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Sample records for adductor policis muscle

  1. Adductor policis muscle: a new anthropometric parameter

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    Lameu Edson Braga

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To measure the thickness of adductor pollicis muscle in healthy adults. This measurement will be used as a nutritional anthropometric parameter in further studies. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Four hundred and twenty-one healthy adults were studied, 209 men and 212 women, with ages ranging from 18 to 87 years, living in Rio de Janeiro. The adductor pollicis muscle was also studied in the human anatomy lab as well as in normal healthy volunteers using CAT scans and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging to ensure that only the adductor pollicis was included in measurement of muscle thickness with a Lange caliper. To standardize the measurement, the methodology was detailed, with subjects sitting with the dominant hand dangling over the homolateral thigh and the elbow bent at approximately a 90° angle. The Lange caliper was applied at a pressure of 10 g/mm², pinching the adductor pollicis muscle at the vertex of an imaginary angle between the thumb and the index finger. The average of 3 consecutive measurements was considered to be the muscle thickness. RESULTS: This study provides the first estimates of adductor pollicis thickness in normal healthy subjects as an anthropometric parameter. The normal values in the dominant hand for men were 12.5 ± 2.8 mm (mean ± SD, median 12 mm, and for women were 10.5 ± 2.3 mm, median 10 mm.

  2. Jaw adductor muscles across lepidosaurs: a reappraisal.

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    Daza, Juan Diego; Diogo, Rui; Johnston, Peter; Abdala, Virginia

    2011-10-01

    The exact homologies of tetrapod jaw muscles remain unresolved, and this provides a barrier for phylogenetic analysis and tracing character evolution. Here, lepidosaur jaw muscles are surveyed using direct examination of species from 23 families and published descriptions of species from 10 families. A revised nomenclature is applied according to proposed homologies with Latimeria. Among lepidosaurs, variation was found in many aspects of jaw muscle anatomy. The superficial layers mm. levator and retractor anguli oris (LAO and RAO) are present in Sphenodon but not all squamates. The external jaw adductor muscles universally present in lepidosaurs are homologous with the main adductor muscle, A2, of Latimeria and include four layers: superficialis (A2-SUP), medialis (A2-M), profundus (A2-PRO), and posterior (A2-PVM). The A2-SUP appears divided in Agamidae, Gekkota, Xantusiidae, and Varanidae. The A2-M is layered lateromedial in lizards but anteroposterior in snakes. The names pseudotemporalis (PS) and pterygomandibularis (PTM) are recommended for subdivisions of the internal adductors of reptiles and amphibians, because the homology of this muscle with the A3' and A3 ″ of Latimeria remains inconclusive. The intramandibularis of lepidosaurs and Latimeria (A-ω) are homologous. The distribution of six jaw muscle characters was found to plot more parsimoniously on phylogenies based on morphological rather than and molecular data. Character mapping indicates that Squamata presents reduction in the divisions of the A2-M, Scincoidea presents reduction or loss of LAO, and two apomorphic features are found for the Gekkota. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Characteristics of acute groin injuries in the adductor muscles

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    Serner, A.; Weir, A.; Tol, J. L.

    2018-01-01

    Acute adductor injuries account for the majority of acute groin injuries; however, little is known about specific injury characteristics, which could be important for the understanding of etiology and management of these injuries. The study aim was to describe acute adductor injuries in athletes...... using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Male athletes with acute groin pain and an MRI confirmed acute adductor muscle injury were prospectively included. MRI was performed within 7 days of injury using a standardized protocol and a reliable assessment approach. 156 athletes presented with acute groin...... pain of which 71 athletes were included, median age 27 years (range 18-37). There were 46 isolated muscle injuries and 25 athletes with multiple adductor injuries. In total, 111 acute adductor muscle injuries were recorded; 62 adductor longus, 18 adductor brevis, 17 pectineus, 9 obturator externus, 4...

  4. Adductor pollicis muscle: potential anthropometric parameter in hospitalized individuals

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    Teresa Cristina Abranches Rosa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the measurement of adductor pollicis muscle thickness as a parameter for the assessment of nutritional status in patients admitted to a University Hospital in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul State. This is a prospective cross-sectional study with 64 adults and elderly patients. We evaluated the percentage of weight loss based on the usual weight, arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, arm muscle circumference, laboratory parameters and measurement of adductor pollicis muscle thickness. The measurements were performed only once, in the first 72 hours of hospitalization. Data were analyzed using statistical software BioEstat 5.0, with a significance level of 0.05. The average thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle was 17.5 + 5.3 mm. We found a significant negative association of muscle with age. There was a significant association between the measure of muscle and parameters such as body mass index, arm circumference, arm muscle circumference, albumin and nutritional status assessed by physical examination. The adductor pollicis muscle allows easy measurement, direct assessment, fast results, low cost and good correlation with anthropometric parameters. However, further studies should be conducted to validate this new method.

  5. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF ADDUCTOR SPASMODIC DYSPHONIA AND MUSCLE TENSION DYSPHONIA USING ACOUSTIC PARAMETERS

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    Swapna Sebastian; Prem; Mahasampath Gowri

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The study aimed at differentiating Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia (ADSD) from Muscle Tension Dysphonia (MTD) using acoustic measurements . Method: Perceptual as well as acoustic analysis of the voice was done on 12 patients of Adductor Spasmodic dysphonics and Muscle tension dysphonics each. The age of these patients ranged between 30 to 64 years . Results: Adductor spasmodic dysphonics statistically differed from muscle tension dysphonia in the acoustic parameters of voice ...

  6. Why adductor magnus muscle is large: the function based on muscle morphology in cadavers.

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    Takizawa, M; Suzuki, D; Ito, H; Fujimiya, M; Uchiyama, E

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine anatomical properties of the adductor magnus through a detailed classification, and to hypothesize its function and size to gather enough information about morphology. Ten cadaveric specimens of the adductor magnus were used. The muscle was separated into four portios (AM1-AM4) based on the courses of the corresponding perforating arteries, and its volume, muscle length, muscle fiber length and physiological cross-sectional area were assessed. The architectural characteristics of these four portions of the adductor magnus were then classified with the aid of principal component analysis. The results led us into demarcating the most proximal part of the adductor magnus (AM1) from the remaining parts (AM2, AM3, and AM4). Classification of the adductor magnus in terms of architectural characteristics differed from the more traditional anatomical distinction. The AM2, AM3, and AM4, having longer muscle fiber lengths than the AM1, appear to be designed as displacers for moving the thigh through a large range of motion. The AM1 appears instead to be oriented principally toward stabilizing the hip joint. The large mass of the adductor magnus should thus be regarded as a complex of functionally differentiable muscle portions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Obturator neurolysis using 65% alcohol for adductor muscle spasticity

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    Anju Ghai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spasticity is motor alteration characterized by muscle hypertonia and hyperreflexia. It is an important complication of spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy, and multiple sclerosis. If uncorrected, fibrosis and eventually bony deformity lock the joint into a fixed contracture. Chemical neurolysis using various agents is one of the therapeutic possibilities to alleviate spasticity. We are, hereby, reporting 3 patients in whom 65% alcohol was used as neurolytic agent for the treatment of hip adductor spasticity, and the effect lasted for a variable period.

  8. Activation of the hip adductor muscles varies during a simulated weight-bearing task.

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    Hides, Julie A; Beall, Paula; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M; Stanton, Warren; Miokovic, Tanja; Richardson, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the pattern of muscle activation of the individual hip adductor muscles using a standardised simulated unilateral weight-bearing task. A repeated measures design. Laboratory. 20 healthy individuals (11 females, 9 males) participated in the study. Age ranged from 20 to 25 years. Surface electromyography recordings from adductor magnus and adductor longus muscles were taken at levels representing 10-50% of body weight during a simulated weight-bearing task. Electromyography (EMG) data were normalised to maximal voluntary isometric contraction. The adductor magnus was recruited at significantly higher levels than the adductor longus muscle during a simulated weight-bearing task performed across 10-50% of body weight (p bearing task. This information should be considered when selecting exercises for management and prevention of groin strains. Closed chain exercises with weight-bearing through the lower limb are more likely to recruit the adductor magnus muscle over the adductor longus muscle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pelvic floor muscle training decreases hip adductors isometric peak torque in incontinent women: an exploratory study

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    Grasiéla Nascimento Correia

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The pelvic floor muscle (PFM training is the most common treatment for urinary incontinence (UI, however many women performed the contraction of PFM with associated contraction of abdominal, gluteus and hip adductors muscles. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of pelvic floor muscle (PFM training on isometric and isokinetic hip adductors peak torque (PT among women suffering from urinary incontinence (UI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a longitudinal and prospective exploratory study. This study included 15 physically active women aged 45 years old and over, who presented complaints of UI. The PFM function (digital evaluation and perineometry, isometric and isokinetic hip adductors PT and one hour pad test were performed before and after treatment. The PFM training was performed in group, one hour once a week for 12 sessions. RESULTS: Significant improvement of PFM function and pressure level (p = 0.003, and significant decrease of hip adductors isometric PT and one-hour pad test, were found post-treatment. Moderate negative correlations between PFM contraction pressure and hip adductors isokinetic PT for dominant side (DS (r = -0.62; p = 0.03 and non-dominant side (NDS (r = -0.64; p = 0.02; and between PFM fast fibers contraction and hip adductors isometric PT for DS (r = -0.60; p = 0.03 and NDS (r = -0.59; p = 0.04 were also found. CONCLUSIONS: The PFM training decreased hip adductors PT and improved PFM functions and UI.

  10. Contractile speed and fatigue of adductor pollicis muscle in multiple sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, C.J. de; Jongen, P.J.H.; Woude, L.H.V. van der; Haan, A. de

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate differences in contractile speed, force, and fatigability of the adductor pollicis muscle between 12 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 8 sedentary control subjects matched for age and gender. There were no differences between the patients with MS

  11. Contractile speed and fatigue of adductor pollicis muscle in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; Jongen, P.J.H.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; de Haan, A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate differences in contractile speed, force, and fatigability of the adductor pollicis muscle between 12 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 8 sedentary control subjects matched for age and gender. There were no differences between the patients with MS

  12. Stabilization and stability of twitch force during mechanomyography of the adductor pollicis muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, G; Fidler, [No Value; Wierda, JMKH

    1998-01-01

    Objective. In order to study the stabilization time, the increase in twitch force during stabilization and the maintenance of stability during mechanomyography of the adductor pollicis muscle, neuromuscular function was monitored in 20 patients anaesthetized without the use of a neuromuscular

  13. EMG of the hip adductor muscles in six clinical examination tests.

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    Lovell, Gregory A; Blanch, Peter D; Barnes, Christopher J

    2012-08-01

    To assess activation of muscles of hip adduction using EMG and force analysis during standard clinical tests, and compare athletes with and without a prior history of groin pain. Controlled laboratory study. 21 male athletes from an elite junior soccer program. Bilateral surface EMG recordings of the adductor magnus, adductor longus, gracilis and pectineus as well as a unilateral fine-wire EMG of the pectineus were made during isometric holds in six clinical examination tests. A load cell was used to measure force data. Test type was a significant factor in the EMG output for all four muscles (all muscles p magnus, adductor longus and gracilis. EMG activation for pectineus was highest in Hips 90. Injury history was a significant factor in the EMG output for the adductor longus (p magnus. For force data, clinical test type was a significant factor (p force. All other factors had no significant effect on the force outputs. Hip adduction strength assessment is best measured at hips 0 (which produced most force) or 45° flexion (which generally gave the highest EMG output). Muscle EMG varied significantly with clinical test position. Athletes with previous groin injury had a significant fall in some EMG outputs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Symphysis Pubis Osteomyelitis with Bilateral Adductor Muscles Abscess

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    Saad M. Alqahtani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis of the pubis symphysis is a rare condition. There have been various reports in the literature of inflammation and osteomyelitis as well as septic arthritis of pubic symphysis. However, due to the fact that these conditions are rare and that the usual presenting symptoms are very nonspecific, osteomyelitis of the pubic symphysis is often misdiagnosed, thus delaying definitive treatment. We present a case that to our knowledge is the first case in literature of osteomyelitis of the pubic symphysis in a 17-year-old boy with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA, which was initially misdiagnosed and progressed to bilateral adductor abscesses. A high suspicion of such condition should be considered in a JIA patient who presents with symphysis or thigh pain.

  15. The Isolated Effect of Adductor Canal Block on Quadriceps Femoris Muscle Strength After Total Knee Arthroplasty

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    Sørensen, Johan Kløvgaard; Jæger, Pia; Dahl, Jørgen Berg

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Using peripheral nerve block after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), without impeding mobility, is challenging. We hypothesized that the analgesic effect of adductor canal block (ACB) could increase the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the quadriceps femoris muscle after......, expressed as a percentage of postoperative preblock values. In this manner, the effect of the ACB could be isolated from the detrimental effect on muscle strength caused by the surgery. Secondary end points were differences between groups in mobility and pain scores. We planned a subgroup analysis dividing......: ACB improves quadriceps femoris muscle strength, but whether this translates into enhanced mobility is not clearly supported by this study....

  16. From untargeted LC-QTOF analysis to characterisation of opines in abalone adductor muscle: Theory meets practice.

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    Venter, Leonie; Jansen van Rensburg, Peet J; Loots, Du Toit; Vosloo, Andre; Lindeque, Jeremie Zander

    2017-12-15

    Abalone have a unique ability to use pyruvate, various amino acids and dehydrogenases, to produce opines as means to prevent the accumulation of NADH during anaerobic conditions. In this study, the theoretical masses, formulae and fragment patterns of butylated opines were used to predict which of these compounds could be found in the abalone adductor muscle using untargeted liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of flight-mass spectrometry. These findings were validated using synthesised opine standards. In essence alanopine, lysopine, strombine and tauropine produced in abalone adductor muscle could be characterised using the highest identification confidence levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cortical Silent Period Reveals Differences Between Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia and Muscle Tension Dysphonia.

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    Samargia, Sharyl; Schmidt, Rebekah; Kimberley, Teresa Jacobson

    2016-03-01

    The pathophysiology of adductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD), like other focal dystonias, is largely unknown. The purposes of this study were to determine (a) cortical excitability differences between AdSD, muscle tension dysphonia (MTD), and healthy controls; (b) distribution of potential differences in cranial or skeletal muscle; and (c) if cortical excitability measures assist in the differential diagnosis of AdSD and MTD. Ten participants with adductor spasmodic dysphonia, 8 with muscle tension dysphonia, and 10 healthy controls received single and paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the primary motor cortex contralateral to tested muscles, first dorsal interosseus (FDI), and masseter. We tested the hypothesis that cortical excitability measures in AdSD would be significantly different from those in MTD and healthy controls. In addition, we hypothesized that there would be a correlation between cortical excitability measures and clinical voice severity in AdSD. Cortical silent period duration in masseter and FDI was significantly shorter in AdSD than MTD and healthy controls. Other measures failed to demonstrate differences. There are differences in cortical excitability between AdSD, MTD, and healthy controls. These differences in the cortical measure of both the FDI and masseter muscles in AdSD suggest widespread dysfunction of the GABAB mechanism may be a pathophysiologic feature of AdSD, similar to other forms of focal dystonia. Further exploration of the use of TMS to assist in the differential diagnosis of AdSD and MTD is warranted. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. [Efficacies of percutaneous multiple needle puncturing for releasing hip adductor muscle during total hip arthroplasty].

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    Zhao, Yong; Liu, Kegui; Sun, Tao; Zhao, Yuchi; Zou, Dexin; Tan, Jiangwei; Li, Jingning; Zhang, Shudong; Liu, Yangde

    2014-12-09

    To summarize our experiences of applying percutaneous multiple needle puncturing technique for releasing adductor muscle during total hip arthroplasty (THA) for ischemic necrosis of femoral head and provide rationales for clinical practice. From January 2008 to December 2012, 36 adult patients with ischemic necrosis of femoral head (36 hips) and 36 adult patients with femoral neck fracture (36 hips) were recruited. The group of ischemic necrosis of femoral head was designated as experiment group in which there were 29 males and 7 females with an average age of 67.9 (60-78) years. According to the Ficat system, there were type III (n = 24) and type IV (n = 12) . The affected leg shortening of this group prior to surgery was over 2 cm. The group of femoral neck fracture was selected as control group in which there were 16 males and 20 females with an average age of 70.1 (60-82) years. According to the Garden system, there were type III (n = 16) and type IV (n = 20). All cases underwent THA with Press-fit prosthesis. After fixing prosthetic components, leg length discrepancy was corrected. And percutaneous multiple needle puncturing was applied for releasing adductor muscle in experiment group. The follow-up period was 2 years. The safety and efficiency were evaluated by HHS (Harris Hip Score) and the range of motion (ROM) of hip extorsion and abduction. There was no occurrence of such early complications as palsy of obturator nerve, hematoma in adductor muscle area or serious deep vein embolism.No serious complications of deep infection, femoral head dislocation, recurrent adductor muscle contracture, prosthesis loosening, subsidence, excursion or penetration occurred up until the final follow-up. The range of hip motion of extorsion and abduction: (1) in experimental group, the postoperative ROM (abduction:44.9 ± 0.8, extorsion:45.1 ± 0.9) was significantly larger than that of preoperative (abduction: 30.0 ± 4.6, extorsion:31.5 ± 4.6) ; (2) the postoperative ROM

  19. FATIGUE ASSOCIATED EMG BEHAVIOR OF THE FIRST DORSAL INTEROSSEOUS AND ADDUCTOR POLLICIS MUSCLES IN DIFFERENT GROUPS OF SUBJECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJDEWIND, Inge; KERNELL, D

    We have studied the fatigue-associated behavior of surface EMG in two histochemically different muscles of the hand: fi rst dorsal interosseous (FDI) and adductor pollicis (AP; relatively more type I fibers in AP than in FDI). During a fatigue test evoked by electrical stimulation of the ulnar

  20. Reliability of concentric and eccentric strength of hip abductor and adductor muscles in young soccer players

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    V Gerodimos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentric and eccentric strength profile and muscular balance of the hip joint are important parameters for success in soccer. This study evaluated the reliability for the assessment of hip abduction and adduction isokinetic strength over a range of angular velocities (30 and 90°/s and types of muscular actions (concentric and eccentric in young soccer players. The reliability for the assessment of reciprocal (conventional and functional and bilateral torque ratios was also examined. Fifteen male soccer players (15±1 years performed two sessions, separated by three days. The testing protocol consisted of five maximal concentric and eccentric hip abductions and adductions of both legs at angular velocities of 30°/s and 90°/s. The peak torque was evaluated in young soccer players using an isokinetic dynamometer (Cybex Norm, and the reciprocal strength ratios (conventional and functional and bilateral ratios (non-preferred to preferred leg ratios were calculated. The test-retest reliability for the assessment of peak torque (lCC=0.71-0.92 and of reciprocal muscle group ratios (lCC=0.44-0.87 was found to be moderate to high. Bilateral torque ratios exhibited low to moderate reliability (|CC=0.11-0.64. In conclusion, isokinetic strength of hip abductor and adductor muscles and the conventional and functional strength ratios can be reliably assessed in young soccer players, especially at low angular velocities. The assessment, however, of bilateral strength ratios for hip abductor/adductor muscles should be interpreted with more caution.

  1. A Preliminary Study on the Pattern, the Physiological Bases and the Molecular Mechanism of the Adductor Muscle Scar Pigmentation in Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas

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    Wenchao Yu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The melanin pigmentation of the adductor muscle scar and the outer surface of the shell are among attractive features and their pigmentation patterns and mechanism still remains unknown in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. To study these pigmentation patterns, the colors of the adductor muscle scar vs. the outer surface of the shell on the same side were compared. No relevance was found between the colors of the adductor muscle scars and the corresponding outer surface of the shells, suggesting that their pigmentation processes were independent. Interestingly, a relationship between the color of the adductor muscle scars and the dried soft-body weight of Pacific oysters was found, which could be explained by the high hydroxyl free radical scavenging capacity of the muscle attached to the black adductor muscle scar. After the transcriptomes of pigmented and unpigmented adductor muscles and mantles were studied by RNAseq and compared, it was found that the retinol metabolism pathway were likely to be involved in melanin deposition on the adductor muscle scar and the outer surface of the shell, and that the different members of the tyrosinase or Cytochrome P450 gene families could play a role in the independent pigmentation of different organs.

  2. Features of Vocal Fold Adductor Paralysis and the Management of Posterior Muscle in Thyroplasty.

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    Konomi, Ujimoto; Tokashiki, Ryoji; Hiramatsu, Hiroyuki; Motohashi, Ray; Sakurai, Eriko; Toyomura, Fumimasa; Nomoto, Masaki; Kawada, Yuri; Suzuki, Mamoru

    2016-03-01

    To present the pathologic characteristics of unilateral recurrent nerve adductor branch paralysis (AdBP), and to investigate the management of posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle on the basis of our experience of surgical treatment for AdBP. This is a retrospective review of clinical records Four cases of AdBP, in which surgical treatment was performed, are presented. AdBP shows disorders of vocal fold adduction because of paralysis of the thyroarytenoid and lateral cricoarytenoid muscles. The PCA muscle, dominated by the recurrent nerve PCA muscle branch, does not show paralysis. Thus, this type of partial recurrent nerve paresis retains the abductive function and is difficult to distinguish from arytenoid cartilage dislocation because of their similar endoscopic findings. The features include acute onset, and all cases were idiopathic etiology. Thyroarytenoid muscle paralysis was determined by electromyography and stroboscopic findings. The adduction and abduction of paralytic arytenoids were evaluated from 3 dimensional computed tomography (3DCT). In all cases, surgical treatments were arytenoid adduction combined with thyroplasty. When we adducted the arytenoid cartilage during inspiration, strong resistance was observed. In the two cases where we could cut the PCA muscle sufficiently, the maximum phonation time was improved to ≥30 seconds after surgery, from 2 to 3 seconds preoperatively, providing good postoperative voices. In contrast, in the two cases of insufficient resection, the surgical outcomes were poorer. Because the preoperative voice in AdBP patients is typically very coarse, surgical treatment is needed, as well as ordinary recurrent nerve paralysis. In our experience, adequate PCA muscle resection might be helpful in surgical treatment of AdBP. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of hip extensor muscle activity including the adductor magnus during three prone hip extension exercises.

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    Ko, Han-I; Jeon, Seung-Yeon; Kim, Si-Hyun; Park, Kyue-Nam

    2018-03-30

    This study compared the role of the adductor magnus muscle (Amag) as a hip extensor while performing active prone hip extension (PHE), PHE with hip adduction (PHE-ADD), and PHE with hip abduction (PHE-ABD) with the gluteus maximus (Gmax) and hamstrings. The study recruited 22 healthy participants. Electromyography data were recorded from the Amag, Gmax, and medial and lateral hamstrings during PHE, PHE-ADD, and PHE-ABD. Normalized electromyographic data were examined using one-way, repeated-measures analyses of variance. The magnitude of the Amag, Gmax, and hamstring activations did not differ significantly while performing PHE (p = 0.41). Furthermore, the Amag and hamstring activations were significantly greater than the Gmax activation when performing PHE-ADD (p < 0.05). The Gmax showed significantly greater activation during PHE-ABD than the Amag and medial and lateral hamstrings (p < 0.05). Based on these results, we advocate including the Amag as a hip extensor during the PHE test or exercise. Our preliminary results have the potential to be applied directly to the PHE test, for investigating the muscle-activation pattern of the Amag with the Gmax and hamstrings in patients with hip or lower back pain.

  4. Characteristics of acute groin injuries in the adductor muscles: Adetailed MRI study in athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serner, A.; Weir, A.; Tol, J. L.; Thorborg, K.; Roemer, F.; Guermazi, A.; Yamashiro, E.; Hölmich, P.

    2018-01-01

    Acute adductor injuries account for the majority of acute groin injuries; however, little is known about specific injury characteristics, which could be important for the understanding of etiology and management of these injuries. The study aim was to describe acute adductor injuries in athletes

  5. Differential diagnosis of adductor spasmodic dysphonia and muscle tension dysphonia using phonatory break analysis.

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    Roy, Nelson; Whitchurch, Melissa; Merrill, Ray M; Houtz, Daniel; Smith, Marshall E

    2008-12-01

    Muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) can masquerade as adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) leading to diagnostic confusion. Intraword phonatory breaks have been offered as the sine qua non of ADSD, however, little is known regarding the presence of phonatory breaks in MTD. This investigation assessed the diagnostic worth of acoustic analysis of phonatory breaks as a possible objective test to distinguish ADSD from MTD. Case-control comparison. Voice samples from patients with confirmed ADSD (n = 41) and MTD (n = 59) were analyzed acoustically to determine the presence, frequency, and duration of phonatory breaks -- defined as complete interruption of phonation within a word. Estimates of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and likelihood ratios were calculated to determine the precision and worth of phonatory break analysis as a clinical diagnostic test. 1) Individuals with ADSD showed a significantly higher number of phonatory breaks as compared with MTD. 2) All measures of diagnostic precision varied according to both duration and frequency of phonatory breaks, with separation of males and females leading to different diagnostic test performance results. The results suggest that phonatory break analysis offers promise as an objective test to distinguish ADSD from MTD, with respectable diagnostic precision, especially among men. Automation of the acoustic analysis procedure should be explored.

  6. Monitoring of color and pH in muscles of pork leg (m. adductor and m. semimembranosus

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    Martina Bednářová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify PSE pork meat, pH and color testing was performed directly in a cutting plant (72 hours post mortem in this research. Specifically pork leg muscles musculi adductor (AD and semimembranosus (SM from five selected suppliers (A, B, C, D, E were examined. Twenty samples of meat for each muscle were examined from each supplier. The measured pH values ranged from 5.43 to 5.63, and the L* values from 46.13 to 57.18. No statistically significant differences in pH values and color were detected among the various suppliers with the exception of the a* and b* parameters for two suppliers, namely A and B (p<0.01. On the contrary, a statistically significant difference (p<0.5 was recorded between individual muscles (AD/SM across all the suppliers (A, B, C, D, E with the exception of a* parameter from suppliers B, C, D, E, and pH values for the E supplier. Our results revealed that individual muscles differ in values of pH and color. In comparison with literature, pH and lightness L* values in musculus adductor point to PSE (pale, soft and exudative meat, while the values of musculus semimebranosus to RFN (red, firm and non-exudative. Use of PSE meat in production of meat products can cause several problems. In particular, it causes light color, low water-holding capacity, poor fat emulsifying ability, lower yield, granular or crumbly texture and poor consistency of the finished product. Therefore classification of the meat directly cutting plant may be possible solution for this problem. The finished product pruduces from muscles of musculi semimembranosus can obtain better quality than the finished product from musculi adductor.

  7. Automated acoustic analysis of task dependency in adductor spasmodic dysphonia versus muscle tension dysphonia.

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    Roy, Nelson; Mazin, Alqhazo; Awan, Shaheen N

    2014-03-01

    Distinguishing muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) from adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) can be difficult. Unlike MTD, ADSD is described as "task-dependent," implying that dysphonia severity varies depending upon the demands of the vocal task, with connected speech thought to be more symptomatic than sustained vowels. This study used an acoustic index of dysphonia severity (i.e., the Cepstral Spectral Index of Dysphonia [CSID]) to: 1) assess the value of "task dependency" to distinguish ADSD from MTD, and to 2) examine associations between the CSID and listener ratings. Case-Control Study. CSID estimates of dysphonia severity for connected speech and sustained vowels of patients with ADSD (n = 36) and MTD (n = 45) were compared. The diagnostic precision of task dependency (as evidenced by differences in CSID-estimated dysphonia severity between connected speech and sustained vowels) was examined. In ADSD, CSID-estimated severity for connected speech (M = 39. 2, SD = 22.0) was significantly worse than for sustained vowels (M = 29.3, SD = 21.9), [P = .020]. Whereas in MTD, no significant difference in CSID-estimated severity was observed between connected speech (M = 55.1, SD = 23.8) and sustained vowels (M = 50.0, SD = 27.4), [P = .177]. CSID evidence of task dependency correctly identified 66.7% of ADSD cases (sensitivity) and 64.4% of MTD cases (specificity). CSID and listener ratings were significantly correlated. Task dependency in ADSD, as revealed by differences in acoustically-derived estimates of dysphonia severity between connected speech and sustained vowel production, is a potentially valuable diagnostic marker. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. "Pollical palmar interosseous muscle" (musculus adductor pollicis accessorius): attachments, innervation, variations, phylogeny, and implications for human evolution and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Hellegouarch, Gaelle; Aziz, M Ashraf; Ferrero, Eva M; Kern, Michael; Francis, Nadia; Diogo, Rui

    2013-03-01

    Most atlases and textbooks dealing with human anatomy do not refer to the "pollical palmar interosseous" (PPI) muscle of Henle. In order to undertake a fresh and detailed study of this muscle and to thus better understand human comparative anatomy and evolution, we: 1) analyze the frequency of the PPI in a large sample of human hands; 2) describe the attachments, innervation and varieties of the PPI in these hands; 3) compare the data obtained with the information available in the literature; and 4) discuss the phylogenetic origin of the PPI and the implications of our observations and comparisons for medicine and for the understanding of human evolutionary history. Within the 72 hands dissected by us, the PPI is present in 67 hands (93%), commonly having a single muscular branch, originating from the medial side of the base of metacarpal I only, inserting onto the medial side of the base of the pollical proximal phalanx and/or surrounding structures (e.g., ulnar sesamoid bone, wing tendon of extensor apparatus), and passing at least partially, and usually mainly, medial to the princeps pollicis artery. A careful study of the human PPI, as well as a detailed comparison with other mammals, strongly suggest that the muscle is evolutionarily derived from the adductor pollicis, and namely from its oblique head. Therefore, we propose that PPI should be designated by the name musculus adductor pollicis accessorius, which indicates that the muscle is most likely a de novo structure derived from the adductor pollicis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Impacts on adductor muscle tension in children of spasmodic cerebral palsy treated with acupuncture at the three-spasm-needle therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Bingxu; Zhao, Yong; Li, Nuo

    2015-03-01

    To explore the effective therapeutic method for reducing adductor muscle tension in the children of spasmodic cerebral palsy. One hundred and forty cases of spasmodic cerebral palsy met the inclusive criteria were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 70 cases in each one. In the control group, the conventional physical therapies (Bobath therapy and lower extremities therapy) and scalp acupuncture (seven-intelligent needles, motor area, sensory area, foot-motor-sensory area and balance area) were adopted. In the observation group, on the basis of the treatment as the control group, the three-spasm-needle therapy was applied to Jiejian, Xuehaishang and Houxuehai. The physical therapies were given once every day, acupuncture was given once every two days, the treatment of 20 days made one session. There were 15 to 20 days at the interval among the sessions and 3 sessions were required totally. Separately before and after treatment, the modified Ashworth scale was used to evaluate the adductor muscle tension, and measure the adductor muscle angle, and D and E regions of gross motor function measure (GMFM-88) were adopted for clinical efficacy evaluation. After treatment, the scores of the adductor muscle tension were decreased to different extends in the two groups (both Ptherapy effectively reduces adductor muscle tension and improves the range of motion in hip joint, independent walking, running and jumping abilities in the children of spasmodic cerebral palsy.

  10. Effect on laryngeal adductor function of vincristine block of posterior cricoarytenoid muscle 3 to 5 months after recurrent laryngeal nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniello, Randal C; Park, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    It has been shown in a canine model that a single injection of vincristine into the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle at the time of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury effectively blocks its reinnervation and results in improved adductor strength. But clinically, such injuries are usually diagnosed weeks or months after onset. Vincristine injection does not affect a muscle that is already innervated; thus, there is a limited time frame following RLN injury during which a vincristine injection could effectively improve ultimate laryngeal adductor functional recovery. A series of delayed injections was performed in a canine model and results assessed. Animal (canine) experiment. The RLN was transected and repaired, and vincristine (0.4 mg) was injected into the PCA muscle at the time of injury (n=12) or 3, 4, and 5 months later (n=8 each study group). Six months after RLN injury, laryngeal adductor function was measured. Results of vincristine injection without RLN injury (n=6) and longer-term (12 months) follow-up for time zero injections (n=4) are also reported. The animals injected at time zero had better adductor function than non-injected controls, as reported previously, and this result was further increased at 12 months. The 3-month delay gave results similar to the time zero group. The 5-month delay group showed no vincristine benefit, and the 4-month delay group gave an intermediate result. Vincristine to the PCA had no effect on adductor function when the RLN was left intact. Plasma levels showed 19% of injected vincristine reached systemic circulation, which was cleared within 69 hours. Vincristine injection of the PCA muscle after RLN injury, which blocks this antagonist muscle from synkinetic reinnervation, leads to improved laryngeal adductor functional recovery. The window of opportunity to apply this treatment closes by 4 months after RLN injury in the canine model. Human RLN recovery follows a similar time course and can reasonably be

  11. Potential use of fatty acid profiles of the adductor muscle of cockles (Cerastoderma edule) for traceability of collection site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Fernando; Pimentel, Tânia; Moreira, Ana S P; Rey, Felisa; Coimbra, Manuel A; Rosário Domingues, M; Domingues, Pedro; Costa Leal, Miguel; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-06-18

    Geographic traceability of seafood is key for controlling its quality and safeguarding consumers' interest. The present study assessed if the fatty acid (FA) profile of the adductor muscle (AM) of fresh cockles (Cerastoderma edule) can be used to discriminate the origin of specimens collected in different bivalve capture/production areas legally defined within a coastal lagoon. Results suggest that this biochemical approach holds the potential to trace sampling locations with a spatial resolution <10 Km, even for areas with identical classification for bivalve production. Cockles further away from the inlet, i.e. in areas exposed to a higher saline variation, exhibited lower levels of saturated fatty acids, which are key for stabilizing the bilayer structure of cell membranes, and a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which enhance bilayer fluidity. Results suggest that the structural nature of the lipids present in the AM provides a stable fatty acid signature and holds potential for tracing the origin of bivalves to their capture/production areas.

  12. A New Option for the Reconstruction of Primary or Recurrent Ischial Pressure Sores: Hamstring-Adductor Magnus Muscle Advancement Flap and Direct Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burm, Jin Sik; Hwang, Jungil; Lee, Yung Ki

    2018-04-01

    Owing to the high recurrence rates of ischial pressure sores, surgeons should consider the possibility of future secondary flap surgery during flap selection. The purpose of this article is to present a new surgical option for the reconstruction of primary or recurrent ischial pressure sores using a simple hamstring-adductor magnus advancement flap and direct closure. After horizontal fusiform skin excision, complete bursa excision and ischiectomy were performed. The tenomuscular origin of the adductor magnus and the conjoined tenomuscular origin of the biceps femoris long head and semitendinosus were isolated and completely detached from the inferior border of the ischial tuberosity. They were then advanced in a cephalad direction without detachment of the distal tendon or muscle and securely affixed to the sacrotuberous ligament. The wound was directly closed without further incision or dissection. Twelve ischial pressure sores (6 primary and 6 recurrent; 12 patients) were surgically corrected. The follow-up period was 12 to 65 months. All patients healed successfully without early postoperative complications, such as hematoma, seroma, infection, wound dehiscence, or partial necrosis. Late complications included wound disruption 5 weeks after surgery that spontaneously healed in 1 case and recurrence 3 years later in another case. The new surgical option presented herein, which involves hamstring-adductor magnus advancement flap and direct closure, is a simple and reliable method for providing sufficient muscle bulk to fill the dead space and proper padding to the bone stump while preserving the main vascular perforators and pedicles as well as future surgical options.

  13. NMR-Based Metabolomic Investigations on the Differential Responses in Adductor Muscles from Two Pedigrees of Manila Clam Ruditapes philippinarum to Cadmium and Zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbao Yu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the most important economic species in shellfishery in China due to its wide geographic distribution and high tolerance to environmental changes (e.g., salinity, temperature. In addition, Manila clam is a good biomonitor/bioindicator in “Mussel Watch Programs” and marine environmental toxicology. However, there are several pedigrees of R. philippinarum distributed in the marine environment in China. No attention has been paid to the biological differences between various pedigrees of Manila clams, which may introduce undesirable biological variation in toxicology studies. In this study, we applied NMR-based metabolomics to detect the biological differences in two main pedigrees (White and Zebra of R. philippinarum and their differential responses to heavy metal exposures (Cadmium and Zinc using adductor muscle as a target tissue to define one sensitive pedigree of R. philippinarum as biomonitor for heavy metals. Our results indicated that there were significant metabolic differences in adductor muscle tissues between White and Zebra clams, including higher levels of alanine, glutamine, hypotaurine, phosphocholine and homarine in White clam muscles and higher levels of branched chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine, succinate and 4-aminobutyrate in Zebra clam muscles, respectively. Differential metabolic responses to heavy metals between White and Zebra clams were also found. Overall, we concluded that White pedigree of clam could be a preferable bioindicator/biomonitor in marine toxicology studies and for marine heavy metals based on the relatively high sensitivity to heavy metals.

  14. Differential proteomic responses in hepatopancreas and adductor muscles of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis to stresses induced by cadmium and hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Priscilla T.Y. [Swire Institute of Marine Science and School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Wang Yu [Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy, University of Hong Kong, Sassoon Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Mak, Sarah S.T.; Ng, W.C. [Swire Institute of Marine Science and School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Leung, Kenneth M.Y., E-mail: kmyleung@hkucc.hku.hk [Swire Institute of Marine Science and School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2011-09-15

    This study aimed to reveal the proteomic responses in the hepatopancreas and adductor muscle of a common biomonitor, Perna viridis after 14-day exposure to two model chemicals, cadmium (Cd; a toxic metal) and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}; a pro-oxidant), using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with multivariate statistical analyses. Unique sets of tissue-specific protein expression signatures were revealed corresponding to the two treatment groups. In the hepatopancreas, 15 and 2 spots responded to Cd and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatments respectively. 6 and 7 spots were differentially expressed in the adductor muscle for Cd and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatments, respectively. 15 differentially expressed spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis. These proteins are involved in glycolysis, amino acid metabolism, energy homeostasis, oxidative stress response, redox homeostasis and protein folding, heat-shock response, and muscle contraction modulation. This is the first time, to have demonstrated that Cd exposure not only leads to substantial oxidative stress but also results in endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatopancreas of the mussel. Such notable stress responses may be attributable to high Cd accumulation in this tissue. Our results suggested that investigations on these stress-associated protein changes could be used as a new and complementary approach in pollution monitoring by this popular biomonitor species.

  15. Assessment of isokinetic peak torque reliability of the hip flexor, extensor, adductors and abductors muscles in female soccer players from 14 to 25 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Andrade, Marilia; Mascarin, Naryana C; Benedito-Silva, Ana A; Carderelli Minozzo, Fabio; Vancini, Rodrigo L; Barbosa DE Lira, Claudio A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate test-retest reliability of concentric flexor, extensor, abductor and adductor muscular isokinetic hip torques in female soccer players. Sixteen highly-trained female soccer players were evaluated. Isokinetic dynamometer assessment was performed at 30°/s and 150°/s concentrically. The muscles tested were hip flexor (Fl), extensor (Ext), adductor (Add) and abductor (Abd). The reproducibility of the measured peak torque (PT) was analyzed by using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The difference in PT between the first and second tests was tested using Student's t-test. The ICC for the observed PT values revealed moderate to high reproducibility (ranging from 0.55 to 0.76) for the hip Fl and Ext measurements at 150º/s and for Add and Abd measurements at 30 and 150º/s. For the hip Fl and Ext measurements at 30º/s the ICC was poor. The isokinetic assessment of the concentric PT values generated by the hip Fl and Ext and Add and Abd is moderate to highly reproducible, when assessed at the highest test velocity (150º/s). The test-retest reliability of hip isokinetic strength measures seems to be affected by the type muscle and test velocity.

  16. Increase in twitch force of the adductor pollicis muscle with stabilized preload at constant thumb abduction before and after administration of muscle relaxant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, G; Wierda, JMKH; Fidler, [No Value

    Objective. To determine whether the twitch force of the adductor pollicis remains stable when 0.1 Hz single twitch stimulation is started after stabilization of the thumb preload at a constant degree of thumb abduction; also to study any possible increase in twitch force before the onset of and

  17. Preseason adductor squeeze strength in 303 Spanish male soccer athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteve, Ernest; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Vicens-Bordas, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    Background: Hip adductor muscle weakness and a history of groin injury both have been identified as strong risk factors for sustaining a new groin injury. Current groin pain and age have been associated with hip adductor strength. These factors could be related, but this has never been investigat...

  18. Sports hernia repair with adductor tenotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, J N; Brody, F

    2017-02-01

    Sports hernias, or athletic pubalgia, is common in athletes, and primarily involves injury to the fascia, muscles, and tendons of the inguinal region near their insertion onto the pubic bone. However, management varies widely, and rectus and adductor tenotomies have not been adequately described. The purpose of this manuscript is to demonstrate a suture repair and a rectus and adductor longus tenotomy technique for sports hernias. After magnetic-resonance-imaging confirmation of sports hernias with rectus and adductor tendonitis, 22 patients underwent a suture herniorrhaphy with adductor tenotomy. The procedure is performed through a 4-cm incision, and a fascial release of the rectus abdominis and adductor tenotomy is performed to relieve the opposing vector forces on the pubic bone. All 22 patients returned to their respective sports and regained their ability to perform at a high level, including professional status. No further surgery was required. In athletes with MRI confirmation of rectus and adductor longus injuries, tenotomies along with a herniorraphy may improve outcomes. A suture repair to reinforce the inguinal floor prevents mesh-related complications, especially in young athletes.

  19. Screening the lumbopelvic muscles for a relationship to injury of the quadriceps, hamstrings, and adductor muscles among elite Australian Football League players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hides, Julie A; Brown, Cassandra T; Penfold, Lachlan; Stanton, Warren R

    2011-10-01

    Longitudinal observational study. To examine the relationship between severity of preseason hip, groin, and thigh (HGT) muscle injuries, and lumbopelvic muscle size, asymmetry, and function at the start and end of the preseason. In Australian Rules Football, HGT muscle injuries have the highest prevalence and incidence. Deficits within the lumbopelvic region, such as impaired muscle function and muscle asymmetry, could contribute to injuries in the preseason, and injury could, in turn, affect muscle size and function. MRI examinations were performed on 47 male elite Australian Rules Football players at the start and at the end of the football preseason. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of multifidus, psoas major, and quadratus lumborum muscles was measured, as well as change in trunk CSA due to the function of voluntarily contracting the transversus abdominis muscle. Injuries occurring during each preseason training session were routinely recorded by the club's performance staff. Analysis of variance indicated that players with more severe preseason HGT injuries (more training sessions missed) had significantly smaller multifidus muscle CSA compared to players with no HGT injury (P = .006). No relationship was found for size or asymmetry of the quadratus lumborum or psoas major muscles, or ability to contract the transversus abdominis muscle through drawing in of the abdominal wall (P>.05). Small multifidus muscle size at L5 predicted 5 of 6 players who incurred a more severe HGT injury. An association between multifidus muscle size (relative to age, height, and weight) and preseason injury suggests a way to identify players at risk of severe HGT injuries. This result needs to be replicated in a larger sample before resources are committed to intervention efforts.

  20. Recovery of muscle function after deep neuromuscular block by means of diaphragm ultrasonography and adductor of pollicis acceleromyography with comparison of neostigmine vs. sugammadex as reversal drugs: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellini, Iacopo; Picciafuochi, Fabio; Ostento, Daniele; Danti, Ginevra; De Gaudio, Angelo Raffaele; Adembri, Chiara

    2018-02-21

    The extensive use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) during surgical procedures still leads to potential residual paralyzing effects in the postoperative period. Indeed, neuromuscular monitoring in an intra-operative setting is strongly advocated. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can reverse muscle block, but their short half-life may lead to residual curarization in the ward, especially when intermediate or long-acting NMBAs have been administered. Sugammadex is the first selective reversal drug for steroidal NMBAs; it has been shown to give full and rapid recovery of muscle strength, thus minimizing the occurrence of residual curarization. Acceleromyography of the adductor pollicis is the gold standard for detecting residual curarization, but it cannot be carried out on conscious patients. Ultrasonography of diaphragm thickness may reveal residual effects of NMBAs in conscious patients. This prospective, double-blind, single-center randomized controlled study will enroll patients (of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-II, aged 18-80 years) who will be scheduled to undergo deep neuromuscular block with rocuronium for ear, nose, or throat surgery. The study's primary objective will be to compare the effects of neostigmine and sugammadex on postoperative residual curarization using two different tools: diaphragm ultrasonography and acceleromyography of the adductor pollicis. Patients will be extubated when the train-of-four ratio is > 0.9. Diaphragm ultrasonography will be used to evaluate the thickening fraction, which is the difference between the end expiratory thickness and the end inspiratory thickness, normalized to the end expiratory thickness. Ultrasonography will be performed before the initiation of general anesthesia, before extubation, and 10 and 30 min after discharging patients from the operating room. The secondary objective will be to compare the incidence of postoperative complications due to residual neuromuscular

  1. Clinical recovery of two hip adductor longus ruptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Petersen, Jesper; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2013-01-01

    longus ruptures, using novel, reliable and validated assessment methods. CASE PRESENTATION: A 22-year old male soccer player (Caucasian) sustained two subsequent acute adductor longus ruptures, one in each leg. The injuries occurred 10 months apart, and were treated non-surgically in both situations. He...... was evaluated using hip-strength assessments, self-report and ultrasonography until complete muscle-strength recovery of the hip adductors had occurred. The player was able to participate in a full soccer training session without experiencing pain 15 weeks after the first rupture, and 12 weeks after the second...... rupture. Full hip adductor muscle-strength recovery was obtained 52 weeks after the first rupture and 10 weeks after the second rupture. The adductor longus injuries, as verified by initial ultrasonography (10 days post-injury), showed evidence of a complete tendon rupture in both cases, with an almost...

  2. PET/CT imaging in polymyalgia rheumatica: praepubic18F-FDG uptake correlates with pectineus and adductor longus muscles enthesitis and with tenosynovitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehak, Zdenek; Sprlakova-Pukova, Andrea; Bortlicek, Zbynek; Fojtik, Zdenek; Kazda, Tomas; Joukal, Marek; Koukalova, Renata; Vasina, Jiri; Eremiasova, Jana; Nemec, Petr

    2017-03-01

    %) after treatment with steroids. Increased praepubic 18 F-FDG uptake in patients with PMR is relatively common and this region should be systematically evaluated during differential diagnosis of rheumatic and malignant disease. Praepubic inflammation is probably related to enthesitis and tenosynovitis at the origin of pectineus and adductor longus muscles ventrally from the pubis.

  3. Continuous Adductor Canal Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monahan, Amanda M; Sztain, Jacklynn F; Khatibi, Bahareh

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It remains unknown whether continuous or scheduled intermittent bolus local anesthetic administration is preferable for adductor canal perineural catheters. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that scheduled bolus administration is superior or noninferior to a continuous infusion...... on cutaneous knee sensation in volunteers. METHODS: Bilateral adductor canal catheters were inserted in 24 volunteers followed by ropivacaine 0.2% administration for 8 hours. One limb of each subject was assigned randomly to a continuous infusion (8 mL/h) or automated hourly boluses (8 m...... tolerance of electrical current and quadriceps femoris maximum voluntary isometric contraction strength at baseline, hourly for 14 hours, and again after 22 hours. RESULTS: The 2 administration techniques provided equivalent cutaneous analgesia at 8 hours because noninferiority was found in both directions...

  4. The spread of injectate during saphenous nerve block at the adductor canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H L; Andersen, S L; Tranum-Jensen, J

    2015-01-01

    by comparative dissections of the same limbs. RESULTS: The spread of the injectates was determined by the fascial limits and the muscles surrounding the adductor canal. The anteromedial limit of the adductor canal (the roof) was found to be a continuous fascia, with a thin proximal part and a thicker distal part...

  5. Adductor canal block versus femoral nerve block for analgesia after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Pia; Zaric, Dusanka; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm

    2013-01-01

    Femoral nerve block (FNB), a commonly used postoperative pain treatment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), reduces quadriceps muscle strength essential for mobilization. In contrast, adductor canal block (ACB) is predominately a sensory nerve block. We hypothesized that ACB preserves quadriceps...... muscle strength as compared with FNB (primary end point) in patients after TKA. Secondary end points were effects on morphine consumption, pain, adductor muscle strength, morphine-related complications, and mobilization ability....

  6. Nutritional quality in terms of lipid content and fatty acid composition of neutral and polar lipids in the adductor muscle of the oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1794 farmed in the Bizert lagoon (Tunisia in relation with sexual cycle and environmental settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa Dridi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Monthly variations of fatty acid composition of the two fractions polar lipids (PL and neutral lipids (NL in the adductor muscle of cupped oyster Crassostrea gigas, were studied from May 2005 until June 2006 in the Bizert lagoon, related to environmental parameters and reproductive events. C. gigas showed a clear cycle of energy storage and utilization in the site of study. Total PL and NL content varied significantly during the year and showed a negative and significant correlation with the gametogenic condition index which can be explained by transfer of fatty acids from the adductor muscle to gonads to support the gametogenic cycle. Nevertheless, PL and NL have no significant correlations either with temperature or chlorophyll a registered in the site of study. The adductor muscle proved to be less influenced by chlorophyll a richness of the farming environment. The dominance of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs over the saturated fatty acids (SFAs and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs in both PL and NL fractions was established throughout the period of study. Oysters analyzed were characterized by high levels of PUFAs n−3 and high n−3/n−6 PUFAs ratio in both PL and NL fractions. PUFAs n−3 and SFAs of PL and PUFAs and SFAs of NL, showed a negative and significant correlation between them. In fact, low temperature values produce generally an increase in the PUFAs percentages in order to maintain the fluidity of cell membranes. We deduce that annual variations of fatty acids content in PL and NL fractions of the adductor muscle of C. gigas seem to be in relation with the reproductive events. According to our results, the adductor muscle tissues were relatively poor in fatty acids (maximum values (% of dry weight of PL and NL respectively were 2.04 ± 0.33 and 1.75 ± 0.9. Lipids fluctuations were not pronounced all over the period of study in the site of sampling due to low effects of the environment richness and phases of

  7. Clinical recovery of two hip adductor longus ruptures: a case-report of a soccer player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Petersen, Jesper; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Hölmich, Per

    2013-05-22

    Non-operative treatment of acute hip adductor longus ruptures in athletes has been described in the literature. However, very limited information concerning the recovery of this type of injury exists. This case represented a unique possibility to study the recovery of two acute adductor longus ruptures, using novel, reliable and validated assessment methods. A 22-year old male soccer player (Caucasian) sustained two subsequent acute adductor longus ruptures, one in each leg. The injuries occurred 10 months apart, and were treated non-surgically in both situations. He was evaluated using hip-strength assessments, self-report and ultrasonography until complete muscle-strength recovery of the hip adductors had occurred. The player was able to participate in a full soccer training session without experiencing pain 15 weeks after the first rupture, and 12 weeks after the second rupture. Full hip adductor muscle-strength recovery was obtained 52 weeks after the first rupture and 10 weeks after the second rupture. The adductor longus injuries, as verified by initial ultrasonography (10 days post-injury), showed evidence of a complete tendon rupture in both cases, with an almost identical imaging appearance. It was only at 6 and 10 weeks ultrasonographic follow-up that the first rupture was found to include a larger anatomical area than the second rupture. From this case we can conclude that two apparently similar hip adductor longus ruptures, verified by initial ultrasonography (10 days post-injury), can have very different hip adductor strength recovery times. Assessment of adductor strength recovery may therefore in the future be a useful and important additional measure for determining when soccer players with hip adductor longus ruptures can return safely to play.

  8. Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis in athletes: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Valent, Alessandro; Frizziero, Antonio; Bressan, Stefano; Zanella, Elena; Giannotti, Erika; Masiero, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis is common in male athletes, especially in soccer players. It may be worsened by physical activity and it usually limits sport performance. The management goal in the acute phase consists of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs and physical rehabilitation. In the early stages of rehabilitation, strengthening exercises of adductors and abdominal muscles, such as postural exercises, have been suggested. In the sub-acute phase, muscu...

  9. Ultrasonographic features of an adductor longus tear: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Lesley-Ann Hui-huan [Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Singapore); Rethy, C.K.; Wang Shih-chang [National Univ. Hospital (Singapore); Tho Kam San [Alexandra Hospital (Singapore)

    2001-08-01

    Muscle strain of the lower extremities is among the most common injuries in sports. Excessive force, rather than direct trauma, causes disruption of the muscle-tendon unit, usually at the myotendinous junction, and improper rest and rehabilitation of a minor strain can often lead to a far more disabling injury. High-resolution ultrasonography is useful for direct imaging of muscle injuries. We present a case where ultrasonography was used to detect, treat and follow-up an adductor longus tear in a soccer player. (author)

  10. Ultrasonographic features of an adductor longus tear: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Lesley-Ann Hui-huan; Rethy, C.K.; Wang Shih-chang; Tho Kam San

    2001-01-01

    Muscle strain of the lower extremities is among the most common injuries in sports. Excessive force, rather than direct trauma, causes disruption of the muscle-tendon unit, usually at the myotendinous junction, and improper rest and rehabilitation of a minor strain can often lead to a far more disabling injury. High-resolution ultrasonography is useful for direct imaging of muscle injuries. We present a case where ultrasonography was used to detect, treat and follow-up an adductor longus tear in a soccer player. (author)

  11. Same but different: ontogeny and evolution of the Musculus adductor mandibulae in the Tetraodontiformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, P; Harris, M P

    2011-01-15

    The morphological diversity of fishes provides a rich source to address questions regarding the evolution of complex and novel forms. The Tetraodontiformes represent an order of highly derived teleosts including fishes, such as the pelagic ocean sunfishes, triggerfishes, and pufferfishes. This makes the order attractive for comparative analyses to understand the role of development in generating new forms during evolution. The adductor mandibulae complex, the main muscle associated with jaw closure, represents an ideal model system within the Tetraodontiformes. The adductor mandibulae differs in terms of partitions and their attachment sites between members of the different tetraodontiform families. In order to understand the evolution of the jaws among the Tetraodontiformes, we investigate the development of the adductor mandibulae in pufferfishes and triggerfishes as representatives of two different suborders (Balistoidei and Tetraodontoidei) that follows two different adaptations to a durophagous feeding mode. We show that the varied patterns of the adductor mandibulae derive from similar developmental sequence of subdivision of the partitions. We propose a conserved developmental program for partitioning of the adductor mandibulae as a foundation for the evolution of different patterns of subdivisions in Tetraodontiformes. Furthermore, we argue that derived conditions in the higher taxa are realized by supplementary subdivisions and altered attachment sites. These findings support a reinterpretation of homology of different muscle partitions among the Tetraodontiformes, as muscle partitions previously thought to be disparate, are now clearly related. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. TVT ABBREVO: cadaveric study of tape position in foramen obturatum and adductor region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubka, Petr; Nanka, Ondrej; Masata, Jaromir; Martan, Alois; Svabik, Kamil

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to describe fixation of the TVT ABBREVO and establish whether the tape penetrates through obturator muscles and membrane (obturator complex) into the adductor region and, if so, how far it penetrates. Eight formalin-embalmed female cadavers were used to simulate TVT ABBREVO surgery (totalling 16 insertions). Following tape insertion, dissection was performed and ends of the tape were identified. In cases of penetration, the length of tape penetrating into the adductor region was measured. Of the 16 cases, the tape ended in the obturator membrane in eight, in the internal obturator muscle in one, and penetrated through the obturator membrane into the external obturator muscle in five, where it remained. In two cases, it penetrated through the obturator internus muscle, obturator membrane and obturator externus muscle into the group of thigh adductors; one penetration was by 3 mm and the second by 10 mm. No contact with the obturator nerve or its branches was noted in any case. No TVT contact with the obturator nerve was noted; tape penetrated into the adductor region in two of the 16 cases.

  13. Impacto na qualidade vocal da miectomia parcial e neurectomia endoscópica do músculo tireoaritenóideo em paciente com disfonia espasmódica de adução Impact in vocal quality in partial myectomy and neurectomy endoscopic of thyroarytenoid muscle in patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Hiroshi Tsuji

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A disfonia espasmódica de adução é um distúrbio vocal grave, caracterizado por espasmos dos músculos laríngeos durante a fonação, produzindo voz quebrada, tensa, forçada e estrangulada. Seus sintomas decorrem da contração intermitente e involuntária dos músculos tireoaritenóideos durante a fonação, o que resulta em pregas vocais tensas, pressionadas uma contra a outra, e no aumento da resistência glótica. OBJETIVO: Apresentar os resultados preliminares do impacto na qualidade vocal da cirurgia de Neurectomia do ramo tireoaritenóideo do laríngeo inferior, via endoscópica, associada à miectomia parcial do músculo tireoaritenóideo com laser de CO2. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A cirurgia foi realizada em 7 pacientes (6 mulheres e 1 homem, com idades variando entre 22 e 75 anos, com diagnóstico de disfonia espasmódica de adução. Os pacientes foram submetidos ao VHI (Voice Handicap Index no pré e pós-operatório. RESULTEDOS E CONCLUSÃO: A melhora vocal foi conseguida em todos os pacientes estudados não ocorrendo deterioração da qualidade vocal ao longo do período pós-operatório. Houve uma diferença evidente no VHI antes e após a cirurgia. Essa técnica cirúrgica mostrou-se eficaz e inovadora no tratamento da disfonia espasmódica de adução.Impact in vocal quality in partial myectomy and neurectomy endoscopic of thyroarytenoid muscle in patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia the adductor spasmodic dysphonia is a severe vocal disorder characterized by muscle laryngeal spasms during speech, producing phonatory breaks, forced, strained and strangled voice. Its symptoms come from involuntary and intermittent contractions of thyroarytenoid muscle during speech, which causes vocal fold strain, pressed one against another and increased glottic resistance. AIM: report the results in the impact in vocal quality in neurectomy of the thyroarytenoid branch of the inferior laryngeal nerve by endoscopic route associated with

  14. Radiological findings in symphyseal and adductor-related groin pain in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branci, Sonia; Thorborg, Kristian; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2013-01-01

    Long-standing symphyseal and adductor-related groin pain is a common problem for many athletes, and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Radiological evaluation of symptomatic individuals is a cornerstone in the diagnostic workup, and should be based on precise and reliable diagnostic terms...... and imaging techniques. The authors performed a review of the existing original evidence-based radiological literature involving radiography, ultrasonography and MRI in athletes with long-standing symphyseal and adductor-related groin pain. Our search yielded 17 original articles, of which 12 were dedicated...... to MRI, four to radiography and one to ultrasonography. Four main radiological findings seem to consistently appear: degenerative changes at the pubic symphyseal joint, pathology at the adductor muscle insertions, pubic bone marrow oedema and the secondary cleft sign. However, the existing diagnostic...

  15. Adductor magnus: An EMG investigation into proximal and distal portions and direction specific action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Matthew L; Pizzari, Tania; Rath, Leanne; Tucker, Kylie; Semciw, Adam I

    2018-03-09

    Cadaveric studies indicate that adductor magnus is structurally partitioned into at least two regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the direction-specific actions of proximal and distal portions of adductor magnus, and in doing so determine if these segments have distinct functional roles. Fine-wire EMG electrodes were inserted into two portions of adductor magnus of 12 healthy young adults. Muscle activity was recorded during maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) across eight tests (hip flexion/extension, internal/external rotation, abduction, and adduction at 0°, 45°, and 90° hip flexion). Median activity within each action (normalized to peak) was compared between segments using repeated measures nonparametric tests (α = 0.05). An effect size (ES = z-score/√sample size) was calculated to determine the magnitude of difference between muscle segments. The relative contribution of each muscle segment differed significantly during internal rotation (P magnus has at least two functionally unique regions. Differences were most evident during rotation. The different direction-specific actions may imply that each segment performs separate roles in hip stability and movement. These findings may have implications on injury prevention and rehabilitation for adductor-related groin injuries, hamstring strain injury, and hip pathology. Clin. Anat., 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Anatomy of the Adductor Magnus Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obey, Mitchel R.; Broski, Stephen M.; Spinner, Robert J.; Collins, Mark S.; Krych, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The adductor magnus (AM) has historically been a potential source of confusion in patients with suspected proximal hamstring avulsion injuries. Purpose: To investigate the anatomic characteristics of the AM, including its osseous origin, anatomic dimensions, and relationship to the proximal hamstring tendons. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Dissection of the AM origin was performed in 11 (8 cadavers) fresh-frozen hip-to-foot cadaveric hemipelvis specimens. The gross anatomy and architecture of the proximal hamstring and AM tendons were studied. After dissecting the hamstring tendons away from their origin, the dimension, shape, and orientation of the tendon footprints on the ischial tuberosity were determined. Results: The AM was identified in all cadaveric specimens. The mean tendon thickness (anterior to posterior [AP]) was 5.7 ± 2.9 mm. The mean tendon width (medial to lateral [ML]) was 7.1 ± 2.2 mm. The mean tendon length was 13.1 ± 8.7 cm. The mean footprint height (AP dimension) was 12.1 ± 2.9 mm, and mean footprint width (ML dimension) was 17.3 ± 7.1 mm. The mean distance between the AM footprint and the most medial aspect of the conjoint tendon footprint was 8.5 ± 4.2 mm. Tendon measurements demonstrated a considerable degree of both intra- and interspecimen variability. Conclusion: The AM tendon is consistently present just medial to the conjoint tendon at the ischial tuberosity, representing the lateral-most portion of the AM muscle. This study found wide variation in the dimensional characteristics of the AM tendon between specimens. Its shape and location can mimic the appearance of an intact hamstring (conjoint or semimembranosus) tendon intraoperatively or on diagnostic imaging, potentially misleading surgeons and radiologists. Therefore, detailed knowledge of the AM tendon anatomy, footprint anatomy, and its relationship to the hamstring muscle complex is paramount when planning surgical approach and technique

  17. Hip adductor activations during run-to-cut maneuvers in compression shorts: Implications for return to sport after groin injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHAUDHARI, AJIT M. W.; JAMISON, STEVEN T.; MCNALLY, MICHAEL P.; PAN, XUELIANG; SCHMITT, LAURA C.

    2014-01-01

    Athletes at high risk of groin strains in sports such as hockey and soccer often choose to wear shorts with directional compression to aid in prevention or recovery from hip adductor strains. Large eccentric contractions are known to result in or exacerbate strain injuries, but it is unknown if these shorts have a beneficial effect on hip adductor muscle activity. In this study, surface electromyography of the adductor longus and ground reaction force (GRF) data were obtained simultaneously on 29 healthy individuals without previous history of serious injury while performing unanticipated 45° run-to-cut maneuvers in a laboratory setting wearing shorts with non-directional compression (control, HeatGear, Under Armour, USA) or shorts with directional compression (directional, CoreShort PRO, Under Armour, USA), in random order. Average adductor activity in the stance leg was significantly lower in the directional condition than in the control condition during all parts of stance phase (all pshorts appears to be associated with reduced stance limb hip adductor activity. Athletes seeking to reduce demand on the hip adductors as they approach full return to activities may benefit from the use of directional compression shorts. PMID:24669858

  18. Hip adductor activations during run-to-cut manoeuvres in compression shorts: implications for return to sport after groin injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Ajit M W; Jamison, Steven T; McNally, Michael P; Pan, Xueliang; Schmitt, Laura C

    2014-01-01

    Athletes at high risk of groin strains in sports such as hockey and soccer often choose to wear shorts with directional compression to aid in prevention of or recovery from hip adductor strains. Large, eccentric contractions are known to result in or exacerbate strain injuries, but it is unknown if these shorts have a beneficial effect on hip adductor muscle activity. In this study, surface electromyography (EMG) of the adductor longus and ground reaction force (GRF) data were obtained simultaneously on 29 healthy individuals without previous history of serious injury while performing unanticipated 45° run-to-cut manoeuvres in a laboratory setting wearing shorts with non-directional compression (control, HeatGear, Under Armour, USA) or shorts with directional compression (directional, CoreShort PRO, Under Armour, USA), in random order. Average adductor activity in the stance leg was significantly lower in the directional condition than in the control condition during all parts of stance phase (all P < 0.042). From this preliminary analysis, wearing directional compression shorts appears to be associated with reduced stance limb hip adductor activity. Athletes seeking to reduce demand on the hip adductors as they approach full return to activities may benefit from the use of directional compression shorts.

  19. Speech Intelligibility in Severe Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Brenda K.; Cannito, Michael P.; Murry, Thomas; Woodson, Gayle E.

    2004-01-01

    This study compared speech intelligibility in nondisabled speakers and speakers with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) before and after botulinum toxin (Botox) injection. Standard speech samples were obtained from 10 speakers diagnosed with severe ADSD prior to and 1 month following Botox injection, as well as from 10 age- and gender-matched…

  20. Three dimensional digital reconstruction of the jaw adductor musculature of the extinct marsupial giant Diprotodon optatum

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    Alana C. Sharp

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and arrangement of the jaw adductor muscles in vertebrates reflects masticatory style and feeding processes, diet and ecology. However, gross muscle anatomy is rarely preserved in fossils and is, therefore, heavily dependent on reconstructions. An undeformed skull of the extinct marsupial, Diprotodon optatum, recovered from Pleistocene sediments at Bacchus Marsh in Victoria, represents the most complete and best preserved specimen of the species offering a unique opportunity to investigate functional anatomy. Computed tomography (CT scans and digital reconstructions make it possible to visualise internal cranial anatomy and predict location and morphology of soft tissues, including muscles. This study resulted in a 3D digital reconstruction of the jaw adductor musculature of Diprotodon, revealing that the arrangement of muscles is similar to that of kangaroos and that the muscle actions were predominantly vertical. 3D digital muscle reconstructions provide considerable advantages over 2D reconstructions for the visualisation of the spatial arrangement of the individual muscles and the measurement of muscle properties (length, force vectors and volume. Such digital models can further be used to estimate muscle loads and attachment sites for biomechanical analyses.

  1. Laparoscopic hernia repair with adductor tenotomy for athletic pubalgia: an established procedure for an obscure entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossidis, Georgios; Perry, Andrew; Abbas, Husain; Motamarry, Isaac; Lux, Tamara; Farmer, Kevin; Moser, Michael; Clugston, Jay; Caban, Angel; Ben-David, Kfir

    2015-02-01

    Athletic pubalgia is a syndrome of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain that occurs in athletes. It is the direct result of stress and microtears of the rectus abdominis inserting on the pubis from the antagonizing adductor longus muscles, and weakness of the posterior transversalis fascia and bulging of the inguinal floor. Under IRB approval, we conducted a retrospective review of our prospectively competitive athlete patients with athletic pubalgia from 2007 to 2013. A cohort of 54 patients was examined. Mean age was 22.4 years. Most patients were football players (n = 23), triathlon (n = 11), track and field (n = 6), soccer players (n = 5), baseball players (n = 4), swimmers (n = 3), golfer (n = 1), and tennis player (n = 1). Fifty one were males and three were females. All patients failed medical therapy with physiotherapy prior to surgery. 76 % of patients had an MRI performed with 26 % having a right rectus abdominis stripping injury with concomitant strain at the adductor longus musculotendinous junction. 7 % of patients had mild nonspecific edema in the distal bilateral rectus abdominis muscles without evidence of a tear. Twenty patients had no findings on their preoperative MRI, and only one patient was noted to have an inguinal hernia on MRI. All patients underwent laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair with synthetic mesh and ipsilateral adductor longus tenotomy. All patients were able to return to full sports-related activity in 24 days (range 21-28 days). One patient experienced urinary retention and another sustained an adductor brevis hematoma 3 months after completion of rehabilitation and surgical intervention. Mean follow up was 18 months. Athletic pubalgia is a disease with a multifactorial etiology that can be treated surgically by a laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal hernia repair with synthetic mesh accompanied with an ipsilateral adductor longus tenotomy allowing patients to return to sports-related activity early with

  2. Evolutionary Trends in the Jaw Adductor Mechanics of Ornithischian Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavizadeh, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Jaw mechanics in ornithischian dinosaurs have been widely studied for well over a century. Most of these studies, however, use only one or few taxa within a given ornithischian clade as a model for feeding mechanics across the entire clade. In this study, mandibular mechanical advantages among 52 ornithischian genera spanning all subclades are calculated using 2D lever arm methods. These lever arm calculations estimate the effect of jaw shape and difference in adductor muscle line of action on relative bite forces along the jaw. Results show major instances of overlap between taxa in tooth positions at which there was highest mechanical advantage. A relatively low bite force is seen across the tooth row among thyreophorans (e.g., stegosaurs and ankylosaurs), with variation among taxa. A convergent transition occurs from a more evenly distributed bite force along the jaw in basal ornithopods and basal marginocephalians to a strong distal bite force in hadrosaurids and ceratopsids, respectively. Accordingly, adductor muscle vector angles show repeated trends from a mid-range caudodorsal orientation in basal ornithischians to a decrease in vector angles indicating more caudally oriented jaw movements in derived taxa (e.g., derived thyreophorans, basal ornithopods, lambeosaurines, pachycephalosaurs, and derived ceratopsids). Analyses of hypothetical jaw morphologies were also performed, indicating that both the coronoid process and lowered jaw joint increase moment arm length therefore increasing mechanical advantage of the jaw apparatus. Adaptive trends in craniomandibular anatomy show that ornithischians evolved more complex feeding apparatuses within different clades as well as morphological convergences between clades. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The adductor part of the adductor magnus is innervated by both obturator and sciatic nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Megumi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Ito, Hajime; Fujimiya, Mineko; Uchiyama, Eiichi

    2014-07-01

    The hip adductor group, innervated predominantly by the obturator nerve, occupies a large volume of the lower limb. However, case reports of patients with obturator nerve palsy or denervation have described no more than minimal gait disturbance. Those facts are surprising, given the architectural characteristics of the hip adductors. Our aim was to investigate which regions of the adductor magnus are innervated by the obturator nerve and by which sciatic nerve and to consider the clinical implications. Twenty-one lower limbs were examined from 21 formalin-fixed cadavers, 18 males and 3 females. The adductor magnus was dissected and was divided into four parts (AM1-AM4) based on the locations of the perforating arteries and the adductor hiatus. AM1 was supplied solely by the obturator nerve. AM2, AM3, and AM4 received innervation from both the posterior branch of the obturator nerve and the tibial nerve portion of the sciatic nerve in 2 (9.5%), 20 (95.2%), and 6 (28.6%) of the cadavers, respectively. The double innervation in more than 90% of the AM3s is especially noteworthy. Generally, AM1-AM3 corresponds to the adductor part, traditionally characterized as innervated by the obturator nerve, and AM4 corresponds to the hamstrings part, innervated by the sciatic nerve. Here, we showed that the sciatic nerve supplies not only the hamstrings part but also the adductor part. These two nerves spread more widely than has generally been believed, which could have practical implications for the assessment and treatment of motor disability. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Anatomy of the Adductor Magnus Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Obey, Mitchel R.; Broski, Stephen M.; Spinner, Robert J.; Collins, Mark S.; Krych, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The adductor magnus (AM) has historically been a potential source of confusion in patients with suspected proximal hamstring avulsion injuries. Purpose: To investigate the anatomic characteristics of the AM, including its osseous origin, anatomic dimensions, and relationship to the proximal hamstring tendons. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Dissection of the AM origin was performed in 11 (8 cadavers) fresh-frozen hip-to-foot cadaveric hemipelvis specimens. The...

  5. Obturator internus muscle strains

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    Caoimhe Byrne, MB BCh, BAO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report 2 cases of obturator internus muscle strains. The injuries occurred in young male athletes involved in kicking sports. Case 1 details an acute obturator internus muscle strain with associated adductor longus strain. Case 2 details an overuse injury of the bilateral obturator internus muscles. In each case, magnetic resonance imaging played a crucial role in accurate diagnosis.

  6. Effects of type II thyroplasty on adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanuki, Tetsuji; Yumoto, Eiji; Minoda, Ryosei; Kodama, Narihiro

    2010-04-01

    Type II thyroplasty, or laryngeal framework surgery, is based on the hypothesis that the effect of adductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD) on the voice is due to excessively tight closure of the glottis, hampering phonation. Most of the previous, partially effective treatments have aimed to relieve this tight closure, including recurrent laryngeal nerve section or avulsion, extirpation of the adductor muscle, and botulinum toxin injection, which is currently the most popular. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of type II thyroplasty on aerodynamic and acoustic findings in patients with AdSD. Case series. University hospital. Ten patients with AdSD underwent type II thyroplasty between August 2006 and December 2008. Aerodynamic and acoustic analyses were performed prior to and six months after surgery. Mean flow rates (MFRs) and voice efficiency were evaluated with a phonation analyzer. Jitter, shimmer, the harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR), standard deviation of the fundamental frequency (SDF0), and degree of voice breaks (DVB) were measured from each subject's longest sustained phonation sample of the vowel /a/. Voice efficiency improved significantly after surgery. No significant difference was found in the MFRs between before and after surgery. Jitter, shimmer, HNR, SDF0, and DVB improved significantly after surgery. Treatment of AdSD with type II thyroplasty significantly improved aerodynamic and acoustic findings. The results of this study suggest that type II thyroplasty provides relief from voice strangulation in patients with AdSD. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis in athletes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Alessandro; Frizziero, Antonio; Bressan, Stefano; Zanella, Elena; Giannotti, Erika; Masiero, Stefano

    2012-04-01

    Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis is common in male athletes, especially in soccer players. It may be worsened by physical activity and it usually limits sport performance. The management goal in the acute phase consists of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs and physical rehabilitation. In the early stages of rehabilitation, strengthening exercises of adductors and abdominal muscles, such as postural exercises, have been suggested. In the sub-acute phase, muscular strength is targeted by overload training in the gym or aquatherapy; core stability exercises seem to be useful in this phase. Finally, specific sport actions are introduced by increasingly complex exercises along with a preventive program to limit pain recurrences.

  8. The Copenhagen Standardised MRI protocol to assess the pubic symphysis and adductor regions of athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branci, Sonia; Thorborg, Kristian; Bech, Birthe Højlund

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is currently no standardised MRI evaluation protocol for athletes who present with symptoms that may relate to the pubic symphysis, the pubic bones, and the adductor muscle insertions. We outline the protocol and reliability data. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three musculoskeletal...... findings were (1) substantial intraobserver (κ range 0.65-0.67) and moderate interobserver (κ range 0.45-0.52) agreement in rating pubic bone marrow oedema, (2) substantial to moderate intraobserver (κ range 0.49-0.72) and moderate-to-fair interobserver (κ range 0.21-0.52) agreement in rating most other...... MRI findings, (3) slight intraobserver and interobserver (κ range -0.06-0.05) agreement in rating adductor longus tendinopathy. CONCLUSIONS: The Copenhagen Standardised MRI protocol demonstrated moderate-to-substantial reliability in rating bone marrow oedema, and varied from fair...

  9. Adductor Canal Block With Continuous Infusion Versus Intermittent Boluses and Morphine Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Pia; Baggesgaard, Jonas; Sørensen, Johan K

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Based on the assumption that relatively large volumes of local anesthetic optimize an adductor canal block (ACB), we theorized that an ACB administered as repeated boluses would improve analgesia without compromising mobility, compared with a continuous infusion. METHODS: We performed...... was total (postoperative day [POD], 0-2) opioid consumption (mg), administered as patient-controlled analgesia. Pain, ambulation, and quadriceps muscle strength were secondary outcomes. RESULTS: We randomized 110 patients, of whom 107 were analyzed. Total opioid consumption (POD, 0-2) was a median (range...... a randomized, blinded, controlled study, including patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty with spinal anesthesia. Patients received 0.2% ropivacaine via a catheter in the adductor canal administered as either repeated intermittent boluses (21 mL/3 h) or continuous infusion (7 mL/h). The primary outcome...

  10. Complete avulsion of the adductor longus in a semi-professional football player: Rapid return to play with nonoperative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vince W Lands

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The adductor longus has become recognized as one of the more commonly injured muscles in the medial compartment. Acute complete rupture injuries occurring at the proximal aspect of the muscle are less common. Limited data exist regarding management of the injuries in athletes required for return to play and functioning. The current data favors operative management; however, nonoperative treatment may be a viable option. Nonoperative management of avulsion injuries of the proximal adductor longus tendon may prove equal results to surgical repair in return to play and functioning. A semi-professional football player sustained a left groin injury while participating in the play. Due to continued pain, swelling, and suspicion of injury, a magnetic resonance imaging was performed diagnosing a complete tear of proximal adductor longus tendon. Physical examination, strength, and range of motion were recorded until the patient was able to function normally without strength deficit, the range of motion loss, and the return of speed. The player was treated nonoperatively and was eventually allowed to return to play. The time of return to play was 6 weeks. Strength deficit was not appreciated or loss of motion and player was able to return to baseline function. Nonoperative management of complete avulsion injuries of the proximal adductor longus tendon result in faster return to play than operative management even if significant retraction is present.

  11. Percutaneous Adductor Release in Nonambulant Children with Cerebral Palsy

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    Ramji Lal Sahu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adductor spasticity at hips is the main barrier in functional activities and rehabilitation of spastic cerebral palsy patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of percutaneous adductor release under general anesthesia. Methods: From July 2005 to July 2010, 64 hips in 32 patients (19 males and 13 females were recruited from outpatient department having adductor contracture at hips in cerebral palsy children. All children were operated under general anesthesia. All children were followed for twenty-four months. The clinical results were evaluated radiologically, including measurement of CE- angle, AC-index and femoral head coverage and in terms of activity level of children. Results: Of the thirty-two children, twenty-eight showed marked and immediate improvement. None of our children was functionally worse at follow-up. The CE-angle and femoral head coverage did not change significantly. The AC-index improved significantly (p = 0.01.The results were excellent in 12.5% children, good in 50%, fair in 25% and poor in 12.5%. Conclusions: Bilateral mini-invasive adductor release can be an effective treatment for children suffering from adductor contracture refractory to nonoperative management and early adductor release can prevent subluxation and possibly the need for future bony procedure on the proximal femur and pelvis. Keywords: Adductor contracture, Percutaneous, Cerebral palsy, Minimal invasive procedure.

  12. Successful return to high-level sports following early surgical repair of combined adductor complex and rectus abdominis avulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, R J; Benjamin-Laing, H; Jassim, S; Liekens, K; Shankar, A; Haddad, F S

    2015-11-01

    Hip and groin injuries are common in athletes who take part in high level sports. Adductor muscle tendon injuries represent a small but important number of these injuries. Avulsion of the tendons attached to the symphysis pubis has previously been described: these can be managed both operatively and non-operatively. We describe an uncommon variant of this injury, namely complete avulsion of the adductor sleeve complex: this includes adductor longus, pectineus and rectus abdominis. We go on to describe a surgical technique which promotes a full return to the pre-injury level of sporting activity. Over a period of ten years, 15 high-level athletes with an MRI-confirmed acute adductor complex avulsion injury (six to 34 days old) underwent surgical repair. The operative procedure consisted of anatomical re-attachment of the avulsed tissues in each case and mesh reinforcement of the posterior inguinal wall in seven patients. All underwent a standardised rehabilitation programme, which was then individualised to be sport-specific. One patient developed a superficial wound infection, which was successfully treated with antibiotics. Of the 15 patients, four complained of transient local numbness which resolved in all cases. All patients (including seven elite athletes) returned to their previous level of participation in sport. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  13. Lateral Cricoarytenoid Release: Development of a Novel Surgical Treatment Option for Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia in a Canine Laryngeal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Andrea M; Paniello, Randal C

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the efficacy of a novel adductor muscle-releasing technique designed to decrease the force of vocal fold adduction, as a potential surgical therapy for patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD). Experimental animal study. A canine laryngeal model was used to assess the acute and sustained efficacy of a lateral cricoarytenoid (LCA) muscle release. A total of 34 canine hemilaryngeal preparations were divided among 7 experimental groups. The LCA muscle was separated from its cricoid cartilage origin via an open, anterior, submucosal approach. The laryngeal adductory pressures (LAP) were assessed pre- and post-muscle release via direct recurrent laryngeal nerve stimulation. Measurements were repeated at 1.5, 3, or 6 months postoperatively. Another study evaluated release of the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle from its thyroid cartilage origin. Releasing the LCA muscle demonstrated a significant decrease in LAP acutely and was maintained at all 3 time points with the aid of a barrier (P < .05). Without the barrier, the LCA muscle reattached to the cricoid. Acute release of the TA muscle did not significantly decrease the LAP. The proposed LCA release procedure may provide patients with a permanent treatment option for ADSD. However, longer-term studies and human trials are needed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Vocal Parameters and Self-Perception in Individuals With Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Gleidy Vannesa E; Ricz, Hilton; Tumas, Vitor; Rodrigues, Guilherme R; Toscano, Patrícia; Aguiar-Ricz, Lílian

    2017-05-01

    The study aimed to compare and correlate perceptual-auditory analysis of vocal parameters and self-perception in individuals with adductor spasmodic dysphonia before and after the application of botulinum toxin. This is a prospective cohort study. Sixteen individuals with a diagnosis of adductor spasmodic dysphonia were submitted to the application of botulinum toxin in the thyroarytenoid muscle, to the recording of a voice signal, and to the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) questionnaire before the application and at two time points after application. Two judges performed a perceptual-auditory analysis of eight vocal parameters with the aid of the Praat software for the visualization of narrow band spectrography, pitch, and intensity contour. Comparison of the vocal parameters before toxin application and on the first return revealed a reduction of oscillation intensity (P = 0.002), voice breaks (P = 0.002), and vocal tremor (P = 0.002). The same parameters increased on the second return. The degree of severity, strained-strangled voice, roughness, breathiness, and asthenia was unchanged. The total score and the emotional domain score of the VHI were reduced on the first return. There was a moderate correlation between the degree of voice severity and the total VHI score before application and on the second return, and a weak correlation on the first return. Perceptual-auditory analysis and self-perception proved to be efficient in the recognition of vocal changes and of the vocal impact on individuals with adductor spasmodic dysphonia under treatment with botulinum toxin, permitting the quantitation of changes along time. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Gender differences in onabotulinum toxin A dosing for adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Michael Z; Lerner, Benjamin A; Patel, Amit A; Blitzer, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of gender on onabotulinum toxin A dosing for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia symptoms. Retrospective review. A chart review of the senior author's database of botulinum toxin injections was performed. Patients diagnosed with adductor spasmodic dysphonia who received onabotulinum toxin A (BoNTA) injections to the thyroarytenoid muscle for at least 5 years were included for study. Patients who received alternate formulations of botulinum toxin (Myobloc, Dysport, or Xeomin) and patients with alternate diagnoses, such as abductor spasmodic dysphonia, tremor, and oromandibular dystonia, were excluded. The average BoNTA dose was calculated for each patient and statistical analysis was performed comparing the male and female groups. A total of 201 patients (52 males and 149 females) met inclusion criteria. The average follow-up times for the male and female groups were 10.2 ± 3.6 and 11.1 ± 4 years, respectively. The average BoNTA doses for the male and female groups were 0.6 ± 0.42 U and 1.3 ± 1.1 U, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using an independent samples two-tailed t test yielding a P value of .0000000002. A large effect size was noted with Cohen's d = 0.85. The data from this retrospective chart review reveal a statistically and clinically significant correlation between female gender and higher average BoNTA dose for symptom control in adductor spasmodic dysphonia. Explanations for this observation are speculative and include a possible inverse relationship between optimal BoNTA dose and vocal fold mass and possibly greater neutralizing antibody formation among female patients. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:1131-1134, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Unilateral versus bilateral thyroarytenoid Botulinum toxin injections in adductor spasmodic dysphonia: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiola Jesuloba

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives In this preliminary prospective study, we compared unilateral and bilateral thyroarytenoid muscle injections of Botulinum toxin (Dysport in 31 patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia, who had undergone more than 5 consecutive Dysport injections (either unilateral or bilateral and had completed 5 concomitant self-rated efficacy and complication scores questionnaires related to the previous injections. We also developed a Neurophysiological Scoring (NPS system which has utility in the treatment administration. Method and materials Data were gathered prospectively on voice improvement (self-rated 6 point scale, length of response and duration of complications (breathiness, cough, dysphagia and total voice loss. Injections were performed under electromyography (EMG guidance. NPS scale was used to describe the EMG response. Dose and unilateral/bilateral injections were determined by clinical judgment based on previous response. Time intervals between injections were patient driven. Results Low dose unilateral Dysport injection was associated with no significant difference in the patient's outcome in terms of duration of action, voice score (VS and complication rate when compared to bilateral injections. Unilateral injections were not associated with any post treatment total voice loss unlike the bilateral injections. Conclusion Unilateral low dose Dysport injections are recommended in the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

  17. The pyramidalis-anterior pubic ligament-adductor longus complex (PLAC) and its role with adductor injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilders, Ernest; Bharam, Srino; Golan, Elan

    2017-01-01

    crest and anterior pubic ligament and attaches to the linea alba on the medial border. The proximal adductor longus attaches to the pubic crest and anterior pubic ligament. The anterior pubic ligament is also a fascial anchor point connecting the lower anterior abdominal aponeurosis and fascia lata....... The rectus abdominis, however, is not attached to the adductor longus; its lateral tendon attaches to the cranial border of the pubis; and its slender internal tendon attaches inferiorly to the symphysis with fascia lata and gracilis. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates a strong direct connection between...

  18. Zilpaterol hydrochloride affects cellular muscle metabolism and lipid components of ten different muscles in feedlot heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study determined if zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) altered muscle metabolism and lipid components of ten muscles. Crossbred heifers were either supplemented with ZH (n = 9) or not (Control; n = 10). Muscle tissue was collected (adductor femoris, biceps femoris, gluteus medius, infraspinatus, lat...

  19. Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament using the adductor magnus tendon: an anatomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Matthias; Reischl, Nikolaus; Bergmann, Mathias; Bouaicha, Samy; Djonov, Valentin; Magnussen, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the anatomic feasibility of medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction using a part of the adductor magnus tendon and to identify possible risks. Twenty cadaveric knees were dissected. The distal part of the adductor magnus tendon was evaluated with respect to the anatomic topography and its utility for MPFL reconstruction. To estimate the risk of injuring the neurovascular structures, the distance from the adductor tubercle to the adductor hiatus was evaluated. An MPFL reconstruction was carried out by preserving the distal insertion on the adductor tubercle and redirecting the proximal portion of the tendon to the medial aspect of the patella. The anatomic investigation showed the following relationships: The mean distance from the adductor tubercle to the adductor hiatus was 99 ± 14 mm (range, 80 to 120 mm). A graft length of 52 ± 5 mm (range, 45 to 63 mm) with the addition of 10 to 20 mm for fixation was found to be necessary for MPFL reconstruction. The difference between the desired graft length and the distance to the adductor hiatus was found to be at least 30 mm in all cases (mean, 46 mm). Leaving the graft attached to the adductor tubercle resulted in a nearly anatomic femoral attachment of the reconstructed MPFL. Complete detachment of the distal adductor magnus attachment was consistently avoidable. The adductor magnus tendon was found to be a useful graft for MPFL reconstruction. However, anatomic dangers (damage to the neurovascular bundle of the adductor hiatus, the saphenous nerve, or the saphenous branch of the descending genicular artery) during graft harvest must be considered. Anatomic knowledge is essential during adductor magnus tendon harvest to avoid damage to neurovascular structures. The adductor magnus tendon is an interesting alternative graft option for MPFL reconstruction if anatomic dangers are considered and avoided. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America

  20. Minithyrotomy with radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Shaun C; Park, Andrea M; Chernock, Rebecca D; Paniello, Randal C

    2016-10-01

    A simple, safe and effective surgical alternative for treating adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) would appeal to many patients. This study evaluates a new option, using radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy (RFITT) of the thyroarytenoid muscle (TA) via the minithyrotomy approach to reduce the force of adduction. Fifteen dogs were used. In part 1, the optimal RFITT power settings, exposure time, probe location, and number of passes were determined. Part 2 compared laryngeal adductor pressures (LAPs) at baseline; immediately postintervention; and at 1, 3, or 6 months postintervention. Interventions included RFITT via the transcervical minithyrotomy approach (n = 15), transoral RFITT (n = 3), botulinum toxin (Botox) injection (n = 3), or no-intervention controls (n = 3). Postintervention induced phonation and histologic analyses were performed as well. In the minithyrotomy RFITT group, the mean LAP was 30.3% of baseline immediately posttreatment. At 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively, the mean LAPs were 24.9%, 44.8%, and 43.5%, respectively. Transoral RFITT reduced LAP to 56.6% of baseline immediately posttreatment, but returned to normal in the 1 and 3 month animals. The Botox injections dropped the LAP to 57% of baseline at 1 month, but returned to normal at 3 months. Mucosal waves, based on induced phonation stroboscopy, were present at the terminal date in all animals. Thirteen of 15 transcervical RFITT preparations (87%) showed no injury to the lamina propria, whereas 80% showed evidence of TA muscle atrophy and fibrosis. Minithyrotomy RFITT is a feasible technique that shows encouraging long-term results for the potential treatment of patients with ADSD. N/A. Laryngoscope, 126:2325-2329, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Adductor surgery to prevent hip displacement in children with cerebral palsy: the predictive role of the Gross Motor Function Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Benjamin J; Yu, Xavier; Desai, Sameer; Selber, Paulo; Wolfe, Rory; Graham, H Kerr

    2012-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between walking ability, as determined with use of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), and the outcome of hip adductor surgery used to prevent hip displacement in children with cerebral palsy. We performed a retrospective review of the records of all children with cerebral palsy whose index surgery, performed between January 1994 and December 2004 at one tertiary-level pediatric hospital, was bilateral hip adductor releases. All children had a hip migration percentage of >30% in at least one hip prior to the adductor surgery, and the minimum duration of follow-up was twenty-four months. Kaplan-Meier survivorship curves were generated by determining the time from the index surgery to "failure," defined as either the need for subsequent surgical procedures or a migration percentage of ≥50% in either hip. Hazard ratios were calculated for sex, migration percentage at the time of the index surgery, age at the time of the index surgery, and GMFCS level. Three hundred and thirty children were included in the study; 73% (242) were nonambulatory (GMFCS level IV or V). The mean age at the time of the index surgery was 4.2 years, the mean migration percentage was 43%, and the mean duration of postoperative follow-up was 7.1 years. Surgery consisted of open lengthening of the adductor longus and gracilis muscles in all children, with additional procedures as deemed necessary. "Success" was defined as the absence of subsequent surgical procedures during the study period and a migration percentage of cerebral palsy. The paradox of hip adductor surgery for children with cerebral palsy is that the children who are most severely affected and need the surgery the most have the poorest results.

  2. The precision and torque production of common hip adductor squeeze tests used in elite football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Light, N; Thorborg, K

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Decreased hip adductor strength is a known risk factor for groin injury in footballers, with clinicians testing adductor strength in various positions and using different protocols. Understanding how reliable and how much torque different adductor squeeze tests produce will facilitate...... choosing the most appropriate method for future testing. In this study, the reliability and torque production of three common adductor squeeze tests were investigated. DESIGN: Test-retest reliability and cross-sectional comparison. METHODS: Twenty elite level footballers (16-33 years) without previous...

  3. Neurophysiology and Clinical Implications of the Laryngeal Adductor Reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domer, Amanda S; Kuhn, Maggie A; Belafsky, Peter C

    2013-09-01

    The laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR) is an involuntary protective response to stimuli in the larynx. The superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) acts as the afferent limb and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) as the efferent limb of this reflex, which is modulated by the central nervous system. Perhaps the most clinically significant application of the LAR is its use in laryngopharyngeal (LP) sensory discrimination testing. Importantly, aberrations in the LAR may predict dysphagia or portend clinical phenotypes of chronic cough, vocal cord dysfunction or pediatric apneas. LP sensation is a potential target for interventions addressing the aforementioned conditions though currently remains an area of active investigation.

  4. Voice tuning with new instruments for type II thyroplasty in the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanuki, Tetsuji; Yumoto, Eiji; Toya, Yutaka; Kumai, Yoshihiko

    2016-10-01

    Adductor spasmodic dysphonia is a rare voice disorder characterized by strained and strangled voice quality with intermittent phonatory breaks and adductory vocal fold spasms. Type II thyroplasty differs from previous treatments in that this surgery does not involve any surgical intervention into the laryngeal muscle, nerve or vocal folds. Type II thyroplasty intervenes in the thyroid cartilage, which is unrelated to the lesion. This procedure, conducted with the aim of achieving lateralization of the vocal folds, requires utmost surgical caution due to the extreme delicacy of the surgical site, critically sensitive adjustment, and difficult procedures to maintain the incised cartilages at a correct position. During surgery, the correct separation of the incised cartilage edges with voice monitoring is the most important factor determining surgical success and patient satisfaction. We designed new surgical instruments: a thyroid cartilage elevator for undermining the thyroid cartilage, and spacer devices to gauge width while performing voice monitoring. These devices were designed to prevent surgical complications, and to aid in selecting the optimal size of titanium bridges while temporally maintaining a separation during voice monitoring. We designed new surgical instruments, including a thyroid cartilage elevator and spacer devices. Precise surgical procedures and performing voice tuning during surgery with the optimal separation width of the thyroid cartilage are key points for surgical success. We introduce the technique of voice tuning using these surgical tools in order to achieve a better outcome with minimal surgical complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effectiveness of Myofascial Release with Foam Roller Versus Static Stretching in Healthy Individuals with Hip Adductor Tightness: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kage Vijay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hip adductors are a group of muscles that stabilize the pelvis during weight transfer in lower limbs in a gait cycle. This muscle group commonly goes into tightness as the full available range of motion is scarcely used which in turn may be a predisposing factor in the development of knee and low back pain. Aim: Traditional method of static stretching has proved to be effective in reducing tightness. Foam roller is an upcoming method used for stretching of various muscle groups which has shown superior results. The aim of the study was to compare the treatment methods. Methods: Thirty young healthy individuals were selected after screening for bilateral hip adductor tightness using smartphone inclinometer for hip abduction range of motion. They were randomized to either the foam roller or static stretching group. Subjects attended a baseline session, followed by 5 days intervention, and reassessment on the 5th day post intervention. Outcome measures used were hip abduction range of motion using smartphone inclinometer, single leg hop test and 8 direction star excursion balance test for dynamic postural stability. Results: Both the groups showed significant improvements in hip abduction range of motion, single leg hop test and SEBT. When compared, the foam roller group showed marginally better results than static stretching. The results also showed significant prepost differences within the respective groups. Conclusion: Treatments have shown significant results in both groups however, myofascial release with foam roller has proved to be marginally more effective than static stretching in releasing hip adductor tightness, increasing hip abduction range of motion and improving dynamic balance.

  6. Effect of Adductor Canal Block Versus Femoral Nerve Block on Quadriceps Strength, Mobilization, and Pain After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grevstad, Jens Ulrik; Mathiesen, Ole; Valentiner, Laura Risted Staun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is often associated with severe pain. Different regional anesthetic techniques exist, all with varying degrees of motor blockade. We hypothesized that pain relief provided by the adductor canal block (ACB) could increase functional muscle...... strength. METHODS: We included 50 TKA patients with severe movement-related pain; defined as having visual analog scale pain score of greater than 60 mm during active flexion of the knee. The ACB group received an ACB with ropivacaine 0.2% 30 mL and a femoral nerve block (FNB) with 30 mL saline. The FNB...... to ambulate and changes in pain scores (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01922596). RESULTS: After block, the quadriceps maximum voluntary isometric contraction increased to 193% (95% confidence interval [CI], 143-288) of the baseline value in the ACB group and decreased to 16% (95% CI, 3-33) in the FNB group...

  7. Abdominal muscle and quadriceps strength in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Man, W. D-C.; Hopkinson, N.S.; Harraf, F.; Nikoletou, D.; Polkey, M. I.; Moxham, J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Quadriceps muscle weakness is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but is not observed in a small hand muscle (adductor pollicis). Although this could be explained by reduced activity in the quadriceps, the observation could also be explained by anatomical location of the muscle or fibre type composition. However, the abdominal muscles are of a similar anatomical and fibre type distribution to the quadriceps, although they remain active in COPD. Cough gastric pre...

  8. Effects of adductor-canal-blockade on pain and ambulation after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenstrup, M T; Jæger, P; Lund, J

    2012-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with intense post-operative pain. Besides providing optimal analgesia, reduction in side effects and enhanced mobilization are important in this elderly population. The adductor-canal-blockade is theoretically an almost pure sensory blockade. We...... hypothesized that the adductor-canal-blockade may reduce morphine consumption (primary endpoint), improve pain relief, enhance early ambulation ability, and reduce side effects (secondary endpoints) after TKA compared with placebo....

  9. Perceived loading and muscle activity during hip strengthening exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Thorborg, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Decreased hip muscle strength is frequently reported in patients with hip injury or pathology. Furthermore, soccer players suffering from groin injury show decreased strength of hip muscles. Estimating 10-repetition maximum can be time-consuming and difficult, thus, using the Borg...... hip muscle activity during hip abduction and hip adduction exercises using elastic resistance and isotonic machines, using electromyography (EMG). METHODS: EMG activity was recorded from 11 muscles at the hip, thigh and trunk during hip adduction and hip abduction exercises in 16 untrained women...... resistance training of the hip adductor and hip abductor muscles. Although elastic resistance and exercise machine seem equally effective for recruiting muscle activity of the hip adductors, the elastic resistance condition was able to demonstrate greater muscle recruitment than the exercise machine during...

  10. Arthroscopic pubic symphysis debridement and adductor enthesis repair in athletes with athletic pubalgia: technical note and video illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Sascha; Tumin, Masjudin; Wilhelm, Peter; Pohlemann, Tim; Kelm, Jens

    2014-11-01

    We elaborately describe our novel arthroscopic technique of the symphysis pubis in athletes with osteitis pubis and concomitant adductor enthesopathy who fail to conservative treatment modalities. The symphysis pubis is debrided arthroscopically and the degenerated origin of adductor tendon (enthesis) is excised and reattached. With our surgical procedure the stability of the symphysis pubis is successfully preserved and the adductor longus enthesopathy simultaneously addressed in the same setting.

  11. Abnormal motor cortex excitability during linguistic tasks in adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppa, A; Marsili, L; Giovannelli, F; Di Stasio, F; Rocchi, L; Upadhyay, N; Ruoppolo, G; Cincotta, M; Berardelli, A

    2015-08-01

    In healthy subjects (HS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied during 'linguistic' tasks discloses excitability changes in the dominant hemisphere primary motor cortex (M1). We investigated 'linguistic' task-related cortical excitability modulation in patients with adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia (ASD), a speech-related focal dystonia. We studied 10 ASD patients and 10 HS. Speech examination included voice cepstral analysis. We investigated the dominant/non-dominant M1 excitability at baseline, during 'linguistic' (reading aloud/silent reading/producing simple phonation) and 'non-linguistic' tasks (looking at non-letter strings/producing oral movements). Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the contralateral hand muscles. We measured the cortical silent period (CSP) length and tested MEPs in HS and patients performing the 'linguistic' tasks with different voice intensities. We also examined MEPs in HS and ASD during hand-related 'action-verb' observation. Patients were studied under and not-under botulinum neurotoxin-type A (BoNT-A). In HS, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited larger MEPs during 'reading aloud' than during the other 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. Conversely, in ASD, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited increased-amplitude MEPs during 'reading aloud' and 'syllabic phonation' tasks. CSP length was shorter in ASD than in HS and remained unchanged in both groups performing 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. In HS and ASD, 'linguistic' task-related excitability changes were present regardless of the different voice intensities. During hand-related 'action-verb' observation, MEPs decreased in HS, whereas in ASD they increased. In ASD, BoNT-A improved speech, as demonstrated by cepstral analysis and restored the TMS abnormalities. ASD reflects dominant hemisphere excitability changes related to 'linguistic' tasks; BoNT-A returns these excitability changes to normal. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John

  12. Homology of the jaw muscles in lizards and snakes-a solution from a comparative gnathostome approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Homology or shared evolutionary origin of jaw adductor muscles in lizards and snakes has been difficult to establish, although snakes clearly arose within the lizard radiation. Lizards typically have temporal adductors layered lateral to medial, and in snakes the muscles are arranged in a rostral to caudal pattern. Recent work has suggested that the jaw adductor group in gnathostomes is arranged as a folded sheet; when this theory is applied to snakes, homology with lizard morphology can be seen. This conclusion revisits the work of S.B. McDowell, J Herpetol 1986; 20:353-407, who proposed that homology involves identity of m. levator anguli oris and the loss of m. adductor mandibulae externus profundus, at least in "advanced" (colubroid) snakes. Here I advance the folded sheet hypothesis across the whole snake tree using new and literature data, and provide a solution to this homology problem. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. New insights into dinosaur jaw muscle anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Casey M

    2009-09-01

    Jaw muscles are key components of the head and critical to testing hypotheses of soft-tissue homology, skull function, and evolution. Dinosaurs evolved an extraordinary diversity of cranial forms adapted to a variety of feeding behaviors. However, disparate evolutionary transformations in head shape and function among dinosaurs and their living relatives, birds and crocodylians, impair straightforward reconstructions of muscles, and other important cephalic soft tissues. This study presents the osteological correlates and inferred soft tissue anatomy of the jaw muscles and relevant neurovasculature in the temporal region of the dinosaur head. Hypotheses of jaw muscle homology were tested across a broad range archosaur and sauropsid taxa to more accurately infer muscle attachments in the adductor chambers of non-avian dinosaurs. Many dinosaurs likely possessed m. levator pterygoideus, a trait shared with lepidosaurs but not extant archosaurs. Several major clades of dinosaurs (e.g., Ornithopoda, Ceratopsidae, Sauropoda) eliminated the epipterygoid, thus impacting interpretations of m. pseudotemporalis profundus. M. pseudotemporalis superficialis most likely attached to the caudoventral surface of the laterosphenoid, a trait shared with extant archosaurs. Although mm. adductor mandibulae externus profundus and medialis likely attached to the caudal half of the dorsotemporal fossa and coronoid process, clear osteological correlates separating the individual bellies are rare. Most dinosaur clades possess osteological correlates indicative of a pterygoideus ventralis muscle that attaches to the lateral surface of the mandible, although the muscle may have extended as far as the jugal in some taxa (e.g., hadrosaurs, tyrannosaurs). The cranial and mandibular attachments of mm adductor mandibulae externus superficialis and adductor mandibulae posterior were consistent across all taxa studied. These new data greatly increase the interpretive resolution of head anatomy in

  14. Differentiating between adductor and abductor spasmodic dysphonia using airflow interruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Matthew R.; Jiang, Jack J.; Rieves, Adam L.; McElveen, Kelsey A.B.; Ford, Charles N.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To measure the laryngeal resistance (RL), subglottal pressure (Ps), and mean flow rate (MFR) of adductor (ADSD) and abductor (ABSD) spasmodic dysphonia patients using the airflow interrupter. Methods The RL of six ABSD and seven ADSD patients was measured using the airflow interrupter, a noninvasive device designed to measure MFR and Ps via mechanical balloon valve interruption. Subjects performed ten trials at each of two intensity levels, with each trial consisting of a sustained /a/ during which phonation was interrupted for 500 ms. Laryngeal resistance was calculated as subglottal pressure divided by airflow. Results Mean RL for the ADSD and ABSD subtypes at 65 dB were 24.78 cmH2O/l/s and 14.51 cmH2O/l/s, respectively (p = 0.04). Mean RL at 70 dB were 40.02 cmH2O/l/s and 15.84 cmH2O/l/s (p = 0.014). Ps for the ADSD and ABSD subtypes at 65 dB were 10.23 cmH2O and 8.32 cmH2O, respectively (p = 0.582). At the 70 dB level, Ps were 12.39 cmH2O and 11.78 cmH2O (p = 0.886). MFR for the ADSD and ABSD subtypes at 65 dB were 435 ml/s and 746 ml/s (p = 0.205). Mean MFR at 70 dB were 518 ml/s and 848 ml/s (p = 0.198). Conclusion Noninvasive measurements of RL may be useful for differentiating between ADSD and ABSD. This simple objective test which produces a quantitative output could be used to evaluate laryngeal function in patients with spasmodic dysphonia. PMID:19554636

  15. Differentiating between adductor and abductor spasmodic dysphonia using airflow interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Matthew R; Jiang, Jack J; Rieves, Adam L; McElveen, Kelsey A B; Ford, Charles N

    2009-09-01

    To measure the laryngeal resistance (R(L)), subglottal pressure (P(s)), and mean flow rate (MFR) of adductor (ADSD) and abductor (ABSD) spasmodic dysphonia patients using the airflow interrupter. The R(L) of six ABSD and seven ADSD patients was measured using the airflow interrupter, a noninvasive device designed to measure MFR and P(s) via mechanical balloon valve interruption. Subjects performed 10 trials at each of two intensity levels, with each trial consisting of a sustained /a/ during which phonation was interrupted for 500 ms. Laryngeal resistance was calculated as subglottal pressure divided by airflow. Mean R(L) for the ADSD and ABSD subtypes at 65 dB were 24.78 cmH(2)O/L/s and 14.51 cmH(2)O/L/s, respectively (P = .04). Mean R(L) at 70 dB were 40.02 cmH(2)O/L/s and 15.84 cmH(2)O/L/s (P = .014). P(s) for the ADSD and ABSD subtypes at 65 dB were 10.23 cmH(2)O and 8.32 cmH(2)O, respectively (P = .582). At the 70 dB level, P(s) were 12.39 cmH(2)O and 11.78 cmH(2)O (P = .886). MFR for the ADSD and ABSD subtypes at 65 dB were 435 mL/s and 746 mL/s (P = .205). Mean MFR at 70 dB were 518 mL/s and 848 mL/s (P = .198). Noninvasive measurements of R(L) may be useful for differentiating between ADSD and ABSD. This simple objective test, which produces a quantitative output, could be used to evaluate laryngeal function in patients with spasmodic dysphonia.

  16. Characterisation of the swimming muscles of two Subantarctic notothenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alfredo Fernández

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The histochemical characteristics and distribution of muscle fibre types have been investigated in the swimming muscles of the róbalo, Eleginops maclovinus and the lorcho, Patagonotothen tessellata, Subantarctic notothenioids that inhabit the Beagle Channel. The fibre types were differentiated on the basis of glycogen and lipid contents and succinate dehydrogenase and myofibrillar ATPase (mATPase activities. White, red, intermediate and tonic fibres were present in the axial muscle of both species. The same fibre types were identified in the pectoral fin adductor muscles, although the intermediate type was absent. The mATPase technique performed at room temperature (21ºC allowed a good differentiation of fibre types, overcoming the problems found by previous researchers when applying this technique to Antarctic notothenioids. Four different zones (peripheral, mosaic, main and adjacent to the bone were found in the adductor profundis muscle. The proportion of the zones varied along the length of the adductor muscle. For both species, the percentage of red fibres found in the axial muscles was less than 5%, indicating that sustained swimming ability is not dependent on these muscles. The pectoral muscle mass/carcase mass ratio was significantly greater in E. maclovinus than in P. tessellata, reflecting a greater capacity for sustained swimming using pectoral fins.

  17. Anatomy of the Adductor Magnus Origin: Implications for Proximal Hamstring Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obey, Mitchel R; Broski, Stephen M; Spinner, Robert J; Collins, Mark S; Krych, Aaron J

    2016-01-01

    The adductor magnus (AM) has historically been a potential source of confusion in patients with suspected proximal hamstring avulsion injuries. To investigate the anatomic characteristics of the AM, including its osseous origin, anatomic dimensions, and relationship to the proximal hamstring tendons. Descriptive laboratory study. Dissection of the AM origin was performed in 11 (8 cadavers) fresh-frozen hip-to-foot cadaveric hemipelvis specimens. The gross anatomy and architecture of the proximal hamstring and AM tendons were studied. After dissecting the hamstring tendons away from their origin, the dimension, shape, and orientation of the tendon footprints on the ischial tuberosity were determined. The AM was identified in all cadaveric specimens. The mean tendon thickness (anterior to posterior [AP]) was 5.7 ± 2.9 mm. The mean tendon width (medial to lateral [ML]) was 7.1 ± 2.2 mm. The mean tendon length was 13.1 ± 8.7 cm. The mean footprint height (AP dimension) was 12.1 ± 2.9 mm, and mean footprint width (ML dimension) was 17.3 ± 7.1 mm. The mean distance between the AM footprint and the most medial aspect of the conjoint tendon footprint was 8.5 ± 4.2 mm. Tendon measurements demonstrated a considerable degree of both intra- and interspecimen variability. The AM tendon is consistently present just medial to the conjoint tendon at the ischial tuberosity, representing the lateral-most portion of the AM muscle. This study found wide variation in the dimensional characteristics of the AM tendon between specimens. Its shape and location can mimic the appearance of an intact hamstring (conjoint or semimembranosus) tendon intraoperatively or on diagnostic imaging, potentially misleading surgeons and radiologists. Therefore, detailed knowledge of the AM tendon anatomy, footprint anatomy, and its relationship to the hamstring muscle complex is paramount when planning surgical approach and technique. The reported data may aid surgeons in more accurate recognition

  18. Effectiveness of active physical training as treatment for long-standing adductor-related groin pain in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, P; Uhrskou, P; Ulnits, L

    1999-01-01

    Groin pain is common among athletes. A major cause of long-standing problems is adductor-related groin pain. The purpose of this randomised clinical trial was to compare an active training programme (AT) with a physiotherapy treatment without active training (PT) in the treatment of adductor......-related groin pain in athletes....

  19. Effectiveness of active physical training as treatment for long-standing adductor-related groin pain in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, P; Uhrskou, P; Ulnits, L

    1999-01-01

    Groin pain is common among athletes. A major cause of long-standing problems is adductor-related groin pain. The purpose of this randomised clinical trial was to compare an active training programme (AT) with a physiotherapy treatment without active training (PT) in the treatment of adductor...

  20. Effect of adductor-canal-blockade on established, severe post-operative pain after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, P; Grevstad, Ulrik; Henningsen, Maja

    2012-01-01

    In this proof-of-concept study, we investigated the effect of the predominantly sensory adductor-canal-blockade on established pain in the early post-operative period after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We hypothesised that the adductor-canal-blockade would reduce pain during flexion of the knee...

  1. An anatomic and clinical study of the adductor magnus tendon-descending genicular artery bone flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong; Wang, Hai-Wen; Xu, Da-Chuan; Wang, Hong-Gang; Wu, Wei-Zhi; Zhang, Hui-Ru

    2011-01-01

    The composite tissue flap of the descending genicular vessels with the adductor magnus tendon is a newly developed, reliable method to repair the Achilles tendon and relevant skin defects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomy of the adductor magnus tendon-descending genicular artery bone flap, and the feasibility and value for the repair of the Achilles tendon and relevant skin defects. There were 34 adult specimens used for the anatomy of this flap. The descending genicular artery originates 10.5 ± 1.6 cm above the adductor tubercle, with a diameter of 1.8 ± 0.6 mm and a length of 1.2 ± 0.5 cm. Its articular branch is distributed in the adductor magnus tendon and the medial condyle of the femur. The saphenous branch has a diameter of 1.1 ± 0.3 mm and is distributed in the skin of the upper medial calf. A total of 16 cases of trauma-induced Achilles tendon damage and calcaneus and skin defects were repaired with the vascularized adductor magnus tendon bone flap, including the reconstruction of Achilles tendon insertion and repair of relevant skin defects. All of the composite tissue flaps were viable, the skin sensation of the flaps was recovered, and all patients walked with a normal gait. Our results suggested that the adductor magnus tendon-descending genicular artery bone flap is an alternative method to repair composite tissue defects of the Achilles tendon. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Acoustic Variations in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia as a Function of Speech Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Christine M.; Walton, Suzanne; Murry, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic phonatory events were identified in 14 women diagnosed with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD), a focal laryngeal dystonia that disturbs phonatory function, and compared with those of 14 age-matched women with no vocal dysfunction. Findings indicated ADSD subjects produced more aberrant acoustic events than controls during tasks of…

  3. Analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided adductor canal blockade after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espelund, Malene; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Haraszuk, Jørgen Peter

    2013-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery is associated with moderate to severe postoperative pain, which may be ameliorated by peripheral nerve blocks. The adductor canal block (ACB) is an almost exclusively sensory nerve block that has been demonstrated to reduce pain and opioid...

  4. Diagnostics and treatment of adductor-related groin pain in athletes - new insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weir, A.

    2011-01-01

    The work contained within this thesis presents new insights into the diagnostics and treatment of long-standing adductor-related groin pain (LSARGP) in athletes. In the Netherlands a novel treatment programme using heat, manual therapy according to Van den Akker, stretching and a return to running

  5. Inter-rater reliability of the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale in assessing lower limb muscle spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghotbi, Nastaran; Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Naghdi, Soofia; Hasson, Scott; Jamshidpour, Boushra; Amiri, Somayeh

    2009-09-01

    To assess the inter-rater reliability of the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale (MMAS) in lower limb muscle spasticity. Cross-sectional observational study. Not applicable. Twenty-two adults with neurological conditions (17 women, five men, age range 21-82 years; mean +/- SD, 44 +/- 18 years) participated. Hip adductor, knee extensor and ankle plantarflexor were assessed in a random order. Inter-rater agreement for two raters was very good for the hip adductor and the knee extensor (weighted kappa = 0.82, p Ashworth Scale produced reliable measurements between raters in the assessment of lower limb muscle spasticity.

  6. Study on T2 mapping in thigh muscles of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-yin LIANG

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective  Use T2 mapping to evaluate the fatty infiltration of thigh muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD patients, so as to analyze the value of T2 mapping and T2 relaxation time in the diagnosis of DMD.  Methods  Sixteen DMD patients who were admitted from January 2004 to January 2013 in our hospital and were diagnosed by clinical confirmation and gene detection have participated into this study. These 16 male patients formed the DMD group. Six age- and sex-matched healthy boys were selected as control group. Clinical functional scale, thigh axial T1WI-turbo spin echo (TSE, T2WI-TSE, spectral attenuated inversion recovery (SPAIR-T2WI and T2 mapping were performed in both 2 groups. T1WI fatty infiltration scale and T2 relaxation time were assessed in adductor magnus, gracilis, adductor longus, sartorius, rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, semitendinosus and semimembranosus. Spearman rank correlation was conducted to assess the correlation between T2 relaxation time and T1WI fatty infiltration scale or clinical functional scale.  Results  Compared with control group, the T2 relaxation time of 8 muscles (adductor magnus, adductor longus, rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and semimembranosus in DMD group were prolonged (P < 0.05, for all. The longest average T2 relaxation time was found in adductor magnus. The T2 relaxation time of adductor magnus, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, rectus femoris, adductor longus and vastus medialis was positively correlated with T1WI fatty infiltration scale (P < 0.05, for all, and the T2 relaxation time of adductor magnus and semimembranosus was positively correlated with clinical funetional scale (P < 0.05, for all. A positive correlation was found in adductor magnus between T2 relaxation time and both T1WI fatty infiltration scale (rs = 0.867, P = 0.000 and clinical

  7. Similar effects of cooling and fatigue on eccentric and concentric force-velocity relationships in human muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ruiter, C J; De Haan, A

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle temperature and fatigue during stretch (eccentric) and shortening (concentric) contractions of the maximally electrically activated human adductor pollicis muscle. After immersion of the lower arm in water baths of four different

  8. Research-to-policy translation for prevention of disordered weight and shape control behaviors: A case example targeting dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Yu, Kimberly; Tran, Alvin; Mayer, Beth

    2017-04-01

    New approaches to universal eating disorders prevention and interventions targeting macro-environmental change are greatly needed, and research-to-policy translation efforts hold promise for advancing both of these goals. This paper describes as a policy-translation case example an academic-community-government partnership of the Strategic Training Initiative for the Prevention of Eating Disorders, Multi-Service Eating Disorders Association, and the office of Massachusetts Representative Kay Khan, all based in Massachusetts, USA. The partnership's research-to-policy translation project focused on dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building, which have been linked with serious injury and death in consumers. Youth and people of all ages with eating disorders and body dysmorphic disorder may be especially vulnerable to use these products due to deceptive promises of fast and safe weight loss and muscle gain. The research-to-policy translation project was informed by a triggers-to-action framework to establish the evidentiary base of harm to consumers, operationalize policy solutions to mitigate harm through legislation, and generate political will to support action through legislation introduced in the Massachusetts legislature to restrict sales of weight-loss and muscle-building dietary supplements. The paper concludes with lessons learned from this unique policy translation effort for the prevention of disordered weight and shape control behaviors and offers recommendations for next steps for the field to advance research and practice for universal, macro-environmentally targeted prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Addition of buprenorphine to local anesthetic in adductor canal blocks after total knee arthroplasty improves postoperative pain relief: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Sandeep H; Gilbert, Lisa A; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Applefield, Daniel J; Kassab, Safa S; Ellis, Terry A

    2016-09-01

    For the hundreds of thousands of patients who undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the United States each year, early mobilization has been demonstrated to improve functional outcomes and reduce complications. Management of postoperative pain is a critical factor in achieving early mobilization. Recent studies have shown that the use of an adductor canal block (ACB) after TKA results in increased preservation of quadriceps muscle strength, without significant difference in postoperative pain when compared to femoral nerve block. This increased preservation of quadriceps muscle strength leads to earlier mobilization. Studies have also demonstrated a prolongation of analgesia with the addition of buprenorphine to local anesthetic for regional block placement. This study examined the effect on postoperative opioid consumption when adding buprenorphine to an ACB vs an ACB with local anesthetic alone, for postoperative analgesia after unilateral TKA. A total of 100 patients scheduled for TKA were randomized to receive postoperative ACB with local anesthetic alone or with local anesthetic and buprenorphine. The primary outcome examined was total opioid analgesic (milligrams of hydrocodone equivalent) consumption in the first 24 hours postsurgery. The secondary outcomes examined were the reported incidence of the opioid side effects nausea, vomiting, and pruritis. Postoperative opioid consumption decreased significantly in the group that received an ACB with local anesthetic and buprenorphine compared to an ACB with local anesthetic only (25.34±2.62 vs 35.84±2.86; P=.0076). Secondary outcomes showed no statistical difference between the 2 groups in terms of the incidence of nausea, vomiting, or pruritus. The addition of buprenorphine to an adductor canal block decreases postoperative opioid consumption when compared to an ACB with local anesthetic alone. This reduction in opioid consumption, without significant increase in side effects, makes this an attractive

  10. Skeletal muscle CT of lower extremities in myotonic dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Imai, Terukuni; Sadashima, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi; Tanabe, Masaya

    1988-02-01

    We evaluated the leg and thigh muscles of 4 control subjects and 10 patients with myotonic dystrophy using computed tomography. Taking previous reports about the skeletal muscle CT of myotonic dystrophy into account, we concluded that the following 5 features are characteristic of myotonic dystrophy: 1. The main change is the appearance of low-density areas in muscles; these areas reflect fat tissue. In addition, the muscle mass decreases in size. 2. The leg is more severely affected than the thigh. 3. In the thigh, although the m. quadriceps femoris, especially the vastus muscles, tends to be affected, the m. adductor longus and magnus tend to be preserved. 4. In the leg, although the m. tibialis anterior and m. triceps surae tend to be affected, the m. peroneus longus, brevis, and m. tibialis posterior tend to be preserved. 5. Compensatory hypertrophy is often observed in the m. rectus femoris, m. adductor longus, m. adductor magnus, m. peroneus longus, and m. peroneus brevis, accompanied by the involvement of their agonist muscles.

  11. Colgajo póstero-medial de muslo (adductor: a propósito de un caso Postero-medial thigh flap (adductor flap: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gómez-Escolar Larrañaga

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En pacientes con úlceras masivas o confluentes en la región glútea, puede ser necesaria la amputación de la extremidad inferior y la reconstrucción mediante colgajos totales de muslo para la cobertura del defecto. Esta técnica es muy agresiva y además de las evidentes secuelas físicas que crea puede generar importantes trastornos psíquicos para el paciente. Presentamos el caso de una paciente con una gran úlcera por decúbito en la región isquio-trocantéreosacra en la que se empleó el colgajo Adductor como alternativa a la amputación de la extremidad inferior.Amputation of the lower extremity and total thigh flaps may be necessary for coverage in patients with massive multiple or confluent sores in the buttock region. This is an aggressive technique with important physical and psychological consequences for the patient. The Adductor flap was used as an alternative of the amputation in a patient with a big ischial-trocantericsacral pressure sore.

  12. Epidemiology of Hip Flexor and Hip Adductor Strains in National Collegiate Athletic Association Athletes, 2009/2010-2014/2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckard, Timothy G; Padua, Darin A; Dompier, Thomas P; Dalton, Sara L; Thorborg, Kristian; Kerr, Zachary Y

    2017-10-01

    Little research has examined the rates and patterns of hip flexor or hip adductor strains in student-athletes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). To describe the epidemiology of hip flexor and adductor strains in NCAA athletes during the 2009/2010-2014/2015 academic years. Descriptive epidemiology study. Rates and patterns of hip flexor and adductor strains in collegiate sports were examined in a convenience sample of NCAA varsity teams from 25 sports. Rates and distributions of strains by mechanism, recurrence, and participation restriction time were examined. Injury rate ratios (IRRs) and proportion ratios were calculated to compare rates within and between sports by event type, sex, mechanism, recurrence, and participation restriction time. A total of 770 hip flexor and 621 hip adductor strains were reported, resulting in overall injury rates of 1.60 and 1.29 per 10,000 athlete-exposures (AEs), respectively. In men, the rate of hip flexor strains was 1.81 per 10,000 AEs, and that for hip adductor strains was 1.71 per 10,000 AEs. In women, the rate of hip flexor strains was 1.59 per 10,000 AEs, and the rate of hip adductor strains was 1.15 per 10,000 AEs. The highest rates of strains were found in men's soccer and men's ice hockey (range, 2.47-3.77 per 10,000 AEs). Most hip flexor and hip adductor strains occurred in practice, but both had higher rates in competition. In sex-comparable sports, hip flexor strain rates did not differ between the sexes (IRR = 1.14; 95% CI, 0.96-1.36), but the rate of hip adductor strains was higher in men than women (IRR = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.22-1.81). Noncontact was the most common mechanism for both types of strains (hip flexor strains, 59.4%; hip adductor strains, 62.5%); 10.1% of hip flexor strains and 11.1% of hip adductor strains were recurrent. The highest rates of recurrence of both types of strain were found in men's and women's ice hockey (range, 16.0%-30.6%). Most hip flexor and hip adductor strains

  13. Influence of muscle groups' activation on proximal femoral growth tendency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Priti; Shefelbine, Sandra J; Pontén, Eva; Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M

    2017-12-01

    Muscle and joint contact force influence stresses at the proximal growth plate of the femur and thus bone growth, affecting the neck shaft angle (NSA) and femoral anteversion (FA). This study aims to illustrate how different muscle groups' activation during gait affects NSA and FA development in able-bodied children. Subject-specific femur models were developed for three able-bodied children (ages 6, 7, and 11 years) using magnetic resonance images. Contributions of different muscle groups-hip flexors, hip extensors, hip adductors, hip abductors, and knee extensors-to overall hip contact force were computed. Specific growth rate for the growth plate was computed, and the growth was simulated in the principal stress direction at each element in the growth front. The predicted growth indicated decreased NSA and FA (of about [Formula: see text] over a four-month period) for able-bodied children. Hip abductors contributed the most, and hip adductors, the least, to growth rate. All muscles groups contributed to a decrease in predicted NSA ([Formula: see text]0.01[Formula: see text]-0.04[Formula: see text] and FA ([Formula: see text]0.004[Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text]), except hip extensors and hip adductors, which showed a tendency to increase the FA ([Formula: see text]0.004[Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text]). Understanding influences of different muscle groups on long bone growth tendency can help in treatment planning for growing children with affected gait.

  14. Sonographic prevalence of groin hernias and adductor tendinopathy in patients with femoroacetabular impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naal, Florian D; Dalla Riva, Francesco; Wuerz, Thomas H; Dubs, Beat; Leunig, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a common debilitating condition that is associated with groin pain and limitation in young and active patients. Besides FAI, various disorders such as hernias, adductor tendinopathy, athletic pubalgia, lumbar spine affections, and others can cause similar symptoms. To determine the prevalence of inguinal and/or femoral herniation and adductor insertion tendinopathy using dynamic ultrasound in a cohort of patients with radiographic evidence of FAI. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. This retrospective study consisted of 74 patients (36 female and 38 male; mean age, 29 years; 83 symptomatic hips) with groin pain and radiographic evidence of FAI. In addition to the usual diagnostic algorithm, all patients underwent a dynamic ultrasound examination for signs of groin herniation and tendinopathy of the proximal insertion of the adductors. Evidence of groin herniation was found in 34 hips (41%). There were 27 inguinal (6 female, 21 male) and 10 femoral (9 female, 1 male) hernias. In 3 cases, inguinal and femoral herniation was coexistent. Overall, 5 patients underwent subsequent hernia repair. Patients with groin herniation were significantly older than those without (33 vs 27 years, respectively; P = .01). There were no significant differences for any of the radiographic or clinical parameters. Tendinopathy of the proximal adductor insertion was detected in 19 cases (23%; 11 female, 8 male). Tendinopathy was coexistent with groin herniation in 8 of the 19 cases. There were no significant differences for any of the radiographic or clinical parameters between patients with or without tendinopathy. Patients with a negative diagnostic hip injection result were more likely to have a concomitant groin hernia than those with a positive injection result (80% vs 27%, respectively). Overall, 38 hips underwent FAI surgery with satisfactory outcomes in terms of score values and subjective improvement. The results demonstrate that groin

  15. Effect of hindlimb suspension and clenbuterol treatment on polyamine levels in skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abukhalaf, Imad K.; von Deutsch, Daniel A.; Wineski, Lawrence E.; Silvestrov, Natalia A.; Abera, Saare A.; Sahlu, Sinafikish W.; Potter, David E.; Thierry-Palmer, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Polyamines are unbiquitous, naturally occurring small aliphatic, polycationic, endogenous compounds. They are involved in many cellular processes and may serve as secondary or tertiary messengers to hormonal regulation. The relationship of polyamines and skeletal muscle mass of adductor longus, extensor digitorum longus, and gastrocnemius under unloading (hindlimb suspension) conditions was investigated. Unloading significantly affected skeletal muscle polyamine levels in a fiber-type-specific fashion. Under loading conditions, clenbuterol treatment increased all polyamine levels, whereas under unloading conditions, only the spermidine levels were consistently increased. Unloading attenuated the anabolic effects of clenbuterol in predominately slow-twitch muscles (adductor longus), but had little impact on clenbuterol's action as a countermeasure in fast- twitch muscles such as the extensor digitorum longus. Spermidine appeared to be the primary polyamine involved in skeletal muscle atrophy/hypertrophy. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. In vivo moment arm lengths for hip extensor muscles at different angles of hip flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, G; Ohlsén, H

    1985-01-01

    Moment arm lengths of three hip extensor muscles, the gluteus maximus, the hamstrings and the adductor magnus, were determined at hip flexion angles from 0 degrees to 90 degrees by combining data from ten autopsy specimens and from twenty patients, the latter examined by computed tomography. A straight-line muscle model for muscle force was used for the hamstrings and adductor magnus, and for the gluteus maximus a two-segment straight-line muscle force model was used. With the joint in its anatomical position the moment arm of the gluteus maximus to the bilateral motion axis averaged 79 mm, for the hamstrings 61 mm and for the adductor magnus 15 mm. The moment arm of gluteus maximus decreased with increasing hip flexion angle. The hamstrings showed an increase in moment arm length up to an average of 35 degrees hip flexion and then a decrease with increasing hip flexion angle. The corresponding figures for the adductor magnus moment arm showed an increase up to 75 degrees and then a decrease. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in moment arm length between men and women.

  17. Adductor-related groin pain in athletes: correlation of MR imaging with clinical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.; Barron, D.A.; Grainger, A.J.; O'Connor, P.J.; Parsons, W.; Schilders, E.M.G.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging in athletes with chronic groin pain and correlate with the clinical features. MR examinations performed in 52 athletes (51 male, 1 female; median age 26 years) with chronic groin pain and 6 asymptomatic control athletes (6 male; median age 29 years) were independently reviewed by two radiologists masked to the clinical details. Symptom duration (median 6 months) and clinical side of severity were recorded. Anatomical areas in the pelvis were scored for abnormality (as normal, mildly abnormal or abnormal) and an overall assessment for side distribution of abnormality was recorded, initially without post-gadolinium sequences and then, 3 weeks later (median 29 days), the post-gadolinium sequences only. Correlation between radiological and clinical abnormality was calculated by Spearman's correlation. Abnormal anterior pubis and enthesis enhancement significantly correlated with clinical side for both radiologists (both P=0.008). Abnormal anterior pubis and adductor longus enthesis oedema was significant for one radiologist (P=0.009). All other features showed no significant correlation (P>0.05). In the control cases there was no soft tissue abnormality but symphyseal irregularity was present (n=2). For both radiologists assessment of imaging side severity significantly correlated with clinical side for post-gadolinium (P=0.048 and P=0.023) but not non-gadolinium sequences (P>0.05). The extent and side of anterior pubis and adductor longus enthesis abnormality on MR imaging significantly and reproducibly correlates with the athletes' current symptoms in chronic adductor-related groin pain. (orig.)

  18. The sag response in human muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ian C; Ali, Jahaan; Power, Geoffrey A; Herzog, Walter

    2018-03-08

    We examined how muscle length and time between stimuli (inter-pulse interval, IPI) influence declines in force (sag) seen during unfused tetani in the human adductor pollicis muscle. A series of 16-pulse contractions were evoked with IPIs between 1 × and 5 × the twitch time to peak tension (TPT) at large (long muscle length) and small (short muscle length) thumb adduction angles. Unfused tetani were mathematically deconstructed into a series of overlapping twitch contractions to examine why sag exhibits length- and IPI-dependencies. Across all IPIs tested, sag was 62% greater at short than long muscle length, and sag increased as IPI was increased at both muscle lengths. Force attributable to the second stimulus increased as IPI was decreased. Twitch force declined from maximal values across all IPI tested, with the greatest reductions seen at short muscle length and long IPI. At IPI below 2 × TPT, the twitch with highest force occurred earlier than the peak force of the corresponding unfused tetani. Contraction-induced declines in twitch duration (TPT + half relaxation time) were only observed at IPI longer than 1.75 × TPT, and were unaffected by muscle length. Sag is an intrinsic feature of healthy human adductor pollicis muscle. The length-dependence of sag is related to greater diminution of twitch force at short relative to long muscle length. The dependence of sag on IPI is related to IPI-dependent changes in twitch duration and twitch force, and the timing of peak twitch force relative to the peak force of the associated unfused tetanus.

  19. Prevalence of saphenous nerve injury after adductor-canal-blockade in patients receiving total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Maja; Jæger, Pia; Hilsted, K L

    2013-01-01

    , 76 patients could not discriminate between blunt and sharp stimulation with a needle, 81 patients could not discriminate between cold and warmth, and 82 patients displayed an altered sensation to light brush. CONCLUSION: We found no indications of saphenous nerve injury caused by the adductor...... of the saphenous nerve), as well as the anterior, posterior, lateral and infrapatellar part of the affected and contralateral lower leg. Sensory function was tested with pinprick (sharp and blunt needle), temperature discrimination (cold disinfectant swabs) and light brush. RESULTS: We included 97 patients. None...

  20. Computed tomography of muscles in neuromuscular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serratrice, G.

    1986-01-01

    137 patients with neuromuscular diseases were studied by CT scan. Four levels were chosen: mid-calf, mid-thigh, pelvic girdle, and spinal muscles. The scans were compared with normal control scans taken from the same sites. The patients were divided into those with myogenic diseases and those with neurogenic diseases. Of the 102 patients with myogenic changes, 17 had X-linked dystrophy, 13 had facio-scapulo-humeral dystrophy, 22 had limb girdle dystrophy, 19 had myotonic dystrophy, 14 had inflammatory muscle diseases, and 17 had miscellaneous muscular diseases. Of the 35 patients with neurogenic changes, 8 had amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 16 had chronic spinal amyotrophies, 9 had peripheral neuropathies, and 2 had Friedreich's disease. The analysis of muscles changes (volume, outline, density) was established on the following muscles: tibialis anterior, peroneus, soleus, gastrocnemius mediale, gastrocnemius laterale, quadriceps, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, sartorius, adductor, gracilis, gluteus, spine extensors, and psoas

  1. The interrater and intrarater reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale in the assessment of muscle spasticity: limb and muscle group effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Naghdi, Soofia; Arab, Tahereh Khosravian; Jalaie, Shohreh

    2008-01-01

    The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) is a clinical scale used to assess muscle spasticity. While the evidence indicates that the reliability of the MAS is better in the upper limb and in certain distal muscle groups, no investigation has compared the effect of limbs and muscle groups on the MAS reliability. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of limb and muscle group on the reliability of the MAS in patients with spastic hemiplegia. Thirty subjects with upper and lower limb muscle spasticity were recruited for this trial. Two female experienced physiotherapists participated in this examination of reliability, and rated each patient in a randomized order in a single session. For the intrarater reliability, the second rater repeated the test 1 week later. Shoulder adductor, elbow flexor, wrist flexor, hip adductor, knee extensor, and ankle plantar flexor were tested on the hemiplegic side. Results demonstrated moderate inter (kappa=0.514, SE=0.046, p Ashworth Scale had moderate reliability. The limbs had no effect on the reliability. The agreement on distal wrist flexor in the upper limb was significantly higher between rater than in the proximal shoulder adductor. The agreement obtained with the MAS was not good, which questions the validity of the measurements.

  2. Epidemiology of Hip Flexor and Hip Adductor Strains in National Collegiate Athletic Association Athletes, 2009/2010-2014/2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckard, Timothy G; Padua, Darin A; Dompier, Thomas P

    2017-01-01

    restriction time were examined. Injury rate ratios (IRRs) and proportion ratios were calculated to compare rates within and between sports by event type, sex, mechanism, recurrence, and participation restriction time. RESULTS: A total of 770 hip flexor and 621 hip adductor strains were reported, resulting...... in overall injury rates of 1.60 and 1.29 per 10,000 athlete-exposures (AEs), respectively. In men, the rate of hip flexor strains was 1.81 per 10,000 AEs, and that for hip adductor strains was 1.71 per 10,000 AEs. In women, the rate of hip flexor strains was 1.59 per 10,000 AEs, and the rate of hip adductor...... strains was 1.15 per 10,000 AEs. The highest rates of strains were found in men's soccer and men's ice hockey (range, 2.47-3.77 per 10,000 AEs). Most hip flexor and hip adductor strains occurred in practice, but both had higher rates in competition. In sex-comparable sports, hip flexor strain rates did...

  3. Continuous adductor canal blocks are superior to continuous femoral nerve blocks in promoting early ambulation after TKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudumbai, Seshadri C; Kim, T Edward; Howard, Steven K; Workman, J Justin; Giori, Nicholas; Woolson, Steven; Ganaway, Toni; King, Robert; Mariano, Edward R

    2014-05-01

    Femoral continuous peripheral nerve blocks (CPNBs) provide effective analgesia after TKA but have been associated with quadriceps weakness and delayed ambulation. A promising alternative is adductor canal CPNB that delivers a primarily sensory blockade; however, the differential effects of these two techniques on functional outcomes after TKA are not well established. We determined whether, after TKA, patients with adductor canal CPNB versus patients with femoral CPNB demonstrated (1) greater total ambulation distance on Postoperative Day (POD) 1 and 2 and (2) decreased daily opioid consumption, pain scores, and hospital length of stay. Between October 2011 and October 2012, 180 patients underwent primary TKA at our practice site, of whom 93% (n = 168) had CPNBs. In this sequential series, the first 102 patients had femoral CPNBs, and the next 66 had adductor canal CPNBs. The change resulted from a modification to our clinical pathway, which involved only a change to the block. An evaluator not involved in the patients' care reviewed their medical records to record the parameters noted above. Ambulation distances were higher in the adductor canal group than in the femoral group on POD 1 (median [10(th)-90(th) percentiles]: 37 m [0-90 m] versus 6 m [0-51 m]; p randomized studies are needed to validate our major findings. Level III, therapeutic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  4. Comparative jaw muscle anatomy in kangaroos, wallabies, and rat-kangaroos (marsupialia: macropodoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Natalie Marina

    2009-06-01

    The jaw muscles were studied in seven genera of macropodoid marsupials with diets ranging from mainly fungi in Potorous to grass in Macropus. Relative size, attachments, and lamination within the jaw adductor muscles varied between macropodoid species. Among macropodine species, the jaw adductor muscle proportions vary with feeding type. The relative mass of the masseter is roughly consistent, but grazers and mixed-feeders (Macropus and Lagostrophus) had relatively larger medial pterygoids and smaller temporalis muscles than the browsers (Dendrolagus, Dorcopsulus, and Setonix). Grazing macropods show similar jaw muscle proportions to "ungulate-grinding" type placental mammals. The internal architecture of the jaw muscles also varies between grazing and browsing macropods, most significantly, the anatomy of the medial pterygoid muscle. Potoroines have distinctly different jaw muscle proportions to macropodines. The masseter muscle group, in particular, the superficial masseter is enlarged, while the temporalis group is relatively reduced. Lagostrophus fasciatus is anatomically distinct from other macropods with respect to its masticatory muscle anatomy, including enlarged superficial medial pterygoid and deep temporalis muscles, an anteriorly inflected masseteric process, and the shape of the mandibular condyle. The enlarged triangular pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone, in particular, is distinctive of Lagsotrophus. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. The posterior cricoarytenoid muscle is spared from MuRF1-mediated muscle atrophy in mice with acute lung injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Clark Files

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle wasting in acute lung injury (ALI patients increases the morbidity and mortality associated with this critical illness. The contribution of laryngeal muscle wasting to these outcomes is unknown, though voice impairments and aspiration are common in intensive care unit (ICU survivors. We evaluated the intrinsic laryngeal abductor (PCA, posterior cricoarytenoid, adductor (CT, cricothyroid and limb (EDL, extensor digitorum longus muscles in a mouse model of ALI.Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides were instilled into the lungs of adult male C57Bl6J mice (ALI mice. Limb and intrinsic laryngeal muscles were analyzed for fiber size, type, protein expression and myosin heavy chain (MyHC composition by SDS-PAGE and mass spectroscopy.Marked muscle atrophy occurred in the CT and EDL muscles, while the PCA was spared. The E3 ubiquitin ligase muscle ring finger-1 protein (MuRF1, a known mediator of limb muscle atrophy in this model, was upregulated in the CT and EDL, but not in the PCA. Genetic inhibition of MuRF1 protected the CT and EDL from ALI-induced muscle atrophy. MyHC-Extraocular (MyHC-EO comprised 27% of the total MyHC in the PCA, distributed as hybrid fibers throughout 72% of PCA muscle fibers.The vocal cord abductor (PCA contains a large proportion of fibers expressing MyHC-EO and is spared from muscle atrophy in ALI mice. The lack of MuRF1 expression in the PCA suggests a previously unrecognized mechanism whereby this muscle is spared from atrophy. Atrophy of the vocal cord adductor (CT may contribute to the impaired voice and increased aspiration observed in ICU survivors. Further evaluation of the sparing of muscles involved in systemic wasting diseases may lead to potential therapeutic targets for these illnesses.

  6. [Stimuli phrases of adductor spasmodic dysphonia phonatory break in mandarin Chinese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Pingjiang; Ren, Qingyi; Chen, Zhipeng; Cheng, Qiuhui; Sheng, Xiaoli; Wang, Ling; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Siyi

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the characteristics of adductor spasmodic dysphonia phonatory break in mandarin Chinese and select the stimuli phrases. Thirty-eight patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia were involved in this study. Standard phrase " fù mŭ xīn" and a speech corpus in mandarin Chinese with 229 syllables covering all vowel and constant of mandarin Chinese were selected. Every patient read the phrases above twice in normal speed and comfortable voice. Two auditory perpetual speech pathologists marked phonatory break syllables respectively. The frequency of phonatory break syllables and their located phrases were calculated, rated and described. The phrases including the most phonatory break syllables were selected as stimuli phrases, the phonatory break frequency of which was also higher than that of standard phrase "fù mŭ xīn". Phonatory break happened in the reading of all patients. The average number of phonatory break syllables was 14 (3-33). Phonatroy break occurred when saying 177 (77.3%) syllables in the speech corpus. The syllables "guŏ, rén, zāng, diàn, chē, gè, guăn, a, bā, ne, de" broke in 23.1%-41.0% patients. These syllables belonged to the phrases "pĭng guŏ, huŏ chē, shì de, nĭ shì gè hăo rén, wŏ mén shì yŏu zŏng shì bă qĭn shì nong dé hĕn zāng, wŏ mén nà biān yŏu wăng qiú yùn dong chăng, cān gŭan, jiŭ bā hé yī gè miàn bāo dìan, tā shì duō me kāng kăi a,wŏ yīng gāi zài xìn lĭ xiĕ yī xiē shén mē ne?". Thirty-seven patients (97.3%) had phonatory break in above mentioned words. Ratios of these words phonatory break also were more than "fù mŭ xīn". Adductor spasmodic dysphonic patients exhibited different degrees of phonatory break in mandarine Chinese. The phrases" shì de, pĭng guŏ, huŏ chē, nĭ shì gè hăo rén, wŏ mén nà biān yŏu wăng qiú yùn dong chăng, cān gŭan, jiŭ bā hé yī gè miàn bāo dìan, tā shì duō me kāng kăi a" were recommended as stimuli

  7. Adductor canal block for postoperative pain treatment after revision knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia; Koscielniak-Nielsen, Zbigniew J; Schrøder, Henrik M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Revision knee arthroplasty is assumed to be even more painful than primary knee arthroplasty and predominantly performed in chronic pain patients, which challenges postoperative pain treatment. We hypothesized that the adductor canal block, effective for pain relief after primary total...... knee arthroplasty, may reduce pain during knee flexion (primary endpoint: at 4 h) compared with placebo after revision total knee arthroplasty. Secondary endpoints were pain at rest, morphine consumption and morphine-related side effects. METHODS: We included patients scheduled for revision knee......01191593. RESULTS: We enrolled 36 patients, of which 30 were analyzed. Mean pain scores during knee flexion at 4 h (primary endpoint) were: 52±22 versus 71±25 mm (mean difference 19, 95% CI: 1 to 37, P = 0.04), ropivacaine and placebo group respectively. When calculated as area under the curve (1-8 h/7 h...

  8. Effect of adductor canal block on pain in patients with severe pain after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grevstad, Jens Ulrik; Mathiesen, Ole; Lind, T

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with varying degrees of pain. A considerable proportion (25-40%) of patients experience severe pain, despite a comprehensive multimodal analgesic regimen. We hypothesized that adductor canal block (ACB) would reduce pain in this patient...... category compared with placebo. METHODS: Fifty patients with severe pain, defined as having a visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score of >60 during active flexion of the knee on the first or the second postoperative day after TKA, were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. All......% of the patients had no effect during active flexion. At rest, however, only 8% had more than mild pain after ACB compared with 57% at inclusion. CONCLUSIONS: ACB reduced VAS with 32 mm, during active flexion of the knee, in patients with severe pain after TKA, but a large proportion (78%) still had at least...

  9. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology in ACTA1-related congenital nemaline myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglioni, Claudia; Cassandrini, Denis; Fattori, Fabiana; Bellacchio, Emanuele; D'Amico, Adele; Alvarez, Karin; Gejman, Roger; Diaz, Jorge; Santorelli, Filippo M; Romero, Norma B; Bertini, Enrico; Bevilacqua, Jorge A

    2014-12-01

    Muscle biopsy is usually diagnostic in nemaline myopathy (NM), but some patients may show nonspecific findings, leading to pitfalls in diagnosis. Muscle MRI is a helpful complementary tool. We assessed the clinical, histopathological, MRI, and molecular findings in a 19-year-old patient with NM in whom 2 muscle biopsies with ultrastructural examination showed no nemaline bodies. We analyzed the degree and pattern of muscle MRI involvement of the entire body, including the tongue and pectoral muscles. Muscle MRI abnormalities in sartorius, adductor magnus, and anterior compartment muscles of the leg suggested NM. A previously unreported fatty infiltration of the tongue was found. A third biopsy after the muscle MRI showed scant nemaline bodies. A novel heterozygous de novo ACTA1 c.611C>T/p.Thr204Ile mutation was detected. We highlight the contribution of muscle imaging in addressing the genetic diagnosis of ACTA1-related NM. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Does Iliopsoas Tightness Affects Synergistic Muscle Activity in Hip Extension During Stance Phase of Gait?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Aali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Iliopsoas stiffness and restricted hip extension ROM affect muscle balance and lumbopelvic alignment. The purpose of this research is study of iliopsoas tightness’ effect on electromyographic activity of hip extensor synergists during gait. Methods: In this case-control study 15 adolescents with iliopsoas tightness as experimental group, and 15 healthy adolescents which matched based on age, height, weight, BMI, dominant leg, and sport experience participated voluntarily as control group. Surface electromyographic (sEMG activity of the gluteus maximus, adductor magnus, and biceps femoris, were measured between groups during stance phase of gait. Results: Individuals with restricted hip flexor muscle length demonstrated more gluteus maximus activation during terminal stance (p=0.001, more biceps femoris activation during mid stance (p=0.002 and late stance (p=0.001 and more adductor magnus activation during mid stance (p=0.04 and late stance (p=0.001. Discussion and conclusion: Adolescent soccer athletes with hip flexor muscle tightness exhibit more biceps femoris and adductor magnus and gluteus maximus activation during stance phase of gait. Thus, individuals with hip flexor muscle tightness appear to utilize different neuromuscular strategies to control lower extremity motion.

  11. MRI findings in soccer players with long-standing adductor-related groin pain and asymptomatic controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branci, Sonia; Thorborg, Kristian; Bech, Birthe Højlund

    2015-01-01

    soccer players displayed different positive MRI findings, and asymptomatic soccer players had significantly higher odds (OR ranging from 6.3 to 13.3) for BMO, adductor tendinopathy and degenerative changes than non-soccer players. CONCLUSIONS: ARGP in soccer players was associated with central disc......BACKGROUND: Soccer players are commonly affected by long-standing adductor-related groin pain (ARGP), but the clinical significance of MRI findings in these athletes is largely unknown. Our aims were (1) to evaluate whether MRI findings are associated with long-standing ARGP in soccer players, (2......) to assess MRI findings in asymptomatic soccer players and non-soccer playing controls. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 28 male soccer players with long-standing ARGP, 17 male asymptomatic soccer players and 20 male asymptomatic non-soccer playing athletes of matching age and athletic exposure...

  12. Muscle sarcomere lesions and thrombosis after spaceflight and suspension unloading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, D.A.; Ellis, S.; Giometti, C.S.; Hoh, J.F.Y.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E.I.; Oganov, V.S.; Slocum, G.R.; Bain, J.L.W.; Sedlak, F.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1992-08-01

    Extended exposure of humans to spaceflight produces a progressive loss of skeletal muscle strength. This process must be understood to design effective countermeasures. The present investigation examined hindlimb muscles from flight rats killed as close to landing as possible. Spaceflight and tail suspension-hindlimb unloading (unloaded) produced significant decreases in fiber cross-sectional areas of the adductor longus (AL), a slow-twitch antigravity muscle. However, the mean wet weight of the flight AL muscles was near normal, whereas that of the suspension unloaded AL muscles was significantly reduced. Interstitial edema within the flight AL, but not in the unloaded AL, appeared to account for this apparent disagreement.In both conditions, the slow-twitch oxidative fibers atrophied more than the fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic fibers. Microcirculation was also compromised by spaceflight, such that there was increased formation of thrombi in the postcapillary venules and capillaries.

  13. Perceived loading and muscle activity during hip strengthening exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Thorborg, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Decreased hip muscle strength is frequently reported in patients with hip injury or pathology. Furthermore, soccer players suffering from groin injury show decreased strength of hip muscles. Estimating 10-repetition maximum can be time-consuming and difficult, thus, using the Borg...... category rating 10 scale (Borg CR10 scale) can be a useful tool for estimating the intensity of exercise. The aims of this study were 1) to investigate the feasibility of the use of the Borg CR10 scale for rating strength training intensity of the hip abductor and hip adductor muscles, and 2) to compare...... hip muscle activity during hip abduction and hip adduction exercises using elastic resistance and isotonic machines, using electromyography (EMG). METHODS: EMG activity was recorded from 11 muscles at the hip, thigh and trunk during hip adduction and hip abduction exercises in 16 untrained women...

  14. Continuous adductor-canal-blockade for adjuvant post-operative analgesia after major knee surgery: preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, J; Jenstrup, M T; Jæger, P

    2011-01-01

    Because both the saphenous nerve and in part the obturator nerve are traversing the adductor canal of the thigh, we hypothesised that repeated administration of a local anaesthetic (LA) into this aponeurotic space could be a useful option for post-operative analgesia after knee replacement surgery......-canal-blockade may be a valuable adjunct for post-operative analgesia after major knee surgery. These preliminary results should be confirmed in randomised, controlled trials....

  15. Muscle-tendon-related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia: prevalence and associations with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell; Hölmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    ) with a mean age of 29 years (SD 9) were included. Clinical entity approach was carried out to identify muscle-tendon-related pain. Associations between muscle-tendon-related pain and self-reported hip disability and muscle strength were tested with multiple regression analysis, including adjustments for age......The primary aim was to identify muscle-tendon-related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia. The secondary aim was to test whether muscle-tendon-related pain is associated with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength in patient with hip dysplasia. One hundred patients (17 men...... and gender. Self-reported hip disability was recorded with the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS), and muscle strength was assessed with a handheld dynamometer. Iliopsoas- and abductor-related pain were most prevalent with prevalences of 56% (CI 46; 66) and 42% (CI 32; 52), respectively. Adductor...

  16. Muscle-tendon-related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia: prevalence and associations with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell; Hølmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    ) with a mean age of 29 years (SD 9) were included. Clinical entity approach was carried out to identify muscle-tendon-related pain. Associations between muscle-tendon-related pain and self-reported hip disability and muscle strength were tested with multiple regression analysis, including adjustments for age......The primary aim was to identify muscle-tendon-related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia. The secondary aim was to test whether muscle-tendon-related pain is associated with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength in patient with hip dysplasia. One hundred patients (17 men...... and gender. Self-reported hip disability was recorded with the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS), and muscle strength was assessed with a handheld dynamometer. Iliopsoas- and abductor-related pain were most prevalent with prevalences of 56% (CI 46; 66) and 42% (CI 32; 52), respectively. Adductor...

  17. A mini-invasive adductor magnus tendon transfer technique for medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpää, Petri J; Mäenpää, Heikki M; Mattila, Ville M; Visuri, Tuomo; Pihlajamäki, Harri

    2009-05-01

    Patellar dislocations are associated with injuries to the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL). Several techniques for MPFL reconstruction have been recently published with some disadvantages involved, including large skin incisions and donor site morbidity. Arthroscopic stabilizing techniques carry the potential of inadequate restoration of MPFL function. We present a minimally invasive technique for MPFL reconstruction using adductor magnus tendon autograft. This technique is easily performed, safe, and provides a stabilizing effect equal to current MPFL reconstructions. Skin incision of only 3-4 cm is located at the level of the proximal half of the patella. After identifying the distal insertion of the adductor magnus tendon, a tendon harvester is introduced to harvest the medial two-thirds of the tendon, while the distal insertion is left intact. The adductor magnus tendon is cut at 12-14 cm from its distal insertion and transferred into the patellar medial margin. Two suture anchors are inserted through the same incision at the superomedial aspect of the patella in the anatomic MPFL origin. The graft is tightened at 30 degrees knee flexion. Aftercare includes 4 weeks of brace treatment with restricted range of motion.

  18. A novel neuromuscular form of glycogen storage disease type IV with arthrogryposis, spinal stiffness and rare polyglucosan bodies in muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfatti, Edoardo; Barnerias, Christine; Hedberg-Oldfors, Carola; Gitiaux, Cyril; Benezit, Audrey; Oldfors, Anders; Carlier, Robert-Yves; Quijano-Roy, Susana; Romero, Norma B

    2016-10-01

    Glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV) is an autosomal recessive disorder causing polyglucosan storage in various tissues. Neuromuscular forms present with fetal akinesia deformation sequence, lethal myopathy, or mild hypotonia and weakness. A 3-year-old boy presented with arthrogryposis, motor developmental delay, weakness, and rigid spine. Whole body MRI revealed fibroadipose muscle replacement but sparing of the sartorius, gracilis, adductor longus and vastus intermedialis muscles. Polyglucosan bodies were identified in muscle, and GBE1 gene analysis revealed two pathogenic variants. We describe a novel neuromuscular GSD IV phenotype and confirm the importance of muscle morphological studies in early onset neuromuscular disorders. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Distribution of skeletal muscle involvement in autosomal recessive distal muscular dystrophy. A clinical and computed tomographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Nakanishi, Takao; Kobayashi, Fumie

    1987-02-01

    Distribution of skeletal muscle involvement in 5 cases with autosomal recessive distal muscular dystrophy was studied clinically and by computed tomography (CT). Manual muscle test showed muscle involvement with a predilection for flexors in the lower leg and adductors in the thigh. Flexion and extension of the thigh and the lower leg was impaired to similar degree. In progressed cases, neck flexors and trunk muscles were also affected mildly. CT disclosed more clearly the preferential involvement of flexors in the lower leg, and involvement of both hamstrings center dot adductors group and extensors group of the thigh to similar degree. However, m. popliteus was curiously well preserved. In addition, there was a stage showing high density and hypertrophy of m. sartorius, m. gracilis, m. adductor, m. biceps femoris, m. semimenbranosus, m. semitendinosus or m. rectus femoris, which in thought to be compensatory hypertrophy. M. gluteus minimus in the pelvic girdle and m. dorsi proprii in the trunk were also liable to be affected. The CT findings are regarded as characteristic features noted clearly before muscle weakness and atrophy become apparent clinically. CT is very useful for distinguishing distal muscular dystrophy from rimmed vacuolar distal myopathy in which m. quadriceps femoris and flexors of the lower leg are usually well preserved without compensatory hypertrophy on CT.

  20. Perioperative complications and safety of type II thyroplasty (TPII) for adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Kenji; Hatakeyama, Hiromitsu; Yanagida, Saori; Nishizawa, Noriko; Oridate, Nobuhiko; Fukuda, Satoshi; Homma, Akihiro

    2017-05-01

    Type II thyroplasty (TPII) is one of the surgical options offered in the management of adductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD); however, there have been no detailed reports of its safety and associated complications during the perioperative period. Our aim was to assess the complications and safety of TPII. TPII was performed for consecutive 15 patients with AdSD from April 2012 through May 2014. We examined retrospectively the perioperative complications, the degree of surgical invasion, and recovery process from surgery. All patients underwent successful surgery under only local anesthesia. Vocal fold erythema was observed in 14 patients and vocal fold edema in 10 patients; however, all of them showed complete resolution within 1 month. No patient experienced severe complications such as acute airway distress or hemorrhage. Fourteen patients were able to have oral from the 1st postoperative morning, with the remaining patient able to have oral intake from the 2nd postoperative day. In addition, no patient experienced aspiration postoperatively. In conclusion, only minor complications were observed in association with TPII in this study. No dysphagia was observed postoperatively, which is an advantage over other treatments. The results of our study suggest that TPII is a safe surgical treatment for AdSD.

  1. Towards microprocessor-based control of droplet parameters for endoscopic laryngeal adductor reflex triggering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fast Jacob Friedemann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The so-called Laryngeal Adductor Reflex (LAR protects the respiratory tract from particle intrusion by quickly approximating the vocal folds to close the free glottal space. An impaired LAR may be associated with an increased risk of aspiration and other adverse conditions. To evaluate the integrity of the LAR, we recently developed an endoscopic prototype for LAR triggering by shooting accelerated droplets onto a predefined laryngeal target region. We now modified the existing droplet-dispensing system to adapt the fluid system pressure as well as the valve opening time to user-chosen values autonomously. This has been accomplished using a microcontroller board connected to a pressure sensor and a mechatronic syringe pump. For performance validation, we designed a measurement setup capable of tracking the droplet along a vertical trajectory. In addition to the experimental setup, the influence of parameters such as system pressure and valve opening time on the micro-droplet formation is presented. Further development will enable the physician to adjust the droplet momentum by setting a single input value on the microcontroller-based setup, thus further increasing usability of the diagnostic device.

  2. The efficacy of adductor canal blockade after minor arthroscopic knee surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espelund, M; Fomsgaard, J S; Haraszuk, J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adductor canal blockade (ACB) has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of post-operative pain after major knee surgery. We hypothesised that the ACB would reduce pain and analgesic requirements after minor arthroscopic knee surgery. METHODS: Seventy-two patients scheduled...... for minor knee surgery were enrolled in this placebo-controlled, blinded trial. The patients were randomised to receive an ACB with either 30 ml ropivacaine 7.5 mg/ml (n = 36) or saline (n = 35) in addition to a basic analgesic regimen with paracetamol and ibuprofen. Primary outcome measure was pain during...... standing at 2 h after surgery. Secondary outcomes were pain at rest, while standing and after a 5-m walk; opioid consumption and opioid-related side effects 0-24 h after surgery. RESULTS: Pain scores {median [interquartile range (IQR)]}, regarding primary outcome were 15 (0-26) mm in the ropivacaine vs. 17...

  3. Tridimensional assessment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia pre- and post-treatment with Botulinum toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejonckere, P H; Neumann, K J; Moerman, M B J; Martens, J P; Giordano, A; Manfredi, C

    2012-04-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia voices form, in the same way as substitution voices, a particular category of dysphonia that seems not suited for a standardized basic multidimensional assessment protocol, like the one proposed by the European Laryngological Society. Thirty-three exhaustive analyses were performed on voices of 19 patients diagnosed with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (SD), before and after treatment with Botulinum toxin. The speech material consisted of 40 short sentences phonetically selected for constant voicing. Seven perceptual parameters (traditional and dedicated) were blindly rated by a panel of experienced clinicians. Nine acoustic measures (mainly based on voicing evidence and periodicity) were achieved by a special analysis program suited for strongly irregular signals and validated with synthesized deviant voices. Patients also filled in a VHI-questionnaire. Significant improvement is shown by all three approaches. The traditional GRB perceptual parameters appear to be adequate for these patients. Conversely, the special acoustic analysis program is successful in objectivating the improved regularity of vocal fold vibration: the basic jitter remains the most valuable parameter, when reliably quantified. The VHI is well suited for the voice-related quality of life. Nevertheless, when considering pre-therapy and post-therapy changes, the current study illustrates a complete lack of correlation between the perceptual, acoustic, and self-assessment dimensions. Assessment of SD-voices needs to be tridimensional.

  4. Adductor canal blockade for moderate to severe pain after arthroscopic knee surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espelund, M; Grevstad, U; Jaeger, P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The analgesic effect of the adductor canal block (ACB) after knee surgery has been evaluated in a number of trials. We hypothesized that the ACB would provide substantial pain relief to patients responding with moderate to severe pain after arthroscopic knee surgery. METHODS: Fifty...... subjects with moderate to severe pain after arthroscopic knee surgery were enrolled in this placebo-controlled, blinded trial. All subjects received two ACBs; an initial ACB with either 30 ml ropivacaine 7.5 mg/ml (n = 25) (R group) or saline (n = 25) (C group) and after 45 min a second ACB...... with the opposite study medication, according to randomization. Primary outcome was pain during 45 degrees active flexion of the knee at 45 min after the first block, assessed on a 0-100 mm visual analogue scale. Secondary outcome measures were: pain at rest and during flexion of the knee, worst pain experienced...

  5. Efficacy of Voice Therapy for Patients With Early Unilateral Adductor Vocal Fold Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ya-Chuan; Chen, Shen-Hwa; Wang, Yu-Tsai; Chu, Pen-Yuan; Tan, Ching-Ting; Chang, Wan-Zu Diana

    2017-09-01

    Although a variety of therapeutic techniques have been suggested for patients with unilateral adductor vocal fold paralysis (UAVFP), they were not aimed specifically at determining the efficacy of early intervention for these patients. The purposes of this study are to explore a protocol of voice therapy and to investigate its efficacy in voice therapy for patients with early UAVFP. A 12-week planned voice therapy protocol, including vocal function exercise, hard attack, and resonance voice therapy, was given to 10 patients within 6 months of initial diagnosis. Additionally, nine patients diagnosed with UAVFP within 6 months served as controls. Multidimensional evaluations of voice function were obtained for statistical analyses. Compared to a control group, the experimental group receiving voice therapy exhibited significant improvement in the following: (1) glottal closure; (2) voice quality of grade, breathiness, monotone, and resonance; (3) acoustic measurements of jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonic ratio; (4) aerodynamics measurements of maximum phonation time, phonation threshold pressure, and phonation quotient; and (5) Voice Handicap Index of functional subscale. This prospective study established an effective protocol of early intervention of voice therapy in patients with UAVFP and demonstrated its efficacy in data on laryngeal physiology, voice quality, voice stability, voice efficiency, and communication function. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. "An Investigation Into The Interrater Reliability Of The Modified Ashworth Scale In The Assessment Of Muscle Spasticity In Hemiplegic Patients "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nokhostin-Ansari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Spasticity is a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes (muscle tone with exaggerated tendon jerks, resulting from hyperexcitability of the stretch reflex. The measurement of spasticity is necessary to determine the effect of treatments. The Modified Ashworth Scale is the most widely used method for assessing muscle spasticity in clinical practice and research. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interrater reliability of Modified Ashworth Scale in hemiplegic patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty subjects (16 males, 14 females with a mean age of 59.40 (SD =14.013 recruited. Shoulder adductor , elbow flexor , wrist dorsiflexor , hip adductor , knee extensor and ankle plantarflexor on the hemiplegic side were tested by two physiotherapists. Results: In the upper limb, the interrater reliability for shoulder adductor and elbow flexor muscles was fair (0.372 and 0.369, respectively. The reliability for the wrist flexors was good (0.612. The difference in Kappa value for the proximal muscle (shoulder adductor; 0.372 and the distal muscle (wrist flexor; 0.612 was significant (²X=33.87, df=1, p0.05. The mean value for the upper limb (0.505 and the lower limb (0,.516 was not significantly different (²X=0.1407, df=1, p>0.05. Conclusion: The interrater reliability of Modified Ashworth Scale was not good . The limb, upper or lower, had no significant effect on the reliability. In the upper limb, the reliability for the proximal and distal muscle was significantly different. However. The difference in the lower limb was not significant.When using the scale, one should consider it's limitation.

  7. Natural history of SMA IIIb: muscle strength decreases in a predictable sequence and magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deymeer, Feza; Serdaroglu, Piraye; Parman, Yesim; Poda, Mehves

    2008-08-26

    To assess the natural progression of muscle weakness in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) IIIb. Ten patients with SMA IIIb were followed for at least 10 years. Age at disease onset varied between 9 and 18 years. Patients were initially seen 2 to 10 years after disease onset. They were evaluated at approximately 2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 years of disease duration depending on the timing of their initial visit after onset. Medical Research Council (MRC) scale was used with particular attention to proximal muscles. The MRC grade declined with years in all of the muscles. The decline was usually not more than by one MRC grade for each 5-year period. There were 5-10 year periods when some muscles appeared to remain stationary. The succession of weakness was first triceps, then biceps and deltoid for upper extremity muscles and first thigh adductors, then iliopsoas, then quadriceps femoris, then hamstrings, thigh abductors, and gluteus maximus for lower extremity muscles. There was a remarkable uniformity between patients in the MRC grade for each muscle at each stage: in the first 5 years of the disease, triceps, iliopsoas, thigh adductors, and quadriceps femoris were the muscles which had noticeable weakness. These findings show that strength in spinal muscular atrophy IIIb decreases over time, explaining the progressive functional loss. The sequence of weakness in the lower extremities suggests that the disease starts segmentally involving the upper lumbar segments of the medulla spinalis initially. The slowness of the deterioration may have implications for clinical trials.

  8. Similarity of muscle synergies extracted from the lower limb including the deep muscles between level and uphill treadmill walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Akira; Tomita, Aya; Ando, Ryosuke; Watanabe, Kohei; Akima, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to examine muscle synergies involving the deeper muscles of the lower limb during level and uphill treadmill walking. Seven men and five women walked on a treadmill at three speeds (60, 80, and 100m/min) and two grades (level and 10% grade). Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from 10 muscles of the lower limb, including vastus intermedius, adductor magnus, and adductor longus. Muscle synergies were extracted applying non-negative matrix factorization, and the relative co-activation across muscles and the temporal information of synergy recruitment were identified by the muscle synergy vector and synergy activation coefficient, respectively. Correlation coefficients between a pair of synergy vectors during level and uphill walking were analyzed as a similarity index, with the similarity criterion at r=0.76. Changes in synergy activation coefficients between the walking conditions were evaluated by cross-correlation analysis. The mean number of synergies ranged from 3.8 to 4.0 across all conditions, and they were not significantly different between level and uphill walking conditions. Similarity between walking conditions was high (r>0.76) for three muscle synergies, but not for one synergy that mainly consisted of the quadriceps femoris. The inter-condition similarity of the synergy activation coefficients was high for the four synergies, and a significant lag time for synergy 2, which consisted mainly of the activity of medial gastrocnemius, was found at 60 and 80m/min. The muscle synergies extracted from the lower limb involving the deeper muscles appear to be consistent during level and uphill treadmill walking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Progression and variation of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a muscle magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenzhu; Zheng, Yiming; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zhaoxia; Xiao, Jiangxi; Yuan, Yun

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the progression and variation of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the degree of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles of 171 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (mean age, 6.09 ± 2.30 years). Fatty infiltration was assigned using a modified Mercuri's scale 0-5 (normal-severe). The gluteus maximus and adductor magnus were affected in patients less than two years old, followed by the biceps femoris. Quadriceps and semimembranosus were first affected at the age of five to six years; the sartorius, gracilis and adductor longus remained apparently unaffected until seven years of age. Fatty infiltration of all the thigh muscles developed rapidly after seven years of age. The standard deviation of the fatty infiltration scores ranged from 2.41 to 4.87 before five years old, and from 6.84 to 11.66 between six and ten years old. This study provides evidence of highly variable degrees of fatty infiltration in children of different ages with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and indicates that fatty infiltration progresses more quickly after seven years of age. These findings may be beneficial for the selection of therapeutic regimens and the analysis of future clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The adductor magnus "mini-hamstring": MRI appearance and potential pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broski, Stephen M; Murthy, Naveen S; Krych, Aaron J; Obey, Mitchel R; Collins, Mark S

    2016-02-01

    To examine the anatomic MRI characteristics of the adductor magnus mini hamstring (AMMH) and explore its involvement in cases of hamstring avulsion. An IRB-approved retrospective review of patients undergoing "hamstring protocol" MRI between March 2009 and June 2014 was performed. Two musculoskeletal radiologists recorded multiple AMMH anatomic characteristics and involvement in cases of hamstring avulsion. Seventy-six AMMHs were analyzed in 66 patients [35 females and 31 males, mean age 49.3 ± 15.2 years (range 17-81)]. Eleven percent of AMMHs were poorly visualized, 51 % visualized, and 37 % well visualized. Seven percent demonstrated round, 73 % ovoid, and 21 % flat/lenticular tendon morphologies. Most (88 %) demonstrated typical origins. Average cross-sectional area (CSA) was 22.4 ± 10.6 mm² (range 6-56), diameter was 7.2 ± 2.5 mm (range 2.9-15), medial distance from the semimembranosus tendon was 7.5 ± 2.5 mm (range 3-14), and tendon length was 6.8 ± 3.3 cm (range 1.2-14.1). There was no gender difference in AMMH anatomic measurements or correlation between age and CSA or diameter. Of 17 complete hamstring avulsion cases, the AMMH was intact in 13, partially torn in 3, and completely torn in 1. The AMMH is a constant finding with variable anatomic characteristics. It is visualized or well visualized by MRI in 88 % of cases and is a sizable tendon located in close proximity to the semimembranosus tendon. Because it is uncommonly completely torn (6 %) in cases of complete hamstring avulsion, radiologists should be aware of its presence and appearance to avoid diagnostic confusion.

  11. The adductor magnus ''mini-hamstring'': MRI appearance and potential pitfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broski, Stephen M.; Murthy, Naveen S.; Collins, Mark S. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Krych, Aaron J. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Obey, Mitchel R. [Mayo School of Graduate Medical Education, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2016-02-15

    To examine the anatomic MRI characteristics of the adductor magnus mini hamstring (AMMH) and explore its involvement in cases of hamstring avulsion. An IRB-approved retrospective review of patients undergoing ''hamstring protocol'' MRI between March 2009 and June 2014 was performed. Two musculoskeletal radiologists recorded multiple AMMH anatomic characteristics and involvement in cases of hamstring avulsion. Seventy-six AMMHs were analyzed in 66 patients [35 females and 31 males, mean age 49.3 ± 15.2 years (range 17-81)]. Eleven percent of AMMHs were poorly visualized, 51 % visualized, and 37 % well visualized. Seven percent demonstrated round, 73 % ovoid, and 21 % flat/lenticular tendon morphologies. Most (88 %) demonstrated typical origins. Average cross-sectional area (CSA) was 22.4 ± 10.6 mm{sup 2} (range 6-56), diameter was 7.2 ± 2.5 mm (range 2.9-15), medial distance from the semimembranosus tendon was 7.5 ± 2.5 mm (range 3-14), and tendon length was 6.8 ± 3.3 cm (range 1.2-14.1). There was no gender difference in AMMH anatomic measurements or correlation between age and CSA or diameter. Of 17 complete hamstring avulsion cases, the AMMH was intact in 13, partially torn in 3, and completely torn in 1. The AMMH is a constant finding with variable anatomic characteristics. It is visualized or well visualized by MRI in 88 % of cases and is a sizable tendon located in close proximity to the semimembranosus tendon. Because it is uncommonly completely torn (6 %) in cases of complete hamstring avulsion, radiologists should be aware of its presence and appearance to avoid diagnostic confusion. (orig.)

  12. Long-term Evaluation of Type 2 Thyroplasty with Titanium Bridges for Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanuki, Tetsuji; Yumoto, Eiji

    2017-07-01

    Objectives Standard treatments of adductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD) provide temporary relief of symptoms. Type 2 thyroplasty offers a long-term solution; however, long-term voice outcome data are lacking. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term voice outcomes of type 2 thyroplasty with titanium bridges through use of a validated voice questionnaire. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting University hospital. Subjects and Methods Forty-seven consecutively enrolled patients with AdSD underwent type 2 thyroplasty with titanium bridges between August 2006 and November 2014. Questionnaires were completed during regularly scheduled follow-ups and, in some cases, were sent to patients who missed follow-up appointments. In 2015, questionnaires were mailed to all 47 patients and included a Voice Handicap Index-10 evaluation, as well as questions on postoperative vocal symptoms, surgical site, and status of the implanted titanium bridges. Results Of 47 patients with AdSD, 31 (66%) completed the questionnaires. The average follow-up interval was 41.3 months. No patient reported experiencing an adverse event around the surgical site, and almost all were satisfied with their voices postoperatively. The mean postoperative (>3 years) Voice Handicap Index-10 score improved significantly, from 26.3 to 9.4 (n = 17, P = .0009). Conclusions Type 2 thyroplasty for AdSD significantly improved patient quality of life and voice symptoms and continued to do so long after the surgery. The results of this study suggest that type 2 thyroplasty provides relief from vocal symptoms in patients with AdSD for >3 years.

  13. Brain Activity in Patients With Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia Detected by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyuna, Asanori; Kise, Norimoto; Hiratsuka, Munehisa; Kondo, Shunsuke; Uehara, Takayuki; Maeda, Hiroyuki; Ganaha, Akira; Suzuki, Mikio

    2017-05-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is considered a focal dystonia. However, the detailed pathophysiology of SD remains unclear, despite the detection of abnormal activity in several brain regions. The aim of this study was to clarify the pathophysiological background of SD. This is a case-control study. Both task-related brain activity measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging by reading the five-digit numbers and resting-state functional connectivity (FC) measured by 150 T2-weighted echo planar images acquired without any task were investigated in 12 patients with adductor SD and in 16 healthy controls. The patients with SD showed significantly higher task-related brain activation in the left middle temporal gyrus, left thalamus, bilateral primary motor area, bilateral premotor area, bilateral cerebellum, bilateral somatosensory area, right insula, and right putamen compared with the controls. Region of interest voxel FC analysis revealed many FC changes within the cerebellum-basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex loop in the patients with SD. Of the significant connectivity changes between the patients with SD and the controls, the FC between the left thalamus and the left caudate nucleus was significantly correlated with clinical parameters in SD. The higher task-related brain activity in the insula and cerebellum was consistent with previous neuroimaging studies, suggesting that these areas are one of the unique characteristics of phonation-induced brain activity in SD. Based on FC analysis and their significant correlations with clinical parameters, the basal ganglia network plays an important role in the pathogenesis of SD. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. CONTROL OF EROSION PROCESSES RESULTING FROM DISRUPTION OF ADDUCTOR IN THE SERRA DA MANTIQUEIRA, SP, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admilson Clayton Barbosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the southern escarpment of the Serra da Mantiqueira, northeast geographic divider between the State of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, there was an environmental accident caused by the disruption of an adductor whose purpose is to lead the water from a reservoir located at an altitude of 1820 m to the machine house where there is an electric generator located at 750 m.  This accident resulted in the formation of a scar on the hillside forest, with removal of soil and vegetation. To reverse the erosion processes, a methodology was developed consisting of the use of four barriers (numbered I to IV formed by seedlings of Bambusa mutiplex (Lour., whose purpose was to divert the water runoff in order to provide the regeneration of native vegetation. Stalks of bamboo intercropped with Bambusa multiplex were used to contain debris in two gullies formed by erosion. The development of vegetation was monitored for 18 months and evaluated by the application of a Leopold Matrix composed of 5 points, which are: erosion, regeneration of vegetation, success of bamboo planting, installed conservation structures and functionality. The purpose of the matrix was to demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions using bamboo. The result of the classification matrix enabled the quantitative and qualitative classification of the interventions, resulting in five levels, where the barriers I, II and IV were considered to be of very high efficiency, and barrier III was considered to be of high efficiency. The contention of the gully was considered to be of medium to very high efficiency.

  15. MRI findings in soccer players with long-standing adductor-related groin pain and asymptomatic controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branci, Sonia; Thorborg, Kristian; Bech, Birthe Højlund; Boesen, Mikael; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Hölmich, Per

    2015-05-01

    Soccer players are commonly affected by long-standing adductor-related groin pain (ARGP), but the clinical significance of MRI findings in these athletes is largely unknown. Our aims were (1) to evaluate whether MRI findings are associated with long-standing ARGP in soccer players, (2) to assess MRI findings in asymptomatic soccer players and non-soccer playing controls. This cross-sectional study included 28 male soccer players with long-standing ARGP, 17 male asymptomatic soccer players and 20 male asymptomatic non-soccer playing athletes of matching age and athletic exposure. Participants underwent identical standardised and reliable clinical examination, and MRI scans (3 T) of the pelvis performed by a blinded observer. Images were consensus rated by three blinded radiologists according to a standardised MRI evaluation protocol. The associations between clinical adductor-related findings and pathological MRI findings were investigated with χ(2) statistics and OR. Central disc protrusion (p=0.027) and higher grades of pubic bone marrow oedema (BMO; p=0.027) were significantly more present in symptomatic players than asymptomatic players. However, up to 71% of asymptomatic soccer players displayed different positive MRI findings, and asymptomatic soccer players had significantly higher odds (OR ranging from 6.3 to 13.3) for BMO, adductor tendinopathy and degenerative changes than non-soccer players. ARGP in soccer players was associated with central disc protrusion and higher grades of pubic BMO. Moreover, positive MRI findings were significantly more frequent in soccer players compared with non-soccer players irrespective of symptoms, suggesting that these MRI changes may be associated with soccer play itself rather than clinical symptoms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Fatigue-related firing of distal muscle nociceptors reduces voluntary activation of proximal muscles of the same limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David S; McNeil, Chris J; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2014-02-15

    With fatiguing exercise, firing of group III/IV muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation and force of the exercised muscles. These afferents can also act across agonist/antagonist pairs, reducing voluntary activation and force in nonfatigued muscles. We hypothesized that maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents after a fatiguing adductor pollicis (AP) contraction would decrease voluntary activation and force of AP and ipsilateral elbow flexors. In two experiments (n = 10) we examined voluntary activation of AP and elbow flexors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by ulnar nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex, respectively. Inflation of a sphygmomanometer cuff after a 2-min AP maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) blocked circulation of the hand for 2 min and maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents. After a 2-min AP MVC, maximal AP voluntary activation was lower with than without ischemia (56.2 ± 17.7% vs. 76.3 ± 14.6%; mean ± SD; P muscle afferents from the hand decreased voluntary drive and force of AP. Moreover, this effect decreased voluntary drive and torque of proximal unfatigued muscles, the elbow flexors. Fatigue-sensitive group III/IV muscle nociceptors act to limit voluntary drive not only to fatigued muscles but also to unfatigued muscles within the same limb.

  17. Muscle activation patterns when passively stretching spastic lower limb muscles of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-On, Lynn; Aertbeliën, Erwin; Molenaers, Guy; Desloovere, Kaat

    2014-01-01

    The definition of spasticity as a velocity-dependent activation of the tonic stretch reflex during a stretch to a passive muscle is the most widely accepted. However, other mechanisms are also thought to contribute to pathological muscle activity and, in patients post-stroke and spinal cord injury can result in different activation patterns. In the lower-limbs of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) these distinct activation patterns have not yet been thoroughly explored. The aim of the study was to apply an instrumented assessment to quantify different muscle activation patterns in four lower-limb muscles of children with CP. Fifty-four children with CP were included (males/females n = 35/19; 10.8 ± 3.8 yrs; bilateral/unilateral involvement n =  32/22; Gross Motor Functional Classification Score I-IV) of whom ten were retested to evaluate intra-rater reliability. With the subject relaxed, single-joint, sagittal-plane movements of the hip, knee, and ankle were performed to stretch the lower-limb muscles at three increasing velocities. Muscle activity and joint motion were synchronously recorded using inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG) from the adductors, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius. Muscles were visually categorised into activation patterns using average, normalized root mean square EMG (RMS-EMG) compared across increasing position zones and velocities. Based on the visual categorisation, quantitative parameters were defined using stretch-reflex thresholds and normalized RMS-EMG. These parameters were compared between muscles with different activation patterns. All patterns were dominated by high velocity-dependent muscle activation, but in more than half, low velocity-dependent activation was also observed. Muscle activation patterns were found to be both muscle- and subject-specific (pstretches was found to be the most sensitive in categorizing muscles into activation patterns (pmuscles with different patterns react

  18. The effects of football match congestion in an international tournament on hip adductor squeeze strength and pain in elite youth players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollin, Martin; Pizzari, Tania; Spagnolo, Kane; Welvaert, Marijke; Thorborg, Kristian

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a congested international tournament match schedule on adductor strength and pain in elite youth football players. Twenty-two male players (age: 15.53 ± 0.48 years, height: 174.87 ± 7.59 cm, weight: 67.45 ± 7.40 kg) were included. The 5-second adductor squeeze strength was captured daily using a hand-held dynamometer during a 7-game international tournament. Pain during the squeeze test was recorded using numerical pain ratings (0-10) to quantify groin pain. Sessional rate of perceived exertion (sRPE) was collected during the tournament. Adductor strength changed significantly during the tournament in relation to time (F(14,294.94) = 1.89, p = 0.027) and cumulative sRPE (F(1,314) = 5.59, p = 0.019). Cumulative sRPE displayed a negative relationship with strength (B = -0.008, SE = 0.0032, 95%CI = -0.014,-0.002). The results indicate that for every 100 match sRPE arbitrary units the squeeze peak force reduced by 0.8N. Sixteen (72.7%) players demonstrated clinically meaningful strength reductions (>15%) during the tournament. Match congestion impacts on hip adductor squeeze strength in male youth football players. A negative relationship between match sRPE and adductor strength exists. Player monitoring involving the 5-second adductor squeeze test can be captured effectively and is suitable to include as part of secondary injury prevention during or immediately after a congested tournament.

  19. Liquid-type Botulinum Toxin Type A in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia: A Prospective Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Wonjae; Jang, Jeon Yeob; Wang, Soo-Geun; Kang, Ji-Heon; Jo, Min-Gyu

    2017-05-01

    Botulinum toxin (BTX) has been widely used to treat adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD). Most commercially available forms of BTX require reconstitution before use, which may increase the risk of contamination and requires careful titration. Recently, a liquid-type BTX type A (BTX-A) has been developed, which should simplify the procedure and enhance its efficacy. Herein, we present a prospective pilot study to investigate the efficacy and safety of liquid-type BTX-A in the treatment of ADSD. Twenty-six consecutive liquid-type BTX-A injections were performed in 12 patients with ADSD. We included as a control group 34 consecutive patients with ADSD who had previously undergone 52 vocal fold injection procedures with freeze-dried-type BTX-A. All patients in both groups had improvement of symptoms related to ADSD and period of normal voice. Most patients experienced breathiness, and the onset time, the peak response time, and the duration of breathiness were similar in both groups. The duration of effect (days) was 96.96 ± 18.91 and 77.38 ± 18.97 in the freeze-dried-type and the liquid-type groups, and the duration of benefit (days) was 80.02 ± 18.24 and 62.69 ± 19.73 in the freeze-dried-type and the liquid-type groups. To compare the efficacy between the freeze-dried-type and the liquid-type BTX-A, the sessions of the unilateral vocal fold injection were included and were categorized as group A (1 ~ 2 units BTX-A) and group B (2 ~ 3 units BTX-A), according to the dose per vocal fold. There was no significant difference of effect time between freeze-dried-type and liquid-type BTX-A groups. No adverse events related to BTX or vocal fold injection were reported. Liquid-type BTX-A is safe and effective for the treatment of spasmodic dysphonia. With the advantages of simple preparation, storage, and reuse and animal protein-free constituents, liquid-type BTX-A may be a good option in the treatment of spasmodic dysphonia. Copyright © 2017 The

  20. Heterogeneous atrophy occurs within individual lower limb muscles during 60 days of bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miokovic, Tanja; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Felsenberg, Dieter; Belavý, Daniel L

    2012-11-01

    To better understand disuse muscle atrophy, via magnetic resonance imaging, we sequentially measured muscle cross-sectional area along the entire length of all individual muscles from the hip to ankle in nine male subjects participating in 60-day head-down tilt bed rest (2nd Berlin BedRest Study; BBR2-2). We hypothesized that individual muscles would not atrophy uniformly along their length such that different regions of an individual muscle would atrophy to different extents. This hypothesis was confirmed for the adductor magnus, vasti, lateral hamstrings, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris, medial gastrocnemius, lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis posterior, flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, peroneals, and tibialis anterior muscles (P ≤ 0.004). In contrast, the hypothesis was not confirmed in the soleus, adductor brevis, gracilis, pectineus, and extensor digitorum longus muscles (P ≥ 0.20). The extent of atrophy only weakly correlated (r = -0.30, P muscles (P muscles recovered to their baseline size between 14 and 90 days after bed rest, but flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, and lateral gastrocnemius required longer than 90 days before recovery occurred. On the basis of findings of differential atrophy between muscles and evidence in the literature, we interpret our findings of intramuscular atrophy to reflect differential disuse of functionally different muscle regions. The current work represents the first lower-limb wide survey of intramuscular differences in disuse atrophy. We conclude that intramuscular differential atrophy occurs in most, but not all, of the muscles of the lower limb during prolonged bed rest.

  1. 3D configuration of mandibles and controlling muscles in rove beetles based on micro-CT technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dee [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of the Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Beijing (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhang, Kai [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhu, Peiping [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Wu, Ziyu [University of Science and Technology of China, National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Hefei (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Zhou, Hongzhang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of the Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Beijing (China)

    2011-08-15

    X-ray micro-CT is a powerful tool to visualize without damage details of the inner structures of beetles, the largest order of insects with a hard external skeleton. This contribution shows the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the head morphology of three rove beetle species (Insecta, Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) - Noddia sp., Creophilus maxillosus, and Hesperosoma sp. - using X-ray microtomography at a spatial resolution of 6 {mu}m. The details of skeletal muscle fiber insertions are described, giving a comprehensive overview of mandible mobility and organization. With the support of 3D rendering, we discuss the relationship among the mandible forms, the development of the muscles controlling the movement, and the head morphology. The well-developed posterior part of the head capsule is always accompanied by a well-developed mandible, a large adductor muscle, and a large apodeme for the wide areas of the muscle fiber attachment. In Noddia sp., muscles connected to the posterolateral angle of the head capsule are mainly short muscles, whereas in Creophilus maxillosus, the latter are mainly long muscles, and in Hesperosoma sp. no mandible adductor muscle fibers are present on the posterolateral angle of the head capsule. These results offer new invaluable information regarding the biting functions of beetle mandibles and the trend of their morphological change during their long-term evolution. (orig.)

  2. Feasibility and reliability of using an exoskeleton to emulate muscle contractures during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attias, M; Bonnefoy-Mazure, A; De Coulon, G; Cheze, L; Armand, S

    2016-10-01

    Contracture is a permanent shortening of the muscle-tendon-ligament complex that limits joint mobility. Contracture is involved in many diseases (cerebral palsy, stroke, etc.) and can impair walking and other activities of daily living. The purpose of this study was to quantify the reliability of an exoskeleton designed to emulate lower limb muscle contractures unilaterally and bilaterally during walking. An exoskeleton was built according to the following design criteria: adjustable to different morphologies; respect of the principal lines of muscular actions; placement of reflective markers on anatomical landmarks; and the ability to replicate the contractures of eight muscles of the lower limb unilaterally and bilaterally (psoas, rectus femoris, hamstring, hip adductors, gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis posterior, and peroneus). Sixteen combinations of contractures were emulated on the unilateral and bilateral muscles of nine healthy participants. Two sessions of gait analysis were performed at weekly intervals to assess the reliability of the emulated contractures. Discrete variables were extracted from the kinematics to analyse the reliability. The exoskeleton did not affect normal walking when contractures were not emulated. Kinematic reliability varied from poor to excellent depending on the targeted muscle. Reliability was good for the bilateral and unilateral gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis posterior as well as the bilateral hamstring and unilateral hip adductors. The exoskeleton can be used to replicate contracture on healthy participants. The exoskeleton will allow us to differentiate primary and compensatory effects of muscle contractures on gait kinematics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Muscle-tendon-related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia: prevalence and associations with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell

    dysplasia. The secondary aim was to test if muscle-tendon related pain is linearly associated to self-reported hip disability and muscle strength in patients with hip dysplasia. Materials and methods One hundred patients (17 men) with a mean age of 29+9 years were included. Clinical entity approach...... was carried out to identify muscle-tendon related pain. Muscle strength was assessed with a handheld dynamometer and self-reported hip disability was recorded with the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS). Results Iliopsoas- and abductor-related pain were frequently identified with prevalences of 56......% (CI 46; 66) and 42% (CI 32; 52), respectively. Adductor-, hamstrings- and rectus abdominis-related pain were less common. There was a significant inverse linear association between muscle-tendon related pain and self-reported hip disability ranging from -3.35 to -7.51 points in the adjusted analysis...

  4. Muscle-tendon related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia: prevalence and associations with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell

    2017-01-01

    dysplasia. The secondary aim was to test if muscle-tendon related pain is linearly associated to self-reported hip disability and muscle strength in patients with hip dysplasia. Materials and methods One hundred patients (17 men) with a mean age of 29+9 years were included. Clinical entity approach...... was carried out to identify muscle-tendon related pain. Muscle strength was assessed with a handheld dynamometer and self-reported hip disability was recorded with the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS). Results Iliopsoas- and abductor-related pain were frequently identified with prevalences of 56......% (CI 46; 66) and 42% (CI 32; 52), respectively. Adductor-, hamstrings- and rectus abdominis-related pain were less common. There was a significant inverse linear association between muscle-tendon related pain and self-reported hip disability ranging from -3.35 to -7.51 points in the adjusted analysis...

  5. Treatment Efficacy of Electromyography versus Fiberscopy-Guided Botulinum Toxin Injection in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia Patients: A Prospective Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Wook; Park, Jae Hong; Park, Ki Nam; Lee, Seung Won

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. This study prospectively evaluates and compares the treatment efficacy of botulinum toxin injection under electromyography guidance (EMG group) and percutaneous botulinum toxin injection under flexible fiberscopic guidance (fiberscopy group). Methods. Thirty patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD), who had never received treatment, were randomly allocated into EMG- or fiberscopy-guided botulinum toxin injections between March 2008 and February 2010. We assessed acoustic and aerodynamic voice parameters, and the voice handicap index (VHI) before injection and at 1, 3, and 6 months after injection. Results. The mean total dosage of botulinum toxin was similar for both groups: 1.7 ± 0.5 U for the EMG group and 1.8 ± 0.4 U for the fiberscopy group (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in outcomes between the two groups in either the duration of effectiveness or complications such as breathy voice and aspiration. Conclusion. Botulinum toxin injection under fiberscopic guidance is a viable alternative to EMG-guided botulinum toxin injection for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia when EMG equipment is unavailable. PMID:25383369

  6. Treatment Efficacy of Electromyography versus Fiberscopy-Guided Botulinum Toxin Injection in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia Patients: A Prospective Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Wook Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study prospectively evaluates and compares the treatment efficacy of botulinum toxin injection under electromyography guidance (EMG group and percutaneous botulinum toxin injection under flexible fiberscopic guidance (fiberscopy group. Methods. Thirty patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD, who had never received treatment, were randomly allocated into EMG- or fiberscopy-guided botulinum toxin injections between March 2008 and February 2010. We assessed acoustic and aerodynamic voice parameters, and the voice handicap index (VHI before injection and at 1, 3, and 6 months after injection. Results. The mean total dosage of botulinum toxin was similar for both groups: 1.7 ± 0.5 U for the EMG group and 1.8 ± 0.4 U for the fiberscopy group (P>0.05. There were no significant differences in outcomes between the two groups in either the duration of effectiveness or complications such as breathy voice and aspiration. Conclusion. Botulinum toxin injection under fiberscopic guidance is a viable alternative to EMG-guided botulinum toxin injection for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia when EMG equipment is unavailable.

  7. Immediate effect of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on hip adductor flexibility in female ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Ercole C; Souza, Andréa C; Mello, Mônica L; Bacurau, Reury F P; Cabral, Leonardo F; Farinatti, Paulo T V

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the immediate effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching on the flexibility of hip adductors in female ballet dancers. Forty-five subjects (age: 28.5 ± 8.0 years; minimum two years of ballet training) were randomly assigned to three groups: PNF (contract-release technique), Static, and Control. Subjects in the PNF and Static groups performed four sets of 30 second stretching with an interval of 30 seconds between sets. The control group stayed at rest for the same time spent by the PNF and Static groups during the stretching sessions. Maximal range of motion was measured before and immediately after the experimental and control protocols in all groups. The results indicated significant differences between pre- and post-stretching flexibility in both PNF and Static groups (p < 0.0001; effect size = 0.24 and 0.39, respectively), whereas no change was identified in the Control group (p = 0.265). However, no differences in post-exercise flexibility were found between PNF and Static groups (p = 0.235). It is concluded that static and PNF stretching methods provoked similar post-exercise acute effects on the maximal range of motion of hip adductors in highly flexible female ballet dancers.

  8. [Reconstruction of medial patellofemoral ligament with transposition of great adductor muscular tendon for the treatment of teenagers' recurrent patellar dislocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chuan-Qiang; Chen, Chang-Chun; Zhao, Chun-Cheng; Yang, Hong-Mei; Kang, Yan-Zhong

    2017-06-25

    To investigate surgical method and clinical curative effects of medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction with great adductor muscular tendon in treating teenagers' recurrent patellar dislocation. From May 2012 to September 2014, 19 patients with recurrent dislocation of patellar, including 6 males and 13 females with an average of 16 years old (ranged from 13 to 17 years), the courses of disease ranged from 3 to 18 months(averaged 6 months). All patients were underwent great adductor muscular tendon transposition to reconstruct medial patellofemoral ligament. The curative effects were evaluated by preoperative and postoperative with Lysholm scores and Patellofemoral angle and Q angle. All patients were followed up from 12 to 18 months with an average of 16.5 months. Primary healing was achieved at stage I. No pain, swelling and patellar dislocation or subluxation occurred. Patellofemoral angle increased from preoperative (-3.8±4.9)° to (10.3±4.1)° postoperatively. Q angle decreased from preoperative(16.4±3.1)° to(10.5±1.2)° postoperatively; Lysholm scores were improved from preoperative (68.6±8.5) to (93.7±6.5) final follow-up ( P teenagers' recurrent patellar dislocation.

  9. Muscle Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after ... It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves that malfunction. Sometimes ...

  10. An EMG-to-Force Processing approach for estimating in vivo hip muscle forces in normal human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogey, Ross A; Barnes, Lee A

    2016-10-12

    The force of a single muscle is not directly measurable without invasive methods. Yet invasive techniques are not appropriate for clinical use, thus a non-invasive technique that combined the electromyographic (EMG) signal and a neuromuscular model was developed to determine in vivo active muscle forces at the hip. The EMG-to-force processing (EFP) model included active and passive moment components, and the net EFP moment was compared with the hip moment obtained with standard inverse dynamics techniques ("gold standard"). The two methods were compared at percent gait cycle intervals, and the correlation coefficient between methods was excellent (r2=91). The closeness of fit confirms that the approach is a reasonable approximation of net moment and, possibly, individual muscle forces. The greatest estimated hip force was produced by a hip abductor. A novel finding was that the hip adductors did not behave a single synergistic group. The Adductor Magnus synergistically assisted other hip extensors, and produced forces that were out-of-phase with the other hip adductor forces. Rectus Femoris was only active during hip flexion (not knee extension).

  11. Botulinum toxin type A injections for the management of muscle tightness following total hip arthroplasty: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delanois Ronald E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of hip adductor, tensor fascia lata, and rectus femoris muscle contractures following total hip arthroplasties are quite common, with some patients failing to improve despite treatment with a variety of non-operative modalities. The purpose of the present study was to describe the use of and patient outcomes of botulinum toxin injections as an adjunctive treatment for muscle tightness following total hip arthroplasty. Methods Ten patients (14 hips who had hip adductor, abductor, and/or flexor muscle contractures following total arthroplasty and had been refractory to physical therapeutic efforts were treated with injection of botulinum toxin A. Eight limbs received injections into the adductor muscle, 8 limbs received injections into the tensor fascia lata muscle, and 2 limbs received injection into the rectus femoris muscle, followed by intensive physical therapy for 6 weeks. Results At a mean final follow-up of 20 months, all 14 hips had increased range in the affected arc of motion, with a mean improvement of 23 degrees (range, 10 to 45 degrees. Additionally all hips had an improvement in hip scores, with a significant increase in mean score from 74 points (range, 57 to 91 points prior to injection to a mean of 96 points (range, 93 to 98 at final follow-up. There were no serious treatment-related adverse events. Conclusion Botulinum toxin A injections combined with intensive physical therapy may be considered as a potential treatment modality, especially in difficult cases of muscle tightness that are refractory to standard therapy.

  12. Adductor Canal Block With 10 mL Versus 30 mL Local Anesthetics and Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia; Koscielniak-Nielsen, Zbigniew J; Hilsted, Karen Lisa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adductor canal block (ACB) is predominantly a sensory nerve block, but excess volume may spread to the femoral triangle and reduce quadriceps strength. We hypothesized that reducing the local anesthetic volume from 30 to 10 mL may lead to fewer subjects with quadriceps...... weakness. METHODS: We performed a paired, blinded, randomized trial including healthy men. All subjects received bilateral ACBs with ropivacaine 0.1%; 10 mL in 1 leg and 30 mL in the other leg. The primary outcome was the difference in number of subjects with quadriceps strength reduced by more than 25......% from baseline in 2 consecutive assessments. Secondary outcomes were quadriceps strength as a percentage of baseline at predefined time points, functional outcome assessed by the 30-Second Chair Stand Test (1 leg at a time), and sensory block. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01981746. RESULTS: We...

  13. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  14. Experiment K-6-09. Morphological and biochemical investigation of microgravity-induced nerve and muscle breakdown. Part 1: Investigation of nerve and muscle breakdown during spaceflight; Part 2: Biochemical analysis of EDL and PLT muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D. A.; Ellis, S.; Bain, J.; Sedlak, F.; Slocum, G.; Oganov, V.

    1990-01-01

    The present findings on rat hindlimb muscles suggest that skeletal muscle weakness induced by prolonged spaceflight can result from a combination of muscle fiber atrophy, muscle fiber segmental necrosis, degeneration of motor nerve terminals and destruction of microcirculatory vessels. Damage was confined to the red adductor longus (AL) and soleus muscles. The midbelly region of the AL muscle had more segmental necrosis and edema than the ends. Macrophages and neutrophils were the major mononucleated cells infiltrating and phagocytosing the cellular debris. Toluidine blue-positive mast cells were significantly decreased in Flight AL muscles compared to controls; this indicated that degranulation of mast cells contributed to tissue edema. Increased ubiquitination of disrupted myofibrils may have promoted myofilament degradation. Overall, mitochondria content and SDH activity were normal, except for a decrease in the subsarcolemmal region. The myofibrillar ATPase activity shifted toward the fast type in the Flight AL muscles. Some of the pathological changes may have occurred or been exacerbated during the 2 day postflight period of readaptation to terrestrial gravity. While simple atrophy should be reversible by exercise, restoration of pathological changes depends upon complex processes of regeneration by stem cells. Initial signs of muscle and nerve fiber regeneration were detected. Even though regeneration proceeds on Earth, the space environment may inhibit repair and cause progressive irreversible deterioration during long term missions. Muscles obtained from Flight rats sacrificed immediately (within a few hours) after landing are needed to distinguish inflight changes from postflight readaptation.

  15. Anatomic basis of perforator flaps of medial vastus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Heping; Wang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Fahui; Yue, Suqin

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate anatomical features of perforating branch flaps based on the muscular branches of the medial vastus muscle and to seek a new, applicable technique that could be used in repairing soft tissue defects around human knees. In this study, the origin, the course, the branches, the distribution, and the distal anastomosis of the muscular branch of the medial vastus muscle were observed in 30 sides of adult cadaveric lower limb specimens with the adductor tubercle, the patella midpoint, and the inguinal ligament midpoint as the observation markers. The specimens had been perfused arterially with red gelatin before they were supplied. It was observed that the femoral artery gave constant muscular branches into the medial vastus muscle at the tip of the femoral triangle. The artery entered the muscle via the hilum and ran laterally downwards along the muscular bundle until it reached the lateral patella to anastomose with the arterial circle around the bone. Along its course, it also gave 1-3 (1/77%) musculocutaneous perforating branches (0.5-0.9 mm in diameter). It then extended vertically through the medial vastus muscle into the deep fascia and ran superficially to the overlying skin of the muscle. A flap based on the perforating branch of the medial vastus muscle could be harvested at a size of about 8.5 cm x 15.0 cm and might be transferred retrograde to repair the soft tissue defect around the knee.

  16. Measurement of lower-limb muscle spasticity: intrarater reliability of Modified Modified Ashworth Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghotbi, Nastaran; Nakhostin Ansari, Noureddin; Naghdi, Soofia; Hasson, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The Modified Modified Ashworth Scale (MMAS) is a clinical instrument for measuring spasticity. Few studies have been performed on the reliability of the MMAS. The aim of the present study was to investigate the intrarater reliability of the MMAS for the assessment of spasticity in the lower limb. We conducted a test-retest study on spasticity in the hip adductors, knee extensors, and ankle plantar flexors. Each patient was measured by a hospital-based clinical physiotherapist. Twenty-three patients with stroke or multiple sclerosis (fourteen women, nine men) and a mean +/- standard deviation age of 37.3 +/- 14.1 years participated. The weighted kappa was moderate for the hip adductors (weighted kappa = 0.45, standard error [SE] = 0.16, p = 0.007), good for the knee extensors (weighted kappa = 0.62, SE = 0.12, p < 0.001), and very good for the ankle plantar flexors (weighted kappa = 0.85, SE = 0.05, p < 0.001). The kappa value for overall agreement was very good (weighted kappa = 0.87, SE = 0.03, p < 0.001). The reliability for the ankle plantar flexors was significantly higher than that for the hip adductors. The intrarater reliability of the MMAS in patients with lower-limb muscle spasticity was very good, and it can be used as a measure of spasticity over time.

  17. Muscle Fatigue Affects the Interpolated Twitch Technique When Assessed Using Electrically-Induced Contractions in Human and Rat Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyroud, Daria; Cheng, Arthur J; Bourdillon, Nicolas; Kayser, Bengt; Place, Nicolas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    The interpolated twitch technique (ITT) is the gold standard to assess voluntary activation and central fatigue. Yet, its validity has been questioned. Here we studied how peripheral fatigue can affect the ITT. Repeated contractions at submaximal frequencies were produced by supramaximal electrical stimulations of the human adductor pollicis muscle in vivo and of isolated rat soleus fiber bundles; an extra stimulation pulse was given during contractions to induce a superimposed twitch. Human muscles fatigued by repeated 30-Hz stimulation trains (3 s on-1 s off) showed an ~80% reduction in the superimposed twitch force accompanied by a severely reduced EMG response (M-wave amplitude), which implies action potential failure. Subsequent experiments combined a less intense stimulation protocol (1.5 s on-3 s off) with ischemia to cause muscle fatigue, but which preserved M-wave amplitude. However, the superimposed twitch force still decreased markedly more than the potentiated twitch force; with ITT this would reflect increased "voluntary activation." In contrast, the superimposed twitch force was relatively spared when a similar protocol was performed in rat soleus bundles. Force relaxation was slowed by >150% in fatigued human muscles, whereas it was unchanged in rat soleus bundles. Accordingly, results similar to those in the human muscle were obtained when relaxation was slowed by cooling the rat soleus muscles. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that muscle fatigue can confound the quantification of central fatigue using the ITT.

  18. Twitch interpolation: superimposed twitches decline progressively during a tetanic contraction of human adductor pollicis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandevia, S C; McNeil, C J; Carroll, T J; Taylor, J L

    2013-03-01

    The assessment of voluntary activation of human muscles usually depends on measurement of the size of the twitch produced by an interpolated nerve or cortical stimulus. In many forms of fatiguing exercise the superimposed twitch increases and thus voluntary activation appears to decline. This is termed 'central' fatigue. Recent studies on isolated mouse muscle suggest that a peripheral mechanism related to intracellular calcium sensitivity increases interpolated twitches. To test whether this problem developed with human voluntary contractions we delivered maximal tetanic stimulation to the ulnar nerve (≥60 s at physiological motoneuronal frequencies, 30 and 15 Hz). During the tetani (at 30 Hz) in which the force declined by 42%, the absolute size of the twitches evoked by interpolated stimuli (delivered regularly or only in the last second of the tetanus) diminished progressively to less than 1%. With stimulation at 30 Hz, there was also a marked reduction in size and area of the interpolated compound muscle action potential (M wave). With a 15 Hz tetanus, a progressive decline in the interpolated twitch force also occurred (to ∼10%) but did so before the area of the interpolated M wave diminished. These results indicate that the increase in interpolated twitch size predicted from the mouse studies does not occur. Diminution in superimposed twitches occurred whether or not the M wave indicated marked impairment at sarcolemmal/t-tubular levels. Consequently, the increase in superimposed twitch, which is used to denote central fatigue in human fatiguing exercise, is likely to reflect low volitional drive to high-threshold motor units, which stop firing or are discharging at low frequencies.

  19. Two cases of acute rhabdomyolysis. Pathogenesis, muscle biopsy, EMG, X-CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Junichi; Maruyama, Hideharu; Yamamura, Yoshinori; Kurihara, Teruyuki; Matsukura, Shigeru

    1988-05-01

    Case 1 was a 25-year-old male who developed coma and the swelling of the left thigh after he was medicated with many kinds of major and minor tranquilizers. Serum CK and myoglobin levels were 26, 600 IU/l (normal value : less than 120 IU/l) and 196 ng/ml (normal value : less than 60 ng/ml), respectively. X-CT revealed low density area in the central portion of the adductor muscle of the left thigh. Case 2 was a 63-year-old male who developed paraplegia and the swelling of the right thigh. Serum CK and myoglobin levels were 39,960 IU/L and 406 ng/ml respectively. The biopsy of the right anterior tibialis muscle revealed non-specific ischemic myogenic changes. Electromyographic studies revealed two different changes. One was myogenic changes in the adductor muscle of the right thigh, which was not complicated by the compartment syndrome. The other was denervation changes in the right tibialis anterior, which was complicated by the compartment syndrome. MRI reflected the biopsy findings, such as the swelling of the myocytes and the interstitial tissues better than X-CT. ARML is one of emergency muscle disorders. Early diagnosis and adequate fluid therapy to prevent renal failure are indispensable and lifesaving. Both cases were treated successfully, and they became ambulatory upon discharge.

  20. Adductor laryngeal breathing dystonia in NBIA treated with botulinum toxin-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA presented with episodic inspiratory stridor. A 10-year-old boy presented with 3-year history of gradually progressive spastic gait and generalized dystonia (involving all four limbs, neck, jaw, and speech. MRI brain showed "Eye of Tiger" sign. He recently developed severe inspiratory stridor associated with almost gasping respiration. Direct video laryngoscopy showed paradoxical vocal cord closure during inspiration. He was treated with EMG-guided botulinum toxin-A injection given into bilateral thyroarytenoid muscles, resulting in dramatic response with complete disappearance of the stridor within a week. The effect lasted 18 months.

  1. Normal muscle strength and fatigability in patients with effort syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, M J; Cooper, R G; Edwards, R H

    1988-10-22

    To examine fatigue mechanisms in an unselected series of patients with excess fatigue ("effort syndromes") their muscle function was compared with that of normal subjects. Voluntary performance was assessed with a cycle ergometer to exhaustion and by maximal isometric contractions of the quadriceps femoris. The mean maximal heart rate in patients during ergometry was 89% of the predicted rate, and quadriceps strength was either normal or was inappropriate for the available muscle, which suggested submaximal effort. Contractile performance was examined in the absence of volition with stimulated contractions of the adductor pollicis. During stimulated fatiguing activity patients were neither weaker nor more fatigable than controls; thus the excess fatigue experienced by the patients was not due to a defect of the contractile apparatus. The increased perception of effort must therefore be due to impairment of central rather than peripheral mechanisms. The optimal approach to treatment of effort syndromes combines physical and psychological techniques.

  2. Isometric hip muscle strength in posttraumatic below-knee amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandrić Slavica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Traumas and war injuries, next to chronic occlusive artery disease and diabetes mellitus-derived complications, are the most frequent cause of the lower limbs amputation. They affect mostly younger population that need a higher level of activities as compared with the elderly. Medical rehabilitation is very significant for the muscle performance improvement in this population providing their social reintegration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of below-knee amputation on the hip isometric muscle strength and effect of rehabilitation on improvement of hip muscle strength in below-knee amputees, secondary to war wounding. Methods. Forty below-knee amputees (after war wounding, average age 35.6±10.6 years, that were included in primary rehabilitation program with prosthetics, were examined. Objective parameters were used to evaluate therapeutical effects. Isometric muscle strength of hip flexors, extensors, abductors and adductors was measured by dynamometer and expressed in Newton (N at admission, control and discharge for each patient. Average length of the treatment was 51 ± 34.1 days. Results. For isometric hip flexors (t = - 1.99346, p < 0.05, extensors (t = -4.629073, p < 0.001, abductors (t = -4.9408, p < 0.001 and adductors (t = -2.00228, p < 0.05, muscle strength was significantly less on the amputated than on nonamputated side. The highest differences in muscle strength between amputated and nonamputated limbs were noted for hip abductors (26.6% and extensors (23.3%. There was significant improvement of mean values of strength for all examined hip muscles after rehabilitation and prosthetics for both legs in comparison to beginning of the therapy. The hip abductor on the amputated side was for 19.4% weaker after rehabilitation in comparison to the nonamputated limb. Conclusion. Decreases of isometric muscle strength in all examined hip muscles were observed, more in the amputated limb. Rehabilitation

  3. Muscle ultrasound elastography and MRI in preschool children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichiecchio, Anna; Alessandrino, Francesco; Bortolotto, Chandra; Cerica, Alessandra; Rosti, Cristina; Raciti, Maria Vittoria; Rossi, Marta; Berardinelli, Angela; Baranello, Giovanni; Bastianello, Stefano; Calliada, Fabrizio

    2018-04-13

    The aim of this study was to determine muscle tissue elasticity, measured with shear-wave elastography, in selected lower limb muscles of patients affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and to correlate the values obtained with those recorded in healthy children and with muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from the same DMD children, specifically the pattern on T1-weighted (w) and short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. Five preschool DMD children and five age-matched healthy children were studied with shear-wave elastography. In the DMD children, muscle stiffness was moderately higher compared with the muscle stiffness in HC, in the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, adductor magnus and gluteus maximus muscles. On muscle MRI T1-w images showed fatty replacement in 3/5 patients at the level of the GM, while thigh and leg muscles were affected in 2/5; hyperintensity on STIR images was identified in 4/5 patients. No significant correlation was observed between stiffness values and MRI scoring. Our study demonstrated that lower limb muscles of preschool DMD patients show fatty replacement and patchy edema on muscle MRI and increased stiffness on shear-wave elastography. In conclusion, although further studies in larger cohorts are needed, shear-wave elastography could be considered a useful non-invasive tool to easily monitor muscle changes in early stages of the disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Alterations in upper limb muscle synergy structure in chronic stroke survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymer, William Z.; Perreault, Eric J.; Yoo, Seng Bum; Beer, Randall F.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies in neurologically intact subjects have shown that motor coordination can be described by task-dependent combinations of a few muscle synergies, defined here as a fixed pattern of activation across a set of muscles. Arm function in severely impaired stroke survivors is characterized by stereotypical postural and movement patterns involving the shoulder and elbow. Accordingly, we hypothesized that muscle synergy composition is altered in severely impaired stroke survivors. Using an isometric force matching protocol, we examined the spatial activation patterns of elbow and shoulder muscles in the affected arm of 10 stroke survivors (Fugl-Meyer synergies were identified using non-negative matrix factorization. In both groups, muscle activation patterns could be reconstructed by combinations of a few muscle synergies (typically 4). We did not find abnormal coupling of shoulder and elbow muscles within individual muscle synergies. In stroke survivors, as in controls, two of the synergies were comprised of isolated activation of the elbow flexors and extensors. However, muscle synergies involving proximal muscles exhibited consistent alterations following stroke. Unlike controls, the anterior deltoid was coactivated with medial and posterior deltoids within the shoulder abductor/extensor synergy and the shoulder adductor/flexor synergy in stroke was dominated by activation of pectoralis major, with limited anterior deltoid activation. Recruitment of the altered shoulder muscle synergies was strongly associated with abnormal task performance. Overall, our results suggest that an impaired control of the individual deltoid heads may contribute to poststroke deficits in arm function. PMID:23155178

  5. Computed tomographic findings of leg muscles in the hemiplegics due to cerebrovascular accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odajima, Natsu; Ishiai, Sumio; Kotera, Minoru; Furukawa, Tetsuo; Tsukagoshi, Hiroshi.

    1986-01-01

    The computed tomography (CT) scan was performed in 52 hemiplegics due to cerebrovascular accidents and 12 normal controls on the mid-portion of the thigh and the largest-diameter section of the calf. Muscle size and average CT density of the muscle were measured. The salient feature was hypertrophic gracilis muscle of the hemiplegic side. Other muscles were more atrophied with lower CT density compared with those of the contralateral side. The size of the quadriceps muscle was especially small. The ratio of the quadriceps to all the thigh muscles in cross section was significantly smaller in affected side of hemiplegics than that of normal controls. This was observed even in normal side of the hemiplegics but the ratios of adductor and flexor muscles of the thigh showed no difference. Hypertrophy of gracilis muscle with high CT density was observed only on hemiplegic side. Muscle atrophies were marked in non-ambulatory patients. The ratios of quadriceps and saltorius muscles of thigh in non-ambulatory patients were significantly smaller than those of ambulatory patients. It could not be detected that there is relationship of the sevirity of the muscle atrophy and parietal lobe dysfunction. This atrophy considered to be the result of disuse of the paralyzed leg and pyramidal tract dysfunction. (author)

  6. X-rays computed tomographic scans of lower limb and trunk muscles in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horikawa, Hirosei; Mano, Yukio; Takayanagi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Keiichi; Nishio, Hisahide.

    1992-01-01

    X-rays computed tomographic (CT) scans of muscles of the lower limbs and the trunk in 14 patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSH) were studied. The CT scans showed that the affected muscles were decreased in density and size. The laterality of muscular involvement was sometimes observed. The muscular lesions in the lower limbs showed proximal distribution. In the thigh, the hamstrings were affected first, the adductor muscles second, and then the muscular involvement progressed to the quadriceps femoris muscle. In the lower leg, the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were relatively spared as compared with the tibialis anterior muscle. In the lumbar girdle, the abdominal muscles were involved first, the gluteal muscles second, the back muscles third, and the psoas major muscle were relatively spared. The muscular weakness of this distribution exacerbated lumbar lordosis. The neck muscles were less affected than those of the lumbar girdle. The CT scans in FSH demonstrated the characteristic pattern of muscular involvement, which differed from the inherited muscular diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy, and others. (author)

  7. X-rays computed tomographic scans of lower limb and trunk muscles in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horikawa, Hirosei; Mano, Yukio; Takayanagi, Tetsuya (Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)); Takahashi, Keiichi; Nishio, Hisahide

    1992-10-01

    X-rays computed tomographic (CT) scans of muscles of the lower limbs and the trunk in 14 patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSH) were studied. The CT scans showed that the affected muscles were decreased in density and size. The laterality of muscular involvement was sometimes observed. The muscular lesions in the lower limbs showed proximal distribution. In the thigh, the hamstrings were affected first, the adductor muscles second, and then the muscular involvement progressed to the quadriceps femoris muscle. In the lower leg, the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were relatively spared as compared with the tibialis anterior muscle. In the lumbar girdle, the abdominal muscles were involved first, the gluteal muscles second, the back muscles third, and the psoas major muscle were relatively spared. The muscular weakness of this distribution exacerbated lumbar lordosis. The neck muscles were less affected than those of the lumbar girdle. The CT scans in FSH demonstrated the characteristic pattern of muscular involvement, which differed from the inherited muscular diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy, and others. (author).

  8. Distribution of skeletal muscle involvement in distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Inoue, Kiyoharu; Toyokura, Yasuo; Nakanishi, Takao

    1986-01-01

    Distribution of skeletal muscle involvement was studied clinically and by computed tomography (CT) in 6 cases (including 5 sporadic cases) with rimmed vacuolar distal myopathy. Although a predilection for the extensors in the lower leg was noted as stressed so far, there were certain cases without this selectivity. The thigh disclosed a selectivity that the flexors and adductors were severely affected while the m. quadriceps femoris was well preserved. The selectivity in the thigh was still found in the cases without selectivity in the lower leg. The neck flexors were also liable to be involved. In addition, CT revealed no compensatory hypertrophy of the specific muscles which was clearly shown in the thigh of distal muscular dystrophy (Miyoshi). The pattern of skeletal muscle involvement was thought to be a characteristic feature of distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles. It was visualized very clearly and easily by CT of skeletal muscles although it could be noted to a certain degree by physical examination. (author)

  9. Direct observation of syringeal muscle function in songbirds and a parrot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Goller, Franz

    2002-01-01

    . Under the experimental conditions used in this study, full constriction of the syringeal lumen could not be achieved by stimulating adductor muscles. Full closure may require simultaneous activation of extrinsic syringeal muscles or the supine positioning of the bird may have exerted excessive tension....... In parrots (cockatiels, Nymphicus hollandicus), direct observations show that even during quiet respiration the lateral tympaniform membranes (LTMs) are partially adducted into the tracheal lumen to form a narrow slot. Contraction of the superficial intrinsic muscle, m. syringealis superficialis, adducts...... the LTMs further into the tracheal lumen but does not close the syringeal aperture fully. The intrinsic deep muscle, m. syringealis profundus, abducts the LTMs through cranio-laterad movement of a paired, protruding half-ring. The weakly developed extrinsic m. sternotrachealis seems to increase tension...

  10. Muscle pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Summary Points. • Muscle pain, known as myalgia, can be in one targeted area or across many muscles, occurring with overexertion or overuse of these muscles. • Pain can be classified as acute or chronic pain and further categorized as nociceptive or neuropathic. • Causes of muscle pain include stress, physical ...

  11. Changes in hip muscles after above-knee amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaegers, S M; Arendzen, J H; de Jongh, H J

    1995-10-01

    To learn about the changes appearing in hip muscles after an above-knee amputation, 3-dimensional reconstructions of the hip and thigh region of 12 patients with above-knee amputations were made based on transverse magnetic resonance images. In all patients, the amputations were done at least 2 years before the study and were necessitated by trauma or osteosarcoma. The results show that, at higher amputation levels, the geometry of the once-biarticular muscles was changed. The cleaved muscles (40%-60%) and the intact muscles (0-30%) at the amputated side were atrophied. The amount of atrophy of the intact muscles at the amputated side was related to stump length. To avoid an abduction contracture in 8 patients with amputations, the iliotibial tract was not fixed. In 4 of these 8 patients, a flexion contracture was visible. If the tract was not fixed, the hip extension torque of the gluteus maximus, which inserts into the tract, decreased. As a result, the risk of appearance of a flexion contracture increased because the strongest hip flexor (iliopsoas muscle) was not involved in the amputation. Abduction contracture could be avoided only if the hip adductors were fixed accurately, especially at higher amputation levels.

  12. One-stage reconstruction of isolated and combined tendon defects with the vascularized adductor magnus tendon graft: Surgical technique and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirth, M; Bürger, H; Palle, W; Rab, M

    2016-07-01

    Secondary reconstructions of isolated and combined tendon defects are still a challenge for plastic surgeons. Due to its reliable anatomy, reconstructive potential and low donor-site morbidity, the medial femoral condyle is an ideal area for harvesting isolated and combined tendon flaps. This study evaluates our preliminary results with the vascularized adductor magnus tendon flap. The study included six patients who received a vascularized tendon flap (upper extremity: three patients; lower extremity: three patients) from 2011 to 2015. For three patients, the adductor magnus tendon was used as a single flap; for the other three patients, the tendon was included in a composite flap. A retrospective chart review provided the patients' demographic data, surgical details and the post-operative course. The further objective and patient-reported outcome was evaluated with a long-term follow-up. All of the free vascularized flaps healed without complications and with good vascularization upon duplex ultrasonography. One patient did, however, require revision surgery in the late post-operative course. At the end point, all patients showed good functional results without any donor-site morbidity. For carefully selected isolated and combined tendon defects on the upper and lower extremities, the vascularized adductor magnus tendon flap provides a reliable and versatile method for microsurgical reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of football match congestion in an international tournament on hip adductor squeeze strength and pain in elite youth players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollin, Martin; Pizzari, Tania; Spagnolo, Kane

    2017-01-01

    that for every 100 match sRPE arbitrary units the squeeze peak force reduced by 0.8N. Sixteen (72.7%) players demonstrated clinically meaningful strength reductions (>15%) during the tournament. Match congestion impacts on hip adductor squeeze strength in male youth football players. A negative relationship......The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a congested international tournament match schedule on adductor strength and pain in elite youth football players. Twenty-two male players (age: 15.53 ± 0.48 years, height: 174.87 ± 7.59 cm, weight: 67.45 ± 7.40 kg) were included. The 5....... Adductor strength changed significantly during the tournament in relation to time (F(14,294.94) = 1.89, p = 0.027) and cumulative sRPE (F(1,314) = 5.59, p = 0.019). Cumulative sRPE displayed a negative relationship with strength (B = -0.008, SE = 0.0032, 95%CI = -0.014,-0.002). The results indicate...

  14. Successful return to play following adductor longus proximal tendon rupture in professional soccer without re-injury at 12 months: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gözübüyük, Ömer B; Moen, Maarten H; Akman, Mehmet; Ipseftel, Ioakim; Karakuzu, Agah

    2017-09-08

    Treatment of total ruptures of adductor longus is challenging in professional sports. Time for return to pre-injury level as well as re-injury rates are of concern and surgical and conservative treatment approaches are debated; yet no consensus approach described for professional athletes. We present a case of a professional soccer player who experienced a rupture in his left adductor longus proximal tendon during a game and was treated conservatively. This case was followed-up during clinical assessment, imaging and strength testing until and after return to play. Primary outcome measure was the return to standard play condition at his pre-injury level without any functional deficits, measured by isokinetic testing. Second outcome measure was the recurrence. No recurrence was observed during the first year of follow-up. Total ruptures are very challenging for both the physician and the player to make a quick decision due to minimal or lack of pain. Functional outcomes are almost identical although operative treatments need longer time to return to play. This case report adds another example to the literature of a successful return to play after non-operative treatment of adductor longus rupture at elite level soccer.

  15. Bone remodelling in the natural acetabulum is influenced by muscle force-induced bone stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Justin; Sartori, Massimo; Lloyd, David; Munro, Jacob; Shim, Vickie

    2014-01-01

    A modelling framework using the international Physiome Project is presented for evaluating the role of muscles on acetabular stress patterns in the natural hip. The novel developments include the following: (i) an efficient method for model generation with validation; (ii) the inclusion of electromyography-estimated muscle forces from gait; and (iii) the role that muscles play in the hip stress pattern. The 3D finite element hip model includes anatomically based muscle area attachments, material properties derived from Hounsfield units and validation against an Instron compression test. The primary outcome from this study is that hip loading applied as anatomically accurate muscle forces redistributes the stress pattern and reduces peak stress throughout the pelvis and within the acetabulum compared with applying the same net hip force without muscles through the femur. Muscle forces also increased stress where large muscles have small insertion sites. This has implications for the hip where bone stress and strain are key excitation variables used to initiate bone remodelling based on the strain-based bone remodelling theory. Inclusion of muscle forces reduces the predicted sites and degree of remodelling. The secondary outcome is that the key muscles that influenced remodelling in the acetabulum were the rectus femoris, adductor magnus and iliacus. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging of skeletal muscles in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies of adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikai, Masahiko; Akiya, Kumiko [National Tokyo Medical Center (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of skeletal muscles in Japanese patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). MRI was performed in 23 adult patients with IIM, including 10 with polymyositis, 12 with dermatomyositis, and 1 with focal myositis. Seven (73%) of 11 patients with active IIM and 2 (17%) of 12 patients with inactive IIM showed hyperintensity of T2-weighted images and normal intensity of T1-weighted images, indicating 'edema-like abnormalities' (MRI findings for active myositis). Muscle lipomatosis and fibrosis were demonstrated in four patients and 1 patient, respectively. Considerable selectivity of muscles in developing inflammatory disorders was found. In quadriceps muscles, for example, vastus muscles seemed to be more often affected in DM patients, whereas adductors were more often affected in PM patients. Serial examination of muscle MRIs was carried out in 4 patients and the findings paralleled the disease activities. The muscle MRI findings did not necessarily correlate with other findings, such as the presence of muscle weakness, elevated serum creatine kinase levels, myogenic electromyogram, or muscle biopsy findings. The muscle MRI was considered to be an additional useful tool for the diagnosis, evaluation of disease activity, and planning treatment of IIM. (author)

  17. Muscle activation patterns when passively stretching spastic lower limb muscles of children with cerebral palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Bar-On

    Full Text Available The definition of spasticity as a velocity-dependent activation of the tonic stretch reflex during a stretch to a passive muscle is the most widely accepted. However, other mechanisms are also thought to contribute to pathological muscle activity and, in patients post-stroke and spinal cord injury can result in different activation patterns. In the lower-limbs of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP these distinct activation patterns have not yet been thoroughly explored. The aim of the study was to apply an instrumented assessment to quantify different muscle activation patterns in four lower-limb muscles of children with CP. Fifty-four children with CP were included (males/females n = 35/19; 10.8 ± 3.8 yrs; bilateral/unilateral involvement n =  32/22; Gross Motor Functional Classification Score I-IV of whom ten were retested to evaluate intra-rater reliability. With the subject relaxed, single-joint, sagittal-plane movements of the hip, knee, and ankle were performed to stretch the lower-limb muscles at three increasing velocities. Muscle activity and joint motion were synchronously recorded using inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG from the adductors, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius. Muscles were visually categorised into activation patterns using average, normalized root mean square EMG (RMS-EMG compared across increasing position zones and velocities. Based on the visual categorisation, quantitative parameters were defined using stretch-reflex thresholds and normalized RMS-EMG. These parameters were compared between muscles with different activation patterns. All patterns were dominated by high velocity-dependent muscle activation, but in more than half, low velocity-dependent activation was also observed. Muscle activation patterns were found to be both muscle- and subject-specific (p<0.01. The intra-rater reliability of all quantitative parameters was moderate to good. Comparing RMS-EMG between

  18. Coupled obturator neurotomies and lidocaine intrathecal infusion to treat bilateral adductor spasticity and drug-refractory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Ruiz, José D; Andrade, Pablo; Godínez-Cubillos, Nora; Montes-Castillo, María L; Jiménez, Fiacro; Velasco, Ana L; Castro, Guillermo; Velasco, Francisco

    2010-09-01

    Spastic diplegia is present in three-fourths of children with cerebral palsy, interfering with gait and frequently accompanied by severe pain. The authors report the case of a 28-year-old woman with history of perinatal hypoxia, who presented with cerebral palsy and severe spastic diplegia (Ashworth Scale Score 4, Tardieu Scale Score 5) and was confined to a wheelchair. She complained of pain in the left hip and knee with mixed neuropathic and somatic components. She consistently rated pain intensity as 10 of 10 on a visual analog scale, and her symptoms were resistant to multiple treatments. The patient underwent selective bilateral adductor myotomies and the implantation of an infusion pump for intrathecal lidocaine application. Postoperative control of pain and spasticity was dramatic (scores of 0 on the Ashworth, Tardieu, and visual analog scales) and persisted throughout a follow-up period of 36 months. This is the first report in the literature of combined selective neurotomies for the treatment of spasticity and chronic lidocaine subarachnoid infusion to treat associated pain. This therapy could represent an alternative to treat spasticity associated with neuropathic and somatic pain.

  19. Botulinum Toxin-A Dosing Trends for Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia at a Single Institution Over 10 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Joseph P; Barrow, Emily M; Hapner, Edie R; Klein, Adam M; Johns, Michael M

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to identify the changes in dosing of botulinum toxin-A for adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) over a prolonged period. This is a retrospective chart review. One hundred thirteen subjects treated for ADSD from 2003 to 2013 were identified from a clinical database. Subject age, gender, and total injection dose amount were all recorded for all subjects who had at least 10 injections. Fifty-four subjects met criteria for inclusion. There were no age or gender differences in the starting dose for subjects. Dosing decreased significantly compared with the second dose (5.05 ± 1.623 Units), by the sixth dose (4.26 ± 1.698 Units), and continued through the 10th dose (4.08 ± 2.019 Units) (P < 0.005 for all). Botulinum toxin-A dosing for ADSD decreases consistently over subsequent injections after the initial two dose titrations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Effect of Total Dose of Lidocaine on Duration of Adductor Canal Block, Assessed by Different Test Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia; Koscielniak-Nielsen, Zbigniew J; Hilsted, Karen Lisa

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The binary aims of this study were to investigate the effect of total dose of lidocaine on duration of an adductor canal block (ACB) and to validate different methods used to assess nerve blocks. METHODS: We performed 2 blinded, randomized, controlled crossover trials, including healthy......, young men. In study 1, 14 subjects received 4 ACBs with saline and 40, 80, and 160 mg lidocaine. In study 2, 14 new subjects received 2 ACBs with 100 and 300 mg lidocaine. We kept volume constant at 20 mL for all blocks, only altering concentration. ACB duration was assessed every hour postblock using......: In study 1, block duration assessed by mechanical discrimination differed significantly when comparing the 40-mg dose with the 80-mg dose (mean difference, 1.15 hours; 99% confidence interval [CI], 0.38–2.09 hours) and with the 160-mg dose (mean difference, 0.92 ours; 99% CI, 0.17–1.62). However...

  1. Relative Contributions of Adductor Canal Block and Intrathecal Morphine to Analgesia and Functional Recovery After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Perlas, Anahi; Ghosh, Meela; Chin, KiJinn; Niazi, Ahtsham; Pandher, Barjind; Chan, Vincent

    2018-02-01

    Effective postoperative analgesia may enhance early rehabilitation after orthopedic surgery. This randomized double-blind trial investigates the relative contributions of adductor canal block and low-dose intrathecal morphine (ITM) to postoperative analgesia and functional recovery after total knee arthroplasty. Two-hundred one patients undergoing elective unilateral total knee arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia were randomized to 3 groups. All patients received standardized intraoperative local infiltration analgesia and postoperative oral analgesics. Patients in group 1 received a "sham" adductor canal block with 30 mL of normal saline. Patients in group 2 received an adductor canal block with 30 mL of ropivacaine 0.5% with 1:400,000 epinephrine, whereas patients in group 3 received the adductor canal block with the active drug and 100 μg of ITM. The primary outcome measure was the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test on the second postoperative day. Secondary outcomes included postoperative pain scores and opioid requirements, distance walked, time to hospital discharge, and self-reported functional outcomes at 3 months. All 3 groups had similar values of TUG test on postoperative day (POD) 2 (46 [36-62], 45 [33-61], and 52 [41-69]; P = 0.166) as well as other short-term and 3-month functional outcomes. Patients in group 3 showed a favorable analgesic profile as evidenced by 3 positive secondary outcomes. These positive outcomes were lower pain scores 12 hours postoperatively both at rest (4 [2-6.3], 4 [2.3-6], and 3 [1-4]; P = 0.007) and on movement (6 [4-8], 6 [3-8], and 4 [2-6]; P = 0.002), a lower incidence of "rescue" intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (42%, 34%, and 20%; P = 0.031), and the lowest cumulative opioid requirements for the first 48 hours postoperatively (86 ± 71, 68 ± 46, and 59 ± 39; P < 0.005, group 3 compared with group 1). Our data suggest that there is no difference in either the primary outcome of TUG test on POD 2, other immediate

  2. Intra-rater reliability of the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale (MMAS) in the assessment of upper-limb muscle spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Naghdi, Soofia; Mashayekhi, Masoud; Hasson, Scott; Fakhari, Zahra; Jalaie, Shohreh

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the intra-rater reliability of the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale (MMAS) in the upper limb of patients with hemiparesis and to determine the effect of pain and contracture presence on the reliability of the MMAS. For this test-retest study 30 patients with hemiparesis were included. One physiotherapist using the MMAS, randomly rated the spasticity of shoulder adductors, elbow flexors, and wrist flexors in the affected upper limb of each patient with hemiparesis twice with at least a 1 week interval between testing sessions. The presence of pain and contracture during passive stretch was recorded. The magnitude of the contracture was measured by a goniometer. The quadratic weighted kappa statistics was very good for the upper limb spasticity (κw= 0.84). Intra-rater reliability was good for shoulder adductors (κw=0.75), and very good for elbow flexors and wrist flexors (κw 0.86 and 0.90, respectively). There were no differences between the weighted kappa values for muscle groups (p>0.05). The intra-rater reliability was also good in the presence of pain or contracture. The MMAS had very good intra-rater reliability in the assessment of upper limb spasticity in patients with hemiparesis. The presence of pain during shoulder abduction or contracture of the shoulder adductors had no influence on the reliability of the MMAS (κ w=0.75, 0.77, respectively).

  3. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging in spinal muscular atrophy type 3: Selective and progressive involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmus, Hacer; Yilmaz, Ravza; Gulsen-Parman, Yesim; Oflazer-Serdaroglu, Piraye; Cuttini, Marina; Dursun, Memduh; Deymeer, Feza

    2017-05-01

    In this study we sought to identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signs of selective muscle involvement and disease progression in patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 3b (SMA3b). Twenty-five patients with genetically confirmed SMA3b underwent MRI on a 1.5-Tesla MR scanner. MRI showed significantly more severe involvement of the iliopsoas than of the gluteus maximus muscles, and more severe involvement of the triceps brachii than of the biceps brachii muscles. The quadriceps femoris muscles were severely involved. The deltoid, adductor longus, portions of the hamstrings, gracilis, sartorius, and rectus abdominis muscles were well preserved. We found a significant positive correlation between MRI changes and disease duration for gluteus maximus and triceps brachii. Follow-up MRIs of 4 patients showed disease progression. This study confirms the pattern of selective muscle involvement suggested by previous studies and further refines muscle MRI changes in SMA3b. Progressive muscle involvement is implicated. Muscle Nerve 55: 651-656, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Variation in Morphometry of Vastus Medialis Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Hina B; Rajani, Sangeeta J; Vaniya, Vasant H

    2017-09-01

    The Vastus Medialis (VM) muscle divides into two parts, proximal Vastus Medialis Longus (VML) and distal Vastus Medialis Obliquus (VMO). The VMO originates from the tendon of adductor magnus and insert into the medial border of patella and these fibers are nearly horizontal. It exerts medial force vector to counter the lateral force vector of Vastus Lateralis (VL) hence the VM presents a biomechanical advantage over the VL. The functional importance of VML and VMO is well explained but the anatomical evidence of separate identity of VMO is lacking. To determine muscle fiber angles and lengths of VML and VMO, to find out the distinct nerve supply and fascial plane between VML and VMO and to evaluate VM insertion in relation to patella. Thirty intact lower limbs (right-15 and left- 15) from 15 donated cadavers with an age 60 years and above were dissected. Lengths and angles of VML, VMO superior (VMOs) and VMO inferior (VMOi) were measured. The fascial plane and the femoral nerve and its branches supplying VM were dissected and terminal branches were traced in each section with the blunt dissection. All parameters were recorded and statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA. The VMO took origin from the adductor magnus muscle and attached to the patella. VMOi was present in 83.33% cases (25 limbs), and inserted to the medial border of patella. The percentages of VML, VMOs and VMOi lengths compared to total VM length were 65.54±4.84, 25.23±4.20 and 9.22±2.17 respectively. The fiber angles ranged for VML, VMOs and VMOi were between 18 to 32, 30 to 46 and 46 to 56 degrees respectively. There were significant differences among all groups (p=0.001). These two parts were not separated by distinct fascial plane and no separate nerve supply was observed but the richest nerve supply to VMO was noted. The present study conclude that VMO is having obtuse angle, horizontal fibers and richest nerve supply as compared to proximal part which make it functionally as a

  5. Muscle Synergy-Driven Robust Motion Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyuengbo; Iwamoto, Masami; Kakei, Shinji; Kimpara, Hideyuki

    2018-04-01

    Humans are able to robustly maintain desired motion and posture under dynamically changing circumstances, including novel conditions. To accomplish this, the brain needs to optimize the synergistic control between muscles against external dynamic factors. However, previous related studies have usually simplified the control of multiple muscles using two opposing muscles, which are minimum actuators to simulate linear feedback control. As a result, they have been unable to analyze how muscle synergy contributes to motion control robustness in a biological system. To address this issue, we considered a new muscle synergy concept used to optimize the synergy between muscle units against external dynamic conditions, including novel conditions. We propose that two main muscle control policies synergistically control muscle units to maintain the desired motion against external dynamic conditions. Our assumption is based on biological evidence regarding the control of multiple muscles via the corticospinal tract. One of the policies is the group control policy (GCP), which is used to control muscle group units classified based on functional similarities in joint control. This policy is used to effectively resist external dynamic circumstances, such as disturbances. The individual control policy (ICP) assists the GCP in precisely controlling motion by controlling individual muscle units. To validate this hypothesis, we simulated the reinforcement of the synergistic actions of the two control policies during the reinforcement learning of feedback motion control. Using this learning paradigm, the two control policies were synergistically combined to result in robust feedback control under novel transient and sustained disturbances that did not involve learning. Further, by comparing our data to experimental data generated by human subjects under the same conditions as those of the simulation, we showed that the proposed synergy concept may be used to analyze muscle synergy

  6. Botulinum neurotoxin treatment in children with cerebral palsy: validation of a needle placement protocol using passive muscle stretching and relaxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnink-Kavelaars, Jessica; Vermeulen, R Jeroen; Buizer, Annemieke I; Becher, Jules G

    2016-12-01

    To validate a detailed intramuscular needle placement protocol using passive muscle stretching and relaxing for botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) treatment in the lower extremity of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP), with verification by electrical stimulation. A prospective observational study was performed in 75 children with spastic CP who received regular BoNT-A treatment under general anaesthesia (52 males, 23 females; mean age 8y 9mo, SD 3y 7mo, range 4-18y; mean body mass index 16.2, SD 3.7, range 7.7-26.7). A total of 1084 intramuscular needle placements using passive muscle stretching and relaxing were verified by electrical stimulation. Primary outcome was the positive predictive value. Intramuscular needle placement in the muscles adductor brevis, adductor longus, gracilis, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris, rectus femoris, and lateral and medial heads of the gastrocnemius and soleus had a positive predictive value ranging from 85.7% to 100% (95% confidence interval ranging from 71.5-89.9% to 91.4-100%). This validated detailed protocol for intramuscular needle placement using passive muscle stretching and relaxing for BoNT-A treatment in the lower extremity of children with spastic CP is reliable and has a high positive predictive value. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  7. Long-term voice handicap index after type II thyroplasty using titanium bridges for adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanuki, Tetsuji; Yumoto, Eiji; Kodama, Narihiro; Minoda, Ryosei; Kumai, Yoshihiko

    2014-06-01

    To determine the long-term functional outcomes of type II thyroplasty using titanium bridges for adductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD) by perceptual analysis using the Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) and by acoustic analysis. Fifteen patients with AdSD underwent type II thyroplasty using titanium brides between August 2006 and February 2011. VHI-10 scores, a patient-based survey that quantifies a patient's perception of his or her vocal handicap, were determined before and at least 2 years after surgery. Concurrent with the VHI-10 evaluation, acoustic parameters were assessed, including jitter, shimmer, harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR), standard deviation of F0 (SDF0), and degree of voice breaks (DVB). The average follow-up interval was 30.1 months. No patient had strangulation of the voice, and all were satisfied with the voice postoperatively. In the perceptual analysis, the mean VHI-10 score improved significantly, from 26.7 to 4.1 two years after surgery. All patients had significantly improved each score of three different aspects of VHI-10, representing improved functional, physical, and emotional well-being. All acoustic parameters improved significantly 2 years after surgery. The treatment of AdSD with type II thyroplasty significantly improved the voice-related quality of life and acoustic parameters 2 years after surgery. The results of the study suggest that type II thyroplasty using titanium bridges provides long-term relief of vocal symptoms in patients with AdSD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An Evaluation of Ultrasound-Guided Adductor Canal Blockade for Postoperative Analgesia After Medial Unicondylar Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Daryl S; Jaffe, Jonathan Douglas; Reynolds, Jon Wellington; Dobson, Sean; Russell, Gregory B; Weller, Robert S

    2016-04-01

    Unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA) is a commonly performed procedure with significant expected postoperative pain. Peripheral nerve blocks are 1 analgesic option, but some approaches may decrease quadriceps motor strength and interfere with early ambulation. In this study, we compared the analgesia provided by an adductor canal block (ACB) and a psoas compartment block (PCB) after UKA. We hypothesized that the ACB would provide equivalent analgesia, defined as a difference of strength at 6 hours (0-5 [5 being full strength]; Medical Research Council scale) as well as NRS pain scores, opioid consumption, and opioid-related side effects over 24 hours. One hundred forty-seven patients were analyzed. Pain scores were equivalent at 6 hours with rest (ACB 1.0 ± 2 vs PCB 1.1 ± 2.2 [mean NRS ± SD]; 95% confidence interval of mean difference, -0.8 to 0.6; P strength was significantly increased in the ACB group (Medical Research Council scale score, 4.0 ± 1.1 vs 2.5 ± 1.3 [mean ± SD]; P < 0.0001). No significant differences were found between groups for time to first analgesic or for cumulative opioid consumption at 6, 12, 18, or 24 hours. Other than an increase in the incidence of pruritus in the ACB group at 6 hours, there were no differences in opioid-related side effects. An ACB provides equivalent analgesia after medial UKA when compared with a PCB. In addition, the ACB caused significantly less motor weakness. An ACB should be considered for postoperative analgesia after medial UKA.

  9. Filamin isoforms in molluscan smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-López, Lucía; Hellman, Ulf; Ibarguren, Izaskun; Villamarín, J Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The role of filamin in molluscan catch muscles is unknown. In this work three proteins isolated from the posterior adductor muscle of the sea mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS as homologous to mammalian filamin. They were named FLN-270, FLN-230 and FLN-105, according to their apparent molecular weight determined by SDS-PAGE: 270kDa, 230kDa and 105kDa, respectively. Both FLN-270 and FLN-230 contain the C-terminal dimerization domain and the N-terminal actin-binding domain typical of filamins. These findings, together with the data from peptide mass fingerprints, indicate that FLN-270 and FLN-230 are different isoforms of mussel filamin, with FLN-230 being the predominant isoform in the mussel catch muscle. De novo sequencing data revealed structural differences between both filamin isoforms at the rod 2 segment, the one responsible for the interaction of filamin with the most of its binding partners. FLN270 but not FLN230 was phosphorylated in vitro by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. As for the FLN-105, it would be an N-terminal proteolytic fragment generated from the FLN-270 isoform or a C-terminally truncated variant of filamin. On the other hand, a 45-kDa protein that copurifies with mussel catch muscle filamins was identified as the mussel calponin-like protein. The fact that this protein coelutes with the FLN-270 isoform from a gel filtration chromatography suggests a specific interaction between both proteins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

  11. Rehabilitation and Return to Sport Following Surgical Repair of the Rectus Abdominis and Adductor Longus in a Professional Basketball Player: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Steven M; Anloague, Philip A; Strack, Donald S

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Case report. Background Acute traumatic avulsion of the rectus abdominis and adductor longus is rare. Chronic groin injuries, often falling under the athletic pubalgia spectrum, have been reported to be more common. There is limited evidence detailing the comprehensive rehabilitation and return to sport of an athlete following surgical or conservative treatment of avulsion injuries of the pubis or other sports-related groin pathologies. Case Description A 29-year-old National Basketball Association player sustained a contact injury during a professional basketball game. This case report describes a unique clinical situation specific to professional sport, in which a surgical repair of an avulsed rectus abdominis and adductor longus was combined with a multimodal impairment- and outcomes-based rehabilitation program. Outcomes The patient returned to in-season competition at 5 weeks postoperation. Objective measures were tracked throughout rehabilitation and compared to baseline assessments. Measures such as the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score and numeric pain-rating scale revealed progress beyond the minimal important difference. Discussion This case report details the clinical reasoning and evidence-informed interventions involved in the return to elite sport. Detailed programming and objective assessment may assist in achieving desired outcomes ahead of previously established timelines. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):697-706. Epub 3 Jul 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6352.

  12. Pre-season adductor squeeze test and HAGOS function sport and recreation subscale scores predict groin injury in Gaelic football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunt, Eamonn; Fitzpatrick, Helen; Blake, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    To determine if pre-season adductor squeeze test and HAGOS function, sport and recreation subscale scores can identify Gaelic football players at risk of developing groin injury. Prospective study. Senior inter-county Gaelic football team. Fifty-five male elite Gaelic football players (age = 24.0 ± 2.8 years, body mass = 84.48 ± 7.67 kg, height = 1.85 ± 0.06 m, BMI = 24.70 ± 1.77 kg/m 2 ) from a single senior inter-county Gaelic football team. Occurrence of groin injury during the season. Ten time-loss groin injuries were registered representing 13% of all injuries. The odds ratio for sustaining a groin injury if pre-season adductor squeeze test score was below 225 mmHg, was 7.78. The odds ratio for sustaining a groin injury if pre-season HAGOS function, sport and recreation subscale score was football players at risk of developing groin injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Muscle biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, G; Bugiardini, E; Cardani, R

    2012-04-01

    Muscle biopsy is required to provide a definitive diagnosis in many neuromuscular disorders. It can be performed through an open or needle technique under local anesthesia. The major limitations of the needle biopsy technique are the sample size, which is smaller than that obtained with open biopsy, and the impossibility of direct visualization of the sampling site. However, needle biopsy is a less invasive procedure than open biopsy and is particularly indicated for diagnosis of neuromuscular disease in infancy and childhood. The biopsied muscle should be one affected by the disease but not be too weak or too atrophic. Usually, in case of proximal muscle involvement, the quadriceps and the biceps are biopsied, while under suspicion of mitochondrial disorder, the deltoid is preferred. The samples must be immediately frozen or fixed after excision to prevent loss of enzymatic reactivity, DNA depletion or RNA degradation. A battery of stainings is performed on muscle sections from every frozen muscle biopsy arriving in the pathology laboratory. Histological, histochemical, and histoenzymatic stainings are performed to evaluate fiber atrophy, morphological, and structural changes and metabolic disorders. Moreover, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting analysis may be used for expression analysis of muscle proteins to obtain a specific diagnosis. There are myopathies that do not need muscle biopsy since a genetic test performed on a blood sample is enough for definitive diagnosis. Muscle biopsy is a useful technique which can make an enormous contribution in the field of neuromuscular disorders but should be considered and interpreted together with the patient's family and clinical history.

  14. Compositional analysis of muscle in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy using MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marden, Franklin A.; Siegel, Marilyn J.; Rubin, David A. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology at Washington University Medical Center, St. Louis (United States); Barnes-Jewish Hospital, Department of Radiology, St. Louis (United States); Connolly, Anne M. [St. Louis Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, St. Louis (United States); Barnes-Jewish Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, 660 S. Euclid, Box 8111, St. Louis (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) present by age 5 years with weakness and, untreated, stop walking unaided by age 10 or 11 years. We used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to study age-related changes in the composition and distribution of diseased muscles. Eleven boys (mean 7.1{+-}1.6 years) with DMD underwent clinical and MR examinations. Quantitative muscle strength and timed functional testing was performed. Thigh muscles were scanned at three levels (hip, mid-thigh, and knee) using T1-weighted spin echo and short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. Outcome measures included intramuscular fatty infiltration, intermuscle fat deposition, edema, and muscle size. Ten boys completed the study. Older boys demonstrated more prominent fatty infiltration of muscles. Fatty infiltration occurred in a characteristic pattern with the gluteus and adductor magnus muscles most commonly involved and the gracilis most commonly spared. Similarly, patchy increases in free water content suggested a pattern of intramuscular edema or inflammation. Atrophy occurred in muscles heavily infiltrated with fat, and true hypertrophy selectively occurred in those that were spared. While fibrofatty changes have been described in DMD, this study further defines differential involvement and additionally suggests widespread edema or inflammation. Improved imaging techniques to quantify the degree and distribution of these changes may provide a basis for exploring mechanisms of action of medications and perhaps another means for selecting treatment regimens and monitoring their effects. (orig.)

  15. Compositional analysis of muscle in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy using MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marden, Franklin A.; Siegel, Marilyn J.; Rubin, David A.; Connolly, Anne M.

    2005-01-01

    Boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) present by age 5 years with weakness and, untreated, stop walking unaided by age 10 or 11 years. We used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to study age-related changes in the composition and distribution of diseased muscles. Eleven boys (mean 7.1±1.6 years) with DMD underwent clinical and MR examinations. Quantitative muscle strength and timed functional testing was performed. Thigh muscles were scanned at three levels (hip, mid-thigh, and knee) using T1-weighted spin echo and short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. Outcome measures included intramuscular fatty infiltration, intermuscle fat deposition, edema, and muscle size. Ten boys completed the study. Older boys demonstrated more prominent fatty infiltration of muscles. Fatty infiltration occurred in a characteristic pattern with the gluteus and adductor magnus muscles most commonly involved and the gracilis most commonly spared. Similarly, patchy increases in free water content suggested a pattern of intramuscular edema or inflammation. Atrophy occurred in muscles heavily infiltrated with fat, and true hypertrophy selectively occurred in those that were spared. While fibrofatty changes have been described in DMD, this study further defines differential involvement and additionally suggests widespread edema or inflammation. Improved imaging techniques to quantify the degree and distribution of these changes may provide a basis for exploring mechanisms of action of medications and perhaps another means for selecting treatment regimens and monitoring their effects. (orig.)

  16. PET/CT imaging in polymyalgia rheumatica: praepubic 18F-FDG uptake correlates with pectineus and adductor longus muscles enthesitis and with tenosynovitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehak Zdenek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT is increasing in the diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR, one of the most common inflammatory rheumatic diseases. In addition to other locations, increased 18F-FDG accumulation has been detected in the praepubic region in some patients. However, a deeper description and pathophysiological explanation of this increased praepubic accumulation has been lacking. The aim of the presented study is to confirm a decrease in praepubic 18F-FDG accumulation in response to therapy and to describe potential correlations to other 18F-FDG PET/CT scan characteristics during the course of disease. As a secondary objective, we describe the pathological aspects of the observed praepubic 18F-FDG uptake.

  17. Hoff Mann′s syndrome with unusually long duration: Report on clinical, laboratory and muscle imaging findings in two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atchayaram Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two adult men presented with the rare Hoffmann′s syndrome (HS. Case 1: A 35-year-old male patient had progressive stiffness of lower limbs of 13 years and generalized muscle hypertrophy and myalgia of 3 years duration. Had periorbital edema, dry skin, generalized muscle hypertrophy and spastic dysarthria with hoarseness. Muscle power was normal. Jaw jerk and deep tendon reflexes were exaggerated. Case 2: A 24-year-old male patient presented with muscle hypertrophy from childhood, slowness in motor activities and hearing impairment. For 6 months, he had severe muscle pains, cramps and further increase in hypertrophy. He had yellow tinged, dry skin, hoarseness of voice, gross muscle hypertrophy and minimal weakness. Both had markedly elevated serum creatine kinase (CK levels and high thyroid stimulating hormone, low free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine levels. Levothyroxine treatment demonstrated remarkable reduction in muscle bulk at 2 months in both and no symptoms at 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging of lower limbs in both cases revealed almost identical features with involvement of the muscles of posterior and adductor compartment of thighs and posterior and lateral compartments of the legs. Differential diagnosis of long duration muscle pseudohypertrophy and elevated CK levels should include HS.

  18. CT findings of leg muscles in the hemiplegics due to cerebrovascular accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odajima, Natsu; Ishiai, Sumio; Okiyama, Ryouichi; Furukawa, Tetsuo; Tsukagoshi, Hiroshi.

    1987-01-01

    Muscle wastings in hemiplegics due to cerebrovascular accidents were studied with CT scanning in the mid-portion of the thigh and largest-diameter section of the calf bilaterally. Muscle size and average CT density of muscle were measured. The 80 patients were classified into one of the following three stages of disability, i.e. stage 1, severely disabled (wheel-chair-bound but capable of self care [20 patients]); stage 2, moderately disabled (poorly ambulatory [41 patients]); and stage 3, mildly disabled (well ambulatory [19 patients]). Muscle cross-sectional area and CT density in both legs of non-ambulatory patients were smaller and lower than those of other groups. The atrophic change was marked in the affected side, but it was also noticeable in the non-affected side. Gracilis muscle was relatively well spared in all 3 stages. These CT findings of hemiplegics were similar to those of disuse atropy in patients with knee or hip joint lesions. Atrophy was seen first in the quadriceps in thigh and flexor muscle group in calf. These findings were similar to the systemic myogenic or neurogenic atrophies. Although gracilis and sartorius muscles were spared in these systemic deseases, only gracilis muscle was spared in hemiplegics and in patients with disuse atrophy. The ratios of the size of quadriceps, adductor group and sartorius muscle of thigh in affected side to that of non-affected side were smaller in more severely disabled group. Those of the other muscles showed no differences among each stages. In stage 3, there was significant negative correlation between the ratio of quadriceps muscle and periods from the attack. There was no relationship between the severity of the muscle atrophy and parietal lobe lesion. The atrophy is considered to be the result of disuse from immobilization. (author)

  19. Assessment of bioelectrical activity of synergistic muscles during pelvic floor muscles activation in postmenopausal women with and without stress urinary incontinence: a preliminary observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Słupska, Lucyna; Bartnicki, Janusz; Dymarek, Robert; Rosińczuk, Joanna; Heimrath, Jerzy; Dembowski, Janusz; Zdrojowy, Romuald

    2015-01-01

    Muscles such as adductor magnus (AM), gluteus maximus (GM), rectus abdominis (RA), and abdominal external and internal oblique muscles are considered to play an important role in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI), and the relationship between contraction of these muscles and pelvic floor muscles (PFM) has been established in previous studies. Synergistic muscle activation intensifies a woman's ability to contract the PFM. In some cases, even for continent women, it is not possible to fully contract their PFM without involving the synergistic muscles. The primary aim of this study was to assess the surface electromyographic activity of synergistic muscles to PFM (SPFM) during resting and functional PFM activation in postmenopausal women with and without SUI. This study was a preliminary, prospective, cross-sectional observational study and included volunteers and patients who visited the Department and Clinic of Urology, University Hospital in Wroclaw, Poland. Forty-two patients participated in the study and were screened for eligibility criteria. Thirty participants satisfied the criteria and were categorized into two groups: women with SUI (n=16) and continent women (n=14). The bioelectrical activity of PFM and SPFM (AM, RA, GM) was recorded with a surface electromyographic instrument in a standing position during resting and functional PFM activity. Bioelectrical activity of RA was significantly higher in the incontinent group than in the continent group. These results concern the RA activity during resting and functional PFM activity. The results for other muscles showed no significant difference in bioelectrical activity between groups. In women with SUI, during the isolated activation of PFM, an increased synergistic activity of RA muscle was observed; however, this activity was not observed in asymptomatic women. This may indicate the important accessory contribution of these muscles in the mechanism of continence.

  20. Lower Limb Strength Is Significantly Impaired in All Muscle Groups in Ambulatory People With Chronic Stroke: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsch, Simone; Ada, Louise; Canning, Colleen Grace

    2016-04-01

    To measure the strength of the major muscle groups of the affected and intact lower limbs in people with stroke compared with age-matched controls. Cross-sectional study. University laboratory. Ambulatory stroke survivors (n=60; mean age, 69±11y), who had had a stroke between 1 and 6 years previously, and age-matched controls (n=35; mean age, 65±9y) (N=95). Not applicable. The maximum isometric strength of 12 muscle groups (hip flexors and extensors, hip adductors and abductors, hip internal rotators and external rotators, knee flexors and extensors, ankle dorsiflexors and plantarflexors, ankle invertors and evertors) of both lower limbs was measured using handheld dynamometry. All strength measurements were taken in standardized positions by 1 rater. The affected lower limb of the participants with stroke was significantly weaker than that of the control participants for all muscle groups (PStrength (adjusted for age, sex, and body weight) was 48% (range, 34%-62%) of that of the control participants. The most severely affected muscle groups were hip extensors (34% of controls), ankle dorsiflexors (35%), and hip adductors (38%), and the least severely affected muscle groups were ankle invertors (62%), ankle plantarflexors (57%), and hip flexors (55%). The intact lower limb of the participants with stroke was significantly weaker than that of the control participants for all muscle groups (PStrength (adjusted for age, sex, and body weight) was 66% (range, 44%-91%) of that of the control participants. The most severely affected muscle groups were hip extensors (44% of controls), ankle dorsiflexors (52%), and knee flexors (54%). Ambulatory people with chronic stroke have a marked loss of strength in most of the major muscle groups of both lower limbs compared with age-matched controls. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Getting Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re thinking about aren't possible for kids. Superheroes, of course, aren't real, and professional athletes ... can make you stronger. Why? Because you're using your muscles when you do it. Eat Strong ...

  2. Muscle cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower leg/calf Back of the thigh (hamstrings) Front of the thigh (quadriceps) Cramps in the ... Names Cramps - muscle Images Chest stretch Groin stretch Hamstring stretch Hip stretch Thigh stretch Triceps stretch References ...

  3. Flexibility of Knee Joint Muscles in Women with Knee Osteoarthritis and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Abolahrari Shirazi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis is one of the most common diseases in synovial joints. Due to high loading forces during weight-bearing activities, the knee joint is prone to degenerative processes. This study aimed to compare the flexibility of muscles around the knee joint in patients with knee osteoarthritis with those of healthy individuals. Methods: Twenty-three women with bilateral knee osteoarthritis and 23 healthy women matched with the patient group for age, height and weight participated in this study. Flexibility of the quadriceps, hamstring, iliotibial band, adductor and gastrocnemius muscles was evaluated with a goniometric device. Pain intensity was assessed with a visual analogue scale. The data were analyzed with independent t-tests to compare the two groups, and Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to correlate muscle flexibility and pain intensity. Results: significant lower flexibility of the bilateral quadriceps muscles was found in patients compared to healthy women (P<0.05. No significant differences were detected between groups regarding other muscles. Quadriceps flexibility correlated significantly with pain intensity in patients (P<0.001. Conclusion: In patients with osteoarthritis, quadriceps flexibility may be decreased although other muscles may remain unaffected. Quadriceps stretching is thus a potentially important component of treatment, which may influence pain reduction in these patients.

  4. Muscle injury: current perspectives and trends in Brazil,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Costa Astur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To evaluate the management, procedures and perspectives of sports physicians and orthopedists in Brazil with regard to diagnosing and treating muscle injuries.Methods:A questionnaire containing 20 questions relating to the topic of muscle injury was applied to sports physicians and orthopedists during the Second Brazilian Congress of Arthroscopy and Sports Traumatology, in 2013.Results:Completely answered questionnaires were received from 168 sports physicians and orthopedists. Doctors from all regions of Brazil with a mean of 11 years of experience of treating muscle injuries were interviewed. Lower limbs were affected in 97% of the cases, particularly the quadriceps, adductor and sural triceps. The injury occurred during the eccentric phase in 62% of the interviews; 39% underwent ultrasound examination and 37% magnetic resonance imaging (MRI for the injury to be diagnosed. Medication, rest and cryotherapy during the acute phase (87.5% and medication, rest and physiotherapy during treatment of the injury (56% were the prevalent options. The criteria for returning to sports were very subjective and disparate among the options presented, and most of the interviewees had already used some therapy that was adjuvant to traditional methods.Conclusion:The number of muscle injuries treated per year was greater than 30, independent of whether in the public or private sector. These injuries occurred mainly at the muscle–tendon junction, in the lower limbs and during the eccentric phase of muscle contraction. Ultrasound was the examination most performed, while MRI was considered ideal. For most of the interviewees, the preferred treatment involved rest, medication and physiotherapy. In addition, 52% believed that platelet-rich plasma was an efficient treatment and 42% said that they had already used it.

  5. The effect of bilateral asymmetry of muscle strength on the height of a squat jump: a computer simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Shinsuke; Nagano, Akinori; Hay, Dean C; Fukashiro, Senshi

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of bilateral asymmetry of muscle strength on maximal height of the squat jump. A computer simulation technique was used to develop two kinds of 3D human lower limb musculoskeletal model (model-symmetry and model-asymmetry). The total muscle strength of the two models was set to be identical. Bilateral muscle strength was equal in the model-symmetry simulation, while the model-asymmetry simulation was performed with a 10% bilateral strength asymmetry. A forward dynamics approach was used to simulate squat jumps. The squat jumps were successfully generated, producing jump heights of 0.389 m for model-symmetry and 0.387 m for model-asymmetry. The small difference in height (0.5%) indicated that the effect of the 10% bilateral asymmetry of muscle strength on jump height is negligible. With model-asymmetry, the strong leg compensated for the muscle strength deficit of the weak leg. Importantly, the mono-articular and large extensor muscles of the hip and knee joint of the strong leg, including the gluteus maximus, adductor magnus, and vasti, compensated for the muscle strength deficit of the weak leg.

  6. Recovery in mechanical muscle strength following resurfacing vs standard total hip arthroplasty - a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten; Aagaard, Per; Overgaard, S

    2011-01-01

    in maximal lower limb muscle strength (in 2/6 muscle groups) compared to S-THA. Notably, the attenuated strength recovery following R-THA was most markedly manifested in the late phase (1 yr) of post-surgical recovery, and appeared to be due to the detachment of the lower half of the gluteus maximus muscle...... randomised into (A) standard total hip arthroplasty (S-THA) and (B) resurfacing total hip arthroplasty (R-THA). Pre-surgery assessment and follow-up were conducted (8, 26 and 52 wks). Maximal isometric muscle strength (Nm) and between-limb asymmetry for the knee extensors/flexors, hip adductors....../abductors, hip extensors/flexors were analysed. RESULTS: Maximal knee extensor and hip abductor strength were higher in S-THA than R-THA at 52 wks post-surgery (P ≤ 0.05) and hip extensors tended to be higher in S-THA at 52 wks (P = 0.06). All muscle groups showed substantial between-limb strength asymmetry (7...

  7. Test-retest reliability of innovated strength tests for hip muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Meyer

    Full Text Available The burden of hip muscles weakness and its relation to other impairments has been well documented. It is therefore a pre-requisite to have a reliable method for clinical assessment of hip muscles function allowing the design and implementation of a proper strengthening program. Motor-driven dynamometry has been widely accepted as the gold-standard for lower limb muscle strength assessment but is mainly related to the knee joint. Studies focusing on the hip joint are less exhaustive and somewhat discrepant with regard to optimal participants position, consequently influencing outcome measures. Thus, we aimed to develop a standardized test setup for the assessment of hip muscles strength, i.e. flexors/extensors and abductors/adductors, with improved participant stability and to define its psychometric characteristics. Eighteen participants performed unilateral isokinetic and isometric contractions of the hip muscles in the sagittal and coronal plane at two separate occasions. Peak torque and normalized peak torque were measured for each contraction. Relative and absolute measures of reliability were calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient and standard error of measurement, respectively. Results from this study revealed higher levels of between-day reliability of isokinetic/isometric hip abduction/flexion peak torque compared to existing literature. The least reliable measures were found for hip extension and adduction, which could be explained by a less efficient stabilization technique. Our study additionally provided a first set of reference normalized data which can be used in future research.

  8. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  9. Frontal Plane Tibiofemoral Alignment is Strongly Related to Compartmental Knee Joint Contact Forces and Muscle Control Strategies during Stair Ascent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Hunter J; Weinhandl, Joshua T; Fleenor, Kristina; Zhang, Songning

    2018-03-12

    Static frontal plane tibiofemoral alignment is an important factor in dynamic knee alignment and knee adduction moments. However, little is known about the relationship between alignment and compartment contact forces or muscle control strategies. The purpose of this study was to estimate medial (MCF) and lateral (LCF) compartment knee joint contact forces and muscle forces during stair ascent using a musculoskeletal model implementing subject specific knee alignments. Kinematic and kinetic data from 20 healthy individuals with radiographically confirmed varus or valgus knee alignments were simulated using alignment specific models to predict MCFs and LCFs. Muscle forces were determined using static optimization. Independent samples t-tests compared contact and knee and frontal plane hip muscle forces between groups during weight acceptance and during pushoff. The varus group exhibited increased weight acceptance peak MCFs, while the valgus group exhibited increased pushoff peak LCFs. The varus group utilized increased vasti muscle forces during weight acceptance and hip adductor forces during pushoff. The valgus group utilized increased hip abductor forces during pushoff. The alignment dependent contact forces provide evidence of the significance of frontal plane knee alignment in healthy individuals, which may be important in considering future knee joint health. The differing muscle control strategies between alignments detail specific neuromuscular responses to control frontal plane knee loads.

  10. The Effect of Fatigue in Proxmal and Distal Muscles of Lower Extremity on Postural Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Moghadam

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Several studies have shown the effects of muscular fatigue on proprioception and neuromuscular control. However all available researches have studied just the effect of local fatigue in ankle joint muscles on postural control, and no study have found about the effect of fatigue in proximal muscles of the lower extremity on postural control. To compare changes in postural control parameters after isokinetic fatigue of proximal and distal muscles of lower extremity. Materials & Methods: Subjects were twenty healthy men (age: 22.6±2.4 years, height: 173.7± 3.6 cm, weight: 63.3±7.9kg. There were 4 test sessions, with a randomized order according to site and plane of fatigue. During each session one of these muscle groups was fatigued using a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer: ankle plantar / dorsi flexors, ankle evertor / inventors, hip flexor / extensors and hip abductor/adductors. The biodex stability system was used to perform dynamic balance test before and after muscle fatigue in each session. Overall, anterior / posterior, and medial/lateral stability indices were recorded. The higher the stability indices, the lower the balancing skill. Results: Analysis of pre-and post fatigue balance results of all sessions, demonstrated significant increase (P<0.05 in all stability indices. Repeated measures ANOVA performed on the rate of changes in stability indices during each session revealed that hip muscle fatigue caused much more increase in stability indices than ankle muscle fatigue (P<0.05. Conclusion: Isokinetic fatigue of both ankle and hip muscles significantly decreases postural control ability in healthy young men. In addition, our findings suggest that the hip joint musculature plays a more prominent role in postural control.

  11. The Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Athletic Pubalgia and Core Muscle Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Dana J; Zoga, Adam C

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the standard of care imaging modality for a difficult, often misunderstood spectrum of musculoskeletal injury termed athletic pubalgia or core muscle injury. Armed with a dedicated noncontrast athletic pubalgia protocol and a late model phased array receiver coil, the musculoskeletal imager can play a great role in effective diagnosis and treatment planning for lesions, including osteitis pubis, midline pubic plate lesions, and rectus abdominis/adductor aponeurosis injury. Beyond these established patterns of MRI findings, there are many confounders and contributing pathologies about the pelvis in patients with activity related groin pain, including internal and periarticular derangements of the hip. The MRI is ideally suited to delineate the extent of expected injury and to identify the unexpected visceral and musculoskeletal lesions.

  12. Analysis of fatty infiltration and inflammation of the pelvic and thigh muscles in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD): grading of disease involvement on MR imaging and correlation with clinical assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Merrow, Arnold C; Shiraj, Sahar; Wong, Brenda L; Horn, Paul S; Laor, Tal

    2013-10-01

    Prior reports focus primarily on muscle fatty infiltration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). However, the significance of muscle edema is uncertain. To evaluate the frequency and degree of muscle fat and edema, and correlate these with clinical function. Forty-two boys (ages 5-19 years) with DMD underwent pelvic MRI. Axial T1- and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images were evaluated to grade muscle fatty infiltration (0-4) and edema (0-3), respectively. Degree and frequency of disease involvement were compared to clinical evaluations. Gluteus maximus had the greatest mean fatty infiltration score, followed by adductor magnus and gluteus medius muscles, and had the most frequent and greatest degree of fatty infiltration. Gluteus maximus also had the greatest mean edema score, followed by vastus lateralis and gluteus medius muscles. These muscles had the most frequent edema, although the greatest degree of edema was seen in other muscles. There was correlation between cumulative scores of fatty infiltration and all clinical evaluations (P < 0.05). In DMD, the muscles with the most frequent fatty infiltration had the greatest degree of fatty infiltration and correlated with patient function. However, the muscles with the most frequent edema were different from those with the greatest degree of edema. Thus, edema may not predict patient functional status.

  13. Changes in motor cortex excitability associated with muscle fatigue in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Slađan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a standard technique for noninvasive assessment of changes in central nervous system excitability. The aim of this study was to examine changes in responses to TMS in patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease (PD during sustained submaximal isometric voluntary contraction [60% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC] of the adductor pollicis muscle, as well as during a subsequent recovery period. Methods. Cortical excitability was tested by single TMS pulses of twice of the motor threshold intensity applied over the vertex. Testing was carried out during the sustained contraction phase every 10 s before and every 5 s after the endurance point, as well as at rest and during brief 60% MVC contractions before (control, immediately after the sustained contraction, and at 5 min intervals during the recovery period. Results. Although the PD patients could sustain the contraction at the required level for as long period of time as the healthy subjects (though contraction level subsided more rapidly after the endurance point, effects of muscle fatigue on the responses to TMS were different. In contrast to the findings observed in the healthy people where motor evoked potentials (MEP and EMG silent period (SP in fatigued muscle gradually diminished during contraction up to the endurance point, and increased thereafter, in the majority of patients no changes occurred in MEP size (peak and area of the adductor pollicis muscle, either before or after the endurance point. On the other hand, changes in the SP of this muscle differed among the subjects, showing a gradual increase, a decrease or no changes in duration. The trends of changes in both MEP size and SP duration in the musculus brachioradialis varied among the tested PD patients, without any consistent pattern, which was in contrast with the findings in the healthy people where both measures showed a gradual increase from the beginning of

  14. Central activation, metabolites, and calcium handling during fatigue with repeated maximal isometric contractions in human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Simeon P; Inman, Luke A G; MacManus, Caroline P; van de Port, Ingrid G L; Ruell, Patricia A; Thom, Jeanette M; Thompson, Martin W

    2017-08-01

    To determine the roles of calcium (Ca 2+ ) handling by sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and central activation impairment (i.e., central fatigue) during fatigue with repeated maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) in human muscles. Contractile performance was assessed during 3 min of repeated MVCs (7-s contraction, 3-s rest, n = 17). In ten participants, in vitro SR Ca 2+ -handling, metabolites, and fibre-type composition were quantified in biopsy samples from quadriceps muscle, along with plasma venous [K + ]. In 11 participants, central fatigue was compared using tetanic stimulation superimposed on MVC in quadriceps and adductor pollicis muscles. The decline of peak MVC force with fatigue was similar for both muscles. Fatigue resistance correlated directly with % type I fibre area in quadriceps (r = 0.77, P = 0.009). The maximal rate of ryanodine-induced Ca 2+ -release and Ca 2+ -uptake fell by 31 ± 26 and 28 ± 13%, respectively. The tetanic force depression was correlated with the combined reduction of ATP and PCr, and increase of lactate (r = 0.77, P = 0.009). Plasma venous [K + ] increased from 4.0 ± 0.3 to 5.4 ± 0.8 mM over 1-3-min exercise. Central fatigue occurred during the early contractions in the quadriceps in 7 out of 17 participants (central activation ratio fell from 0.98 ± 0.05 to 0.86 ± 0.11 at 1 min), but dwindled at exercise cessation. Central fatigue was seldom apparent in adductor pollicis. Fatigue with repeated MVC in human limb muscles mainly involves peripheral aspects which include impaired SR Ca 2+ -handling and we speculate that anaerobic metabolite changes are involved. A faster early force loss in quadriceps muscle with some participants is attributed to central fatigue.

  15. Sound production in the longnose butterflyfishes (genus Forcipiger): cranial kinematics, muscle activity and honest signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Kelly S; Tricas, Timothy C

    2011-11-15

    Many teleost fishes produce sounds for social communication with mechanisms that do not involve swim bladder musculature. Such sounds may reflect physical attributes of the sound-production mechanism, be constrained by body size and therefore control signal reliability during agonistic behaviors. We examined kinematics of the cranium, median fins and caudal peduncle during sound production in two territorial chaetodontid butterflyfish sister species: forcepsfish (Forcipiger flavissimus) and longnose butterflyfish (F. longirostris). During intraspecific agonistic encounters, both species emit a single pulse sound that precedes rapid cranial rotation at velocities and accelerations that exceed those of prey strikes by many ram- and suction-feeding fishes. Electromyography showed that onsets of activity for anterior epaxialis, sternohyoideus, A1 and A2 adductor mandibulae muscles and sound emission are coincident but precede cranial elevation. Observations indicate that sound production is driven by epaxial muscle contraction whereas a ventral linkage between the head and pectoral girdle is maintained by simultaneous activity from the adductor mandibulae and sternohyoideus. Thus, the girdle, ribs and rostral swim bladder are pulled anteriorly before the head is released and rotated dorsally. Predictions of the hypothesis that acoustic signals are indicators of body size and kinematic performance were confirmed. Variation in forcepsfish sound duration and sound pressure level is explained partly by cranial elevation velocity and epaxial electromyogram duration. Body size, however, explains most variation in duration and sound pressure level. These observed associations indicate that forcepsfish sounds may be accurate indicators of size and condition that are related to resource holding potential during social encounters.

  16. Muscle Trigger Points and Pressure Pain Sensitivity Maps of the Feet in Women with Fibromyalgia Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornero-Caballero, Maria C; Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Cigarán-Méndez, Margarita; Morales-Cabezas, Matilde; Madeleine, Pascal; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE : To investigate the presence of trigger points (TrPs) in feet musculature and topographical pressure sensitivity maps of the feet as well as the relationship between TrPs, pressure pain maps, and clinical variables in women with fibromyalgia (FMS). METHODS : Fifty-one FMS women and 24 comparable healthy women participated. TrPs within the flexor hallucis brevis, adductor hallucis, dorsal interossei, extensor digitorum brevis, and quadratus plantae, as well as external and internal gastrocnemius, were explored. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed in a blind manner over seven locations on each foot. Topographical pressure sensitivity maps of the plantar region were generated using the averaged PPT of each location. RESULTS : The prevalence rate of foot pain was 63% (n = 32). The number of active TrPs for each FMS woman with foot pain was 5 ± 1.5 without any latent TrPs. Women with FMS without foot pain and healthy controls had only latent TrPs (2.2 ± 0.8 and 1.5 ± 1.3, respectively). Active TrPs in the flexor hallucis brevis and adductor hallucis muscles were the most prevalent. Topographical pressure pain sensitivity maps revealed that FMS women with foot pain had lower PPT than FMS women without pain and healthy controls, and higher PPT on the calcaneus bone (P pain in women with FMS is high. The referred pain elicited by active TrPs in the foot muscles reproduced the symptoms in these patients. FMS women suffering foot pain showed higher pressure hypersensitivity in the plantar region than those FMS women without pain. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. A Measure of the Auditory-perceptual Quality of Strain from Electroglottographic Analysis of Continuous Dysphonic Speech: Application to Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somanath, Keerthan; Mau, Ted

    2016-11-01

    (1) To develop an automated algorithm to analyze electroglottographic (EGG) signal in continuous dysphonic speech, and (2) to identify EGG waveform parameters that correlate with the auditory-perceptual quality of strain in the speech of patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD). Software development with application in a prospective controlled study. EGG was recorded from 12 normal speakers and 12 subjects with ADSD reading excerpts from the Rainbow Passage. Data were processed by a new algorithm developed with the specific goal of analyzing continuous dysphonic speech. The contact quotient, pulse width, a new parameter peak skew, and various contact closing slope quotient and contact opening slope quotient measures were extracted. EGG parameters were compared between normal and ADSD speech. Within the ADSD group, intra-subject comparison was also made between perceptually strained syllables and unstrained syllables. The opening slope quotient SO7525 distinguished strained syllables from unstrained syllables in continuous speech within individual subjects with ADSD. The standard deviations, but not the means, of contact quotient, EGGW50, peak skew, and SO7525 were different between normal and ADSD speakers. The strain-stress pattern in continuous speech can be visualized as color gradients based on the variation of EGG parameter values. EGG parameters may provide a within-subject measure of vocal strain and serve as a marker for treatment response. The addition of EGG to multidimensional assessment may lead to improved characterization of the voice disturbance in ADSD. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Employer Reactions to Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia: Exploring the Influence of Symptom Severity and Disclosure of Diagnosis During a Simulated Telephone Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isetti, Derek D; Baylor, Carolyn R; Burns, Michael I; Eadie, Tanya L

    2017-05-17

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of symptom severity and disclosure of adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) on the perceptions of human resource personnel members (HRPs) during a simulated phone interview. One female speaker with ADSD was recorded reading an interview script at two time points: (a) pre-BOTOX injection (severe), and (b) post-BOTOX injection (mild). Thirty-two HRPs evaluated the recording in one of the two conditions via a qualitative structured interview. HRPs gave their recommendations regarding when and how to disclose ADSD. In the mild condition, no HRP perceived that the applicant had a voice disorder. Disclosure was not recommended as often, as an impairment was not initially noticed. However, 15/16 HRPs commented on the applicant's voice in the severe condition, with most suspecting she was a smoker or had lung/throat cancer. Disclosure in the severe condition was recommended more often, as it clarified symptoms that were noted at the outset. Symptom severity in ADSD influences employer perceptions during the phone interview process. Incorrect assumptions may be made about applicants with severe symptoms, and apparentness of symptoms influences whether or not disclosure is recommended. Results have implications for counseling individuals with ADSD who are navigating the job interview process.

  19. Ultrasound and electrical stimulator-guided obturator nerve block with phenol in the treatment of hip adductor spasticity in long-term care patients: a randomized, triple blind, placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kuen; Wong, Denis; Tam, Cheuk Kwan; Wah, Shu Hong; Myint, Ma Wai Wai Jennifer; Yu, Teresa Kim Kam; So, Kar Kui; Cheung, Gloria; Au, Kai Man; Fu, Ming Hung; Wu, Yee Ming; Kng, Carolyn Poey

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound-guided phenol nerve block in the treatment of severe hip adductor spasticity in long-term care patients. Double-blind placebo-controlled trial with a 9-month follow-up period. A 250-bed long-term care hospital and the infirmary units of 5 regional hospitals. Twenty-six long-term care patients with bilateral severe chronic hip adductor spasticity affecting perineal hygiene and nursing care. Patients were randomized to 2 groups that received ultrasound and electrical stimulator guided obturator nerve block using either 5% phenol in aqueous solution or saline. The primary outcome measure was the Modified Ashworth Scale, which reflected the severity of hip adductor spasticity. Secondary outcomes included Goal Attainment Scale (GAS), hygiene score, distances between the knees during fast and slow passive hip abductions; passive range of movement for hip extension and knee extension. Pain was assessed using the Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia Scale. Twenty-six patients (7 males; mean age = 77, standard deviation = 14) were recruited. At week 6 post-injection, 12/16 (75%) patients in the treatment group vs 1/10 (10%) patients in the control group had at least 1-point reduction of Modified Ashworth Scale (P = .001) on both hip adductors. There was also significant improvement in the GAS, as well as the hygiene score, resting position, and distances between the knees during fast and slow passive hip abductions in the treatment group, which persisted until week 36. No significant difference in the Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia Scale was found between the 2 groups. No serious phenol nerve block related adverse effects were reported. Obturator neurolysis with 5% aqueous phenol as guided by both ultrasound and electrical stimulation can safely and effectively reduce hip adductor spasticity, thus, improving hygiene scores and patient-centered outcomes measured by the GAS in affected long-term care residents. Copyright

  20. Qualidade de Vida em Voz: estudo na doença de Parkinson idiopática e na Disfonia Espasmódica Adutora Quality of life in voice: a study in Parkinson's disease and in adductor spasmodic dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Pereira Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o impacto causado pela alteração vocal na qualidade de vida (QV dos pacientes com doença de Parkinson (DP idiopática e com disfonia espasmódica adutora (DEA. MÉTODO: o estudo foi realizado com 56 indivíduos do sexo feminino, dos quais 28 compunham o grupo controle; 14, o grupo de DEA, no período anterior ao tratamento com toxina botulínica; e 14, o grupo de DP idiopática. Os participantes preencheram o questionário de Qualidade de Vida em Voz (QVV validado para o português brasileiro. Para verificar a diferença entre as médias dos grupos foi utilizado o método de análise de variância por postos de Kruskal-Wallis e o teste de Tamhane para comparações múltiplas, com significância PURPOSE: to evaluate the impact of voice disorders on quality of life of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. METHOD: the study consisted of 56 females, 28 in the control group; 14, the adductor spasmodic dysphonia group in the period prior to treatment with botulinum toxin; and 14, the group of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The participants filled in the Voice-Related Quality of life (V-RQOL questionnaire validated for Brazilian Portuguese. To check the difference between averages of the groups it was used the method of analysis of variance by Kruskal-Wallis and Tamhane test for multiple comparisons, with significance <0.05. RESULTS: the average age of the groups were 66.18 for the control group, 67.21 for the Parkinson's disease group and 59.7 for the adductor spasmodic dysphonia group, with no statistical difference between the groups. In the V-RQOL protocol the mean domain social-emotional, physical functioning and total score were higher in the control group, followed by group of Parkinson's disease and, finally, the group of adductor spasmodic dysphonia with statistically significant difference between them. In addition, there was statistical difference for each pair of groups

  1. Qualidade de Vida em Voz: estudo na doença de Parkinson idiopática e na disfonia espasmódica adutora Quality of life in voice: a study in Parkinson's disease and in adductor spasmodic dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Pereira Lopes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o impacto causado pela alteração vocal na qualidade de vida (QV dos pacientes com doença de Parkinson (DP idiopática e com disfonia espasmódica adutora (DEA. MÉTODO: o estudo foi realizado com 56 indivíduos do sexo feminino, dos quais 28 compunham o grupo controle; 14, o grupo de DEA, no período anterior ao tratamento com toxina botulínica; e 14, o grupo de DP idiopática. Os participantes preencheram o questionário de Qualidade de Vida em Voz (QVV validado para o português brasileiro. Para verificar a diferença entre as médias dos grupos foi utilizado o método de análise de variância por postos de Kruskal-Wallis e o teste de Tamhane para comparações múltiplas, com significância PURPOSE: to evaluate the impact of voice disorders on quality of life of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. METHOD: the study consisted of 56 females, 28 in the control group; 14, the adductor spasmodic dysphonia group in the period prior to treatment with botulinum toxin; and 14, the group of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The participants filled in the Voice-Related Quality of life (V-RQOL questionnaire validated for Brazilian Portuguese. To check the difference between averages of the groups it was used the method of analysis of variance by Kruskal-Wallis and Tamhane test for multiple comparisons, with significance <0.05. RESULTS: the average age of the groups were 66.18 for the control group, 67.21 for the Parkinson's disease group and 59.7 for the adductor spasmodic dysphonia group, with no statistical difference between the groups. In the V-RQOL protocol the mean domain social-emotional, physical functioning and total score were higher in the control group, followed by group of Parkinson's disease and, finally, the group of adductor spasmodic dysphonia with statistically significant difference between them. In addition, there was statistical difference for each pair of groups

  2. The Effects of Active Straight Leg Raising on Tonicity and Activity of Pelvic Stabilizer Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Shadmehr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Active straight leg raising (SLR test is advocated as a valid diagnostic method in diagnosis of sacroiliac joint (SIJ dysfunction that can assess the quality of load transfer between trunk and lower limb. The aim of this study is Comparison of changes in tonicity and activity of pelvic stabilizer muscles during active SLR, between healthy individuals and patients with sacroiliac joint pain. Materials & Methods: A case – control study was designed in 26 women (19-50 years old. With use of simple sampling, surface electromyography from rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, adductor longus, erector spine, gluteus maximus and biceps femoris was recorded in 26 subjects (15 healthy females and 11 females with sacroiliac pain in resting position and during active SLR test. Resting muscle tonicity and rms during ramp time and hold time in active SLR test were assessed by non parametric-two independent sample test. Results: Biceps femoris activity in resting position was significantly larger in patients group (P<0.05. During the active SLR, the women with sacroiliac joint pain used much less activity in some pelvic stabilizer muscles compared to the healthy subjects (P<0.05. Conclusion: The increased resting tonicity of biceps femoris and decreased activity of pelvic stabilizer muscles in subjects with sacroiliac joint pain, suggests an alteration in the strategy for lumbopelvic stabilization that may disrupt load transference through the pelvis.

  3. Rectus abdominis muscle injuries in elite handball players: management and rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balius, Ramon; Pedret, Carles; Pacheco, Laura; Gutierrez, Josep Antoni; Vives, Joan; Escoda, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    Muscle injuries generally occur in two-joint muscles with a high percentage of type II fibers during the performance of eccentric activity. Some muscle injuries, such as those located in the adductor longus, a monoarticular muscle, as well as rectus abdominis do not fully comply with these requirements. This study examines five cases of elite handball players with ruptured rectus abdominals. Sonographically, lesions in rectus abdominis are shown as a disruption of the fibrillar pattern with a hematic suffusion that invades the entire lesion. In some of the cases, the ultrasound study was complemented with a MRI. A unified rehabilitation protocol was applied and the return to play time of each handball player ranged between 16 and 22 days, with an average of 18.2 days. Follow-up at 15 months showed no evidence of re-injury or residual discomfort and all of them are playing at their highest level. The aim of this study was to illustrate a feature of handball injury that, as in tennis and volleyball, is uncommon and so far has not been specifically reported. The phenomenon of contralateral abdominal hypertrophy in handball appears in the dominant arm as in tennis and volleyball. PMID:24198573

  4. Muscle channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statland, Jeffrey; Phillips, Lauren; Trivedi, Jaya R

    2014-08-01

    Skeletal muscle channelopathies are rare heterogeneous diseases with marked genotypic and phenotypic variability. Despite advances in understanding of the molecular pathology of these disorders, the diverse phenotypic manifestations remain a challenge in diagnosis and therapeutics. These disorders can cause lifetime disability and affect quality of life. There is no treatment of these disorders approved by the US Food and Drug Administration at this time. Recognition and treatment of symptoms might reduce morbidity and improve quality of life. This article summarizes the clinical manifestations, diagnostic studies, pathophysiology, and treatment options in nondystrophic myotonia, congenital myasthenic syndrome, and periodic paralyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of bioelectrical activity of synergistic muscles during pelvic floor muscles activation in postmenopausal women with and without stress urinary incontinence: a preliminary observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ptaszkowski K

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kuba Ptaszkowski,1 Małgorzata Paprocka-Borowicz,2 Lucyna Słupska,2 Janusz Bartnicki,1,3 Robert Dymarek,4 Joanna Rosińczuk,4 Jerzy Heimrath,5 Janusz Dembowski,6 Romuald Zdrojowy6 1Department of Obstetrics, 2Department of Clinical Biomechanics and Physiotherapy in Motor System Disorders, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Health Center Bitterfeld/Wolfen gGmbH, Bitterfeld-Wolfen, Germany; 4Department of Nervous System Diseases, 5Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Health Science, 6Department and Clinic of Urology, Faculty of Postgraduate Medical Training, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Objective: Muscles such as adductor magnus (AM, gluteus maximus (GM, rectus abdominis (RA, and abdominal external and internal oblique muscles are considered to play an important role in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI, and the relationship between contraction of these muscles and pelvic floor muscles (PFM has been established in previous studies. Synergistic muscle activation intensifies a woman’s ability to contract the PFM. In some cases, even for continent women, it is not possible to fully contract their PFM without involving the synergistic muscles. The primary aim of this study was to assess the surface electromyographic activity of synergistic muscles to PFM (SPFM during resting and functional PFM activation in postmenopausal women with and without SUI.Materials and methods: This study was a preliminary, prospective, cross-sectional observational study and included volunteers and patients who visited the Department and Clinic of Urology, University Hospital in Wroclaw, Poland. Forty-two patients participated in the study and were screened for eligibility criteria. Thirty participants satisfied the criteria and were categorized into two groups: women with SUI (n=16 and continent women (n=14. The bioelectrical activity of PFM and SPFM (AM, RA, GM was

  6. Study on the findings of muscle CT in patients with Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD)

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    Sumida, Sawako; Osawa, Makiko; Okada, Noriko and others

    1988-11-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the process of muscle involvement according to age in patients with FCMD (Brain Dev 1981 ; 3:1 - 29) by CT scans. Fourteen patients with FCMD I (age: 5 months-12 years) and two patients with FCMD III or IV (age: 3, 4 years) were studied. The midcalf, midthigh, L3 and shoulder girdle level were the sites chosen. Two types of change were found in FCMD I. One of them was the attenuation of the density in muscle and the other one was decreased area of muscle as a result of low density which started from periphery of the muscle. The latter was found in m. psoas major after age 9, whilst the former was found in other muscles to some degree. The severity of the changes was related to age. In the case which was examined twice, the changes extended even better motor function had been attained. The changes in midcalf preceded those in midthigh, L3, shoulder girdle. The attenuation of density was found early and severely in m. triceps surae, m. adductor magnus, paravertebral muscles and m. subscapularis, whilst those in m. tibialis anterior and posterior, m. gracilis, m. sartorius, m. quadratus lumborum appeared later and relatively mild. The relationship between the process of extension of low density in muscle and joint contractures were also discussed. The changes in CT scan in FCMD III or IV were milder than those of FCMD I and there was no tendency that the change in midcalf preceded those of other scanned level.

  7. Differential Contributions of Vision, Touch and Muscle Proprioception to the Coding of Hand Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Caroline; Roll, Régine; Roll, Jean-Pierre; Kavounoudias, Anne

    2013-01-01

    To further elucidate the mechanisms underlying multisensory integration, this study examines the controversial issue of whether congruent inputs from three different sensory sources can enhance the perception of hand movement. Illusory sensations of clockwise rotations of the right hand were induced by either separately or simultaneously stimulating visual, tactile and muscle proprioceptive channels at various intensity levels. For this purpose, mechanical vibrations were applied to the pollicis longus muscle group in the subjects’ wrists, and a textured disk was rotated under the palmar skin of the subjects’ right hands while a background visual scene was projected onto the rotating disk. The elicited kinaesthetic illusions were copied by the subjects in real time and the EMG activity in the adductor and abductor wrist muscles was recorded. The results show that the velocity of the perceived movements and the amplitude of the corresponding motor responses were modulated by the nature and intensity of the stimulation. Combining two sensory modalities resulted in faster movement illusions, except for the case of visuo-tactile co-stimulation. When a third sensory input was added to the bimodal combinations, the perceptual responses increased only when a muscle proprioceptive stimulation was added to a visuo-tactile combination. Otherwise, trisensory stimulation did not override bimodal conditions that already included a muscle proprioceptive stimulation. We confirmed that vision or touch alone can encode the kinematic parameters of hand movement, as is known for muscle proprioception. When these three sensory modalities are available, they contribute unequally to kinaesthesia. In addition to muscle proprioception, the complementary kinaesthetic content of visual or tactile inputs may optimize the velocity estimation of an on-going movement, whereas the redundant kinaesthetic content of the visual and tactile inputs may rather enhance the latency of the perception

  8. Difference in the recruitment of hip and knee muscles between back squat and plyometric squat jump.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihide Sugisaki

    Full Text Available Athletes who aim to improve both muscular endurance and power often perform exercises that involve similar joint actions under different lifting conditions, such as changes in the load or speed, which are implemented at different times during a periodized exercise program or simultaneously. The prescribed exercises are considered to recruit the same muscles even if the lifting conditions differ to each other. The present study aimed to clarify this by examining whether the recruitment of individual hip and knee muscles during the squat exercise differs between lifting conditions adopted for muscular endurance and power training regimens. Moderately trained men performed back squats (BS, with a load of approximately 60% of one repetition maximum, as a muscular endurance training exercise, and they performed plyometric squat jumping (PSJ for power training. During each exercise, the lower limb joint torques and the recruitment of five hip and knee muscles were determined with inverse-dynamics and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. While the maximal and mean knee joint torques were greater during PSJ than during BS (p<0.01, the T2 values for the quadriceps femoris muscle did not differ between the exercises. In contrast, the T2 values of the gluteus maximus and hip adductor muscles were higher during PSJ (p<0.05 than during BS, although there was no significant difference in the mean hip extension torque between the two exercises. The current results indicate that the individual use of the agonist muscles differs between BS and PSJ, and it does not always correspond with the joint kinetics during the exercises. Therefore, in addition to the exercise type, the lifting condition should also be taken into consideration as a determinant of the major muscles trained during a resistance exercise.

  9. Musculoskeletal Geometry, Muscle Architecture and Functional Specialisations of the Mouse Hindlimb.

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    James P Charles

    Full Text Available Mice are one of the most commonly used laboratory animals, with an extensive array of disease models in existence, including for many neuromuscular diseases. The hindlimb is of particular interest due to several close muscle analogues/homologues to humans and other species. A detailed anatomical study describing the adult morphology is lacking, however. This study describes in detail the musculoskeletal geometry and skeletal muscle architecture of the mouse hindlimb and pelvis, determining the extent to which the muscles are adapted for their function, as inferred from their architecture. Using I2KI enhanced microCT scanning and digital segmentation, it was possible to identify 39 distinct muscles of the hindlimb and pelvis belonging to nine functional groups. The architecture of each of these muscles was determined through microdissections, revealing strong architectural specialisations between the functional groups. The hip extensors and hip adductors showed significantly stronger adaptations towards high contraction velocities and joint control relative to the distal functional groups, which exhibited larger physiological cross sectional areas and longer tendons, adaptations for high force output and elastic energy savings. These results suggest that a proximo-distal gradient in muscle architecture exists in the mouse hindlimb. Such a gradient has been purported to function in aiding locomotor stability and efficiency. The data presented here will be especially valuable to any research with a focus on the architecture or gross anatomy of the mouse hindlimb and pelvis musculature, but also of use to anyone interested in the functional significance of muscle design in relation to quadrupedal locomotion.

  10. Lower Extremity Muscle Strength After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury and Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Abbey C.; Villwock, Mark; Wojtys, Edward M.; Palmieri-Smith, Riann M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Quadriceps and hamstrings weakness occurs frequently after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction. Evidence suggests that knee injury may precipitate hip and ankle muscle weakness, but few data support this contention after ACL injury and reconstruction. Objective: To determine if hip, knee, and ankle muscle weakness present after ACL injury and after rehabilitation for ACL reconstruction. Design: Case-control study. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Fifteen individuals with ACL injury (8 males, 7 females; age = 20.27 ± 5.38 years, height = 1.75 ± 0.10 m, mass = 74.39 ± 13.26 kg) and 15 control individuals (7 men, 8 women; age = 24.73 ± 3.37 years, height = 1.75 ± 0.09 m, mass = 73.25 ± 13.48 kg). Intervention(s): Bilateral concentric strength was assessed at 60°/s on an isokinetic dynamometer. The participants with ACL injury were tested preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. Control participants were tested on 1 occasion. Main Outcome Measures: Hip-flexor, -extensor, -abductor, and -adductor; knee-extensor and -flexor; and ankle–plantar-flexor and -dorsiflexor strength (Nm/kg). Results: The ACL-injured participants demonstrated greater hip-extensor (percentage difference = 19.7, F1,14 = 7.28, P = .02) and -adductor (percentage difference = 16.3, F1,14 = 6.15, P = .03) weakness preoperatively than postoperatively, regardless of limb, and greater postoperative hip-adductor strength (percentage difference = 29.0, F1,28 = 10.66, P = .003) than control participants. Knee-extensor and -flexor strength were lower in the injured than in the uninjured limb preoperatively and postoperatively (extensor percentage difference = 34.6 preoperatively and 32.6 postoperatively, t14 range = −4.59 to −4.23, P ≤ .001; flexor percentage difference = 30.6 preoperatively and 10.6 postoperatively, t14 range = −6.05 to −3.24, P ACL-injured participants. The ACL-injured participants had less

  11. Longitudinal MRI quantification of muscle degeneration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godi, Claudia; Ambrosi, Alessandro; Nicastro, Francesca; Previtali, Stefano C; Santarosa, Corrado; Napolitano, Sara; Iadanza, Antonella; Scarlato, Marina; Natali Sora, Maria Grazia; Tettamanti, Andrea; Gerevini, Simonetta; Cicalese, Maria Pia; Sitzia, Clementina; Venturini, Massimo; Falini, Andrea; Gatti, Roberto; Ciceri, Fabio; Cossu, Giulio; Torrente, Yvan; Politi, Letterio S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) by quantification of fat infiltration (FI) and muscle volume index (MVI, a residual-to-total muscle volume ratio). Twenty-six patients (baseline age: 5-12 years) with genetically proven DMD were longitudinally analyzed with lower limb 3T MRI, force measurements, and functional tests (Gowers, 10-m time, North Star Ambulatory Assessment, 6-min walking test). Five age-matched controls were also examined, with a total of 85 MRI studies. Semiquantitative (scores) and quantitative MRI (qMRI) analyses (signal intensity ratio - SIR, lower limb MVI, and individual muscle MVI) were carried out. Permutation and regression analyses according to both age and functional test-outcomes were calculated. Age-related quantitative reference curves of SIRs and MVIs were generated. FI was present on glutei and adductor magnus in all patients since the age of 5, with a proximal-to-distal progression and selective sparing of sartorius and gracilis. Patients' qMRI measures were significantly different from controls' and among age classes. qMRI were more sensitive than force measurements and functional tests in assessing disease progression, allowing quantification also after loss of ambulation. Age-related curves with percentile values were calculated for SIRs and MVIs, to provide a reference background for future experimental therapy trials. SIRs and MVIs significantly correlated with all clinical measures, and could reliably predict functional outcomes and loss of ambulation. qMRI-based indexes are sensitive measures that can track the progression of DMD and represent a valuable tool for follow-up and clinical studies.

  12. Comparison of Adductor Canal Block Versus Local Infiltration Analgesia on Postoperative Pain and Functional Outcome after Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampitak W

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA is associated with intense postoperative pain for which effective analgesia is essential to facilitate early postoperative recovery. Adductor canal block (ACB and local infiltration analgesia (LIA have become increasingly involved in postoperative pain management after TKA. We aimed to compare their efficacy and outcomes in patients undergoing TKA. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients undergoing unilateral TKA were randomized to receive either postoperative single-injection ACB (Group A or LIA (Group L during the operation. All patients received spinal anaesthesia. Primary outcome was total morphine consumption over postoperative 24 hours. Visual analog pain scale, time to first and total dosage of rescue analgesia, performance-based evaluations [timed-up and go (TUG test, quadriceps strength], side-effects, length of hospital stay and patient satisfaction were measured. Results: Fifty-seven patients were available for analysis. Median total morphine consumption over 24 and 48 postoperative hours of Group A were significantly less than Group L (6/10 mg vs 13/25 mg, p, 0.008 and 0.001, respectively. Similarly, Group A had significantly lower VAS at postoperative 6, 12 and 18 hours, VAS at ambulation on postoperative (POD 1-3, better TUG tests on POD 2 and during POD 3 than those of Group L. However, quadriceps strength and patient satisfaction were not different between both groups. Conclusion: Patients undergoing TKA with single-injection ACB required less postoperative opioids than those with LIA. Furthermore, multimodal analgesia using ACB provided better postoperative analgesia, as well as performance-based activities, than those with LIA.

  13. Infrared thermography as an effective tool to detect damaged muscle areas after running a marathon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Gutiérrez-Vargas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Infrared thermography (IT is an imaging technique that detects heat radiation emitted by an object and collects it to convert it into temperature values. In sports, it is used to identify damage to musculoskeletal structures based on the variation of body temperature in affected anatomical areas. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of IT as a tool to detect damaged muscles after running a marathon. Materials and methods: 17 runners were assessed before and after running a marathon (42.196 km using thermographic equipment. Results: Statistically significant temperature differences were found before and after running a marathon. There was a difference between previous and posterior measurement >1°C in the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris and adductor of the dominant leg, which, based on clinical parameters, indicates damage in these muscles. Increases in temperature were heterogeneous among anatomical areas. Conclusions: IT is an effective tool for detecting damaged muscle areas in runners after participating in a marathon.

  14. Calf muscle strain injuries in sport: a systematic review of risk factors for injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Brady; Pizzari, Tania

    2017-08-01

    To systematically review the literature to identify risk factors for calf strain injury, and to direct future research into calf muscle injuries. Systematic review DATA SOURCES: Database searches conducted for Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED, AUSPORT, SportDiscus, PEDro and Cochrane Library. Manual reference checks, ahead of press searches, citation tracking. From inception to June 2016. Studies evaluating and presenting data related to intrinsic or extrinsic risk factors for sustaining future calf injury. Ten studies were obtained for review. Subjects across football, Australian football, rugby union, basketball and triathlon were reported on, representing 5397 athletes and 518 calf/ lower leg muscle injuries. Best evidence synthesis highlights chronological age and previous history of calf strain are the strongest risk factors for future calf muscle injury. Previous lower limb injuries (hamstring, quadriceps, adductor, knee) show some limited evidence for an association. Numerous factors lack evidence of an association, including height, weight, gender and side dominance. Increasing age and previous calf strain injury are the most predictive of future calf injury. The overall paucity of evidence and the trend for studies of a high risk of bias show that further research needs to be undertaken. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Hip and ankle range of motion and hip muscle strength in young female ballet dancersand controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, K.; Khan, K. M.; Matthews, B.; De Gruyter, M.; Cook, E.; Holzer, K.; Wark, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the hip and ankle range of motion and hip muscle strength in 8-11 year old novice female ballet dancers and controls. METHODS: Subjects were 77 dancers and 49 controls (mean (SD) age 9.6 (0.8) and 9.6 (0.7) years respectively). Supine right active hip external rotation (ER) and internal rotation (IR) were measured using an inclinometer. A turnout protractor was used to assess standing active turnout range. The measure of ER achieved from below the hip during turnout (non-hip ER) was calculated by subtracting hip ER range from turnout range, and hip ER:IR was derived by dividing ER range by IR range. Range of right weight bearing ankle dorsiflexion was measured in a standing lunge using two methods: the distance from the foot to the wall (in centimetres) and the angle of the shank to the vertical via an inclinometer (in degrees). Right calf muscle range was measured in weight bearing using an inclinometer. A manual muscle tester was used to assess right isometric hip flexor, internal rotator, external rotator, abductor, and adductor strength. RESULTS: Dancers had less ER (pballetic training. 


 PMID:10522638

  16. Tough Policies, Incredible Policies?

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Velasco; Alejandro Neut

    2003-01-01

    We revisit the question of what determines the credibility of macroeconomic policies here, of promises to repay public debt. Almost all thinking on the issue has focused on governments' strategic decision to default (or erode the value of outstanding debt via inflation/devaluation). But sometimes governments default not because they want to, but because they cannot avoid it: adverse shocks leave them no option. We build a model in which default/devaluation can occur deliberately (for strategi...

  17. Imaging of muscle injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khoury, G.Y. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Brandser, E.A. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Kathol, M.H. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Tearse, D.S. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery; Callaghan, J.J. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery

    1996-01-01

    Although skeletal muscle is the single largest tissue in the body, there is little written about it in the radiologic literature. Indirect muscle injuries, also called strains or tears, are common in athletics, and knowing the morphology and physiology of the muscle-tendon unit is the key to the understanding of these injuries. Eccentric muscle activation produces more tension within the muscle tan when it is activated concentrically, making it more susceptible to tearing. Injuries involving the muscle belly tend to occur near the myotendinous junction. In adolescents, the weakest link in the muscle-tendon-bone complex is the apophysis. Traditionally, plain radiography has been the main diagnostic modality for evaluation of these injuries; however, with the advent of MRI it has become much easier to diagnose injuries primarily affecting the soft tissues. This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the muscle-tendon unit as they relate to indirect muscle injuries. Examples of common muscle injuries are illustrated. (orig.)

  18. Engineering Skeletal Muscle Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Juhas, Mark; Bursac, Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Healthy skeletal muscle has a remarkable capacity for regeneration. Even at a mature age, muscle tissue can undergo a robust rebuilding process that involves the formation of new muscle cells and extracellular matrix and the re-establishment of vascular and neural networks. Understanding and reverse-engineering components of this process is essential for our ability to restore loss of muscle mass and function in cases where the natural ability of muscle for self-repair is exhausted or impaire...

  19. Localization of the motor endplate zone in human skeletal muscles of the lower limb: anatomical guidelines for injection with botulinum toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campenhout, Anja; Molenaers, Guy

    2011-02-01

    Botulinum toxin gives a local tone reduction by blocking neurotransmission at the motor endplate (MEP). The importance of using MEP-targeted injections is demonstrated in animal models and in a clinical human study. The goal of this review is to present the available data on the localization of the MEP zone of frequently injected muscles of the lower limb and to compare this with current practice. Current knowledge on the localization of the MEP zone is based on some older histological studies, and for some of the more frequently injected muscles also on more recent anatomical dissection. We find that for some muscles the MEP zone can be more precisely demarcated, and for many other muscles that its location is somewhat different than the currently injected areas in clinical practice. Optimal injection sites are presented for gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis posterior, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, gracilis, biceps femoris, rectus femoris, adductor longus, brevis and magnus, and psoas muscles. We propose optimal injection sites in relation to external anatomical landmarks for the frequently injected muscles of the human lower limb to facilitate the efficiency of botulinum toxin injections. © The Authors. Journal compilation © Mac Keith Press 2010.

  20. Computed tomographical findings of skeletal muscles in rimmed vacuole type distal myopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunimoto, Masanari; Kawai, Mitsuru; Goto, Jun; Nakano, Imaharu

    1987-03-01

    Skeletal muscle CT scans of three patients with biopsy-proven rimmed vacuole type distal myopathy(RVDM) from two unrelated families showed unique involvement pattern of the lower extremities. Parents of the patients in both families are first cousins. T.Y. is a 36-year-old woman who noticed mild difficulty in walking at 34 years of age. Now she shows waddling but still indpendent gait. Manual muscle test (MMT) revealed the following results: fair (3+/5) for hip flexion, 3 for hip extension, 3 for knee flexion, normal (5/5) for knee extension, poor (2/5) for ankle dorsi-flexion, good (4/5) for ankle plantar flexion. T.M., a 34-year-old younger sister of T.Y., started dragging her feet on gait at age 27. She could walk neither on toes nor heels. At present, she can walk only with support. MMT showed the following: 3- and trace (1/5) for hip flexion and extension, 3- and 4 for knee flexion and extension, 1 for ankle plantar- and dorsiflexion. K.W., a 33-year-old woman, began to drag her foot tips in walk and became unable to walk on toes at age 21. The leg weakness progressed into the wheelchair-ridden state at age 30. MMT gave the following results: 1 for hip flexion and extension, 2 and 4 for knee flexion and extension, zero for plantar- and dorsi-flexion. The most impressive CT findings common to these three patients are prominent contrast between the quadriceps muscles and the adductor- and hamstring-group: the former is markedly well preserved even in the most advanced patient (K.W.) while the latter are diffusely and severely affected even in the least affected patient (T.Y.). This finding well coincides with the results of MMT: the knee extensor (quadriceps muscles) fairly well keeps its strength even in the most advanced patient but the knee flexors (adductors and hamstrings) are definitely affected in the early stage of the condition. (J.P.N.).

  1. Computed tomographical findings of skeletal muscles in rimmed vacuole type distal myopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunimoto, Masanari; Kawai, Mitsuru; Goto, Jun; Nakano, Imaharu

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal muscle CT scans of three patients with biopsy-proven rimmed vacuole type distal myopathy(RVDM) from two unrelated families showed unique involvement pattern of the lower extremities. Parents of the patients in both families are first cousins. T.Y. is a 36-year-old woman who noticed mild difficulty in walking at 34 years of age. Now she shows waddling but still indpendent gait. Manual muscle test (MMT) revealed the following results: fair (3+/5) for hip flexion, 3 for hip extension, 3 for knee flexion, normal (5/5) for knee extension, poor (2/5) for ankle dorsi-flexion, good (4/5) for ankle plantar flexion. T.M., a 34-year-old younger sister of T.Y., started dragging her feet on gait at age 27. She could walk neither on toes nor heels. At present, she can walk only with support. MMT showed the following: 3- and trace (1/5) for hip flexion and extension, 3- and 4 for knee flexion and extension, 1 for ankle plantar- and dorsiflexion. K.W., a 33-year-old woman, began to drag her foot tips in walk and became unable to walk on toes at age 21. The leg weakness progressed into the wheelchair-ridden state at age 30. MMT gave the following results: 1 for hip flexion and extension, 2 and 4 for knee flexion and extension, zero for plantar- and dorsi-flexion. The most impressive CT findings common to these three patients are prominent contrast between the quadriceps muscles and the adductor- and hamstring-group: the former is markedly well preserved even in the most advanced patient (K.W.) while the latter are diffusely and severely affected even in the least affected patient (T.Y.). This finding well coincides with the results of MMT: the knee extensor (quadriceps muscles) fairly well keeps its strength even in the most advanced patient but the knee flexors (adductors and hamstrings) are definitely affected in the early stage of the condition. (J.P.N.)

  2. Muscle MRI findings in patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy with calpain 3 deficiency (LGMD2A) and early contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, Eugenio; Bushby, Kate; Ricci, Enzo; Birchall, Daniel; Pane, Marika; Kinali, Maria; Allsop, Joanna; Nigro, Vincenzo; Sáenz, Amets; Nascimbeni, Annachiara; Fulizio, Luigi; Angelini, Corrado; Muntoni, Francesco

    2005-02-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A is a common variant secondary to mutations in the calpain 3 gene. A proportion of patients has early and severe contractures, which can cause diagnostic difficulties with other conditions. We report clinical and muscle magnetic resonance imaging findings in seven limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A patients (four sporadic and three familial) who had prominent and early contractures. All patients showed a striking involvement of the posterior thigh muscles. The involvement of the other thigh muscles was variable and was related to clinical severity. Young patients with minimal functional motor impairment showed a predominant involvement of the adductors and semimembranosus muscles while patients with restricted ambulation had a more diffuse involvement of the posterolateral muscles of the thigh and of the vastus intermedius with relative sparing of the vastus lateralis, sartorius and gracilis. At calf level all patients showed involvement of the soleus muscle and of the medial head of the gastrocnemius with relative sparing of the lateral head. MRI findings were correlated to those found in two patients with the phenotype of limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A without early contractures and the pattern observed was quite similar. However, the pattern observed in limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A is different from that reported in other muscle diseases such as Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy and Bethlem myopathy which have a significant clinical overlap with limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A once early contractures are present. Our results suggest that muscle MRI may help in recognising patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A even when the clinical presentation overlaps with other conditions, and may therefore, be used as an additional investigation to target the appropriate biochemical and genetic tests.

  3. Heterogeneous effects of calorie restriction on in vivo glucose uptake and insulin signaling of individual rat skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Naveen; Sequea, Donel A; Castorena, Carlos M; Arias, Edward B; Qi, Nathan R; Cartee, Gregory D

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) (consuming ~60% of ad libitum, AL, intake) improves whole body insulin sensitivity and enhances insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by isolated skeletal muscles. However, little is known about CR-effects on in vivo glucose uptake and insulin signaling in muscle. Accordingly, 9-month-old male AL and CR (initiated when 3-months-old) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats were studied using a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp with plasma insulin elevated to a similar level (~140 µU/ml) in each diet group. Glucose uptake (assessed by infusion of [(14)C]-2-deoxyglucose, 2-DG), phosphorylation of key insulin signaling proteins (insulin receptor, Akt and Akt substrate of 160 kDa, AS160), abundance of GLUT4 and hexokinase proteins, and muscle fiber type composition (myosin heavy chain, MHC, isoform percentages) were determined in four predominantly fast-twitch (epitrochlearis, gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, plantaris) and two predominantly slow-twitch (soleus, adductor longus) muscles. CR did not result in greater GLUT4 or hexokinase abundance in any of the muscles, and there were no significant diet-related effects on percentages of MHC isoforms. Glucose infusion was greater for CR versus AL rats (Pmuscles (epitrochlearis, gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior), without a significant diet-effect on 2-DG uptake by the plantaris or either slow-twitch muscle. Each of the muscles with a CR-related increase in 2-DG uptake was also characterized by significant (Pmuscles without a CR-related increase in glucose uptake, only the soleus had significant (Pmuscles. The results also demonstrated that CR does not uniformly enhance either insulin signaling or insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in all muscles in vivo.

  4. Heterogeneous Effects of Calorie Restriction on In Vivo Glucose Uptake and Insulin Signaling of Individual Rat Skeletal Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Naveen; Sequea, Donel A.; Castorena, Carlos M.; Arias, Edward B.; Qi, Nathan R.; Cartee, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) (consuming ∼60% of ad libitum, AL, intake) improves whole body insulin sensitivity and enhances insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by isolated skeletal muscles. However, little is known about CR-effects on in vivo glucose uptake and insulin signaling in muscle. Accordingly, 9-month-old male AL and CR (initiated when 3-months-old) Fischer 344xBrown Norway rats were studied using a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp with plasma insulin elevated to a similar level (∼140 µU/ml) in each diet group. Glucose uptake (assessed by infusion of [14C]-2-deoxyglucose, 2-DG), phosphorylation of key insulin signaling proteins (insulin receptor, Akt and Akt substrate of 160kDa, AS160), abundance of GLUT4 and hexokinase proteins, and muscle fiber type composition (myosin heavy chain, MHC, isoform percentages) were determined in four predominantly fast-twitch (epitrochlearis, gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, plantaris) and two predominantly slow-twitch (soleus, adductor longus) muscles. CR did not result in greater GLUT4 or hexokinase abundance in any of the muscles, and there were no significant diet-related effects on percentages of MHC isoforms. Glucose infusion was greater for CR versus AL rats (Pmuscles (epitrochlearis, gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior), without a significant diet-effect on 2-DG uptake by the plantaris or either slow-twitch muscle. Each of the muscles with a CR-related increase in 2-DG uptake was also characterized by significant (Pmuscles without a CR-related increase in glucose uptake, only the soleus had significant (Pmuscles. The results also demonstrated that CR does not uniformly enhance either insulin signaling or insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in all muscles in vivo. PMID:23755179

  5. The effects of a weight belt on trunk and leg muscle activity and joint kinematics during the squat exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, A J; Whiting, W C; Vincent, W J; McLaine, A J

    2001-05-01

    Fourteen healthy men participated in a study designed to examine the effects of weight-belt use on trunk- and leg-muscle myoelectric activity (EMG) and joint kinematics during the squat exercise. Each subject performed the parallel back squat exercise at a self-selected speed according to his own technique with 90% of his IRM both without a weight belt (NWB) and with a weight belt (WB). Myoelectric activity of the right vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, adductor magnus, gluteus maximus, and erector spinae was recorded using surface electrodes. Subjects were videotaped from a sagittal plane view while standing on a force plate. WB trials were completed significantly faster (p squat exercise may affect the path of the barbell and speed of the lift without altering myoelectric activity. This suggests that the use of a weight belt may improve a lifter's explosive power by increasing the speed of the movement without compromising the joint range of motion or overall lifting technique.

  6. Myosin heavy chain expression in cranial, pectoral fin, and tail muscle regions of zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mou-Yun; Wen, Hui-Ju; Shih, Li-Jane; Kuo, Ching-Ming; Hwang, Sheng-Ping L

    2002-12-01

    To investigate whether different myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms may constitute myofibrils in the trunk and tail musculature and if their respective expression may be regulated by spadetail (spt) and no tail (brachyury), we identified and characterized mRNA expression patterns of an embryonic- and tail muscle-specific MHC gene (named myhz2) during zebrafish development in wild type, spt, and ntl mutant embryos. The identified myhz2 MHC gene encodes a polypeptide containing 1,935 amino acids. Deduced amino acid comparisons showed that myhz2 MHC shared 92.6% sequence identity with that of carp fast skeletal MHC. Temporal and spatial myhz2 MHC mRNA expression patterns were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization using primer pairs and probes designed from the 3'-untranslated region (UTR). Temporally myhz2 MHC mRNA appears in pharyngula embryos and peaks in protruding-mouth larvae. The expression level decreased in 7-day-old hatching larvae, and mRNA expression was not detectable in adult fish. Spatially in pharyngula embryos, mRNA was localized only in the tail somite region, while in long-pec embryos, transcripts were also expressed in the two cranial muscle elements of the adductor mandibulae and medial rectus, as well as in pectoral fin muscles and the tail muscle region. Myhz2 MHC mRNA was expressed in most cranial muscle elements, pectoral fin muscles, and the tail muscle region of 3-day-old hatching larvae. In contrast, no expression of myhz2 MHC mRNA could be observed in spt prim-15 mutant embryos. In spt long-pec mutant embryos, transcripts were expressed in two cranial muscle elements and the tail muscle region, but not in pectoral fin muscles, while only trace amounts of myhz2 MHC mRNA were expressed in the remaining tail muscle region of 38 hpf and long-pec ntl mutant embryos. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Ca2+-activated force-generating properties of mammalian skeletal muscle fibres: histochemically identified single peeled rabbit fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, S K

    1984-12-01

    Single peeled (sarcolemma removed) rabbit skeletal muscle fibres, identified histochemically from their myofibrillar ATPase and oxidative staining patterns, were characterized according to their Ca2+-activated steady-state force-generating properties at normal intracellular pH (7.0) and under acidotic (pH 6.5) conditions. Maximum force-generating capacity of each fibre was assessed by measuring steady-state isometric force generation at saturating Ca2+ concentration at both pH values. The Ca2+ sensitivity of each fibre was ascertained by determining the percentage of maximum force generated at each of several subsaturating Ca2+ concentrations at both pH values. Fibres were selected from soleus, tibialis anterior and adductor magnus muscles. At subsaturating Ca2+ concentrations only two functional groups of fibres were distinguishable, corresponding to the histochemical classifications type I and type II. Type I fibres were more sensitive to Ca2+ and less depressed by acidosis than type II fibres in the subsaturating range of Ca2+ concentrations. At saturating Ca2+ concentrations, the acidotic depression of maximum force was significantly less for type I fibres than type II nonoxidative fibres regardless of their muscle of origin. Type II oxidative fibre maximum force properties depended upon the muscle of origin and demonstrated subgroups of these fibres that were different from type II nonoxidative fibres and similar to type I fibres.

  8. Muscle activity during stance phase of walking: comparison of males with transfemoral amputation with osseointegrated fixations to nondisabled male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantall, Annette; Ewins, David

    2013-01-01

    A recent development in prosthetics is the osseointegrated fixation (OF), with improvements in comfort, fatigue, hip movement, and ease of prosthetic attachment reported. However, little information is available regarding muscle function. This study reports on selected gait parameters of the residual limb during the stance phase of level overground walking, focusing on muscle activity. Five males with transfemoral amputation (TFA) with OFs were recruited. Ground reaction force (GRF), lower-limb kinematics, and surface electromyography (sEMG) from residual-limb muscles were recorded. sEMG data were also collected from a group of 10 nondisabled male subjects. Interstance variability of gait parameters was assessed by coefficient of multiple correlations. Repeatability of GRF and hip kinematics was high, whereas repeatability of the sEMG was low for four of the five individuals with TFA. Interstance variability of the sEMG for gluteus medius (GMED) was significantly greater in the group with TFA. The main difference in sEMG between the groups was the phase, with GMED and adductor magnus displaying greater differences than their counterparts in the nondisabled group. Results demonstrate that muscles in the residual limb retain aspects of their previous functional pattern.

  9. Limits of the manipulative-fixed method for measurement of shoulder joint horizontal adduction muscle strength using a handheld dynamometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Masahiro; Katoh, Munenori

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to verify the limit of isometric muscle strength of shoulder joint horizontal adduction using handheld dynamometer (HHD) manipulated by hand (referred to as the manipulative-fixed method). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 33 healthy college students. The examiner was a healthy college student. Shoulder joint horizontal adductor muscle strength was measured using HHD with the subject in the supine position. The belt-fixed and manipulative-fixed methods were used to secure the HHD sensor unit. The limitations of the manipulative-fixed method were assessed by simple regression analysis, in which the participants were divided into 2 groups according to a branch point. The slope of the straight line of the graph was visualized. [Results] Single regression analysis of the 30 kgf group were not significant. [Conclusion] The manipulative-fixed method is simple to perform. However, there exists the possibility that the actual muscle strength is not measurable by this method. The measurement limit of the shoulder horizontal adduction strength with the manipulative-fixed method was 30 kgf in the case of the examiner in the present study. The fixed limit was also found to influence in the muscle strength of the upper limbs. PMID:25642081

  10. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p strength was the only independent predictor of spine and femoral neck density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  11. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p < 0.01 to p = 0.0001). Body weight correlated with tibia and whole-body BMD (p < 0.001); age negatively correlated with Ward's triangle BMD (p < 0.01). In stepwise multiple regressions, back strength was the only independent predictor of spine and femoral neck density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  12. Rectus abdominis muscle injuries in elite handball players: management and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balius R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ramon Balius1, Carles Pedret2, Laura Pacheco1, Josep Antoni Gutierrez3, Joan Vives4, Jaume Escoda11Consell Català de l’Esport, Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona; 2Centro Mapfre de Medicina del Tenis, Barcelona; 3Spanish National Handball Team, Spain; 4Granollers Handball Club, Granollers, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Muscle injuries generally occur in two-joint muscles with a high percentage of type II fibers during the performance of eccentric activity. Some muscle injuries, such as those located in the adductor longus, a monoarticular muscle, as well as rectus abdominis do not fully comply with these requirements. This study examines five cases of elite handball players with ruptured rectus abdominals. Sonographically, lesions in rectus abdominis are shown as a disruption of the fibrillar pattern with a hematic suffusion that invades the entire lesion. In some of the cases, the ultrasound study was complemented with a MRI. A unified rehabilitation protocol was applied and the return to play time of each handball player ranged between 16 and 22 days, with an average of 18.2 days. Follow-up at 15 months showed no evidence of re-injury or residual discomfort and all of them are playing at their highest level. The aim of this study was to illustrate a feature of handball injury that, as in tennis and volleyball, is uncommon and so far has not been specifically reported. The phenomenon of contralateral abdominal hypertrophy in handball appears in the dominant arm as in tennis and volleyball.Keywords: rectus abdominis, muscle injury, sonography, MRI, handball 

  13. Sustantial Observation on Foot Taeyang Meridian Muscle in Human Lower Limb from a Anatomical Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Sik Park

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was carried to identify the anatomical component of FTMM(Foot Taeyang Meridian Muscle in human lower limb, and further to help the accurate application to real acupuncture. Methods : FTM at the surface of the lower limb was labelled with latex. And cadaver was stripped off to demonstrate muscles, nerves and the others and to display the internal structures of FTMM, being divided into outer, middle, and inner layer. Results : FTMM in human lower limb is composed of muscles, nerves, ligaments etc. The internal composition of the FTMM in human lower limb are as follows : 1 Muscle : Gluteus maximus. biceps femoris, semitendinosus, gastrocnemius, triceps calf, fibularis brevis tendon, superior peroneal retinacula, calcaneofibular ligament, inferior extensor retinaculum, abductor digiti minimi, sheath of flexor tendon at outer layer, biceps femoris, semimembranosus, plantaris, soleus, posterior tibialis, fibularis brevis, extensor digitorum brevis, flexor digiti minimi at middle layer, and for the last time semimembranosus, adductor magnus, plantaris, popliteus, posterior tibialis, flexor hallucis longus, dorsal calcaneocuboidal ligament at inner layer. 2 Nerve : Inferior cluneal nerve, posterior femoral cutaneous n., sural cutaneous n., proper plantar branch of lateral plantar n. at outer layer, sciatic nerve, common peroneal n., medial sural cutaneous n., tibial n. at middle layer, and for the last time tibial nerve, flexor hallucis longus branch of tibial n. at inner layer. Conclusions : This study proves comparative differences from already established studies from the viewpoint of constituent elements of FTMM in the lower limb, and also in the aspect of substantial assay method. We can guess that there are conceptional differences between terms (that is, nerves which control muscles of FTMM and those which pass near by FTMM in human anatomy.

  14. A study on the findings of muscle CT in patients with Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumida, Sawako; Osawa, Makiko; Okada, Noriko

    1988-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the process of muscle involvement according to age in patients with FCMD (Brain Dev 1981 ; 3:1 - 29) by CT scans. Fourteen patients with FCMD I (age: 5 months-12 years) and two patients with FCMD III or IV (age: 3, 4 years) were studied. The midcalf, midthigh, L3 and shoulder girdle level were the sites chosen. Two types of change were found in FCMD I. One of them was the attenuation of the density in muscle and the other one was decreased area of muscle as a result of low density which started from periphery of the muscle. The latter was found in m. psoas major after age 9, whilst the former was found in other muscles to some degree. The severity of the changes was related to age. In the case which was examined twice, the changes extended even better motor function had been attained. The changes in midcalf preceded those in midthigh, L3, shoulder girdle. The attenuation of density was found early and severely in m. triceps surae, m. adductor magnus, paravertebral muscles and m. subscapularis, whilst those in m. tibialis anterior and posterior, m. gracilis, m. sartorius, m. quadratus lumborum appeared later and relatively mild. The relationship between the process of extension of low density in muscle and joint contractures were also discussed. The changes in CT scan in FCMD III or IV were milder than those of FCMD I and there was no tendency that the change in midcalf preceded those of other scanned level. (author)

  15. Jaw-muscle architecture and mandibular morphology influence relative maximum jaw gapes in the sexually dimorphic Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Claire E; Hylander, William L; Vinyard, Christopher J; Taylor, Andrea B

    2015-05-01

    Maximum jaw gape is a performance variable related to feeding and non-feeding oral behaviors, such as canine gape displays, and is influenced by several factors including jaw-muscle fiber architecture, muscle position on the skull, and jaw morphology. Maximum gape, jaw length, and canine height are strongly correlated across catarrhine primates, but relationships between gape and other aspects of masticatory apparatus morphology are less clear. We examine the effects of jaw-adductor fiber architecture, jaw-muscle leverage, and jaw form on gape in an intraspecific sample of sexually dimorphic crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis). As M. fascicularis males have relatively larger maximum gapes than females, we predict that males will have muscle and jaw morphologies that facilitate large gape, but these morphologies may come at some expense to bite force. Male crab-eating macaques have relatively longer jaw-muscle fibers, masseters with decreased leverage, and temporomandibular joint morphologies that facilitate the production of wide gapes. Because relative canine height is correlated with maximum gape in catarrhines, and males have relatively longer canines than females, these results support the hypothesis that male M. fascicularis have experienced selection to increase maximum gape. The sexes do not differ in relative masseter physiologic cross-sectional area (PCSA), but males compensate for a potential trade-off between muscle excursion versus muscle force with increased temporalis weight and PCSA. This musculoskeletal configuration is likely functionally significant for behaviors involving aggressive canine biting and displays in male M. fascicularis and provides additional evidence supporting the multifactorial nature of the catarrhine masticatory apparatus. Our results have implications for the evolution of craniofacial morphology in catarrhine primates and reinforce the importance of evaluating additional factors other than feeding behavior and diet

  16. Evolution and homologies of primate and modern human hand and forearm muscles, with notes on thumb movements and tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Richmond, Brian G; Wood, Bernard

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we explore how the results of a primate-wide higher-level phylogenetic analysis of muscle characters can improve our understanding of the evolution and homologies of the forearm and hand muscles of modern humans. Contrary to what is often suggested in the literature, none of the forearm and hand muscle structures usually present in modern humans are autapomorphic. All are found in one or more extant non-human primate taxa. What is unique is the particular combination of muscles. However, more muscles go to the thumb in modern humans than in almost all other primates, reinforcing the hypothesis that focal thumb movements probably played an important role in human evolution. What makes the modern human thumb myology special within the primate clade is not so much its intrinsic musculature but two extrinsic muscles, extensor pollicis brevis and flexor pollicis longus, that are otherwise only found in hylobatids. It is likely that these two forearm muscles play different functional roles in hylobatids and modern humans. In the former, the thumb is separated from elongated digits by a deep cleft and there is no pulp-to-pulp opposition, whereas modern humans exhibit powerful thumb flexion and greater manipulative abilities, such as those involved in the manufacture and use of tools. The functional and evolutionary significance of a third peculiar structure, the intrinsic hand structure that is often called the 'interosseous volaris primus of Henle' (and which we suggest is referred to as the musculus adductor pollicis accessorius) is still obscure. The presence of distinct contrahentes digitorum and intermetacarpales in adult chimpanzees is likely the result of prolonged or delayed development of the hand musculature of these apes. In relation to these structures, extant chimpanzees are more neotenic than modern humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laruelle, Ph.; Snegaroff, Th.; Moreau, S.; Tellenne, C.; Brunel, S.

    2005-01-01

    Fourth chapter of the book on the geo-policy of the sustainable development, this chapter deal with the different and international policies concerned by the problem. The authors analyze the american energy attitude and policy, the economical equilibrium facing the environmental equilibrium for the european policy, the sanctified and sacrificed nature and the japanese attitude, India and China, the great fear of the 21 century and the sustainable development in Africa. (A.L.B.)

  18. Healthy Muscles Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do. Exercising, getting enough rest, and eating a balanced diet will help to keep your muscles healthy for ... keep your muscles in good health. Eating a balanced diet will help manage your weight and provide a ...

  19. the sternalis muscle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-08-17

    Aug 17, 2009 ... scan of the chest wall was performed to gain clarity of the mam- mographic findings (Figs 1a, 1b and 2). The CT scan demonstrated a flattened band of muscle density lying anterior to the medial margin of the pectoralis muscle. This structure was separated from the underlying pectoralis muscle by a thin ...

  20. Sustained maximal voluntary contraction produces independent changes in human motor axons and the muscle they innervate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Milder

    Full Text Available The repetitive discharges required to produce a sustained muscle contraction results in activity-dependent hyperpolarization of the motor axons and a reduction in the force-generating capacity of the muscle. We investigated the relationship between these changes in the adductor pollicis muscle and the motor axons of its ulnar nerve supply, and the reproducibility of these changes. Ten subjects performed a 1-min maximal voluntary contraction. Activity-dependent changes in axonal excitability were measured using threshold tracking with electrical stimulation at the wrist; changes in the muscle were assessed as evoked and voluntary electromyography (EMG and isometric force. Separate components of axonal excitability and muscle properties were tested at 5 min intervals after the sustained contraction in 5 separate sessions. The current threshold required to produce the target muscle action potential increased immediately after the contraction by 14.8% (p<0.05, reflecting decreased axonal excitability secondary to hyperpolarization. This was not correlated with the decline in amplitude of muscle force or evoked EMG. A late reversal in threshold current after the initial recovery from hyperpolarization peaked at -5.9% at ∼35 min (p<0.05. This pattern was mirrored by other indices of axonal excitability revealing a previously unreported depolarization of motor axons in the late recovery period. Measures of axonal excitability were relatively stable at rest but less so after sustained activity. The coefficient of variation (CoV for threshold current increase was higher after activity (CoV 0.54, p<0.05 whereas changes in voluntary (CoV 0.12 and evoked twitch (CoV 0.15 force were relatively stable. These results demonstrate that activity-dependent changes in motor axon excitability are unlikely to contribute to concomitant changes in the muscle after sustained activity in healthy people. The variability in axonal excitability after sustained activity

  1. Evolution of asynchronous motor activity in paired muscles: effects of ecology, morphology, and phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerry, Shannon P; Ramsay, Jason B; Dean, Mason N; Wilga, Cheryl D

    2008-08-01

    Many studies of feeding behavior have implanted electrodes unilaterally (in muscles on only one side of the head) to determine the basic motor patterns of muscles controlling the jaws. However, bilateral implantation has the potential to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of modification of the motor activity that may be occurring between the left and right sides of the head. In particular, complex processing of prey is often characterized by bilaterally asynchronous and even unilateral activation of the jaw musculature. In this study, we bilaterally implant feeding muscles in species from four orders of elasmobranchs (Squaliformes, Orectolobiformes, Carcharhiniformes, Rajoidea) in order to characterize the effects of type of prey, feeding behavior, and phylogeny on the degree of asynchronous muscle activation. Electrodes were implanted in three of the jaw adductors, two divisions of the quadratomandibularis and the preorbitalis, as well as in a cranial elevator in sharks, the epaxialis. The asynchrony of feeding events (measured as the degree to which activity of members of a muscle pair is out of phase) was compared across species for capture versus processing and simple versus complex prey, then interpreted in the contexts of phylogeny, morphology, and ecology to clarify determinants of asynchronous activity. Whereas capture and processing of prey were characterized by statistically similar degrees of asynchrony for data pooled across species, events involving complex prey were more asynchronous than were those involving simple prey. The two trophic generalists, Squalus acanthias and Leucoraja erinacea, modulated the degree of asynchrony according to type of prey, whereas the two behavioral specialists, Chiloscyllium plagiosum and Mustelus canis, activated the cranial muscles synchronously regardless of type of prey. These differences in jaw muscle activity would not have been detected with unilateral implantation. Therefore, we advocate bilateral

  2. Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: the value of magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of muscle involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Odete Esteves Hilário

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: One of the major current challenges related to juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy is the search for highly sensitive and specific non-invasive methods for diagnosis as well as for follow-up. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to describe typical magnetic resonance imaging findings and to investigate the usefulness of this method in detecting active muscle disease in juvenile dermatomyositis and juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients. DESIGN: Transverse study, blinded assessment. SETTING: University referral unit (Pediatric Rheumatology section, Department of Pediatrics, Universidade Federal de São Paulo / Escola Paulista de Medicina. SAMPLE: Thirteen patients (9 girls with dermatomyositis, as well as 13 patients (12 girls with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus and 10 normal children (5 girls, were enrolled in the study. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Qualitative and quantitative analyses of gluteus maximus, quadriceps, adductors and flexors were performed and evaluated by two radiologists, blinded to all clinical information. Spin-echo in T1, DP, T2 and IR was used in all MRI images. RESULTS: The different muscle groups presented non-uniform involvement in the patients. The patients with dermatomyositis presented acute and chronic muscular alterations, while those with lupus presented only chronic myopathy, especially atrophy. In the dermatomyositis group, the major alterations were found in the gluteus and flexor regions (signal intensity and fat replacement. The signal intensity was increased in all acute myopathies. CONCLUSION: The qualitative and quantitative resonance analyses are useful in detecting clinically active disease in patients with dermatomyositis.

  3. Lipolysis in Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Annette Karen Lundbeck

    of AMPK in regulation of lipid handling and lipolysis in the basal non-contracting state and during muscle contractions in skeletal muscle. To evaluate the role of AMPK, we measured protein expression and phosphorylation as well as gene expression of proteins important for regulation of lipid handling...... and lipolysis in skeletal muscle from wildtype mice and mice overexpressing a kinase dead AMPKα2 construct (AMPKα2 KD) in the basal non-contracting state and during in situ stimulated muscle contractions. We found, that IMTG levels were ~50% lower in AMPKα2 KD in the basal resting state, explained by a lower....... IMTG was in wildtype mice reduced with ~50% after muscle contractions with no effect of contractions in AMPKα2 KD mice. Concomitantly, ATGL was phosphorylated at ser406 and HSL on ser565 with muscle contractions in an AMPK dependent manner, suggesting that these sites actives lipolysis during muscle...

  4. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Emerson Randolph

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies, such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some muscular dystrophies. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on their embryologic origins and the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease.

  5. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Matthew E.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease. PMID:26500547

  6. Fiber-type susceptibility to eccentric contraction-induced damage of hindlimb-unloaded rat AL muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, K.; Thompson, J. L.; Norenberg, K. M.; Fitts, R. H.; Riley, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    Slow oxidative (SO) fibers of the adductor longus (AL) were predominantly damaged during voluntary reloading of hindlimb unloaded (HU) rats and appeared explainable by preferential SO fiber recruitment. The present study assessed damage after eliminating the variable of voluntary recruitment by tetanically activating all fibers in situ through the motor nerve while applying eccentric (lengthening) or isometric contractions. Muscles were aldehyde fixed and resin embedded, and semithin sections were cut. Sarcomere lesions were quantified in toluidine blue-stained sections. Fibers were typed in serial sections immunostained with antifast myosin and antitotal myosin (which highlights slow fibers). Both isometric and eccentric paradigms caused fatigue. Lesions occurred only in eccentrically contracted control and HU muscles. Fatigue did not cause lesions. HU increased damage because lesioned- fiber percentages within fiber types and lesion sizes were greater than control. Fast oxidative glycolytic (FOG) fibers were predominantly damaged. In no case did damaged SO fibers predominate. Thus, when FOG, SO, and hybrid fibers are actively lengthened in chronically unloaded muscle, FOG fibers are intrinsically more susceptible to damage than SO fibers. Damaged hybrid-fiber proportions ranged between these extremes.

  7. Femoral strain during walking predicted with muscle forces from static and dynamic optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, W Brent; Miller, Ross H; Derrick, Timothy R

    2016-05-03

    Mechanical strain plays an important role in skeletal health, and the ability to accurately and noninvasively quantify bone strain in vivo may be used to develop preventive measures that improve bone quality and decrease fracture risk. A non-invasive estimation of bone strain requires combined musculoskeletal - finite element modeling, for which the applied muscle forces are usually obtained from static optimization (SO) methods. In this study, we compared finite element predicted femoral strains in walking using muscle forces obtained from SO to those obtained from forward dynamics (FD) simulation. The general trends in strain distributions were similar between FD and SO derived conditions and both agreed well with previously reported in vivo strain gage measurements. On the other hand, differences in peak maximum (εmax) and minimum (εmin) principal strain magnitudes were as high as 32% between FD (εmax/εmin=945/-1271με) and SO (εmax/εmin=752/-859με). These large differences in strain magnitudes were observed during the first half of stance, where SO predicted lower gluteal muscle forces and virtually no co-contraction of the hip adductors compared to FD. The importance of these results will likely depend on the purpose/application of the modeling procedure. If the goal is to obtain a generalized strain distribution for adaptive bone remodeling algorithms, then traditional SO is likely sufficient. In cases were strain magnitudes are critical, as is the case with fracture risk assessment, bone strain estimation may benefit by including muscle activation and contractile dynamics in SO, or by using FD when practical. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of microgravity on muscle and cerebral cortex: a suggested interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, F.; Fox, R. A.; Wu, L. C.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.

    The ``slow'' antigravity muscle adductor longus was studied in rats after 14 days of spaceflight (SF). The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light and electron microscopy revealed myofiber atrophy, segmental necrosis and regenerative myofibers. Regenerative myofibers were N-CAM immunoreactive (N-CAM-IR). The neuromuscular junctions showed axon terminals with a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles, degenerative changes, vacant axonal spaces and changes suggestive of axonal sprouting. No alterations of muscle spindles was seen either by light or electron microscopy. These observations suggest that muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight. In a separate study, GABA immunoreactivity (GABA-IR) was evaluated at the level of the hindlimb representation of the rat somatosensory cortex after 14 days of hindlimb unloading by tail suspension (``simulated'' microgravity). A reduction in number of GABA-immunoreactive cells with respect to the control animals was observed in layer Va and Vb. GABA-IR terminals were also reduced in the same layers, particularly those terminals surrounding the soma and apical dendrites of pyramidal cells in layer Vb. On the basis of previous morphological and behavioral studies of the neuromuscular system after spaceflight and hindlimb suspension it is suggested that after limb unloading there are alterations of afferent signaling and feedback information from intramuscular receptors to the cerebral cortex due to modifications in the reflex organization of hindlimb muscle groups. We propose that the changes observed in GABA immunoreactivity of cells and terminals is an expression of changes in their modulatory activity to compensate for the alterations in the afferent information.

  9. Mandibular and hyoid muscles of Galeomorph sharks (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii), with remarks on their phylogenetic intrarelationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mateus C; de Carvalho, Marcelo R

    2013-10-01

    The superorder Galeomorph comprises the orders Heterodontiformes, Orectolobiformes, Lamniformes, and Carcharhiniformes. Recent morphological and molecular support that it is a monophyletic taxon. The phyletic relationship within the Galeomorphi are also well resolved. However, only few morphological characters of the mandibular and hyoid muscles have been employed, and a detailed description of these muscles and their variations may contribute new interpretations of homology and to the discussion of different hypothesis of intrarelationships. This paper provides a detailed description of mandibular and hyoid arch muscles in galeomorph sharks, within a comparative elasmobranch framework, with the objective to discuss putative homologies that may elucidate our understanding of galeomorph evolution. Twenty-eight galeomorph species were dissected, described, illustrated and compared with other elasmobranchs and with data from the literature. The Galeomorphi are supported as monophyletic by presenting the m. levator labii superioris attached directly to the neurocranium, different from the attachment through a tendon in basal squalomorphs. Heterodontiformes and Orectolobiformes share particular variations in the position and insertion of the m. levator labii superioris and the presence of a well-defined m. levator hyomandibulae. Lamniformes and Carcharhiniformes show similar patterns in the position and attachment of the m. levator labii superioris, subdivision of the m. adductor mandibulae, and the presence of an almost indivisible m. levator hyomandibulae and m. constrictor hyoideus dorsalis, similar to the condition, albeit independently, in basal squalomorphs. No specific mandibular or hyoid arch muscle character was found to support the clade composed of Orectolobiformes, Lamniformes, and Carcharhiniformes, as advocated by recent phylogenetic analyses. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Heterogeneous effects of calorie restriction on in vivo glucose uptake and insulin signaling of individual rat skeletal muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Sharma

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR (consuming ~60% of ad libitum, AL, intake improves whole body insulin sensitivity and enhances insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by isolated skeletal muscles. However, little is known about CR-effects on in vivo glucose uptake and insulin signaling in muscle. Accordingly, 9-month-old male AL and CR (initiated when 3-months-old Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats were studied using a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp with plasma insulin elevated to a similar level (~140 µU/ml in each diet group. Glucose uptake (assessed by infusion of [(14C]-2-deoxyglucose, 2-DG, phosphorylation of key insulin signaling proteins (insulin receptor, Akt and Akt substrate of 160 kDa, AS160, abundance of GLUT4 and hexokinase proteins, and muscle fiber type composition (myosin heavy chain, MHC, isoform percentages were determined in four predominantly fast-twitch (epitrochlearis, gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, plantaris and two predominantly slow-twitch (soleus, adductor longus muscles. CR did not result in greater GLUT4 or hexokinase abundance in any of the muscles, and there were no significant diet-related effects on percentages of MHC isoforms. Glucose infusion was greater for CR versus AL rats (P<0.05 concomitant with significantly (P<0.05 elevated 2-DG uptake in 3 of the 4 fast-twitch muscles (epitrochlearis, gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, without a significant diet-effect on 2-DG uptake by the plantaris or either slow-twitch muscle. Each of the muscles with a CR-related increase in 2-DG uptake was also characterized by significant (P<0.05 increases in phosphorylation of both Akt and AS160. Among the 3 muscles without a CR-related increase in glucose uptake, only the soleus had significant (P<0.05 CR-related increases in Akt and AS160 phosphorylation. The current data revealed that CR leads to greater whole body glucose disposal in part attributable to elevated in vivo insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by fast-twitch muscles. The

  11. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... to achieve their goals; and the actors in the policy system that are being mobilised in pursuing these goals. This paper deals with these policy changes, paying special attention to the novelties introduced since the early 1990s in Europe. The perspective of this paper deals mainly on the changes introduced...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  12. Informed policies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    cation technology (ICT) and now. Minister of Science and Technology, was one of the architects of Mozam- bique's ICT policy in 2000 — the first in Africa. Nationwide access to these technologies is one of the pillars of the government's science and technology policy. “We don't believe in politicians, but we believe in politics.

  13. The hamstring muscle complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Made, A D; Wieldraaijer, T; Kerkhoffs, G M; Kleipool, R P; Engebretsen, L; van Dijk, C N; Golanó, P

    2015-07-01

    The anatomical appearance of the hamstring muscle complex was studied to provide hypotheses for the hamstring injury pattern and to provide reference values of origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, musculotendinous junction (MTJ) length as well as width and length of a tendinous inscription in the semitendinosus muscle known as the raphe. Fifty-six hamstring muscle groups were dissected in prone position from 29 human cadaveric specimens with a median age of 71.5 (range 45-98). Data pertaining to origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, MTJ length and length as well as width of the raphe were collected. Besides these data, we also encountered interesting findings that might lead to a better understanding of the hamstring injury pattern. These include overlapping proximal and distal tendons of both the long head of the biceps femoris muscle and the semimembranosus muscle (SM), a twist in the proximal SM tendon and a tendinous inscription (raphe) in the semitendinosus muscle present in 96 % of specimens. No obvious hypothesis can be provided purely based on either muscle length, tendon length or MTJ length. However, it is possible that overlapping proximal and distal tendons as well as muscle architecture leading to a resultant force not in line with the tendon predispose to muscle injury, whereas the presence of a raphe might plays a role in protecting the muscle against gross injury. Apart from these architectural characteristics that may contribute to a better understanding of the hamstring injury pattern, the provided reference values complement current knowledge on surgically relevant hamstring anatomy. IV.

  14. MUSCLE INJURIES IN ATHLETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee

    2011-01-01

    This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best "treatment".

  15. An artificial muscle computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc O'Brien, Benjamin; Alexander Anderson, Iain

    2013-03-01

    We have built an artificial muscle computer based on Wolfram's "2, 3" Turing machine architecture, the simplest known universal Turing machine. Our computer uses artificial muscles for its instruction set, output buffers, and memory write and addressing mechanisms. The computer is very slow and large (0.15 Hz, ˜1 m3); however by using only 13 artificial muscle relays, it is capable of solving any computable problem given sufficient memory, time, and reliability. The development of this computer shows that artificial muscles can think—paving the way for soft robots with reflexes like those seen in nature.

  16. Accessory piriformis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Develi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Piriformis muscle originates from facies pelvica of sacrum and inserts on the trochanter major. It is one of the lateral rotator muscles of the hip and a landmark point in the gluteal region since n. ischiadicus descends to the thigh by passing close to the muscle. This contiguity may be associated with the irritation of the nerve which is known as piriformis syndrome. A rare anatomic variation of the muscle which observed on 74 years old male cadaver is discussed in this case report. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 182-183

  17. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  18. Physical Rehabilitation Improves Muscle Function Following Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-19

    muscle , but it did so without significant morphological adaptations (e.g., no hypertrophy and hyperplasia). Wheel running up-regulated metabolic genes...been shown to foster regeneration of injured muscle [5,32,33] and promote hypertrophy (i.e., increased protein synthesis or muscle weight) in muscle ...remaining muscle tissue. Strengthening of synergist muscles can partially compensate for the loss of function due to VML injury. Compensatory hypertrophy

  19. Policy stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard

    planning and execution and of event outcomes beyond the narrow confines of bed nights and legacies. Second, we introduce policies as an entry point to unlock discussions and manifestations of value and futures which connect to AWG. In order to exemplify the workings of the AWG event in these domains, we...... present three central policy stories from the field. The stories tell of how the event was first interested, then activated and finally evaluated. Besides adding a new understanding to policy-driven events as a locus of value creation, we also argue that the AWG 2016 offer speculative bets for new...

  20. Muscle Volume Increases Following 16 Weeks of Resistive Exercise Training with the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and Free Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, R. E.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Evans, H.; Smith, S. A.; Hagan, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight-induced muscle atrophy, particularly in the postural and locomotorymuscles, may impair task performance during long-duration space missions and planetary exploration. High intensity free weight (FW) resistive exercise training has been shown to prevent atrophy during bed rest, a space flight analog. NASA developed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to simulate the characteristics of FW exercise (i.e. constant mass, inertial force) and to be used as a countermeasure during International Space Station (ISS) missions. PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of ARED and FW training to induce hypertrophy in specific muscle groups in ambulatory subjects prior to deploying ARED on the ISS. METHODS: Twenty untrained subjects were assigned to either the ARED (8 males, 3 females) or FW (6 males, 3 females) group and participated in a periodizedtraining protocol consisting of squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift(DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR, and DL muscle strength (1RM) was measured before, after 8 wks, and after 16 wks of training to prescribe exercise and measure strength changes. Muscle volume of the vastigroup (V), hamstring group (H), hip adductor group (ADD), medial gastrocnemius(MG), lateral gastrocnemius(LG), and deep posterior muscles including soleus(DP) was measured using MRI pre-and post-training. Consecutive cross-sectional images (8 mm slices with a 2 mm gap) were analyzed and summed. Anatomical references insured that the same muscle sections were analyzed pre-and post-training. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (pmuscle strength and volume between training devices. RESULTS: SQ, HR, and DL 1RM increased in both FW (SQ: 49+/-6%, HR: 12+/-2%, DL: 23+/-4%) and ARED (SQ: 31+/-4%, HR: 18+/-2%, DL: 23+/-3%) groups. Both groups increased muscle volume in the V (FW: 13+/-2%, ARED: 10+/-2%), H (FW: 3+/-1%, ARED: 3+/-1 %), ADD (FW: 15=/-2%, ARED: 10+/-1%), LG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 4+/-1%), MG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 5+/-2%), and DP (FW: 2

  1. Muscles, exercise and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K; Febbraio, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    of yet unidentified factors, secreted from muscle cells, which may influence cancer cell growth and pancreas function. Many proteins produced by skeletal muscle are dependent upon contraction; therefore, physical inactivity probably leads to an altered myokine response, which could provide a potential...

  2. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability of m...

  3. The hamstring muscle complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, A. D.; Wieldraaijer, T.; Kerkhoffs, G. M.; Kleipool, R. P.; Engebretsen, L.; van Dijk, C. N.; Golanó, P.

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical appearance of the hamstring muscle complex was studied to provide hypotheses for the hamstring injury pattern and to provide reference values of origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, musculotendinous junction (MTJ) length as well as width and length of a tendinous

  4. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A

    2012-01-01

    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  5. [Diabetic muscle infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Bals, Edske; van der Woude, Henk-Jan; Smets, Yves F C

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic muscle infarction is a rare complication of diabetes mellitus that typically presents in the thigh; microvascular abnormalities may play a role. A 32-year-old female presented at the outpatient clinic with a painful, swollen thigh. She had suffered from type 1 diabetes for 22 years. The patient was admitted to the nephrology ward for further evaluation. Deep-venous thrombosis and abscess were excluded with echography. After additional investigations - MRI and a biopsy of skin, muscle and fascia - the diagnosis diabetic muscle infarction was made. The patient was treated with bed rest and analgesics. With hindsight, the muscle biopsy was not actually required in reaching a diagnosis. The diagnosis 'diabetic muscle infarction' is made on the basis of clinical presentation in combination with MRI findings. The treatment consists of bed rest and analgesics.

  6. A muscle model for hybrid muscle activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klauer Christian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To develop model-based control strategies for Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES in order to support weak voluntary muscle contractions, a hybrid model for describing joint motions induced by concurrent voluntary-and FES induced muscle activation is proposed. It is based on a Hammerstein model – as commonly used in feedback controlled FES – and exemplarily applied to describe the shoulder abduction joint angle. Main component of a Hammerstein muscle model is usually a static input nonlinearity depending on the stimulation intensity. To additionally incorporate voluntary contributions, we extended the static non-linearity by a second input describing the intensity of the voluntary contribution that is estimated by electromyography (EMG measurements – even during active FES. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN is used to describe the static input non-linearity. The output of the ANN drives a second-order linear dynamical system that describes the combined muscle activation and joint angle dynamics. The tunable parameters are adapted to the individual subject by a system identification approach using previously recorded I/O-data. The model has been validated in two healthy subjects yielding RMS values for the joint angle error of 3.56° and 3.44°, respectively.

  7. Muscle activity and hydrodynamic function of pelvic fins in trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standen, E M

    2010-03-01

    Contrary to the previous premise that pelvic fins lacked obvious function, recent work on three-dimensional fin motions suggests that pelvic fins actively control stability and speed in slowly swimming trout. This study used electromyography to measure pelvic fin muscle activity and particle imaging velocimetry to quantify flow along the ventral body region to test this hypothesis. Fish swam at slow speeds (0.13-1.36 BL s(-1)) while being filmed with three high speed cameras. Three-dimensional kinematics were captured for all trials. During EMG trials pelvic fin muscle activity was synchronized to kinematic motion, during particle imaging velocimetry trials, a laser light-sheet was used to visualize the flow surrounding the ventral aspect of the fish. Four main conclusions are reached: first, pelvic fins are actively oscillated during slow-speed swimming; antagonistic abductor and adductor muscles contracted simultaneously, their collective action producing a unique contralateral oscillating behaviour in the fins. Second, pelvic fins slow the flow along the ventral side affecting pitch and yaw instabilities; flow upstream of the pelvic fins is slowed by 0.02 m s(-1) and flow downstream of the pelvic fins is slowed by 0.034 m s(-1) compared with free stream flow. Third, pelvic fin wake influences anal fin angle of attack; flow angle in the wake of the pelvic fin was 33.84+/-2.4 deg. (max) and -11.83+/-11.2 deg. (min) compared with the free stream flow angle of 1.27+/-0.1 deg. Fourth, pelvic fins appear to actively damp body oscillation during slow-speed swimming, providing drag to help control speed and stabilize the body position during slow-speed swimming.

  8. Muscle Adaptations Following Short-Duration Bed Rest with Integrated Resistance, Interval, and Aerobic Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Kyle J.; Scott, Jessica M.; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd-Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, J. Brent; Everett, Meghan E.; Wickwire, Jason; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Unloading of the musculoskeletal system during space flight results in deconditioning that may impair mission-related task performance in astronauts. Exercise countermeasures have been frequently tested during bed rest (BR) and limb suspension; however, high-intensity, short-duration exercise prescriptions have not been fully explored. PURPOSE: To determine if a high intensity resistance, interval, and aerobic exercise program could protect against muscle atrophy and dysfunction when performed during short duration BR. METHODS: Nine subjects (1 female, 8 male) performed a combination of supine exercises during 2 weeks of horizontal BR. Resistance exercise (3 d / wk) consisted of squat, leg press, hamstring curl, and heel raise exercises (3 sets, 12 repetitions). Aerobic (6 d / wk) sessions alternated continuous (75% VO2 peak) and interval exercise (30 s, 2 min, and 4 min) and were completed on a supine cycle ergometer and vertical treadmill, respectively. Muscle volumes of the upper leg were calculated pre, mid, and post-BR using magnetic resonance imaging. Maximal isometric force (MIF), rate of force development (RFD), and peak power of the lower body extensors were measured twice before BR (averaged to represent pre) and once post BR. ANOVA with repeated measures and a priori planned contrasts were used to test for differences. RESULTS: There were no changes to quadriceps, hamstring, and adductor muscle volumes at mid and post BR time points compared to pre BR (Table 1). Peak power increased significantly from 1614 +/- 372 W to 1739 +/- 359 W post BR (+7.7%, p = 0.035). Neither MIF (pre: 1676 +/- 320 N vs. post: 1711 +/- 250 N, +2.1%, p = 0.333) nor RFD (pre: 7534 +/- 1265 N/ms vs. post: 6951 +/- 1241 N/ms, -7.7%, p = 0.136) were significantly impaired post BR.

  9. Function after removal of various hip and thigh muscles for extirpation of tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markhede, G; Stener, B

    1981-08-01

    Forty-six patients who had undergone excision of one or more well defined hip and/or thigh muscles because of a soft-tissue tumor or a tumoriform lesion were investigated with respect to the function of the operated limb and the isometric and isokinetic strength of the affected motion or motions, relative to the non-operated side (percentage). Hip flexion: Loss of the iliopsoas caused slight impairment of function. The flexion strength decreased with increasing flexion of the hip joint. Loss of the rectus femoris reduced the isometric strength by 37 and the isokinetic strength by 17 per cent. Hip abduction: The strength reduction was only about 50 per cent and the impairment of function only slight or moderate even in patients with extensive loss of abductor muscles. Hip adduction: Removal of all three prime adductors (longus, brevis, magnus) caused a strength reduction of about 70 per cent but the impairment of function was only slight or moderate. Hip extension: Loss of the gluteus maximus caused only a small strength reduction and no impairment or only slight impairment of function. Significant strength reduction was only seen when all hamstrings had been removed. Knee extension: Loss of one, two, and three of the quadriceps muscles reduced the isometric strength by 22, 33, and 55 per cent, respectively. The isokinetic strength was reduced somewhat more. The strength reduction usually had to exceed 50 per cent to cause more than slight impairment of function. Knee flexion: Loss of the semitendinosus, the biceps femoris, and all the hamstrings reduced the isometric strength by 24, 28, and 67 per cent, respectively. The isokinetic strength was reduced somewhat less. Loss of one of the hamstrings usually caused no impairment of function whereas loss of all three resulted in moderate impairment of function.

  10. Respiratory Muscle Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gransee, Heather M.; Mantilla, Carlos B.; Sieck, Gary C.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle plasticity is defined as the ability of a given muscle to alter its structural and functional properties in accordance with the environmental conditions imposed on it. As such, respiratory muscle is in a constant state of remodeling, and the basis of muscle’s plasticity is its ability to change protein expression and resultant protein balance in response to varying environmental conditions. Here, we will describe the changes of respiratory muscle imposed by extrinsic changes in mechanical load, activity, and innervation. Although there is a large body of literature on the structural and functional plasticity of respiratory muscles, we are only beginning to understand the molecular-scale protein changes that contribute to protein balance. We will give an overview of key mechanisms regulating protein synthesis and protein degradation, as well as the complex interactions between them. We suggest future application of a systems biology approach that would develop a mathematical model of protein balance and greatly improve treatments in a variety of clinical settings related to maintaining both muscle mass and optimal contractile function of respiratory muscles. PMID:23798306

  11. Muscle Bioenergetic Considerations for Intrinsic Laryngeal Skeletal Muscle Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandage, Mary J.; Smith, Audrey G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Intrinsic laryngeal skeletal muscle bioenergetics, the means by which muscles produce fuel for muscle metabolism, is an understudied aspect of laryngeal physiology with direct implications for voice habilitation and rehabilitation. The purpose of this review is to describe bioenergetic pathways identified in limb skeletal muscle and…

  12. The relationship of strength and muscle balance to shoulder pain and impingement syndrome in elite quadriplegic wheelchair rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, M; Sleivert, G G; Gerrard, D F

    1998-04-01

    Wheelchair athletes are susceptible to injuries related to overuse of the shoulder, in particular shoulder impingement syndrome. The present study examined the relationship of shoulder pain to demographic details, isokinetic strength and muscle balance in 8 elite quadriplegic rugby players. Demographic data were collected using personal interviews and each subject was clinically examined for signs of impingement syndrome by a physician. In addition each subject underwent bilateral isokinetic strength testing of the shoulder at 60 and 180 deg/s for abduction/adduction and internal/external rotation. A series of step-wise multiple discriminant analysis successfully predicted clinical symptoms from demographic, muscular strength and balance data. In particular, there was a significant deficit in adductor strength and this was related to shoulder pain and wasting of the scapular muscles. This strength deficit may be due to the high level of spinal lesions in the quadriplegic population. The level of spinal lesion may contribute to the aetiology of shoulder pathology in quadriplegia, and differentiate it from that observed in able-bodied athletes who exhibit weak abductors.

  13. Painful unilateral temporalis muscle enlargement: reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsetos, Christos D; Bianchi, Michael A; Jaffery, Fizza; Koutzaki, Sirma; Zarella, Mark; Slater, Robert

    2014-06-01

    An instance of isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy (reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy with fiber type 1 predominance) confirmed by muscle biopsy with histochemical fiber typing and image analysis in a 62 year-old man is reported. The patient presented with bruxism and a painful swelling of the temple. Absence of asymmetry or other abnormalities of the craniofacial skeleton was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and cephalometric analyses. The patient achieved symptomatic improvement only after undergoing botulinum toxin injections. Muscle biopsy is key in the diagnosis of reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy and its distinction from masticatory muscle myopathy (hypertrophic branchial myopathy) and other non-reactive causes of painful asymmetric temporalis muscle enlargement.

  14. Policy Reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This policy reader comprises: Correspondence; Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Transportation and the US Department of Energy for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act; Internal Guidelines for Interactions with Communities and Local Governments; Statement by Ben C. Rusche before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment, US House of Representatives, September 13, 1985; Speech presented by Ben C. Rusche before the ANS/CNS/AESJ/ENS Topical Meeting, Pasco, Washington, September 24, 1985 - ''Status of the United States' High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Program''; and ''DOE Seeks Comments on Nuclear Transportation Planning,'' DOE News, September 30, 1985

  15. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  16. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  17. The Comparison of Thyroarytenoid Muscle Myectomy and Type II Thyroplasty for Spasmodic Dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Masaki; Tokashiki, Ryoji; Hiramatsu, Hiroyuki; Konomi, Ujimoto; Motohashi, Rei; Sakurai, Eriko; Toyomura, Fumimasa; Ueda, Yuri; Inoue, Shun; Tsukahara, Kiyoaki; Suzuki, Mamoru

    2015-07-01

    Surgical treatments for adductor spasmodic dysphonia include bilateral thyroarytenoid muscle myectomy (TAM) and type II thyroplasty (TPII), both of which are commonly performed. The present study aimed to compare the effects of TAM and TPII. Retrospective study. Subjects were 30 and 35 patients who underwent TAM and TPII, between March 2008 and November 2012. Voice quality was evaluated based on "voice handicap index 10 (VHI10)" and auditory impressions before and 6 months after surgery using five parameters: "strangulation," "interruption," "tremor," "grade," and "breathiness." Comparison of the two procedures revealed significant improvements in VHI10, strangulation, interruption, and tremor, and a significant decline in breathiness after surgery. In particular, VHI10 was improved by more than six points in 90% of patients with TAM, and 96% with TPII. No significant difference was observed between the severities of two procedures preoperatively. Comparison of each postoperative score between the two procedures revealed that TAM significantly improved strangulation, interruption, and tremor, and significantly worsened breathiness, with no significant difference in VHI10. Scatter plots (x: preoperative scores; y: postoperative scores) and regression lines of evaluation items demonstrated that TAM is more effective than TPII in severe cases. Compared with TPII, TAM tends to improve strangulation, interruption, and tremor; however, it tends to worsen breathiness postoperatively. Postoperative VHI10 scores did not differ significantly between the two procedures. Given favorable improvement rates, both surgical procedures were considered effective. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Muscle Disorders - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Expand Section Muscle Disorders: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  19. Neurogenic muscle cramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzberg, Hans D

    2015-08-01

    Muscle cramps are sustained, painful contractions of muscle and are prevalent in patients with and without medical conditions. The objective of this review is to present updates on the mechanism, investigation and treatment of neurogenic muscle cramps. PubMed and Embase databases were queried between January 1980 and July 2014 for English-language human studies. The American Academy of Neurology classification of studies (classes I-IV) was used to assess levels of evidence. Mechanical disruption, ephaptic transmission, disruption of sensory afferents and persistent inward currents have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurogenic cramps. Investigations are directed toward identifying physiological triggers or medical conditions predisposing to cramps. Although cramps can be self-limiting, disabling or sustained muscle cramps should prompt investigation for underlying medical conditions. Lifestyle modifications, treatment of underlying conditions, stretching, B-complex vitamins, diltiezam, mexiletine, carbamazepine, tetrahydrocannabinoid, leveteracitam and quinine sulfate have shown evidence for treatment.

  20. Human airway smooth muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. de Jongste (Johan)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe function of airway smooth muscle in normal subjects is not evident. Possible physiological roles include maintenance of optimal regional ventilation/perfusion ratios, reduction of anatomic dead space, stabilisation of cartilaginous bronchi, defense against impurities and, less

  1. Water and Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Grazi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between water and the protein of the contractile machinery as well as the tendency of these proteins to form geometrically ordered structures provide a link between water and muscle contraction. Protein osmotic pressure is strictly related to the chemical potential of the contractile proteins, to the stiffness of muscle structures and to the viscosity of the sliding of the thin over the thick filaments. Muscle power output and the steady rate of contraction are linked by modulating a single parameter, a viscosity coefficient. Muscle operation is characterized by working strokes of much shorter length and much quicker than in the classical model. As a consequence the force delivered and the stiffness attained by attached cross-bridges is much larger than usually believed.

  2. Muscle glycogenolysis during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ruderman, N B; Gavras, H

    1982-01-01

    glycogenolysis during exercise: contractions principally stimulate glycogenolysis early in exercise, and a direct effect of epinephrine on muscle is needed for continued glycogenolysis. In addition, epinephrine increased oxygen consumption and glucose uptake in both resting and electrically stimulated...

  3. Pneumatic Muscle Actuator Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lilly, John

    2000-01-01

    This research is relevant to the Air Fore mission because pneumatic muscle actuation devices arc advantageous for certain types of robotics as well as for strength and/or mobility assistance for humans...

  4. Human airway smooth muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Jongste, Johan

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe function of airway smooth muscle in normal subjects is not evident. Possible physiological roles include maintenance of optimal regional ventilation/perfusion ratios, reduction of anatomic dead space, stabilisation of cartilaginous bronchi, defense against impurities and, less likely, squeezing mucus out of mucous glands and pulling open the alveoli next to the airways1 . Any role of airway smooth muscle is necessarily limited, because an important degree of contraction will l...

  5. Muscle Strength and Poststroke Hemiplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Otto H; Stenager, Egon; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review (1) psychometric properties of criterion isokinetic dynamometry testing of muscle strength in persons with poststroke hemiplegia (PPSH); and (2) literature that compares muscle strength in patients poststroke with that in healthy controls assessed by criterion...... test in persons with stroke, generally showing marked reductions in muscle strength of paretic and, to a lesser degree, nonparetic muscles when compared with healthy controls, independent of muscle group, contraction mode, and contraction velocity....

  6. Muscle Strength Is a Poor Screening Test for Predicting Lower Extremity Injuries in Professional Male Soccer Players: A 2-Year Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Arnhild; Targett, Stephen; Bere, Tone; Eirale, Cristiano; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Mosler, Andrea B; Tol, Johannes L; Whiteley, Rod; Khan, Karim M; Bahr, Roald

    2018-03-01

    Lower extremity muscle strength tests are commonly used to screen for injury risk in professional soccer. However, there is limited evidence on the ability of such tests in predicting future injuries. To examine the association between hip and thigh muscle strength and the risk of lower extremity injuries in professional male soccer players. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Professional male soccer players from 14 teams in Qatar underwent a comprehensive strength assessment at the beginning of the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 seasons. Testing consisted of concentric and eccentric quadriceps and hamstring isokinetic peak torques, eccentric hip adduction and abduction forces, and bilateral isometric adductor force (squeeze test at 45°). Time-loss injuries and exposure in training and matches were registered prospectively by club medical staff throughout each season. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs. In total, 369 players completed all strength tests and had registered injury and exposure data. Of these, 206 players (55.8%) suffered 538 lower extremity injuries during the 2 seasons; acute muscle injuries were the most frequent. Of the 20 strength measures examined, greater quadriceps concentric peak torque at 300 deg/s (HR, 1.005 [95% CI, 1.00-1.01]; P = .037) was the only strength measure identified as significantly associated with a risk of lower extremity injuries in multivariate analysis. Greater quadriceps concentric peak torque at 60 deg/s (HR, 1.004 [95% CI, 1.00-1.01]; P = .026) was associated with the risk of overuse injuries, and greater bilateral adductor strength adjusted for body weight (HR, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.57-0.97; P = .032) was associated with a lower risk for any knee injury. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses indicated poor predictive ability of the significant strength variables (area under the curve, 0.45-0.56). There was a weak association with the risk of

  7. Antibiotic policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gyssens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    There is a clear association between antibiotic use and resistance both on individual and population levels. In the European Union, countries with large antibiotic consumption have higher resistance rates. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatments, prolonged hospitalisations, increased costs and deaths. With few new antibiotics in the Research & Development pipeline, prudent antibiotic use is the only option to delay the development of resistance. Antibiotic policy consists of prescrib...

  8. Muscle as a secretory organ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent...... evidence has identified skeletal muscle as a secretory organ. We have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and exert either autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine effects should be classified as "myokines." The muscle secretome consists...... of several hundred secreted peptides. This finding provides a conceptual basis and a whole new paradigm for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, bones, and brain. In addition, several myokines exert their effects within the muscle itself. Many...

  9. Internet Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  10. Scapular Stabilization and Muscle Strength in Manual Wheelchair Users with Spinal Cord Injury and Subacromial Impingement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, C. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Background: Manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury (SCI) are frequently diagnosed with subacromial impingement. Objective: To determine whether the pattern of muscle imbalance and impaired scapular stabilization in able-bodied (AB) adults with impingement is different from that in manual wheelchair users with SCI and impingement. Methods: The following measurements were collected from 22 adults with subacromial impingement (11 SCI, 11 AB): ratio of normalized muscle electrical activity of upper and lower trapezius (UT:LT) during arm abduction; force during abduction, adduction, internal rotation, external rotation, and push and pull; ratios of force for abduction to adduction (AB:ADD), internal to external rotation (IR:ER), and push to pull (PUSH:PULL). Results: Shoulders with impingement had significantly higher UT:LT activation (1.46 ± 0.52) than shoulders without impingement (0.93 ± 0.45) (P = .006), regardless of wheelchair user status. Significant differences between AB participants and those with SCI were observed for ABD:ADD (P = .005), PUSH:PULL (P = .012), and pull strength (P = .043). Participants with SCI had a significantly greater ABD:ADD (1.37 ± 0.36) than AB participants (1.04 ± 0.22) (P = .002) and a significantly greater PUSH:PULL (1.53 ± 0.36) than AB participants (1.26 ± 0.18) (P = .005) because of decreased strength in adduction (P = .021) and pull (P = .013). Conclusions: Strategies targeting the posterior shoulder girdle for AB adults are appropriate for manual wheelchair users with SCI and impingement and should focus on scapular retractors and arm adductors with emphasis on scapular depression and posterior tilting. PMID:29398894

  11. EFFECTS OF PELVIC FLOOR MUSCLE EXERCISES ON URINARY INCONTINENCE IN DIABETIC WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ishtiaq

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary incontinence is a common condition among females and it is estimated that 20-40% females of age under 60 years suffer with urinary incontinence however for the females above 60 years the percentage is 30-50%. Keegal exercises are used to strengthen pelvic floor muscles which ultimately treats and reduces urinary incontinence. It is pretty definite that women with diabetes mellitus at advanced phases of age suffer with urine incontinence, but the severity of matter has yet been considered enough to put forth the cautionary measures to evade such concerns. Purpose of the study is to analyze the effect of pelvic floor exercises on the urinary incontinence in diabetic women. Methods: To evaluate the effect of Keegeal exercises (pelvic floor muscle exercises, quantitative research approach has been opted, in which patient were advised to perform the keegeal exercise for 3weekswith 4 weeks follow up. 45 diabetic women were recruited to analyze the effect of keegal exercises to minimize the risk of urine incontinence. In due course, three types of keegeal exercises have been proposed to analyze their effect on urine incontinence i.e. adductor strengthening, pelvic bridging, and draw in maneuver with a follow up of 4 weeks. Results: Reliability test was performed to evaluate the dependency between independent and dependent variable. Through ANOVA with Friedman's Test, it was observed that the data of correlation between the suggestive variables is highly significant. Cronbach’s Alpha test was performed which has concluded the results to 0.753 which is quite significant in context of research hypothesis and approving the fact the with keegeal exercise, urine incontinence can be reduced. Conclusion: With subjective research it was concluded that if the patient efficiently performs the exercise the urine incontinence can be improved.

  12. Hydraulically actuated artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, M. A.; Tiwari, R.; Wajcs, K. B.; Moses, C.; Reveles, I.; Garcia, E.

    2012-04-01

    Hydraulic Artificial Muscles (HAMs) consisting of a polymer tube constrained by a nylon mesh are presented in this paper. Despite the actuation mechanism being similar to its popular counterpart, which are pneumatically actuated (PAM), HAMs have not been studied in depth. HAMs offer the advantage of compliance, large force to weight ratio, low maintenance, and low cost over traditional hydraulic cylinders. Muscle characterization for isometric and isobaric tests are discussed and compared to PAMs. A model incorporating the effect of mesh angle and friction have also been developed. In addition, differential swelling of the muscle on actuation has also been included in the model. An application of lab fabricated HAMs for a meso-scale robotic system is also presented.

  13. Foot muscles strengthener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris T. Glavač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  14. CREB is activated by muscle injury and promotes muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Randi; Flechner, Lawrence; Montminy, Marc; Berdeaux, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) plays key roles in differentiation of embryonic skeletal muscle progenitors and survival of adult skeletal muscle. However, little is known about the physiologic signals that activate CREB in normal muscle. Here we show that CREB phosphorylation and target genes are induced after acute muscle injury and during regeneration due to genetic mutation. Activated CREB localizes to both myogenic precursor cells and newly regenerating myofibers within regenerating areas. Moreover, we found that signals from damaged skeletal muscle tissue induce CREB phosphorylation and target gene expression in primary mouse myoblasts. An activated CREB mutant (CREBY134F) potentiates myoblast proliferation as well as expression of early myogenic transcription factors in cultured primary myocytes. Consistently, activated CREB-YF promotes myoblast proliferation after acute muscle injury in vivo and enhances muscle regeneration in dystrophic mdx mice. Our findings reveal a new physiologic function for CREB in contributing to skeletal muscle regeneration.

  15. Relative contributions of animal and muscle effects to variation in beef lean color stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef carcasses (n = 100) were selected from a commercial processing facility. Longissimus lumborum (LM), semimembranosus (SM), biceps femoris (BF), gluteus medius (GM), triceps brachii (TB), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), adductor (AD), semitendinosus (ST), infraspinatus (IS), teres ma...

  16. Rectus abdominis muscle endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goker, A.

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is characterized by an abnormal existence of functional endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, typically occuring within the pelvis of women in reproductive age. We report two cases with endometriosis of the abdominal wall; the first one in the rectus abdominis muscle and the second one in the surgical scar of previous caesarean incision along with the rectus abdominis muscle. Pre-operative evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging. The masses were dissected free from the surrounding tissue and excised with clear margins. Diagnosis of the excised lesions were verified by histopathology. (author)

  17. Effects of oblique muscle surgery on the rectus muscle pulley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okanobu, Hirotaka; Kono, Reika; Ohtsuki, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the position of rectus muscle pulleys in Japanese eyes and to evaluate the effect of oblique muscle surgery on rectus muscle pulleys. Quasi-coronal plane MRI was used to determine area centroids of the 4 rectus muscles. The area centroids of the rectus muscles were transformed to 2-dimensional coordinates to represent pulley positions. The effects of oblique muscle surgery on the rectus muscle pulley positions in the coronal plane were evaluated in 10 subjects with cyclovertical strabismus and, as a control, pulley locations in 7 normal Japanese subjects were calculated. The mean positions of the rectus muscle pulleys in the coronal plane did not significantly differ from previous reports on normal populations, including Caucasians. There were significant positional shifts of the individual horizontal and vertical rectus muscle pulleys in 3 (100%) patients with inferior oblique advancement, but not in eyes with inferior oblique recession and superior oblique tendon advancement surgery. The surgical cyclorotatory effect was significantly correlated with the change in the angle of inclination formed by the line connecting the vertical rectus muscles (p=0.0234), but weakly correlated with that of the horizontal rectus muscles. The most important factor that affects the pulley position is the amount of ocular torsion, not the difference in surgical procedure induced by oblique muscle surgery. (author)

  18. Composition of Muscle Fiber Types in Rat Rotator Cuff Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yongjun; Pan, Feng; Mi, Jingyi

    2016-10-01

    The rat is a suitable model to study human rotator cuff pathology owing to the similarities in morphological anatomy structure. However, few studies have reported the composition muscle fiber types of rotator cuff muscles in the rat. In this study, the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were stained by immunofluorescence to show the muscle fiber types composition and distribution in rotator cuff muscles of the rat. It was found that rotator cuff muscles in the rat were of mixed fiber type composition. The majority of rotator cuff fibers labeled positively for MyHCII. Moreover, the rat rotator cuff muscles contained hybrid fibers. So, compared with human rotator cuff muscles composed partly of slow-twitch fibers, the majority of fast-twitch fibers in rat rotator cuff muscles should be considered when the rat model study focus on the pathological process of rotator cuff muscles after injury. Gaining greater insight into muscle fiber types in rotator cuff muscles of the rat may contribute to elucidate the mechanism of pathological change in rotator cuff muscles-related diseases. Anat Rec, 299:1397-1401, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kyle P; Lamotte D'Incamps, Boris; Zytnicki, Daniel; Ting, Lena H

    2017-09-01

    Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs) of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt) predict the entire time course of transient IFRs in muscle spindle Ia afferents during stretch (i.e., lengthening) of passive muscle, including the initial burst, the dynamic response to lengthening, and rate relaxation following lengthening. Similar to acceleration scaling found previously in postural responses to perturbations, initial burst amplitude scaled equally well to initial stretch acceleration or dF/dt, though later transients were only described by dF/dt. The transient increase in dF/dt at the onset of lengthening reflects muscle short-range stiffness due to cross-bridge dynamics. Our work demonstrates a critical role of muscle cross-bridge dynamics in history-dependent muscle spindle IFRs in passive muscle lengthening conditions

  20. Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle P Blum

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt predict the entire time course of transient IFRs in muscle spindle Ia afferents during stretch (i.e., lengthening of passive muscle, including the initial burst, the dynamic response to lengthening, and rate relaxation following lengthening. Similar to acceleration scaling found previously in postural responses to perturbations, initial burst amplitude scaled equally well to initial stretch acceleration or dF/dt, though later transients were only described by dF/dt. The transient increase in dF/dt at the onset of lengthening reflects muscle short-range stiffness due to cross-bridge dynamics. Our work demonstrates a critical role of muscle cross-bridge dynamics in history-dependent muscle spindle IFRs in passive muscle

  1. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003975.htm Pelvic floor muscle training exercises To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are a series of exercises ...

  2. MRI appearance of muscle denervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, S. [University Hospital of Wales, Department of Radiology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Venkatanarasimha, N.; Walsh, M.A.; Hughes, P.M. [Derriford Hospital, Department of Radiology, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Muscle denervation results from a variety of causes including trauma, neoplasia, neuropathies, infections, autoimmune processes and vasculitis. Traditionally, the diagnosis of muscle denervation was based on clinical examination and electromyography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a distinct advantage over electromyography, not only in diagnosing muscle denervation, but also in determining its aetiology. MRI demonstrates characteristic signal intensity patterns depending on the stage of muscle denervation. The acute and subacutely denervated muscle shows a high signal intensity pattern on fluid sensitive sequences and normal signal intensity on T1-weighted MRI images. In chronic denervation, muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration demonstrate high signal changes on T1-weighted sequences in association with volume loss. The purpose of this review is to summarise the MRI appearance of denervated muscle, with special emphasis on the signal intensity patterns in acute and subacute muscle denervation. (orig.)

  3. Muscle contraction and force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Risbo, Jens; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    of nutrient delivery and waste product removal, but are also tethered to surrounding fibres by collagen "wires". This paper therefore addresses aspects of the ancillary network of skeletal muscle at both a microscopic and functional level in order to better understand its role holistically as a considerable...

  4. Making more heart muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoff, Maurice J. B.; Kruithof, Boudewijn P. T.; Moorman, Antoon F. M.

    2004-01-01

    Postnatally, heart muscle cells almost completely lose their ability to divide, which makes their loss after trauma irreversible. Potential repair by cell grafting or mobilizing endogenous cells is of particular interest for possible treatments for heart disease, where the poor capacity for

  5. Fiscal policy under alternative monetary policy regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Roldan; Carmelo Monteagudo-Cuerva

    2013-01-01

    In the particular policy framework of a monetary union, the management of fiscal policy becomes an issue of special relevance, because the fiscal discipline imposed by the monetary agreements could limit the scope of stabilization fiscal policies, and its implications on economic growth. Therefore, is not trivial to manage fiscal policy in such particular economic framework. In this paper we will review the implications of fiscal policy in open economies. But we will pay special attention to ...

  6. Comparison of Lower Extremity Kinematics and Hip Muscle Activation During Rehabilitation Tasks Between Sexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Maureen K.; Boudreau, Samantha N.; Mattacola, Carl G.; Uhl, Timothy L.; Lattermann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Closed kinetic chain exercises are an integral part of rehabilitation programs after lower extremity injury. Sex differences in lower extremity kinematics have been reported during landing and cutting; however, less is known about sex differences in movement patterns and activation of the hip musculature during common lower extremity rehabilitation exercises. Objective: To determine whether lower extremity kinematics and muscle activation levels differ between sexes during closed kinetic chain rehabilitation exercises. Design: Cross-sectional with 1 between-subjects factor (sex) and 1 within-subjects factor (exercise). Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Participants included 21 women (age  =  23 ± 5.8 years, height  =  167.6 ± 5.1 cm, mass  =  63.7 ± 5.9 kg) and 21 men (age  =  23 ± 4.0 years, height  =  181.4 ± 7.4 cm, mass  =  85.6 ± 16.5 kg). Intervention(s): In 1 testing session, participants performed 3 trials each of single-leg squat, lunge, and step-up-and-over exercises. Main Outcome Measure(s): We recorded the peak joint angles (degrees) of knee flexion and valgus and hip flexion, extension, adduction, and external rotation for each exercise. We also recorded the electromyographic activity of the gluteus maximus, rectus femoris, adductor longus, and bilateral gluteus medius muscles for the concentric and eccentric phases of each exercise. Results: Peak knee flexion angles were smaller and peak hip extension angles were larger for women than for men across all tasks. Peak hip flexion angles during the single-leg squat were smaller for women than for men. Mean root-mean-square amplitudes for the gluteus maximus and rectus femoris muscles in both the concentric and eccentric phases of the 3 exercises were greater for women than for men. Conclusions: Sex differences were observed in sagittal-plane movement patterns during the rehabilitation exercises. Because of the sex differences

  7. Accommodation: The role of the external muscles of the eye: A consideration of refractive errors in relation to extraocular malfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrave, B K

    2014-11-01

    Speculation as to optical malfunction has led to dissatisfaction with the theory that the lens is the sole agent in accommodation and to the suggestion that other parts of the eye are also conjointly involved. Around half-a-century ago, Robert Brooks Simpkins suggested that the mechanical features of the human eye were precisely such as to allow for a lengthening of the globe when the eye accommodated. Simpkins was not an optical man but his theory is both imaginative and comprehensive and deserves consideration. It is submitted here that accommodation is in fact a twofold process, and that although involving the lens, is achieved primarily by means of a give - and - take interplay between adducting and abducting external muscles, whereby an elongation of the eyeball is brought about by a stretching of the delicate elastic fibres immediately behind the cornea. The three muscles responsible for convergence (superior, internal and inferior recti) all pull from in front backwards, while of the three abductors (external rectus and the two obliques) the obliques pull from behind forwards, allowing for an easy elongation as the eye turns inwards and a return to its original length as the abducting muscles regain their former tension, returning the eye to distance vision. In refractive errors, the altered length of the eyeball disturbs the harmonious give - and - take relationship between adductors and abductors. Such stresses are likely to be perpetuated and the error exacerbated. Speculation is not directed towards a search for a possible cause of the muscular imbalance, since none is suspected. Muscles not used rapidly lose tone, as evidenced after removal of a limb from plaster. Early attention to the need for restorative exercise is essential and results usually impressive. If flexibility of the external muscles of the eyes is essential for continuing good sight, presbyopia can be avoided and with it the supposed necessity of glasses in middle life. Early attention

  8. Muscles and their myokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2011-01-01

    that a physically active life plays an independent role in the protection against type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, dementia and even depression. For most of the last century, researchers sought a link between muscle contraction and humoral changes in the form of an 'exercise factor', which could......In the past, the role of physical activity as a life-style modulating factor has been considered as that of a tool to balance energy intake. Although it is important to avoid obesity, physical inactivity should be discussed in a much broader context. There is accumulating epidemiological evidence......-like fashion, exerting specific endocrine effects on other organs. Other myokines work via paracrine mechanisms, exerting local effects on signalling pathways involved in muscle metabolism. It has been suggested that myokines may contribute to exercise-induced protection against several chronic diseases....

  9. [Primary muscle cramps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serratrice, G

    2008-05-01

    Primary muscle cramps, without known cause, are very frequent especially in the elderly and during the night. They are different from secondary cramps. Likewise they are to be separated from several syndromes erroneously quoted as cramps. The pathophysiological mechanism seems due to result from an initial dysfunction in the distal part of the motoneuron. When the cramps are severe, differential diagnosis with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis may be difficult. Quinine is the best empiric treatment largely used in spite of moderate side effects.

  10. MUSCLE TENSION DYSPHONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Hočevar Boltežar

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Muscle tension dysphonia (MTD is the cause of hoarseness in almost one half of the patients with voice disorders. The otorhinolaryngologic examination discovers no evident organic lesions in the larynx at least in the beginning of the voice problems. The reason for the hoarse voice is a disordered and maladjusted activity of the muscles taking part in phonation and/or articulation. In some patients, the irregular function of the larynx results in mucosal lesions on vocal folds. The factors participating in the development of MTD, directly or indirectly influence the quality of laryngeal mucosa, the activity of the phonatory muscles and/or increase of the vocal load. In the diagnostics and treatment of the MTD a phoniatrician, a speech and language therapist and a psychologist closely cooperate with the patient who must take an active role. The treatment is a long-lasting one but resulted in a high percentage of clinical success.Conclusions. Most likely, MTD is not a special disease but only a reflection of any disorder in the complicated system of regulation and realization of phonation. The prognosis of treatment is good when all unfavourable factors participating in development of MTD are eliminated and a proper professional voice- and psychotherapy started.

  11. Dismorfia muscular Muscle dysmorphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Seleri Marques Assunção

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Preocupações mórbidas com a imagem corporal eram tidas até recentemente como problemas eminentemente femininos. Atualmente estas preocupações também têm sido encontradas no sexo masculino. A dismorfia muscular é um subtipo do transtorno dismórfico corporal que ocorre principalmente em homens que, apesar da grande hipertrofia muscular, consideram-se pequenos e fracos. Além de estar associada a prejuízos sociais, ocupacionais, recreativos e em outras áreas do funcionamento do indivíduo, a dismorfia muscular é também um fator de risco para o abuso de esteróides anabolizantes. Este artigo aborda aspectos epidemiológicos, etiológicos e padrões clínicos da dismorfia muscular, além de tecer comentários sobre estratégias de tratamento para este transtorno.Morbid concern over body image was considered, until recently, a female issue. Nowadays, it has been viewed as a common male disorder. Muscle dysmorphia, a subtype of a body dysmorphic disorder, affects men who, despite having clear muscular hypertroph,y see themselves as frail and small. Besides being associated to major social, leisure and occupational dysfunction, muscle dysmorphia is also a risk factor for the abuse of steroids. This article describes epidemiological, etiological and clinical characteristics of muscle dysmorphia and comments on its treatment strategy.

  12. Food policy an ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    makes of food policy a highly complex and diverse area. The entry opens with at description of the concept of policy and food policy and how it relates to ethical principles and values. The fourth section discusses some influental definitions of food policy. The final section contains a description......This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...... of ethical principles and ideas of relevance to food policy....

  13. Food policy an ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...... makes of food policy a highly complex and diverse area. The entry opens with at description of the concept of policy and food policy and how it relates to ethical principles and values. The fourth section discusses some influental definitions of food policy. The final section contains a description...... of ethical principles and ideas of relevance to food policy....

  14. Activation of respiratory muscles during respiratory muscle training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterspacher, Stephan; Pietsch, Fabian; Walker, David Johannes; Röcker, Kai; Kabitz, Hans-Joachim

    2018-01-01

    It is unknown which respiratory muscles are mainly activated by respiratory muscle training. This study evaluated Inspiratory Pressure Threshold Loading (IPTL), Inspiratory Flow Resistive Loading (IFRL) and Voluntary Isocapnic Hyperpnea (VIH) with regard to electromyographic (EMG) activation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM), parasternal muscles (PARA) and the diaphragm (DIA) in randomized order. Surface EMG were analyzed at the end of each training session and normalized using the peak EMG recorded during maximum inspiratory maneuvers (Sniff nasal pressure: SnPna, maximal inspiratory mouth occlusion pressure: PImax). 41 healthy participants were included. Maximal activation was achieved for SCM by SnPna; the PImax activated predominantly PARA and DIA. Activations of SCM and PARA were higher in IPTL and VIH than for IFRL (pVIH (pVIH differ in activation of inspiratory respiratory muscles. Whereas all methods mainly stimulate accessory respiratory muscles, diaphragm activation was predominant in IPTL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Research for health policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Erica

    2010-01-01

    ... Explicit, implicit, and pragmatic dimensions of policy-maker's needs and context 31 Constraints on policy-makers 32 Deciphering trade-offs 33 The policy-problem: deciphering uncertainty and the problem of innovation 34 A tool for deciphering policy problems 35 The different components of the policy problem 37 Recommended reading 38 Case studies in...

  16. Reinnervation of Paralyzed Muscle by Nerve Muscle Endplate Band Grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    x 3 mm), a nerve branch, intramuscular nerve terminals, and a motor endplate (MEP) band with numerous neuromuscular junctions. The superficial ...when muscle was stretched at optimal tension of 0.8 N. Maximal muscle force was calculated as average muscle contraction to 5 stimulation currents...force during the 200-millisecond contraction was identified, as well as initial passive tension before stimulation. The difference between themaximal

  17. Nuclear Positioning in Muscle Development and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Eric eFolker; Mary eBaylies

    2013-01-01

    Muscle disease as a group is characterized by muscle weakness, muscle loss, and impaired muscle function. Although the phenotype is the same, the underlying cellular pathologies, and the molecular causes of these pathologies, are diverse. One common feature of many muscle disorders is the mispositioning of myonuclei. In unaffected individuals myonuclei are spaced throughout the periphery of the muscle fiber such that the distance between nuclei is maximized. However, in diseased muscles, th...

  18. Influência da pedalada com os joelhos tangenciando o quadro da bicicleta sobre a ativação dos músculos do membro inferior Effects of cycling with the knees close to the bicycle frame on the lower limb muscle activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rico Bini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A mudança da posição do corpo sobre a bicicleta tem sido relacionada a alterações na ativação dos músculos do membro inferior. Desta forma, o objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar a ativação dos músculos "Tibialis Anterior", "Gastrocnemius Medialis", "Biceps Femoris", "Rectus Femoris", "Vastus Lateralis", "Adductor Longus" e "Gluteus Maximus" nas seguintes situações: 1 posição de referência (posição preferida; 2 posição de adução (joelhos tangenciando o quadro da bicicleta; 3 posição de abdução (joelhos afastados do quadro da bicicleta. Seis atletas com experiência competitiva em ciclismo foram avaliados por meio da eletromiografia de superfície (EMG. Todos pedalaram em suas próprias bicicletas montadas em um ciclosimulador, com carga de trabalho normalizada pelo VO2 de forma que a taxa de troca respiratória se mantivesse entre 0,8 e 1,0. A ativação muscular foi analisada por meio da comparação da média do envelope RMS e do período de ativação para cada um dos músculos, nas três posições avaliadas. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para a média do envelope RMS e para o período de ativação dos músculos nas três posições avaliadas, à exceção do "Adductor Longus". Observou-se maior ativação (36 ± 6% deste músculo na posição de adução comparado a posição de abdução (25 ± 11% para um valor de significância de p = 0,02, sem diferenças em relação a posição de referência (27 ± 7%. Estes resultados sugerem que não ocorrem alterações substanciais na ativação dos principais músculos do membro inferior quando a posição dos joelhos no plano frontal é alterada e a carga de trabalho é mantida, à exceção do aumento da participação do "Adductor Longus".Cyclist's body position on the bike has been related to changes in muscle activation. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the activation of Tibialis Anterior, Gastrocnemius Medialis, Biceps

  19. Pneumatic Artificial Muscles Based on Biomechanical Characteristics of Human Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the pneumatic artificial muscles based on biomechanical characteristics of human muscles. A wearable device and a rehabilitation robot that assist a human muscle should have characteristics similar to those of human muscle. In addition, since the wearable device and the rehabilitation robot should be light, an actuator with a high power to weight ratio is needed. At present, the McKibben type is widely used as an artificial muscle, but in fact its physical model is highly nonlinear. Therefore, an artificial muscle actuator has been developed in which high-strength carbon fibres have been built into the silicone tube. However, its contraction rate is smaller than the actual biological muscles. On the other hand, if an artificial muscle that contracts axially is installed in a robot as compactly as the robot hand, big installing space is required. Therefore, an artificial muscle with a high contraction rate and a tendon-driven system as a compact actuator were developed, respectively. In this study, we report on the basic structure and basic characteristics of two types of actuators.

  20. Transplantation of Devitalized Muscle Scaffolds is Insufficient for Appreciable De Novo Muscle Fiber Regeneration After Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-10

    minced muscle grafts were shown to support de novo skeletal muscle regeneration. For instance, devitalized whole extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle...antero- lateral aspect of the ankle, and the distal EDL muscle tendon and extensor hallicus longus (EHL) muscle was isolated and severed above the

  1. Exercising with blocked muscle glycogenolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tue L; Pinós, Tomàs; Brull, Astrid

    2018-01-01

    of expression and activation of proteins involved in glycolytic flux revealed that in glycolytic, but not oxidative muscle from exercised McArdle mice, the glycolytic flux had changed compared to that in wild-type mice. Specifically, exercise triggered in glycolytic muscle a differentiated activation of insulin......BACKGROUND: McArdle disease (glycogen storage disease type V) is an inborn error of skeletal muscle metabolism, which affects glycogen phosphorylase (myophosphorylase) activity leading to an inability to break down glycogen. Patients with McArdle disease are exercise intolerant, as muscle glycogen......-derived glucose is unavailable during exercise. Metabolic adaptation to blocked muscle glycogenolysis occurs at rest in the McArdle mouse model, but only in highly glycolytic muscle. However, it is unknown what compensatory metabolic adaptations occur during exercise in McArdle disease. METHODS: In this study, 8...

  2. Muscle strength in myasthenia gravis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cejvanovic, S; Vissing, J

    2014-01-01

    is related to disease duration or gender. The aim of this study was to quantify the strength of patients with MG and investigate whether it is related to disease duration. METHODS: Eight muscle groups were tested by manual muscle testing and with a hand-held dynamometer in 38 patients with generalized MG...... and 37 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. The disease duration was recorded and compared with strength measures. RESULTS: On average, muscle strength was decreased by 28% compared with controls (Pstrength measures in individual patients did not differ, suggesting that the muscle...... force reported was not subject to fatigue, but reflected fixed weakness. The male patients showed a greater reduction in muscle force in all eight muscle groups than women with MG (60% vs 77% of normal, Pstrength in shoulder abductors was most affected (51% vs 62...

  3. PDH regulation in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian

    is determined by the overall content / activity of the regulatory proteins PDH kinase (PDK), of which there are 4 isoforms, and PDH phosphatase (PDP), of which there are 2 isoforms. The overall aim of the PhD project was to elucidate 4 issues. 1: Role of muscle type in resting and exercise-induced PDH...... in arm than leg muscles during exercise in humans may be the result of lower PDH-E1? content and not a muscle type dependent difference in PDH regulation. Both low muscle glycogen and increased plasma FFA are associated with upregulation of PDK4 protein and less exercise-induced increase in PDHa activity...... in human skeletal muscle. It may be noted that the increased PDK4 protein associated with elevated plasma FFA occurs already 2 hours after different dietary intake. A week of physical inactivity (bed rest), leading to whole body glucose intolerance, does not affect muscle PDH-E1? content, or the exercise...

  4. Policy Archaeology: A New Policy Studies Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurich, James Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Discusses policy archaeology, a radically different approach to policy studies in education drawn from the poststructuralist work of Foucault. Policy archaeology examines the social construction of problems before they become visible, focusing on five social regularities (race, gender, class, governmentality, and professionalization) comprising…

  5. Unorthodox angiogenesis in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, S; Zhou, A L; Brown, M D; Hudlická, O

    2001-02-16

    The morphological pattern of angiogenesis occurring in mature, differentiated skeletal muscle in response to chronically increased muscle blood flow, muscle stretch or repetitious muscle contractions was examined to determine (a) whether capillary neoformation follows the generally accepted temporal paradigm, and (b) how the growth pattern is influenced by mechanical stimuli. Adult rats were treated for a maximum of 14 days either with the vasodilator prazosin, to elevate skeletal muscle blood flow, or underwent surgical removal of one ankle flexor, to induce compensatory overload in the remaining muscles, or had muscles chronically stimulated by implanted electrodes. Extensor digitorum longus and/or extensor hallucis proprius muscles were removed at intervals and processed for electron microscopy. A systematic examination of capillaries and their ultrastructure characterised the sequence of morphological changes indicative of angiogenesis, i.e., basement membrane disruption, endothelial cell (EC) sprouting and proliferation [immunogold labelling after bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation]. Capillary growth in response to increased blood flow occurred by luminal division without sprouting or basement membrane (BM) breakage. In stretched muscles, EC proliferation and abluminal sprouting gave rise to new capillaries, with BM loss only at sprout tips. These distinct mechanisms appear to be additive as in chronically stimulated muscles (increased blood flow with repetitive stretch and shortening during muscle contractions) both forms of capillary growth occurred. Endothelial cell numbers per capillary profile, mitotic EC nuclei, and BrdU labelling confirmed cell proliferation prior to overt angiogenesis. Physiological angiogenesis within adult skeletal muscle progresses by mechanisms that do not readily conform to the consensus view of capillary growth, derived mainly from observations made during development, pathological vessel growth, or from in vitro systems. The

  6. Immunology Guides Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    F. Andrea Sass; Michael Fuchs; Matthias Pumberger; Sven Geissler; Georg N. Duda; Carsten Perka; Katharina Schmidt-Bleek

    2018-01-01

    Soft tissue trauma of skeletal muscle is one of the most common side effects in surgery. Muscle injuries are not only caused by accident-related injuries but can also be of an iatrogenic nature as they occur during surgical interventions when the anatomical region of interest is exposed. If the extent of trauma surpasses the intrinsic regenerative capacities, signs of fatty degeneration and formation of fibrotic scar tissue can occur, and, consequentially, muscle function deteriorates or is d...

  7. Muscle necrosis - computer tomography aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franze, I.; Goebel, N.; Stuckmann, G.

    1985-01-01

    In four patients muscle necroses were observed. In two patients these were caused by intraoperative positioning, in one by having worked with a pneumatic hammer and in one possibly by alcohol. CT showed hypodense areas in the affected muscles which were - in the state of subacute necroses - surrounded by hyperaemic borders. The diagnosis was confirmed by puncture or biopsy. After six months hypodense areas were still perceptible in the atrophic muscles of two patients. (orig.) [de

  8. Muscle dysmorphia: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tod D

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available David Tod1 Christian Edwards2 Ieuan Cranswick1 1School of Sport and Exercise Science, Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, Merseyside, 2Institute of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Worcester, Worcester, Worcestershire, UK Abstract: Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people’s beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scientific communities. Much of this empirical interest has surveyed nonclinical samples, and there is limited understanding of people with the condition beyond knowledge about their characteristics. Much of the existing knowledge about people with the condition is unsurprising and inherent in the definition of the disorder, such as dissatisfaction with muscularity and adherence to muscle-building activities. Only recently have investigators started to explore questions beyond these limited tautological findings that may give rise to substantial knowledge advances, such as the examination of masculine and feminine norms. There is limited understanding of additional topics such as etiology, prevalence, nosology, prognosis, and treatment. Further, the evidence is largely based on a small number of unstandardized case reports and descriptive studies (involving small samples, which are largely confined to Western (North American, British, and Australian males. Although much research has been undertaken since the term “muscle dysmorphia” entered the psychiatric lexicon in 1997, there remains tremendous scope for knowledge advancement. A primary task in the short term is for investigators to examine the extent to which the condition exists among well-defined populations to help determine the justification for research funding relative to other public health issues. A greater variety of research questions and designs may contribute to a broader and more robust knowledge base

  9. Muscle damage and muscle remodeling: no pain, no gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flann, Kyle L; LaStayo, Paul C; McClain, Donald A; Hazel, Mark; Lindstedt, Stan L

    2011-02-15

    Skeletal muscle is a dynamic tissue that responds adaptively to both the nature and intensity of muscle use. This phenotypic plasticity ensures that muscle structure is linked to patterns of muscle use throughout the lifetime of an animal. The cascade of events that result in muscle restructuring - for example, in response to resistance exercise training - is often thought to be initiated by muscle damage. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that symptomatic (i.e. detectable) damage is a necessary precursor for muscle remodeling. Subjects were divided into two experimental populations: pre-trained (PT) and naive (NA). Demonstrable muscle damage was avoided in the PT group by a three-week gradual 'ramp-up' protocol. By contrast, the NA group was subjected to an initial damaging bout of exercise. Both groups participated in an eight-week high-force eccentric-cycle ergometry program (20 min, three times per week) designed to equate the total work done during training between the groups. The NA group experienced signs of damage, absent in the PT group, as indicated by greater than five times higher levels of plasma creatine kinase (CK) and self-reporting of initial perceived soreness and exertion, yet muscle size and strength gains were not different for the two groups. RT-PCR analysis revealed similar increases in levels of the growth factor IGF-1Ea mRNA in both groups. Likewise, the significant (Pmuscle volume) were equal in both groups. Finally, strength increases were identical for both groups (PT=25% and NA=26% improvement). The results of this study suggest that muscle rebuilding - for example, hypertrophy - can be initiated independent of any discernible damage to the muscle.

  10. Environmental policy performance revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2012-01-01

    Studies of environmental policy performance tend to concentrate on the impact of particular policy institutions or of single policy instruments. However, environmental policies most often consist of a package of policy instruments. Further, these studies pay no or very little attention to policy......-country variation in organic food consumption is explained by differences in the packages of policy instruments applied, controlling for numerous systemic and individual-level alternative explanations. The analysis suggests that for environmental and political reasons, governments should apply more demand......-side instruments when introducing environmental policies....

  11. Policy Feedback System (PFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Policy Feedback System (PFS) is a web application developed by the Office of Disability Policy Management Information (ODPMI) team that gathers empirical data...

  12. Turning scar into muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Campos; Carvalho, Adriana Bastos

    2012-09-26

    After the demonstration that somatic cells could be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state, exciting new prospects were opened for the cardiac regeneration field. It did not take long for the development of strategies to convert somatic cells directly into cardiomyocytes. Despite the intrinsic difficulties of cell reprogramming, such as low efficiency, the therapeutic possibilities created by the ability to turn scar into muscle are enormous. Here, we discuss some of the major advances and strategies used in direct cardiac reprogramming and examine discrepancies and concerns that still need to be resolved in the field.

  13. Contractures and muscle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, R Jon

    2016-08-01

    Contractures are one of a handful of signs in muscle disease, besides weakness and its distribution, whose presence can help guide us diagnostically, a welcome star on the horizon. Contractures are associated with several myopathies, some with important cardiac manifestations, and consequently are important to recognise; their presence may also provide us with a potential satisfying 'penny dropping' diagnostic moment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Lipoxygenase in chicken muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, S.; Bergman, M.; Sklan, D.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of lipoxygenase-type enzymes was demonstrated in chick muscles. Examination of the oxidation products of [ 14 C]arachidonic acid revealed the presence of 15-lipoxygenase. The enzyme was partially purified by affinity chromatography on linoleoyl-aminoethyl-Sepharose. The enzyme was stable on frozen storage, and activity was almost completely preserved after 12-month storage at -20 degree C. During this period the content of cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene fatty acids decreased slightly. It is suggested that lipoxygenase may be responsible for some of the oxidative changes occurring in fatty acids on frozen storage of chicken meat

  15. Human skeletal muscle fibroblasts stimulate in vitro myogenesis and in vivo muscle regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail L.; Magnan, Mélanie; Chazaud, Bénédicte

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of skeletal muscle extracellular matrix is an unfavourable characteristic of many muscle diseases, muscle injury and sarcopenia. In addition to the indispensable role satellite cells play in muscle regeneration, there is emerging evidence in rodents for a regulatory influence...

  16. Nutritional interventions to preserve skeletal muscle mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backx, Evelien M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Muscle mass is the main predictor for muscle strength and physical function. The amount of muscle mass can decline rapidly during periods of reduced physical activity or during periods of energy intake restriction. For athletes, it is important to maintain muscle mass, since the loss of muscle is

  17. Trunk extensor muscle fatigue influences trunk muscle activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinpoor, Tahere Seyed; Kahrizi, Sedighe; Mobini, Bahram

    2015-01-01

    Trunk muscles fatigue is one of the risk factors in workplaces and daily activities. Loads would be redistributed among active and passive tissues in a non-optimal manner in fatigue conditions. Therefore, a single tissue might be overloaded with minimal loads and as a result the risk of injury would increase. The goal of this paper was to assess the electromyographic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles after trunk extensor muscles fatigue induced by cyclic lifting task. This was an experimental study that twenty healthy women participated. For assessing automatic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles before and after the fatigue task, electromyographic activities of 6 muscles: thorasic erector spine (TES), lumbar erector spine (LES), lumbar multifidus (LMF), transverse abdominis/ internal oblique (TrA/IO), rectus abdominis (RA) and external oblique (EO) were recorded in standing position with no load and symmetric axial loads equal to 25% of their body weights. Statistical analysis showed that all the abdominal muscles activity decreased with axial loads after performing fatigue task but trunk extensor activity remained constant. Results of the current study indicated that muscle recruitment strategies changed with muscle fatigue and load bearing, therefore risks of tissue injury may increase in fatigue conditions.

  18. Aspects of smooth muscle function in molluscan catch muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twarog, B M

    1976-10-01

    1) Catch in Mytilus ABRM may be a specialization of a mechanism common to all muscles that gives rise to stretch resistance in the resting state. Catch appears to be due to actin myosin interaction. Since this interaction is regulated by nerves, it provides a convenient model for studying resting stretch resistance. 2) Studies of the structure of Mytilus ABRM revela two types of intercellular connections: a) direct connections between muscle fibers [these nexal (gap) junctions interconnect the muscle cells electrically]; b) muscle fiber-collagen-muscle fiber connections [these provide mechanical connections between muscle cells via collagen fibers]. The structure of Mytilus ABRM supports speculation that smooth muscle filaments are organized into contractile units. 3) A rise in cAMP levels occurs in response to the relaxing transmitter, serotonin. It is not certain whether the cAMP system directly controls the ability of the contractile proteins to interact or whether it regulates intracellular levels of Ca2+. 4) Calcium ions in activation are derived from two sources: an internal source, probably the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and an external source, across the muscle membrane. 5) The nature of catch remains in question, although most evidence favors the linkage hypothesis.

  19. Skeletal muscle sodium channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Sophie; Fontaine, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    This is an update on skeletal muscle sodium channelopathies since knowledge in the field have dramatically increased in the past years. The relationship between two phenotypes and SCN4A has been confirmed with additional cases that remain extremely rare: severe neonatal episodic laryngospasm mimicking encephalopathy, which should be actively searched for since patients respond well to sodium channel blockers; congenital myasthenic syndromes, which have the particularity to be the first recessive Nav1.4 channelopathy. Deep DNA sequencing suggests the contribution of other ion channels in the clinical expressivity of sodium channelopathies, which may be one of the factors modulating the latter. The increased knowledge of channel molecular structure, the quantity of sodium channel blockers, and the availability of preclinical models would permit a most personalized choice of medication for patients suffering from these debilitating neuromuscular diseases. Advances in the understanding of the molecular structure of voltage-gated sodium channels, as well as availability of preclinical models, would lead to improved medical care of patients suffering from skeletal muscle, as well as other sodium channelopathies.

  20. Muscle force compensation among synergistic muscles after fatigue of a single muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzig, Norman; Siebert, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine control strategies among synergistic muscles after fatigue of a single muscle. It was hypothesized that the compensating mechanism is specific for each fatigued muscle. The soleus (SOL), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) and medialis (GM) were fatigued in separate sessions on different days. In each experiment, subjects (n = 11) performed maximal voluntary contractions prior to and after fatiguing a single muscle (SOL, GL or GM) while the voluntary muscle activity and torque were measured. Additionally, the maximal single twitch torque of the plantarflexors and the maximal spinal reflex activity (H-reflex) of the SOL, GL and GM were determined. Fatigue was evoked using neuromuscular stimulation. Following fatigue the single twitch torque decreased by -20.1%, -19.5%, and -23.0% when the SOL, GL, or GM, have been fatigued. The maximal voluntary torque did not decrease in any session but the synergistic voluntary muscle activity increased significantly. Moreover, we found no alterations in spinal reflex activity. It is concluded that synergistic muscles compensate each other. Furthermore, it seems that self-compensating mechanism of the fatigued muscles occurred additionally. The force compensation does not depend on the function of the fatigued muscle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Building Muscles, Keeping Muscles: Protein Turnover During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Arny; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As we age we lose muscle mass and strength. The problem is a matter of use it or lose it and more - a fact to which any active senior can attest. An imbalance in the natural cycle of protein turnover may be a contributing factor to decreased muscle mass. But the answer is not so simple, since aging is associated with changes in hormones, activity levels, nutrition, and often, disease. The human body constantly uses amino acids to build muscle protein, which then breaks down and must be replaced. When protein turnover gets out of balance, so that more protein breaks down than the body can replace, the result is muscle loss. This is not just the bane of aging, however. Severely burned people may have difficulty building new muscle long after the burned skin has been repaired. Answers to why we lose muscle mass and strength - and how doctors can fix it - may come from space. Astronauts usually eat a well-balanced diet and maintain an exercise routine to stay in top health. During long-duration flight, they exercise regularly to reduce the muscle loss that results from being in a near-weightless environment. Despite these precautions, astronauts lose muscle mass and strength during most missions. They quickly recover after returning to Earth - this is a temporary condition in an otherwise healthy population. Members of the STS-107 crew are participating in a study of the effects of space flight, hormone levels, and stress on protein turnover. When we are under stress, the body responds with a change in hormone levels. Researchers hypothesize that this stress-induced change in hormones along with the near-weightlessness might result in the body synthesizing less muscle protein, causing muscles to lose their strength and size. Astronauts, who must perform numerous duties in a confined and unusual environment, experience some stress during their flight, making them excellent candidates for testing the researchers' hypothesis.

  2. Changes in hip and ankle range of motion and hip muscle strength in 8–11 year old novice female ballet dancers and controls: a 12 month follow up study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, K; Khan, K; Matthews, B; Singleton, C

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To evaluate in a 12 month longitudinal study changes in hip and ankle range of motion and hip muscle strength in young female novice ballet dancers. Methods—Fifty three of the original 77 (69%) female dancers aged 8–11 years and 40 of the original 49 (82%) controls returned for follow up measurements one year later. Supine right active hip external (ER) and internal (IR) rotation were measured using an inclinometer. A turnout protractor was used to assess standing active turnout range. Range of right weight bearing ankle dorsiflexion and calf muscle length were measured in a standing lunge position using an inclinometer. A manual muscle tester was used to assess right hip flexor, IR, ER, abductor and adductor strength. Results—The mean (SD) 12 month change in hip ER did not differ between dancers (11.7 (11.3)°) and controls (8.1 (17.6)°). Dancers gained 12.5 (13.5)° hip IR which was significantly greater than controls (0.5 (13.9)°). Greater IR change was associated with improved IR strength (r = 0.34, pballet students and controls at this young age. However, ankle dorsiflexion did not, which is probably due to this movement being blocked by bony apposition, rather than soft tissue stretch. This has implications for ballet teachers, as it has long been accepted that this movement could be improved with training. Dancers had greater increases in hip strength after 12 months compared with controls in muscles specific for ballet, suggesting that hip strength can be trained at this young age. Whether these gains are permanent requires further study. Key Words: dance; ballet; range of motion; muscle strength PMID:11157464

  3. Skeletal muscle regeneration is modulated by inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle regeneration is a complex process orchestrated by multiple steps. Recent findings indicate that inflammatory responses could play central roles in bridging initial muscle injury responses and timely muscle injury reparation. The various types of immune cells and cytokines have crucial roles in muscle regeneration process. In this review, we briefly summarise the functions of acute inflammation in muscle regeneration. The translational potential of this article: Immune system is closely relevant to the muscle regeneration. Understanding the mechanisms of inflammation in muscle regeneration is therefore critical for the development of effective regenerative, and therapeutic strategies in muscular disorders. This review provides information for muscle regeneration research regarding the effects of inflammation on muscle regeneration. Keywords: Chronic muscle disorders, Cytokines, Immune cells, Inflammation, Muscle regeneration, Muscle stem cells

  4. Muscle regeneration in mitochondrial myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, T O; Hauerslev, S; Jeppesen, T D

    2013-01-01

    myopathies. We investigated regeneration in muscle biopsies from 61 genetically well-defined patients affected by mitochondrial myopathy. Our results show that the perturbed energy metabolism in mitochondrial myopathies causes ongoing muscle regeneration in a majority of patients, and some were even affected...

  5. Muscle ultrasound in neuromuscular disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pillen, S.; Arts, I.M.P.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle ultrasound is a useful tool in the diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders, as these disorders result in muscle atrophy and intramuscular fibrosis and fatty infiltration, which can be visualized with ultrasound. Several prospective studies have reported high sensitivities and specificities in

  6. Human skeletal muscle biochemical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirrell, Timothy F; Cook, Mark S; Carr, J Austin; Lin, Evie; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L

    2012-08-01

    The molecular components largely responsible for muscle attributes such as passive tension development (titin and collagen), active tension development (myosin heavy chain, MHC) and mechanosensitive signaling (titin) have been well studied in animals but less is known about their roles in humans. The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive analysis of titin, collagen and MHC isoform distributions in a large number of human muscles, to search for common themes and trends in the muscular organization of the human body. In this study, 599 biopsies were obtained from six human cadaveric donors (mean age 83 years). Three assays were performed on each biopsy - titin molecular mass determination, hydroxyproline content (a surrogate for collagen content) and MHC isoform distribution. Titin molecular mass was increased in more distal muscles of the upper and lower limbs. This trend was also observed for collagen. Percentage MHC-1 data followed a pattern similar to collagen in muscles of the upper extremity but this trend was reversed in the lower extremity. Titin molecular mass was the best predictor of anatomical region and muscle functional group. On average, human muscles had more slow myosin than other mammals. Also, larger titins were generally associated with faster muscles. These trends suggest that distal muscles should have higher passive tension than proximal ones, and that titin size variability may potentially act to 'tune' the protein's mechanotransduction capability.

  7. Working for Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colebatch, H.K.; Hoppe, Robertus; Noordegraaf, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Though democratic government calls for well-designed and implemented policy, there is surprisingly little expert guidance available for policy makers and politicians. Working for Policy fills that gap, addressing the nature of policy work and offering necessary guidance. The contributors bring

  8. Education Policy Outlook: Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Diana Toledo; Golden, Gillian; Giovinazzo, Manon; Peterka, Judith; Ullmann, Marie

    2017-01-01

    This policy profile on education in Austria is part of the "Education Policy Outlook" series, which presents comparative analysis of education policies and reforms across OECD countries. Building on the OECD's substantial comparative and sectoral knowledge base, the series offers a comparative outlook on education policy by providing…

  9. Environmental policy in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, Shigeto; Weidner, H. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    This book deals in English with the most important features of Japanese environmental policy in a number of individual articles by different authors. The various sections report on: 1. History and organization of environmental policy; 2. The role of non-governmental actors in environmental policy (large industries); 3. Special features of environmental policies and problems; 4. Classical pollution control areas: Regulations and effects; 5. Environmental problems in a broader perspective (nature conservation); 6. Policy areas with influence on environmental quality; 7. Environmental monitoring and reporting; 8. Japanese environmental policy in an international perspective (preventive policies, developing countries). (HSCH).

  10. Policy for Sustainable Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Rosina; Nielsen, Kristian Roed; Wilson, Hugh N.

    Sustainable entrepreneurship—entrepreneurship with social and ecological gains as well as economic ones—can significantly address societal and environmental challenges, however, it is not clear how policy can support it. The authors develop a policy framework for sustainable entrepreneurship, using...... impact/performance; and innovating government. Contributions to entrepreneurship policy literature include measuring impact/performance and open policy innovation for entrepreneurship policy. Contributions to sustainability policy literature include empowering individuals as entrepreneurs and not just...... consumers. A sustainable entrepreneurship framework is developed. A method for crowdsourcing policy innovations is outlined....

  11. The Basis of Muscle Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Musarò

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle regeneration recapitulates many aspects of embryonic myogenesis and is an important homeostatic process of the adult skeletal muscle, which, after development, retains the capacity to regenerate in response to appropriate stimuli, activating the muscle compartment of stem cells, namely, satellite cells, as well as other precursor cells. Moreover, significant evidence suggests that while stem cells represent an important determinant for tissue regeneration, a “qualified” environment is necessary to guarantee and achieve functional results. It is therefore plausible that the loss of control over these cell fate decisions could lead to a pathological transdifferentiation, leading to pathologic defects in the regenerative process. This review provides an overview about the general aspects of muscle development and discusses the cellular and molecular aspects that characterize the five interrelated and time-dependent phases of muscle regeneration, namely, degeneration, inflammation, regeneration, remodeling, and maturation/functional repair.

  12. MR imaging of muscle diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, W.A.; Zeitler, E.; Schalke, B.C.G.

    1986-01-01

    Because of high soft-tissue contrast, MR imaging is especially suitable for the investigation of muscle diseases. Between March 1984 and March 1986, 76 patients with different types of muscle diseases were examined using a 1-T superconductive magnet (Siemens Magnetom). Studied were 14 patients with progressive muscular dystrophy (including carriers), 32 patients with myositis, four patients with myotonic dystrophy, six patients with spinal muscular atrophy, and 20 patients with other muscle diseases, including metabolic disorders. MR imaging showed typical signal patterns in affected muscle groups. These patterns can be used in the differential diagnosis, in biopsy planning, or in evaluation of response to therapy. The T1/T2 ratio especially seems to indicate very early stages of muscle disease

  13. Eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage impairs muscle glycogen repletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, K P; Warhol, M J; Fielding, R A; Frontera, W R; Meredith, C N; Evans, W J

    1987-07-01

    Five healthy untrained young male subjects were studied before, immediately after, and 10 days after a 45-min bout of eccentric exercise on a cycle ergometer (201 W). The subjects were sedentary at all other times and consumed a eucaloric meat-free diet. Needle biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle were examined for intracellular damage and glycogen content. Immediately after exercise, muscle samples showed myofibrillar tearing and edema. At 10 days, there was myofibrillar necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, and no evidence of myofibrillar regeneration. Glycogen utilization during the exercise bout was 33 mmol glycosyl units/kg muscle, consistent with the metabolic intensity of 44% of maximal O2 uptake; however, the significant glycogen use by type II fibers contrasted with concentric exercise performed at this intensity. At 10 days after exercise, muscle glycogen was still depleted, in both type I and II fibers. It is possible that the alterations in muscle ultrastructures were related to the lack of repletion of muscle glycogen. Damage produced by eccentric exercise was more persistent than previously reported, indicating that more than 10 days may be necessary for recovery of muscle ultrastructure and carbohydrate reserves.

  14. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

      The connective tissue content of skeletal muscle is believed to be the major factor responsible for defining the eating quality of different meat cuts, although attempts to correlate quantifications based on traditional histological methods have not as yet been able to prove this relation...... that collagen plays a significant role in determining the tenderness of meat. What are we missing? Therefore, fundamental aspects of connective tissue research have been the centre of attention throughout this thesis. A holistic view has been applied, glancing at this complex tissue which has many facets...... in this thesis that alpha-ketoglutarate, a tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolite, has the potential to control the metabolism of this particular tissue. Finally, a new microscopic method is introduced which allows the study of thermal denaturation of fibrillar collagen and myofibers in real time without any label...

  15. Bulk muscles, loose cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata

    2014-10-17

    The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. Muscling out malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2006-01-01

    ) [2] highlighted the back-to-back articles in Science 3 and 4 that demonstrated the potential biocontrol of malaria by targeting mosquitoes with entomopathogenic fungi (Metarhizium and Beauveria spp.). The wide impact of the original articles and the need to find alternatives to pesticidal control...... where malaria is endemic, humanity cannot afford shortcuts, because any failures owing to poor management or premature implementation will reduce local governmental support rather than enhance it (Andrew Read, pers. commun.). Therefore, if we are to ‘muscle out malaria', well...... of key importance, and the new focus on fungal biocontrol of malaria should therefore act as a catalyst for further research on the basic biology of fungal pathogens. Understanding morphological, biochemical or immune system-based resistance to insect pathogenic fungi will be easier if we know...

  17. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

    that collagen plays a significant role in determining the tenderness of meat. What are we missing? Therefore, fundamental aspects of connective tissue research have been the centre of attention throughout this thesis. A holistic view has been applied, glancing at this complex tissue which has many facets......  The connective tissue content of skeletal muscle is believed to be the major factor responsible for defining the eating quality of different meat cuts, although attempts to correlate quantifications based on traditional histological methods have not as yet been able to prove this relation....... Collagen, being the major protein in connective tissue, has been extensively investigated with regard to its relation to meat tenderness, but the results have been rather conflicting. Meat from older animals is tougher than that from younger animals, and changes in the properties of the collagen due...

  18. Physics of muscle contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruel, M.; Truskinovsky, L.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we report, clarify and broaden various recent efforts to complement the chemistry-centered models of force generation in (skeletal) muscles by mechanics-centered models. The physical mechanisms of interest can be grouped into two classes: passive and active. The main passive effect is the fast force recovery which does not require the detachment of myosin cross-bridges from actin filaments and can operate without a specialized supply of metabolic fuel (ATP). In mechanical terms, it can be viewed as a collective folding-unfolding phenomenon in the system of interacting bi-stable units and modeled by near equilibrium Langevin dynamics. The active force generation mechanism operates at slow time scales, requires detachment and is crucially dependent on ATP hydrolysis. The underlying mechanical processes take place far from equilibrium and are represented by stochastic models with broken time reversal symmetry implying non-potentiality, correlated noise or multiple reservoirs. The modeling approaches reviewed in this paper deal with both active and passive processes and support from the mechanical perspective the biological point of view that phenomena involved in slow (active) and fast (passive) force generation are tightly intertwined. They reveal, however, that biochemical studies in solution, macroscopic physiological measurements and structural analysis do not provide by themselves all the necessary insights into the functioning of the organized contractile system. In particular, the reviewed body of work emphasizes the important role of long-range interactions and criticality in securing the targeted mechanical response in the physiological regime of isometric contractions. The importance of the purely mechanical micro-scale modeling is accentuated at the end of the paper where we address the puzzling issue of the stability of muscle response on the so called ‘descending limb’ of the isometric tetanus.

  19. Stretching skeletal muscle: chronic muscle lengthening through sarcomerogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Zöllner

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle responds to passive overstretch through sarcomerogenesis, the creation and serial deposition of new sarcomere units. Sarcomerogenesis is critical to muscle function: It gradually re-positions the muscle back into its optimal operating regime. Animal models of immobilization, limb lengthening, and tendon transfer have provided significant insight into muscle adaptation in vivo. Yet, to date, there is no mathematical model that allows us to predict how skeletal muscle adapts to mechanical stretch in silico. Here we propose a novel mechanistic model for chronic longitudinal muscle growth in response to passive mechanical stretch. We characterize growth through a single scalar-valued internal variable, the serial sarcomere number. Sarcomerogenesis, the evolution of this variable, is driven by the elastic mechanical stretch. To analyze realistic three-dimensional muscle geometries, we embed our model into a nonlinear finite element framework. In a chronic limb lengthening study with a muscle stretch of 1.14, the model predicts an acute sarcomere lengthening from 3.09[Formula: see text]m to 3.51[Formula: see text]m, and a chronic gradual return to the initial sarcomere length within two weeks. Compared to the experiment, the acute model error was 0.00% by design of the model; the chronic model error was 2.13%, which lies within the rage of the experimental standard deviation. Our model explains, from a mechanistic point of view, why gradual multi-step muscle lengthening is less invasive than single-step lengthening. It also explains regional variations in sarcomere length, shorter close to and longer away from the muscle-tendon interface. Once calibrated with a richer data set, our model may help surgeons to prevent muscle overstretch and make informed decisions about optimal stretch increments, stretch timing, and stretch amplitudes. We anticipate our study to open new avenues in orthopedic and reconstructive surgery and enhance

  20. Muscle channelopathies and electrophysiological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherian Ajith

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Myotonic syndromes and periodic paralyses are rare disorders of skeletal muscle characterized mainly by muscle stiffness or episodic attacks of weakness. Familial forms are caused by mutation in genes coding for skeletal muscle voltage ionic channels. Familial periodic paralysis and nondystrophic myotonias are disorders of skeletal muscle excitability caused by mutations in genes coding for voltage-gated ion channels. These diseases are characterized by episodic failure of motor activity due to muscle weakness (paralysis or stiffness (myotonia. Clinical studies have identified two forms of periodic paralyses: hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hypoKPP and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (hyperKPP, based on changes in serum potassium levels during the attacks, and three distinct forms of myotonias: paramyotonia congenita (PC, potassium-aggravated myotonia (PAM, and myotonia congenita (MC. PC and PAM have been linked to missense mutations in the SCN4A gene, which encodes α subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channel, whereas MC is caused by mutations in the chloride channel gene (CLCN1. Exercise is known to trigger, aggravate, or relieve symptoms. Therefore, exercise can be used as a functional test in electromyography to improve the diagnosis of these muscle disorders. Abnormal changes in the compound muscle action potential can be disclosed using different exercise tests. Five electromyographic (EMG patterns (I-V that may be used in clinical practice as guides for molecular diagnosis are discussed.

  1. Immunology Guides Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Andrea Sass

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue trauma of skeletal muscle is one of the most common side effects in surgery. Muscle injuries are not only caused by accident-related injuries but can also be of an iatrogenic nature as they occur during surgical interventions when the anatomical region of interest is exposed. If the extent of trauma surpasses the intrinsic regenerative capacities, signs of fatty degeneration and formation of fibrotic scar tissue can occur, and, consequentially, muscle function deteriorates or is diminished. Despite research efforts to investigate the physiological healing cascade following trauma, our understanding of the early onset of healing and how it potentially determines success or failure is still only fragmentary. This review focuses on the initial physiological pathways following skeletal muscle trauma in comparison to bone and tendon trauma and what conclusions can be drawn from new scientific insights for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Strategies to support regeneration of muscle tissue after injury are scarce, even though muscle trauma has a high incidence. Based on tissue specific differences, possible clinical treatment options such as local immune-modulatory and cell therapeutic approaches are suggested that aim to support the endogenous regenerative potential of injured muscle tissues.

  2. Immunology Guides Skeletal Muscle Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, F Andrea; Fuchs, Michael; Pumberger, Matthias; Geissler, Sven; Duda, Georg N; Perka, Carsten; Schmidt-Bleek, Katharina

    2018-03-13

    Soft tissue trauma of skeletal muscle is one of the most common side effects in surgery. Muscle injuries are not only caused by accident-related injuries but can also be of an iatrogenic nature as they occur during surgical interventions when the anatomical region of interest is exposed. If the extent of trauma surpasses the intrinsic regenerative capacities, signs of fatty degeneration and formation of fibrotic scar tissue can occur, and, consequentially, muscle function deteriorates or is diminished. Despite research efforts to investigate the physiological healing cascade following trauma, our understanding of the early onset of healing and how it potentially determines success or failure is still only fragmentary. This review focuses on the initial physiological pathways following skeletal muscle trauma in comparison to bone and tendon trauma and what conclusions can be drawn from new scientific insights for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Strategies to support regeneration of muscle tissue after injury are scarce, even though muscle trauma has a high incidence. Based on tissue specific differences, possible clinical treatment options such as local immune-modulatory and cell therapeutic approaches are suggested that aim to support the endogenous regenerative potential of injured muscle tissues.

  3. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  4. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  5. Skeletal muscle performance and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieland, Michael; Trouwborst, Inez; Clark, Brian C

    2018-02-01

    The world population is ageing rapidly. As society ages, the incidence of physical limitations is dramatically increasing, which reduces the quality of life and increases healthcare expenditures. In western society, ~30% of the population over 55 years is confronted with moderate or severe physical limitations. These physical limitations increase the risk of falls, institutionalization, co-morbidity, and premature death. An important cause of physical limitations is the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, also referred to as sarcopenia. Emerging evidence, however, clearly shows that the decline in skeletal muscle mass is not the sole contributor to the decline in physical performance. For instance, the loss of muscle strength is also a strong contributor to reduced physical performance in the elderly. In addition, there is ample data to suggest that motor coordination, excitation-contraction coupling, skeletal integrity, and other factors related to the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems are critically important for physical performance in the elderly. To better understand the loss of skeletal muscle performance with ageing, we aim to provide a broad overview on the underlying mechanisms associated with elderly skeletal muscle performance. We start with a system level discussion and continue with a discussion on the influence of lifestyle, biological, and psychosocial factors on elderly skeletal muscle performance. Developing a broad understanding of the many factors affecting elderly skeletal muscle performance has major implications for scientists, clinicians, and health professionals who are developing therapeutic interventions aiming to enhance muscle function and/or prevent mobility and physical limitations and, as such, support healthy ageing. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  6. Quinine for muscle cramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tawil, Sherif; Al Musa, Tarique; Valli, Haseeb; Lunn, Michael P T; Brassington, Ruth; El-Tawil, Tariq; Weber, Markus

    2015-04-05

    Muscle cramps can occur anywhere and for many reasons. Quinine has been used to treat cramps of all causes. However, controversy continues about its efficacy and safety. This review was first published in 2010 and searches were updated in 2014. To assess the efficacy and safety of quinine-based agents in treating muscle cramps. On 27 October 2014 we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE. We searched reference lists of articles up to 2014. We also searched for ongoing trials in November 2014. Randomised controlled trials of people of all ages with muscle cramps in any location and of any cause, treated with quinine or its derivatives. Three review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. For comparisons including more than one trial, we assessed the quality of the evidence using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). We identified 23 trials with a total of 1586 participants. Fifty-eight per cent of these participants were from five unpublished studies. Quinine was compared to placebo (20 trials, n = 1140), vitamin E (four trials, n = 543), a quinine-vitamin E combination (three trials, n = 510), a quinine-theophylline combination (one trial, n = 77), and xylocaine injections into the gastrocnemius muscle (one trial, n = 24). The most commonly used quinine dosage was 300 mg/day (range 200 to 500 mg). We found no new trials for inclusion when searches were updated in 2014.The risk of bias in the trials varied considerably. All 23 trials claimed to be randomised, but only a minority described randomisation and allocation concealment adequately.Compared to placebo, quinine significantly reduced cramp number over two weeks by 28%, cramp intensity by 10%, and cramp days by 20%. Cramp duration was not significantly affected.A significantly greater number of people

  7. Elicitability of muscle cramps in different leg and foot muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetto, Marco Alessandro; Botter, Alberto

    2009-10-01

    To explore the efficacy of muscle motor point stimulation in eliciting muscle cramps, 11 subjects underwent eight sessions of electrical stimulation of the following muscles bilaterally: abductor hallucis flexor hallucis brevis, and both heads of the gastrocnemius muscles. Bursts of 150 square wave stimuli (duration: 152 micros; current intensity: 30% supramaximal) were applied. The stimulation frequency was increased from 4 pulses per second (pps) at increments of 2 pps until a cramp was induced. The number of cramps that could be elicited was smaller in flexor hallucis brevis than in abductor hallucis (16 vs. 22 out of 22 trials each; P cramp susceptibility, and the intermuscle variability in the elicitability profile for electrically induced cramps supports the use of the proposed method for cramp research.

  8. The calf muscle pump revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Katherine J; Ayekoloye, Olufemi; Moore, Hayley M; Davies, Alun H

    2014-07-01

    Chronic venous disease (CVD) defines the spectrum of manifestations of venous disease that originate as a result of ambulatory venous hypertension. Thus far, the role of the calf muscle pump in the development and potentiation of CVD has been overlooked and understated in the clinical setting, with much greater emphasis placed on reflux and obstruction. The aim of this review is to explore the level of significance that calf muscle pump function or dysfunction bears on the development and potentiation of CVD. EMBASE and MEDLINE databases were searched with keywords "calf" AND "muscle" AND "pump" AND "venous" AND "insufficiency" AND ("lower limb*" OR "leg*"), screened for cross-sectional and longitudinal studies relating to chronic venous insufficiency, highlighting the role of the calf muscle pump in CVD and the extent to which the calf muscle pump is impaired in these cases. This resulted in the inclusion of 10 studies. Compared with healthy subjects, patients with CVD have a reduced ejection fraction (15.9%; P calf muscle pump ejection ability as well as poor venous competence. Calf muscle pump dysfunction is present in 55% of patients with CVD in the literature, but this did not reach significance on meta-analysis. Isotonic exercise programs in patients with active and healed ulcers have been shown to increase calf muscle pump function but not venous competence. Calf muscle pump failure is a therapeutic target in the treatment of CVD. Evidence suggests that isotonic exercise treatment may be an effective method of increasing the hemodynamic performance of the calf muscle pump. This review emphasizes the requirement for more attention to be placed on the treatment of calf muscle pump failure in cases of CVD by use of exercise treatment programs or other methods, which may be of clinical importance in managing symptomatic disease. To establish this in routine clinical practice, these results would need to be replicated in appropriate clinical trials. It would

  9. Bigorexia: bodybuilding and muscle dysmorphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Philip E

    2009-05-01

    Muscle dysmorphia is an emerging condition that primarily affects male bodybuilders. Such individuals obsess about being inadequately muscular. Compulsions include spending hours in the gym, squandering excessive amounts of money on ineffectual sports supplements, abnormal eating patterns or even substance abuse. In this essay, I illustrate the features of muscle dysmorphia by employing the first-person account of a male bodybuilder afflicted by this condition. I briefly outline the history of bodybuilding and examine whether the growth of this sport is linked to a growing concern with body image amongst males. I suggest that muscle dysmorphia may be a new expression of a common pathology shared with the eating disorders.

  10. Diabetic muscle infarction: radiologic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chason, D.P.; Fleckenstein, J.L.; Burns, D.K.; Rojas, G.

    1996-01-01

    Four patients with severe diabetes mellitus presenting with acute thigh pain, tenderness, and swelling were evaluated by imaging techniques and biopsy. Edema in the affected muscles was seen in two patients with MRI studies. Femoral artery calcification and mild muscle swelling was present in one patient who underwent CT. Decreased echogenicity was seen in the involved muscle in a patient studied with ultrasound. Serum enzymes were normal or mildly elevated in three patients (not reported in one). Biopsy demonstrated necrosis and regenerative change in all cases. MRI, although nonspecific, is the best imaging technique to suggest the diagnosis of DMI in the appropriate clinical setting, thereby obviating biopsy. (orig./MG)

  11. Muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle fat infiltration as predictors of incident mobility limitations in well-functioning older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marjolein; Goodpaster, Bret H; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Newman, Anne B; Nevitt, Michael; Rubin, Susan M; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Harris, Tamara B

    BACKGROUND: Lower muscle mass has been correlated with poor physical function; however, no studies have examined this relationship prospectively. This study aims to investigate whether low muscle mass, low muscle strength, and greater fat infiltration into the muscle predict incident mobility

  12. Streamlining Policy Creation in Policy Frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); N. Martí-Oliet; M. Palomino

    2012-01-01

    textabstract{\\it Policy frameworks} provide a technique for improving reuse in program analysis: the same language frontend, and a core analysis semantics, can be shared among multiple analysis policies for the same language, while analysis domains (such as units of measurement) can be shared among

  13. Economic and Policy Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and economic environment in which they operate and work. EPR enlists experts in public policy, business, economic theory and practice to express their thoughts and views in the most influential way possible on economic policy and direction of government and the Nigerian economy in the short, medium and long terms.

  14. Muscle strength and muscle endurance: with and without creatine supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    KEBRIT, Daniel; RANI, Sangeeta

    2014-01-01

    Creatine is one of the legal ergogenic aids which are used by athletes here and there. A number of studies assured that it has a positive effect in high intensity short duration intensity exercise performances. This study tried to evaluate the effect of creatine monohydrate supplements on muscle strength and muscle endurance. Twenty subjects (CG= 10 and EG= 10) were participated in three months of exercise training. In this study complete randomized design was used. The EG consumed creatine a...

  15. Developing policies and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Susan A

    2006-11-01

    The development of policies and procedures is an integral part of the occupational health nurse's role. Policies and procedures serve as the foundation for the occupational health service and are based on its vision, mission, culture, and values. The design and layout selected for the policies and procedures should be simple, consistent, and easy to use. The same format should be used for all existing and new policies and procedures. Policies and procedures should be reviewed periodically based on a specified time frame (i.e., annually). However, some policies may require a more frequent review if they involve rapidly changing external standards, ethical issues, or emerging exposures.

  16. The Policy Design Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Troels Fage

    2014-01-01

    Public and individual support for a policy is affected by how it is designed – that is, how eligibility is determined. This results in universal policies being more popular than contributions-based policies, which in turn enjoy more public support than the selective kind. The literature on welfare...... benefits in Denmark shows a large impact on attitudes from being proximate to recipients under selective policies, little or no impact from universal policies and a pattern that falls in-between for the contributions-based policy. This article thus provides micro-level evidence for the different impacts...

  17. [Healthy pharmaceutical policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Pier, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Today, the pharmaceutical industry is experiencing a profound transition. Globalization and technological advancement represent the principal pressures for change in the market, where it is increasingly more difficult for this type of industry to efficiently recoup the growing cost of innovation. Mexico needs to analyze the policy implications of these change factors and promote, in the pharmaceutical market, policies that maximize health gains on invested resources. Pharmaceutical policy offers a rare example for a complementary approach between a sound health policy and an efficient economic policy; that is, a "healthy pharmaceutical policy."

  18. Innovation policies for tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    The nature, extent, and implications of innovation in tourism are increasingly investigated in academic research, but the policies that affect these transformations in the industry and at tourism destinations are not equally well conceptualised theoretically or analysed empirically. The purpose...... of this article is, in an analysis of the literature, to interpret the rationale behind innovation policy, and to explain the persisting challenges related to acquisition of an informed foundation for policies based upon quantitative and qualitative inquiries. Observed in a historical perspective, innovation...... framework of policy instruments for innovation in tourism. New generations of policies instigate a mainstreaming of the innovation agenda in ways that proceed beyond the traditional policy concepts....

  19. [Energy policy rather than climate policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroonenberg, Salomon B

    2009-01-01

    Energy policy and climate policy are two different issues and should not be treated as if they were the same. Whether the climate gets warmer or colder, saving energy and developing sustainable forms of energy production remain of paramount importance because fossil hydrocarbons are likely to be exhausted soon. But climate policy is a fallacy: it is human arrogance to think we can control the climate by reducing emissions and by storing CO2 underground. In spite of rising CO2 levels, the climate has cooled down slightly over the past decade. Since the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) did not predict this, it is questionable whether they can reliably predict warming. Other factors such as solar activity are probably more important for climate than greenhouse gases. The danger of coupling energy policy to climate policy is evident: if the climate cools down, people will lose belief in the greenhouse effect and therefore also lose interest in saving energy.

  20. Muscle soreness and delayed-onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Paul B; Ruby, Deana; Bush-Joseph, Charles A

    2012-04-01

    Immediate and delayed-onset muscle soreness differ mainly in chronology of presentation. Both conditions share the same quality of pain, eliciting and relieving activities and a varying degree of functional deficits. There is no single mechanism for muscle soreness; instead, it is a culmination of 6 different mechanisms. The developing pathway of DOMS begins with microtrauma to muscles and then surrounding connective tissues. Microtrauma is then followed by an inflammatory process and subsequent shifts of fluid and electrolytes. Throughout the progression of these events, muscle spasms may be present, exacerbating the overall condition. There are a multitude of modalities to manage the associated symptoms of immediate soreness and DOMS. Outcomes of each modality seem to be as diverse as the modalities themselves. The judicious use of NSAIDs and continued exercise are suggested to be the most reliable methods and recommended. This review article and each study cited, however, represent just one part of the clinician's decisionmaking process. Careful affirmation of temporary deficits from muscle soreness is not to be taken lightly, nor is the advisement and medical management of muscle soreness prescribed by the clinician.

  1. Hip muscle and hand-grip strength to differentiate between older fallers and non-fallers: a cross-sectional validity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafner SC

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Simone C Gafner,1,2 Caroline H Bastiaenen,2,3 Serge Ferrari,4 Gabriel Gold,5 Philippe Terrier,6,7 Roger Hilfiker,8 Lara Allet1,91Department of Physiotherapy, HES-SO University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Western Switzerland, Geneva, Switzerland; 2Department of Epidemiology, Research Program Functioning and Rehabilitation, CAPHRI, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands; 3Department of Health, School of Health Professions, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Winterthur, 4Department of Internal Medicine Specialties, 5Department of Internal Medicine, Rehabilitation and Geriatrics, University Hospitals and University of Geneva, Geneva, 6Department of Research, Clinique romande de réadaptation SUVACare, 7Department of Research, Institute for Research in Rehabilitation, Sion, 8Department of Physiotherapy, School of Health Sciences, HES-SO Valais-Wallis, University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Western Switzerland, Valais, 9Department of Community Medicine, University Hospitals and University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland Background: Hip muscle weakness in older people seems to be an influencing factor of falls. Currently, it is unclear which muscles out of the hip muscle group play an important role in older people. A validating process in the measurement regarding muscle strength related to falls is necessary before answering that question.Objective: Firstly, we aimed to investigate which hip muscle group strength shows an acceptable level of distinction between older adult fallers and non-fallers compared to a predefined external criterion regarding falling. Secondly, we aimed to compare the same outcomes and questions for hand-grip strength in relation to the same external criterion.Design: This study was a cross-sectional validity study.Methods: The maximum voluntary isometric strength (MVIS and the rate of force generation of hip abductors (ABD, adductors, internal and external rotators, extensors, and flexors were measured

  2. Ethanol Exposure Causes Muscle Degeneration in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C. Coffey

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic myopathies are characterized by neuromusculoskeletal symptoms such as compromised movement and weakness. Although these symptoms have been attributed to neurological damage, EtOH may also target skeletal muscle. EtOH exposure during zebrafish primary muscle development or adulthood results in smaller muscle fibers. However, the effects of EtOH exposure on skeletal muscle during the growth period that follows primary muscle development are not well understood. We determined the effects of EtOH exposure on muscle during this phase of development. Strikingly, muscle fibers at this stage are acutely sensitive to EtOH treatment: EtOH induces muscle degeneration. The severity of EtOH-induced muscle damage varies but muscle becomes more refractory to EtOH as muscle develops. NF-kB induction in muscle indicates that EtOH triggers a pro-inflammatory response. EtOH-induced muscle damage is p53-independent. Uptake of Evans blue dye shows that EtOH treatment causes sarcolemmal instability before muscle fiber detachment. Dystrophin-null sapje mutant zebrafish also exhibit sarcolemmal instability. We tested whether Trichostatin A (TSA, which reduces muscle degeneration in sapje mutants, would affect EtOH-treated zebrafish. We found that TSA and EtOH are a lethal combination. EtOH does, however, exacerbate muscle degeneration in sapje mutants. EtOH also disrupts adhesion of muscle fibers to their extracellular matrix at the myotendinous junction: some detached muscle fibers retain beta-Dystroglycan indicating failure of muscle end attachments. Overexpression of Paxillin, which reduces muscle degeneration in zebrafish deficient for beta-Dystroglycan, is not sufficient to rescue degeneration. Taken together, our results suggest that EtOH exposure has pleiotropic deleterious effects on skeletal muscle.

  3. Compensatory Hypertrophy of Skeletal Muscle: Contractile Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianuzzo, C. D.; Chen, V.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using rats that demonstrates contractile characteristics of normal and hypertrophied muscle. Compensatory hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle is induced by surgical removal of the synergistic gastrocnemium muscle. Includes methods for determination of contractile properties of normal and hypertrophied muscle and…

  4. Muscle pain | Mogole | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muscle pain, also known as myalgia, is most commonly associated with sprains or strains. It frequently presents as redness at the site of injury, tenderness, swelling and fever. Muscle pain may occur as a result of excitation of the muscle nociceptor due to overuse of the muscle, viral infections or trauma. The most important ...

  5. Quantitative muscle ultrasonography in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, I.M.P.; Rooij, F.G. van; Overeem, S.; Pillen, S.; Janssen, H.M.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether quantitative muscle ultrasonography can detect structural muscle changes in early-stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Bilateral transverse scans were made of five muscles or muscle groups (sternocleidomastoid, biceps brachii/brachialis, forearm flexor group,

  6. Diabetic muscle infarction: atypical MR appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, P.; Mangwana, S.; Kapoor, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a case of diabetic muscle infarction which had atypical features of hyperintensity of the affected muscle on T1-weighted images. Biopsy was performed which revealed diffuse extensive hemorrhage within the infarcted muscle. We believe increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images should suggest hemorrhage within the infarcted muscle. (orig.)

  7. Unconventional Functions of Muscles in Planarian Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutie, Stephen; Hoang, Alison T; Payumo, Alexander Y; Huang, Guo N

    2017-12-18

    Muscles are traditionally considered in the context of force generation. Scimone et al. (2017), reporting in Nature, now examine muscles in a developmental setting and find unexpected roles for distinct planarian muscle fibers. The authors show that muscles provide patterning signals to promote regeneration and guide tissue growth after injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exercise-induced muscle modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerviler, E. de; Willig, A.L.; Jehenson, P.; Duboc, D.; Syrota, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper compares changes in muscle proton T2 after exercise in normal subjects and in patients with muscular glycogenoses. Four patients suffering from muscular glycogenosis and eight normal volunteers were studied. Muscle T2s were measured in forearm muscles at rest and after exercise, with a 0.5-T imager. The exercise was performed with handgrips and was evaluated by P-31 spectroscopy (end-exercise decrease in pH and phosphocreatine) performed with a 2-T magnet. In normal subjects, a relative T2 increase, ranging from 14% to 44%, was observed in the exercised muscles. In the patients, who cannot produce lactate during exercise, weak pH variation occurred, and only a slight T2 increase (7% - 9%) was observed

  9. Simvastatin effects on skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Stride, Nis; Hey-Mogensen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) content, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity were measured in simvastatin-treated patients (n = 10) and in well-matched control subjects (n = 9)....

  10. Muscle dysfunction in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Frank; Jones, L W; Andersen, J L

    2014-01-01

    dysfunction in cancer patients lies in the correlation to vital clinical end points such as cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, therapy complications and quality of life (QoL). Such associations strongly emphasize the need for effective therapeutic countermeasures to be developed and implemented......BACKGROUND: Muscle dysfunction is a prevalent phenomenon in the oncology setting where patients across a wide range of diagnoses are subject to impaired muscle function regardless of tumor stage and nutritional state. Here, we review the current evidence describing the degree, causes and clinical...... dysfunction is evident across all stages of the cancer trajectory. The causes of cancer-related muscle dysfunction are complex, but may involve a wide range of tumor-, therapy- and/or lifestyle-related factors, depending on the clinical setting of the individual patient. The main importance of muscle...

  11. Nordic cultural policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity......A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity...

  12. IT Policy Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CIO defines IT processes and policies. The CIO defines the development processes, milestones, review gates, and the overall policies for all capital planning,...

  13. National Environmental Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...

  14. Muscle Activation and Movement Coordination.

    OpenAIRE

    Ljung, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to empirically develop a method of using electromyography to identify how humans coordinate their muscles during certain sequences of movement and the effect of an injured anterior cruciate ligament to muscle coordination. In this study, more simple movements of the lower extremities are examined and relatively accurate hypothesizes can be made solely based on anatomical theory. However, a general method for electromyographic studies would open up the possibili...

  15. Determinants of muscle carnosine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R C; Wise, J A; Price, K A; Kim, H J; Kim, C K; Sale, C

    2012-07-01

    The main determinant of muscle carnosine (M-Carn) content is undoubtedly species, with, for example, aerobically trained female vegetarian athletes [with circa 13 mmol/kg dry muscle (dm)] having just 1/10th of that found in trained thoroughbred horses. Muscle fibre type is another key determinant, as type II fibres have a higher M-Carn or muscle histidine containing dipeptide (M-HCD) content than type I fibres. In vegetarians, M-Carn is limited by hepatic synthesis of β-alanine, whereas in omnivores this is augmented by the hydrolysis of dietary supplied HCD's resulting in muscle levels two or more times higher. β-alanine supplementation will increase M-Carn. The same increase in M-Carn occurs with administration of an equal molar quantity of carnosine as an alternative source of β-alanine. Following the cessation of supplementation, M-Carn returns to pre-supplementation levels, with an estimated t1/2 of 5-9 weeks. Higher than normal M-Carn contents have been noted in some chronically weight-trained subjects, but it is unclear if this is due to the training per se, or secondary to changes in muscle fibre composition, an increase in β-alanine intake or even anabolic steroid use. There is no measureable loss of M-Carn with acute exercise, although exercise-induced muscle damage may result in raised plasma concentrations in equines. Animal studies indicate effects of gender and age, but human studies lack sufficient control of the effects of diet and changes in muscle fibre composition.

  16. Bilateral metastases to extraocular muscles from lobular breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvaris, John R; Gkongkou, Penelope V; Papadimitriou, Christos A; Papacharalampous, Xenofon N; Antypas, Christos E; Balafouta, Myrsini J; Vlahos, Lambros J

    2008-07-01

    Metastastic carcinoma to extraocular muscles is extremely rare, but even more so is the case of a bilateral one. A 50-year-old woman with a history of mastectomy for a T4N1M0 right breast carcinoma was referred to us with diplopia due to bilateral extraocular muscle metastases, 5 years post mastectomy. Multiple metastases to the whole body were also present. A combination of high-dose irradiation, hormonotherapy and chemotherapy were performed. Despite the multidisciplinary treatment approach, the diplopia persisted. A literature review revealed only 4 cases of bilateral metastases to extraocular muscles. The present case is the second attributed to lobular carcinoma and the only one treated with a high dose of radiotherapy combined with systemic therapy. In a cancer patient, any orbital change must be examined for the possibility of an extraocular metastasis. Conclusions affecting the optimal treatment policy of extraocular muscle metastases are difficult to determine, due to the small number of reported cases. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Influence of muscle geometry on shortening speed of fibre, aponeurosis and muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, C. J.; Huijing, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of muscle geometry on muscle shortening of the gastrocnemius medialis muscle (GM) of the rat was studied. Using cinematography, GM geometry was studied during isokinetic concentric activity at muscle lengths ranging from 85 to 105% of the optimum muscle length. The shortening speed of

  18. Assessment of muscle fatigue using electromygraphm sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmi, Muhammad Hazimin Bin; Ping, Chew Sue; Ishak, Nur Elliza Binti; Saad, Mohd Alimi Bin Mohd; Mokhtar, Anis Shahida Niza Binti

    2017-08-01

    Muscle fatigue is condition of muscle decline in ability after undergoing any physical activity. Observation of the muscle condition of an athlete during training is crucial to prevent or minimize injury and able to achieve optimum performance in actual competition. The aim of this project is to develop a muscle monitoring system to detect muscle fatigue in swimming athlete. This device is capable to measure muscle stress level of the swimmer and at the same time provide indication of muscle fatigue level to trainer. Electromyography signal was recorded from the muscle movement while practicing the front crawl stroke repetitively. The time domain data was processed to frequency spectra in order to study the effect of muscle fatigue. The results show that the recorded EMG signal is able to sense muscle fatigue.

  19. Hybrid Security Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu CONSTANTINESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy is defined as the rules and regulations set by the organization. They are laid down by management in compliance with industry regulations, law and internal decisions. Policies are mandatory. Security policies rules how the information is protected against security vulnerabilities and they are the basis for security awareness, training and vital for security audits. Policies are focused on desired results. The means of achieving the goals are defined on controls, standards and procedures.

  20. Innovation policies for tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    The nature, extent, and implications of innovation in tourism are increasingly investigated in academic research, but the policies that affect these transformations in the industry and at tourism destinations are not equally well conceptualised theoretically or analysed empirically. The purpose...... framework of policy instruments for innovation in tourism. New generations of policies instigate a mainstreaming of the innovation agenda in ways that proceed beyond the traditional policy concepts....

  1. Economics and obesity policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, J L

    2017-06-01

    This paper elucidates the challenges surrounding the economics of some popular obesity-related policy proposals. Solid economic justifications for anti-obesity policies are often lacking, and evidence suggests policies like fat and soda taxes or restrictions on food stamp spending are unlikely to substantively affect obesity prevalence. In short, many of the same factors that make obesity such a complicated and multifaceted issue extend to the economic analysis of public health policies.

  2. Variability of femoral muscle attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, G N; Brand, D; Freitag, S; Lierse, W; Schneider, E

    1996-09-01

    Analytical and experimental models of the musculoskeletal system often assume single values rather than ranges for anatomical input parameters. The hypothesis of the present study was that anatomical variability significantly influences the results of biomechanical analyses, specifically regarding the moment arms of the various thigh muscles. Insertions and origins of muscles crossing or attaching to the femur were digitized in six specimens. Muscle volumes were measured; muscle attachment area and centroid location were computed. To demonstrate the influence of inter-individual anatomic variability on a mechanical modeling parameter, the corresponding range of muscle moment arms were calculated. Standard deviations, as a percentage of the mean, were about 70% for attachment area and 80% for muscle volume and attachment centroid location. The resulting moment arms of the m. gluteus maximus and m. rectus femoris were especially sensitive to anatomical variations (SD 65%). The results indicate that sensitivity to anatomical variations should be analyzed in any investigation simulating musculoskeletal interactions. To avoid misinterpretations, investigators should consider using several anatomical configurations rather than relying on a mean data set.

  3. Morphology of peroneus tertius muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, S D; Joshi, S S; Athavale, S A

    2006-10-01

    Peroneus tertius (PT) muscle is peculiar to man, and man is the only member among the primates in whom this muscle occurs. The muscle is variable in its development and attachment. Because of functional demands of bipedal gait and plantigrade foot, part of extensor digitorum brevis (EDB) has migrated upwards into the leg from the dorsum of foot. PT is a muscle that evolution is rendering more important. In a total of 110 cadavers, extensor compartment of leg and dorsum of foot were dissected in both the lower limbs and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and PT muscles were dissected and displayed. PT was found to be absent in 10.5% limbs, the incidence being greater on the right side. The remaining limbs in which the PT muscle was present had a very extensive origin from lower 3/4th of extensor surface of fibula (20% on right and in 17% on left), and the EDL was very much reduced in size. In approximately 12%, the tendon of PT was thick or even thicker than the tendon of EDL. In 4%, the tendon extended beyond fifth metatarsal up to metatarsophalangeal joint of fifth toe, and in 1.5%, it extended up to the proximal phalanx of little toe. In two cases (both on the right side), where PT was absent, it was replaced by a slip from lateral margin of EDL. We conclude that PT, which is preeminently human, is extending its purchase both proximally and distally. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Performance of national policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M. de; Mastop, H.; Spit, T.

    1997-01-01

    National spatial policies are usually indicative and strategic. As a result, this kind of policy does not have a direct bearing on the spatial organisation of society. Instead the performance of these policies depends on whether or not they are used in subsequent decisionmaking and planning

  5. Italian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This document discusses problems associated with Italian energy policy; economic and industrial development as it relates to that policy is covered. Specific areas covered are: (1) the basis of Italy's new energy policy; (2) energy demand; (3) five objectives; (4) the electrical power system; (5) proposed action; and (6) energy resources

  6. Quarterly fiscal policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kendrick, D.A.; Amman, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Monetary policy is altered once a month. Fiscal policy is altered once a year. As a potential improvement this article examines the use of feedback control rules for fiscal policy that is altered quarterly. Following the work of Blinder and Orszag, modifications are discussed in Congressional

  7. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses the r...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory.......Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...... the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...

  8. Mitochondrial respiration in hummingbird flight muscles.

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez, R K; Lighton, J R; Brown, G S; Mathieu-Costello, O

    1991-01-01

    Respiration rates of muscle mitochondria in flying hummingbirds range from 7 to 10 ml of O2 per cm3 of mitochondria per min, which is about 2 times higher than the range obtained in the locomotory muscles of mammals running at their maximum aerobic capacities (VO2max). Capillary volume density is higher in hummingbird flight muscles than in mammalian skeletal muscles. Mitochondria occupy approximately 35% of fiber volume in hummingbird flight muscles and cluster beneath the sarcolemmal membra...

  9. Muscle ultrasound measurements and functional muscle parameters in non-dystrophic myotonias suggest structural muscle changes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, J.; Pillen, S.; Faber, C.G.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Zwarts, M.J.; Drost, G.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with non-dystrophic myotonias, including chloride (myotonia congenita) and sodium channelopathies (paramyotonia congenita/potassium aggravated myotonias), may show muscular hypertrophy in combination with some histopathological abnormalities. However, the extent of muscle changes has never

  10. Effect of acupuncture depth on muscle pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitakoji Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While evidence supports efficacy of acupuncture and/or dry needling in treating musculoskeletal pain, it is unclear which needling method is most effective. This study aims to determine the effects of depth of needle penetration on muscle pain. Methods A total of 22 healthy volunteers performed repeated eccentric contractions to induce muscle soreness in their extensor digital muscle. Subjects were assigned randomly to four groups, namely control group, skin group (depth of 3 mm: the extensor digital muscle, muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle and non-segmental group (depth of 10 mm: the anterior tibial muscle. Pressure pain threshold and electrical pain threshold of the skin, fascia and muscle were measured at a point 20 mm distal to the maximum tender point on the second day after the exercise. Results Pressure pain thresholds of skin group (depth of 3 mm: the extensor digital muscle and muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle were significantly higher than the control group, whereas the electrical pain threshold at fascia of muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle was a significantly higher than control group; however, there was no significant difference between the control and other groups. Conclusion The present study shows that acupuncture stimulation of muscle increases the PPT and EPT of fascia. The depth of needle penetration is important for the relief of muscle pain.

  11. ROTC Policy Regarding Homosexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee S. Duemer

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a policy analysis, in a historical context, of how Association of American University institutions responded to Reserve Officer Training Corps policy excluding homosexuals. The time period for this study is 1982 to 1992. Qualitative methods are used to analyze data and arrive at conclusions. Secondary data provide additional depth and background. This study reveals seven different positions institutions have taken in response to ROTC policy, these include: supporting ROTC policy, neutrality, collective action, barring military recruiters from campus, distancing the institution from ROTC, and changing the campus climate. This includes examples taken from AAU institutions and rationales behind making policy decisions.

  12. EU Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrin, Julie; Giorgetti, Maria Letizia; Jensen, Camilla

    Following disregard in the 1980s, industrial policy has recently attracted policy attention at EU level. The objective of this study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee, is to establish the state of the art of a coordinated and integrated EU industrial policy....... It assesses current initiatives, policies and arrangements and proposes an overview of stakeholders' positions at EU and national levels in order to feed into the debate on how to improve competitiveness and growth in Europe....

  13. EUROPEAN MARITIME TRANSPORT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kujawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the common EU policy on maritime transport, which comprises almost 80% of the volume of external trade of the Union and about 40% of internal transport needs. The first part of the paper presents the origins of the common maritime transport policy and the difficulties encountered during its initial formation. Subsequently, the evolution of the concepts of the policy and its current shape is discussed. The final, substantial part of the article describes the main aims and directions of the EU maritime transport policy and includes an evaluation of the effects of the policy.

  14. Cyber security policy guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Bayuk, nifer L; Rohmeyer, l; Sachs, cus; Schmidt, frey; Weiss, eph

    2012-01-01

    This book is a taxonomy and thesaurus of current cybersecurity policy issues, including a thorough description of each issue and a corresponding list of pros and cons with respect to identified stances on each issue. It documents policy alternatives for the sake of clarity with respect to policy alone, and dives into organizational implementation issues. Without using technical jargon, the book emphasizes the importance of critical and analytical thinking when making policy decisions.  It also equips the reader with descriptions of the impact of specific policy ch

  15. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements...... of collaboration, the implementation phase mainly consists in the less demanding forms of cooperation and coordination....

  16. Environmental education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Blum, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the relationship between research and policy and, more specifically, how researchers might relate to policy work. Given the current international policy focus on climate change, green growth and sustainability in general, it argues for strengthening and widening policy research...... in the areas of Environmental Education (EE), Education for Sustainable Development and Climate Change Education. It especially makes a case for two kinds of research on EE policy: (1) a multi-sited approach to empirical documentation and theory development which explores the relationships between...

  17. Novel muscle spindles containing muscle fibers devoid of sensory innervation in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desaki, Junzo; Nishida, Naoya

    2008-04-01

    We examined the structural features of muscle spindles at the equatorial and juxtaequatorial regions in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of adult (12 months) and aged (25 months) rats. In aged muscle spindles, the lamellated layers of the spindle capsule were a little increased in number compared to those in the adult ones. Two novel muscle spindles were observed in the aged muscle. In one muscle spindle, the spindle capsule contained four thin intrafusal muscle fibers invested by the inner capsule and two muscle fibers between the layers of the spindle capsule. Serial semithin sections revealed that the latter lacked the investment of the spindle capsule at the polar region. The other muscle spindle contained four intrafusal muscle fibers: two thin sensory-innervated muscle fibers invested by the inner capsule and two thick muscle fibers similar in structural features to neighboring extrafusal muscle fibers and lacking sensory innervation within the wide periaxial space. These findings suggest that two muscle fibers between the layers of the spindle capsule may be invested by the newly formed capsular cells during aging, while two thick fibers within the periaxial space may fail to receive the sensory innervation during the early development and follow the course of extrafusal fiber differentiation.

  18. Energy policy and foreign policy in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venanzi, F.

    2001-01-01

    Energy policy in Italy is principally a matter of foreign policy. As a result, extensive programmes for the exploration, development, transport and marketing of oil and natural gas have to be planned and carried out together with the producing countries. In this effort, the country shall need the support of its national energy companies. That is why ENI's controlling interest as well as its mission had better be on Italian hands [it

  19. Empirical Evaluation of Voluntarily Activatable Muscle Synergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunta Togo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The muscle synergy hypothesis assumes that individual muscle synergies are independent of each other and voluntarily controllable. However, this assumption has not been empirically tested. This study tested if human subjects can voluntarily activate individual muscle synergies extracted by non-negative matrix factorization (NMF, the standard mathematical method for synergy extraction. We defined the activation of a single muscle synergy as the generation of a muscle activity pattern vector parallel to the single muscle synergy vector. Subjects performed an isometric force production task with their right hand, and the 13 muscle activity patterns associated with their elbow and shoulder movements were measured. We extracted muscle synergies during the task using electromyogram (EMG data and the NMF method with varied numbers of muscle synergies. The number (N of muscle synergies was determined by using the variability accounted for (VAF, NVAF and the coefficient of determination (CD, NCD. An additional muscle synergy model with NAD was also considered. We defined a conventional muscle synergy as the muscle synergy extracted by the NVAF, NCD, and NAD. We also defined an extended muscle synergy as the muscle synergy extracted by the NEX> NAD. To examine whether the individual muscle synergy was voluntarily activatable or not, we calculated the index of independent activation, which reflects similarities between a selected single muscle synergy and the current muscle activation pattern of the subject. Subjects were visually feed-backed the index of independent activation, then instructed to generate muscle activity patterns similar to the conventional and extended muscle synergies. As a result, an average of 90.8% of the muscle synergy extracted by the NVAF was independently activated. However, the proportion of activatable muscle synergies extracted by NCD and NAD was lower. These results partly support the assumption of the muscle synergy

  20. Muscle strength rather than muscle mass is associated with osteoporosis in older Chinese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixuan Ma

    2018-02-01

    Conclusion: Based on our study, muscle strength rather than muscle mass is negatively associated with OS in older people; thus, we should pay more attention to muscle strength training in the early stage of the OS.

  1. Problematizations in Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Bacchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article directs attention to the significance, for health promotion advocates, of reflecting on how “problems” are constituted, or brought into existence, as particular sorts of problems, within policies and policy proposals. To this end, it introduces a poststructural analytic strategy called “What’s the Problem Represented to be?” (WPR approach, and contrasts this perspective to the ways in which “problems” are commonly conceptualized in health policy analyses (e.g., “a problem stream,” “wicked problems”. Such a perspective offers a significant rethinking of the conventional emphasis on agenda setting and policy-making processes in considering the meaning of success or failure in health policy initiatives. The starting point is a close analysis of items that are “successful,” in the sense that they make the political agenda, to see how representations of “problems” within selected policies limit what is talked about as possible or desirable, or as impossible and undesirable. This form of analysis thus enables critical reflections on the substantive content of policy initiatives in health policy. The article takes a step back from policy process theories, frameworks, and models to offer reflections at the level of paradigms. Highlighting potential dangers and limitations in positivism, interpretivism, and critical realism, it uses international, Australian, and South Australian examples in health policy to explore what poststructural policy analysis contributes to understanding the broad political influences shaping contemporary modes of rule.

  2. Policies for Renewable Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This paper builds on IEA publications, Deploying Renewables, Principles for Effective Policies and Deploying Renewables, Best and Future Policy Practice, that discuss the 'integrated policy approach,' whereby renewable energy technologies require different support policies at different stages of their maturity pathways. The paper discusses how the integrated policy approach applies to renewable heat. It attempts to provide guidance for policy-makers on renewable heat throughout the different phases of the policy lifecycle, allowing for the specific challenges of renewable heat and needs of the many stakeholders involved. Stimulating a market for heat involves challenges that are different and, often, more difficult to overcome than in the electricity and transport sectors.

  3. Policy and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.; Ejrnæs, Anders

    2012-01-01

    regimes in Europe – covering the 26 countries. A typology based on a cluster analysis of macro indicators of family policy – coverage of childcare, effective parental leave and spending on family policies. The cluster analysis is based on data from OECD family data base. Then follows an analysis......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a typology of different family policy systems in Europe and evaluate their impact on the employment strategy of mothers with care responsibilities for dependent children. Design/methodology/approach – The paper outlines a typology of family policy...... of the impact of the different family policy regimes on mothers' employment strategies when they return into gainful employment, based on data from the European Social Survey, 2008. Findings – The authors have identified four different family policy models: extensive family policy, long parental leave, family...

  4. Implementing public employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Bredgaard, Thomas

    . But there is an interesting question to investigate here: whether and if so how, NPM-inspired reforms are related to changes in employment policy towards a work-first approach? Are changes in public management systems created as deliberate policy changes, or do they bring about more indirect and unintended policy changes......Like most other areas within welfare policy, the employment and social policy areas are undergoing far-reaching changes in many countries. Partly in the shape of new forms of governance inspired by New Public Management (NPM), partly through new policies oriented towards activation and stronger...... disciplining of the unemployed (work first) (cf.Bredgaard & Larsen, 2005; Sol & Westerweld, 2005). It is, however, remarkable that in the research field there seems to be a division of labour so that changes in public administration and changes in the substance of employment policies are dealt with separately...

  5. RETARDATION OF MUSCLE GROWTH IN CASTRATED MALE MICE:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the absolute weights and the muscle mass indices of the muscles of castrated males were ... Muscles, Mice. INTRODUCTION rat levator ani muscles. It was noted that the hypertrophy of the muscle was a result. Muscles of adult male mice are invariably of increase in myofibrilar material .... (1976): Skeletal muscle cellularity.

  6. Inspiratory muscle training attenuates the human respiratory muscle metaboreflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Jonathan D; Guenette, Jordan A; Rupert, Jim L; McKenzie, Donald C; Sheel, A William

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesized that inspiratory muscle training (IMT) would attenuate the sympathetically mediated heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) increases normally observed during fatiguing inspiratory muscle work. An experimental group (Exp, n = 8) performed IMT 6 days per week for 5 weeks at 50% of maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), while a control group (Sham, n = 8) performed IMT at 10% MIP. Pre- and post-training, subjects underwent a eucapnic resistive breathing task (RBT) (breathing frequency = 15 breaths min−1, duty cycle = 0.70) while HR and MAP were continuously monitored. Following IMT, MIP increased significantly (P inspiratory work. We attribute our findings to a reduced activity of chemosensitive afferents within the inspiratory muscles and may provide a mechanism for some of the whole-body exercise endurance improvements associated with IMT. PMID:17855758

  7. Inspiratory muscle training for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ivanizia S; Fregonezi, Guilherme A F; Dias, Fernando A L; Ribeiro, Cibele T D; Guerra, Ricardo O; Ferreira, Gardenia M H

    2013-09-08

    In some people with asthma, expiratory airflow limitation, premature closure of small airways, activity of inspiratory muscles at the end of expiration and reduced pulmonary compliance may lead to lung hyperinflation. With the increase in lung volume, chest wall geometry is modified, shortening the inspiratory muscles and leaving them at a sub-optimal position in their length-tension relationship. Thus, the capacity of these muscles to generate tension is reduced. An increase in cross-sectional area of the inspiratory muscles caused by hypertrophy could offset the functional weakening induced by hyperinflation. Previous studies have shown that inspiratory muscle training promotes diaphragm hypertrophy in healthy people and patients with chronic heart failure, and increases the proportion of type I fibres and the size of type II fibres of the external intercostal muscles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, its effects on clinical outcomes in patients with asthma are unclear. To evaluate the efficacy of inspiratory muscle training with either an external resistive device or threshold loading in people with asthma. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), ClinicalTrials.gov and reference lists of included studies. The latest search was performed in November 2012. We included randomised controlled trials that involved the use of an external inspiratory muscle training device versus a control (sham or no inspiratory training device) in people with stable asthma. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included five studies involving 113 adults. Participants in four studies had mild to moderate asthma and the fifth study included participants independent of their asthma severity. There were substantial differences between the studies, including the training protocol, duration of training sessions (10 to 30

  8. Laughing: a demanding exercise for trunk muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Heiko; Rehmes, Ulrich; Kohle, Daniel; Puta, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Social, psychological, and physiological studies have provided evidence indicating that laughter imposes an increased demand on trunk muscles. It was the aim of this study to quantify the activation of trunk muscles during laughter yoga in comparison with crunch and back lifting exercises regarding the mean trunk muscle activity. Muscular activity during laughter yoga exercises was measured by surface electromyography of 5 trunk muscles. The activation level of internal oblique muscle during laughter yoga is higher compared to the traditional exercises. The multifidus, erector spinae, and rectus abdominis muscles were nearly half activated during laughter yoga, while the activation of the external oblique muscle was comparable with the crunch and back lifting exercises. Our results indicate that laughter yoga has a positive effect on trunk muscle activation. Thus, laughter seems to be a good activator of trunk muscles, but further research is required whether laughter yoga is a good exercise to improve neuromuscular recruitment patterns for spine stability.

  9. Striated Muscle Function, Regeneration, and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadrin, I.Y.; Khodabukus, A.; Bursac, N.

    2016-01-01

    As the only striated muscle tissues in the body, skeletal and cardiac muscle share numerous structural and functional characteristics, while exhibiting vastly different size and regenerative potential. Healthy skeletal muscle harbors a robust regenerative response that becomes inadequate after large muscle loss or in degenerative pathologies and aging. In contrast, the mammalian heart loses its regenerative capacity shortly after birth, leaving it susceptible to permanent damage by acute injury or chronic disease. In this review, we compare and contrast the physiology and regenerative potential of native skeletal and cardiac muscles, mechanisms underlying striated muscle dysfunction, and bioengineering strategies to treat muscle disorders. We focus on different sources for cellular therapy, biomaterials to augment the endogenous regenerative response, and progress in engineering and application of mature striated muscle tissues in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we discuss the challenges and perspectives in translating muscle bioengineering strategies to clinical practice. PMID:27271751

  10. Nuclear Positioning in Muscle Development and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eFolker

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Muscle disease as a group is characterized by muscle weakness, muscle loss, and impaired muscle function. Although the phenotype is the same, the underlying cellular pathologies, and the molecular causes of these pathologies, are diverse. One common feature of many muscle disorders is the mispositioning of myonuclei. In unaffected individuals myonuclei are spaced throughout the periphery of the muscle fiber such that the distance between nuclei is maximized. However, in diseased muscles, the nuclei are often clustered within the center of the muscle cell. Although this phenotype has been acknowledged for several decades, it is often ignored as a contributor to muscle weakness. Rather, these nuclei are taken only as a sign of muscle repair. Here we review the evidence that mispositioned myonuclei are not merely a symptom of muscle disease but also a cause. Additionally, we review the working models for how myonuclei move from two different perspectives, from that of the nucleus and from that of the cytoskeleton. We further compare and contrast these mechanisms with the mechanisms of nuclear movement in other cell types both to draw general themes for nuclear movement and to identify muscle-specific considerations. Finally, we focus on factors that can be linked to muscle disease and find that genes that regulate myonuclear movement and positioning have been linked to muscular dystrophy. Although the cause-effect relationship is largely speculative, recent data indicate that the position of nuclei should no longer be considered only a means to diagnose muscle disease.

  11. Diagnosis of skeletal muscle channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, Jennifer; Fialho, Doreen; Hanna, Michael G

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal muscle channelopathies are rare disorders of muscle membrane excitability. Their episodic nature may result in diagnostic difficulty and delays in diagnosis. Advances in diagnostic clinical electrophysiology combined with DNA-based diagnosis have improved diagnostic accuracy and efficiency. Ascribing pathogenic status to identified genetic variants in muscle channel genes may be complex and functional analysis, including molecular expression, may help with this. Accurate clinical and genetic diagnosis enables genetic counselling, advice regarding prognosis and aids treatment selection. An approach to accurate and efficient diagnosis is outlined. The importance of detailed clinical evaluation including careful history, examination and family history is emphasised. The role of specialised electrodiagnostics combined with DNA testing and molecular expression is considered. New potential biomarkers including muscle MRI using MRC Centre protocols are discussed. A combined diagnostic approach using careful clinical assessment, specialised neurophysiology and DNA testing will now achieve a clear diagnosis in most patients with muscle channelopathies. An accurate diagnosis enables genetic counselling and provides information regarding prognosis and treatment selection. Genetic analysis often identifies new variants of uncertain significance. In this situation, functional expression studies as part of a diagnostic service will enable determination of pathogenic status of novel genetic variants.

  12. Muscle channelopathies and related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Muscle channelopathies and related disorders are neuromuscular disorders predominantly of genetic origin which are caused by mutations in ion channels or genes that play a role in muscle excitability. They include different forms of periodic paralysis which are characterized by acute and reversible attacks of muscle weakness concomitant to changes in blood potassium levels. These disorders may also present as distinguishable myotonic syndromes (slowed muscle relaxation) which have in common lack of involvement of dystrophic changes of the muscle, in contrast to dystrophia myotonica. Recent advances have been made in the diagnosis of these different disorders, which require, in addition to a careful clinical evaluation, detailed EMG and molecular study. Although these diseases are rare, they deserve attention since patients may benefit from drugs which can dramatically improve their condition. Patients may have atypical presentations, sometimes life-threatening, which may delay a proper diagnosis, mostly in the first months of life. The creation of specialized reference centers in the Western world has greatly benefited the proper recognition of these neuromuscular diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The skeletal muscle satellite cell was first described and named based on its anatomic location between the myofiber plasma and basement membranes. In 1961, two independent studies by Alexander Mauro and Bernard Katz provided the first electron microscopic descriptions of satellite cells in frog and rat muscles. These cells were soon detected in other vertebrates and acquired candidacy as the source of myogenic cells needed for myofiber growth and repair throughout life. Cultures of isolated myofibers and, subsequently, transplantation of single myofibers demonstrated that satellite cells were myogenic progenitors. More recently, satellite cells were redefined as myogenic stem cells given their ability to self-renew in addition to producing differentiated progeny. Identification of distinctively expressed molecular markers, in particular Pax7, has facilitated detection of satellite cells using light microscopy. Notwithstanding the remarkable progress made since the discovery of satellite cells, researchers have looked for alternative cells with myogenic capacity that can potentially be used for whole body cell-based therapy of skeletal muscle. Yet, new studies show that inducible ablation of satellite cells in adult muscle impairs myofiber regeneration. Thus, on the 50th anniversary since its discovery, the satellite cell’s indispensable role in muscle repair has been reaffirmed. PMID:22147605

  14. Regeneration of muscle fibers in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of the aged rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desaki, Junzo

    2008-04-01

    Regeneration of muscle fibers was observed in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of aged (24 and 27 months) Wistar rats. The aged muscles consisted almost exclusively of medium-sized muscle fibers. In addition to degenerating and/or atrophied muscle fibers, very small muscle fibers <10 mum in diameter were observed in some muscle bundles which sporadically distributed in the muscle. In the degenerating muscle fibers, satellite cells mostly appeared to be normal, possibly surviving within the scaffold of basal lamina to form new (regenerating) muscle fibers. However, some of the satellite cells were degenerated and destroyed, suggesting the decrease in number of muscle fibers. On the other hand, very small muscle fibers existed between small and/or medium-sized muscle fibers or in the wide interstitial spaces between them solitarily or in small groups. In addition, immature muscle cells having a centrally located nucleus and sporadically distributed myofilaments were observed among the small and/or medium-sized muscle fibers and partially lacked a layer of basal lamina. These immature muscle cells were often closely apposed to fibroblasts with some slender cytoplasmic processes and/or to each other without an interposing basal lamina. These findings suggest that in addition to satellite cells within the basal lamina tubes, some of the regenerating muscle fibers in the aged EDL muscle may be originated from mesenchymal cells such as fibroblasts in the interstitial spaces.

  15. A further observation of muscle spindles in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of the aged rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desaki, Junzo; Nishida, Naoya

    2010-01-01

    We observed three novel muscle spindles in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of the aged (20 months) rat. Two muscle spindles of the three contained thin muscle fibers lacking sensory innervation between the layers of the spindle capsule and within the periaxial space, respectively. The other one contained sensory-innervated thin muscle fibers with an indistinct equatorial nucleation between the layers of the spindle capsule. These findings suggest that the occurrence of thin muscle fibers may be intimately related to the degeneration and regeneration of extrafusal muscle fibers during aging and that these newly formed thin muscle fibers may often fail to receive sensory innervation.

  16. Evaluation of muscle function of the extensor digitorum longus muscle ex vivo and tibialis anterior muscle in situ in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Chady H; Wasala, Nalinda B; Duan, Dongsheng

    2013-02-09

    Body movements are mainly provided by mechanical function of skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle is composed of numerous bundles of myofibers that are sheathed by intramuscular connective tissues. Each myofiber contains many myofibrils that run longitudinally along the length of the myofiber. Myofibrils are the contractile apparatus of muscle and they are composed of repeated contractile units known as sarcomeres. A sarcomere unit contains actin and myosin filaments that are spaced by the Z discs and titin protein. Mechanical function of skeletal muscle is defined by the contractile and passive properties of muscle. The contractile properties are used to characterize the amount of force generated during muscle contraction, time of force generation and time of muscle relaxation. Any factor that affects muscle contraction (such as interaction between actin and myosin filaments, homeostasis of calcium, ATP/ADP ratio, etc.) influences the contractile properties. The passive properties refer to the elastic and viscous properties (stiffness and viscosity) of the muscle in the absence of contraction. These properties are determined by the extracellular and the intracellular structural components (such as titin) and connective tissues (mainly collagen) (1-2). The contractile and passive properties are two inseparable aspects of muscle function. For example, elbow flexion is accomplished by contraction of muscles in the anterior compartment of the upper arm and passive stretch of muscles in the posterior compartment of the upper arm. To truly understand muscle function, both contractile and passive properties should be studied. The contractile and/or passive mechanical properties of muscle are often compromised in muscle diseases. A good example is Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a severe muscle wasting disease caused by dystrophin deficiency (3). Dystrophin is a cytoskeletal protein that stabilizes the muscle cell membrane (sarcolemma) during muscle contraction (4). In the

  17. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartee, Gregory D.; Hepple, Russell T.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Zierath, Juleen R.

    2016-01-01

    Primary aging is the progressive and inevitable process of bodily deterioration during adulthood. In skeletal muscle, primary aging causes defective mitochondrial energetics, and reduced muscle mass. Secondary aging refers to additional deleterious structural and functional age-related changes caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes “healthy aging” by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle. PMID:27304505

  18. Partial muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, N.S.; Hoppel, C.L.

    1987-01-02

    After initiation of ibuprofen therapy, a 45-year-old woman developed muscle weakness and tenderness with rhabdomyolysis, culminating in respiratory failure. A muscle biopsy specimen showed a vacuolar myopathy, and markedly decreased muscle carnitine content and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity. Following recovery, muscle carnitine content was normal but carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity was still abnormally low. The ratio of palmitoyl-coenzyme A plus carnitine to palmitoylcarnitine oxidation by muscle mitochondria isolated from the patient was markedly decreased. The authors conclude that transiently decreased muscle carnitine content interacted with partial deficiency of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A to produce rhabdomyolysis and respiratory failure and that ibuprofen may have precipitated the clinical event.

  19. Partial muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, N.S.; Hoppel, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    After initiation of ibuprofen therapy, a 45-year-old woman developed muscle weakness and tenderness with rhabdomyolysis, culminating in respiratory failure. A muscle biopsy specimen showed a vacuolar myopathy, and markedly decreased muscle carnitine content and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity. Following recovery, muscle carnitine content was normal but carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity was still abnormally low. The ratio of palmitoyl-coenzyme A plus carnitine to palmitoylcarnitine oxidation by muscle mitochondria isolated from the patient was markedly decreased. The authors conclude that transiently decreased muscle carnitine content interacted with partial deficiency of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A to produce rhabdomyolysis and respiratory failure and that ibuprofen may have precipitated the clinical event

  20. Vitamin D and muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2017-10-01

    Muscle weakness is a hallmark of severe vitamin D deficiency, but the effect of milder vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency on muscle mass and performance and risk of falling is uncertain. In this presentation, I review the evidence that vitamin D influences muscle mass and performance, balance, and risk of falling in older adults. Special consideration is given to the impact of both the starting 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and the dose administered on the clinical response to supplemental vitamin D in older men and women. Based on available evidence, older adults with serum 25(OH)D levels vitamin D dose range of 800-1000 IU per day has been effective in many studies; lower doses have generally been ineffective and several doses above this range have increased the risk of falls. In conclusion, older adults with serum 25(OH)D levels vitamin D. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Management of science policy, sociology of science policy and economics of science policy

    CERN Document Server

    Ruivo, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    'Management of science policy, sociology of science policy and economics of science policy' is a theoretical essay on the scientific foundation of science policy (formulation, implementation, instruments and procedures). It can be also used as a textbook.

  2. Language Policy and Communication Policy - Same Same but Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Johnsen, Mia

    2006-01-01

    Surprisingly, no attempts have yet been made to relate language policy and communication policy. This is the case in theoretical contributions on language policy and theoretical contributions on communication policy alike, none of which mentions the other concept. It is also the case in existing...... language policies where the term communication policy is not mentioned at all. Likewise, the term language policy is not found in communication policies, even where a particular company or organisation has a language policy as well as a communication policy. This contribution aims to define both terms...

  3. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dender, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified.

  4. The arrangement of muscle fibers and tendons in two muscles used for growth studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickland, N C

    1983-01-01

    The arrangement of muscle fibres and tendons was examined in the soleus muscle of rats from 6 to 175 days post partum. The muscle was seen to change from a simple structure, with mean fibre length of approximately 90% of complete muscle length, to a unipennate structure, with mean fibre length of only about 60% of muscle length. The dog pectineus muscle was also investigated and found to have a bipennate structure throughout postnatal growth. The arrangement of muscle fibres in both these muscles is such that it might be difficult (particularly in the older animals) to cut a transverse section through all the fibres contained in the muscle; some fibres might not enter the plane of section. Results on muscle fibre number in these muscles at different ages may therefore be misleading.

  5. Shaping Policy Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broome, André; Seabrooke, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    provide a conceptual framework for understanding how IOs seek to use their own cognitive authority to foster ‘diagnostic coordination’ across technocratic economic policy communities. This encourages officials to adapt to a common policy language and delimits the policy space within which they identify......International organizations (IOs) such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank are assumed to rely on ‘sympathetic interlocutors’ at the national level to drive through economic reforms that conform to global policy norms. In this article we answer the following question: How do...... sympathetic interlocutors for IOs emerge in the first place? We address this question by examining how IOs engage in teaching norms to national officials via transnational policy training in order to increase the number of domestic reformers who are sympathetic to their prescriptions for policy change. We...

  6. Muscle cramps in liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shivang S; Fallon, Michael B

    2013-11-01

    Muscle cramps are common in patients with liver disease and adversely influence quality of life. The exact mechanisms by which they occur remain unclear, although a number of pathophysiological events unique to liver disease may contribute. Clinical studies have identified alterations in 3 areas: nerve function, energy metabolism, and plasma volume/electrolytes. Treatments have focused on these particular areas with varied results. This review will focus on the clinical features of muscle cramps in patients with liver disease and review potential mechanisms and current therapies. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Muscle after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Bo; Kristensen, Ida Bruun; Kjaer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The morphological and contractile changes of muscles below the level of the lesion after spinal cord injury (SCI) are dramatic. In humans with SCI, a fiber-type transformation away from type I begins 4-7 months post-SCI and reaches a new steady state with predominantly fast glycolytic IIX fibers...... years after the injury. There is a progressive drop in the proportion of slow myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform fibers and a rise in the proportion of fibers that coexpress both the fast and slow MHC isoforms. The oxidative enzymatic activity starts to decline after the first few months post-SCI. Muscles...

  8. Muscle glycogen stores and fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørtenblad, Niels; Westerblad, Håkan; Nielsen, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    function during fatigue is not well understood and a direct cause-and-effect relationship between glycogen and muscle function remains to be established. The use of electron microscopy has revealed that glycogen is not homogeneously distributed in skeletal muscle fibres, but rather localized in distinct...... the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). We and others have provided experimental evidence in favour of a direct role of decreased glycogen, localized within the myofibrils, for the reduction in SR Ca2+ release during fatigue. This is consistent with compartmentalized energy turnover and distinctly localized glycogen...

  9. Spontaneous waves in muscle fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Stefan; Kruse, Karsten [Department of Theoretical Physics, Saarland University, 66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Street 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Mechanical oscillations are important for many cellular processes, e.g. the beating of cilia and flagella or the sensation of sound by hair cells. These dynamic states originate from spontaneous oscillations of molecular motors. A particularly clear example of such oscillations has been observed in muscle fibers under non-physiological conditions. In that case, motor oscillations lead to contraction waves along the fiber. By a macroscopic analysis of muscle fiber dynamics we find that the spontaneous waves involve non-hydrodynamic modes. A simple microscopic model of sarcomere dynamics highlights mechanical aspects of the motor dynamics and fits with the experimental observations.

  10. Muscle phosphoglycerate mutase deficiency revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naini, Ali; Toscano, Antonio; Musumeci, Olimpia

    2009-01-01

    storage disease type X and novel mutations in the gene encoding the muscle subunit of PGAM (PGAM2). DESIGN: Clinical, pathological, biochemical, and molecular analyses. SETTING: Tertiary care university hospitals and academic institutions. Patients A 37-year-old Danish man of Pakistani origin who had...... PGAM deficiency, and molecular studies revealed 2 novel homozygous mutations, a nonsense mutation and a single nucleotide deletion. Pathological studies of muscle showed mild glycogen accumulation but prominent tubular aggregates in both patients. CONCLUSIONS: We found that glycogen storage disease...

  11. Neural effects of muscle stretching on the spinal reflexes in multiple lower-limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masugi, Yohei; Obata, Hiroki; Inoue, Daisuke; Kawashima, Noritaka; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2017-01-01

    While previous studies have shown that muscle stretching suppresses monosynaptic spinal reflex excitability in stretched muscles, its effects on non-stretched muscles is still largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of muscle stretching on monosynaptic spinal reflex in non-stretched muscles. Ten healthy male subjects participated in this study. Muscle stretching of the right triceps surae muscle was performed using a motor torque device for 1 minute. Three different dorsiflexion torques (at approximately 5, 10, and 15 Nm) were applied during muscle stretching. Spinal reflexes evoked by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation were recorded in both the lower-limb muscles before, during, and at 0 and 5 min following muscle stretching. The amplitudes of the spinal reflexes in both the stretched and non-stretched muscles in the right (ipsilateral) leg were smaller during stretching compared to before, and at 0 and 5 min after stretching. Furthermore, the degree of reduction in the amplitude of the spinal reflexes in the right (ipsilateral) leg muscles increased significantly as the dorsiflexion torque (i.e., stretching of the right triceps surae muscles) increased. In contrast, reduction in the amplitude of the spinal reflexes with increasing dorsiflexion torque was not seen in the left (contralateral) leg muscles. Our results clearly indicate that muscle stretching has inhibitory effects on monosynaptic spinal reflexes, not only in stretched muscles, but also in non-stretched muscles of the ipsilateral leg.

  12. PLASTICITY OF SKELETAL MUSCLE STUDIED BY STEREOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Eržen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution provides an overview of stereological methods applied in the skeletal muscle research at the Institute of Anatomy of the Medical Faculty in Ljubljana. Interested in skeletal muscle plasticity we studied three different topics: (i expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms in slow and fast muscles under experimental conditions, (ii frequency of satellite cells in young and old human and rat muscles and (iii capillary supply of rat fast and slow muscles. We analysed the expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms within slow rat soleus and fast extensor digitorum longus muscles after (i homotopic and heterotopic transplantation of both muscles, (ii low frequency electrical stimulation of the fast muscle and (iii transposition of the fast nerve to the slow muscle. The models applied were able to turn the fast muscle into a completely slow muscle, but not vice versa. One of the indicators for the regenerative potential of skeletal muscles is its satellite cell pool. The estimated parameters, number of satellite cells per unit fibre length, corrected to the reference sarcomere length (Nsc/Lfib and number of satellite cells per number of nuclei (myonuclei and satellite cell nuclei (Nsc/Nnucl indicated that the frequency of M-cadherin stained satellite cells declines in healthy old human and rat muscles compared to young muscles. To access differences in capillary densities among slow and fast muscles and slow and fast muscle fibres, we have introduced Slicer and Fakir methods, and tested them on predominantly slow and fast rat muscles. Discussing three different topics that require different approach, the present paper reflects the three decades of the development of stereological methods: 2D analysis by simple point counting in the 70's, the disector in the 80's and virtual spatial probes in the 90's. In all methods the interactive computer assisted approach was utilised.

  13. Environmental Policy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Don

    1985-03-01

    This book tell US environmental problems and environmental conservation, theory with present situation of the problems, influence of environmental aggravation, and cause of environmental problems, environmental policy influencing environment such as the national environmental policy act in America, and the role of court and environmental policy act, jurisdiction investigation about administrative action which influence on environment, and standard of jurisdiction investigation in environmental problems and legislation of environmental rights.

  14. Counterterrorism policy in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Self, Kevin A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to suggest a coherent, credible, and long-term counterterrorism policy in Colombia. The events of September 11, 2001 heightened U.S. awareness of Colombian terrorist organizations, the most powerful being the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). The U.S. counterterror approach in Colombia appears fragmented, with only minor changes to its previous drug control policies. In contrast, the Colombian government has developed and implemented a policy to ...

  15. Pension Fund Investment Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Zvi Bodie

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to survey what is known about the investment policy of pension funds. Pension fund investment policy depends critically on the type of plan: defined contribution versus defined benefit. For defined contribution plans investment policy is not much different than it is for an individual deciding how to invest the money in an Individual Retirement Account (IRA). The guiding principle is efficient diversification, that is, achieving the maximum expected return for any...

  16. Role of Muscle Relaxant (Tizanidine) In Painful Muscle Spasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More prolonged or regular cramps may be treated with drugs. Tizanidine which is an agonist at á ... Inclusion criteria included all the patients suffering from painful muscle spasm in back, neck, shoulder, knee or other anatomical sites with onset not more than two days prior to presentation. The patients suffering from ...

  17. Tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Kaufman, Nancy; Sarna, Linda

    2003-11-01

    To review and summarize tobacco control policies, their impact in curbing the tobacco epidemic, and to describe a role for nursing advocacy. Published articles and research studies. Comprehensive tobacco control policy is one of the most effective mechanisms to prevent tobacco-related cancers and other illnesses. The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and the Master Settlement Agreement in the United States have provided new opportunities for tobacco control. Nursing participation in the policy process can expand and strengthen these policies' activities. Involvement in tobacco control should be integral to oncology nursing efforts to prevent cancer, promote health, and quality of life.

  18. Australian uranium mining policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, B.

    1985-01-01

    Australian government policy is explained in terms of adherence to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Two alleged uncertainties are discussed: the future of Australian mining industry as a whole -on which it is said that Australian uranium mines will continue to be developed; and detailed commercial policy of the Australian government - on which it is suggested that the three-mines policy of limited expansion of the industry would continue. Various aspects of policy, applying the principles of the NPT, are listed. (U.K.)

  19. Collaborative Policy Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Waldorff, Susanne Boch

    2014-01-01

    Governments all over the Western world currently face wicked problems that call for policy innovation. A new strand of research in public innovation points to collaboration between public authorities and relevant and affected stakeholders as an important driver of public innovation. A case study...... of collaborative policy innovation in the area of mental health care in Denmark indicates that collaboration can contribute to qualify the politicians’ understanding of wicked policy problems, and to fostering new creative policy solutions. The study also shows, however, that the new problem understandings...

  20. Myofascial force transmisison between antagonistic rat lower limb muscles: effects of single muscle or muscle group lengthening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Hanneke J.M; Rijkelijkhuizen, Josina M.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of lengthening of the whole group of anterior crural muscles (tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus muscles (TA + EHL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL)) on myofascial interaction between synergistic EDL and TA + EHL muscles, and on myofascial force transmission between anterior