence. The main focus is on the analysis of anticartel enforcement policy, antimonopoly policy...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Dan Morar


    Full Text Available Budget policy for the funding and sometimes care about the public sector, certain actions and utilities on the private sector within limits set by the strategies, tactics and operational deciyiile promoted executive. Phenomenon budget includes both revenues and expenditure side edge contained in the public budget. Often, perhaps excessive zeal in translating domain-specific phrases are even officially speak about "fiscal policy measures", with reference to all areas of the budget, containing and thus the budget expenditure. Budgetary policy has several specific policy budget subdomains like Cookie fiscal policy, budget expenditure allocation Polti, policy and public loans.

  14. Mississippi: State Policy Brief (United States)

    Corbett, Julie


    This brief is one in a series highlighting state policies, regulations, practices, laws, or other tools intended to create the necessary conditions for school and/or district turnaround. Each brief includes an overview of the relevant turnaround tool, its development process, its impact, and lessons learned that could assist other education…

  15. Policies built upon pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Musterd; Z. Kovács


    After the general introductions, the first substantive part of this volume (Part II) provides concise research-based discussions of policies developed in recognition of the important role played by the pathways along which city-regions have travelled. Our research has shown that it is highly importa


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Central banks in advanced economies have deployed a variety of unconventional policies during the crisis. It can be seen that the central banks have been mostly successful at achieving their objectives and that spillover to other countries have—thus far at least—been benign overall. Also it can be considered that using unconventional measures may be appropriate in some circumstances, but also they can have disadvantages and all the benefits for using such measures need to be balanced against potential costs. Prior to the crisis the monetary policy was implemented by central banks in a predictable and systematic way, and its transmission mechanism was understood by the economic agents. A transparent central bank reaction function (or broad rule guided market expectations of future interest rates. After the crisis appeared, the central banks from developed countries applied unconventional tools1 to address two important objectives: first one is to restore the proper functioning of financial markets and intermediation, and second one is to provide further monetary policy accommodation. Both these objectives need to support financial stability, including the diminishing big risks in acute phases of the crisis (collapse of the financial system, depression, and deflation. This paper reviews recent experience with these policies and considers issues related to their continued use in the future in the Romanian economy. It will be a tentative to explain how to avoid liquidity trap2 or get out of it – these also can be seen in the Romanian economy in the last few years.

  17. Environmental policy integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift-Simeonova, van der Vanya; Valk, van der Arnold


    As urban areas continue to expand, the need to consider nature conservation objectives in planning is growing. Policy makers across Europe recognize that effective nature conservation requires an integrated approach to land use planning that includes relevant ecological and spatial knowledge. Alt

  18. The Policy Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George


    Green project. The term ‘green’ is used in the sustainability context, meaning that it features economic and social dimensions in addition to the usual environmental one. The most important EU transport policy documents are reviewed and briefly presented by transportation mode. Horizontal documents covering all...

  19. Fiscal Food Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Nicholls, Stuart; Gwozdz, Wencke; Reisch, Lucia;


    When it comes to buying food, price is influential, but is a ‘fat tax’ the answer to curb obesity? Dr Stuart G Nicholls from Lancaster University, Assistant Professor Dr Wencke Gwozdz and Professor, Dr Lucia A Reisch from Copenhagen Business School and Dr Kristin Voigt from Lancaster University l...... look at whether a fiscal policy would work....

  20. Evidence and Policy Research (United States)

    Schuller, Tom; Jochems, Wim; Moos, Lejf; van Zanten, Agnes


    The EERJ roundtable took as its point of departure the experience of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) in carrying out policy research. CERI has conducted four reviews of national educational research and development (in New Zealand, England, Mexico and…

  1. Bilingualism: Research and Policy (United States)

    McCardle, Peggy


    Bilingualism, commonplace throughout the world, is not well accepted or supported in many parts of the United States. Education policies and practices regarding bilingualism are often based on myths and attitudes rather than facts, despite scientific evidence on both the disadvantages and advantages of bilingualism. Based on a brief overview of…

  2. Against all policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sungusia, Eliezeri; Lund, Jens Friis


    In Tanzania, villagers can declare and benefit from village land forest reserves under the Community-Based Forest Management (CBFM) policy. While research indicates that CBFM results in more sustainable management of reserved forest areas on village land, its impacts across broader village landsc...... to clear unreserved forests to secure their land rights....

  3. Triage as Urban Policy. (United States)

    Marcuse, Peter; And Others


    Triage policy is the exclusion of severely declining urban areas from services and programs on the grounds that the intensity of their needs cannot be met and the provision of services is therefore inefficient. Community groups must insist that severity of need, human benefits, and community protection be the priorities for allocation of funds.…

  4. Public Policy Agenda, 2011 (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2011


    American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) public policy agenda, rooted in an uncompromising commitment to opportunity for the nation's students, is expressed through the following core principles: (1) Higher education is a common good that provides significant benefits to individuals and society as a whole; (2) America's…

  5. Policy analysis without data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, D.R.; Spancake, L.R. (Energy Information Adminstration, Washington, DC (United States))


    This article describes the Energy Information Administration's work to assess the potential of experimental economics for policy analysis. The article reviews the experimental approach and describes an application to provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. 10 refs.

  6. Assessment and Educational Policy. (United States)

    Smith, Virginia B.


    Because of increased access of postsecondary education in the 1950's and 1960's, higher education cost analysis gained importance. Attempts have been made to develop a standard unit cost, but it is hard to see unit cost accounting by itself as a valuable tool for public accountability or policy making. For these purposes a cost-effectiveness ratio…

  7. Energy policy and federalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thur, L.M. (ed.)


    Separate abstracts are prepared for six papers presented as the product of an international seminar on Energy Policy and Federalism in North America. Specially commissioned papers for the seminar are presented along with a summary of the discussions. The summary appears in English, French, and Spanish; the other papers are in English. (MCW)

  8. Faculty Compensation Policies. (United States)

    Silander, Fred


    Faculty compensation policy is seen as one means by which an institution influences the faculty to work toward institutional goals. Among the broad criteria for compensation are worth, equity, need, and market measures. Benefits and issues in compensation including differentials in compensation, merit, part-time instruction, etc. are discussed.…

  9. Child Poverty & Public Policy. (United States)

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  10. Refinement for Administrative Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, S.


    Flexibility of management is an important requisite for access control systems as it allows users to adapt the access control system in accordance with practical requirements. This paper builds on earlier work where we defined administrative policies for a general class of RBAC models. We present a

  11. Refinement for administrative policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, S.


    Flexibility of management is an important requisite for access control systems as it allows users to adapt the access control system in accordance with practical requirements. This paper builds on earlier work where we defined administrative policies for a general class of RBAC models. We present a

  12. Policies as translation: situating the transnational social policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Stubbs


    Full Text Available This article explores some of the implications of the development of an anthropology or ethnography of the transnational dimensions of policies. The fi rst part explains the basic conceptual apparatus, in terms of policies as a generator of meanings. The second part examines policies as translation and explores its implications in terms of the transnationalization of the policies and, in particular, it seeks to contrast the translation of policies with more orthodox knowledge of policies transference. The third part explores the translation of policies through a refl exive ethnographical approach, analyzing a number of cases based on the practical involvement of the authors in social policies reforms in regions of the Central Europe and the East. The fourth part presents some conclusions and indicates certain theoretical and ethical objections that can and must be raised with regard to the presented approach.

  13. Bone marrow mesenchymal cells improve muscle function in a skeletal muscle re-injury model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno M Andrade

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle injury is the most common problem in orthopedic and sports medicine, and severe injury leads to fibrosis and muscle dysfunction. Conventional treatment for successive muscle injury is currently controversial, although new therapies, like cell therapy, seem to be promise. We developed a model of successive injuries in rat to evaluate the therapeutic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMMC injected directly into the injured muscle. Functional and histological assays were performed 14 and 28 days after the injury protocol by isometric tension recording and picrosirius/Hematoxilin & Eosin staining, respectively. We also evaluated the presence and the fate of BMMC on treated muscles; and muscle fiber regeneration. BMMC treatment increased maximal skeletal muscle contraction 14 and 28 days after muscle injury compared to non-treated group (4.5 ± 1.7 vs 2.5 ± 0.98 N/cm2, p<0.05 and 8.4 ± 2.3 vs. 5.7 ± 1.3 N/cm2, p<0.05 respectively. Furthermore, BMMC treatment increased muscle fiber cross-sectional area and the presence of mature muscle fiber 28 days after muscle injury. However, there was no difference in collagen deposition between groups. Immunoassays for cytoskeleton markers of skeletal and smooth muscle cells revealed an apparent integration of the BMMC within the muscle. These data suggest that BMMC transplantation accelerates and improves muscle function recovery in our extensive muscle re-injury model.

  14. Synchronous monitoring of muscle dynamics and muscle force for maximum isometric tetanus (United States)

    Zakir Hossain, M.; Grill, Wolfgang


    Skeletal muscle is a classic example of a biological soft matter . At both macro and microscopic levels, skeletal muscle is exquisitely oriented for force generation and movement. In addition to the dynamics of contracting and relaxing muscle which can be monitored with ultrasound, variations in the muscle force are also expected to be monitored. To observe such force and sideways expansion variations synchronously for the skeletal muscle a novel detection scheme has been developed. As already introduced for the detection of sideways expansion variations of the muscle, ultrasonic transducers are mounted sideways on opposing positions of the monitored muscle. To detect variations of the muscle force, angle of pull of the monitored muscle has been restricted by the mechanical pull of the sonic force sensor. Under this condition, any variation in the time-of-flight (TOF) of the transmitted ultrasonic signals can be introduced by the variation of the path length between the transducers. The observed variations of the TOF are compared to the signals obtained by ultrasound monitoring for the muscle dynamics. The general behavior of the muscle dynamics and muscle force shows almost an identical concept. Since muscle force also relates the psychological boosting-up effects, the influence of boosting-up on muscle force and muscle dynamics can also be quantified form this study. Length-tension or force-length and force-velocity relationship can also be derived quantitatively with such monitoring.

  15. Emerin increase in regenerating muscle fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Squarzoni


    Full Text Available The fate of emerin during skeletal muscle regeneration was investigated in an animal model by means of crush injury. Immunofluorescence, immunoblotting and mRNA analysis demonstrated that emerin level is increased in regenerating rat muscle fibers with respect to normal mature myofibers. This finding suggests an involvement of emerin during the muscle fiber regeneration process, in analogy with its reported involvement in muscle cell differentiation in vitro. The impairment of skeletal muscle physiological regeneration or reorganization could be a possible pathogenetic mechanism for Emery Dreifuss muscular dystrophy.

  16. New perspectives of studying gastrointestinal muscle function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hans Gregersen; Donghua Liao


    The motor function of the gastrointestinal tract has primarily been studied using manometry and radiography,though more indirect tests have also been applied. Manometry and radiography do not provide detailed information about the muscle properties as can be assessed from studies of muscle properties in muscle strips in vitro. In recent years a technique based on impedance planimetric mEasurement of pressure-cross-sectional area relations in a distending bag has proven to provide more detailed information about the muscle function in vivo. This review shows examples of new muscle function analysis such as length-tension diagrams, forcevelocity curves and preload-afterload diagrams.

  17. Pathophysiology of muscle contractures in cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Mathewson, Margie A; Lieber, Richard L


    Patients with cerebral palsy present with a variety of adaptations to muscle structure and function. These pathophysiologic symptoms include functional deficits such as decreased force production and range of motion, in addition to changes in muscle structure such as decreased muscle belly size, increased sarcomere length, and altered extracellular matrix structure and composition. On a cellular level, patients with cerebral palsy have fewer muscle stem cells, termed satellite cells, and altered gene expression. Understanding the nature of these changes may present opportunities for the development of new muscle treatment therapies.

  18. Procedural Options for Measuring Muscle Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindova S.


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to provide alternative means of measurement and evaluation of muscle strength in rehabilitation practice and diagnostics. In the last few years many electronic devices for evaluation of muscle strength have developed. Contemporary studies have shown that in addition to the standard manual muscle testing muscle strength can be assessed more objectively and analytically using electronic dynamometers and equipment. The strain gauges are used as a tool of precision in the industry that allows measurement of mechanical loads by dynamometers. By using these tools is possible to obtain continuous digital measurement and recording of muscle strength.

  19. Impact of weightlessness on muscle function (United States)

    Tischler, M. E.; Slentz, M.


    The most studied skeletal muscles which depend on gravity, "antigravity" muscles, are located in the posterior portion of the legs. Antigravity muscles are characterized generally by a different fiber type composition than those which are considered nonpostural. The gravity-dependent function of the antigravity muscles makes them particularly sensitive to weightlessness (unweighting) resulting in a substantial loss of muscle protein, with a relatively greater loss of myofibrillar (structural) proteins. Accordingly alpha-actin mRNA decreases in muscle of rats exposed to microgravity. In the legs, the soleus seems particularly responsive to the lack of weight-bearing associated with space flight. The loss of muscle protein leads to a decreased cross-sectional area of muscle fibers, particularly of the slow-twitch, oxidative (SO) ones compared to fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) or oxidative-glycolytic (FOG) fibers. In some muscles, a shift in fiber composition from SO to FOG has been reported in the adaptation to spaceflight. Changes in muscle composition with spaceflight have been associated with decreased maximal isometric tension (Po) and increased maximal shortening velocity. In terms of fuel metabolism, results varied depending on the pathway considered. Glucose uptake, in the presence of insulin, and activities of glycolytic enzymes are increased by space flight. In contrast, oxidation of fatty acids may be diminished. Oxidation of pyruvate, activity of the citric acid cycle, and ketone metabolism in muscle seem to be unaffected by microgravity.

  20. Pathophysiology of muscle dysfunction in COPD. (United States)

    Gea, Joaquim; Agustí, Alvar; Roca, Josep


    Muscle dysfunction often occurs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and may involve both respiratory and locomotor (peripheral) muscles. The loss of strength and/or endurance in the former can lead to ventilatory insufficiency, whereas in the latter it limits exercise capacity and activities of daily life. Muscle dysfunction is the consequence of complex interactions between local and systemic factors, frequently coexisting in COPD patients. Pulmonary hyperinflation along with the increase in work of breathing that occur in COPD appear as the main contributing factors to respiratory muscle dysfunction. By contrast, deconditioning seems to play a key role in peripheral muscle dysfunction. However, additional systemic factors, including tobacco smoking, systemic inflammation, exercise, exacerbations, nutritional and gas exchange abnormalities, anabolic insufficiency, comorbidities and drugs, can also influence the function of both respiratory and peripheral muscles, by inducing modifications in their local microenvironment. Under all these circumstances, protein metabolism imbalance, oxidative stress, inflammatory events, as well as muscle injury may occur, determining the final structure and modulating the function of different muscle groups. Respiratory muscles show signs of injury as well as an increase in several elements involved in aerobic metabolism (proportion of type I fibers, capillary density, and aerobic enzyme activity) whereas limb muscles exhibit a loss of the same elements, injury, and a reduction in fiber size. In the present review we examine the current state of the art of the pathophysiology of muscle dysfunction in COPD.

  1. A variation of the palmaris profundus muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stark ME


    Full Text Available During routine anatomical dissection of the anterior compartment of the forearm region, a tendinous-musculo-tendinous muscle was found on the right forearm originating from the medial aspect of the radial shaft and inserting into the palmar aponeurosis. The muscle coursed deep to pronator teres muscle, parallel and lateral to the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle and deep to the tendon of the flexor carpi radialis. Distally, the muscle tendon coursed under the flexor retinaculum and it was invested with the median nerve by a common fascial sheath. The muscle was found in the presence of an intact palmaris longus muscle. Because of its attachments and course, the muscle was classified as a palmaris profundus muscle. Several subtypes of palmaris profundus muscles have been reported. To our knowledge this is the first case of a palmaris profundus with a tendon originating from the medial aspect of the radial diaphysis, a muscular portion and a distal tendon inserting in the palmar aponeurosis. Anatomical variations of muscles in the flexor compartment of the forearm may have functional, diagnostic, and surgical implications.

  2. The rise of education policy as an economic policy tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    of implications for education policy-making processes and not least it has had an impact on who conducts policy studies and how. This book brings together a variety of contributions which explore recent political economic changes affecting education policy-making processes including the ascension of neo...

  3. Kinetics of glucose transport in rat muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, H; Vinten, J


    The effects of insulin and prior muscle contractions, respectively, on 3-O-methylglucose (3-O-MG) transport in skeletal muscle were studied in the perfused rat hindquarter. Initial rates of entry of 3-O-MG in red gastrocnemius, soleus, and white gastrocnemius muscles as a function of perfusate 3-O...... muscles. The effects of both contractions and insulin were greater in red than in white muscles. In red but not in white muscles, maximum increases in Vmax elicited by contractions and by insulin were additive. Both insulin and contractions decreased the half-saturating substrate concentration for glucose...... transport (apparent Km) in all three muscles, in fast-twitch fibers from 70 to approximately 7 mM and in slow-twitch fibers from 12 to 7 mM. After contractions, reversal of contraction-induced glucose transport was monoexponential in red fibers, with a half-time of 7 and 15 min in slow- and fast...

  4. Skeletal muscle regeneration in cancer cachexia. (United States)

    Bossola, Maurizio; Marzetti, Emanuele; Rosa, Fausto; Pacelli, Fabio


    Muscle wasting is the most important phenotypic and clinical feature of cancer cachexia, and the principal cause of impaired physical function, fatigue, and respiratory complications. Muscle loss has been attributed to a variable combination of reduced nutritional intake and an imbalance between anabolic and catabolic processes. It has been suggested that defective skeletal muscle regeneration may also contribute to muscle wasting in cancer patients. However, there is little in vitro or in vivo data available, in either animals or in humans, regarding skeletal muscle regeneration in cancer wasting. The aim of the present review is to define the role of skeletal muscle regeneration in the muscle wasting of cancer patients and to determine possible therapeutic implications.

  5. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity. (United States)

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; McKay, Bryon R; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Parise, Gianni


    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models.

  6. Cardiac, Skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Song-Young; Gifford, Jayson R; Andtbacka, Robert H I


    Unlike cardiac and skeletal muscle, little is known about vascular smooth muscle mitochondrial function. Therefore, this study examined mitochondrial respiratory rates in the smooth muscle of healthy human feed arteries and compared with that of healthy cardiac and skeletal muscle. Cardiac......, skeletal, and smooth muscle was harvested from a total of 22 subjects (53±6 yrs) and mitochondrial respiration assessed in permeabilized fibers. Complex I+II, state 3 respiration, an index of oxidative phosphorylation capacity, fell progressively from cardiac, skeletal, to smooth muscle (54±1; 39±4; 15......±1 pmol•s(-1)•mg (-1), psmooth muscle (222±13; 115±2; 48±2 umol•g(-1)•min(-1), p

  7. [The importance of soft tissue stabilization in trans-femoral amputation]. (United States)

    Gottschalk, F


    Transfemoral amputations with more proximal amputation levels have the problem of secondary development into flexion and abduction contractures. This is induced by muscle imbalance, especially the loss of adductor muscle insertions when abductor muscle insertions are preserved. This causes considerable problems when fitting prosthetics. Myodesis with insertion of the distally detached adductor magnus muscle to the lateral femoral cortex, introduced here, results in a stronger stump with good muscle balance, and prosthetics fitting is significantly improved.

  8. The importance of soft tissue stabilization in trans-femoral amputation : English version. (United States)

    Gottschalk, F


    Transfemoral amputations with more proximal amputation levels have the problem of secondary development into flexion and abduction contractures. This is induced by muscle imbalance, especially the loss of adductor muscle insertions when abductor muscle insertions are preserved. This causes considerable problems when fitting prosthetics. Myodesis with insertion of the distally detached adductor magnus muscle to the lateral femoral cortex, introduced here, results in a stronger stump with good muscle balance, and prosthetics fitting is significantly improved.


    Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to inform constructively ecological policy deliberations has been diminishe...

  10. Psychology, psychologists, and public policy. (United States)

    McKnight, Katherine M; Sechrest, Lee; McKnight, Patrick E


    Evidence-based policy is being encouraged in all areas of public service ( Black 2001 ). Unprecedented federal legislation reflects a faith in science "as a force for improved public policy" ( Feuer et al. 2002 ). The objective of evidence-based policy is to use scientific research to drive decision making. Thus, the link between social science research and public policy seems to be a natural one. The purpose of this chapter is to address how psychological science in general, and clinical psychology in particular, can be of use to public policy makers. We discuss how psychological science can be relevant and applicable to informing policy, and we describe the role clinical scientists might play in generating, disseminating, and implementing that information. We also note distinct limitations on the usefulness of psychological research in driving public policy. We discuss some pitfalls and recommend areas where clinical psychology might best serve public policy.

  11. Public opinion: Stunted policy support (United States)

    Druckman, James N.


    Energy policy is widely debated, with regards to climate change, alternative energy use and responsibility for policy. Research now highlights the role of citizens in public debates about energy and how it can be swayed.

  12. Topographic study of the sphenomandibular muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raulino Naves Borges


    Full Text Available The temporal muscle is housed in the fossa of the bone bearing its name – the temporal bone. Its origin, body, and insertion have been well studied, and it has been described as a muscle consisting of three bundles and responsible for various functions. The advancement of technology has allowed the observation of yet another muscle next to this bundle of fi bers and above the temporal muscle, namely the sphenomandibular muscle. The present study was designed to study the topography of the sphenomandibular muscle. Ten anatomical sets (fi ve cadavers were dissected with the intention of displaying the topography of the temporal and sphenomandibular muscles using the techniques of cutting and folding and conventional cross cuts. The folding of the structures and mapping of the muscles was carried out on four cadavers, analyzing their origins and describing their bodies and insertions. On another cadaver, cross-sectional (horizontal, 2 mm-thick slices were made in a sequential manner. We observed the topography of the muscle and its relationship with adjacent structures. The sphenomandibular muscle was found to be independent of the temporal muscle, for its origin is in the zygomatic-frontal complex, lateral to the orbit and overlaying the fi ber of the anterior bundle of the temporal muscle. Its body is separated from the body of the temporal muscle by a thin fascia and is inserted on an oblique line external to the mandible presenting, therefore, its origin, body, and insertion independent of the origin, body, and insertion of the temporal muscle.

  13. Intracellular acidosis enhances the excitability of working muscle. (United States)

    Pedersen, Thomas H; Nielsen, Ole B; Lamb, Graham D; Stephenson, D George


    Intracellular acidification of skeletal muscles is commonly thought to contribute to muscle fatigue. However, intracellular acidosis also acts to preserve muscle excitability when muscles become depolarized, which occurs with working muscles. Here, we show that this process may be mediated by decreased chloride permeability, which enables action potentials to still be propagated along the internal network of tubules in a muscle fiber (the T system) despite muscle depolarization. These results implicate chloride ion channels in muscle function and emphasize that intracellular acidosis of muscle has protective effects during muscle fatigue.

  14. Has UK energy policy failed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, M.J. (Sussex University, Brighton (United Kingdom). Science Policy Research Unit)


    The coal crisis of last October focused attention on the UK's energy supplies and led many to criticise the government's energy policy. Are these criticisms justified Was the crisis a massive policy failure An Honorary Fellow at the Science Policy Research Unit at Sussex University and formerly Director of Economics at British Coal, assesses UK energy policy and highlights some of the outstanding issues. 1 tab.

  15. The Gradual Expansion Muscle Flap (United States)


    defects can usu- ally be obtained with a rotational flap , larger size defects commonly require free tissue transfer. A number of techni- ques have...feasible.21,22 Because limb salvage situations occur in which rota- tional muscle coverage is inadequate and free flap coverage is less desirable, we...larger defects which previously would have required free tissue transfer. Surgical Technique The GEM flap for large soft tissue defects of the leg requires

  16. The role of passive muscle stiffness in symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage. (United States)

    McHugh, M P; Connolly, D A; Eston, R G; Kremenic, I J; Nicholas, S J; Gleim, G W


    We examined whether passive stiffness of an eccentrically exercising muscle group affects the subsequent symptoms of muscle damage. Passive hamstring muscle stiffness was measured during an instrumented straight-leg-raise stretch in 20 subjects (11 men and 9 women) who were subsequently classified as "stiff" (N = 7), "normal" (N = 6), or "compliant" (N = 7). Passive stiffness was 78% higher in the stiff subjects (36.2 +/- 3.3 N.m.rad(-1)) compared with the compliant subjects (20.3 +/- 1.8 N.m.rad(-1)). Subjects then performed six sets of 10 isokinetic (2.6 rad.s(-1)) submaximal (60% maximal voluntary contraction) eccentric actions of the hamstring muscle group. Symptoms of muscle damage were documented by changes in isometric hamstring muscle strength, pain, muscle tenderness, and creatine kinase activity on the following 3 days. Strength loss, pain, muscle tenderness, and creatine kinase activity were significantly greater in the stiff compared with the compliant subjects on the days after eccentric exercise. Greater symptoms of muscle damage in subjects with stiffer hamstring muscles are consistent with the sarcomere strain theory of muscle damage. The present study provides experimental evidence of an association between flexibility and muscle injury. Muscle stiffness and its clinical correlate, static flexibility, are risk factors for more severe symptoms of muscle damage after eccentric exercise.

  17. The effects of Juchumseogi and Juchumseo Jireugi motions of taekwondo on muscle activation of paraspinal muscles. (United States)

    Baek, Jongmyeng; Lee, Jaeseok; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Jeonghun; Han, Dongwook; Byun, Sunghak


    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of Juchumseogi and Juchumseo Jireugi motions on muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 20 healthy male students who listened to an explanation of the study methods and the purpose of the experiment, and agreed to participate in the study. [Methods] Muscle activation measurements of the paraspinal muscles at C3, T7, and L3 were taken while standing still and while performing Juchumseogi and Juchumseo Jireugi movements. The Juchumseogi and Juchumseo Jireugi motions were performed 3 times, and its mean value was used for analysis. [Results] The right and left muscle activation of paraspinal muscles induced by Juchumseogi and Juchumseo Jireugi motions in C3 and T7 were significantly higher than those induced by just standing. Muscle activation of paraspinal muscles induced by Juchumseo Jireugi motions in C3, T7, and L3 were significantly higher than those induced by Juchumseogi alone. The right and left muscle activation of paraspinal muscles induced by Juchumseo Jireugi motion in C3, T7, and L3 were significantly higher than those induced by standing and Juchumseogi alone. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that Juchumseogi and Juchumseo Jireugi motions of Taekwondo could increase muscle activation of paraspinal muscles, and Juchumseo Jireugi motions were more effective for enhancing muscle activation of paraspinal muscles.

  18. When Regional Innovation Policies Meet Policy Rationales and Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Jordana, Jacint


    In spite of recent advancements regarding regional innovation policy rationales and evidence, there are few analyses about the actual features of existing regional innovation policies. Nevertheless, a policy analysis perspective is important in order to recognize their distinctive patterns across...... regions, and to understand how rationales and evidence can be translated into policy-making. To this purpose, this paper develops a framework to study the extent to which regional innovation policies have changed during the past few years. Since the mid-2000s, there has been an important development...

  19. Postinjection Muscle Fibrosis from Lupron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Everest


    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 6.5-year-old girl with central precocious puberty (CPP, which signifies the onset of secondary sexual characteristics before the age of eight in females and the age of nine in males as a result of stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Her case is likely related to her adoption, as children who are adopted internationally have much higher rates of CPP. She had left breast development at Tanner Stage 2, adult body odor, and mildly advanced bone age. In order to halt puberty and maximize adult height, she was prescribed a gonadotropin releasing hormone analog, the first line treatment for CPP. She was administered Lupron (leuprolide acetate Depot-Ped (3 months intramuscularly. After her second injection, she developed swelling and muscle pain at the injection site on her right thigh. She also reported an impaired ability to walk. She was diagnosed with muscle fibrosis. This is the first reported case of muscle fibrosis resulting from Lupron injection.

  20. Optimal Policy in OG Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiglino, Christian; Tvede, Mich


    for generations, through fiscal policy, i.e., monetary transfers and taxes. Situations both with and without time discounting are considered. It is shown that if the discount factor is sufficiently close to one then the optimal policy stabilizes the economy, i.e. the equilibrium path has the turnpike property....... Moreover the fiscal policy is shown to be time-consistent...