Sample records for addressing south african

  1. Addressing mitigation options within the South African country study

    Roos, Gina [Eskom (South Africa)


    The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAandT). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa`s vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa`s commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)

  2. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)


    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  3. Translanguaging as an approach to address language inequality in South African higher education: summary writing skills development

    Sandiso Ngcobo


    Full Text Available Literacy challenges among the majority of African-language speaking students learning through the medium of English impact on unequal throughput in South African higher education. To address this social injustice issue, academic literacy practitioners have a critical role to play in the inclusion of linguistic diversity in higher education. This requires that the curriculum be revised in such a way that classroom activities and assessments give recognition to students’ African languages. In this paper, we outline how translanguaging as a teaching and learning approach promises to develop literacy in both the students’ African languages and English. The paper describes a summary skills development teaching approach and its accompanying activities which enable the students to move between isiZulu and English. The summary writing activities are followed by a guided reflection note from students on their perceptions and experiences of the new communicative approach that has been introduced to them. The majority of participants express positive perceptions of this approach as they find it familiar to what they are used to doing when learning on their own. It is hoped that the translanguaging approach would contribute to the promotion of equality in language and literacy development in the South African higher education sector.

  4. Strategies to address learner aggression in rural South African secondary schools

    Gunam D. Singh


    Full Text Available Managing learner aggression in the school system is central to learners’ academic performance and holistic development. In order to manage learner aggression, it is important to understand the contributory factors and the forms of learner aggression. This article reports on an investigation of factors contributing to learner aggression in rural secondary schools in the Empangeni district of KwaZulu-Natal in order to identify the forms of learner aggression and to establish strategies to manage such aggression in these secondary schools. A qualitative research design was adopted to investigate the phenomenon through an interview process with participants from five rural secondary schools. The findings showed that the factors contributing to learner aggression include family factors, environmental factors and school-related factors whilst the most common forms of learner aggression in schools are verbal aggression, physical aggression and bullying. The article concludes with the role that the school, parents and the Department of Education can play in addressing learner aggression in schools.

  5. An overview of South African psychology.

    Cooper, Saths; Nicholas, Lionel


    This overview of psychology in South Africa presents a concise and historical account of its science and practice, from its early origins in the late nineteenth century to the present, and traces seminal influences on the discipline. It is a review of how psychology in South Africa developed over more than a century to become one of the most popular subjects in universities and an established and recognized profession, whose members play a variety of roles in the South African polity and larger society. The impact that apartheid racism had on key aspects of psychology's development is traversed, and the influences that previous ruling party politics had on professional psychological organizations are delineated. The unification of psychology under the Psychological Society of South Africa, a few months before the advent of democracy in South Africa, is explicated. The protection of the title of psychologist in law and certain other changes in the legislative environment, enabling a greater role for psychologists, are reported. The primary research sites for psychology and its funding and the main university psychology programs are described, as are the requirements for registration and licensure. The genesis and the importance of the work of internationally acclaimed South African psychologists, such as J. Wolpe and A. A. Lazarus, are contextualized. With the increased participation of progressive black psychologists in leadership and research in the past two decades, a transformed psychology has the potential to play a significant role in addressing human issues confronting South Africa.

  6. South African cities and Globalization

    Céline Vacchiani-Marcuzzo


    Full Text Available Illustration 1 – Centre des affaires, Le CapAuteur : Céline Vacchiani-Marcuzzo.Born with colonial settlement patterns, the South-African urban system has experienced half a century of Apartheid. Under the effects of globalization, this urban system evolves as more developed urban systems and mature settlement patterns. This urbanization process (in the limits of functional urban agglomeration makes South Africa one of the most advanced countries in Africa in terms of urban growth. The world-...

  7. Astronomy for teachers: A South African Perspective

    de Witt, Aletha; West, Marion; Leeuw, Lerothodi; Gouws, Eldrie


    South Africa has nominated Astronomy as a “flagship science” and aims to be an international Astronomy hub through projects such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and the South African Large Telescope (SALT). These projects open up career opportunities in maths, science and engineering and therefore offers a very real door for learners to enter into careers in science and technology through Astronomy. However, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS), the Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) and Annual National Assessment (ANA) have highlighted that South Africa’s Science and Mathematics education is in a critical condition and that South African learners score amongst the worst in the world in both these subjects. In South Africa Astronomy is generally regarded as the worst taught and most avoided Natural Science knowledge strand, and most teachers that specialised in Natural Sciences, never covered Astronomy in their training.In order to address these issues a collaborative project between the University of South Africa (UNISA) and the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) was initiated, which aims to assist teachers to gain more knowledge and skills so that they can teach Astronomy with confidence. By collaborating we aim to ensure that the level of astronomy development will be raised in both South Africa and the rest of Africa.With the focus on Teaching and Learning, the research was conducted within a quantitative paradigm and 600 structured questionnaires were administered to Natural Science teachers in Public primary schools in Gauteng, South Africa. This paper reports the findings of this research and makes recommendations on how to assist teachers to teach Astronomy with confidence.

  8. Schistosomes in South African penguins.

    Aldhoun, Jitka A; Horne, Elizabeth C


    During the years 2009-2012, faeces of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus L.) from South African rehabilitation centres were examined for helminths. In total, 46 out 555 samples (8.29 %), mostly belonging to adult birds, were found to contain oval schistosome eggs with a spine on one pole. Their dimensions were 153.21 ± 9.07 × 87.14 ± 8.67 μm. Selected DNA fragments (18S, 28S and ITS rDNA) were sequenced and compared to other schistosome isolates deposited in GenBank. The shape of the eggs suggests that they belong to the genus Gigantobilharzia; however, due to the insufficient stage of knowledge of the genus and limited number of species available for comparison, we were not able to assign the isolate unambiguously to this genus based on either the egg morphology or the results of molecular analysis.

  9. Addressing South Africa’s urban challenges

    Jayne M. Rogerson


    Full Text Available South Africa is among the most urbanized countries in Africa and has an urban population that is growing rapidly. The country’s urban challenges sometimes are considered as distinctive and separate to those of rest of Africa because of the apartheid legacy of a fragmented and racially splintered urban landscape. Nevertheless, 20 years after democratic transition the issues that confront its cities increasingly exhibit a set of sustainability challenges that typify those problems of many other fast-growing African urban areas. This introduction locates the collection of articles as a contribution to the expanding corpus of scholarship on urban South Africa.


    A.C. Lillie


    Full Text Available It has been said that 'Necessity is the mother of invention' and there can be few countries, if any, where this is more true than in South Africa.In the late 1930's, prior to World War II, the South African Artillery was severely restricted due to its lack of mobility. The inventiveness shown in tackling this probelm is surely not a thing of the past and the possiblity of adapting South African artillery to current South african needs in warfare should not be overlooked. The South African Defence Force is not able to purchase armament in a free and open market place and the costs of developing new artillery are prohibitive in a country of South Africa's size. it will be argued that it is necessary and possible, in the short term, to take what is currently available and adapt this to South Africa's needs.

  11. Career Psychology in South Africa: Addressing and Redressing Social Justice

    Watson, Mark


    This paper explores the definition of social justice in career psychology and how this might be understood in the South African context. In particular, macro-contextual factors that define social justice issues in South African career psychology are described. The extent to which the discipline of career psychology in South Africa has addressed…

  12. 21st Century South African Science Fiction



    Full Text Available The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008 and Zoo City (2010 are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published in 2011 as this consolidates women's presence in the SF world.

  13. The South African nuclear industry

    Walmsley, John


    The history of the South African nuclear industry is outlined and its present status described. Eskom, the state electric utility, generates 5% of its output from two 921MWe PWRs sited at Koeberg near Capetown. A pebble bed variant of the HTGR is being considered as an option for future nuclear power generation. The Atomic Energy Corporation (AEC) in the past developed a complete front-end fuel cycle capability, conversion of the mining output of ammonium diuranate to UF{sub 6}, enrichment and fuel fabrication facilities, post-irradiation facilities for Koeberg fuel and one of the best low level waste repositories in the world. It also designed a nuclear weapon, six of which were built and later dismantled. Recently, government policy has dictated drastic staff reductions at AEC. The enrichment plant has been dismantled and the PWR fuel fabrication is under threat of closure. Considerable effort is being put into Molecular Laser Isotope Separation, in cooperation with the French organisation COGEMA, as a project with good commercial prospects in the medium term. The Council for Nuclear Safety is the licensing authority for Koeberg, AEC activities and mining and minerals processing. Uranium production in the mines has dropped dramatically with South Africa now being eighth in the world ranking whereas at its peak in 1980 it ranked third. (UK).

  14. South African coal statistics 2006. Marketing manual



    The report shows that South African thermal exports increased 5% from 66.6Mt to 69.9Mt in 2005 and that the country was the world's third largest seaborne exporter of thermal coal last year. Covering local coal consumption, South African coal imports, exports, prices and qualities, the report offers a complete statistical review of 2005. The report also includes details on labour, individual collieries, export and rail infrastructure and Black Empowerment (BEE) companies.

  15. Tambach remixed: “Christians in South African society”

    B.B. (Tumi Senokoane


    Full Text Available This article flows from the previous one, which analysed Karl Barth’s Tambach lecture in its original German context. It uses the musical metaphor of “remixing” to describe the recontextualising of Barth’s Tambach approach in contemporary South African society. After recontextualising the theological foundations of the Tambach lecture, Barth’s three viewpoints (regnum naturae, regnum gratiae, regnum gloriae are recontextualised for South Africa, addressing the issue of poverty as an example.

  16. The response of South African professional psychology associations to apartheid.

    Nicholas, L J


    Professional psychology associations in South Africa have overtly and covertly furthered the aims of apartheid. Guidance about the ethical obligations of psychologists in the South African context has been singularly lacking, and as a result blacks have not been attracted to the profession of psychology in sufficient numbers to administer to psychological needs of the client population. The political dimension of psychological practice in South Africa needs to be addressed directly so that healing strategies relevant to the burgeoning racial conflict in South Africa can be implemented.

  17. Paraphilia and sex offending - A South African criminal law perspective.

    Carstens, Pieter; Stevens, Philip


    Historically, the link between sexual deviance and criminality has been described and documented, asserted by psychiatry, and manifested in law. Laws that have regulated sexual behaviour have referred to terms such as 'sexual deviation', 'sexual perversion' or even archaic moral terms such as 'unnatural acts and unspeakable crimes against nature'. A possible link between sexual perversion, psychopathy, and criminality, specifically manifesting in sexual homicide, has been the subject of remarkable research in forensic psychiatry. This contribution examines the phenomenon of paraphilia with specific reference to its definition, diagnostic classification and characteristics, as well as a few selections of incidences of paraphilia in South African criminal case law. A brief assessment is made of how South African criminal courts have dealt with paraphilia. In this regard, an analysis is made of the criminal liability of the paraphiliac. The South African response to sexual deviation as addressed in the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007 will also be addressed with reference to its efficacy in addressing paraphilia within South African criminal law. The interface between criminal law and medical ethics within the context of this theme will also be canvassed. In conclusion, recommendations for possible reform are canvassed.

  18. South African Artillery in the Eighties

    A. C. Lillie


    Full Text Available Emerging from the Second World War armed with the then completely adequate 25 pounder and BL 5.5" guns, the South African Field Artillery continued to use the same guns operationally over thirty years later.When the armed forces of South Africa were thrown into a conventional conflict during the Angolan Civil War in 1975, the gunners found their equipment to be woefully inadequate. Soviet made artillery systems in the hands of the Russian-backed forces possessed ranges far in excess of the Second World War vintage South African systems and brought home in a very real way the need for drastic modernisation of the artillery branch of the South African Army.

  19. The South African Species of Myrica

    D. J. B. Killick


    Full Text Available The South African species of Myrica are revised, the 19 species previously recognized being reduced to 9. One variety is elevated to specific rank, viz. M. conifera Burm.f. var.  Integra A. Chev. becomes M. Integra (A. Chev. Killick.

  20. Contemporary Sexism in the South African Navy

    Van Wijk, Charles H.


    The military traditionally embraces highly sexist attitudes. Over the past decade, the South African Navy (SAN) has been exposed to an increasingly progressive political environment. This study investigated contemporary expressions of sexism in the SAN. A representative sample of 476 sailors completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, Modern Sexism…

  1. Coal: a South African success story

    Boers, R.


    Describes the South African coal mining industry, including exports domestic use of coal, coal geology and mining methods, employment, labour relations, benefits and social amenities provided for workers, safety and environmental aspects including land reclamation. Also discusses the implications of sanctions on coal and the mining industry, and argues that sanctions have not achieved and cannot achieve the stated objective of the social and political emancipation of black South Africa. Concludes that in order to defeat apartheid, South Africa, needs economic growth and encouragement for those attempting reform.

  2. Cash flow forecast for South African firms

    Yun Li


    Full Text Available This paper applies models in the extant literature that have been used to forecast operating cash flows to predict the cash flows of South African firms listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. Out-of-sample performance is examined for each model and compared between them. The reported results show that some accrual terms, i.e. depreciation and changes in inventory do not enhance cash flow prediction for the average South African firm in contrast to the reported results of studies in USA and Australia. Inclusion of more explanatory variables does not necessarily improve the models, according to the out-of-sample results. The paper proposes the application of moving average model in panel data, and vector regressive model for multi-period-ahead prediction of cash flows for South Africa firms.

  3. SADCC: challenging the "South African connection.".

    Liebenow, J G


    The Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) which unites 9 states with a combined population of 60 million, has as its objective the task of promoting economic development and realizing economic independence. In many respects the strain of neocolonialism that Southern Africa faces at this time is even more virulent than that facing West, Central, and East Africa. In the latter regions the surrender of political authority by colonial administrators frequently left the commercial, agricultural, and industrial interests of the European powers in continued control of the economies of the former colonies. The fate of economic development plans was determined by situations and decisions made in places distant from the African continent. In the case of Southern Africa, the withdrawal or expulsion of European colonialists has found whites in neighboring South Africa most eager to step into the economic breech. For most of the Southern African states this variant strain of the neocolonial virus creates a dual problem: the independent states acting separately have been no match for South Africa; and the acquiescence of independent African states in forging economic links with South Africa has impeded the liberation efforts of Africans in Namibia and the Republic of South Africa. Discussion focus turns to the challenges that confront SADCC; transport as the most significant factor accounting for the dependency of SADCC states upon South Africa; the role of minerals in dependency; other aspects of dependency; South Africa's proposed Constellation of States; the origins and objectives of SADCC; and dollars and donors. SADCC planning for economic liberation has been conducted against the background of a counterproposal advanced by South Africa's government, which put the Republic at the center of an expanded network of economic linkages within the entire southern African region. While being formally rejected, the Constellation of States scheme does have

  4. Rethinking "relevance": South African psychology in context.

    Long, Wahbie


    This article examines the phenomenon known as the "relevance debate" in South African psychology. It begins with a historical overview of the contours of the discipline in that country before describing the controversy's international dimensions, namely, the revolutionary politics of 1960s higher education and the subsequent emergence of cognate versions of the debate in American, European, and "Third World" psychology. The article then details how South Africa's "relevance" project enjoyed a special affinity with an assortment of ethnic-cultural, national, and continental myths and metaphors, all of which served the interests of the political formations of the day. It discusses how, in present-day South Africa, the intelligentsia has become an important catalyst for the so-called African Renaissance, which seeks to provide "relevant" solutions for the regeneration of African society. However, the global hegemony of what began in the 1970s as a "second academic revolution," aided by the lifting of the academic boycott of South Africa, has blunted the once critical edge of "relevance" discourse. A new mode of knowledge production now holds sway, the outcome of a dramatic reformulation of the capitalist manifesto in which the values of the "May 68" generation have been hijacked by a managerialist rationality. In light of the capitalization of the knowledge-production enterprise, it is concluded that the idiom of "relevance" has outlived its usefulness.

  5. A South African Among Tibetans


    Charlotte Jefferay is a volunteer teacher from South Africa who has been teaching high school English in west China’s Qinghai Province since 2003.Her school is Huangnan Nationalities No.2 Middle School in Tongren(known as Rebgong in Tibetan) County, which is a Tibetan-inhabited area.Now after eight years in the region she is returning home,and took.the opportunity to share her experiences in Tongren with ChinAfrica.

  6. Being gay in the management echelon of the South African Department of Defence: a life history.


    This study addresses the absence of scientific knowledge of leadership behaviour among gays in the management echelon of the South African Department of Defence and provides some tangible knowledge in this regard. This valuable knowledge was obtained through an in-depth qualitative research design, namely a life story of one South African citizen, who is gay, male and white, and who held a senior management position in the Department of Defence (DOD) for a number of years. Themes and hypothes...

  7. Mobile communication tools for a South African deaf patient in a pharmacy context

    Chininthorn, P.; Glaser, M.; Freudenthal, A.; Tucker, W.D.


    This paper presents a case of iterative community-based co-design to facilitate the emergence of an innovative mobile system to address a potentially life-threatening scenario for Deaf people in South Africa. For Deaf people who communicate in South African Sign Language, miscommunication due to lan

  8. Barriers to Conducting a Community Mobilization Intervention among Youth in a Rural South African Community

    Whitehead, Kevin A.; Kriel, Anita J.; Richter, Linda M.


    In the face of extreme poverty and inequality in South Africa, community mobilization interventions represent an important way in which people can be empowered to improve their life. Successfully conducting community mobilization interventions in rural South African communities requires anticipating and addressing a number of potential barriers in…

  9. Stress and ethical behaviour among South African managers

    Ebben van Zyl


    Full Text Available Stress and ethical behaviour among South African managersThe South African business world is increasingly characterised by unethical behaviour and commercial crimes. Involvement of managers is contributing up to 80% of the total costs of white collar crime. In order to try to understand the situation, the current South African managerial climate is analysed.This analysis clearly indicates that South African managers function in stressful circumstances which can give rise to unethical behaviour. A theoretical model for ethical behaviour is therefore discussed and used as a basis for practical suggestions in order to improve the situation.

  10. Addressing rural social exclusion through African social purpose ventures

    Littlewood, David; Holt, Diane


    Objectives. \\ud The overarching aim of this paper is to consider the relationship between social entrepreneurship and rural development, and as a mechanism to address social exclusion in the Global South, with specific reference to Sub-Saharan Africa. Drawing upon a number of case examples of social purpose ventures in Kenya, Mozambique and Zambia the objectives of this paper are:\\ud - To provide a synthesis of existing literature on the interaction between social purpose ventures and rural B...

  11. South African Association of Veterinary Technologists : congress abstracts

    Editorial Office


    Full Text Available The following are abstracts of papers and posters presented at the 'Back to Basics Congress' of the South African Association of Veterinary Technologists (SAAVT, 15-16 September 2009, Batter Boys, Pretoria, South Africa.

  12. Singapore Airlines and South African Airways Sign Codeshare Agreement


    @@ From 15 September 2006, Singapore Airlines' customers will be able to travel to more destinations in South Africa thanks to a new codeshare agreement signed by Singapore Airlines and South African Airways (SAA).

  13. Pseudoachondroplasia: Report on a South African family

    Shahida Moosa


    Full Text Available Pseudoachondroplasia is an autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia that results in disproportionately short stature, severe brachydactyly with strikingly lax small joints, malalignments of the lower limbs, and characteristic radiological features. Although named ‘false achondroplasia’, the entity is a distinct condition, in which affected individuals are born with normal length and have a normal facies, but is often only recognised after the age of 2 years, when the disproportion and waddling gait become evident. We report on an affected South African father and daughter, and highlight their clinical and radiographic features.

  14. South African food allergy consensus document 2014.

    Levin, M E; Gray, C L; Goddard, E; Karabus, S; Kriel, M; Lang, A C; Manjra, A I; Risenga, S M; Terblanche, A J; van der Spuy, D A


    The prevalence of food allergy is increasing worldwide and is an important cause of anaphylaxis. There are no local South African food allergy guidelines. This document was devised by the Allergy Society of South Africa (ALLSA), the South African Gastroenterology Society (SAGES) and the Association for Dietetics in South Africa (ADSA). Subjects may have reactions to more than one food, and different types and severity of reactions to different foods may coexist in one individual. A detailed history directed at identifying the type and severity of possible reactions is essential for every food allergen under consideration. Skin-prick tests and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) (ImmunoCAP) tests prove IgE sensitisation rather than clinical reactivity. The magnitude of sensitisation combined with the history may be sufficient to ascribe causality, but where this is not possible an incremental oral food challenge may be required to assess tolerance or clinical allergy. For milder non-IgE-mediated conditions a diagnostic elimination diet may be followed with food re-introduction at home to assess causality. The primary therapy for food allergy is strict avoidance of the offending food/s, taking into account nutritional status and provision of alternative sources of nutrients. Acute management of severe reactions requires prompt intramuscular administration of adrenaline 0.01 mg/kg and basic resuscitation. Adjunctive therapy includes antihistamines, bronchodilators and corticosteroids. Subjects with food allergy require risk assessment and those at increased risk for future severe reactions require the implementation of risk-reduction strategies, including education of the patient, families and all caregivers (including teachers), the provision of a written emergency action plan, a MedicAlert necklace or bracelet and injectable adrenaline (preferably via auto-injector) where necessary.

  15. Disaster management and humanitarian logistics – A South African perspective

    Wilna L. Bean


    Full Text Available Disasters are becoming an unavoidable part of everyday life throughout the world, including South Africa. Even though South Africa is not a country affected by large-scale disasters such as earthquakes, the impact of disasters in South Africa is aggravated significantly by the vulnerability of people living in informal settlements. Humanitarian logistics, as a ‘new’ sub-field in the supply chain management context, has developed significantly recently to assist in disaster situations. This paper provides an overview of the South African humanitarian logistics context. Even though humanitarian logistics plays a critical role in the aftermath of disasters, it extends far beyond events that can typically be classified as ‘disasters’. Therefore the implication of the South African humanitarian logistics context on future research and collaboration opportunities in South African humanitarian logistics is also discussed. Finally, two recent case studies in the South African humanitarian logistics environment are discussed.

  16. Compatibility between Internationalizing and Africanizing Higher Education in South Africa

    Botha, Maria Magdalena


    Internationalisation of the higher education sector across the world has become the norm and this is also true for South African universities. Another dimension has with increasing intension moved into the foreground, namely the need to Africanise South African higher education. The imperatives of these two dimensions are often portrayed as…

  17. Internationalization of Higher Education: A South African Perspective

    Rensburg, Ihron; Motala, Shireen; David, Solomon Arulraj


    The evolution of South African universities continues to be shaped by both apartheid and more recent post-apartheid policies. Yet the South African university system is mainly an elite, low participation and high attrition system, offering a medium quality education. Moreover, there is uneven attention to the opportunities that…


    R.R. Ramphal


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Many South African companies are adopting the shared services methodology because this structure has led to lower operating costs, greater business efficiency, and improved internal service quality in international companies. Part of a doctoral study on shared services in South African companies shows that their business unit managers have not yet experienced positive rewards from their shared services. This article reports on this study, and suggests a larger-scale research project to validate these findings and to investigate the reasons for the poor performance.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Baie Suid-Afrikaanse maatskappye maak toenemend gebruik van die ‘shared services’- metodologie omdat die struktuur daarvan kan lei tot ʼn afname in operasionele koste, verbeterde besigheidseffektiwiteit, en verhoogde diensgehalte in internasionale maatskappye. ʼn Doktorale studie oor ‘shared services’ in Suid-Afrikaanse maatskappye wys daarop dat individuele besigheidseenheidsbestuurders nie ʼn positiewe belewenis het met ‘shared services’ nie. Hierdie artikel verwys na dié studie, en stel voor dat ʼn meer omvangryke navorsingsprojek onderneem word om die bevindinge te staaf, sowel as om die redes vir swak prestasie te ondersoek.


    R. Sooryamoorthy


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The production of scientific publications in engineering in South Africa has expanded over the last three decades. Because engineering is an important science, this expansion has implications for the growth and development of the economy. Drawing on a sample range of years of the publications stored in the ISI Web of Knowledge, the engineering publications of South Africans for a 30-year period from 1975-2005 are analysed. This analysis shows that the production of scientific publications in engineering by South African researchers has increased during the analysed period; that the number of researchers per publication has grown; that the number of countries collaborating with South Africa has increased; and that the number of sole-authored papers has decreased. Domestic collaboration (between researchers within South Africa has decreased, while international collaboration has grown considerably. The key objective of the paper is to find out whether the production of publications is related to the level of collaboration, and to see how collaboration can be regressed from other known variables. It is clear from the study that collaboration is a decisive factor in the production of scientific publications in engineering in South Africa.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING Die produksie van wetenskaplike publikasies in ingenieurswese in Suid-Afrika het oor die afgelope drie dekades toegeneem. Aangesien ingenieurswese ‘n belangrike wetenskap is, beïnvloed dié toename die groei en ontwikkeling van die ekonomie. Deur na ‘n monster van voormalige publikasies op die “ISI Web of Science” te kyk, is die publikasies in ingenieurswese deur Suid-Afrikaners oor ‘n 30 jaar periode van 1975-2005 geanaliseer. Die analise toon dat die produksie van wetenskaplike publikasies in ingenieurswese deur Suid-Afrikaanse navorsers toegeneem het oor dié tydperk; dat die aantal navorsers per publikasie gegroei het; dat daar ‘n toename was in die

  20. Universal Principles of Media Ethics: South African and German Perspectives

    Lea-Sophie Borgmann


    Full Text Available The increasingly globalised nature of media and journalism has led to a review of ethical standards, mainly to find universal ethical values which are applicable in a world with countless different cultures. This article attempts to address this field of research in comparing South African and German approaches to the topic of media ethics. Firstly, it outlines theories of universal and specific cultural ethical principles in journalism. Secondly, it shows how the conception of universal ethical principles, so called protonorms, is interpreted differently in the two cultures and how specific cultural values of media ethics are rated among the two cultural frameworks of Germany and South Africa. An online survey conducted among German and South African journalism students found significant differences in the ranking of media ethics principles as well as similarities and differences in the interpretations of protonorms. The results support existing normative theories of universal media ethics, such as the theory of protonorms, in contributing explorative empirical data to this field of mainly theoretical research.

  1. "Women ... Mourn and Men Carry on": African Women Storying Mourning Practices--A South African Example

    Kotze, Elmarie; Els, Lishje; Rajuili-Masilo, Ntsiki


    African mourning of loss of lives in South Africa has been shaped by discursive practices of both traditional African cultures and the sociopolitical developments under apartheid and in post-apartheid South Africa. This article reports on changes in mourning practices on the basis of a literature review and uses a collection of examples to…

  2. 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism: Analysis in South African Autistic Individuals

    Arieff, Zainunisha


    The serotonin transporter promoter length polymorphism (5-hydroxytryptamine transporter length polymorphism; 5-HTTLPR) has long been implicated in autism and other psychiatric disorders. The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has a positive effect on treating some symptoms of autism. The effects of these drugs vary in individuals because of the presence of the S or L allele of 5-HTTLPR. Studies performed on various autistic populations have found different allele frequencies for the L and S alleles. Allele frequencies and genotypes of the South African autistic populations (African, mixed, and Caucasian) were compared with matching South African ethnic control populations. The *S/*S genotype was found to be highly significantly associated with all the South African autistic ethnic populations. In the South African African population the *S/*S genotype was present in 7 (33%) of the autistic individuals but in none of the control subjects, yielding infinitely large odds of developing autism. The odds of developing autism with the *S/*S genotype compared to the *L/*L genotype increased 10.15-fold in the South African mixed group and 2.74-fold in the South African Caucasian population. The allele frequency of the South African autistic population was also compared with studies of other autistic populations around the world, and highly significant differences were found with the Japanese, Korean, and Indian population groups. The difference was not significant for the French, German, Israeli, Portuguese, and American groups. This is the first South African study of autistic individuals of different ethnic backgrounds that shows significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of 5-HTTLPR. The results of this study open new avenues for investigating the role of transmission of the L and S alleles in families with autism in South Africa.

  3. South African court rejects country's new constitution.


    Fundamental principles designed to ensure that South Africa's new constitution upholds a wide range of individual rights and freedoms and establishes a responsive government with a balanced separation of powers, including recognition of the role of traditional tribal leadership, were adopted into the current interim constitution shortly before the 1994 free elections which brought Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress to power. In a judgement issued on September 6, 1996, South Africa's Constitutional Court rejected the country's new draft constitution, arguing that it failed to meet the standards of nine of the 34 principles established at the Kempton Park negotiations. The Constitutional Assembly is comprised of a joint meeting of the National Assembly and Senate. One of the court's major objections to the constitution concerned the proposed structure of rule, which was seen to give inadequate power to South Africa's nine provinces as compared with the national government. However, the bill of rights was almost entirely upheld. The bill would create a favorable environment for legalized abortion and guarantee a universal right of access to health care, including reproductive health services

  4. Disability and masculinity in South African autosomatography

    Ken J. Lipenga


    Full Text Available This article examines the representation of disability by disabled black South African men as portrayed in two texts from the autosomatography genre, which encompasses first-person narratives of illness and disability. Drawing on extracts from Musa E. Zulu’s The language of me and William Zulu’s Spring will come, the article argues that physical disability affects heteronormative concepts of masculinity by altering the body, which is the primary referent for the construction and performance of hegemonic masculinity. In ableist contexts, the male disabled body may be accorded labels of asexuality. This article therefore reveals how male characters with disabilities reconstruct the male self by both reintegrating themselves within the dominant grid of masculinity and reformulating some of the tenets of hegemonic masculinity.

  5. Book review: Organisational behaviour: A contemporary South African perspective

    Andrew Thatcher


    Full Text Available Authors: Helen Schultz (Ed., Jeffrey Bagraim, Tracy Potgieter, Conrad Viedge, Amanda Werner Publisher: Van Schaik Publishers According to the authors the aim of this book is to present an interdisciplinary approach to the understanding of organisational behaviour within the contemporary South African environment. Within this framework, the book targets (senior undergraduate and postgraduate students in Industrial/Organisational Psychology and Human Resources Management. The text is written in a simple, conversational style (as was the intention of the authors that should be suitable for most undergraduate students at English-speaking tertiary institutions. The book is organised into three sections based on a model of four components of organizational behaviour: the individual, the group and the organisation. The fourth component of the model, the environment, refers specifically in the context of this book, to a contemporary South African approach to understanding behaviour in organisations. In the ‘individual’ section, the authors cover topics such as individual differences (e.g. personality, attitudes, perceptions, emotional intelligence, etc., ethics, work motivation, and performance management. In the ‘group’ section, the authors look at issues of group and team dynamics, power and empowerment, communication, decision-making and leadership. Finally, in the ‘organisation’ section, the authors address issues of contemporary organisational design, organisational change and employee well-being (e.g. stress management, job satisfaction, etc..

  6. [Lingualized occlusion in the South African context].

    Oberholzer, T G; Geerts, G A V M


    The search for the ideal artificial tooth arrangement that maximizes denture stability, comfort, aesthetics, and function has occupied the dental literature for many years and still continues to do so. Of the many occlusal schemes that have been presented to the dental profession, that of lingualized occlusion has emerged as one of the more popular. The popularity of lingualized occlusion stems from the simplicity and flexibility of the concept and from its wide application to clinical practice (Parr & Ivanhoe, 1996). The registration of a repeatable correct centric jaw relation is not always possible. We don't know whether the patient will use centric relation during normal function. It is therefore useful to provide the patient with some freedom of movement around centric. lingualized occlusion provides freedom in centric. For many dentists the arrangement of artificial denture teeth into balanced occlusion is difficult and time consuming. As a result this task is most often performed by the dental technician. In the South African countryside dental laboratories are often far away. If dentists perform the arrangement of the denture teeth, time and costs can be saved. The mounting of denture teeth in lingualized occlusion is simple and fast. This will motivate dentists to arrange denture teeth themselves, with obvious benefits for both the patient and the dentist. The School of Oral Health Sciences of the University of Stellenbosch teaches this concept to its undergraduate students in order to improve the prosthetic service to the large edentulous population of South Africa.

  7. Beyond survival: Challenges facing South African automotive component exporters

    M. J. Naude


    Full Text Available Purpose and Objective: The South African automotive component industry faces huge challenges in a very competitive global market. The primary focus of this research article is to determine the challenges facing exporters within this industry with special reference to selected sub-sectors. The challenges are approached from a supply chain perspective only. Problem Investigated: The research problem of this study was to identify these unique challenges and ascertain whether the implementation of a 'philosophy of continuous improvement' could be used as a strategic tool to address the challenges they face in the market. Methodology: This study included a combination of literature review, interviews with managers in the selected sub-groups and questionnaires sent out to determine the challenges facing automotive component exporters. In order to test the content validity and the reliability of the questionnaire, a pilot study was conducted at two organisations that are the main suppliers of automotive filters for passenger vehicles. The non-probability convenience sample technique was used to select the sample and consisted of selected sub-sectors that contribute 64,1% of the total value of automotive component exports in South Africa. Out of twenty-seven questionnaires sent out, twenty (74% response rate were duly completed by the respondents and returned to the researcher. Findings: South Africa faces unique challenges and these are listed and ranked according to priority from most to least important as follows: 1. The reduction of production costs; 2. R/US$ exchange rate effect on the respondent's export sales and profit margin; 3. Exchange rate fluctuations; 4. Threats to the local automotive component market; and 5. Increased competition by way of manufactured imports being sold in the South African market. Value of Research: The study provides recommendations that can be used within the automotive component industry.

  8. Cross-cultural Differences in Preferred Forms of Address: Implications for Work with African American Adults

    Wanda Lott Collins; Moore, Sharon E.


    Using an individual’s last name indicates respect and contributes to positive interaction with African American clients and adults of African descent. This paper discusses the importance of using social titles as a proper form of address during, and sometimes after, the initial professional relationship. Two case vignettes will highlight potential difficulties that non-African American practitioners may experience when using first names with African Americans within the profess...

  9. Attitudes of Department of Education District Officials towards Inclusive Education in South African Primary Schools

    Motala, Rashid; Govender, Sumeshni; Nzima, Dumisani


    Since the inception of inclusive education (IE) much energy has focused on educators and learners. This study addresses a gap in literature by analysing an important component of the transformation process in the South African educational landscape--Department of Education (DoE) district-based officials. This descriptive research project conducted…

  10. Journey to J'Burg: My Travels in South African Young Adult Literature.

    Littlejohn, Carol


    Discusses five South African writers for young adults and highlights representative works dealing with family relationships, AIDS, natural disaster, interracial relationships and marriage, racial prejudice, and incest. Although most of the books are not currently available in the United States, a bibliography and a list of addresses for the South…

  11. Modelling the South African fruit export infrastructure: A case study

    FG Ortmann


    Full Text Available A description is provided of work performed as part of the fruit logistics infrastructure project commissioned by the South African Deciduous Fruit Producers’ Trust and coordinated by the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, as described in [Van Dyk FE & Maspero E, 2004, An analysis of the South African fruit logistics infrastructure, ORiON, 20(1, pp. 55–72]. After a brief introduction to the problem, two models (a single-commodity graph theoretic model and a multi-commodity mathematical programming model are derived for determining the maximal weekly flow or throughput of fresh fruit through the South African national export infrastructure. These models are solved for two extreme seasonal export scenarios and the solutions show that no export infrastructure expansion is required in the near future - observed bottlenecks are not fundamental to the infrastructure and its capacities, but are rather due to sub-optimal management and utilisation of the existing infrastructure.

  12. South African Formula One Grand Prix: a dream or nightmare.


    In 2004 a group of South African based companies submitted a bid to the Formula One Management to host a South African Formula One Grand Prix, from 2009 in Cape Town. The group approached the government to establish a public-private partnership, due to the: • escalating hosting and infrastruture development cost, resulting in very few Formula One Grand Prix host countries undertaking hosting without government involvement; and • believe that the economic benefits of hosting the event would st...

  13. Sustainable agriculture: a review of challenges facing the South African agricultural sector

    Middelberg, S.L.


    This review paper considers the various challenges facing the South African agricultural sector against the background that agricultural sectors globally are pressurised to provide food security for the estimated nine billion people in 2050, while simultaneously addressing climate change. The use of agricultural land to produce crops for the production of biofuels and the impact of land redistribution in South Africa on food security are contemplated. It is recommended that the So...

  14. Persuasion - South African language in action

    Elaine Ridge


    Full Text Available The issue of which English should be privileged in South Africa has been hotly debated This article argues against the binary thinking that has fuelled this debate. It contends that standard English should be taught since it is the proper or appropriate choice in particular contexts. Competence in standard English would extend and enhance learners' repertoires. However, unless the richly textured variety of "other" Englishes is accommodated in the classroom, there is a strong danger of what Phillipson (1992 terms linguicism. The article argues that a possible means of exploring the richly textured varieties in use in South Africa would be to focus on the choice of accent in radio advertisements. Some suggestions are outlined as to how a critical awareness of the persuasive effict of particular accents in particular contexts can be developed Finally, a plea is made for stylistic experimentation to be honoured in South African classrooms as a further means of exploring the language resources in South Africa. Die debat random die soort Engels wat in Suid-Afrika bevoordeel behoort te word is nog steeds aan die gang. In hierdie artikel word daar aangevoer dat dit die gevolg is van die binere denke oor hierdie saak Daar word beweer dat Standaard-Engels onderrig behoort te word aangesien dit die maak van 'n korrekte of geskikte keuse in bepaalde kontekste behels. Vaardigheid in Standaard-Engels salleerders se repertoire uitbrei en versterk Dit beteken egter nie dat die ryk tekstuurverskeidenheid van die "ander" soorte Engels in die k/askamer buite rekening gelaat mag word nie. Indien dit sou gebeur, bestaan die gevaar van wat Phil/ipson (1992 "linguisisme" noem. Volgens die artikel is die bestudering van radioadvertensies, met die fokus op die keuse van k/em, 'n moontlike manier om die ryk tekstuurverskeidenheid van Engels wat in Suid-Afrika gebruik word te ondersoek Bepaalde voorstelle word aan die hand gedoen oor hoe 'n kritiese bewustheid ontwikkel

  15. Pre-Service Teachers' Reflections of South African Science Classrooms

    Singh, S. K.; Singh, R. J.


    The introduction of outcomes-based education in South Africa placed many challenges on the transformation of science classrooms. The 2009 National Education Evaluation and Development Unit (NEEDU) Report concluded that South African rural and township schools are largely dysfunctional. This article examined some of the reasons for the…

  16. Fencing predators: Hunters and prey on South African game farms

    Spierenburg, M.J.; Wels, H.


    The wildlife industry in South Africa is thriving, with increasing numbers of game farms. Large parts of the South African countryside are enclosed with fences. Fences have always been strategically important in wildlife production and conservation, both to protect wildlife, but also to keep local p

  17. Competitive intelligence practice in the South African property sector

    Tshilidzi E. Nenzhelele


    Full Text Available Background: The South African property sector contributes highly to creating jobs, skills development, poverty reduction and economic growth. Although South Africa dropped in the global competitiveness ranking, the property sector of South Africa remains very competitive. To survive in a competitive sector, firms around the world practice competitive intelligence(CI. Although the use of CI has been examined in other sectors in South Africa, no study on CI practice has been conducted in the property sector.Objectives: The objective of this research was to establish the extent to which the property sector of South Africa practices CI.Method: This research was quantitative in nature and a web-based questionnaire was used to collect data from estate agencies in the South African property sector.Results: The results indicate that the South African property sector is very competitive and estate agencies practice CI to gain competitive advantage and make quality decisions.Moreover, the results reveal that the property sector practice CI legally and ethically. The results indicate that the majority of estate agencies are very small employing at most five employees and make at most 5 million Rands annual turnover.Conclusion: The South African property sector ethically and legally practices CI to gain competitive advantage and to aid in making quality decisions.


    Le Roux, Elizabeth


    South Africa's academic publishing history has been profoundly influenced by its colonial heritage. This is reflected in the publication of Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society (later, the Royal Society of South Africa) from 1878. Although the Society and journal sought to promote original research about South Africa, it was modelled after the Royal Society in London and formed part of an imperial scientific community. As the local higher education institutions grew more independent and research-focused, local scholarly publishing developed as well, with university presses playing an increasingly important role. The University of South Africa (Unisa) Press started publishing departmental journals in the 1950s, with a focus on journals that 'speak to the student', and it is today the only South African university press with an active journals publishing programme. As external funding declined and the country became intellectually isolated in the high apartheid period, the Press managed to attract journals that could no longer be subsidized by learned societies and other universities. More recently, new co-publishing arrangements have brought South African journals back into an international intellectual community. Although some argue that this constitutes a re-colonization of South African knowledge production, it is also an innovative strategy for positioning local research in a global context.

  19. South African Student Constructed Indlebe Radio Telescope

    McGruder, Charles H.; MacPherson, Stuart; Janse Van Vuuren, Gary Peter


    The Indlebe Radio Telescope (IRT) is a small transit telescope with a 5 m diameter parabolic reflector working at 21 cm. It was completely constructed by South African (SA) students from the Durban University of Technology (DUT), where it is located. First light occurred on 28 July 2008, when the galactic center, Sagittarius A, was detected. As a contribution to the International Year of Astronomy in 2009, staff members in the Department of Electronic Engineering at DUT in 2006 decided to have their students create a fully functional radio telescope by 2009. The specific project aims are to provide a visible project that could generate interest in science and technology in high school students and to provide a real world system for research in radio astronomy in general and an optimization of low noise radio frequency receiver systems in particular. These aims must be understood in terms of the SA’s government interests in radio astronomy. SA is a partner in the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project, has constructed the Karoo Array Telescope (KAT) and MeerKat, which is the largest and most sensitive radio telescope in the southern hemisphere. SA and its partners in Africa are investing in the construction of the African Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (AVN), an array of radio telescopes throughout Africa as an extension of the existing global Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (VLBI). These projects will allow SA to make significant contributions to astronomy and enable astronomy to contribute to the scientific education and development goals of the country. The IRT sees on a daily basis the transit of Sag A. The transit time is influenced by precession, nutation, polar motion, aberration, celestial pole offset, proper motion, length of the terrestrial day and variable ionospheric refraction. Of these eight factors six are either predictable or measureable. To date neither celestial pole offset nor variable ionospheric refraction are predicable

  20. Job-hopping amongst African Black senior management in South Africa

    Khanyile C.C. Nzukuma


    Full Text Available Orientation: The study focuses on understanding labour turnover trends amongst African Black senior managers in South Africa. There is a perception that turnover amongst African Black senior managers is higher than average. There is also a perception that African Black senior managers are only motivated by financial rewards when considering job change.Research purpose: The study focused on understanding why African Black senior managers have a propensity to change jobs and how organisations can resolve the trend.Motivation for the study: To develop a better understanding of the push and pull factors for African Black senior managers in organisations.Research design, approach and method: The research was conducted in two phases, namely as part of a qualitative study and a quantitative study: Creswell (2003 refers to this approach as triangulation. The target population was African Black senior managers on the database of a large Human Resources Consultancy, The South African Rewards Association and the Association of Black Actuaries and Investment Professionals (ABSIP (n = 2600. A total of 208 usable responses were received.Main findings: The main findings and contribution to the field of study was that African Black senior managers do not trust organisations with their career development. They would rather take control of their own career development by moving from organisation to organisation to build their repertoire of skills and competence. They want to be in charge of their careers. This finding has profound implications for organisations employing African Black managers in the senior cadre.Practical/managerial implications: Managers of African Black senior managers need to create attractive employee value propositions that address the main findings. Contribution/value-add: The research shows that African Black senior managers generally seek corporate environments that encourage a sense of belonging and with a clear career growth plan.

  1. The dilemma of ethical political communication in South African elections

    L.M. Fourie


    Full Text Available In view of South Africa’s diversity, its unresolved issues of race and complex social legacy, election campaigns are highly sensitive. From a Reformed Christian perspective, a critical question is: To what extent is the political culture infused by the Biblical imperatives of brotherly love, respect and compassion? Given the growing use of adversarial political advertising the following two questions arise and are specifically addressed: • Could it realistically be expected of Christian political communicators in a secular country such as South Africa to communicate with full respect to people at all times, or should they be excused if they try to win at all costs? and • How do political theorists view the issue? In answering these questions, social responsibility and the need for social harmony as precondition for free and fair political activities, as well as a Biblical perspective on communication are addressed. In view of these theoretical points of departure the role of emotional messages is discussed and evaluated. It is argued that all advertising, but specifically political advertising in an emotionally charged atmosphere such as an election campaign, could have a direct negative impact on social harmony and is therefore Biblically unacceptable. Examples from previous South African general elections are discussed and evaluated from a Biblical viewpoint. It is argued that parties should not merely campaign with the aim of winning an election, but rather with the intention of respecting voters while campaigning. Simultaneously they could promote democracy within a fragile social context. Any victory outside of these parameters will not stand the test of a Biblical critique. However, it would seem extremely difficult, if not impossible, to prescribe in any detail which types of negative advertisements are acceptable and which are not.

  2. Telling or selling? Experiencing South African cultural heritage tourism products

    Ivanovic, Milena; Saayman, Melville


    With the advent of the experience economy the unique experiential value of cultural heritage products comes to the forefront of cultural tourism development and is the main value proposition for emerging destinations, including South Africa. As South Africa’s democracy divedends had paid out by 1998, South African Tourism was left with an array of dormant cultural heritage resources (still) unable to turn them into meaningful tourist experiences. The reason is lack of understanding of tourist...

  3. Cumulative benefits from trade liberalization for the South African economy

    Bauer, Matthias; Freytag, Andreas


    South Africa's trade barriers are still relatively high compared to other emerging market economies, and its industrial policy still preferentially treats certain industries. Based on a static GTAP model, we estimate the economic impact of further trade liberalization on the South African economy. We particularly take into account core NTB's on tradable commodities and the costs imposed by cross-border trade facilitation, which is particularly inefficient in South Africa. Our results indicate...

  4. Ad/dressing the nation: drag and authenticity in post-apartheid South Africa.

    Spruill, Jennifer


    This paper examines a style of drag in South Africa that features "traditional African" clothing. In a region in which homosexuality is denigrated as a colonial, European import and "unAfrican," the meaning of "traditional drag" is deeply inflected by the question of cultural authenticity. This dragging practice fits within a distinctly post-colonial production of tradition and its self-conscious display--in the form of attire--of a decidedly "gay" one. Traditional drag also responds to ongoing politics within and between lesbian and gay communities about racial "representivity" and "transformation." The paper focuses on displays of traditional drag at Johannesburg's Gay and Lesbian Pride Parade but also explores the complex politics of publicity and address suggested by varying contexts in which traditional dress and drag are mobilized.

  5. Cross-cultural Differences in Preferred Forms of Address: Implications for Work with African American Adults

    Wanda Lott Collins


    Full Text Available Using an individual’s last name indicates respect and contributes to positive interaction with African American clients and adults of African descent. This paper discusses the importance of using social titles as a proper form of address during, and sometimes after, the initial professional relationship. Two case vignettes will highlight potential difficulties that non-African American practitioners may experience when using first names with African Americans within the professional realm. The vignettes include a scenario for a supervisor and a client.

  6. The FDI African Strategy for Oral Health: addressing the specific needs of the continent.

    Hescot, Patrick; China, Emile; Bourgeois, Denis; Maina, Susan; Monteiro da Silva, Orlando; Luc Eiselé, Jean; Simpson, Christopher; Horn, Virginie


    The FDI World Dental Federation has defined a strategy for the development of oral health in Africa during the "African Summit" held in Cape Town, South Africa. The summit gathered presidents from 16 African National Dental Associations, FDI stakeholders, the World Health Organisation and government delegates. The outcomes of this summit were stated in a Declaration, defining the functional principles of the African strategy as three priorities: To establish and reinforce the credibility of NDAs To acquire and develop leadership and management skills Effective peer-to-peer exchange of information.

  7. Darwin’s legacy in South African evolutionary biology

    S. D. Johnson


    Full Text Available In the two decades after publication of the Origin of Species, Charles Darwin facilitated the publication of numerous scientific papers by settler naturalists in South Africa. This helped to establish the strong tradition of natural history which has characterised evolutionary research in South African museums, herbaria and universities. Significant developments in the early 20th century included the hominid fossil discoveries of Raymond Dart, Robert Broom, and others, but there was otherwise very little South African involvement in the evolutionary synthesis of the 1930s and 1940s. Evolutionary biology developed into a distinct discipline in South Africa during the 1970s and 1980s when it was dominated by mammalian palaeontology and a vigorous debate around species concepts. In the post-apartheid era, the main focus of evolutionary biology has been the construction of phylogenies for African plants and animals using molecular data, and the use of these phylogenies to answer questions about taxonomic classification and trait evolution. South African biologists have also recently contributed important evidence for some of Darwin’s ideas about plant–animal coevolution, sexual selection, and the role of natural selection in speciation. A bibliographic analysis shows that South African authors produce 2–3% of the world’s publications in the field of evolutionary biology, which is much higher than the value of about 0.5% for publications in all sciences. With its extraordinary biodiversity and well-developed research infrastructure, South Africa is an ideal laboratory from which to advance evolutionary research.

  8. Addressing intersections in HIV/AIDS and mental health: the role of organizations for d/Deaf and hard of hearing individuals in South Africa.

    Mall, Sumaya; Swartz, Leslie


    Like south africans generally, d/Deaf and hard of hearing South Africans are at risk of HIV/AIDS and mental disorders resulting from barriers to communication and care. In interviews and a focus group, members of South African organizations for d/Deaf and hard of hearing individuals all gave priority to HIV/AIDS education and prevention, citing risks resulting from language and communication barriers, inadequate schooling, and insufficient information in South African Sign Language. Participants gave varied descriptions of HIV/AIDS programs in schools for d/Deaf and hard of hearing students and described school initiatives they had directed. Some participants gave mental health problems lesser priority; others said susceptibility to mental disorders may result from communication difficulties and therefore warrants specialized services. Others, seeing a need to address mental health in HIV/AIDS prevention, had designed programs accordingly. Such prevention efforts merit support, as do activities to reduce communication barriers.

  9. The Role Of Human Capital In The Competitive Platform Of South African Industries

    E. P. J. Kleynhans


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the role of human capital in the competitive platform of South African industries and to determine the ability of their human capital to address the challenges of modern technology and globalisation. Attention is given to the competitive strengths and investment opportunities, including the quality and availability of human resources, labour cost, level of education and skills, vocational and industry related training facility, work ethics, productivity, workplace regulations, as well as efficiency of the civil service; including productivity and competitiveness indexes. The study found that the level of human capital in South African industries is much higher than the general perception and not the worst element of South Africa’s competitive platform. The findings also indicated challenges, like absentees due to AIDS and other factors, a shortage of artisans and proficiency towards modern technology and innovation, which limits competitiveness.

  10. The South African National Accelerator Centre and its research programme

    Watanabe, Y. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)


    An overview of the South African National Accelerator Centre and its research activities is given with emphasis on medium energy nuclear physics and nuclear data measurements for medical use. Also presented is a preliminary result of {sup 40}Ca(p,p`x) spectrum measurement for 392 MeV which has been carried out at RCNP, Osaka University, under the South Africa-Japan collaborative programme. (author)

  11. United States-South African Relations: The Challenge for AFRICOM


    line]; available from Jane’; accessed 8 December 2007. 46 Nyirabu, 27-28. 47 Kent Hughes Butts and Paul R. Thomas, The Geopolitics of Southern...Africa: South Africa as a Regional Superpower (Boulder, Colorado, West View Press, 1986)1, 170. 48 Robert S. Chase, Emily B. Hill, and Paul Kennedy...16. 70 Neethling, 59. 71 Helmoed- Romer Heitman, Jane’s, The South African Army Outlines Vision 2020 Force Design Implementation,” (19 September

  12. The role of urban design in South African corridor development

    Comrie, Henri Pierre


    The joyous advent of democracy in South Africa in 1994 brought real promise of an improvement in the life chances for millions of marginalised South Africans. There was reason for many citizens to have great faith in the new order after decades of sustained struggle. Effective state intervention and the spatial reorganisation of society seemed a realistic prospect in a country blessed with abundant natural resources and an established industrial base. The power of the state to affect change a...

  13. What is Ubuntu? Different Interpretations among South Africans of African Descent

    Gade, Christian B.N.


    In this article, I describe and systematize the different answers to the question 'What is Ubuntu?' that I have been able to identify among South Africans of African descent (SAADs). I show that it is possible to distinguish between two clusters of answers. The answers of the first cluster all...... define ubuntu as a moral quality of a person, while the answers of the second cluster all define ubuntu as a phenomenon (for instance a philosophy, an ethic, African humanism, or, a wordview) according to which persons are interconnected. The concept of a person is of central importance to all...

  14. The Conservation Status of Eagles in South African Law

    JC Knobel


    Full Text Available This contribution is an introductory survey and preliminary evaluation of the conservation status of eagles in South African law. The methodology is primarily an interdisciplinary literature study of legal texts and texts from the natural sciences. Eagles are some of the largest and most powerful avian predators, and the human response to their presence is dualistic and polarised. At the one extreme, many people admire eagles, while at the other extreme they are perceived as a threat to economic and other interests, and may even be actively persecuted in a conviction that they are vermin. This duality in the human perception of eagles is also prevalent in South Africa and complicates their conservation. The mobility of eagles and other birds of prey means that they cannot be restrained by fencing national parks and other protected areas, and this heightens the likelihood of their entering into conflict with human interests. The conservation problems faced by eagles in South Africa can broadly be divided into direct and indirect threats. Direct threats include the intentional killing of eagles, and trade in eagles and their eggs. Indirect threats include non-targeted poisoning (where poisoned bait is used to control other predators, but eagles find the bait, feed on it, and succumb; habitat loss; mortality induced by dangerous structures; and disturbance. The legal status of eagles is influenced by a large body of legislative provisions, ranging from international and regional legal instruments, through national legislation, to provincial legislative measures. An overview of these provisions is given, with concise explanations of how they apply to the legal status of eagles and other birds of prey in South Africa. The conservation status of eagles in South African law is subsequently evaluated by considering the contribution of the applicable laws to three main types of conservation interventions. In respect of the first, habitat preservation

  15. "Kitchen cupboard drinking": a review of South African women's secretive alcohol addiction, treatment history, and barriers to accessing treatment.

    Pretorius, Liezille; Naidoo, Av; Reddy, S P


    How Black women are represented, conceptualized, and researched in the field of psychology has dramatic and far-reaching effects on arriving at an understanding of personality and psychopathology. This point becomes especially salient as researchers try to develop alternative strategies for researching gendered experiences and for generating meaningful information about African women's experiences of alcohol misuse. On the African continent, there is a paucity of research on Black women's access to alcohol treatment. Therefore, this review has implications for research and practice with the potential to stimulate future health disparities research affecting Black African women. The article focuses on a South African population and explores the importance of theorizing alcohol misuse and sex by discussing the history of alcohol misuse in South Africa, women and alcohol misuse in South Africa, and women's treatment history; interpreting women's experiences of treatment; and addressing recommendations for future research.

  16. Dress Codes in Post-Apartheid South African Workplaces

    Grant, Terri; Nodoba, Gaontebale


    There are many factors that influence dress code decision making in formal and informal business arenas. In South Africa, with its colonial and apartheid history followed by an exuberant resurgence of Africanism, factors such as diversity of race, ethnicity, religion, and culture play a critical role in lifestyle and worldview. These many and…

  17. First Steps in Teaching Argumentation: A South African Study

    Braund, Martin; Scholtz, Zena; Sadeck, Melanie; Koopman, Robert


    South African student teachers were studied to see how they coped with requirements to teach science using argumentation. Lesson observations, plans, reflective logs, post-teaching interviews and assessment of pupils' argumentation were used to compare student teachers' preparedness and interactions with pupils. Two clusters of students were…

  18. Burnout of Academic Staff in South African Higher Education Institutions

    Rothmann, S.; Barkhuizen, N.


    The objectives of this study are to assess the psychometric properties of an adapted version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) for academic staff in South African higher education institutions and to investigate differences between the burnout levels of different demographic groups. A survey design was used, with stratified…

  19. Intellectual Disability in the Context of a South African Population

    Kromberg, Jennifer; Zwane, Esther; Manga, Prashiela; Venter, Andre; Rosen, Eric; Christianson, Arnold


    Childhood disabilities, including intellectual disabilities (ID), are thought to occur in 5-17% of children in developing countries around the world. In order to identify and describe the childhood disabilities occurring in a rural South African population, as well as the context in which they occur, a study was carried out in the Bushbuckridge…

  20. Embedding Community Engagement in South African Higher Education

    Lazarus, Josef; Erasmus, Mabel; Hendricks, Denver; Nduna, Joyce; Slamat, Jerome


    Community engagement was a relatively unknown concept in South African higher education until the late 1990s. In response to the call of the White Paper on the Transformation of Higher Education (1997) for "feasibility studies and pilot programmes which explore the potential of community service in higher education" the Joint Education…

  1. Linguistic Ideologies in Multilingual South African Suburban Schools

    Makoe, Pinky; McKinney, Carolyn


    Existing research on language in South African schooling frequently draws attention to the problematic hegemony of English and the lack of access to quality education in the home language of the majority of learners, often drawing on the metaphor of a gap or a disjuncture between post-apartheid language in education policy (LiEP) and its…

  2. Intra-Africa agricultural trade: A South African perspective

    Y. Daya


    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to assess and provide an overview of the magnitude of current agricultural trade patterns between South Africa and the five leading regional economic communities (REC's in Africa. This paper also seeks to examine some of the constraints limiting greater intra-African agricultural trade. This is done in order to better understand the role South Africa currently plays and could potentially play in promoting intra-Africa trade. Design/Methodology/Approach: Trade flows between South Africa and the leading REC's are outlined and explained. Trade data and tariff data is sourced from available databases. Non-tariff barriers and other impediments to greater intra-African trade are examined with reference to available literature and discussions the authors have had with trade experts and policy makers.Findings: South Africa is the most active country in intra-Africa agricultural trade. However, it is a relationship defined predominantly on exports to Africa with a low level of imports. South Africa exports a diverse range of value added products whilst imports remain concentrated in commodities. Significant imbalances in agricultural trade between South Africa and the respective REC's continue to persist. Regional trade arrangements have fostered greater trade but significant obstacles to greater trade remain.Implications: African countries that do not invest in infrastructure and create a trade-enabling environment and diversify their production, limit their potential to the supply of one or two commodities thereby perpetuating the trend of huge trade imbalances in favour of South Africa.Originality/Value: This work provides a platform for assessing trade relationships and examining impediments to greater trade. It is also relevant in guiding future research on priority markets in Africa as export destinations and import suppliers in light of increasing regional integration initiatives and governments commitment to

  3. Perceptions of managers regarding supply chain cost reduction in the South African mobile phone industry

    Musenga F. Mpwanya


    Full Text Available Background: Many industries, including the mobile phone industry, experience a surge in supply chain (SC costs in the provision of products and services to their customers. Despite this, only a few studies have been conducted on SC cost reduction in South Africa and globally.Objective: This study seeks to understand the perceptions of managers regarding cost reduction in the South African mobile phone SC.Method: A qualitative case study was conducted, involving eight willing managers and using semi-structured interviews, observation and documents. Interviews transcripts were analysed thematically with the help of Atlas.ti and a threefold process was followed, comprising data reduction, data display and data interpretation and conclusion drawing.Results: The findings suggest that mobile phone companies should consolidate their strategic relationships and be efficient, in order to effectively reduce costs in the South African mobile phone SC. To achieve this, whilst South African mobile network operators have to share more and more infrastructure and outsource their operations, other mobile phone companies should re-engineer their operational processes and their reduce costs across the SC.Conclusion: The knowledge generated from this study should assist South African mobile phone companies to reduce their SC costs and address high-priced mobile services. On the other hand, this study should assist regulating authorities (the Department of Communications and the Independent Communication Authority of South Africa to gain insights into the challenges faced by the mobile phone industry in South Africa and, therefore, to make appropriate and adequate mobile telecommunication policies.

  4. Nexus between Intelligence Education and Intelligence Training: A South African Perspective

    M. A. van den Berg


    Full Text Available This paper examines the nexus of intelligence education and training from a South African perspective with the focus on current practices in light of the country’s transition towards democracy. A brief overview is provided on the history and development of the South African intelligence community with specific focus on the civilian intelligence services from the period prior 1994 to date (2015. The main focus, however, is on intelligence education that is currently available from training institutions and universities in South Africa as registered with the Department of Higher Education as well as private training institutions on the one hand, and the intelligence training practices within the statutory intelligence environment on the other. To this extent, the relations between academic institutions and the intelligence structures in terms of education and training within South Africa are perused against other practices within the African continent and internationally. The approaches to the study of intelligence are also addressed within this paper. Likewise, the how, what as well as to whom – pertaining to intelligence education and training availability and accessibility to students and practitioners within South Africa, is reviewed and analysed with the focus on making recommendations for the enhancement and improvement thereof to enable a focus on preparing the next generation of professional intelligence officers.

  5. Coping and work engagement in selected South African organisations

    Sebastiaan Rothmann


    Full Text Available Orientation: The coping strategies of their employees are amongst the activities that organisations should address to improve their employees’ work engagement.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between coping strategies and work engagement in three occupational groups in South Africa.Motivation for the study: There is little understanding of the relationship between effective forms of coping and positive outcomes (like work engagement.Research design, approach and method: The researchers used a survey design. They drew random and stratified samples (N = 3178 from three occupational groups. These were technical employees in an electricity provider, professional and enrolled nurses and police officers. They administered the Coping Orientations to the Problems Experienced (COPE and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES.Main findings: The results showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between work engagement, problem-focused coping, positive reinterpretation and growth. In the nursing sample, high problem-focused coping, low avoidance and low ventilation of emotions predicted work engagement best. In the police sample, four coping strategies (problem-focused coping, seeking social support, turning to religion and low ventilation of emotions predicted work engagement best. In the technician sample, problem-focused coping and low ventilation of emotions predicted work engagement best.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should consider employees’ coping strategies when they introduce interventions to improve work engagement.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the knowledge about the relationship between coping strategies and work engagement in South African organisations.

  6. Creating a Single South African Keyboard Layout to Promote Language

    Dwayne Bailey


    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In this case study, a description is given of a keyboard layout designed to address the input needs of South African languages, specifically Venda, a language which would otherwise be impossible to type on a computer. In creating this keyboard, the designer,, uses a practical intervention that transforms technology from a means harming a language into one ensuring the creation and preservation of good language resources for minority languages. The study first looks at the implications and consequences of this missing keyboard, and then follows the process from conception, strategy, research and design to the final user response. Not only are problems such as researching the orthographies, key placement and keyboard input options examined, but strategic objectives such as ensuring its wide adoption and creating a multilingual keyboard for all South African languages are also discussed. The result is a keyboard that furthers multilingualism and ensures the capturing of good data for future research. Finally it is a tool helping to boost and bolster the vitality of a language.


    Opsomming: Die skep van 'n enkelvoudige Suid-Afrikaanse toetsborduit-leg om taal te bevorder. In hierdie gevallestudie word 'n beskrywing gegee van die ontwerp van 'n sleutelborduitleg vir die hantering van die insetbehoeftes van Suid-Afrikaanse tale, veral Venda, 'n taal wat andersins onmoontlik op 'n rekenaar getik sou kon word. Deur die skep van hierdie sleutelbord gebruik die ontwerper,, 'n praktiese ingryp wat tegnologie verander van 'n middel wat 'n taal benadeel tot een wat die skep en bewaring van nuttige taal-hulpbronne vir minderheidstale verseker. Die studie kyk eers na die implikasies en gevolge van hierdie ontbrekende sleutelbord, en volg dan die proses van konsepsie, strategie, navorsing en

  7. Research on undergraduate mathematics education: A South African perspective.

    Ansie Harding


    Full Text Available Research on undergradute mathematics education is a relatively new field that originated less than 20 years ago in the United States of America (USA, and that is known under the acronymn RUME (Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education. In South Africa researchers in this field form a small but strong group that originated at the University of Pretoria. In this article a brief overview is firstly given on the international increase in interest and activities in this research field. Secondly the research field is viewed from a South African perspective. Examples of research projects are discussed, as well as the career path that leads to research in this field. Finally local activities and existing international ties are considered. The aim of this article is to give a South African overview of the research field and activities, hoping to motivate and stimulate research in this important and growing field.

  8. English South African children’s literature and the environment

    E.R. Jenkins


    Full Text Available Historical studies of nature conservation and literary criticism of fiction concerned with the natural environment provide some pointers for the study of South African children’s literature in English. This kind of literature, in turn, has a contribution to make to studies of South African social history and literature. There are English-language stories, poems and picture books for children which reflect human interaction with nature in South Africa since early in the nineteenth century: from hunting, through domestication of the wilds, the development of scientific agriculture, and the changing roles of nature reserves, to modern ecological concern for the entire environment. Until late in the twentieth century the literature usually endorsed the assumption held by whites that they had exclusive ownership of the land and wildlife. In recent years English-language children’s writers and translators of indigenous folktales for children have begun to explore traditional beliefs about and practices in conservation.

  9. Effects of Mediated Learning Experience on Raven's Matrices Scores of African and Non-African University Students in South Africa.

    Skuy, Mervyn; Gewer, Anthony; Osrin, Yael; Khunou, David; Fridjhon, Peter; Rushton, J. Philippe


    Studied whether mediated learning experience would improve the scores of African students on Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. Seventy African and 28 non-African college students in South Africa were given the Raven's Progressive Matrices on 2 occasions, and some subjects were exposed to the mediated learning experience. Both groups improved…

  10. A new labour era for South African Airways

    A. A. Rust


    Full Text Available Purpose: In the light of the South African Airways (SAA (and Heathrow airport strike in July 2005, an opportunity exists to evaluate the situation in order to address related problems in the future. The role of labour and specifically labour relations in the air travel industry highlights some important factors related to the industry. This paper aims to highlight the specific factors that will address possible reasons for poor workplace relations in SAA. Furthermore, a workable labour relations model for the organisation and other air travel organisations is proposed. In allowing a strike of the magnitude of the SAA strike of 2005 (e.g. a loss of income of R25 million per day, serious labour relations problems in the organisation are obvious. In order to prevent this action, an in-depth study of workplace relations is necessary to focus on the real problems and to adapt and make changes. Design/Methodology/Approach: This paper is an exploratory exercise based on literature that provides an overview of scholarship in the air travel industry through an analysis of trends and debates, telephonic interviews with role players in the industry and discussions with academics in the tourism industry and in labour relations. Findings: Taking into account that the air travel industry is technologically advanced, highly labour intensive, very sensitive towards external influences and very competitive, it is therefore important for every employer (including SAA to design a labour relations system that is fit for the organisation. A suggested labour relations model for SAA is about the ability to build and sustain relationships characterised by shared goals, shared knowledge and mutual respect. Implications: The effects of strikes and other labour actions in the air travel industry have far reaching impacts on the air travel industry, the tourism industry, as well as the national economy. Originality/Value: This study highlights the importance of sound

  11. Models of “happiness” – A South African perspective

    P.J. Naudé


    Full Text Available This article explains the complex notion of “happiness” and the variety of theological approaches to happiness. It then sketches three models of happiness in the South African context: the segregation model deriving from a specific understanding of neo-Calvinism, the traditional African model based on a communitarian notion of ubuntu, and the model stemming from modernity with its emphasis on individuality and rationality. The last section is not fully developed and only outlines a Christian and Biblical understanding of happiness with emphasis on joy in the Lord that stems from both the wisdom traditions and the New Testament letters.


    Bruce R Smit


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: South African companies wish to join the world class family. As the Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award in the USA and the European Quality Award in Europe have been effected, the South African Quality Institute (SAQI pioneered and developed a National Quality Award together with leading South African companies. The South African Award model is a full hybrid of the Malcolm Baldrige and European Foundation Quality models. The awards process is now managed by the South African Excellence Foundation. This model enables companies to assess their excellence levels and use benchmarks towards improved quality, service and costs. The model has been ratified by the administrators of both of the aforementioned awards. The criteria in the award lend themselves to measurement by self assessment. This paper explains the model and its application as a foundation to strategic planning.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Maatskapye in Suid Afrika moet op die wereldmark kan presteer. Amerika het die Malcolm Baldrige Kwaliteitstoekenning en Europa die Europese Kwaliteitstoekenning.vir uitmuntende prestasie in die besigheidswereld daargestel. Die Suid Afrikaanse Kwaliteitsinstituut (SAQI het in 1997 'n Suid Afrikaanse eweknie ontwikkel. Die Suid Afrikaanse Kwaliteitstoekenning is deur die administrateurs van eersgenoemde pryse aanvaar. Die lokale Kwaliteitstoekennings word tans deur die Suid Afrikaanse Uitmuntentheidfondasie geadministreer. Die Kwaliteitstoekenning model kan gebruik word am self-meting toe te pas met die doel om besigheids prestasie te verbeter. Hierdie geskrif stel die Suid Afrikaanse model daar stel en verduidelik hoe dit vir strategiese beplanning toegepas kan word.

  13. Living wills and advance directives in South African Law.

    Skeen, Andrew


    The legal status of living wills and advance directives in South African Law will be considered. Presently there is no reported judgment of a court in South Africa which has directly ruled on the validity of an advance directive or living will. In a case decided in 1992 the issue as to whether to discontinue life supporting treatment was decided with reference to the legal persuasions of society and whether, in light of these, it would be reasonable to discontinue artificial feeding of the patient. The judge indicated that just as a living person has an interest in the disposal of his body so did he think that the patient's wishes as expressed when he was in good health should be given effect. In South African law every person is legally entitled to refuse medical treatment even if the consequences may be to hasten death. The South African Law Convention has extensively investigated the issue in its report entitled Report on Euthanasia and the Artificial Preservation of Life in 1998. Certain problems were identified and a draft bill was suggested.

  14. Rotavirus vaccination within the South African Expanded Programme on Immunisation.

    Seheri, L Mapaseka; Page, Nicola A; Mawela, Mothahadini P B; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Steele, A Duncan


    Diarrhoeal diseases are ranked the third major cause of childhood mortality in South African children less than 5 years, where the majority of deaths are among black children. Acute severe dehydrating rotavirus diarrhoea remains an important contributor towards childhood mortality and morbidity and has been well documented in South Africa. As the preventive strategy to control rotavirus diarrhoea, South Africa became the first country in the WHO African Region to adopt the rotavirus vaccine in the national childhood immunisation programme in August 2009. The rotavirus vaccine in use, Rotarix, GSK Biologicals, is given at 6 and 14 weeks of age, along with other vaccines as part of Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI). Studies which facilitated the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in South Africa included the burden of rotavirus disease and strain surveillance, economic burden of rotavirus infection and clinical trials to assess the safety and efficacy of vaccine candidates. This paper reviews the epidemiology of rotavirus in South Africa, outlines some of the steps followed to introduce rotavirus vaccine in the EPI, and highlights the early positive impact of vaccination in reducing the rotavirus burden of disease based on the post-marketing surveillance studies at Dr George Mukhari hospital, a sentinel site at University of Limpopo teaching hospital in Pretoria, South Africa, which has conducted rotavirus surveillance for >20 years.

  15. South African Cities: A Social Geography.

    Western, John


    Traces the history of the development of cities in South Africa, paying special attention to the development of urban social controls. Three eras are identified: (1) mercantilism, (2) imperialism, and (3) apartheid. Concludes that enormous human costs are entailed by these attempts at social engineering. (JDH)

  16. Psychological Characteristics of South African Street Children.

    le Roux, Johann; Smith, Cheryl Sylvia


    Attempts to identify the psychological characteristics that predispose certain children to run away and to survive, often for long periods, on the streets of South Africa. Examines vulnerability and resilience as well as social conditions that mediate the psychological predisposition to become a street child. (Author/GCP)

  17. Argumentation and Indigenous Knowledge: Socio-Historical Influences in Contextualizing an Argumentation Model in South African Schools

    Gallard Martinez, Alejandro J.


    This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and…

  18. Language and "New" African Migration to South Africa: An Overview and Some Reflections on Theoretical Implications for Policy and Planning

    Orman, Jon


    This article examines the phenomenon of African migration to post-apartheid South Africa from a language-sociological perspective. Although the subject has been one largely neglected by language scholars, the handful of studies which have addressed the issue have yielded ethnographic data and raised questions of considerable significance for the…

  19. Psychological career resources of working adults: A South African survey

    Melinde Coetzee


    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to explore broad trends regarding how individuals from various age, educational, marital, race and gender groups in the South African organisational context differ in terms of their psychological career resources, as measured by the Psychological Career Resources Inventory. A sample of 2 997 working adults registered as students at a South African higher distance education institution participated in this study. The results indicate significant differences between the various biographical variables and the participants’ psychological career resources. In the context of employment equity, and with more women entering the workplace, this study is expected to contribute important knowledge that will inform career development practices concerned with enhancing employees’ career meta-competencies as an important element of their general employability.

  20. Embodied history. Uniqueness and exemplarity of South African AIDS.

    Fassin, Didier


    The exceptionality of AIDS in South Africa, both for its epidemiological features and public controversies, seems to have its correspondence in the exceptionalism of South African history, with its unprecedented regime of apartheid and its unexpected turn to democracy. The article shows that AIDS in this country can simultaneously be seen as unique (because of the historical context in which it is inscribed) and exemplar (of social determinants observed in other countries characterised by similar past or present of domination). As an alternative to cultural and behavioural models of the epidemic which have been widely spread on the African continent, the concept of embodiment of history is proposed in order to account for both the structural facts underlying the epidemic (inequality, violence, migration) and the construction of collective as well as individual narratives of the disease (including victimisation and accusation).

  1. A knowledge sharing framework in the South African public sector

    Peter L. Mkhize


    Full Text Available In the knowledge economy, organisations are shifting their investment focus to intellectual capital in order to sustain a competitive advantage in the global marketplace. Organisational survival is increasingly dependent on the organisation’s ability to create and distribute knowledge that contributes to the improvement of performance. The purpose of this article is to evaluate individual knowledge-acquisition and sharing practices in the South African public sector. I applied the techniques of grounded theory analysis to extract themes from data that could provide insight into the knowledge sharing that takes place in the South African public sector. Findings revealed that the informal sharing of knowledge takes place in discussion forums within communities of practice through web-based, socially orientated platforms. These communities of practice are widespread throughout the public sector and are established with the purpose of soliciting expert knowledge from those who have been using open-source software successfully.


    Ian Van der Waag


    Full Text Available With the exception of a few dissertations and theses, the most important works dealing with South Africa's role in the First World War are official histories. In addition to the work now under review - undertaken at the request of General Smuts and described by Buchan's biographer as a 'war debt' which he (Buchan had to discharge - three other books detailing South Africa's role in various First World War campaigns, have appeared. J.G.W. Leipoldt's history entitled The Union of South Africa and the Great War 1914-1918 appeared anonymously in 1924; while J.J. Collyer's works on the German South West and East African campaigns were published in 1937 and 1939 respectively. All of these were official histories, the last three being published by the General Staff in Pretoria.

  3. The South African coal industry - a millennium review

    Lind, G.H.; Phillips, H.R. [University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)


    South Africa is a significant contributor to southern Africa and Europe's coal needs and is expected to remain in this important position for the foreseeable future. This review paper of the South African coal mining industry highlights that, although abundant, the easily mineable reserves will become depleted within the next quarter century. Socio-economic issues of unique, local importance such as the HIV/AIDS pandemic as well as policies propagated by South Africa's post-apartheid government are detailed, as are programmes in research and development that will ensure that South Africa's long term coal industry is, at the every least, maintained. 11 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Public transport policy and performance: The results of a South African public opinion poll

    Rose Luke


    Full Text Available Public opinion plays a vital role in a democracy, as democracies are, by nature responsive to the people. In South Africa, public participation is entrenched in the Constitution. Despite this, the spate of service delivery protests in South Africa in recent years would appear to indicate that the government is out of touch with the opinions of the South African citizens. Public  transport  policy  in  South  Africa  is  described  by  a  number  of  documents,  mainly the  White  Paper  on  National  Transport  Policy,  Moving  South  Africa  and,  more  recently, the National Development Plan. An annual survey of 1000 South Africans is conducted to gauge opinion on transport related matters. The purpose of this article was to compare the current public transport policies (as stated above and the public opinion on public transport (as gauged by the survey in order to determine the extent to which these are aligned. The results  show  that  current  public  transport  policy  is  relatively  strongly  aligned  with  the public transport needs of the South African population, however, concerns regarding public transport such as mobility, accessibility, affordability and safety have not yet to be addressed satisfactorily.

  5. South African life orientation teachers: (not) teaching about sexuality diversity.

    DePalma, Renée; Francis, Dennis


    Although South Africa is one of the most progressive countries in the world in terms of constitutional and legislative rights for LGBT individuals, education is one of many social arenas where these ideals are not carried out. Interviews with 25 practicing teachers revealed very little description of practice, but widely divergent understandings around sexual diversity that drew on various authoritative discourses, including religious teachings, educational policy, science, and the powerful human rights framework of the South African constitution. Implications for teacher education include directly engaging with these discourses and providing training, teaching materials, and practical guidelines based on existing policy.

  6. Evaluating the MBTI® Form M in a South African context

    Casper J.J. van Zyl


    Full Text Available Orientation: Psychological instruments require continued refinement, updating andevaluation.Research purpose: To investigate the reliability, validity and differential item functioning ofthe MBTI® Form M across groups in South Africa using Classical Test Theory (CTT and ItemResponse Theory (IRT methods.Motivation for the study: To add to the continual research and improvement of the MBTI®Form M through the investigation of its psychometric properties across groups in South Africa.Research design, approach and method: This study falls within the quantitative researchparadigm. Classical test theory methods and Rasch analysis were used to evaluate thefunctioning of the MBTI Form M across gender and ethnic groups. A cross-sectional study wascompleted consisting of 10 705 South African respondents.Main findings: Excellent reliability was found for the instrument across groups in thesample. Good evidence for construct validity was found using exploratory factor analysis andconfirmatory factor analysis. Some evidence for uniform bias was found across ethnic andgender groups and a few items reflected non-uniform DIF across gender groups only. Theeffect of uniform and non-uniform DIF did not appear to have major practical implications forthe interpretation of the scales.Practical/managerial implications: The results provided evidence that supports thepsychometric validity of the MBTI instrument in the South African context.Contribution/value-add: This study is the largest study to date regarding the psychometricfunctioning of the MBTI instrument in South Africa. It contributes to the evolution of theinstrument in line

  7. Influence Strategies in South African Wine Value Chains

    Joachim Ewert


    Drawing on a number of detailed case studies, in this paper we investigate this conclusion in more depth. By doing so, we try to explain which paths South African producer cellars have or have not chosen, and why. As global value chain theory posits that the governance structure of value chains are of crucial importance, we will pay particular interest to the design of the chains as a success factor.

  8. The conservation status of eagles in South African law

    JC Knobel


    This contribution is an introductory survey and preliminary evaluation of the conservation status of eagles in South African law. The methodology is primarily an interdisciplinary literature study of legal texts and texts from the natural sciences. Eagles are some of the largest and most powerful avian predators, and the human response to their presence is dualistic and polarised. At the one extreme, many people admire eagles, while at the other extreme they are perceived as a threat to econo...

  9. Determinants of health insurance ownership among South African women

    Mwabu Germano M; Nganda Benjamin; Sambo Luis G; Kirigia Joses M; Chatora Rufaro; Mwase Takondwa


    Abstract Background Studies conducted in developed countries using economic models show that individual- and household- level variables are important determinants of health insurance ownership. There is however a dearth of such studies in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between health insurance ownership and the demographic, economic and educational characteristics of South African women. Methods The analysis was based on data from a cross-secti...

  10. Effective multi-level energy reporting in South African industry

    Maneschijn, R.; Vosloo, J.C.; Pelzer, R.


    Energy management standards received significant attention in recent years for assisting intensive users in improving energy management processes. However, applying such a standard to the Energy Management System of an industrial consumer is most effective if supported by an Energy Information Management System. Energy Information Management Systems are commercially available and have been applied in South African industry. However, one notable shortfall of the majority of these systems is in...

  11. Environmental stressors, low well-being, smoking, and alcohol use among South African adolescents.

    Brook, David W; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Morojele, Neo K; Brook, Judith S


    This is the first study to examine the pathways from environmental stressors to substance use among a sample of South African adolescents (N = 2195). The study objective was to assess how environmental stressors might affect cigarette smoking and alcohol use among South African adolescents, and to focus on one mechanism, low well-being, which might mediate this association. Participants consisted of 2195 Black, mixed ancestry ("Colored"), Indian, and White youth, aged 12-17 years old (mean age = 14.6; SD = 1.8), recruited via a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure in Durban, Cape Town, and Johannesburg, South Africa. Data were collected via individual in-person structured interviews, administered by trained interviewers in the participant's preferred language. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the interrelationships of environmental stressors (violent victimisation, legal and illegal drug availability) and low well-being (depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, health problems) with respect to adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. The results supported our hypotheses: Environmental stressors were related to low well-being which, in turn, was linked to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. There were also direct pathways from environmental stressors to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Smoking and alcohol use were significantly correlated. The findings suggest that environmental stressors may be associated with diminished psychological and physical well-being, as well as smoking and alcohol use, among South African adolescents. Longitudinal research is warranted to further understand the interrelationship of environmental stressors, low well-being, and adolescent substance use, so that these issues may be addressed by South African programmes and policies.

  12. Proportionality in enterprise development of South African towns

    Maitland T. Seaman


    Full Text Available We investigated proportionalities in the enterprise structures of 125 South African towns through examining four hypotheses, (1 the magnitude of enterprise development in a town is a function of the population size of the town; (2 the size of an enterprise assemblage of a town is a function of the town’s age; (3 there are statistically significant relationships, and hence proportionalities, between the total number of enterprises in towns and some, if not all, of the enterprise numbers of different business sectors in towns; and (4 the implications of proportionalities have far-reaching implications for rural development and job creation. All hypotheses were accepted on the basis of statistically significant (p < 0.05 correlations, except for the second hypothesis – the age of a town does not determine the size of its enterprise assemblage. Analysis for the fourth hypothesis suggested that there are two broad entrepreneurial types in South African towns: ‘run-of-the-mill’ entrepreneurs and ‘special’ entrepreneurs, which give rise to different enterprise development dynamics. ‘Run-of-the-mill’ enterprises are dependent on, and limited by, local demand and if there is only a small demand, the entrepreneurial space is small. By comparison, ‘special’ enterprises have much larger markets because their products and/or services are exportable. We propose that the fostering of ‘special’ entrepreneurs is an imperative for local economic development in South African towns.

  13. Australia's South African war 1899-19021

    Craig Wilcox


    Full Text Available Around twenty thousand Australians fought in the great war between the British empire and the republics of the Orange Free State and the Transvaal. Those Australians constituted five in every thousand of their people, or three in every two hundred of their male workers. In South Africa they made up just one in every twenty-five soldiers in a British army of almost half a million.2 As these bald figures immediately suggest, Australia's contribution to the war was too small to be decisive, and its experience of the war involved too few of its people to make a powerful impact on its society, let alone wrench its history onto some different course. Still, that contribution and that experience were unprecedented for a people who had never before gone to war as a people, and deserve more attention - and more balanced, dispassionate, critical attention - than they've yet received from historians of the war, of Australia, and of the British empire.3 In this lecture I'll strive for such balance by outlining why and how Australians went to war in South Africa, what their soldiers did there, and the war's legacy for their country and their descendants today.

  14. Stifled Voices: Barriers to Help-Seeking Behavior for South African Childhood Sexual Assault Survivors

    Smith, Kimberly; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Tillman, Shaquita; Marks, Alison


    In South Africa, females under the age of 18 comprise approximately 40% of the rapes and other forms of sexual assault that occur. However, South African girls face multiple barriers to seeking help in the aftermath of sexual assault. This literature review provides an overview of childhood sexual assault in South African girls and addresses…

  15. Linking adults and immatures of South African marine fishes.

    Steinke, Dirk; Connell, Allan D; Hebert, Paul D N


    The early life-history stages of fishes are poorly known, impeding acquisition of the identifications needed to monitor larval recruitment and year-class strength. A comprehensive database of COI sequences, linked to authoritatively identified voucher specimens, promises to change this situation, representing a significant advance for fisheries science. Barcode records were obtained from 2526 early larvae and pelagic eggs of fishes collected on the inshore shelf within 5 km of the KwaZulu-Natal coast, about 50 km south of Durban, South Africa. Barcodes were also obtained from 3215 adults, representing 946 South African fish species. Using the COI reference library on BOLD based on adults, 89% of the immature fishes could be identified to a species level; they represented 450 species. Most of the uncertain sequences could be assigned to a genus, family, or order; only 92 specimens (4%) were unassigned. Accumulation curves based on inference of phylogenetic diversity indicate near-completeness of the collecting effort. The entire set of adult and larval fishes included 1006 species, representing 43% of all fish species known from South African waters. However, this total included 189 species not previously recorded from this region. The fact that almost 90% of the immatures gained a species identification demonstrates the power and completeness of the DNA barcode reference library for fishes generated during the 10 years of FishBOL.

  16. Association between childhood adversities and long-term suicidality among South Africans from the results of the South African Stress and Health study: a cross-sectional study

    Bruwer, Belinda; Govender, Ravi; Bishop, Melanie; Williams, David R.; Stein, Dan J.; Seedat, Soraya


    Objective Suicide and suicidal behaviours are significant public health problems and a leading cause of death worldwide and in South Africa. We examined the association between childhood adversities and suicidal behaviour over the life course. Methods A national probability sample of 4351 South African adult participants (aged 18 years and older) in the South African Stress and Health (SASH) study was interviewed as part of the World Mental Health Surveys initiative. Respondents provided soci...

  17. Association between childhood adversities and long-term suicidality among South Africans from the results of the South African Stress and Health study: a cross-sectional study

    Bruwer, Belinda; Govender, Ravi; Bishop, Melanie; Williams, David R.; Stein, Dan J.; Seedat, Soraya


    Objective: Suicide and suicidal behaviours are significant public health problems and a leading cause of death worldwide and in South Africa. We examined the association between childhood adversities and suicidal behaviour over the life course. Methods: A national probability sample of 4351 South African adult participants (aged 18 years and older) in the South African Stress and Health (SASH) study was interviewed as part of the World Mental Health Surveys initiative. Respondents provided so...

  18. Anti-apartheid sentiment might hurt South African coal


    The author discusses the effect of anti-apartheid actions on South Africa's position as the world's leading supplier of steam coal. Anti-apartheid economic sanctions by members of the EEC will not produce an immediate drop in tonnage because Western Europe will take coal already under contract. But Denmark and the Netherlands have already said they will phase out all contracts by 1990. Indications are that a number of other European countries will follow suit. However, it would be premature to write off South Africa as a coal trader. Ironically, economic sanctions and calls for disinvestment are likely to keep the rank weak and South African coal cheap for a long time. Cheap coal usually finds its way to market, despite political obstacles.


    Annamart Nieman


    Full Text Available This article is aimed at augmenting current awareness of virtual currencies ("VCs" in the South African legal community. To this end, it introduces the reader to VCs in general and decentralised convertible VCs ("DCVCs" in particular. Due to their design and interaction with the real economy and currency, DCVCs are on the radar of many financial regulators worldwide. As Bitcoin is considered the leading type of DCVC in terms of value and volume, its early beginnings in South Africa are probed. Although regulation should follow innovation, awareness of the VC ecosystem will not only warrant appropriate regulatory intervention when the time comes, but will also enable the growth and development opportunities associated with VCs. South Africa has not promulgated any legislation pertaining to VCs. The potential applicability of all current legislation and regulations relevant to VCs calls for in-depth research. This article aspires to serve as an appetiser to do so.

  20. The Robben Island diversity experience. An exploration of South African diversity dynamics

    Marius Pretorius


    Full Text Available Orientation: Because of its historic, symbolic and psychological representation, presenting a diversity event on Robben Island posed invaluable opportunities to form an in-depth understanding of South African diversity dynamics. This research focussed on such an event interpreted from the systems psychodynamic perspective.Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to describe the experiences of participants attending the Robben Island Diversity Experience (RIDE in order to understand South African diversity dynamics from a depth psychology perspective.Motivation for the study: Of the many and different diversity events presented in South African organisations, RIDE is the only annual systems psycho-dynamically designed and presented event. This research was an effort to explore the nature of these dynamics which manifest themselves from below the surface.Research design, approach and method: Qualitative and descriptive research from a hermeneutic phenomenology paradigm was used. The 15 participants who attended a RIDE event formed a case study. The data from an unstructured interview was content-analysed and interpreted using the systems psychodynamic perspective. The themes were integrated into a research hypothesis.Main findings: Five themes manifested themselves, namely, crossing boundaries, engaging the brave new world, ties that bind, being imprisoned and the struggle.Practical/managerial implications: The research highlighted the importance of understanding unconscious dynamics in the context of diversity in order to inform consultants about diversity management interventions in organisations.Contribution/value-add: The research contributed towards how South African diversity dynamics manifest themselves and how that can be addressed in organisations.

  1. Burnout and engagement: A South African perspective

    S. Rothmann


    Full Text Available Work wellness, and more specifically burnout and engagement are important focus areas of research and intervention in South Africa. However, few studies have been conducted regarding the factorial validity, construct equivalence and item bias of measuring instruments of burnout and work engagement. Furthermore, few studies have been conducted regarding causal models of burnout as well as interventions to prevent and/or manage burnout in a multicultural context. Little is known about the causes of work engagement and interventions to increase it. Research should be conducted to validate measuring instruments of burnout, work engagement and predictors thereof in multicultural contexts. Research is also needed regarding the effectiveness of interventions to manage work engagement and to prevent and/or manage burnout. Opsomming Werkwelstand, en meer spesifiek psigiese uitbranding en begeestering is belangrike fokusareas vir navorsing en intervensie in Suid-Afrika. Tog is min studies onderneem rakende die faktorgeldigheid, konstrukekwivalensie en itemsydigheid van meetinstrumente van psigiese uitbranding en werksbegeestering. Verder is min studies onderneem ten opsigte van oorsaaklike modelle van psigiese uitbranding sowel as intervensies om uitbranding in ‘n multikulturele konteks te voorkom en/of te bestuur. Min is bekend oor die oorsake van werksbegeestering en intervensies om dit te verhoog. Navorsing moet onderneem word ten einde meetinstrumente van psigiese uitbranding, werksbegeestering en voorspellers daarvan in ‘n multikulturele konteks te valideer. Navorsing rakende die effektiwiteit van intervensies om werksbegeestering te bestuur en psigiese uitbranding te voorkom en/of te hanteer, is ook noodsaaklik.

  2. Breakfast habits of adolescents in for South African populations.

    Walker, A R; Walker, B F; Jones, J; Ncongwane, J


    Breakfast habits by using questionnaires, were established in a total of 4717 South African pupils of 16 to 18 yr. In the groups of rural and urban Black, Indian, European-African-Malay, and white pupils studied, respective proportions who had no solid breakfast (both sexes combined) were approximately 21, 19, 13, 13, and 14%. Proportions who had only porridge or bread (or toast) plus drink were 77, 73, 61, 71, and 56%. Such breakfast provided ranges of means of 223 to 345 kcal, 9 to 14 g protein, 7 to 18 g fat, 51 to 185 mg calcium, and 3.2 to 5.1 mg iron. Proportions who had a cooked breakfast (including egg, meat, fish), eaten with or without a cereal food, were 1, 4, 17, 8, and 29%. Such meals contributed means of 495 to 704 kcal, 11 to 26 g protein, 24 to 39 g fat, 110 to 225 mg calcium, and 3.9 to 5.5 mg iron. In the South African groups studied, the issue of breakfast or no breakfast had no clear-cut bearing on weight, height, class position, or frequency of absence from school. The degree by which, in a given community, nutrition in general and breakfast in particular, regulates health and/or academic performance, needs proper research in prospective studies.

  3. Faculty of health sciences, walter sisulu university: training doctors from and for rural South african communities.

    Iputo, Jehu E


    Introduction The South African health system has disturbing inequalities, namely few black doctors, a wide divide between urban and rural sectors, and also between private and public services. Most medical training programs in the country consider only applicants with higher-grade preparation in mathematics and physical science, while most secondary schools in black communities have limited capacity to teach these subjects and offer them at standard grade level. The Faculty of Health Sciences at Walter Sisulu University (WSU) was established in 1985 to help address these inequities and to produce physicians capable of providing quality health care in rural South African communities. Intervention Access to the physician training program was broadened by admitting students who obtained at least Grade C (60%) in mathematics and physical science at standard grade, and who demonstrated appropriate personal attributes. An innovative curriculum, combining problem-based learning with community-based education (PBL/CBE) in small tutorial group settings, was also adopted. This approach was aimed at educating and graduating a broader cohort of students, while training future doctors to identify, analyze, and treat health problems in the rural South African context. Outcomes To date, 745 doctors (72% black Africans) have graduated from the program, and 511 students (83% black Africans) are currently enrolled. After the PBL/CBE curriculum was adopted, the attrition rate for black students dropped from 23% to 80%, and the proportion of students graduating within the minimum period rose from 55% to >70%. Many graduates are still completing internships or post-graduate training, but preliminary research shows that 36% percent of graduates practice in small towns and rural settings. Further research is underway to evaluate the impact of their training on health services in rural Eastern Cape Province and elsewhere in South Africa. Conclusions The WSU program increased access to

  4. Overview of the South African mine health and safety standardization and regulation systems

    LI Zhong-xue; LI Jia-jie; LI Cui-ping; LIU Shuang-yue


    Outlined the South African mine health and safety regulatory framework, including the roles of government, tripartite council, service agencies, mine enterprises,rescue stations and workers unions, analyzed the institutional structures of South African mine health and safety standardization, including the South African standard and specification systems and standard development processes, and characterized the South African mine health and safety standardization and regulation systems. Intended to provide some suggestions for the transformation and improvement of mine health and safety standardization and regulation systems in China or in similar situations.

  5. Africans and the myth of rural retirement in South Africa, ca 1900-1950.

    MacKinnon, Aran S


    The South African mining industry relied upon a massive African migrant workforce from the rural areas. Rural transformations in this migrant labor system form an important part of the story of developing capitalism in industrializing South Africa. Yet, recent historical studies on southern African migrant and rural wage labor have paid little attention to life adjustments made by the elderly and those 'burned out' by the mines and forced to leave formal wage employment in the urban areas. The South African segregationist state's rhetoric implied that 'retired' Africans could find economic security in their designated rural reserves. Indeed, legislation sought to prohibit Africans who were not employed from remaining in the 'white' urban areas. By the 1930s, however, the reserves were rapidly deteriorating. Many elderly Africans could not retire and were forced to seek wage labor. This raises significant questions about how retirement came to be defined and experienced by Africans in South Africa during a critical period of dramatic economic decline in the 1930s and 40s, and what the underlying material circumstances of African South Africans were with regard to adaptations to employment and ageing-related life changes. In many cases, elderly Africans were forced to forgo retirement, and find wage labor, usually in the most poorly paid, least sought-after or dangerous fields of employment. This article thus seeks to illuminate critical generational dimensions of the impact of segregation and racism in South Africa prior to the formal articulation of Apartheid.

  6. A survey of zoonotic diseases contracted by South African veterinarians

    B Gummow


    Full Text Available A survey of 88 veterinarians employed at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, South Africa, was carried out to investigate the occurrence of zoonotic diseases among South African veterinarians. The survey found that 63.6 % of veterinarians interviewed had suffered from a zoonotic disease. Veterinarians predominantly involved in farm animal practice were 3 times more likely to have contracted a zoonotic disease than those working in other veterinary fields. Fifty-six percent of disease incidents were initially diagnosed by the veterinarians themselves. Fifty-three percent of incidents required treatment by a medical practitioner, but the majority (61 % of incidents did not require absence from work. The incidence density rate for contracting a zoonotic disease was 0.06 per person year of exposure. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis estimated that the probability of having contracted a zoonotic disease was 50 % after 11 years in practice. The risk of contracting a zoonotic disease appeared to be higher early in practice. The mostcommonmodeof transmission was by direct contact. Approximately 46 % of South Africans still live in rural areas and regularly come into close contact with farmanimals. The implications of this in the light of this survey’s results are discussed.

  7. The cost of a healthy diet: a South African perspective.

    Temple, Norman J; Steyn, Nelia P


    Energy-dense foods are relatively cheap sources of energy but typically have a low nutrient density. People with a low income may therefore select a relatively less healthy diet. The high energy density of such diets helps explain the association between obesity and low socioeconomic status. Most studies have been carried out in highly developed countries. We have extended this research to South Africa. Some foods, such as oats, beans, carrots, and apples, are moderately priced sources of energy and are healthy (i.e., they have a low energy density and are nutrient dense). However, such foods are likely to be less desired than many other foods, such as candy, cookies, jam, and chocolate, that have a similar cost (in terms of food energy) but are less healthy. We compared the cost of a typical South African diet with a healthier one. On average, the healthier diet costs 69% more, but this estimate is greatly affected by food choices. For a family whose household income is exceeded by one-third of the population, this increased expenditure represents about 30% of total household income. This could be decreased to about 10% to 15% if a healthy diet is carefully designed. Overall, a healthy diet is unaffordable for most South Africans. This shows the importance of not only educating people in developing countries to the importance of a healthy diet but also explaining how to make such a diet affordable. A more effective strategy is government intervention that manipulates food prices.

  8. Nonlinear hedonic pricing: a confirmatory study of South African wines

    Priilaid DA


    Full Text Available David A Priilaid1, Paul van Rensburg21School of Management Studies, 2Department of Finance and Tax, University of Cape Town, Republic of South AfricaAbstract: With a sample of South African red and white wines, this paper investigates the relationship between price, value, and value for money. The analysis is derived from a suite of regression models using some 1358 wines drawn from the 2007 period, which, along with red and white blends, includes eight cultivars. Using the five-star rating, each wine was rated both sighted and blind by respected South African publications. These two ratings were deployed in a stripped-down customer-facing hedonic price analysis that confirms (1 the unequal pricing of consecutive increments in star-styled wine quality assessments and (2 that the relationship between value and price can be better estimated by treating successive wine quality increments as dichotomous “dummy” variables. Through the deployment of nonlinear hedonic pricing, fertile areas for bargain hunting can thus be found at the top end of the price continuum as much as at the bottom, thereby assisting retailers and consumers in better identifying wines that offer value for money.Keywords: price, value, wine

  9. The validation of a workplace incivility scale within the South African banking industry

    Olivia Smidt


    Full Text Available Orientation: Workplace incivility holds consequences for both individuals and organisations. Managers are becoming increasingly aware of this phenomenon. Currently, there is no workplace incivility scale validated for use within the South African context. Research purpose: To investigate the reliability and validity of the adapted workplace incivility scale by Leiter and colleagues for use within South Africa. Motivation for the study: As it is currently difficult to measure workplace incivility within the South African context because of the lack of a valid and reliable scale, it is necessary to validate such a scale.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional research approach was used for the study. Convenience sampling (N = 345 was used within the South African banking industry. Specifically, the factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity and predictive validity were investigated in order to establish the overall validity of the scale. Main findings: The results confirmed that the scale showed a three-factor structure as bestfitting with acceptable reliability coefficients. Furthermore, discriminant validity could be shown between workplace incivility and workplace bullying, that is, supporting that these two constructs are not the same phenomenon. In terms of relationships, colleague incivility did not significantly predict any of the outcome variables and instigated incivility only being a negative predictor of job satisfaction and a borderline statistically significant negative predictor of work engagement. However, supervisor incivility predicted all the outcomes negatively. Practical/Managerial implications: Based on the results, workplace incivility should be addressed because of the harmful effects it can have, not only on employees but also on organisations. It is therefore necessary for managers to create awareness of workplace incivility in order to ensure that it does not integrate within the

  10. Developing a South African pedestrian environment assessment tool: Tshwane case study

    Jane Olwoch


    Full Text Available Pedestrians, comprising approximately 60% of the population, are among the most vulnerable road users in South Africa. The roadside environment may be an important factor influencing the nature and frequency of pedestrian fatalities. While there are audit tools for assessing the pedestrian environment in other countries, no such tool exists for South Africa. This study evaluated existing audit tools in relation to South African issues and conditions and developed a South African Pedestrian Environment Assessment Tool (PEAT. PEAT was tested at five sites in the Tshwane Metropolitan Area in Gauteng to assess its applicability. PEAT was simple to use and provided valuable information, however, appropriate measures need to be taken to address fieldworker security, especially for night-time assessments when several roadside factors, such as lighting, should be evaluated. Although it was not the focus of our study, based on our results, we suggest that the lack of pavements, pedestrian crossings and pedestrian lighting are factors that, potentially, could increase pedestrian vulnerability.


    A.R. Greef


    Full Text Available This paper provides an introduction to the most commonly used Knowledge Based Systems (KBS's called Rule Based Systems, presents some benefits of using these systems if the application warrants their attention and provides an over-view of current R&D as well as industrial systems already implemented. Areas of manUfacturing that could use KES's within the South African context are suggested. A research programme investigating the use of KBS's in robotics in progress at the University of Stellenbosch demonstrating a number of useful properties associated with programming Artificial Intelligence (AI techniques using logic programming, is discussed.

  12. The South African Constitution requires men to be feminist

    H.P.P. Lótter


    Full Text Available Can a man be a feminist? If so, what would it mean? I want to participate in a dialogue between women and men on how to accommodate women's moral concerns. I propose that the fundamental values of justice embodied in the South African constitutional democracy require men to be feminist. These values provide the best safeguard of the important interests and values of both women and men. Men who accept these values can support the main concerns of feminism. The implications of the argument in this article range from public issues to the most private aspects of marriage.

  13. Construction and validation of the South African version of the Fear Survey Schedule for Children: an exploratory factor analysis.

    Burkhardt, Käthe; Loxton, Helene; Kagee, Ashraf; Ollendick, Thomas H


    The Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (Ollendick, 1983) is an 80-item self-report instrument that has been used internationally to asses the number of fears and general level of fearfulness among children. Despite its widespread use, this instrument has not been adapted to the South African context. The present study addressed this gap by means of a 2-phase investigation aimed at developing a South African version of the instrument. In Phase 1, semistructured interviews were conducted with 40 children (7 to 13 years of age). Qualitative data obtained from these interviews were used to construct additional items for inclusion in the South African Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised. The modified scale, consisting of 97 items, was then administered to a sample of 646 children between the ages of 7 and 13 years. Further psychometric considerations resulted in the final version of the scale consisting of 74 items with high internal consistency (α=.97). The factor structure was explored by means of principal component analysis with varimax rotation and a 5-factor solution was found to provide the best conceptual fit. The factors identified were as follows: Fear of Death and Danger; Fear of the Unknown; Fear of Small Animals and Minor Threats to Self; Large Animal Fears; and Situational Fears. Differences between the South African version and the original Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised are noted and implications for the study of fear in South Africa and other countries are discussed.

  14. Noma (cancrum oris) in the South African context.

    Feller, L; Altini, M; Chandran, R; Khammissa, R A G; Masipa, J N; Mohamed, A; Lemmer, J


    Noma (cancrum oris) is a destructive necrotising disease affecting orofacial tissues predominantly of malnourished young children. It is characterised by a rapid acute onset which usually starts in the mouth, spreads intra-orally destroying soft tissue and bone and progresses to perforate the facial skin, causing disfigurement. Polybacterial anaerobic infection is critical too, but is not alone sufficient for the initiation of noma. Cofactors, first and foremost malnutrition, but also systemic viral and bacterial infections are crucial to the development of noma. A patient with necrotising stomatitis or noma must be admitted to hospital for antibiotic treatment, fluid and electrolytes as well as nutritional supplementation and general supportive treatment. The epidemiology of noma in the South African population is unknown, and the clinicopathological features are poorly characterised. Although worldwide there is no evidence that HIV infection is a strong risk factor for noma, HIV infection may play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of noma in South Africa.

  15. The Potential of Capstone Learning Experiences in addressing perceived shortcomings in LLB Training in South Africa

    Geo Quinot


    Full Text Available Current debates about legal education in South Africa have revealed the perception that the LLB curriculum does not adequately integrate various outcomes, in particular outcomes relating to the development of skills in communication, problem solving, ethics, and in general a holistic view of the law in practice. One mechanism that has been mooted as a potential remedy to this situation is capstone courses, which will consolidate and integrate the four years of study in the final year and build a bridge to the world of practice. A literature review on capstone courses and learning experiences (collectively referred to as capstones indicates that these curriculum devices as modes of instruction offer particular pedagogical advantages. These include inculcating a strong perception of coherence across the curriculum and hence discipline in students, providing the opportunity for students to reflect on their learning during the course of the entire programme, creating an opportunity to engage with the complexity of law and legal practice, and guiding students through the transition from university to professional identity. An empirical analysis of the modes of instruction used in LLB curricula at 13 South African law faculties/schools indicates that there are six categories of existing modules or learning experiences that already exhibit elements of capstone-course design. These are clinics, internships, moots, research projects, topical capstones and capstone assessment. A further comparative study into foreign law curricula in especially Australia and the United States of America reveals four further noteworthy approaches to capstone-course design, namely problem-based learning, the virtual office, conferences and remedies courses. The empirical study suggests that capstones indeed hold the potential as learning experiences to address some of the challenges facing legal education in South Africa but that further development of this curriculum

  16. U.S.{/}South African Undergraduate Education and Research Workshops

    Coleman, K. M.; Nolan, J. R.; Davis, K. L.; Phelps, T. J.; Kieft, T. L.; van Heerden, E.; Litthauer, D.; Pfiffner, S. M.


    Deep South African mines (2 to 3.5 km below land surface) have provided unique opportunities for research investigating geochemical and microbial processes in deep subsurface environments. The environments encountered in these mines range from prolific biofilms to hot saline water emanating from gas-rich boreholes. This venture is an outgrowth of ongoing research funded by the NSF Life in Extreme Environments Program as the Witswatersrand Deep Microbiology Project. A workshop for U.S. and South African underrepresented undergraduates was held in December 2001 and is being repeated in December 2002. The main purpose of the workshops were to provide a field and laboratory research experience for underrepresented undergraduate students from the United States (U.S.) and South Africa (S.A.) in the fields of earth, biological, and environmental sciences and engineering. Additional purposes included continuing the exchange of scientific, educational, and biotechnological efforts, and to discuss and explore opportunities for expanding the educational, research and biotechnological efforts. The workshop goals were to recruit and engage undergraduate students in unique and exciting research not normally available to them. The workshops offered state-of-the-art experimental opportunities on specific scientific topics, including subsurface biogeochemstry and microbial ecology. The workshops strengthened scientific and technological collaborations between the South African and U.S. academic communities and South African mining companies. The mines welcome opportunities to host under represented student education initiatives and are forthcoming with refreshments, mining gear, underground transport and geologists. We successfully demonstrated that a workshop with underground activities involving students from both nations was safe, feasible, and career enhancing. Student activities included chemical analyses of groundwater, enrichment for iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria and

  17. Road to Equality in South African Education: A Qualitative Study

    O'Brien, Kevin


    South Africa is currently experiencing a crisis in its educational systems that if not addressed, could threaten the stability of the newly established democracy. A lack of access to quality education and severe shortage of skilled trained educators is perpetuating vestiges of the old apartheid state in the nation. Approximately 6,000 students…

  18. Student Teachers' Attitudes towards and Willingness to Teach Evolution in a Changing South African Environment

    Abrie, A. L.


    This article investigates the attitudes of South African student teachers towards the theory of evolution and their willingness to teach it. The teaching of evolution has been excluded from the South African school curriculum for most of the 20th century. In 2008, Grade 12 learners were for the first time exposed to the concept of evolution in the…

  19. Ideological Alchemy: The Transmutation of South African Didactics (and Fundamental Pedagogics) into "Apartheid Education"

    Yonge, George D.


    In his response to Kruger, Le Grange claims that: (1) the South African discourse of fundamental pedagogics was closely allied with Christian National Education and functioned as a powerful educational doctrine in the service of the South African policy of apartheid education; (2) fundamental pedagogics bracketed political discourse; (3) the…

  20. Unpacking (White) Privilege in a South African University Classroom: A Neglected Element in Multicultural Educational Contexts

    Swartz, Sharlene; Arogundade, Emma; Davis, Danya


    Multiculturalism currently aims for the political accommodation of difference instead of the subversion of the resulting privileges of difference. In the South African context such a distinction is especially important since the economic and symbolic subjugation of the majority of Black South Africans continues despite political transformation,…

  1. Fibrinogen concentration and its role in CVD risk in black South Africans - effect of urbanisation

    Pieters, Marlien; De Maat, Moniek P. M.; Jerling, Johann C.; Hoekstra, Tiny; Kruger, Annamarie


    The aim of this study was to investigate correlates of fibrinogen concentration in black South Africans, as well as its association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and whether urbanisation influences this association. A total of 1,006 rural and 1,004 urban black South Africans from the PURE s

  2. Humor as "Cultural Reconciliation" in South African Situation Comedy: "Suburban Bliss" and Multicultural Female Viewers.

    Roome, Dorothy


    Conducts interviews with nine groups of South African women, examining their responses to episodes of "Suburban Bliss," a South African television sitcom that attempted to use humor as a catalyst to transcend the aftermath of apartheid. Evaluates whether "cultural reconciliation" is possible through harnessing the varying…

  3. South African Teachers' Attitudes toward the Inclusion of Learners with Different Abilities in Mainstream Classrooms

    Donohue, Dana K.; Bornman, Juan


    This research sought to examine South African teachers' attitudes toward the inclusion of learners with different abilities in their hypothetical mainstream classrooms. Participants were 93 South African teachers who responded to the Teachers' Attitudes and Expectations Scale, a measure developed for this study, regarding four vignettes depicting…

  4. Impact of Mathematics and Physics on the Success of South African Engineering Technology Students

    van Wyk, Ben; Hofman, W.A.H.; Louw, I.


    The general conclusion arrived at in the literature is that the South African National Senior Certificate (NSC) is not a reliable predictor of academic success at traditional universities. By sharing research undertaken at a South African University of Technology (UoT) on the impact of individual co

  5. Use of Morphine Sulphate by South African Paramedics for Prehospital Pain Management

    Craig Vincent-Lambert


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence in the literature highlights the fact that acute pain in the prehospital setting remains poorly managed. Morphine remains the most commonly used analgesic agent in the South African prehospital emergency care setting. Although guidelines and protocols relating to the dosage and administration of morphine exist, little data are available describing its use by South African paramedics.

  6. Work-related well-being of South African hospital pharmacists

    Sebastiaan Rothmann


    Full Text Available Orientation: Hospital pharmacists in South Africa are experiencing increased stress because of the high demand for their services, a lack of resources in hospital pharmacies, and the shortage of pharmacists in South Africa.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate whether job stress and coping strategies could predict the work-related well-being (burnout and work engagement of hospital pharmacists in South Africa.Motivation for the study: Information about the work-related well-being and coping strategies of hospital pharmacists could be used to plan individual and organisational interventions which can be used to retain them and to manage their well-being and performance.Research design, approach and method: A survey design was used. A stratified random sample (N = 187 of pharmacists in South African hospitals was studied. The Maslach Burnout Inventory – Human Services Survey, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Pharmacist Stress Inventory and the COPE questionnaire were administered.Main findings: The results showed that job related stress and three coping strategies (approach coping, avoidant coping, and turning to religion predicted burnout and work engagement of South African hospital pharmacists.Practical implications: Job stressors that are in the main responsible for the unfavourable work environment and that lead to the development of burnout amongst hospital pharmacists should be addressed. It is also important to enhance the coping capabilities of the hospital pharmacists.Contribution/value-add: The findings of this study provide insight into the factors impacting on the work-related well-being of hospital pharmacists in South Africa.

  7. The use of English in South African science

    Jude Edmund Cobbing


    Full Text Available Scientific reports, articles, strategies and plans in South Africa (and elsewhere are often written in unnecessarily confusing, complex and obscure language. While this is often unintended, it can be used by some to assert authority and discourage inquiry or dissent. Specialist styles of writing and jargon used by business, management or socio-economic development professionals are often copied or echoed in other contexts where their meaning is less clear. Although there is some very clear scientific writing in South Africa, confusing and obscure writing is common and may even be a growing problem. This style of writing may act as a barrier to entry for speakers of English as a second language (the majority of South Africans, who must devote extra time to mastering the medium rather than the content of science writing. The problem is even found in some school textbooks aimed specifically at speakers of English as a second language. The various uses of poor language in science in South Africa have unwanted and potentially serious implications, including supporting unwanted power and institutional hierarchies, alienating the general public, confusing decision-makers, hampering efforts towards transformation, discouraging debate, and diverting time and energy away from scientific work and cooperation.

  8. Raman spectroscopic study of ancient South African domestic clay pottery

    Legodi, M. A.; de Waal, D.


    The technique of Raman spectroscopy was used to examine the composition of ancient African domestic clay pottery of South African origin. One sample from each of four archaeological sites including Rooiwal, Lydenburg, Makahane and Graskop was studied. Normal dispersive Raman spectroscopy was found to be the most effective analytical technique in this study. XRF, XRD and FT-IR spectroscopy were used as complementary techniques. All representative samples contained common features, which were characterised by kaolin (Al 2Si 2O 5(OH) 5), illite (KAl 4(Si 7AlO 20)(OH) 4), feldspar (K- and NaAlSi 3O 8), quartz (α-SiO 2), hematite (α-Fe 2O 3), montmorillonite (Mg 3(Si,Al) 4(OH) 2·4.5H 2O[Mg] 0.35), and calcium silicate (CaSiO 3). Gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O) and calcium carbonates (most likely calcite, CaCO 3) were detected by Raman spectroscopy in Lydenburg, Makahane and Graskop shards. Amorphous carbon (with accompanying phosphates) was observed in the Raman spectra of Lydenburg, Rooiwal and Makahane shards, while rutile (TiO 2) appeared only in Makahane shard. The Raman spectra of Lydenburg and Rooiwal shards further showed the presence of anhydrite (CaSO 4). The results showed that South African potters used a mixture of clays as raw materials. The firing temperature for most samples did not exceed 800 °C, which suggests the use of open fire. The reddish brown and grayish black colours were likely due to hematite and amorphous carbon, respectively.

  9. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Multi-dimensional Emotional Empathy Scale in the South African context

    Chantal Olckers


    Full Text Available Orientation: Empathy is a core competency in aiding individuals to address the challenges of social living. An indicator of emotional intelligence, it is useful in a globalising and cosmopolitan world. Moreover, managing staff, stakeholders and conflict in many social settings relies on communicative skills, of which empathy forms a large part. Empathy plays a pivotal role in negotiating, persuading and influencing behaviour. The skill of being able to empathise thus enables the possessor to attune to the needs of clients and employees and provides opportunities to become responsive to these needs.Research purpose: This study attempted to determine the construct validity of the Multi-dimensional Emotional Empathy Scale within the South African context.Motivation for the study: In South Africa, a large number of psychometrical instruments have been adopted directly from abroad. Studies determining the construct validity of several of these imported instruments, however, have shown that these instruments are not suited for use in the South African context.Research design, approach and method: The study was based on a quantitative research method with a survey design. A convenience sample of 212 respondents completed the Multi-dimensional Emotional Empathy Scale. The constructs explored were Suffering, Positive Sharing, Responsive Crying, Emotional Attention, a Feel for Others and Emotional Contagion. The statistical procedure used was a confirmatory factor analysis.Main findings: The study showed that, from a South African perspective, the Multi-dimensional Emotional Empathy Scale lacks sufficient construct validity.Practical/managerial implications: Further refinement of the model would provide valuable information that would aid people to be more appreciative of individual contributions, to meet client needs and to understand the motivations of others.Contribution/value-add: From a South African perspective, the findings of this study are

  10. The Research Foci of Computing Research in South Africa as Reflected by Publications in the South African Computer Journal

    Paula Kotze


    Full Text Available The South African Computer Journal, better known as SACJ, has, for the last nineteen years, been one of the most pertinent publications for the computing discipline within the South African milieu. In this paper we reflect on the topics of research articles published in SACJ over its first 40 volumes of the journal using the ACM Computing Classification Scheme as basis. In our analysis we divided the publications into three cycles of more or less six years in order to identify significant trends over the history of the journal. We also used the same classification scheme to analyse the publication trends of various South African tertiary education and research institutions.

  11. An exploration of stereotype perceptions amongst support staff within a South African higher education institution

    Given R.B. Moloto


    Full Text Available Orientation: After the 1994 democratic elections, South African organisations had to replace discriminatory policies with new policies to integrate all people and to embrace diversity. As a consequence stereotypes may be more prevalent in diverse working environments.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to explore the experience of stereotypes amongst the support staff within a higher education institution.Motivation for this study: Changes within South African working environments, and specifically higher education institutions, resulted in more diverse management teams and a more culturally diverse workforce. With this in mind, the experience of stereotypes may become more prevalent within South African working environments. Many researchers have focused on stereotypes; however, studies on stereotypes within South Africa are limited, especially within higher education institutions. Research approach, design and method: The research approach was qualitative and a case study design was employed. A combination of both quota and convenience sampling was used. The sample consisted of (N = 30 support staff within a higher education institution in South Africa. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data.Main findings: The results indicated that the participants do experience stereotypes within their workplace and also hold stereotypes of other people within their workplace. The most prevalent stereotypes mentioned by participants were age, gender, racial and occupational stereotypes. There is also an indication that stereotypes have cognitive, emotional and behavioural effects on the stereotyped.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should do away with stereotyping by embracing and managing diversity and dealing with stereotypes, specifically within higher education institutions. When managers are aware of stereotypes and the effects thereof in the organisation, they can make every effort to eradicate the stereotypes

  12. Measuring Financial Literacy: Developing and Testing a Measurement Instrument with a Selected Group of South African Military Officers

    Schwella, E.; van Nieuwenhuyzen, Bernard J.


    Are South Africans financially literate, and how can this be measured? Until 2009 there was no South African financial literacy measure and, therefore, the aim was to develop a South African measurement instrument that is scientific, socially acceptable, valid and reliable. To achieve this aim a contextual and conceptual analysis of financial…

  13. Exploring corruption in the South African health sector.

    Rispel, Laetitia C; de Jager, Pieter; Fonn, Sharon


    Recent scholarly attention has focused on weak governance and the negative effects of corruption on the provision of health services. Employing agency theory, this article discusses corruption in the South African health sector. We used a combination of research methods and triangulated data from three sources: Auditor-General of South Africa reports for each province covering a 9-year period; 13 semi-structured interviews with health sector key informants and a content analysis of print media reports covering a 3-year period. Findings from the Auditor-General reports showed a worsening trend in audit outcomes with marked variation across the nine provinces. Key-informants indicated that corruption has a negative effect on patient care and the morale of healthcare workers. The majority of the print media reports on corruption concerned the public health sector (63%) and involved provincial health departments (45%). Characteristics and complexity of the public health sector may increase its vulnerability to corruption, but the private-public binary constitutes a false dichotomy as corruption often involves agents from both sectors. Notwithstanding the lack of global validated indicators to measure corruption, our findings suggest that corruption is a problem in the South African healthcare sector. Corruption is influenced by adverse agent selection, lack of mechanisms to detect corruption and a failure to sanction those involved in corrupt activities. We conclude that appropriate legislation is a necessary, but not sufficient intervention to reduce corruption. We propose that mechanisms to reduce corruption must include the political will to run corruption-free health services, effective government to enforce laws, appropriate systems, and citizen involvement and advocacy to hold public officials accountable. Importantly, the institutionalization of a functional bureaucracy and public servants with the right skills, competencies, ethics and value systems and whose

  14. Prevalence of workplace bullying of South African employees

    Leanri Cunniff


    Full Text Available Orientation: Workplace bullying has negative physical and psychological effects on employees and several negative effects on organisations. Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to determine the prevalence of workplace bullying in South Africa and whether there are differences in employees’ experiences of bullying with regard to socio-demographic characteristics, sense of coherence (SOC and diversity experiences.Motivation for the study: This study intended to draw attention to the implications and negative effects of workplace bullying and to determine whether employees with certain socio-demographic characteristics, SOC levels and diversity experiences experience higher levels of bullying than others do.Research design, approach and method: The researchers used a cross-sectional field survey approach. They used an availability sample (N = 13 911. They computed frequencies to determine the prevalence of workplace bullying and used a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and analyses of variance (ANOVAs to determine the differences between the groups.Main findings: The results showed that 31.1% of the sample had experienced workplace bullying. The researchers found significant differences between all the socio-demographic groups. Participants with higher levels of SOC, and who experienced diversity positively, reported lower levels of workplace bullying.Practical/managerial implications: Employers need to realise that workplace bullying is a common problem amongst South African employees and should ensure that they have the necessary prevention methods.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the limited research on the prevalence of workplace bullying and its relationship with SOC and diversity experiences in the South African workplace.

  15. What do young black South Africans think about AIDS?

    Spurgeon, D


    In South Africa, a fatalistic attitude prevails among young black youth toward prevention of HIV transmission. Many of the 3 million black migrant laborers in single-sex hostels have many partners who are prostitutes. Due to culture, race, and class, black women are so oppressed that they cannot even require sex partners to wear condoms. Blacks perceive condoms as a governmental means to control population growth. The Centre for Health and Social Studies has learned that 14-17 year old blacks have been sexually active for a long time, so it has decided to also market its AIDS prevention program to 11-13 year olds. AIDS has not yet reached epidemic proportions in South Africa, however, and a full scale intervention program implemented between the end of 1992 and mid-1993 could stem the epidemic. The Health and Refugee Trust has developed a data base about the attitudes of South African refugees toward AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. It plans to distribute educational materials to hostels, squatter settlements, and rural communities. The Transport and General Workers Union has also set up an AIDS prevention program since truckers are at high risk of HIV infection. At the end of 1991, 445,000 people in South Africa have been infected with HIV. Heterosexuality is the predominate mode of HIV transmission among blacks, but among whites, it is homosexuality. Educated, affluent whites tend to be knowledge about AIDS and practice safer sex. Among the working class whites, however, knowledge levels are high, but they do not necessarily practice safer sex. Awareness tends to be quite high among blacks, but they do not generally practice safer sex. South Africa and the US are the only 2 developed countries that do not provide health care for all. This weak system limits AIDS prevention efforts. 80% of whites have health insurance compared with only 7% of blacks.

  16. South African foreign policy and China: converging visions, competing interests, contested identities

    Alden, Chris; Wu, Yu-Shan


    South Africa's burgeoning relationship with China exposes the increasing complexities of its post-apartheid international relations. On one hand bilateral relations have deepened since 1998, due to the increasing complementarities with South Africa's foreign policy priorities that emphasise developmental pragmatism and a Southward orientation within the broader African context. On the other hand this relationship emphasises the deeper schisms within South African society itself, where diverge...

  17. Intention to switch to smokeless tobacco use among South African smokers: results from the 2007 South African Social Attitudes Survey.

    Olalekan A Ayo-Yusuf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some smokeless tobacco products (SLT have been shown to be associated with only a fraction of the risks of cigarettes. This study assessed South African smokers' interest in switching to a hypothetical reduced harm SLT product. METHODS: The 2007 South African Social Attitudes Survey was analysed for 678 exclusive cigarette smokers. Respondents were asked about their perceptions about relative harm of snuff compared to cigarettes, and their interest in switching to snuff if informed it was 99% less harmful than cigarettes. RESULTS: About 49.7% of exclusive cigarette smokers believed that snuff was equally as harmful as cigarettes; 12.9% thought snuff was more harmful; 5.7% thought snuff was less harmful; while 31.8% did not know if there was a difference in harm between snuff and cigarettes. Approximately 24.2% of exclusive cigarette smokers indicated interest in switching to snuff, with significantly greater interest observed among those exposed to 100% smoke-free work environment. Interest in switching was highest (34.7% among smokers who believed a priori that using snuff was more harmful than cigarettes, and lowest (14.5% among those who did not know if there was a difference in harm. In a multi-variable adjusted logistic regression model, this latter group remained less likely to be interested in harm reduction switching (adjusted odds ratio = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.19-0.91. CONCLUSION: About a quarter of smokers indicated interest in harm reduction switching to snuff. SLT products have a potential role in reducing the harm from smoking in South Africa, but only if they are not used to circumvent smoke-free laws that have been associated with reduced smoking.

  18. A proposed centralised distribution model for the South African automotive component industry

    Micheline J. Naude


    Full Text Available Purpose: This article explores the possibility of developing a distribution model, similar to the model developed and implemented by the South African pharmaceutical industry, which could be implemented by automotive component manufacturers for supply to independent retailers. Problem Investigated: The South African automotive components distribution chain is extensive with a number of players of varying sizes, from the larger spares distribution groups to a number of independent retailers. Distributing to the smaller independent retailers is costly for the automotive component manufacturers. Methodology: This study is based on a preliminary study of an explorative nature. Interviews were conducted with a senior staff member from a leading automotive component manufacturer in KwaZulu Natal and nine participants at a senior management level at five of their main customers (aftermarket retailers. Findings: The findings from the empirical study suggest that the aftermarket component industry is mature with the role players well established. The distribution chain to the independent retailer is expensive in terms of transaction and distribution costs for the automotive component manufacturer. A proposed centralised distribution model for supply to independent retailers has been developed which should reduce distribution costs for the automotive component manufacturer in terms of (1 the lowest possible freight rate; (2 timely and controlled delivery; and (3 reduced congestion at the customer's receiving dock. Originality: This research is original in that it explores the possibility of implementing a centralised distribution model for independent retailers in the automotive component industry. Furthermore, there is a dearth of published research on the South African automotive component industry particularly addressing distribution issues. Conclusion: The distribution model as suggested is a practical one and should deliver added value to automotive

  19. Sulfuric acid leaching kinetics of South African chromite

    Qing Zhao; Cheng-jun Liu; Pei-yang Shi; Bo Zhang; Mao-fa Jiang; Qing-song Zhang; Ron Zevenhoven; Henrik Saxn


    The sulfuric acid leaching kinetics of South African chromite was investigated. The negative influence of a solid product layer constituted of a silicon-rich phase and chromium-rich sulfate was eliminated by crushing the chromite and by selecting proper leaching con-ditions. The dimensionless change in specific surface area and the conversion rate of the chromite were observed to exhibit a proportional re-lationship. A modified shrinking particle model was developed to account for the change in reactive surface area, and the model was fitted to experimental data. The resulting model was observed to describe experimental findings very well. Kinetics analysis revealed that the leach-ing process is controlled by a chemical reaction under the employed experimental conditions and the activation energy of the reaction is 48 kJ·mol–1.

  20. The history and achievements of the South African Veterinary Association

    Colin M. Cameron


    Full Text Available This article, which was originally designed as a power point presentation, focuses on the role and achievements of the South African Veterinary Association (SAVA. It is an organisation that has fostered functional cohesion not only within the profession, but also with the broader society in providing a socially and economically supportive animal care system. Some major factors that have enabled this achievement include: rational organisational structure of the SAVA; support of the promulgation and implementation of appropriate legislation; pursuance of initial and continued high quality education by various means; effective communication with the public and government bodies; international involvement; continued development of a visionary future to endorse the principle of ‘One World One Health’.

  1. The rarity of coronary heart disease in South African blacks.

    Seftel, H C


    Coronary heart disease (CHD) remains an uncommon disorder in the South African Black population. It has been suggested that herein lies an enigma, since it is believed that these people are considerably exposed to the conventional risk factors for CHD. To test this belief I have assessed the exposure of Black people, in time and degree, to the following CHD risk factors: affluence, age, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, dietary excess, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes, obesity, hyperuricaemia and hyperinsulinism. Among males only hypertension, and among females only hypertension and obesity, emerged as prominent factors. However, neither of these is significantly atherogenic in the social, nutritional and metabolic milieu in which Blacks generally live, and obesity is a doubtful atherogenic factor, even in westernized populations. It is therefore concluded that the rarity of CHD in Blacks is not enigmatic, but is appropriate to their environmental circumstances.

  2. An analysis of the South African fruit logistics infrastructure

    FE van Dyk


    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of a study that was done on the logistics infrastructure used by the South African fruit industry. Given the increasing production and export volumes, development of new markets and the shortage of logistics infrastructure capacity during peak seasons, the SA fruit industry identified the need to investigate the optimal usage of existing infrastructure on a national level and to make recommendations with regards to the development of additional infrastructure. Some background on the SA fresh fruit industry and its export supply chain are provided. This is followed by a description of the four project phases and their deliverables. The paper is concluded with the key findings of the study.

  3. Reproductive ecology of the giant African snail in South Florida

    Roda, Amy; Nachman, Gøsta Støger; Weihman, Scott


    Giant African snail (Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1822)), an important invasive snail, was recently found in South Florida, USA. An extensive eradication effort was initiated consisting of pesticide applications, debris removal and hand collections. We studied the reproduction capacity and population...... dynamics of snails collected from 22 populations for two years to help evaluate the likely success of the eradication program. A total of 23,890 snails, ranging from 25-131 mm, were measured, dissected and the number of eggs in each snail counted. Gravid snails ranged from 48-128 mm. Only 5% of snails had...... eggs, which were found year round. As the snails increased in size, they were more likely to include reproducing individuals. However, the percentage of gravid snails peaked when snails were approximately 90 mm. Although more prevalent, small (

  4. Sentential negation in South African Sign Language: A case study

    Courtney de Barros


    Full Text Available As with other sign languages, South African Sign Language (SASL expresses negation using both manual and non-manual features. In this case study, naturalistic data provided by two native signers of SASL are analysed to show the syntactic relationship between these two sets of features. Using a Principles and Parameters approach and Government and Binding Theory, we investigate the syntactic scope of negation in our SASL data. We observe that side-to-side headshake, as a non-manual feature, appears to be the chief clausal negator in SASL, with a clause-final manual negative particle, NOT, playing a secondary role. We describe the negative headshake as a featural affix which is base-generated in the head of NegP and triggers V-to-Neg raising. The negative particle NOT appears to be base-generated in the Specifier of NegP. Suggestions for further syntactic research on SASL are provided.

  5. Convergence in fertility of South Africans and Mozambicans in rural South Africa, 1993–2009

    Michel Garenne


    Full Text Available Background: Although there are significant numbers of people displaced by war in Africa, very little is known about long-term changes in the fertility of refugees. Refugees of the Mozambican civil war (1977–1992 settled in many neighbouring countries, including South Africa. A large number of Mozambican refugees settled within the Agincourt sub-district, underpinned by a Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance Site (AHDSS, established in 1992, and have remained there. The AHDSS data provide a unique opportunity to study changes in fertility over time and the role that the fertility of self-settled refugee populations plays in the overall fertility level of the host community, a highly relevant factor in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives: To examine the change in fertility of former Mozambican self-settled refugees over a period of 16 years and to compare the overall fertility and fertility patterns of Mozambicans to host South Africans. Design: Prospective data from the AHDSS on births from 1993 to 2009 were used to compare fertility trends and patterns and to examine socio-economic factors that may be associated with fertility change. Results: There has been a sharp decline in fertility in the Mozambican population and convergence in fertility patterns of Mozambican and local South African women. The convergence of fertility patterns coincides with a convergence in other socio-economic factors. Conclusion: The fertility of Mozambicans has decreased significantly and Mozambicans are adopting the childbearing patterns of South African women. The decline in Mozambican fertility has occurred alongside socio-economic gains. There remains, however, high unemployment and endemic poverty in the area and fertility is not likely to decrease further without increased delivery of family planning to adolescents and increased education and job opportunities for women.

  6. Vuvuzelas at South African soccer matches: Risks for spectators′ hearing

    Lebogang Ramma


    Full Text Available South African Premier Soccer League (PSL matches are known worldwide as some of the noisiest recreational events. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to i measure noise levels during different PSL matches; ii measure changes in auditory function after attending PSL matches; and iii determine the factors that increase the risk of overexposure to noise during PSL matches. The study used a descriptive quantitative analytical pre- and post-exposure design. Participants (n = 19, and n = 10 attended two PSL matches. Each participant′s auditory function was assessed using distortion product oto-acoustic emissions (DPOAEs before and after attending a PSL match. Peak and equivalent continuous noise levels as well as noise dose were measured during each match. Noise levels recorded during the poorly attended Match 1 were lesser than those of the well-attended Match 2. Participants attending Match 2 had statistically significant reduction in their DPOAE amplitudes after the match (P = 0.003 than those attending Match 1. Vuvuzela blowers and participants seated within 1 m from them were most at risk of harm to their hearing with significant reduction in DPOAE amplitudes post the match (P = 0.002 and P = 0.008, respectively. It was therefore concluded that noise levels at well-attended South African PSL matches pose a significant risk to spectators′ auditory function as shown by reduced DPOAE amplitude post match attendance. Three risk factors for overexposure to noise during the match were identified: blowing the vuvuzela, close proximity to the individual blowing the vuvuzela as well as spectator turnout at the match.

  7. Sulphur dioxide removal using South African limestone/siliceous materials

    D.O. Ogenga; M.M. Mbarawa; K.T. Lee; A.R. Mohamed; I. Dahlan [Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa)


    This study presents an investigation into the desulfurization effect of sorbent derived from South African calcined limestone conditioned with fly ash. The main aim was to examine the effect of chemical composition and structural properties of the sorbent with regard to SO{sub 2} removal in dry-type flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process. South African fly ash and CaO obtained from calcination of limestone in a laboratory kiln at a temperature of 900{sup o}C were used to synthesize CaO/ash sorbent by atmospheric hydration process. The sorbent was prepared under different hydration conditions: CaO/fly ash weight ratio, hydration temperature (55-75{sup o}C) and hydration period (4-10 h). Desulfurization experiments were done in the fixed bed reactor at 87{sup o}C and relative humidity of 50%. The chemical composition of both the fly ash and calcined limestone had relatively high Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and oxides of other transitional elements which provided catalytic ability during the sorbent sorption process. Generally the sorbents had higher SO{sub 2} absorption capacity in terms of mol of SO{sub 2} per mol of sorbent (0.1403-0.3336) compared to hydrated lime alone (maximum 0.1823). The sorbents were also found to consist of mesoporous structure with larger pore volume and BET specific surface area than both CaO and fly ash. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed the presence of complex compounds containing calcium silicate hydrate in the sorbents. 19 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Measuring the inward FDI potential of South African regions

    W. Krugell


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to construct an index that captures the factors expected to affect a local economy's attractiveness to foreign investors. Problem statement: Following South Africa's reintegration into the world economy in 1994, foreign direct investment has been seen as a potential driver of growth and development. Concerns about the low investment rate in South Africa raise the possibility of augmenting domestic with foreign investment expenditure. The potential of technology spillovers and skills transfer from foreign direct investment have also been emphasised. As a result, Trade and Investment South Africa is involved in identifying, packaging and promoting investment opportunities. However, investments tend to be place-specific and this has lead to the decentralisation of foreign direct investment promotion. Currently the nine provincial development agencies are competing to attract investors and the larger local governments are also getting involved in the fray. This paper argues that some places have better potential to attract foreign investment than others. A first step to use scarce investment promotion resources more efficiently would be to measure the inward FDI potential of South African regions. Approach: This paper uses principal components analysis to construct an index that captures the factors expected to affect a local economy's attractiveness to foreign investors. This approach draws on UNCTAD's Inward FDI Potential Index and applies it to 354 magisterial districts in South Africa for the periods 1996, 2001 and 2006. The index creates a summary measure of FDI potential.Findings: The results show that different places present differential potential in urbanization and localization economies and market size. The high-potential locations are typically found in or around the major agglomerations, but there are a few smaller places on the periphery that offer FDI potential. Contribution: The index should aid

  9. From Policy to Practice: A South-African Perspective on Implementing Inclusive Education Policy

    Naicker, Sigamoney


    The advent of a democracy in South Africa ushered in refreshing changes within the South African context. Given South Africa's dark apartheid history, every policy intervention had to ensure a human rights ethos prevails. Inclusive Education, through the publication of the policy document Education White Paper 6 on Special Needs Education:…

  10. The relationship between employee satisfaction and organisational performance: Evidence from a South African government department

    Chengedzai Mafini


    Full Text Available Orientation: There appears to be a dearth of literature that addresses the relationship between employee satisfaction and organisational performance in South African public organisations. Motivation for the study: This study attempted to contribute to the discourse on the influence of human resources to organisational performance.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between employee satisfaction and organisational performance in a public sector organisation.Research design: A three-section survey questionnaire was used to collect data from a conveniently recruited sample of 272 members of a South African government department. Pearson’s correlation test as well as a regression analysis were employed to test the existence of a relationship between employee satisfaction and organisational performance. The mean score ranking technique was used to compare the impact of the individual employee satisfaction factors on organisational performance.Main findings: Positive correlations were observed between organisational performance and all five employee satisfaction factors, namely working conditions, ability utilisation, creativity, teamwork and autonomy. Amongst the five factors, teamwork had the greatest impact on organisational performance, followed by ability utilisation, creativity, autonomy, with working conditions exerting the least influence.Practical and/or managerial implications: Strategic interventions involving positive adjustments on the five employee satisfaction dimensions examined in this study may be initiated and applied to improve overall organisational performance in public organisations.Contributions and/or value add: The study endorses the notion that a satisfied workforce could be the key to enhanced organisational performance.

  11. Influences on Women’s Choices of Careers in Construction: A South African Study

    Theo Haupt


    Full Text Available  This paper analyses the factors influencing the choices of careers in construction by South African women. The literature on challenges which influence women‟s choices of careers in construction was reviewed and questionnaires were conducted with multiple samples, including construction organisations, construction students and professional women working in construction. The study found that women have a role to play in the construction industry and that they can build successful careers within the sector. However, it was not easy given the various barriers to entry such as gender-based discrimination against them, the harsh work environment of the construction site, the lack of sufficient knowledge about the industry itself and the shortage of successful women in construction as role models. There was evidence of discrimination and sexual harassment. All these factors impacted negatively on the choices of careers in construction by South African women. This study makes a contribution to our understanding of the factors that have marginalised women in a male dominated industry and provides some indication of approaches to attract more women into the sector. It is hoped that it will stimulate debate about how the low representation of women in construction can be addressed and how construction careers for women can be promoted and encouraged and that the resource pool will be enlarged given the prevalent acute skills shortage in the industry.

  12. Influences on Women’s Choices of Careers in Construction: A South African Study

    Kolosa Madikizela


    Full Text Available  This paper analyses the factors influencing the choices of careers in construction by South African women. The literature on challenges which influence women‟s choices of careers in construction was reviewed and questionnaires were conducted with multiple samples, including construction organisations, construction students and professional women working in construction. The study found that women have a role to play in the construction industry and that they can build successful careers within the sector. However, it was not easy given the various barriers to entry such as gender-based discrimination against them, the harsh work environment of the construction site, the lack of sufficient knowledge about the industry itself and the shortage of successful women in construction as role models. There was evidence of discrimination and sexual harassment. All these factors impacted negatively on the choices of careers in construction by South African women. This study makes a contribution to our understanding of the factors that have marginalised women in a male dominated industry and provides some indication of approaches to attract more women into the sector. It is hoped that it will stimulate debate about how the low representation of women in construction can be addressed and how construction careers for women can be promoted and encouraged and that the resource pool will be enlarged given the prevalent acute skills shortage in the industry.  

  13. The Adoption and Challenges of Electronic Voting Technologies Within the South African Context

    Mourine Achieng


    Full Text Available Literature has shown that countries such as Braziland India have successfully implemented electronicvoting systems and other countries are at various piloting stages to address many challenges associatedwith manual paper based system such ascosts of physical ballot paper and other overheads, electoraldelays, distribution of electoral materials, and general lack of confidence in the electoral process.It is inthis context that this study explores how South African can leverage the opportunities that e-votingpresents. Manual voting is often tedious, non-secure, and time-consuming, which leads us to think aboutusing electronic facilities to make the process more efficient. This study proposes that the adoptionofelectronic voting technologies could perhaps mitigate some of these issues and challengesin the processimproving the electoral process. The study used anon-line questionnaire which was administered to abroader group of voters and an in-depth semi-structured interview with the Independent ElectoralCommission officials. The analysis is based on thematic analysis and diffusion of innovations theory isadopted as a theoretical lens of analysis. The findings reveal that relative advantage, compatibilityandcomplexity would determine the intentions of SouthAfrican voters and the Electoral Management Bodies(IEC to adopt e-voting technologies. Moreover, thefindings also reveal several other factorsthat couldinfluence the adoption process. The study is limited to only voters in Cape Town and these voters wereexpected to have some access to the internet. The sample size limits the generalizability of the findings ofthis study.

  14. The Legislative Framework Regarding Bullying In South African Schools

    Annelie Laas


    Full Text Available Bullying in schools is a global phenomenon that has the potential to impact on children not only physically but also psychologically. In South Africa countless children fall victim to bullying, harassment and abuse at schools. A myriad of constitutional rights are infringed upon when bullying occurs, and the problem is escalating. The Protection from Harassment Act 71 of 2011 was signed and accepted into law on the 27th of April 2013. This new Act may grant relief to victims of bullying inter alia by providing for protection orders, and therefore adds to the legislative framework available to victims. However, in terms of bullying in schools, the parties to these incidents are minors and therefore a critical analysis is necessary with regard to the rights of the victim and the offender. In this context the relationship and interaction between the Protection from Harassment Act 71 of 2011, the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008, the Children's Act 38 of 2005 and the South African Schools Act 84 of 1996 call for critical analysis.

  15. Quantitation of ochratoxin A in South African wines.

    Shephard, Gordon S; Fabiani, Alessandra; Stockenström, Sonja; Mshicileli, Ndumiso; Sewram, Vikash


    The natural occurrence of the carcinogenic mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) in wines sold in local retail outlets in South Africa and Italy was investigated by HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection following cleanup by immunoaffinity column. All 24 local South African wines tested (15 white and 9 red) were found to contain detectable levels (>0.01 microg/L) of OTA, with a mean of 0.16 microg/L in the white wines and a mean of 0.24 microg/L in the red wines. Results were subsequently confirmed by LC-MS analysis using positive ion electrospray ionization with collision-induced dissociation of the protonated molecular ion [M + H](+) at m/z 404 and selected reaction monitoring of the resultant product ions [M + H - H(2)O - CO](+) at m/z 358 and [M + H - H(2)O](+) at m/z 386. Comparison with the fluorescence method gave a significant correlation (r = 0.87; p wine was 0.39 microg/L in a blend of local and imported Spanish red wine. Of the eight Italian wines analyzed, only two red wines were contaminated above the suggested maximum level.

  16. Attrition of undergraduate nursing students at selected South African universities

    Erna Roos


    Full Text Available Background: The nursing profession forms the backbone of many healthcare systems. It therefore needs a consistent supply of registered nurses to deliver continuous and safe quality healthcare, and to replace the nurses leaving or retiring from the profession. Attrition actively occurs among nursing students in South Africa and threatens the future supply of registered nurses. Aim: The aim of the study was to describe the attrition rate at selected South African universities and the factors influencing undergraduate nursing students to discontinue their nursing studies at these universities. Method: A quantitative descriptive design was followed. Heads of the nursing departments at the selected universities captured data with a specifically designed questionnaire. Thereafter their former nursing students provided information via a structured telephonic interview on the reasons why they discontinued the nursing programme. Results: The study revealed that attrition of undergraduate nursing students for three intake years (2007, 2008 and 2009 at the participating universities was between 39.3% and 58.7%. Academic and financial reasons as well as poor wellness and health were the main causes for attrition. Another factor was failure to cope with the demands of the clinical environment. Conclusion: Attrition might not occur immediately when a nursing student is challenged, as the student might exploit the various types of support offered. Although some nursing students do benefit from the offered support, a large number of nursing students still discontinue the undergraduate nursing programme.

  17. Mechanisms for inspiring action in South African youth

    Cara E. Waller


    Full Text Available Many young people in South Africa are in the process of transforming their country. To positively contribute to the development agenda, young people need the skills and capacity to bring about change and set themselves apart as leaders. This retrospective, mixed-method evaluation study provides insight into the multi-level mechanisms that allow young South Africans opportunities to grow personally and to take action on issues of significance.  Results show that development of three non-cognitive competencies (grit, growth mindset, and self-efficacy was integral to starting (and finishing a social action project. Social support, social capital and teamwork were also critical mechanisms – while school location, socioeconomic status and gender were not. Non-cognitive competency development is integral to this research as there is evidence that building these skills promotes leadership which creates a bias to action.  This article reflects on the implications for effective youth development program design and the youth leadership sector more generally.

  18. A synopsis of South African psychology from apartheid to democracy.

    Cooper, Saths


    In this concatenated overview, the development of psychology in South Africa is traced from its origins in the late 19th century to the present. The seminal influences on the science and practice of psychology of the racialized polity and the responses to the prevailing regimen are also explored. The significant events in the patinated layers of psychological discourse and consequent policies in these constrained circumstances are traversed. Despite the nonracial era occasioned by the formation of the Psychological Society of South Africa three months before the advent of democracy under Nelson Mandela in 1994, the profession of psychology remains demographically skewed. Nevertheless, psychology in the current democratic dispensation enjoys a high profile and is actively engaged in ongoing and reflexive self-examination to ensure that it is more accessible and truly serves humanity. If Africa is psychology's last frontier, the critical denouement of the various issues confronting psychology in the southern tip of the African continent will provide a positive growth path that is likely to merit attention beyond its borders.

  19. Poor consistency in evaluating South African adults with neurogenic dysphagia

    Mckinley Andrews


    Full Text Available Background: Speech-language therapists are specifically trained in clinically evaluating swallowing in adults with acute stroke. Incidence of dysphagia following acute stroke is high in South Africa, and health implications can be fatal, making optimal management of this patient population crucial. However, despite training and guidelines for best practice in clinically evaluating swallowing in adults with acute stroke, there are low levels of consistency in these practice patterns.Objective: The aim was to explore the clinical practice activities of speech-language therapists in the clinical evaluation of swallowing in adults with acute stroke. Practice activities reviewed included the use and consistency of clinical components and resources utilised. Clinical components were the individual elements evaluated in the clinical evaluation of swallowing (e.g. lip seal, vocal quality, etc.Methods: The questionnaire used in the study was replicated and adapted from a study increasing content- and criterion-related validity. A narrative literature review determined what practice patterns existed in the clinical evaluation of swallowing in adults. A pilot study was conducted to increase validity and reliability. Purposive sampling was used by sending a self-administered, electronic questionnaire to members of the South African Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Thirty-eight participants took part in the study. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data and the small qualitative component was subjected to textual analysis.Results: There was high frequency of use of 41% of the clinical components in more than 90% of participants (n = 38. Less than 50% of participants frequently assessed sensory function and gag reflex and used pulse oximetry, cervical auscultation and indirect laryngoscopy. Approximately a third of participants showed high (30.8%, moderate (35.9% and poor (33.3% consistency of practice each. Nurses, food and liquids and

  20. Recent Developments Regarding South African Common and Customary Law

    MC Schoeman-Malan


    Full Text Available This article will concentrate on the development in the common law of succession and administration of estates versus the customary law of succession and inheritance as well as the winding up of estates pursuant to constitutional tendencies, case law, and statutory reform over the last ten years. The principles of customary law of succession and inheritance have become a contentious issue since the commencement of the Constitution and Bill of Rights which provide for a human rights dispensation in South Africa. As a pluralistic legal system was retained, the inevitable conflict between the principles of customary law of succession and the Constitution soon came to the fore. Although the South African Law Reform Commission reported on this issue and submitted their recommendations to the Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development, the report was never formally published. Aspects of intestate succession and the administration of estates of deceased blacks were challenged in court on constitutional grounds. This eventually lead to a number of principles of customary law being declared unconstitutional, and consequently invalid, by the Courts who had no choice but to provide relief until such time as the legislature enacted a lasting solution. As far as the intestate succession is concerned, the Intestate Succession Act 81 of 1987 was extended to all persons in South Africa, including those adhering to a system of customary law. No distinction will, for purposes of succession, be made in future between legitimate and illegitimate children, between a first born son and other siblings or between men and women. Notwithstanding several court judgments in this regard, the Intestate Succession Act has not been amended by the Legislature as yet. As far as the historical discrepancy in the winding up and administration of estates is concerned, all estates, including intestate estates of black persons that have to devolve under customary law, in the

  1. A new energy future for South Africa: The political ecology of South African renewable energy

    Krupa, Joel, E-mail: [University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom); Burch, Sarah [University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom)


    Renewable energy remains a contested topic in South Africa. This paper argues that South Africa can build on the momentum surrounding its introduction of a feed-in tariff by enacting policies that may, if given adequate funding and political effort, allow the country to be a world leader in renewable energy. Given a variety of renewable energy policy options for moving forward, a majority of stakeholders consulted in this study strongly prefer the development of a renewable energy manufacturing cluster, in which government develops coordinated policy mechanisms that attract renewable energy manufacturers, over three other policies suggested by the authors. Interviews with key informants that play critical roles in this decision-making process suggest that there are reasons to remain cautiously optimistic about the country's renewable energy future while cognizant of the challenges that must still be overcome. Opportunities for a low carbon renewable energy transition in South Africa include the prevalence of broad stakeholder consultation, facilitated by civil society, and an innovative policy development context. Significant impediments also exist, however, and include pervasive social issues such as poverty and political inertia, along with the ongoing difficulties facing renewable energy technologies in reaching grid parity with inexpensive and abundant South African coal. - Highlights: > Numerous opportunities exist for a low carbon energy transition in South Africa. > Stakeholders in study prefer development of a renewable energy manufacturing cluster. > Significant impediments still exist, including grid parity, poverty, and inequality.


    Murdoch Watney


    demands of sophisticated international criminal conduct. Mutual legal assistance and extradition provisions may show that the world is becoming smaller for fugitives and criminals, but the processes are far from expeditious and seamless. An overview of the South African law pertaining to mutual legal assistance and extradition indicates that the South African legislative framework and policies as well as international treaties make sufficient provision to render international assistance in respect of mutual legal assistance and extradition. The role of the courts in upholding the rule of law and protecting the constitutionally enshrined bill of rights, is indicative of the important function that the judiciary fulfills in this regard. It is important that extradition is not only seen as the function of the executive as it also involves the judiciary. It appears that South Africa has displayed the necessary commitment to normalize its international position since 1994 and to fulfill its obligations in a globalized world by reaching across borders in an attempt to address international criminal conduct.

  3. Learning, Upgrading, Innovation in the South African Automotive Industry

    Barnes, Justin; Lorentzen, Jochen


    , their internal upgrading and R&D agenda, and their interface with South Africa's national innovation system (NIS). The analysis makes use of eight case studies, and illustrates the conditions under which indigenous innovation in the automotive industries can happen in a developing country. This finding......This paper addresses the innovation activities of automotive component manufacturers in South Africa. It looks at the technological trajectory of a handful of firms that stand out from the crowd and analyses the results of their endeavours in the context of their interaction with foreign capital...... contradicts at least part of the conventional wisdom concerning the location of innovation activities in global car value chains. Results also point to a deficient NIS insofar as there appears to be a disjuncture between the demand for engineering competence in the manufacturing sector on the one hand...


    Robert T. Hans


    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this research study is two-fold: Firstly, to establish the knowledge base of project managers in the South African ICT Sector. Secondly, to establish whether project management as a discipline is regarded as an important profession in the South African ICT Sector. The paper based on a questionnaire analyses and discusses the knowledge base of project managers of ICT organisations listed on the Johannesburg Securities Exchange (JSE as well as the perceived importance of project management in the South African ICT Sector. The project managers lack some project management knowledge base in some of the nine categories of competencies. This confirms some of the findings by Rwelamila (2007 that project management training programmes offered by institutions of higher learning in South Africa are skewed. This paper also established that the organisations in the South African ICT Sector recognise project management as an important profession. The lack of some project management fundamental knowledge base by project managers necessitate that the organisations concerned should implement some of the following: review project management training programmes and implement mentoring and coaching programmes. This article reveals the knowledge base gaps of project managers in the South African ICT Sector. It also reveals whether project management is regarded as an important profession by organisations in the South African ICT Sector. It complements another research study done by Rwelamila (2007 in South Africa. It is directed to the South African organisations in the ICT Sector as well as institutions of higher learning in South Africa that offer project management training programmes.

  5. Poverty, malnutrition, underdevelopment and cardiovascular disease: a South African perspective.

    Vorster, H H; Kruger, A


    This article explores possible mechanisms to explain the known relationships between poverty, undernutrition, underdevelopment and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in developing countries. Poverty is a multidimensional concept. It is both a cause and consequence of undernutrition. The article shows how malnutrition during pregnancy could lead to low birth-weight babies, who are not only at increased risk of mental and physical underdevelopment, but also 'programmed' to be at increased risk of CVD and other non-communicable diseases in adult life. The underdevelopment leads to decreased 'human capital and competence' with an inability to create food security and an enabling environment for self and family to escape poverty and undernutrition in the next generation. It is accepted that a lack of education and knowledge in the poor for primary prevention of CVD through healthy eating patterns and lifestyles, as well as limited access to healthcare services for secondary prevention and treatment contribute to CVD. This article postulates that the link between poverty and CVD in South Africa can be explained by the high prevalence of undernutrition in one- to nine year- old children (9% underweight, 23% stunted and 3% wasted), the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults (54.5% in white men and 58.5% in African women) as well as the negative trends in nutrient intakes when Africans (the population group with the largest numbers of poor people) urbanise, acculturate and adopt westernised eating patterns that will increase CVD risk. In conclusion, we plead for a holistic, integrated but transdisciplinary and multisectorial approach to break the vicious circle of poverty and undernutrition for the longterm prevention of CVD.

  6. Capacity Building in South African Astronomy and Astrophysics

    McGruder, Charles H.; Dunsby, Peter; Whitelock, Patricia; Norris, Lawrence; Assamagan, Ketevi; Holbrook, Jarita; Imara, Nia; Oluseyi, Hakeem; Medupe, Thebe


    South Africa (SA) has had great success in creating major astronomical facilities - SALT, KAT and MeerKAT. However, the existing SA astronomical community is almost entirely white. The lack of black scientists (80% of SA population is black) is obviously one of the many legacies of apartheid and a major initiative was required to rectify the situation. The National Astrophysics and Space Science Program (NASSP) is aimed at ensuring the development of high level physics skills within SA, and specifically takes graduates with bachelor's degrees in math or the physical sciences and prepares them to do PhDs in astrophysics and related disciplines. However, in 2003 when NASSP was established, there were no black SA astronomers, who could act as role models and mentors. This jeopardized the chances of success of NASSP and with it astronomy in SA. An American organization, the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) received a $355,000 grant from the WK Kellogg Foundation to increase the number of black SA astronomers. It enabled African American scientists - both professionals and students - to participate in NASSP. The African American professionals taught NASSP courses and acted as role models and mentors. The project was an overwhelming success. From its beginning in 2003, the NASSP honors program graduates have gone on to a Master's or PhD program at a rate of 60% (USA rate: 35%). American participation started in 2008. In the very next year the number of black students jumped dramatically, reaching 80% in 2013 and this level continued in 2010-2014. We believe this increase and its maintenance is in large part due to bringing black SA students from SA historically black colleges for two weeks to expose them to astronomy, to a one year program to allow them to catch up academically and to the mentoring activities of the members of NSBP.

  7. The Challenges of Underweight and Overweight in South African Children: Are We Winning or Losing the Battle? A Systematic Review

    Makama Andries Monyeki


    Full Text Available Underweight and overweight are adverse effects of malnutrition and both are associated with negative health consequences in children and adolescents. In South Africa, the burden of economic and social disparity coexists with malnutrition in children. The purpose of this study was to review available South Africa studies regarding the comprehensive summary of prevalence of underweight and overweight and evaluates government policies in addressing undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children and adolescents. We searched subject-specific electronic bibliographic databases of observational studies published on malnutrition, undernutrition, overnutrition, underweight and overweight in South African boys and girls from birth to 20 years of age in studies published on or after 1990. A total of sixteen cross-sectional, three longitudinal studies and one report met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Descriptive data synthesis revealed the small number of longitudinal studies highlights the dearth of research in tracking undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children. In this review, 0.7%–66% of underweight was reported among children in rural areas compared to a 3.1%–32.4% of overweight in urban areas. All studies reported a higher rate of underweight in boys than girls who were significantly more likely to have higher body fat. The data indicated that both underweight and overweight were positively related with health-related physical activity and psychological health problems such as low activity, low fitness, low self-image and self-esteem. Numerous recommendations were made in the reviewed studies, however effective strategic programs in eradicating both underweight and overweight are minimal. It is evident from the reviewed studies that the burden of underweight and overweight are still a problem in South African children. The most highly affected by underweight are rural children, while children in urban areas

  8. African Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Relevance of Higher Education in South Africa

    Kaya, Hassan O.; Seleti, Yonah N.


    The higher education system in Africa and South Africa in particular, is still too academic and distant from the developmental challenges of African local communities. The integration of African indigenous knowledge systems (AIKS) into the higher educational system could improve its relevance. This is due to the holistic, community-based nature…

  9. Teachers' Exodus in South African Schools: A Smoke with Burning Fire

    Lumadi, Mutendwahothe Walter


    African teachers in general and South Africans in particular face tremendous challenges, several of which are curriculum related. These challenges manifest themselves at various levels and in various areas, that is, from national level to within the classroom. There are various role players who may make a contribution towards overcoming these…

  10. Black economic empowerment in the South African coal industry



    South Africa has experienced great change and progress in the ten years since the end of apartheid and the inauguration of its first democratic government. Back in 1994, many were concerned about whether such a young and fragile democracy could survive. The new government needed to unify the country, while bringing about the significant change necessary to address the massive racial inequality at the heart of the apartheid system. The article explains actions and initiatives taken under the Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) programme, one of which is the establishment of Eyesizwe Coal. 2 figs., 1 photo.

  11. Colonialism, Biko and AIDS: reflections on the principle of beneficence in South African medical ethics.

    Braude, Hillel David


    This paper examines the principle of beneficence in the light of moral and epistemological concerns that have crystallized in the South African context around clinical care. Three examples from the South African experience affecting the development of bioethics are examined: medical colonialism, the death in detention of Steve Biko, and the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Michael Gelfand's book [(1948). The sick African: a clinical study. Cape Town: Stewart Printing Company.] on African medical conditions captures the ambiguous nature of colonial medicine that linked genuine medical treatment with the civilizing mission. Biko's death was a key historical event that deeply implicated the medical profession under apartheid. The present HIV/AIDS epidemic presents the gravest social and political crisis for South African society. All three experiences influence the meaning and relevance of beneficence as a bioethics principle in the South African context. This paper argues for a South African bioethics informed by a critical humanism that takes account of the colonial past, and that does not model itself on an "original wound" or negation, but on positive care-giving practices.

  12. Tourists' perceptions on whether South African national parks are environmentally friendly


    The increasing number of tourists to South African national parks raises concern about the effect these tourists have on the environment. This article aims to investigate how SANParks manage environmentally friendly South African national parks in order to reduce the impact of tourism on the environment. To examine these concerns, a survey was conducted to measure tourists’ perceptions of the environmental impacts of tourism in these parks. A web-based survey was carried out via the official ...

  13. A qualitative exploration of the influence of heavy metal music on South African

    Mulder, Bianca Simone


    This mini-dissertation presents a discussion of the qualitative study exploring how South African youth, between the ages of 18 and 35, who are active listeners of Heavy Metal music experience this genre of music. The sample in the present study consists of 26 South African youths, living in various parts of the country, who listen to Heavy Metal music. Participants were recruited from attendees of the Heavy Metal music festival, Witchfest, which took place in Newtown, Johannesburg during 3-5...

  14. Critically examining language bias in the South African adaptation of the WAIS-III

    Cheryl D Foxcroft; Susan Aston


    In response to the growing demand for a test of cognitive ability for South African adults, the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) adapted the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, third edition (WAIS-III) for Englishspeaking South Africans. The standardisation sample included both first and second language English speakers who were either educated largely in English or Afrikaans. The purpose of this article is to critically examine the adaptation process undertaken by the HSRC when standar...

  15. The Impact of the Great Migration on Mortality of African Americans: Evidence from the Deep South

    Black, Dan A.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Evan J.


    The Great Migration—the massive migration of African Americans out of the rural South to largely urban locations in the North, Midwest, and West—was a landmark event in U.S. history. Our paper shows that this migration increased mortality of African Americans born in the early twentieth century South. This inference comes from an analysis that uses proximity of birthplace to railroad lines as an instrument for migration. PMID:26345146

  16. An analysis of the financial reporting compliance of South African public agricultural companies


    M.Com. (International Accounting) This minor dissertation assesses the extent to which South African public companies that are engaged in agricultural activities are complying with the recognition, measurement and disclosure requirements of IAS 41, Agriculture, as well as whether they are providing any additional voluntary disclosures about their biological assets. Sixteen large South African public companies with material holdings of biological assets in their statements of financial posi...

  17. "America's Mandela": South African responses to the rise of Barack Obama

    10187987 - Du Pisani, Jacobus Adriaan; Kim, Kwangsu


    In this article reactions in the South African media to the emergence of Barack Obama as contender in the 2008 US presidential election, then as official Democratic Party presidential candidate and then as US President-elect are analysed. The context of US-SA relations is sketched first to highlight the type of issues of US-SA relations that would be important for South Africans.Then the opinions of politicians, economists, editors, academics and letter-writers representing the pu...

  18. An exploration of stereotype perceptions amongst support staff within a South African higher education institution

    Given R.B. Moloto; Lizelle Brink; J. Alewyn Nel


    Orientation: After the 1994 democratic elections, South African organisations had to replace discriminatory policies with new policies to integrate all people and to embrace diversity. As a consequence stereotypes may be more prevalent in diverse working environments.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to explore the experience of stereotypes amongst the support staff within a higher education institution.Motivation for this study: Changes within South African working environ...

  19. The Universal Jurisdiction of South African Criminal Courts and Immunities of Foreign State Officials



    Full Text Available Under the "complementarity" regime of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC, the jurisdiction of the ICC is secondary to the jurisdiction of domestic courts. States Parties, not the ICC, have the primary responsibility of investigating and prosecuting international crimes. The ICC acts only when States are "unable" or "unwilling" to prosecute. As a State Party, in order to give effect to the complementarity principle, South Africa enacted the Implementation of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Act 27 of 2002, which determines the modalities of prosecuting perpetrators of the crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes in South African courts. The Implementation Act also provides that South African courts will have jurisdiction over these crimes not only when they are committed on the territory of South Africa but also when they are committed outside the Republic. By granting South African courts jurisdiction over a person who commits a crime outside the Republic when that person is later found on South African territory, without regard to that person's nationality or the nationality of the victims, the Implementation Act empowers South African courts with universal jurisdiction over international crimes. This paper seeks to determine whether and to what extent foreign State officials, such as foreign heads of State, heads of government and ministers of foreign affairs, can plead immunity when they are accused of international crimes before South African courts when exercising their universal jurisdiction in terms of the Implementation Act and in accordance with the complementarity regime of the Rome Statute. In other words, the article endeavours to determine whether international law rules regarding immunities of State officials may or may not limit the ability of South African courts to exercise universal jurisdiction over international crimes committed in foreign States.

  20. Pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis in a South African population

    Gibwa Cole


    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB remains a problem of epidemic proportions. Despite evidence demonstrating persistent lung impairment after PTB cure, few population-based South African studies have investigated this finding. Pulmonary rehabilitation post-cure is not routinely received.Objectives: To determine the effects of PTB on lung function in adults with current or past PTB. To determine any association between PTB and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Methods: This study was observational and cross-sectional in design. Participants (n = 55 were included if they were HIV positive on treatment, had current PTB and were on treatment, and/or had previous PTB and completed treatment or if they were healthy adult subjects with no history of PTB. A sample of convenience was used with participants coming from a similar socio-economic background and undergoing spirometry testing. Multiple regression analyses were conducted on each lung function variable.Results: Compared to normal percentage-predicted values, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 , forced vital capacity (FVC and FEV1 :FVC were significantly reduced in those with current PTB by 23.39%, 15.99% and 6.4%, respectively. Both FEV1 and FVC were significantly reduced in those with past PTB by 11.76% and 10.79%, respectively. There was no association between PTB and COPD – those with previous PTB having a reduced FEV1 :FVC (4.88% less than the norm, which was just short of significance (p = 0.059.Conclusions: Lung function is reduced both during and after treatment for PTB and these deficits may persist. This has implications regarding the need for pulmonary rehabilitation even after medical cure.Keywords: Lung function, pulmonary, tuberculosis

  1. The link between poverty and malnutrition: A South African perspective

    Hester (Esté H. Vorster


    Full Text Available

    In this article, a brief review of the nutritional problems in South Africa, as well as the intergenerational, vicious cycle of poverty and malnutrition, are used to argue for the necessity of including a nutrition intervention component in poverty alleviation programmes. It is concluded that this cycle can be broken by improving the nutritional status of women in their productive years, whereby foetalmalnutrition, arrested mental development and physical stunting in children, adolescents and adults can be prevented. The result will be an improvement in human capital, health and productivity with the ultimate aim of escaping poverty as suggested by the seven principles of Solomons(2005.

    In hierdie artikel word ’n kort oorsig van die voedingsprobleme in Suid-Afrika sowel as die noodlottige siklus van wanvoeding en armoede wat oor generasies strek, gebruik om aan te voer dat dit noodsaaklik is om ’n voedingsintervensie-komponent in programme gemik op die verligting van armoede in te sluit. Daar word tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die siklus gebreek kan word as die voedingstatus van vroue in hulle voortplantingsjare verbeter word. Hierdie verbetering sal fetale wanvoeding, sowel as belemmerde groei en kognitiewe ontwikkeling van kinders, adolessente en volwassenes voorkom. Die gevolg sal ’n verbetering van menskapitaal, verbeterde gesondheid en verhoogde produktiwiteit wees, met die uiteindelike doel om armoede te ontsnap soos voorgestel deur die sewe beginsels van Solomons (2005.

    How to cite this article:
    Vorster, H.H., ‘The link between poverty and malnutrition: A South African perspective’, Health SA Gesondheid 15(1, Art #435, 6 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hsag.v15i1.435

  2. Wildlife tuberculosis in South African conservation areas: implications and challenges.

    Michel, A L; Bengis, R G; Keet, D F; Hofmeyr, M; Klerk, L M de; Cross, P C; Jolles, A E; Cooper, D; Whyte, I J; Buss, P; Godfroid, J


    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, was first diagnosed in African buffalo in South Africa's Kruger National Park in 1990. Over the past 15 years the disease has spread northwards leaving only the most northern buffalo herds unaffected. Evidence suggests that 10 other small and large mammalian species, including large predators, are spillover hosts. Wildlife tuberculosis has also been diagnosed in several adjacent private game reserves and in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the third largest game reserve in South Africa. The tuberculosis epidemic has a number of implications, for which the full effect of some might only be seen in the long-term. Potential negative long-term effects on the population dynamics of certain social animal species and the direct threat for the survival of endangered species pose particular problems for wildlife conservationists. On the other hand, the risk of spillover infection to neighboring communal cattle raises concerns about human health at the wildlife-livestock-human interface, not only along the western boundary of Kruger National Park, but also with regards to the joint development of the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area with Zimbabwe and Mozambique. From an economic point of view, wildlife tuberculosis has resulted in national and international trade restrictions for affected species. The lack of diagnostic tools for most species and the absence of an effective vaccine make it currently impossible to contain and control this disease within an infected free-ranging ecosystem. Veterinary researchers and policy-makers have recognized the need to intensify research on this disease and the need to develop tools for control, initially targeting buffalo and lion.

  3. A strategic framework for biodiversity monitoring in South African National Parks

    Melodie A. McGeoch


    Full Text Available Protected areas are under increasing threat from a range of external and internal pressures on biodiversity. With a primary mandate being the conservation of biodiversity, monitoring is an essential component of measuring the performance of protected areas. Here we present a framework for guiding the structure and development of a Biodiversity Monitoring System (BMS for South African National Parks (SANParks. Monitoring activities in the organisation are currently unevenly distributed across parks, taxa and key concerns: they do not address the full array of biodiversity objectives, and have largely evolved in the absence of a coherent, overarching framework. The requirement for biodiversity monitoring in national parks is clearly specified in national legislation and international policy, as well as by SANParks’ own adaptive management philosophy. Several approaches available for categorising the multitude of monitoring requirements were considered in the development of the BMS, and 10 Biodiversity Monitoring Programmes (BMPs were selected that provide broad coverage of higher-level biodiversity objectives of parks. A set of principles was adopted to guide the development of BMPs (currently underway, and data management, resource and capacity needs will be considered during their development. It is envisaged that the BMS will provide strategic direction for future investment in this core component of biodiversity conservation and management in SANParks. Conservation implications: Monitoring biodiversity in protected areas is essential to assessing their performance. Here we provide a coordinated framework for biodiversity monitoring in South African National Parks. The proposed biodiversity monitoring system addresses the broad range of park management plan derived biodiversity objectives.

  4. Research vulnerability: an illustrative case study from the South African mining industry.

    Horn, Lyn


    The concept of 'vulnerability' is well established within the realm of research ethics and most ethical guidelines include a section on 'vulnerable populations'. However, the term 'vulnerability', used within a human research context, has received a lot of negative publicity recently and has been described as being simultaneously 'too broad' and 'too narrow'. The aim of the paper is to explore the concept of research vulnerability by using a detailed case study - that of mineworkers in post-apartheid South Africa. In particular, the usefulness of Kipnis's taxonomy of research vulnerability will be examined. In recent years the volume of clinical research on human subjects in South Africa has increased significantly. The HIV and TB pandemics have contributed to this increase. These epidemics have impacted negatively on the mining industry; and mining companies have become increasingly interested in research initiatives that address these problems. This case study explores the potential research vulnerability of mineworkers in the context of the South African mining industry and examines measures that can reduce this vulnerability.

  5. Critical success factors for business intelligence in the South African financial services sector

    Lionel Dawson


    Full Text Available Background: Business intelligence (BI has become an important part of the solution to providing businesses with the vital decision-making information they need to ensure sustainability and to build shareholder value. Critical success factors (CSFs provide insight into those factors that organisations need to address to improve new BI projects’ chances of success.Objectives: This research aimed to determine which CSFs are the most important in the financial services sector of South Africa.Method: The authors used a Delphi-technique approach with key project stakeholders in three BI projects in different business units of a leading South African financial services group.Results: Authors regarded CSF categories of ‘committed management support and champion’,‘business vision’, ‘user involvement’ and ‘data quality’ as the most critical for BI success.Conclusions: Researchers in the BI field should note that the ranking of CSFs in this study only correlate partially with those a European study uncovered. However, the five factors the authors postulated in their theoretical framework ranked in the seven highest CSFs. Therefore, they provide a very strong validation of the framework. Research in other industries and other emerging economies may discover similar differences and partial similarities. Of special interest would be the degree of correlation between this study and future, and similar emerging market studies. Practitioners, especially BI project managers, would do well to check that they address the CSFs the authors uncovered before undertaking BI projects.

  6. The impact of spinal cord injury on South African youth

    E. Njoki


    Full Text Available Approximately 500 South Africans, mainly young people,sustain a spinal cord injury every year leading to severe lifetime physical disabilities. With advances in medicine and assistive technology, these young people are able to reach adulthood. The physical, social and  emotional adjustments, which determine the eventual successful outcome following injury, vary considerably from person to person. Some make satisfactory adjustments whereas others remain chronically distressed.This study aimed to determine the impact of SCI on youth in community settings after discharge from rehabilitation.  A qualitative approach, that utilised face-to-face interviews and focus group methods of data collection, was used. Data were drawn from ten participants selected at Conradie Spinal Rehabilitation Unit, using purposive sampling. Audiotape recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim. Strong themes that ran through the data were identified. The results of the study revealed that spinal cord injury impacts on more than just the physical capabilities of an individual. Participants identified issues such as social identity, intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, social support and employment opportunities as having a major impact on their lives once back in the community.  It is  recommended that rehabilitation professionals include issues such as identity and psychosocial adjustment into their health promotion interventions.

  7. Use of online knowledge resources by prominent South African researchers

    Reinhold Treptow


    Full Text Available The growth in online knowledge resources has transformed information securing practices and effects have been especially pronounced for scientific journals. It has therefore become increasingly necessary to understand researchers’ information search and securing preferences. Leading South African researchers were indentified and invited to participate in a web- based survey to this end. Results indicate that electronic resources are favoured for journal articles, but not for books, and researchers commonly employ chaining and browsing behaviour to locate relevant journal articles. Full-text journals are favoured by researchers to undertake searches. These are favoured over other bibliographic databases and other federated searches (Google, Google Scholar and MetaLib. Analyses of the coverage of top rated journals by the two top rated full- text databases EBSCOhost and ScienceDirect reveals significantly lower coverage when compared with the coverage of top journals by the citation databases Scopus and Web of Science. Researchers should therefore make greater use of these resources to effectively locate relevant material.

  8. IYA2009 in Africa: A South African perspective

    Govender, K.


    In Africa the stars have always been a part of people's everyday lives, be it in the form of folklore, superstition or even agricultural indicators. Modern astronomy, however, has not been very widespread, with only a few African countries having sufficient facilities or academics to support a modern astronomical community. The International Year of Astronomy serves not only as an opportunity to boost these astronomical communities, but also to celebrate the rich history and culture that has existed for thousands of years. On this, the poorest continent, with so many millions living in rural areas, there is one glaring advantage over other continents - people's abundant access to a dark night sky. We would like to see 2009 as the year that everyone in Africa, no matter what their background or lifestyle, turn their heads to the skies in appreciation of the beauty of the Universe, in celebration of their cultural heritage, and in the hope that they are inspired to overcome harsh challenges that this small planet and its occupants may have placed on them. It is an opportunity not just to promote astronomy, but also to spark curiosity and spur on a culture of learning. The perspective will be given from South Africa, home to a number of major astronomical facilities, and a major player in the development of astronomy across Africa. IYA2009 progress to date and plans for the future will be discussed.

  9. Good Governance in Public Procurement: A South African Case Study

    R Roos


    Full Text Available In this article good governance in public procurement, with particular reference to accountability is discussed. The principle of providing adequate remedies in public procurement is put under the spotlight. This is done with reference to the decision in Steenkamp NO v Provincial Tender Board, Eastern Cape. In this case the Constitutional Court had to consider whether an initially successful tenderer could lodge a delictual claim for damages to compensate for expenses incurred after conclusion of a contract, which was subsequently rendered void on an application for review of the tender award. The applicable principles of good governance and the applicable provisions of the UNCITRAL Model Law on Public Procurement and the WTO plurilateral Government Procurement Agreement are analysed. This is done to enable an evaluation of the decision by the Constitutional Court in the above case. It is concluded that the South African public procurement system does in this instance comply with the basic principles of good governance with regard to accountability.

  10. Establishment of a South African nuclear science exhibition centre

    Lekwe, K.G.; Stander, G.; Faanhof, A. [South African Nuclear Energy Cooperation, P O Box 582, Pretoria (South Africa)


    After an initial survey undertaken by the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa), one of the findings was that nuclear knowledge is virtually non-existent amongst the general public, including school children, throughout the country. The Department of Education (DoE) is currently in the process of introducing Nuclear as part of the school curriculum, which would require a collective effort between the schools and all the Nuclear Institutions in the country. Necsa as well as other nuclear industries have the responsibility to promote public awareness, appreciation and understanding of science and nuclear science in particular. Necsa is leading the national initiative to establish the nuclear science centre which would amongst others guide a person from the very basics of nuclear science to present and future applications thereof. The nuclear science centre will include information on the SAFARI-1 reactor, the Koeberg power reactor, the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), particle accelerators, food preservation, medical applications, etc. This paper will give the overview of the centre as well as its objectives thereof. (authors)

  11. Supply chain integration in the South African conveyancing environment

    Anthea P. Amadi-Echendu


    bottlenecks and contribute towards efforts to optimise the conveyancing supply chain in South Africa. In addition, it is also recommended that the South African deeds registry implement an electronic system which would allow for the electronic lodging of property transfers.Keywords: e-conveyancing; electronic processes; digitisation of data; supply chain management; integration

  12. Multilingual translation vs. English-fits-all in South African news media

    Gottlieb, Henrik


    , the home of some 50 million people, one may expect a high level of translational activities, as is seen in, for instance, the EU, with 23 official languages - one of which happens to be English. However, although English plays an important role in the European media, it has an all but dominant role...... in South African media. To the extent that translation is found in South African media, it tends to be either between English and Afrikaans or from an African language into English, not from English into an African language. This paper establishes a theoretical framework distinguishing between varying...... degrees of visibility in (media) translation, and exemplifies various translational phenomena typical of the special conditions found in South Africa, with the local use of English as a de facto lingua franca reinforced by the global success of Anglophone culture...

  13. Evaluation of eLearning Usage in South African Universities: A Critical Review

    Bagarukayo, Emily; Kalema, Billy


    Although eLearning is the use of technology for teaching, learning and assessment, there is no common approach to it across South African Higher Education Institutions. There is therefore a concern that the full potential of eLearning approach is not utilised. This paper examines the nature and the extent of eLearning activities in South African…

  14. 'A newspaper war'? Dutch information networks during the South African War (1899-1902)

    V. Kuitenbrouwer


    The South African War (1899-1902) caused a stir in the Netherlands. The Dutch public overwhelmingly supported the Boers in their struggle against the British. To support the ‘kinsmen’ in South Africa several organisations in the Netherlands embarked on an international propaganda campaign. This arti

  15. Dual Use of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco among South African Adolescents

    Rantao, Masego; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A.


    Objectives: To determine factors associated with dual use of tobacco products in a population of black South African adolescents. Methods: Data were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire completed by a representative sample of grade 8 students from 21 randomly selected secondary state schools in the Limpopo Province, South Africa (n =…

  16. Corporal Punishment in Schools and Fundamental Human Rights: A South African Perspective.

    Prinsloo, Justus

    In many western countries, corporal punishment has been abolished as a form of punishment in criminal trials and in schools. Under South African common law, persons entitled to enforce discipline may inflict corporal punishment within certain guidelines established by the Supreme Court. For the first time in the Republic of South Africa (RSA), the…

  17. The African Renaissance and the Transformation of the Higher Education Curriculum in South Africa

    Higgs, Philip


    The curriculum is a critical element in the transformation of higher education, and as a result, I argue for the inclusion of what I refer to as an African epistemic in higher education curricula in South Africa. In so doing, attention is directed at the decolonisation of the curriculum in higher education in South Africa, which aims to give…

  18. The South African triage scale (adult version) provides valid acuity ratings when used by doctors and enrolled nursing assistants

    Michèle Twomey; Lee A. Wallis; Mary Lou Thompson; Myers, Jonathan E


    Objective: To estimate the validity of triage ratings by South African nurses and doctors with training and practical experience using the South African Triage Scale. Methods: Five emergency physicians and 10 enrolled nursing assistants, who had been trained in the use of the South African Triage Scale, were selected via convenience sampling to retrospectively triage adult emergency centre vignettes. Participants independently assigned triage ratings to 100 written vignettes unaware of the...

  19. Argumentation and indigenous knowledge: socio-historical influences in contextualizing an argumentation model in South African schools

    Gallard Martínez, Alejandro J.


    This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and challenges. As well as Peter Easton's: Hawks and baby chickens: cultivating the sources of indigenous science education; and, Femi S. Otulaja, Ann Cameron and Audrey Msimanga's: Rethinking argumentation-teaching strategies and indigenous knowledge in South African science classrooms. The first topic addressed is that implementation of argumentation in the science classroom becomes a complex endeavor when the tensions between students' IK, the educational infrastructure (allowance for teacher professional development, etc.) and local belief systems are made explicit. Secondly, western styles of debate become mitigating factors because they do not always adequately translate to South African culture. For example, in many instances it is more culturally acceptable in South Africa to build consensus than to be confrontational. Thirdly, the tension between what is "authentic science" and what is not becomes an influencing factor when a tension is created between IK and western science. Finally, I argue that the thrust of argumentation is to set students up as "scientist-students" who will be considered through a deficit model by judging their habitus and cultural capital. Explicitly, a "scientist-student" is a student who has "learned," modeled and thoroughly assimilated the habits of western scientists, evidently—and who will be judged by and held accountable for their demonstration of explicit related behaviors in the science classroom. I propose that science teaching, to include argumentation, should consist of "listening carefully" (radical listening) to students and valuing their language, culture, and learning as a model

  20. Unregulated gambling in South African townships: a policy conundrum?

    Scott, Leanne; Barr, Graham


    This study was designed to explore the nature of informal or illegal gambling in South African townships, to investigate what motivates people to participate in this form of gambling and what they perceive are the associated benefits and dis-benefits. A series of focus group workshops was conducted with two groups of gamblers, all of whom had experience of some form of township gambling: one group currently lived in townships and the other had previously resided in townships. Gambling for the township residents was a far more frequent activity than for non-township residents and consumed substantially more of their time. The majority of the township residents classified themselves as unemployed, while of those who were unemployed, most people indicated that gambling was a major source of their income; some even described it as their only source of income. The most significant difference between what township and non-township residents expressed as wanting and getting from gambling was that the former indicated quite clearly and unanimously that what they sought and gained from gambling was money. Township residents were far more likely to indicate that they used gambling to balance their budgets than ex-township residents who gambled primarily at casinos. A lottery type game called "Fahfee" is the most widely spread and pervasive form of gambling and was unanimously portrayed as a necessary and beneficial form of support for the poor and unemployed. Lottery and Casino gambling were, in contrast, widely perceived by the township participants as being 'rigged' and unfair. Township Dice and cards were perceived as being 'fairer' and as allowing punters to be more in control than casino gambling. The downside of township gambling was reported to be high levels of violence, crime and insecurity surrounding, in particular, the game of Dice. There was widespread inability to calculate expected payoffs or odds, and an apparent belief that these were not particularly

  1. The Effectiveness of South Africa’s Immigration Policy for Addressing Skills Shortages

    Fatima Rasool


    Full Text Available South Africa is presently experiencing a serious shortage of skilledworkers. This situation is negatively influencing the economicprospects and global participation of the country. The primary purposeof the study was to determine the effectiveness of sa’s immigrationpolicy to support skills immigration. The outcome of this studyindicated that South Africa’s immigration policy is restrictive and hasundoubtedly influenced the shortage of skills in the country. This studyhas confirmed the findings of similar studies undertaken by the Centrefor Development and Enterprise that South Africa’s skills immigrationpolicy is very restrictive and is thus not helpful in addressing the skillsshortages of the country

  2. South African pension fund conversions: Dealing with environmental change

    D. T. George


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse South African pension fund conversions from defined benefit to defined contribution structures and to develop a model for dealing with environmental change. Design/Methodology/Approach: Qualitative research methodology was used. Industry experts were interviewed to obtain a macro view of the phenomenon and specific manifestations of the phenomenon were also considered in case studies.Feedback from semi-structured interviews was categorised into several emergent themes. Within-case and cross-case analyses were conducted. Findings: Results indicated that an environmental shock exerted a substantial influence on the course of events. Under these: Various factors combined to drive organisational evolution (i.e. adaptation to the environment. Adaptation speed was inappropriate and exceeded that which was required for sufficient thought. Uncertainty and vacuum circumstances arose leading to consequences that require redress. The relative power of the stakeholders changed and influenced the strategic outcome. An imbalance in stakeholder interests arose and ethical factors became consequential. Business acted to restore certainty for itself.Implications: This paper provides insight into organisational behaviour during periods of environmental shock. Environmental shock can be defined as "a condition that arises where business or societal rules are inadequate, or do not exist, to deal with unfolding events". An environmental shock has greater magnitude than a competitive shock, and can include several competitive shocks.Originality/Value: Analysis of pension fund conversions revealed organisational behaviour during periods of environmental shock and the emerging model can be applied in other instances of environmental shock, such as broad-based black economic empowerment (B-B BEE, land redistribution, sanctions and constitutional development.

  3. Maritime defence and the South African Navy to the cancellation of the Simon's Town agreement

    T.D. Potgieter


    Full Text Available For centuries, the maritime defence of South Africa was a colonial responsibility. First performed by the Dutch, the British took over the task after they wrestled the Cape of Good Hope from the Dutch. The Cape was of supreme strategic value to Britain as the link with India and a great part of her empire. Therefore for more than a century and a half (from 1806 to the abrogation of the Simon's Town Agreement the Royal Navy had a constant presence in South African territorial waters. Furthermore when the first flickers of an indigenous maritime defence organisation appeared in South Africa it was British in character. The South African Division of the part-time Royal Naval Voluntary Reserve (RNVR came into being long before the country had a navy. The origin of the South African Navy dates back to 1922, when, the South African Naval Service was created with the arrival of three small ships from Britain. Unfortunately, the budget cuts during the Depression meant that these ships and their crews were paid off (in 1933-4 and only a skeleton staff remained. This was still the position at the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939. The Union of South Africa's declaration of war against Germany on 6 September 1939, meant that the country's utterly neglected Navy had to suddenly prepare for war. Ships had to be found, and as purpose-build warships were out of the question, ships from the country's fishing fleet and trade had to suffice. A small ocean-going navy was created for the defence of the Union's ports and coastline. Following an urgent request from the British Admiralty in November 1940, South Africa sent four anti-submarine vessels to join the Royal Navy in the Mediterranean. As the war progressed, more ships of the South African Naval Forces arrived in the Mediterranean. They were used for a variety of tasks, ranging from minesweeping to salvage work. South African ships and crews earned themselves quite a reputation, participating in most

  4. Restorative Justice and the South African Truth and Reconciliation Process

    Gade, Christian B.N.


    It has frequently been argued that the post-apartheid Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was committed to restorative justice (RJ), and that RJ has deep historical roots in African indigenous cultures by virtue of its congruence both with ubuntu and with African indigenous justice systems...

  5. Can Organizations Learn without Political Leadership? The Case of Public Sector Reform among South African Home Affairs Officials

    Segatti, Aurelia; Hoag, Colin Brewster; Vigneswaran, Darshan


    This paper deals with the transformation of “institutional culture” in bureaucratic agencies. This is explored in the context of post-Apartheid South African public sector reform, and more particularly that of migration management within the Department of Home Affairs (DHA). The paper assesses th...... to address the lack of a shared sense of mission and the range of unintended, counter-productive effects, elicited by the reform itself which explain the overall incapacity to amend perceptions and behaviours among civil servants....

  6. Transformational leadership in the South African public service after the April 2009 national elections

    Manasseh M. Mokgolo


    Full Text Available Orientation: The implementation of transformational leadership in public services after national elections has been well recorded in other parts of the world. However, this is not the case in South Africa. Research purpose: The purpose of the study is to determine whether transformational leadership has a beneficial relationship with subordinate leadership acceptance, job performance and job satisfaction.Motivation for the study: Leadership is a critical issue that the public sector needs to address in order to survive and succeed in today’s unstable environment. According to Groenewald and Ashfield (2008, transformational leadership could reduce the effects of uncertainty and change that comes with new leaders and help employees to achieve their objectives.Research design, approach and method: The sample comprised 1050 full-time employees in the public sector based in head offices. The measuring instruments included the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ, the Leadership Acceptance Scale (LAS, the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS and the Job Performance Survey (JPS.Main findings: Transformational leadership had a positive correlation with subordinate leadership acceptance, performance and job satisfaction.Practical/managerial implications: Managers can train public sector leaders to be transformational leaders because of the adverse effect lack of transformation can have on employees’ attitudes in areas like satisfaction, performance and commitment.Contribution/value-add: This study makes an important contribution to our understanding of transformational leadership processes and to how the public service can improve its practices in order to render quality service to South Africans.

  7. Curriculum Development of an ICT4D Module in the South African Context

    Caroline Khene


    Full Text Available The significance of ICTs in supporting socio-economic development in developing countries is inevitable. As academics of information systems in developing countries, we cannot ignore the need for teaching and building the capacity of our students to become knowledgeable and skilled in Information and Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D practice and discourse. Furthermore, it is vital to equip our students with the ability to apply their discipline knowledge in addressing some of the ICT discrepancies in current ICT4D practice in their own context. I introduced and teach the ICT4D module to the Honours level course at my university in South Africa. This paper explores the factors that have influenced and shaped the development of the ICT4D module curriculum in the South African context I teach in, using a qualitative ethnographic lens and theoretical study. This provides a practice lens to motivate for and support the introduction of an ICT4D module in tertiary curricula in developing countries.

  8. Addressing the Underrepresentation of African-Americans in Counseling and Psychology Programs

    Haizlip, Breyan N.


    Over the last two decades, there has been an upward trend in the number of African-American doctoral students completing counseling and psychology programs. However, despite these trends, African-American faculty continue to be significantly underrepresented as counseling educators and psychology faculty. Similarly, counseling education programs…

  9. Supplier–customer relationships: Weaknesses in south african automotive supply chains

    M. J. Naude


    Full Text Available The South African automotive industry, which is an important sector in the South African economy, needs to function efficiently if it is to compete internationally. However, South African automotive components manufacturers (ACMs are not internationally competitive and automotive assemblers, also known as original equipment manufacturers (OEMs, often import cheaper components from abroad. All parties in the South African automotive supply chains need each other to ensure optimal efficiency and competitiveness. Furthermore, it is vital that good relationships exist between customers and suppliers in the automotive supply chains in South Africa. ACMs are central to automotive supply chains. A survey was conducted among ACMs to determine the nature of relationships that exist between buyers and suppliers in South Africa’s automotive supply chains. The results showed that collaborative relationships do indeed exist between members of the supply chain but that communication, understanding of the parties’ situations and cooperation can improve this relationship and so create total alliance between OEMs and ACMs.

  10. Unequal contribution of native South African phylogeographic lineages to the invasion of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, in Europe.

    De Busschere, Charlotte; Courant, Julien; Herrel, Anthony; Rebelo, Rui; Rödder, Dennis; Measey, G John; Backeljau, Thierry


    Due to both deliberate and accidental introductions, invasive African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis) populations have become established worldwide. In this study, we investigate the geographic origins of invasive X. laevis populations in France and Portugal using the phylogeographic structure of X. laevis in its native South African range. In total, 80 individuals from the whole area known to be invaded in France and Portugal were analysed for two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes, allowing a comparison with 185 specimens from the native range. Our results show that native phylogeographic lineages have contributed differently to invasive European X. laevis populations. In Portugal, genetic and historical data suggest a single colonization event involving a small number of individuals from the south-western Cape region in South Africa. In contrast, French invasive X. laevis encompass two distinct native phylogeographic lineages, i.e., one from the south-western Cape region and one from the northern regions of South Africa. The French X. laevis population is the first example of a X. laevis invasion involving multiple lineages. Moreover, the lack of population structure based on nuclear DNA suggests a potential role for admixture within the invasive French population.

  11. Unequal contribution of native South African phylogeographic lineages to the invasion of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, in Europe

    Charlotte De Busschere


    Full Text Available Due to both deliberate and accidental introductions, invasive African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis populations have become established worldwide. In this study, we investigate the geographic origins of invasive X. laevis populations in France and Portugal using the phylogeographic structure of X. laevis in its native South African range. In total, 80 individuals from the whole area known to be invaded in France and Portugal were analysed for two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes, allowing a comparison with 185 specimens from the native range. Our results show that native phylogeographic lineages have contributed differently to invasive European X. laevis populations. In Portugal, genetic and historical data suggest a single colonization event involving a small number of individuals from the south-western Cape region in South Africa. In contrast, French invasive X. laevis encompass two distinct native phylogeographic lineages, i.e., one from the south-western Cape region and one from the northern regions of South Africa. The French X. laevis population is the first example of a X. laevis invasion involving multiple lineages. Moreover, the lack of population structure based on nuclear DNA suggests a potential role for admixture within the invasive French population.

  12. The correlation between relationship value and business expansion in the South African automotive supply chains

    Aletta S. Tolmay


    Full Text Available Background: The South African automotive industry includes complete supply chains. The South African automotive supply chain stakeholders operating within the global arena are faced with opportunities as well as challenges. The South African government supports the automotive industry and encourages the vision to drastically expand the industry by the year 2020. However, having to adhere to strict prescriptions from customers regarding product quality and logistics, automotive component suppliers have only the actual relationship with customers through which value can be added. Literature acknowledges the importance of relationship value and agrees that it results in business retention. However, literature fails to prove whether relationship value can result in business expansion where more business is generated.Objectives: The objective of this article was to provide a better understanding of how to optimise relationship value within the South African automotive supply chains between Tier 1 and Tier 2 suppliers. Furthermore, the correlation between relationship value and business expansion was tested through a linear regression model. It was also important to determine whether supply chain stakeholders from different countries of origin and cultural backgrounds attach the same importance to relationship value.Method: This article reports on research which followed a positivistic paradigm, through a quantitative study undertaken in the South African automotive supply chains. Members of the National Association for Automobile Component and Allied Manufacturers of South Africa (NAACAM, defined as Tier 1 suppliers, were approached to describe their best Tier 2 suppliers. Questions relating to relationship value and business expansion were asked via a closed-ended questionnaire. The aim was to obtain the perceptions of Tier 1 suppliers of their best Tier 2 suppliers in terms of relationship value and business expansion. The data were analysed

  13. A South African Municipality Mapping the Way Forward for Social Inclusion Through Universal Design.

    Aalbers, Michelle


    Since becoming a democracy, South African legislation has changed. The South African Constitution and legislation governing the structures and mandate of the different spheres of government aim towards municipalities needing to become more developmental in the way it serves the community with a specific focus on the poor and vulnerable. It sets ideals to overcome the inheritance of the past. However, how to do this is sometimes still unclear. This paper is a case study illustrating how Stellenbosch Municipality overcame obstacles of perceived legislative restrictions, silo operations and antiquated thinking, working towards social inclusion for all its citizens. In moving away from disability accessibility and embracing universal access as a way in which to deliver basic services, Stellenbosch discovered the beginning of the process of overcoming the negative legacy of the past. Understanding the Universal Design principles and approach illustrated how South African municipalities can promote the concept of our rainbow nation as envisioned in the Constitution.

  14. Does ‘African mathematics’ facilitate access to mathematics? Towards an ongoing critical analysis of ethnomathematics in a South African context

    Kai Horsthemke


    Full Text Available Mosibudi Mangena, the Minister of Science and Technology, said in an address to the Annual Congress of the South African Mathematical Society at the University of the Potchefstroom, November 2, 2004: “There is one thing we need to address before anything else. We need to increase the number of young people, particularly blacks and women, who are able to successfully complete the first course in Mathematics at our universities.” How is this to  be achieved? A popular trend involves a call for the introduction and incorporation of so-called ethnomathematics, and more particularly ‘African mathematics’, into secondary and tertiary curricula. Although acknowledging the obvious benefits of so-called ethnomathematics, this paper critically analyses three aspects of ethnomathematics that have been neglected in past critiques. Our focus is not on the relationship as such between ethnomathematics and mathematics education. Our critique involves (1 epistemological and logical misgivings, (2 a new look at practices and skills, (3 concerns about embracing ‘African mathematics’ as valid and valuable – just because it is African. The first concern is about problems relating to the relativism and appeals to cultural specificity that characterise ethnomathematics, regarding mathematical knowledge and truth. The second set of considerations concern the idea  that not all mathematical practices and skills are necessarily culturally or socially embedded. With regard to the validity and viability of ‘African mathematics’, our misgivings not only concern the superficial sense of ‘belonging’ embodied in the idea of a uniquely and distinctly African mathematics, and the threat of further or continuing marginalisation and derogation, but the implicitly (self-demeaning nature of this approach. This paper serves as a reminder that a critical position in the deliberations of ethnomathematics needs to be sustained. It warns against the bandwagon

  15. Post-Modern Career Assessment for Traditionally Disadvantaged South African Learners: Moving Away from the "Expert Opinion"

    Bischof, David; Alexander, Dinah


    This article explores the perceptions of learners from a disadvantaged community regarding the limitations and advantages of traditional and post-modern career assessment techniques in the South African context, when conducted in a group context. Through the use of traditional psychometric instruments, South African professionals are inclined to…

  16. "You Must Know Where You Come From": South African Youths' Perceptions of Religion in Time of Social Change

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Lewin, Nina; Norris, Shane A.


    This study examined South African youths' perceptions of religion during a period of social and economic transition. In-depth interviews were conducted with 55 Black South African youth (age 18) living in the Johannesburg-Soweto metropolitan area. Data were analyzed in a manner consistent with grounded theory methodology and structural…

  17. Managing Teacher Leave and Absence in South African Rural Schools: Implications for Supporting Schools in Contexts of Multiple-Deprivation

    Moletsane, Relebohile; Juan, Andrea; Prinsloo, Cas; Reddy, Vijay


    Research increasingly points to the negative impacts of teacher absence from school on access to schooling and success in learning in schools, in particular in schools in areas of multiple-deprivation (including rural schools). South African schools are no exception. In this regard, like any other employer, the South African Department of Basic…

  18. Lifestyle risk factors in an urban South African community

    SCD Wright


    Full Text Available The research question addressed in the study was to determine the prevalence of the following lifestyle risk factors: obesity, waist-hip ratio, physical inactivity, high blood glucose, and hypertension in an urban community. The research objective for the study was to determine the prevalence of specific risk factors in an urban community. Based on the results, a health intervention could be planned and implemented to reduce the prevalence of the risk factors and the possibility of chronic noncommunicable diseases in later life. The design was a quantitative survey using physical measurement and a structured questionnaire. The target population of the study was black urban adults (n=218. The sampling method was convenient and purposive. The results of the study indicated that the prevalence of hypertension and obesity were higher than the national prevalence for South Africa. The waist-hip ratio revealed that 20% of the men and 49.7% of the women were at risk for cardiovascular disease. High blood glucose levels were demonstrated for 21.6% of the group. Physical activity was also shown to be inadequate. In conclusion, the potential for cardiovascular and metabolic health problems in future is high. It is recommended that an intervention, based on the results of the study, should and must be developed and implemented. The more challenging question is to know what to do and how to do it. A framework is suggested to guide the development of an intervention.

  19. Transgressive Partnerships: Community engagement in a South African university

    Martin Hall


    Full Text Available Conceptualizing community engagement as intertwined with teaching and long-established approaches to research requires a consideration of the epistemology of knowledge itself. What is accepted as legitimate knowledge? And what is the scope of the university’s role in recognizing and validating forms of knowledge and defining curriculum boundaries, understood as the ways in which the university disseminates knowledge that it has validated as authentic? A working understanding of community engagement would include service learning, problem-based teaching and research that addresses specific wants and needs, the pursuit of alternative forms of knowledge and challenges to established authorities that control and direct research systems and the allocation of qualifications. This article considers why this kind of engagement has remained on the margins of the traditional university in South Africa – via a case study of community engagement at the University of Cape Town – despite a decade of clear public policy and asks: why does there appear to be resistance to its inclusion despite a number of incentives that include moral affirmation for contributing to social and economic justice.

  20. The Pedagogical Orientations of South African Physical Sciences Teachers Towards Inquiry or Direct Instructional Approaches

    Ramnarain, Umesh; Schuster, David


    In recent years, inquiry-based science instruction has become widely advocated in science education standards in many countries and, hence, in teacher preparation programmes. Nevertheless, in practice, one finds a wide variety of science instructional approaches. In South Africa, as in many countries, there is also a great disparity in school demographic situations, which can also affect teaching practices. This study investigated the pedagogical orientations of in-service physical sciences teachers at a diversity of schools in South Africa. Assessment items in a Pedagogy of Science Teaching Test (POSTT) were used to identify teachers' science teaching orientations, and reasons for pedagogical choices were probed in interviews. The findings reveal remarkable differences between the orientations of teachers at disadvantaged township schools and teachers at more privileged suburban schools. We found that teachers at township schools have a strong `active direct' teaching orientation overall, involving direct exposition of the science followed by confirmatory practical work, while teachers at suburban schools exhibit a guided inquiry orientation, with concepts being developed via a guided exploration phase. The study identified contextual factors such as class size, availability of resources, teacher competence and confidence, time constraints, student ability, school culture and parents' expectations as influencing the methods adopted by teachers. In view of the recent imperative for inquiry-based learning in the new South African curriculum, this study affirms the context specificity of curriculum implementation (Bybee 1993) and suggests situational factors beyond the curriculum mandate that need to be addressed to achieve successful inquiry-based classroom instruction in science.

  1. Community engagement and education: addressing the needs of South Asian families with genetic disorders.

    Khan, Nasaim; Kerr, Gifford; Kingston, Helen


    Consanguineous marriage is common among the South Asian heritage community in the UK. While conferring social and cultural benefits, consanguinity is associated with an increased risk of autosomal recessive disorders and an increase in childhood death and disability. We have previously developed a genetic service to address the needs of this community. We report the extension of this service to include community-based initiatives aimed at promoting understanding of genetic issues related to consanguinity and improving access to genetic services. Our approach was to develop integrated clinical, educational and community engagement initiatives that would be sustainable on a long-term basis. The service provided for South Asian families by a specialist genetic counsellor was extended, and a series of genetics education and awareness sessions were provided for a diverse range of frontline healthcare workers. Two community genetic outreach worker posts were established to facilitate the engagement of the local South Asian population with genetics. The education and awareness sessions helped address the lack of genetic knowledge among primary health care professionals and community workers. Engagement initiatives by the genetic outreach worker raised awareness of genetic issues in the South Asian community and families affected by autosomal recessive disorders. All three elements of the extended service generated positive feedback. A three-stranded approach to addressing the needs of consanguineous families affected by autosomal recessive disorders as recommended by the World Health Organisation is suggested to be an acceptable, effective and sustainable approach to delivery of service in the UK.

  2. Viewing the proposed South African Business Rescuie Provisions from an Australian Perspective

    C Anderson


    Full Text Available This article makes some comparisons between the Australian corporate rescue provisions and those proposed to be adopted in South Africa in the Companies Bill 2007. By so doing it may assist in the debate in South Africa over how the legislation is framed as the experience in Australia may be useful as an indicator of issues to be considered. One of the findings of the comparison is that the aims of the Australian legislation and that proposed in South Africa are almost identical. The article identifies a clear concern in the South African proposals with the position of employees which is not apparent in Australia. On the other hand there appears to be less concern in South Africa with the position of secured creditors than is evident in the Australian provisions. The article also notes that the South African proposals do not divide the procedure clearly into a decision-making stage and the period whilst the company is operating under the rescue plan. The Australian provisions provide for a clear break between a period where the creditors have yet to make a choice about the company’s future and the period once a plan (or deed of company arrangement has been adopted. The article also finds that the South African model of rescue as proposed does cover many similar areas as identified in the Australian legislation. It therefore argues that there are sufficient similarities to suggest that much will be common in the experience if they are adopted into the legislation.

  3. Revisiting the roles and responsibilities of speech-language therapists in South African schools.

    Wium, A M; Louw, B


    The role of speech-language therapists (SLTs) in schools in South Africa needs to be revisited based on the changing educational needs in the country. This article builds on a paper by Kathard et al. (2011), which discussed the changing needs of the country with regard to the role of SLTs working in schools. South African policy changes indicated a shift from supporting the child to supporting the teacher, but also place more emphasis on the support of all learners in literacy in an effort to address past inequities. This paper addresses several of the questions that emerged from Kathard et al. and explores the collaborative roles played by SLTs on four levels in the education context. Collaboration at the learner level (level 1) focuses on prevention and support, whereas collaboration at the teacher level (level 2) is described in terms of training, mentoring, monitoring and consultation. Collaboration can also occur at the district level (level 3), where the focus is mainly on the development and implementation of support programmes for teachers in areas of literacy and numeracy. Collaboration at the level of national and provincial education (level 4) is key to all other roles, as it impacts on policy. This last level is the platform to advocate for the employment of SLTs in schools. Such new roles and responsibilities have important implications for the preparation of future SLTs. Suggestions for curricular review and professional development are discussed. It is proposed that SASLHA responds to the changes by developing a position statement on the roles and responsibilities of SLTs in schools.

  4. Perceptions of mobile network operators regarding the cost drivers of the South African mobile phone industry

    Musenga F. Mpwanya


    Full Text Available Purpose: This study seeks to understand the perceptions of mobile network operators (MNOs regarding the cost drivers of the South African mobile phone industry from a supply chain (SC perspective. It also seeks to explore the possible cost interrelationships in the South African mobile phone SC.Research design and methodology: A qualitative case study, involving six willing managers of MNOs, and by using semi-structured interviews, observation and documents, was conducted.Findings: This study suggests that network infrastructure and network maintenance, handsets, logistics, technology, marketing and sales, training and consulting are the cost drivers in the South African mobile phone SC. These cost drivers are interrelated; and they influence one another in the mobile phone SC.Implications: The findings of this study should assist MNOs in their monitoring of cost drivers and in the identification of cost reduction opportunities, in order to remain effective and efficient in the industry. This study’s findings should help regulating authorities (such as the Department of Communications and the Independent Communication Authority of South Africa [ICASA] to gain insights into the cost drivers of the South African mobile phone industry from the perspective of a network operator, and thus to develop appropriate mobile phone policies.

  5. South African Female Presidential Leadership and the inevitability of a donga as final destination? Reading the Deuteronomistic Athaliah the bosadi way

    V. Ndikhokele N. Mtshiselwa


    Full Text Available In the 104 years of the existence of the African National Congress, many a black person in Sout Africa has been exclusively led by men. Also, 24 years into a democracy, patriarchy continues to raise its ugly head in our parliament, among other institutions. Disturbingly, against the call for a female presidential leadership Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, the National Union of Mineworkers, together with the ANC leadership in the Gauteng province, are lobbying for a male presidential candidate namely, Cyril Ramaphosa. In order to engage the issue of patriarchy in the South African politics, the Sepedi/Northern Sotho proverb tsa etwa ke ye tshadi pele, di wela ka leope [once they are led by a female one, that is, a cow, they will fall into a donga] will be employed as a hermeneutical tool to re-read the Deuteronomistic Athaliah the bosadi way. the interest of the preceding way lies at seeking justice for the transformation of many an African women's life in present day South Africa. Inthe end, this article will investigate whether the tenor of the Northern Sotho/Sepedi proverb that once they (cattle [read: South Africans] are led by a female one, they are sure to fall into a donga.Intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary implications: Drawing from the insight in the fields of the Old Testament, gender and social sciences studies as well as Indigenous Knowledge Systems (with particular focus on an African proverb, this article addresses the topic of the South African Female Presidential Leadership and the Deuteronomistic Athaliah the bosadi way.Keywords: Deuteronomistic Athaliah; Patriarchy; Woman president; South Africa; Sepedi proverb; bosadi

  6. Representations of MDR and XDR-TB in South African newspapers.

    Daku, Mark; Gibbs, Andrew; Heymann, Jody


    The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis has brought with it diverse perspectives concerning the way in which the disease should be managed. The media is an important source of these perspectives, as they perform the dual role of reflecting and shaping public discourse. In this study, we are interested in how the media presents multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) in South Africa, where both variants are a growing public health concern. We examined newspaper content from 310 South African newspaper articles from February 2004 to July 2009 that discussed MDR-TB and XDR-TB. Newspaper articles were collected from the Dow Jones Factiva database and imported into QDA Miner v3.2.1 for analysis. Using Attride-Stirling's thematic network analysis method, articles were analyzed according to themes, sub-themes, and thematic networks. This analysis identified two main dimensions: causes of MDR/XDR-TB and treatment approaches/solutions. Causes of MDR/XDR-TB revolved around three main global themes: i) patient-centred causes (32.6%); ii) lack of infection control procedures (18.7%); and iii) health systems failures (19.4%). Treatment approaches or solutions to tackling MDR/XDR-TB focused on i) patient targeted solutions (38.4%); ii) improving infection control (12.3%); iii) systems restructuring (10.6%); and iv) new diagnostic and therapeutic options (10%). Our analysis identifies a trend in the South African media to identify a broad range of causes of MDR/XDR-TB, while emphasizing that treatment approaches should be directed primarily at the individual. Of particular importance is the fact that such a perspective runs contrary to the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations for approaching the TB epidemic, in particular by insufficiently addressing systemic and social drivers of the epidemic. Due to the media's potential influence on policy formation, how the media presents issues - especially issues

  7. Understanding the structured processes followed by organisations prior to engaging in agile processes: A South African Perspective

    Nimrod Noruwana


    Full Text Available There appears to be a lack of knowledge on the phases South African (SA organisations go through while adopting agile methods. As a means to address this gap, this study uncovered empirical evidence on the phases SA organisations go through whilst adopting agile methods as well as the disparities between agile prescriptions and the way SA organisations actually implement agile methods. The data collected using a case study approach was analysed through the lens of Actor-Network Theory (ANT. The results reveal that there is no structured process for adopting agile methods and organisations go through various phases in their attempts to adopt agile methods. During the various phases, organisations face challenges which are culture as well as people related. Through this study South African practitioners could now be aware that before adopting an agile methodology, there has to be a common understanding of the problems at hand and the envisioned solution. The findings also inform aspiring adopters in South Africa that adoption of the methods does not have to be as prescribed. They are free to adopt only those aspects the organisations need most.

  8. Norwegian–South African cultural resurgence during the second World War (1939–1345)

    Hale, Frederick


    Although residents of Norwegian birth or ancestry were never a large ethnic group in South Africa, they made determined efforts to preserve aspects of their cultural heritage. After Norway was occupied by forces of the Third Reich in April 1940, Norwegians in Johannesburg, Cape Town and Durban undertook a variety of endeavours to support the resistance movement in Norway, contribute to the Allied front against Germany, portray Norway positively to the South African public, provide practical r...

  9. Factors influencing editorial work within the sectors of the South African editing industry

    Melanie Ann Law


    South African editors currently work in a highly diversified industry that comprises a number of different sectors. As a result of this, the role of the editor remains contentious, with varied definitions and demarcations of editorial tasks and skills. This article sets out the argument that editorial work in South Africa is characterised by specific factors which determine the importance (or otherwise) of certain editorial tasks and skills in each sector. To demonstrate this, this article re...

  10. Challenging the ‘Four Corner Press’ as framework for invitational leadership in South African schools

    Rita Niemann


    Full Text Available Orientation: Invitational leadership (IL is consistent with current leadership trends and, because South African schools are in need of sound leadership, it is necessary to have a framework that can guide principals to act in accordance with the expectations of their educators.Research purpose: This study challenges the internationally accepted ‘Four Corner Press’ of Purkey and Novak (1984 as a framework for IL in the South African school context.Motivation for the study: IL appears to be a comprehensive model for successful school leadership. This necessitated an investigation to determine whether the ‘Four Corner Press’ reflects the expectations of teachers and, if so, whether it could serve as a valuable leadership tool.Research design, approach and method: A questionnaire containing 31 Likert-scale items, underpinned by the principles of IL, was disseminated to 600 educators conveniently drawn from the population of 88 828 teachers in Free State and Eastern Cape schools.Main findings: The data obtained from the survey enabled the researchers to perform a factor analysis, which revealed that South African educators’ expectations of leadership aligned with the ‘Four Corner Press’.Managerial implications: The ‘Four Corner Press’ can be used as a plausible framework for IL in South African schools, which has implications for the development and training of principals.Contribution/value-add: The ‘Four Corner Press’ can be regarded as a reliable prototype of IL expectations within the South African context, which contributes to extending the body of knowledge of education leadership in South Africa.

  11. The efficiency and quality dilemma: What drives South African call centre management performance indicators?

    Diane Banks


    Full Text Available Orientation: Call centres have become principal channels of communication with customers. Therefore, companies attempt to reduce costs and improve the quality of their interactions with customers simultaneously. These objectives are often conflicting and call centre managers struggle to balance the efficiency and quality priorities of the business.Research purpose: This study explored the key performance indicators that drive management practices in the South African call centre industry in the context of the dilemma between efficiency and quality.Motivation for the study: The South African government has identified call centres as a method of creating jobs and foreign investment. Management practices affect centres’ performance. Understanding these practices will help to achieve these aims.Research design: The researchers used a web-based questionnaire in a survey with South African call centre managers in more than 44 different organisations that represented nine industry sectors.Main findings: This study indicated that the dilemma between efficiency and quality is prevalent in South African call centres and that efficiency key performance indicators drive management practices.Practical/managerial implications: The inconsistencies the study reported mean that South African organisations should assess the alignment between their organisational visions, the strategic intentions of their call centres and the performance measures they use to assess their call centre managers.Contribution/value-add: This study adds to the relatively small amount of empirical research available on the call centre industry in South Africa. It contributes to the industry’s attempt to position itself favourably for local and international outsourcing opportunities.

  12. Psychological empowerment in the South African military: The generalisability of Menon's Scale

    Sanjay T Menon


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the factorial validity and internal consistency of the Menon Scale for Psychological Empowerment, developed in the United States and Canada and tested in Australia and Greece, in the South African National Defence Force (SANDF. The 2231 participants in the study represented the gender and racial distribution of the military population. The South African data initially yielded a two-factor structure. A forced three-factor structure rendered acceptable alpha coefficients, but did not resemble the theoretically expected factors. The forced factor analyses were repeated for Africans, Asians and Coloureds, and Whites separately. Results for the first two groups kept the original structure, whereas the factor structure for the white participants resembled the theoretically hypothesised factors. The forced three-factor structures rendered very high internal consistencies for the total scale, but one factor for both the African and the Asian and Coloured groups showed unsatisfactory reliability, suggesting a single underlying empowerment factor. This was confirmed by high correlations between subscales. Menon’s model seemingly fits the South African data slightly better for the white participants than for their non-white counterparts. The scale thus needs to be revised for the different cultural groups.

  13. The re-introduction of springbok Antidorcas marsupialis into South African National Parks – A documentation

    G. de Graaff


    Full Text Available The introduction and establishment of springbok populations in four South African National Parks are discussed. Springbok have failed to establish themselves in the Addo Elephant National Park but are thriving in the Mountain Zebra, Golden Gate Highlands and Bontebok National Parks, although the latter Park is extralimital to their original range.

  14. A Snapshot: South African University Students' Attitudes, Perceptions and Knowledge of HIV/AIDS

    Raijmakers, L. R.; Pretorius, J. D.


    This article presents the findings of a survey conducted in August 2004 of students' attitudes, perceptions and knowledge about sexually transmitted infections, HIV/AIDS and sexual practices at an Institution of Higher Education. The study was set against the backdrop of the 2004 South African national survey, conducted by the Reproductive Health…

  15. Generating Social Capital at the Workplace: A South African Case of Inside-Out Social Renewal.

    Dovey, Ken; Onyx, Jenny


    A case study of a South African workplace illustrated how workplace learning and experience of team culture influenced changes in workers' family life and community participation. Results showed how social capital is generated from within for the benefit of civil society. (Contains 35 references.) (SK)

  16. Tertiary Educators' Voices in Australia and South Africa: Experiencing and Engaging in African Music and Culture

    Joseph, Dawn


    Music tertiary educators can foster positive experiences that promote diversity, enhance intercultural and cross-cultural understanding through our teaching. Through findings of interview data of tertiary music educators' understandings of multicultural music practice at two South African universities and at an Australia university, I used…

  17. Drivers of Learning Management System Use in a South African Open and Distance Learning Institution

    Venter, Peet; van Rensburg, Mari Jansen; Davis, Annemarie


    The study on which this article reports examined the determinants of usage of an online learning management system (LMS) by fourth level business students at a South African open and distance learning university using an extension of the widely used technology acceptance model (TAM) as a theoretical basis. A survey was conducted among students at…

  18. Detection of east/central/south African genotype of chikungunya virus in Myanmar, 2010.

    Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Kyaw, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Tin; Tar, Thi; Maung, Kay Thwe Thwe; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Morita, Kouichi


    In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene.

  19. Educating for Peace in the Midst of Violence: A South African Experience

    Maxwell, Anne-Marie; Enslin, Penny; Maxwell, Tudor


    How do we educate for peace in a context of pervasive social violence? This paper explores this question as it presents the development and evaluation of a South African peace education programme at pre-school level. The programme comprised a pre-school curriculum and a teacher development course and was developed in conjunction with a team of…

  20. An analysis of prognostic variables in acute lymphocytic leukaemia in a heterogenous South African population

    Hesseling, PB; Buurman, M; Oud, C; Nel, ED


    The records of all 96 children below the age of 15 years diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia at Tygerberg Hospital in the Republic of South African between 1983 and 1995 were reviewed to determine risk factors which may predict poor outcome. Age <2 and > 8 years, and white cell count >20 x

  1. When ideals face reality: shaping the future of the South African Defence Force

    Mandrup, Thomas

    in the SADC Force Intervention Brigade in DR Congo and the strengthened training mission in the Central African Republic that ended up becoming involved in a battle with the SELEKA rebel movement in 2013. What lessons has the SANDF learned from these operations and how have they influenced South Africa’s view...

  2. Physical activity energy expenditure and sarcopenia in black South African urban women

    Kruger, Herculina S.; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Ravyse, Chrisna; Moss, Sarah J.; Tieland, Michael


    Background: Black women are believed to be genetically less predisposed to age-related sarcopenia. The objective of this study was to investigate lifestyle factors associated with sarcopenia in black South African (SA) urban women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 247 women (mean age 57 y) we

  3. South African Teachers' Views on the Inclusion of Spirituality Education in the Subject Life Orientation

    Jacobs, Anne C.


    As part of a larger research project into the practice and effectiveness of Life Orientation (LO), a compulsory subject in South African schools, this study investigated the views that teachers have regarding the constructs spirituality and religion within the context of LO. LO attempts to teach skills, attitudes and values from a holistic…

  4. Creating Supportive Learning Environments: Experiences of Lesbian and Gay-Parented Families in South African Schools

    Breshears, Diana; Lubbe-De Beer, Carien


    Through in-depth interviews with 21 parents and 12 children in lesbian/gay-parented families, we explored the experiences of this unique family form in South African schools. Specifically, families reflected on their positive and negative experiences in the children's education and used these reflections to offer advice to teachers and…

  5. Linguistic Gender Sensitivity Strategies in Current South African Intermediate Phase English Workbooks: Feminisation or Degenderisation?

    Sibanda, Jabulani; Sibanda, Lucy


    This study extends research on manifestations of gender insensitivity in learners' reading materials by shifting attention to the linguistic strategies that authors of current texts employ for the realisation of gender sensitivity. We analysed the content of 12 current (2014) English workbooks (Grade 4-6) used in South African government and…

  6. Teaching 5- and 6-Year-Olds to Count: Knowledge of South African Educators

    Feza, Nosisi N.


    Mathematics learning and teaching continues to be a challenge in the South African education system. This challenge is observed in the poor performance of students in national and international assessments. Research suggests that teachers' content knowledge and knowledge of teaching mathematics contribute significantly to students' performance. In…

  7. How Would Ludwig Wittgenstein Have Performed in the Current South African Higher Education System?

    Le Grange, L.


    The pressure to perform has migrated from the corporate world into academe. Academics across the globe feel this pressure to perform, often expressed as "publish or perish". I reflect on the rising culture of performativity in recent decades and how it has penetrated South African universities. In doing so, I specifically look at the academic life…

  8. Valuing and Revaluing Education: What Can We Learn about Measurement from the South African Poor?

    Clark, David A.


    This paper reflects on the identification of relevant aspects of education for measurement purposes. It begins by reviewing some detailed lists of educational capabilities from disparate literatures. It then considers how ordinary South Africans perceive education by drawing on two open-ended surveys, and attempts to reconcile their views with…

  9. Researching Transformation at a South African University--Ethical Dilemmas in the Politics of Representation

    Ismail, Salma


    This article focuses on the complexity of researching institutional culture and the ethical dilemmas posed in representing staff according to race and gender, drawing on three qualitative studies undertaken at a previously white South African university between 2000 and 2007. During the research process, issues of representation became a concern…

  10. Developing Self-Expression and Community among South African Women with Persona Doll Making

    Garcia, Dorothy Yumi


    Township-dwelling Black South African women must cope with an array of traumatizing stressors that stunt individual voice and diminish the creation of supportive female communities. At issue was the capacity of women under these conditions to thrive as individuals and contributing members of society, thus the rationale for this project study. The…

  11. Portfolio Assessment as a Tool for Promoting Professional Development of School Principals: A South African Perspective

    Mestry, Raj; Schmidt, Michele


    Poor matriculation results in South African urban schools have resulted in the implementation of professional development programs for principals who wish to improve their qualifications and practice. This article studies principals' perceptions of the efficacy of using portfolios to assess their professional growth. Using a poststructural lens to…

  12. Policy-making for real: Politics and progress in South African health care

    A. Fourie


    Full Text Available Problems have been accumulating in South African health care for well over three centuries yet when it comes to resolving the crisis by means of appropriate policy measures, one becomes aware of the powers at play and the interests at stake in maintaining the status quo, thus obstructing much initiative in the process of reform.

  13. Reformatting the hard drive of South African education for the knowledge economy


    South African education system needs reformatting in order to produce employable graduates. By introducing educational gaming into the formal learning programmes, the nature and quality of learning can be enhanced to create the innovative professionals need for the new knowledge economy.

  14. Using Collaborative Learning Exercises to Transfer Pervasive Skills: Some South African Evidence

    Strauss-Keevy, Monique


    The Competency Framework, introduced by the South African Institute of Chartered Accountants (SAICA) details technical competencies, but also places emphasis on the pervasive skills that need to be attained by candidates for them to qualify as chartered accountants (CAs). Thus, an additional onus has been placed on academics to ensure that they…

  15. Measuring and Monitoring in the South African "Kha Ri Gude" Mass Literacy Campaign

    McKay, Veronica


    After many previous failed attempts to reach illiterate adults, the award-winning South African "Kha Ri Gude" mass literacy campaign, launched in 2008, undertook to ensure that learners seized the opportunity to learn--for many adults, this was a "last chance". Written from an insider perspective by the campaign's founding…

  16. Histories of the Everyday: Domestic Workers in the South African Literary Archive

    Jansen, E.


    This article departs from the premise that the South African literary ar­chive has many gaps concerning the experiences of black people and argues that these gaps can perhaps be partially filled by ‘mining’ old and recent literary texts by white Afrikaans authors which feature domestic worker charac

  17. The Achievement Goals Orientation of South African First Year University Physics Students

    Ramnarain, Umesh Dewnarain; Ramaila, Sam


    This study investigated the achievement goals orientation of first year physics students at a South African university. The mixed methods design involved a quantitative survey of 291 students using an achievement goals questionnaire and individual interviews of selected participants. Results showed that the students perceived they have a stronger…

  18. Technophobia and Personality Subtypes in a Sample of South African University Students.

    Anthony, L. M.; Clarke, M. C.; Anderson, S. J.


    This study examined levels of techophobia, described as negative psychological reactions toward technology, in a sample of South African university students. Describes use of the NEO-Five Factor Inventory and reports results that show techophobia was inversely correlated with computer experience, weakly correlated with age, but not associated with…

  19. Chemometric investigation of the volatile content of young South African wines

    Weldegergis, B.T.; Villiers, de A.; Crouch, A.M.


    The content of major volatiles of 334 wines of six different cultivars (Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Pinotage, Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) and vintage 2005 was used to investigate the aroma content of young South African wines. Wines were sourced from six different regions and various pro

  20. Popular Literacy and the Resources of Print Culture: The South African Committee for Higher Education

    Trimbur, John


    This article examines how the South African Committee for Higher Education used the resources of print culture to design forms of writing and delivery systems that provided students and post-literate adults in the anti-apartheid struggle of the 1980s with the means to recognize and represent themselves as rhetorical agents, for whom reading and…

  1. Educational Change in Post-Conflict Contexts: Reflections on the South African Experience 20 Years Later

    Christie, Pam


    Reflecting on South African experience, this paper develops an analytical framework using the work of Henri Lefebvre and Nancy Fraser to understand why socially just arrangements may be so difficult to achieve in post-conflict reconstruction. The paper uses Lefebvre's analytic to trace three sets of entangled practices…

  2. New Controls and Accountability for South African Teachers and Schools: The Integrated Quality Management System

    Weber, Everard


    This article analyses the Integrated Quality Management System (IQMS), an agreement reached in 2003 between the South African Education Department and the major teacher organisations in the country by using discourse analysis. The IQMS was scheduled to be implemented in public schools in 2004. Three discursive tensions are identified and…

  3. Reformatting the hard drive of South African education for the knowledge economy

    Jason Davis


    Full Text Available South African education system needs reformatting in order to produce employable graduates. By introducing educational gaming into the formal learning programmes, the nature and quality of learning can be enhanced to create the innovative professionals need for the new knowledge economy.

  4. Sexuality Education in South African Schools: The Challenge for Civil Society Organisations

    Adams Tucker, Leigh; George, Gavin; Reardon, Candice; Panday, Saadhna


    Objective: Drawing on the perceptions of various key stakeholders, the paper explores the strengths and limitations of involving civil society organisations in the delivery of HIV and AIDS and sexuality education in South African schools. Design: Qualitative study with a cross-sectional design. Setting: Research was conducted at 16 public…

  5. Transformation Challenges in the South African Workplace: A Conversation with Melissa Steyn of iNCUDISA

    Grant, Terri


    Diversity communication and training are recent phenomena in South African workplaces. The demise of apartheid, new political dispensation, and reentry onto the world stage have all contributed to creating an opportunity for diversity. Accelerated corporate interest in this field may be linked to government pressure, globalization, and the much…

  6. Stress among Black Women in a South African Township: The Protective Role of Religion

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea


    Communities that have been exposed to high levels of stress and where religiosity is salient are ideal contexts in which to examine the role of religion in stress processes. The present study examines the protective function of religiosity among Black women in a South African township. The women (N = 172) were interviewed about sources of stress,…

  7. Rethinking Argumentation-Teaching Strategies and Indigenous Knowledge in South African Science Classrooms

    Otulaja, Femi S.; Cameron, Ann; Msimanga, Audrey


    Our response to Hewson and Ogunniyi's paper focuses, on the one hand, on some of the underlying tensions associated with aligning indigenous knowledge systems with westernized science in South African science classrooms, as suggested by the new, post-apartheid, curriculum. On the other hand, the use of argumentation as a vehicle to accomplish the…

  8. The Emergence of Marketing and Communications Strategy in South African Further Education and Training Colleges

    McGrath, Simon; Akoojee, Salim


    South African further education and training (FET) colleges have been enjoined to become more responsive to their external environment, in keeping with international trends in public vocational education and training (VET) reform. One mechanism for achieving this goal is to market colleges and communicate more effectively to future students,…

  9. South African Educators' Mutually Inclusive Mandates to Promote Human Rights and Positive Discipline

    Coetzee, Susan; Mienie, Cathrine


    South African educators are mandated by international and national law to observe and promote human rights. However, given the realities of the limited teaching time available, educators cannot fulfill this obligation solely by teaching the curriculum. Another avenue needs to be found for educators to fulfill this obligation. Educators are also…

  10. Shaping the Environmental Attitude of Military Geography Students at the South African Military Academy

    Smit, Hennie A. P.


    Globally there is a growing environmental awareness among all segments of society, but research on the effect of environmental education in shaping the attitude of military students is lacking. Tertiary environmental education to officers of the South African Department of Defence is seated in the Department of Military Geography at the South…

  11. Using a Film to Challenge Heteronormativity: South African Teachers "Get Real" in Working with LGB Youth

    Richardson, Eric M.


    The author explains how the film "Get Real" enabled him to explore, with a group of South African student teachers, the complex ways in which queer adolescents negotiate their daily lives, the struggles they have with "coming out" to their friends and families, the problems with representation, and the connections between hegemonic masculinity,…

  12. South African Teacher Voices: Recurring Resistances and Reconstructions for Teacher Education and Development

    Samuel, Michael


    This paper will focus on the shifts in discourses about teacher education and teacher voice within the South African research and policy environment over the last four decades. The alignment of the political and educational agenda in providing resistance to the apartheid system culminated in 1994, the start of the new democracy. The preceding…

  13. Autobiographical Narrative in a Language Classroom: A Case Study in a South African School

    Msila, Vuyisile


    There are still many South African teachers who are challenged by the implementation of the relatively new system of education. They have to explore a variety of strategies as they try to transform their pedagogy to enhance learning in their classrooms. This post-apartheid system also challenges educators to be transformative individuals who…

  14. "Disappearance" and Feminist Research in the South African Academy of Humanities

    Bennett, Jane


    Following a global trend in humanities since the mid-1970s, South African humanities faculties began to include formal programmes in gender and sexualities studies from the mid-1990s on. While the immediate post-flag democratic era encouraged intellectual concentration on diverse questions of power and knowledge, the new century saw a decline in…

  15. How Would Ludwig Wittgenstein Have Performed in the Current South African Higher Education System?

    Le Grange, L.


    The pressure to perform has migrated from the corporate world into academe. Academics across the globe feel this pressure to perform, often expressed as "publish or perish". I reflect on the rising culture of performativity in recent decades and how it has penetrated South African universities. In doing so, I specifically look at the…

  16. The Cultural Contours of Democracy: Indigenous Epistemologies Informing South African Citizenship

    Kubow, Patricia K.; Min, Mina


    Drawing upon the African concept of "ubuntu," this article examines the epistemic orientations toward individual-society relations that inform democratic citizenship and identity in South Africa. Findings from focus group interviews conducted with 50 Xhosa teachers from all seven primary and intermediate schools in a township outside…

  17. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor and hypertension among black South Africans after 5 years

    Botha, Shani; Fourie, Carla Mt; Schutte, Rudolph;


    Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a biomarker that links inflammation with cardiovascular risk. However, studies linking suPAR and hypertension are scant. First, we determined whether baseline suPAR is elevated in normotensive black South Africans who developed hypertens......Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a biomarker that links inflammation with cardiovascular risk. However, studies linking suPAR and hypertension are scant. First, we determined whether baseline suPAR is elevated in normotensive black South Africans who developed...... hypertension over 5 years, compared with those who remained normotensive; and second, whether hypertension is associated with suPAR. This substudy is embedded in the South African leg of the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology study, performed in the North West Province. We investigated 429 normotensive......PAR with hypertensive status. This study highlights the need for more research on the role of suPAR in hypertension and cardiovascular disease development in black South Africans....

  18. Bilateral ocular anomalies in a South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus)

    Colitz, Carmen M H; Rudnick, Jens-Christian; Heegaard, Steffen


    A female South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) began having obvious clinical ophthalmologic problems by 8 weeks of age. The initial clinical sign was diffuse corneal edema, which progressed to bullae formation and ulcers; the underlying cause of corneal edema and bullous...

  19. Unpacking the Predominance of Case Study Methodology in South African Postgraduate Educational Research, 1995-2004

    Rule, P.; Davey, B.; Balfour, R. J.


    The Project Postgraduate Educational Research (PPER) data indicate that case study is the most popular methodology among South African education masters and doctorate students in the period 1995-2004. This article reflects on the reasons for the preference for case study by considering epistemological and contextual factors. It unpacks the links…

  20. Education, Language, and Identity amongst Students at a South African University

    Parkinson, Jean; Crouch, Alison


    This article reports on a study of language and cultural identity of mother-tongue Zulu students at an English-medium South African university. The data consist of focus group interviews, questionnaires, and student opinions in essays. Findings include a strong identification of the participants with the Zulu language and Zulu culture, and a view…

  1. Curriculum Change and Contextual Realities in South African Education: Cui Bono?

    Jansen, Jonathan D.


    Evaluates two South African curriculum change projects (Science Education Project and Fort Hare Project) that illustrate the difficulty of instituting meaningful change while working within the confines of the state school system. Concludes that control of schools by the state, supremacist ideology in curricula, and institutionalization of…

  2. Private Sector Investment in Black Education and Training: Rescuing South African Capitalism from Apartheid's Crisis.

    Kraak, Andre


    Discusses: (1) the factors contributing to increased involvement by South African business and industry in Black education and training; (2) the Urban Foundation's commitment to non-formal education in Black communities; (3) intervention by American corporations; and (4) the dramatic failure of capitalist initiatives. Contains 55 references. (SV)

  3. Differences in Students' Reading Comprehension of International Financial Reporting Standards: A South African Case

    Coetzee, Stephen A.; Janse van Rensburg, Cecile; Schmulian, Astrid


    This study explores differences in students' reading comprehension of International Financial Reporting Standards in a South African financial reporting class with a heterogeneous student cohort. Statistically significant differences were identified for prior academic performance, language of instruction, first language and enrolment in the…

  4. South Africa in African an in the International System

    Mandrup, Thomas

    Much have been said and written about the rising powers of the BRICS and the implications for the current global order. However, the BRICS are not a harmonious group, and discrepancies between the different BRICS states can be found both in terms of actual size, regional role and power, but also......-Saharan African (SSA) states....

  5. Managing Teaching and Learning in South African Schools

    Bush, Tony; Joubert, Rika; Kiggundu, Edith; van Rooyen, Jean


    This paper examines the significance of leadership and management in enhancing classroom practice and improving learner outcomes in two provinces of South Africa. It is increasingly recognised, internationally and in South Africa, that managing teaching and learning is one of the most important activities for principals and other school leaders.…

  6. The South African Higher Education System: Performance and Policy

    Cloete, Nico


    Transformation in higher education in South Africa over the last 20 years has been strongly shaped by post-apartheid pressures. Recent research shows that South Africa's current higher education system can be described as medium knowledge-producing and differentiated, with low participation and high attrition. In the decade following 1994,…


    AE Boniface


    Full Text Available Both Western-styled mediation and African-styled mediation are practised in South Africa. Each of these models is applied in specific social contexts. In this article a brief explanation of what is meant by the term divorce and family mediation is provided. Thereafter the principles and processes of both Western-styled divorce and family mediation and African-styled group mediation are explored. Attention is given to the roles of mediators in both of these models as well as the ubuntu-styled values found in African group mediation. In Africa, there is a tradition of family neighbourhood negotiation facilitated by elders and an attitude of togetherness in the spirit of humanhood. Both of these show a commitment to the community concerned and a comprehensive view of life. In Africa conflicts are viewed as non-isolated events and are viewed in their social contexts. Not only are consequences for the disputing parties taken into account but also consequences for others in their families. These methods can be found in present-day methods, which are either used independently of imported Western structures or used alternatively to such structures. In this article the concept of mediation circles, as currently found in Western-styled mediation are also covered. Additionally, the provisions of the Children’s Act 38 of 2005 referring to mediation as well as the provisions of the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 and family group conferencing in the realm of restorative justice in South Africa are critiqued. It is suggested that divorce and family mediation can learn from the principles of restorative justice applied during family group conferencing as well as from African-styled group mediation.

  8. African-American Women in the Professoriate: Addressing Social Exclusion and Scholarly Marginalization through Mentoring

    Lloyd-Jones, Brenda


    African-American women and other underrepresented faculty members often report experiences of social exclusion and scholarly marginalization in mainstream institutions of higher education. This lack of inclusion challenges their retention and hinders them from becoming productive members of the professoriate, positioning them at a disadvantage for…

  9. Addressing Career Success Issues of African Americans in the Workplace: An Undergraduate Business Program Intervention

    White, Belinda Johnson


    Career success as measured by the objective, traditional criteria of the composite of high number of promotions, high annual compensation, and high organizational level in corporate America has eluded the majority of African Americans. This article describes an undergraduate business program career success intervention designed to assist African…

  10. Modelling in support of decision-making for South African extensive beef farmers

    D.H. Meyer


    Full Text Available In this study it is shown that it is possible to build a decision support system for the use of South African extensive beef farmers. Initially models for the key variables which affect extensive beef farmers are developed. These key variables include rainfall, beef, veal and weaner prices and the condition of the veld. This last key variable is monitored using the voluntary lick intake of the cattle and is modelled in terms of rainfall and stocking intensity. Particular attention is paid to the interrelationships between the key variables and to the distribution of modelling errors. The next stage of the study concerns the use of these models as a decision-support tool for extensive beef farmers. It is shown that Monte Carlo simulations and dynamic programming analyses can use these models to suggest how gross margins can be increased. At the same time these methods can be used to monitor the effect of management decisions on mean lick intake and, hence, the effect of these decisions on the condition of the veld. In particular the decisions of "what stocking intensity", "what cattle system", "when to sell" and "when to make a change" are addressed.

  11. Rock drills used in South African mines: a comparative study of noise and vibration levels

    J.I. Phillips; P.S. Heyns; G. Nelson [National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg (South Africa). National Institute for Occupational Health


    The study compared the noise and vibration levels associated with three hand-held rock drills (pneumatic, hydraulic and electric) currently used in South African mines, and a prototype acoustically shielded self-propelled rock drill. Equivalent A-weighted sound pressure levels were recorded on a geometrical grid, using Rion NL-11 and NL-14 sound level meters. Vibration measurements were conducted on the pneumatic, hydraulic and electric drills in accordance with the ISO 5349-1 (2001) international standard on human exposure to hand-transmitted vibration, using a Brel and Kjaer UA0894 hand adaptor. PCB Piezo accelerometers were used to measure vibration in three orthogonal directions. No vibration measurements were conducted on the self-propelled drill. All four drills emitted noise exceeding 85 dB(A). The pneumatic drill reached levels of up to 114 dB(A), while the shielded self-propelled drill almost complied with the 85 dB(A) 8 h exposure limit. Vibration levels of up to 31 m s{sup -2} were recorded. These levels greatly exceed recommended and legislated levels. Significant engineering advances will need to be made in the manufacture of rock drills to impact on noise induced hearing loss and hand arm vibration syndrome. Isolating the operator from the drill, as for the self-propelled drill, addresses the problems of both vibration and noise exposure, and is a possible direction for future development.

  12. Relationship between sustainable development initiatives and improved company financial performance: A South African perspective

    Darelle Groenewald


    Full Text Available Orientation: Companies are under ever-increasing pressure from both internal and external stakeholders to consider the environmental and social impacts of their operations and to mitigate these impacts. This necessitates an investigation into the effect of sustainability initiatives on the financial performance (FP of a company.Research purpose: The study analysed the relationship between sustainability performance and FP in South African listed companies.Motivation for the study: Some South African listed companies acknowledge in their sustainability reports that there is a link between sustainability development and long-term shareholder value. This implies that FP is linked to sustainable development performance. This relationship has not been researched for South African listed companies and therefore needs to be investigated.Research design, approach and method: A similar research method was used as for an international study. Forty-five listed South African companies were selected as the sample. Their sustainable development reports were used for analysis. Data were analysed with the use of content and a canonical correlation analysis.Main findings: The results of the study revealed that an overall positive relationship exists between sustainability performance and FP. Practical implications: South African companies that have a high involvement and focus on specific sustainable development initiatives that are integrated into overall sustainable development strategy can deliver improved FP for the organisation and deliver long-term value to its shareholders.Contribution: Six sustainable development aspects were found to be significantly correlated with improved FP and if incorporated into a company’s sustainable development strategy can lead to increased successes.

  13. The password practices applied by South African online consumers: Perception versus reality

    Rika Butler


    Full Text Available Background: The ability to identify and authenticate users is regarded as the foundation of computer security. Although new authentication technologies are evolving, passwords are the most common method used to control access in most computer systems. Research suggests that a large portion of computer security password breaches are the result of poor user security behaviour. The password creation and management practices that online consumers apply have a direct effect on the level of computer security and are often targeted in attacks. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate South African online consumers’ computer password security practices and to determine whether consumers’ perceptions regarding their password security ability is reflected in the password creation and management practices that they apply. Method: A Web-based survey was designed to (1 determine online consumers’ perceptions of their skills and competence in respect of computer password security and (2 determine the practices that South African online consumers apply when creating and managing passwords. The measures applied were then compared to (1 the users’ perceptions about their computer password security abilities and (2 the results of international studies to determine agreement and inconsistencies. Results: South African online consumers regard themselves as proficient password users. However, various instances of unsafe passwords practices were identified. The results of this South African study correspond with the results of various international studies confirming that challenges to ensure safe online transacting are in line with international challenges. Conclusion: There is a disparity between South African online consumers’ perceived ability regarding computer password security and the password creation and management practices that they apply.

  14. The Assessment Of Intellectual Capital (Ic In The South African Context – A Qualitative Approach

    Marius De Beer


    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to report on an investigation into IC as portrayed by thought leaders and research groups, against a South African background. An attempt was made to clarify relevant terminology, develop a model and methodology for South African application, and assess the status of IC within the South Africa context through a qualitative methodology using Focus Groups. Results indicated that IC in South Africa is still in the infancy stage. However, models and methodologies developed in other continents could with changes be applied in the South African context. OpsommingDie doel van hierdie artikel is om verslag te doen oor die ondersoek na Intellektuele Kapitaal (IK soos voorgestel deur vakkundiges en navorsingsgroepe, teen die agtergrond van die Suid Afrikaanse situasie. ’n Poging is aangewend om tersaaklike terminologie te verklaar, ’n model en metodologie vir Suid Afrikaanse aanwending te ontwikkel, en dit sowel as die status van IK in die Suid Afrikaanse omgewing te ondersoek deur middel van ’n kwalitatiewe metodologie, naamlik fokusgroepe. IK in Suid Afrika is steeds in die kinderskoene. Modelle en metodologieë ontwikkel in ander lande kan egter met aanpassings aangewend word vir aanwending in die Suid Afrikaanse omgewing.

  15. An example of change - the end of apartheid in the South African coal industry


    This publication reports on a visit by four British MPs to the South African Coal Industry (SACI), made under the auspices of the SACI Committee which represents all the major coal exporting companies of South Africa. It is a private industry which operates independently of both the Government and the Chamber of Mines and does not benefit from any Government Subsidies. The aim of the visit was to investigate the SACI against a background of international pressure against an industry which appears to be a major example of change in South Africa. The visit programme included presentations on the South African coal industry in general, industrial relations and safety and research in the mining industry. Visits were made to both an underground mine and an opencast mine, a collieries training college, hospital, school, mine village and a coal terminal. At the end of the visit the delegation drew the conclusions that the South African coal industry is now organised on a totally non-discriminatory basis, offering employment and promotion opportunities to all workers regardless of their race and that there is therefore no justification for singling out this industry as a victim of sanctions policy.

  16. Investigating the relationship between work values and work ethics: A South African perspective

    Petronella Jonck


    Full Text Available Orientation: As a result of the proliferation of unethical behaviour in the workplace, the study of work ethics has received new impetus.Research purpose: The research study sought to determine the relationship between work ethics and work values, with the objective of determining whether work ethics statistically significantly predict work values.Motivation for the study: As work ethics (i.e. behavioural intent are a determinant of work values (i.e. overt behaviour, researchers are investigating their potential in preventing unethical behaviour.Research design, approach and method: A descriptive quantitative research design was employed in the study. A survey was conducted using the Multidimensional Work Ethic Profile and the Values Scale, which in previous studies have produced acceptable Cronbach’s alpha coefficients. Data were collected from 301 respondents in one geographical area in South Africa.Main findings: Work values did not appear to be highly esteemed by respondents, as only 6 of the 22 dimensions had a positive score. However, all seven dimensions of work ethics had positive scores. A negative correlation was found between work ethics and work values. In addition, work ethics predicted 9% of the variance in work values, providing sufficient evidence to accept the postulated research hypothesis.Practical implications: The findings of the study could be used by human resource managers to promote ethical behaviour, by focusing not only on work ethics but also on the relationship between work ethics and work values.Contribution: The study provides evidence of a relationship between work ethics and work behaviours, such as work values, within the South African context, and it thus addresses a research gap in this area.

  17. Mediation of an efficacious HIV risk reduction intervention for South African men.

    O'Leary, Ann; Jemmott, John B; Jemmott, Loretta S; Bellamy, Scarlett; Icard, Larry D; Ngwane, Zolani


    "Men, Together Making a Difference!" is an HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention that significantly increased self-reported consistent condom use during vaginal intercourse compared with a health-promotion attention-control intervention among men (N = 1181) in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The present analyses were designed to identify mediators of the intervention's efficacy. The potential mediators were Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) constructs that the intervention targeted, including several aspects of condom-use self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and knowledge. Mediation was assessed using a product-of-coefficients approach where an α path (the intervention's effect on the potential mediator) and a β path (the potential mediator's effect on the outcome of interest, adjusting for intervention) were estimated independently in a generalized estimating equations framework. Condom-use negotiation self-efficacy, technical-skill self-efficacy, and impulse-control self-efficacy were significant mediators. Although not mediators, descriptive norm and expected friends' approval of condom use predicted subsequent self-reported condom use, whereas the expected approval of sexual partner did not. The present results suggest that HIV/STD risk-reduction interventions that draw upon SCT and that address self-efficacy to negotiate condom use, to apply condoms correctly, and to exercise sufficient control when sexually aroused to use condoms may contribute to efforts to reduce sexual risk behavior among South African men. Future research must examine whether approaches that build normative support for condom use among men's friends are also efficacious.

  18. Body Image Satisfaction, Eating Attitudes and Perceptions of Female Body Silhouettes in Rural South African Adolescents.

    Titilola M Pedro

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26, and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS. Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal ( 2. Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all p<0.001. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5% of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter. The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001. There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be "unhappy" and "weak" and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the "best". These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents.

  19. South Africa

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn


    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South Afr...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits....

  20. Constructing the autobiographical self, collective identity and spiritual spaces in South African queer autobiography

    Barrington M. Marais


    Full Text Available This article examines four recent collections of South African queer autobiographies. These are: Hijab: Unveiling queer Muslim lives, Yes I am! Writing by South African gay men,Reclaiming the L-word: Sappho’s daughters out in Africa and Trans: Transgender life stories from South Africa. Selected narratives from each collection have been analysed in order to exhibit the relational nature of autobiographical self-construction through an exploration of how it is specifically constructed in spiritual or religious spaces. The ubuntu theology of Archbishop Emeritus Desmond Tutu is analysed as it intersects with representations of spirituality and religion in the texts. This article seeks to highlight the socio-political value of the texts and their functioning as important tools in the struggle for equality in which the queer minority currently find themselves.

  1. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, Crohn's disease and HLA-B27 in black South African women.

    Buchel, O C; Bosch, F J; Janse van Rensburg, J; Bezuidenhout, E; de Vries, C S; van Zyl, J H; Middlecote, B D; de K Grundling, H; Fevery, J


    Crohn's disease is rare in South African black people and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is also rare in black patients with IBD, from South Africa. The presence of HLA-B27 is generally associated with seronegative spondylo-arthropathies and correlates with the occurrence of ankylosing spondylitis, recurrent mouth ulcers and uveitis, in patients with IBD. We describe two women with the combination of Crohn's disease, PSC and HLA-B27 from our cohort of the last 5 years of three black patients with Crohn's disease. Crohn's disease, PSC and HLA-B27 respectively, occur rarely in black South Africans and their concurrent presence in two black women suggests a pathogenetic link of HLA-B27 between Crohn's disease and PSC in this population. Female gender might be an additional determinant in this setting.

  2. Patterns of family interaction in South African interracial marriages.


    M.A. This study was prompted by the thousands of frustrated interracial couples who were either compelled to hide their relationships or leave South Africa in order to get married or live where interracial relationships and marriages were permitted. This pattern occurred during the apartheid era, before the repeal of the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act and Section 16 of the Immorality Act. After the repeal of these Acts, the number of interracial couples in South Africa increased as ind...

  3. Sample views of African post-graduate students regarding English and the African languages as media of education in African schools in South Africa

    Abram L. Mawasha


    Full Text Available Although African post-graduates recognise the importance of African languages in the education of African children in South Africa, most of them are of the opinion that English should not only be taught as a language from grade 1, but should also be preferred as the main language of instruction for African children from the outset of schooling. In the ensuing pilot study which involved 50 post-graduates, 68% expressed this opinion as against the rest who preferred a variety of other options. The study comments on the implications of these findings for the new democratic language in education policy. Hoewel die belangrikheid van Afrikatale in die onderwys van leerlinge wie se huistale dit is, deur nagraadse studente wat ook Afrikatale praat, er ken word, me en die meeste van hulle dat Engels nie slegs as 'n taal onderrig moet word van graad 1 af nie, maar ook verkies behoort te word as die hooftaa/ van onderrig vir sulke leerlinge van die begin van hul skoolloopbaan af In die /oodsstudie wat onderneem is onder 50 nagraadse studente, het 68% hierdie mening uitgespreek Hierdie studie behandel die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge vir die nuwe demokratiese taal-in-onderwysbeleid

  4. Exploring the current application of professional competencies in human resource management in the South African context

    Nico Schutte


    Full Text Available Orientation: Human research (HR practitioners have an important role to play in the sustainability and competitiveness of organisations. Yet their strategic contribution and the value they add remain unrecognised.Research purpose: The main objective of this research was to explore the extent to which HR practitioners are currently allowed to display HR competencies in the workplace, and whether any significant differences exist between perceived HR competencies, based on the respondents’ demographic characteristics.Motivation for the study: Limited empirical research exists on the extent to which HR practitioners are allowed to display key competencies in the South African workplace.Research approach, design, and method: A quantitative research approach was followed. A Human Resource Management Professional Competence Questionnaire was administered to HR practitioners and managers (N = 481.Main findings: The results showed that HR competencies are poorly applied in selected South African workplaces. The competencies that were indicated as having the poorest application were talent management, HR metrics, HR business knowledge, and innovation. The white ethic group experienced a poorer application of all human research management (HRM competencies compared to the black African ethnic group.Practical/managerial implications: The findings of the research highlighted the need for management to evaluate the current application of HR practices in the workplace and also the extent to which HR professionals are involved as strategic business partners.Contribution/value-add: This research highlights the need for the current application of HR competencies in South African workplaces to be improved.

  5. South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA: Solifugae (sun-spiders of the national parks and reserves of South Africa (Arachnida, Solifugae

    A.S. Dippenaar-Schoeman


    Full Text Available As part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA inventories are underway to determine the diversity of the South African Arachnida fauna (Dippenaar- Schoeman & Craemer 2000. Several SANSA projects are in progress, including inventories of the arachnid faunas of protected areas. One such project is an inventory of the Solifugae (sun spiders from protected areas. Meaningful conservation can not take place if the species involved are not known.

  6. Bibliometric analysis of publications by South African viticulture and oenology research centres

    Rafael Aleixandre-Benavent


    Full Text Available We analysed the production, impact factor of, and scientific collaboration involved in viticulture and oenology articles associated with South African research centres published in international journals during the period 1990–2009. The articles under scrutiny were obtained from the Science Citation Index database, accessed via the Web of Knowledge platform. The search strategy employed specific viticulture and oenology terms and was restricted to the field ‘topic’. The results showed that 406 articles were published during the review period, with the most number of publications being in the South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture (n = 34, American Journal of Enology and Viticulture (n = 16 and Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (n = 16. The articles were published by 851 authors from 236 institutions. The collaboration rate was 3.7 authors per article, having grown over the two decades examined. The most productive institutions (i.e. those receiving a greater number of citations were Stellenbosch University (219 published articles and 2592 citations and the Agricultural Research Council (49 published articles and 454 citations, both from South Africa. Graphical representation of co-authorship networks identified 18 groups of authors and a single network of institutions whose core is Stellenbosch University. In conclusion, we have identified a significant growth in South African viticulture and oenology research in recent years, with a high degree of internationalisation and a constant level of domestic collaboration.

  7. Reconsidering the role of power, punishment and discipline in South African schools

    E. Venter


    Full Text Available This article examines the role of discipline and punishment in South African schools and seeks to interrogate the underlying power relations that guide teaching and learning in South Africa. It deconstructs the pre-occupation with discipline, power and punishment in South African schools in terms of the theoretical framework provided by Michel Foucault in his work entitled “Surveiller et punir: naissance de la prison” (1975 which was translated as “Discipline and punish: the birth of the prison”(1977. It was Foucault who reminded us that the modern school is based on Prussian military ideals of punctuality, discipline, neatness and submissiveness to authority. Foucault tends to see schooling as one side of “corriger”, which is to punish or to teach. Education as “correction” is therefore regarded as the antipode of authoritarian punishment. Foucault draws attention to the subtle tactics and constraints beneath the surface of proclaimed bourgeois freedom. It was found that in South African schools the problem of authoritarian punishment is still rife. From the readings of Foucault’s works suggestions are made for changes to the system and to teachers’ mental attitude in order to move to a more constructive way of maintaining power and discipline.

  8. Eocene primates of South America and the African origins of New World monkeys.

    Bond, Mariano; Tejedor, Marcelo F; Campbell, Kenneth E; Chornogubsky, Laura; Novo, Nelson; Goin, Francisco


    The platyrrhine primates, or New World monkeys, are immigrant mammals whose fossil record comes from Tertiary and Quaternary sediments of South America and the Caribbean Greater Antilles. The time and place of platyrrhine origins are some of the most controversial issues in primate palaeontology, although an African Palaeogene ancestry has been presumed by most primatologists. Until now, the oldest fossil records of New World monkeys have come from Salla, Bolivia, and date to approximately 26 million years ago, or the Late Oligocene epoch. Here we report the discovery of new primates from the ?Late Eocene epoch of Amazonian Peru, which extends the fossil record of primates in South America back approximately 10 million years. The new specimens are important for understanding the origin and early evolution of modern platyrrhine primates because they bear little resemblance to any extinct or living South American primate, but they do bear striking resemblances to Eocene African anthropoids, and our phylogenetic analysis suggests a relationship with African taxa. The discovery of these new primates brings the first appearance datum of caviomorph rodents and primates in South America back into close correspondence, but raises new questions about the timing and means of arrival of these two mammalian groups.

  9. Eocene primates of South America and the African origins of New World monkeys

    Bond, Mariano; Tejedor, Marcelo F.; Campbell, Kenneth E.; Chornogubsky, Laura; Novo, Nelson; Goin, Francisco


    The platyrrhine primates, or New World monkeys, are immigrant mammals whose fossil record comes from Tertiary and Quaternary sediments of South America and the Caribbean Greater Antilles. The time and place of platyrrhine origins are some of the most controversial issues in primate palaeontology, although an African Palaeogene ancestry has been presumed by most primatologists. Until now, the oldest fossil records of New World monkeys have come from Salla, Bolivia, and date to approximately 26 million years ago, or the Late Oligocene epoch. Here we report the discovery of new primates from the ?Late Eocene epoch of Amazonian Peru, which extends the fossil record of primates in South America back approximately 10 million years. The new specimens are important for understanding the origin and early evolution of modern platyrrhine primates because they bear little resemblance to any extinct or living South American primate, but they do bear striking resemblances to Eocene African anthropoids, and our phylogenetic analysis suggests a relationship with African taxa. The discovery of these new primates brings the first appearance datum of caviomorph rodents and primates in South America back into close correspondence, but raises new questions about the timing and means of arrival of these two mammalian groups.


    Thean Potgieter


    Full Text Available Though the history of the South African Navy (SAN only dates back to 1922, for most of its history it depended on Britain for warships. The British Royal Navy on the other hand had an unbroken involvement with maritime defence along the South African Coast and the protection of the Cape Sea Route from 1806 to 1975 (when the Simon’s Town Agreement was cancelled. However, political tension between South Africa’s apartheid government and Britain caused a break in this relationship, forcing the SAN to acquire warships from alternative sources.A number of South African efforts to acquire corvettes failed during the 1970s, leaving the strike craft project as the only major warship project of the SAN to succeed for close to three decades. This project had an overseas as well as a local building phase. As part of the overseas phase, a project team was dispatched to Israel in 1975 to oversee the building and commissioning into the SAN, of three strike craft. The project team consisted of the Armaments Board (AB, Armscor after 1977 team as well as the SAN project team. While the AB/Armscor had to oversee the building process, the SAN team had to prepare to take the vessels into service.

  11. Managing trauma in the South African mining industry.

    Maiden, R Paul


    Deep sub-surface mining is one of South Africa s leading industries. It is also one of the most dangerous. While safety is maintained as much as possible to minimize cave-ins and other accidents, underground tremors and earthquakes are commonplace and unpredictable and usually involve life threatening injuries and loss of life. Crisis intervention and trauma management are essential to helping workers cope with mining accidents. This article describes the trauma management program developed by the employee assistance program at the Chamber of Mines in South Africa to respond to workplace accidents.

  12. Junctophilin 3 (JPH3) expansion mutations causing Huntington disease like 2 (HDL2) are common in South African patients with African ancestry and a Huntington disease phenotype.

    Krause, Amanda; Mitchell, Claire; Essop, Fahmida; Tager, Susan; Temlett, James; Stevanin, Giovanni; Ross, Christopher; Rudnicki, Dobrila; Margolis, Russell


    Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by abnormal movements, cognitive decline, and psychiatric symptoms, caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene on chromosome 4p. A CAG/CTG repeat expansion in the junctophilin-3 (JPH3) gene on chromosome 16q24.2 causes a Huntington disease-like phenotype (HDL2). All patients to date with HDL2 have some African ancestry. The present study aimed to characterize the genetic basis of the Huntington disease phenotype in South Africans and to investigate the possible origin of the JPH3 mutation. In a sample of unrelated South African individuals referred for diagnostic HD testing, 62% (106/171) of white patients compared to only 36% (47/130) of black patients had an expansion in HTT. However, 15% (20/130) of black South African patients and no white patients (0/171) had an expansion in JPH3, confirming the diagnosis of Huntington disease like 2 (HDL2). Individuals with HDL2 share many clinical features with individuals with HD and are clinically indistinguishable in many cases, although the average age of onset and diagnosis in HDL2 is 5 years later than HD and individual clinical features may be more prominent. HDL2 mutations contribute significantly to the HD phenotype in South Africans with African ancestry. JPH3 haplotype studies in 31 families, mainly from South Africa and North America, provide evidence for a founder mutation and support a common African origin for all HDL2 patients. Molecular testing in individuals with an HD phenotype and African ancestry should include testing routinely for JPH3 mutations.

  13. The mirror has two faces: dissociative identity disorder and the defence of pathological criminal incapacity--a South African criminal law perspective.

    Stevens, Philip


    Dissociative identity disorder poses numerous medico legal issues whenever the insanity defence emerges. Within the context of the South African criminal law, the impact of dissociative identity disorder on criminal responsibility has only been addressed very briefly in one decided case. Various questions arise as to the impact that the distinctive diagnostic features of dissociative identity disorder could possibly have on the defence of pathological criminal incapacity, or better known as the insanity defence, within the ambit of the South African criminal law. In this contribution the author reflects on the mental disorder known as dissociative identity disorder or multiple personality disorder, against the backdrop of the defence of pathological criminal incapacity. Reflections are also provided pertaining to the various medico legal issues at stake whenever this defence has to be adjudicated upon.

  14. Sources of Stress: Perceptions of South African TESOL Teachers

    Bowen, Amanda


    This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study investigating which factors inside and outside the classroom result in feelings of stress for TESOL teachers working at private language schools in South Africa. Using in-depth semi-structured interviews, the findings reveal three main areas that cause stress for TESOL teachers: the job of…

  15. Exploring South African Mathematics Teachers' Experiences of Learner Migration

    Robertson, Sally-Ann; Graven, Mellony


    This paper focuses on patterns of post-apartheid learner migration between schools previously segregated along racial lines. South Africa's shift away from cultural and linguistic isolationism and the ways this has impacted educational arrangements in this country, most particularly in relation to the language of learning and teaching, affects…

  16. South African Deaf Education and the Deaf Community

    Storbeck, Claudine, Ed.; Martin, David, Ed.


    In a special section of the "American Annals of the Deaf", Deaf education and the Deaf community in South Africa are discussed. The special section is organized into 7 segments: a historical overview to establish context, the educational context, educators and learners, postgraduate education and employment, perspectives of Deaf children and their…

  17. Quartz exposure in agriculture: literature review and South African survey.

    Swanepoel, A.J.; Rees, D.; Renton, K.; Swanepoel, C.; Kromhout, H.; Gardiner, K.


    OBJECTIVES: To review the published literature on respirable quartz exposure and associated disease in agricultural related settings systematically and to describe personal respirable dust and quartz measurements collected on a sandy soil farm in the Free State province of South Africa. METHODS: The

  18. The South African Border War (1966 - 1989) a Case Study

    Møller, Hans Henrik


    rivaling tribes. The post-colonial states, which subsequently emerged from the struggle, were mostly characterized by dictatorships, instability, and poverty and often with a mainly Marxist political agenda. In contrast South Africa was not ruled by any colonial power and continued throughout...

  19. Improvement in South African Students' Outlook Due to Music Involvement

    Roy, Michael M.; Devroop, Karendra; Getz, Laura


    In the spring of 2009, we started a concert band programme at a high school in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. In the fall of 2011, we returned to the school to measure the impact of participating in a concert band on the students' attitude and outlook. During our initial and return visits, we measured feelings of self-esteem, optimism, positive…

  20. Urban agriculture and urban poverty alleviation: South African debates

    Christian M. Rogerson


    Growing international attention has focussed on the potential role of urban agriculture in poverty alleviation. The aim in this paper is to analyse the existing challenge of urban poverty in South Africa and examine the potential role of urban agriculture as a component of a pro-poor urban development strategy.

  1. South African Curriculum Reform: Education for Active Citizenship

    Smith, Juliana; Arendse, Agnetha


    The changing societal context in South Africa (SA) has necessitated curriculum reform to deal with the challenges of education, from apartheid to democracy, with the aim of promoting active citizenship education. The aim of the paper is thus to illuminate to what extent the Grade 11 Life Orientation (LO) curriculum prepares learners for active…

  2. The Doctoral Degree in Geography: A South African Perspective

    Meadows, Michael E.


    Enrolments in doctoral degrees in South Africa mirror international trends and there is a strong national policy emphasis on these higher qualifications to fulfil needs, not only of the academy, but also of the economy and broader society. There are significant constraints, however, including the historical legacy of apartheid that has left the…

  3. The Role of Democratic Governing Bodies in South African Schools.

    Karlsson, Jenni


    School governance reform in post-apartheid South Africa aimed to democratize schooling while accommodating diverse school histories of underdevelopment or self-management. Analysis of relevant legislation shows the reform was structured to allow representative democracy and partnerships. But two recent studies suggest that governance reforms have…

  4. Journal of South African Trip: January 14-March 1, 1986.

    Rogers, Carl R.


    Provides a personal account, dictated en route, of Carl Rogers' experiences during his trip to South Africa. Documents extensive commitment to people and to a process leading to peace. Journal ends with conviction that violence can be avoided and that no group really wants violence. (Author)

  5. Christian Hip Hop as Pedagogy: A South African Case Study

    Abraham, Ibrahim


    Drawing on interviews with creators of Christian hip hop music in South Africa, this article demonstrates that this genre of popular music and youth culture is utilised as a form of pedagogy to transmit religious beliefs and values to contemporary youth. The pedagogical aspects of hip hop have been recognised in research on the topic, but the…


    Izelle du Plessis


    Full Text Available There are different opinions as to the process whereby double taxation agreements (DTAs are incorporated into South African law. This contribution aims to discuss some of the existing opinions and to offer a further perspective on the matter. At the heart of the debate lies the interpretation of two provisions, namely section 231 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa and section 108 of the Income Tax Act and the interaction between the two. This contribution argues that South Africa's DTAs are not self-executing (a term referred to in section 231(4 of the Constitution and should therefore be enacted into law by national legislation. It is furthermore argued that section 108(2 of the Income Tax Act enables a DTA to be incorporated into South African domestic law, by means of publication in the Government Gazette. An analysis of the case law supports this argument. Whether or not DTAs are regarded as self-executing, the status of a DTA in relation to the Income Tax Act still has to be determined. In other words, once the DTA forms part of South African domestic law, does it rank higher, lower or on a par with the Income Tax Act? It is submitted that the status of DTAs in South Africa is determined by the Constitution. It is furthermore submitted that South Africa's DTAs do not attain a status on the same level as the Constitution and that the Constitution allows for the possibility that South Africa's DTAs may be overridden by subsequent legislation (for example, by amendments to the Income Tax Act. Whether or not an override will take place in a specific case should, it is submitted, be determined by the application of the principles of statutory interpretation which apply in the case of conflict. Although this latter submission finds support in the minority judgement in Glenister, both the AM Moolla and Tradehold decisions express contrary views. The hope is expressed that the South African courts will provide clarity on this

  7. Health challenges in South African automotive companies: Wellness in the workplace

    Anna Meyer-Weitz


    Full Text Available Orientation: In South Africa, workplace programmes in the automotive industry focus predominantly on occupational health and safety and HIV and AIDS. The implementation of focused workplace interventions might be hampered when companies are not convinced that the condition (i.e. HIV and AIDS is the main negative health influencing factor responsible for increased production costs.Research purpose: The study investigated the health influencing conditions perceived to negatively impact company production costs and related interventions.Motivation for the study: Apart from HIV and AIDS, little information is available about the health challenges in the South African workplace and focused HIV and AIDS programmes might only partly respond to the key health challenges of workplaces. The inter-relatedness of various risky lifestyle factors linked to health conditions necessitates a comprehensive health promotion approach.Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 74 companies selected through stratified random sampling. Non-parametric tests were conducted to investigate the health influencing factors perceived to impact production costs, the monitoring thereof, extent of containment and the implementation of interventions in terms of company size and ownership.Main findings: The health factors perceived to have a moderate to large impact were HIV and AIDS, smoking, alcohol use, stress, back and neck ache and tuberculosis, also reported to be better monitored and managed by medium and large organisations. Small organisations reported a smaller impact, fewer efforts and less success. HIV and AIDS programmes were more evident in large companies and those with wellness programmes (52%. Workplace programmes enabled better monitoring and managing of impacting health conditions. Smaller organisations were not convinced of the benefits of interventions in addressing health challenges.Practical/managerial implications

  8. Nurturing a service orientated paradigm of management within a traditionally manufacturing enterprise: A South African case study

    Richard Weeks


    the literature and practice as reflected in the enterprise concerned. As only a single case study was undertaken it is acknowledged that the research concerned needs to be extended in scope to gain a far more representative insight into the validity of the correlating insights gained from this research study. South African research in relation to servitization would seem to be extremely limited in extent and this paper needs to be seen as an attempt to address the knowledge base, from a South African perspective, and not as providing a fully fledged servitization research study. Findings: Findings indicate that the incorporation of services necessitates fundamental changes to the enterprises' essentially manufacturing dominant business model and the socio-cultural context, often termed to be "the way things are done around here". This has very fundamental implications in terms of nuance differences in paradigms of management. Value of the research: Increasingly South African manufacturing enterprises are incorporating services into their value proposition offered to clients and the research findings could be used to mitigate some of the possible pitfalls in managing paradigmatic shifts involved in implementing a servitization strategy.Conclusion: A primary conclusion drawn from the study is that the implementation of a servitization strategy entails some very fundamental changes in manufacturing paradigms of management. The paradigms that underpin a service science based dominant logic of management have very fundament nuance differences, which if not addressed could derail the servitization strategy in implementation.

  9. Evidence for a common founder effect amongst South African and Zambian individuals with Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7.

    Smith, Danielle C; Atadzhanov, Masharip; Mwaba, Mwila; Greenberg, Leslie Jacqueline


    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a CAG repeat within the ataxin 7 gene, leading to a pathogenic polyglutamine tract within the ataxin 7 protein. SCA7 patients suffer from progressive cerebellar ataxia and macular degeneration. SCA7 is considered to be rare, although founder effects have been reported in South Africa, Scandinavia and Mexico. The South African SCA7-associated haplotype has not been investigated in any other populations, and there have been limited reports of SCA7 patients from other African countries. Here, we describe the first two ethnic Zambian families with confirmed SCA7. Haplotype analysis showed that the South African SCA7 haplotype alleles were significantly associated with the pathogenic expansion in affected Zambian individuals, providing strong evidence for a shared founder effect between South African and Zambian SCA7 patients.

  10. The South African wildlife ranching sector: A Social Accounting Matrix Leontief multiplier analysis

    Philippus C. Cloete


    Full Text Available Orientation: There is startlingly little economic research on the South African wildlife sector which contributes toward disputes regarding the economic contribution of the sector.Research purpose: The purpose of this article is to put into context the relative economic contribution of the wildlife ranching sector, as opposed to other land-use options in South Africa.Motivation for the study: Growth in the wildlife ranching sector at the cost of other traditional farming practices resulted in disagreements amongst various role players about the impact thereof on the national economy. The controversy can most probably be explained by different beliefs, coupled with the lack of a proper understanding and quantification of the wildlife ranching sector’s contribution toward the economy.Research methodology: The study employed a Social Accounting Matrix-based Leontief multiplier analysis for South Africa.Main findings: Results from the multiplier analysis revealed that developments within the wildlife ranching sector are likely to make a relatively more superior contribution towards the economy, especially when compared to similar land-use options such as extensive livestock production.Practical/managerial implications: It has been acknowledged by both academia and private sector that a major need exists for more research on the South African wildlife ranching industry, specifically looking at issues such as the industries, economic and social contributions, potentials and constraints. The research, therefore, contributes toward the depth of economic information and research regarding the South African wildlife sector.Contribution/value added: The research provides valuable information in dealing with the ‘popular belief’, especially amongst some of South Africa’s decision makers, namely, that growth in the wildlife ranching sector is not or does not have the ability to contribute significantly toward economic and socioeconomic factors.

  11. The South African triage scale (adult version provides valid acuity ratings when used by doctors and enrolled nursing assistants

    Michèle Twomey


    Conclusion: The results of this study fall within the accepted range of over-/under-triage and indicate that the South African Triage Scale is valid when used by emergency physicians and nurses to triage emergency centre vignettes under South African conditions. Further research into appropriate reference ranges for extent of over-/under-triage and over-/under-prediction within each acuity level is recommended.

  12. The hemorrhagic fevers of Southern Africa with special reference to studies in the South African Institute for Medical Research.


    In this review of studies on the hemorrhagic fevers of Southern Africa carried out in the South African Institute for Medical Research, attention has been called to occurrence of meningococcal septicemia in recruits to the mining industry and South African Army, to cases of staphylococcal and streptococcal septicemia with hemorrhagic manifestations, and to the occurrence of plague which, in its septicemic form, may cause a hemorrhagic state. "Onyalai," a bleeding disease in tropical Africa, o...

  13. A preliminary study to assess the construct validity of a cultural intelligence measure on a South African sample


    Orientation: Cultural intelligence is an essential social competence for effective individual interaction in a cross-cultural context. The cultural intelligence scale (CQS) is used extensively for assessing cultural intelligence; nevertheless, its reliability and validity on a South African sample are yet to be ascertained.Research purpose: The purpose of the current study was to assess the construct validity of the CQS on a South African sample. The results of the psychometric assessment off...

  14. Reducing refugee mental health disparities: a community-based intervention to address postmigration stressors with African adults.

    Goodkind, Jessica R; Hess, Julia M; Isakson, Brian; LaNoue, Marianna; Githinji, Ann; Roche, Natalie; Vadnais, Kathryn; Parker, Danielle P


    Refugees resettled in the United States have disproportionately high rates of psychological distress. Research has demonstrated the roles of postmigration stressors, including lack of meaningful social roles, poverty, unemployment, lack of environmental mastery, discrimination, limited English proficiency, and social isolation. We report a multimethod, within-group longitudinal pilot study involving the adaptation for African refugees of a community-based advocacy and learning intervention to address postmigration stressors. We found the intervention to be feasible, acceptable, and appropriate for African refugees. Growth trajectory analysis revealed significant decreases in participants' psychological distress and increases in quality of life, and also provided preliminary evidence of intervention mechanisms of change through the detection of mediating relationships whereby increased quality of life was mediated by increases in enculturation, English proficiency, and social support. Qualitative data helped to support and explain the quantitative data. Results demonstrate the importance of addressing the sociopolitical context of resettlement to promote the mental health of refugees and suggest a culturally appropriate, and replicable model for doing so.

  15. Recent developments in South African Jesus research: From Andrie du Toit to Willem Vorster

    A. G. van Aarde


    Full Text Available Besides the introductory remarics this area report consists of five sections, published in two articles: ‘From Andrie du Toit to Willem Vorster’ and ‘From Willem Vorster to Andries van Aarde’. As part of the introductory remarks the titles of various articles that recently appeared on the South African scene are brought together in the first article. With respect to Du Toit, the overview focuses inter alia on an evaluation of his p re view of historical Jesus research in the light of the results of recent North American and South African studies. Vorster’s contribution is discussed according to two themes: the epistemology of ‘post-critical’ historical research and the presuppositions regarding the ‘Jewishness’ of Jesus.

  16. Psychological strengths and posttraumatic growth in the successful reintegration of South African ex-offenders.

    Guse, Tharina; Hudson, Daphne


    This study aimed to explore the possible presence of psychological strengths and posttraumatic growth in the life stories of ex-offenders who desisted returning to crime. Recidivism rates in South African offenders released from prison remain as high as 97%. Little is known about positive psychological factors that may facilitate successful reentry of ex-offenders in the South African context. In an exploratory qualitative study, three adult male ex-offenders who had successfully reintegrated into society were interviewed, using a semi-structured interview schedule focusing on their life stories. Data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Several psychological strengths, including hope, gratitude, and spirituality, were evident in the responses of the participants. Furthermore, they seemed to experience a sense of posttraumatic growth. Identifying psychological strengths, including character strengths, may add to understanding and facilitating successful reintegration of ex-offenders. From these preliminary findings, implications for practice and research are proposed.

  17. Positive and negative qualities of South African adolescents' parent and peer relationships.

    Lesch, Elmien; de Jager, Nadia


    Parent and peer relationships are important social resources for adolescents. South African research on adolescents' relationships, however, underemphasises these relationships as potential positive resources. Studies also tend to use samples from urban populations, while rural and semi-rural adolescent populations are neglected. This study focused on White and Coloured adolescents living in one South African semi-rural community and their ratings of positive and negative relationship qualities in relationships with parents and peers. Using the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI), we found that mothers, best friends and romantic partners were relatively equal sources of social support. Mothers' high ratings for support, conflict and punishment may point to mothers bearing the primary responsibility for child care. Fathers' low support ratings raise concern as father involvement is important for adolescents' well-being. White participants overall rated their relationship higher for support and lower for negative qualities than the Coloured participants.

  18. Organisational culture and financial performance in a South African investment bank

    Gina Davidson


    Full Text Available The relationship between the organisational culture and financial performance of a South African investment bank was explored in this study. The Denison Organizational Culture Survey was used to measure the organizational culture and was administered to a sample of 327 employees. Income statement ratio analyses were used to assess the financial performance. The validity and reliability of the Denison Organizational Culture Survey was examined in a South African context for the first time. High correlations between the cultural traits suggested that the items were measuring a single trait rather than four distinguishable traits. Correlations above the 0.50 level between some subscales (team orientation, agreement, customer focus, core values and vision and certain financial ratios were obtained. However, the results were regarded as tentative, because statistical significance was not reached for most of the correlations. The cultural trait consistency was significantly correlated with two of the four profitability ratios.

  19. Report of the 7th African Rotavirus Symposium, Cape Town, South Africa, 8th November 2012.

    Seheri, L M; Mwenda, J M; Page, N


    The 7th African Rotavirus Symposium was held in Cape Town, South Africa, on the 8th November 2012 as a Satellite Symposium at the First International African Vaccinology Conference. Over 150 delegates participated in this symposium including scientists, clinicians, health officials, policymakers and vaccine manufacturers from across Africa. Key topics discussed included rotavirus surveillance, rotavirus vaccine introduction, post rotavirus vaccine impact analysis and intussusception data and surveillance in Africa. The symposium provided early rotavirus vaccine adopter countries in Africa (South Africa, Ghana and Botswana) an opportunity to share up-to-date information on vaccine introduction, and allowed colleagues to share experiences in establishing routine rotavirus surveillance (Tanzania, Niger and Rwanda). Overall, the symposium highlighted the high burden of rotavirus in Africa, and the need to continue to strengthen efforts in preventing rotavirus diarrhoea in Africa.

  20. Cleaning of South African coal using a compound dry cleaning apparatus

    Li Haibin; Luo Zhenfu; Zhao Yuemin; Wu Wanchang; Zhang Cuiyu; Dai Ningning


    The compound dry cleaning principle is briefly described. A beneficiation test on South African coal was conducted using a model compound dry cleaning apparatus. Excellent results were obtained and the optimum operating parameters were determined. They are: an amplitude of 3.0 ram, a motor frequency of 47.5 Hz, an air volume of 50%, a transverse angle of 7°, and a longitudinal angle of -2°. These conditions yield a clean coal containing 11% ash and a coal production of 75%. The organic efficiency, η, is 95.86%. These results show that the South African coal can be separated effectively by compound dry cleaning, which will popularize the compound dry cleaning method.

  1. Corruption in the commons: why bribery hampers enforcement of environmental regulations in South African fisheries

    Aksel Sundström


    Full Text Available Few studies have explored on the micro-level why corruption hampers environmental regulations. The relationship between corruption and regulatory compliance is here investigated through confidential in-depth interviews with South African small-scale fishermen. Respondents describe how the expected behavior of inspectors and other resource users to ask for or accept bribes are vital in their compliance decisions. The interviews also shed some light on the puzzling role of trust and trustworthiness of public officials. While resource users often knows inspectors personally – and uphold discretion necessary for bribery to continue – they depict them as dishonest and describe how corrupt acts decrease their trustworthiness. The findings from the South African case illustrate the importance of curbing both grand and petty corruption to increase the effectiveness of regulations in natural resource management.

  2. South Sudan Negotiated Independence: A Critique of African Union’s Role

    Abubkar o. Sulaiman


    Full Text Available The emergence of South Sudan on the 9th of July 2011 as the world's 195th independentState, 54th Member State of the African Union (AU and 209th Federation of InternationalFootball Association member (FIFA marks the final stage of a six year peace agreementending decades of protracted civil war. According to BBC between 1983 and the peaceagreement signed in January 2005, Sudan's civil war took nearly two million lives and leftmillions more displaced. It is reputed as Africa's longest-running civil war. The Sudanesecivil war took roots from its colonial experience, which led to forceful cohabitation ofArabic (North and African (South ethnic groups into a single state.

  3. Paradigm shifts and other prerequisites to facilitate the institutionalising of strategy in South African organisations

    S. Kruger


    Full Text Available South African organisations must undergo a mind shift and adhere to certain prerequisites to survive and be successful. It is evident that companies not changing their mindsets will not survive and be able to create a sustainable competitive advantage and to compete in world markets. Companies have to solve new problems with new paradigms, constantly create something better, something new, create new markets as opposed to increasing market share. The Third Wave development will lead to societal transformation. Moving to Third Wave will imply growth organisations to act like small entrepreneurial businesses that will have the benefit of speed and simplicity but also be able to implement strategy more effectively. Time is of the essence. South African companies have no other option but to move swiftly. The transformation from second to third wave is inevitable.


    W. Joubert


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The increased levels of competition experienced in recent times in the construction sector due to globalisation and the economic downturn highlighted the need for South African construction companies to be more competitive. This paper investigates the reasons for poor quality in the South African construction industry and whether the implementation of a Total Quality Management system in this industry will improve the situation.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die hoër vlakke van kompetisie wat gedurende die afgelope tydperk in die konstruksiebedryf ervaar is as gevolg van globalisering en die afswaai in die ekonomie, het die behoefte laat ontstaan dat Suid-Afrikaanse konstruksiemaatskappye meer mededingend moes raak. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die redes vir swak kwaliteit in die Suid-Afrikaanse konstruksiebedryf en of die implementering van ‘n Totale Kwaliteitsbestuurstelsel sal bydra om die situasie te verbeter.

  5. The South Carolina Amazing Coast Program: Using Ocean Sciences to Address Next Generation Science Standards in Grades 3-5

    Bell, E. V.; Thomas, C.; Weiss, B.; Bliss, A.; Spence, L.


    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are more inclusive of ocean sciences than the National Science Standards and respective state science standards. In response, the Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence-SouthEast (COSEE SE) is piloting the South Carolina's Amazing Coast (SCAC) program: a three-year initiative that incorporates ocean science concepts in grades 3-5 with the goals of addressing NGSS, STEM (science-technology-engineering-math) disciplines, and inquiry skills. The SCAC program targeted two Charleston County, South Carolina elementary schools that were demographically similar: Title 1 status (75% free or reduced lunch), > 90% African American student population, grade level size method in allowing for more frequent and consistent interaction by COSEE SE staff with the students and teachers during the school year. The coach mentor model enabled the creation of a community of practice where teachers served as both learners and practitioners of student learning. Methods for student engagement aligned with the NGSS and included hands-on classroom activities, use of 'hook' species such as loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta), diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) and smooth cord grass (Spartina alterniflora), field experiences to explore local ecosystems, interactions with marine scientists, and a capstone project incorporating STEM and inquiry skills. Specifically, third grade students learn about coastal habitats, animal and plant adaptations, and human impacts to the environment, and engage in a salt marsh restoration capstone project. This part of the curriculum aligns with the NGSS Core Ideas 3-LS1, 3-LS3, 3-LS4, 3-ESS3. The fourth grade students learn about weather, organism responses to the environment, and engage in a weather buoy construction capstone project. This part of the curriculum aligns with the NGSSS Core Ideas 4-LS1, 4-ESS2, 4-ESS3, 3-5-ETS1. In 5th grade, students focus specifically on the ocean ecosystem

  6. New and Interesting Records of South African Fungi, Part VII

    W. F. O. Marasas


    Full Text Available Four species of fungi recorded for the first time in South Africa, are described and illustrated. These are:  Acremoniella verrucosa  Togn. from roots of  Medicago sativa; Coniella pulchella Hohn. from roots of pine-apple;  Periconia igniaria  Mason & Ellis from seed of  Medicago sativa;  and  Stachybotrys subsimplex  Cooke from the cocoon of  Parastizopus armaticeps.

  7. The microbiology of South African traditional fermented milks.

    Beukes, E M; Bester, B H; Mostert, J F


    A total of 15 samples of traditional fermented milk were collected from individual households in South Africa and Namibia. Lactic acid bacteria dominated the microflora of these samples, especially the genera Leuconostoc, Lactococcus and Lactobacillus. Other groups identified included pyogenic streptococci and enterococci. The dominant lactococci species was Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. Eighty-three percent of the leuconostoc isolates were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum. Other species identified included Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum.

  8. A rugged coastline: the South African [oil spill] experience

    Moldan, A. [South African Oil Industry Environment Committee, Roggebaai, (South Africa)


    South Africa has, over the years, experienced a number of large oil spill incidents resulting from shipping casualties in coastal waters. The frequency of incidents is primarily due to the fact that South Africa is situated on a major shipping route, on the southern tip of Africa, where high concentrations of vessels converge at the major turning points. Storm conditions off the Cape coast result in some significant oil spills, the largest being that of the Castillo de Bellver in 1983. This paper describes South Africa` oil spill response strategy, and outlines in detail the Apollo Sea oil spill of 1994 caused by the Castillo de Bellver accident. The clean up operations included the recovery and relocation of 8,500 endangered penguins, the use of oil spill dispersants on the ocean surface, and the clean up of a 22 mile stretch of impacted coastline. It is still too early to ascertain the long-term implications of the oiling on the penguin population. An assessment of the long-term impact is still underway. A study of the impact on inter- and sub-tidal organisms found that there was not a significant impact on these organisms in the affected areas, considered to be due to the relatively low toxicity of the type of oil involved, and that it had been weathered at sea for several days prior to it reaching the shore. A number of deficiencies in oil spill contingency plans were identified as needing further attention. (author).

  9. Race and psychological distress: the South african stress and health study.

    Jackson, Pamela Braboy; Williams, David R; Stein, Dan J; Herman, Allen; Williams, Stacey L; Redmond, Deidre L


    We analyze data from the South African Stress and Health Study, a nationally representative in-person psychiatric epidemiologic survey of 4,351 adults conducted as part of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative between January 2002 and June 2004. All blacks (Africans, Coloreds, and Indians) initially report higher levels of non-specific distress and anger/hostility than whites. Access to socioeconomic resources helps explain differences in non-specific distress between Coloreds and whites and Indians and whites. However, only when social stressors are considered do we find few differences in psychological distress (i.e., non-specific distress and anger/hostility) between Africans and whites. In addition, self-esteem and mastery have independent effects on non-specific distress and anger/hostility, but differences between Coloreds and whites in feelings of anger/hostility are not completely explained by self-esteem and mastery. The findings contribute to the international body of work on social stress theory, challenge underlying assumptions of the minority status perspective, and raise a series of questions regarding mental health disparities among South Africans.

  10. Impediments to the structural development of South African maritime supply chains

    Yolanda Fourie


    Full Text Available The progress of the South African economy relies heavily on earnings from physical exports, which depend increasingly on the competitiveness in global markets of the maritime supply chains that serve the country. World best practice requires that those chains should function as entities structured to serve their logistical purpose, while the development of such structured chains requires chain leadership. Transnet fulfils a prominent role in South Africa’s maritime supply chains, but that role, in accordance with the declared policy of the Government, constitutes an impediment to restructuring the chains as competing entities under private leadership. The solution may be found in leadership by public-private partnerships.

  11. An evaluation of South African fuelwood with regards to calorific value and environmental impact

    Munalula, Francis; Meincken, Martina [Department of Forest and Wood Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag XI, Matieland, Western Cape 7602 (South Africa)


    The fuelwood commonly used in the Western Cape of South Africa, namely Acacia cyclops (Rooikrans), Acacia erioloba (Camelthorn), Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Blue gum), Pinus patula (South African pine) and Vitis vinifera (Vine stumps), was evaluated with regards to its calorific value and environmental impact when burned. Properties, such as density, ash content and elemental composition were determined and related to the calorific value. It could be demonstrated that the wood with the highest calorific value does not necessarily constitute the best option as fuelwood, if environmental factors are taken into account. (author)

  12. Anthropology, social change and the reconstruction of South African society1

    N. S. Jansen van Rensburg


    Full Text Available In this article it is argued that, since the abuse of anthropology in the colonial and apartheid eras, the responsive relationship between anthropology and society has been re-emphasised. In the reconstruction of South African society, therefore, anthropologists will not be allowed the luxury of evading their social responsibility. In their re-invention of anthropology as a humane science, and the reiteration of their commitment to accountability and relevance, these scientists ought to build their discipline upon the investigation of the major consequences of differential power and inequality. This could be helpful in creating new forms of co-existence in South Africa

  13. The identity of the South African toad Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia, Anura

    Annemarie Ohler


    Full Text Available The toad species Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 was erected for a single specimen from South Africa which has never been properly studied and allocated to a known species. A morphometrical and morphological analysis of this specimen and its comparison with 75 toad specimens referred to five South African toad species allowed to allocate this specimen to the species currently known as Amietophrynus rangeri. In consequence, the nomen Sclerophrys must replace Amietophrynus as the valid nomen of the genus, and capensis as the valid nomen of the species. This work stresses the usefulness of natural history collections for solving taxonomic and nomenclatural problems.

  14. Factor analysis of the Career Decision Scale on South African high school students.

    Watson, M B; Foxcroft, C D; Stead, G B


    A factor analytic study of the Career Decision Scale-High School version of Hartman and Hartman on 312 white South African adolescents from Grades 11 and 12 was undertaken. A simple two-factor structure emerged which accounted for 47.36% of the total variance in the scores. These results support the use of the version as a differential measure of career indecision and indicate that the number and structure of factors can change across populations. The implications of these results for research in South Africa are considered.

  15. Research report on South African university mental skills norms for six sports

    Kruger, Ankebe; Edwards, David J.; Edwards, Stephen D.


    The Bull’s Mental Skills Questionnaire, developed in the United Kingdom, is being more extensively used across various South African sport and exercise settings. It comprises seven mental skill subscales: imagery, mental preparation (goal-setting), self-confidence, anxiety and worry management, concentration, relaxation and motivation. Individual subscale scores are calculated and combined into a total score. Previous research has recommended establishment of local sport code norms. The aim o...

  16. Population health status of South Asian and African-Caribbean communities in the United Kingdom

    Calvert Melanie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Methods Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009 from 20 primary care centres in Birmingham, United Kingdom.10,902 eligible subjects were invited, 5,408 participated (49.6%. 5,354 participants had complete data (49.1% (3442 South Asian and 1912 African-Caribbean. Health status was assessed by interview using the EuroQoL EQ-5D. Results The mean EQ-5D score in South Asian participants was 0.91 (standard deviation (SD 0.18, median score 1 (interquartile range (IQR 0.848 to 1 and in African-Caribbean participants the mean score was 0.92 (SD 0.18, median 1 (IQR 1 to 1. Compared with normative data from the UK general population, substantially fewer African-Caribbean and South Asian participants reported problems with mobility, usual activities, pain and anxiety when stratified by age resulting in higher average health status estimates than those from the UK population. Multivariable modelling showed that decreased health-related quality of life (HRQL was associated with increased age, female gender and increased body mass index. A medical history of depression, stroke/transient ischemic attack, heart failure and arthritis were associated with substantial reductions in HRQL. Conclusions The reported HRQL of these minority ethnic groups was substantially higher than anticipated compared to UK normative data. Participants with chronic disease experienced significant reductions in HRQL and should be a target for health intervention.

  17. The relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership styles in the South African petrochemical industry

    Maggie Pillay


    Full Text Available Orientation: Although research on emotional intelligence in the context of leadership has remained a recurrent area of interest in theory and practice during the past decade, ongoing debate continues regarding the contribution of emotional intelligence to the understanding of leadership.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between self-reported emotional intelligence and leadership styles in a South African context and to determine whether emotional intelligence can predict an effective leadership style.Motivation for the study: Research is needed in order to determine a more detailed relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership in the dynamic and globalising South African petrochemical context.Research design, approach and method: The study was conducted in terms of a positivist paradigm, using quantitative research instruments. Leaders (N = 161 were selected from a business unit in a South African petrochemical organisation. Self-reports from the emotional quotient inventory and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ Form 5X, Version 2009 were analysed. Correlation analyses indicated statistically-significant relationships between emotional intelligence and transformational and laissez-faire leadership.Main findings: Findings indicated positive correlations between self-reported emotional intelligence (specifically adaptability and transformational leadership. Negative correlations were obtained between emotional intelligence (specifically intrapersonal skills and laissez-faire leadership. The research also showed differences between specific demographic variables.Practical/managerial implications: This study provides valuable significance for organisations’ endeavours in improving, training and identifying alternative selection and assessment procedures for evaluating leaders’ strengths.Contribution/value-add: This research contributes to the South African research on emotional

  18. South African consumers’ opinions and beliefs regarding the health benefits of soy and soy products

    Bosman, Magdalena J C; Susanna M Ellis; Johann C Jerling; Badham, Jane; Van der Merwe, Daleen


    Studies linking diet and health and consumers’ demand for health information, has led to an increasing awareness of the role of nutrition in health and disease. Interest in soy foods and an awareness of its health benefits has also increased. The objective was to assess South African (SA) consumers’ opinions and beliefs regarding the health benefits of soy and soy products using different statements. This cross-sectional study randomly selected 3001 respondents from metropolita...

  19. South African consumers opinions and beliefs regarding the health benefits of soy and soy products

    Badham, Jane Melissa; Bosman, Magdalena Johanna Catharina; Ellis, Susanna Maria; Jerling, Johann Carl; Van der Merwe, Magdalena


    Studies linking diet and health and consumers' demand for health information, has led to an increasing awareness of the role of nutrition in health and disease. Interest in soy foods and an awareness of its health benefits has also increased. The objective was to assess South African (SA) consumers' opinions and beliefs regarding the health benefits of soy and soy products using different statements. This cross-sectional study randomly selected 3001 respondents from metropolitan and rural...

  20. Fibrinogen functionality in black South Africans : the PURE study / Christina Magrietha Kotzé

    Kotzé, Christina Magrietha


    INTRODUCTION AND AIM Black South Africans are experiencing an increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Fibrinogen functionality, including total and gamma prime (y’) fibrinogen concentration, as well as fibrin network structure, play an important role in CVD development and events. Several genetic and environmental factors influence fibrinogen functionality, and in turn, known CVD risk factors associated with total and y’ fibrinogen concentration have also been associate...

  1. The Zebra Battery: a South African contender for electric vehicle application

    J. Coertzer


    Full Text Available The Zebra battery is one of the most promising power sources for electric vehicles which might be on sale before the year 2000. It is a South African development which started at the CSIR and is at present jointly managed by the Anglo American Corpora­tion of S.A. and the German company A.E.G. The chemical reaction converts common salt and nickel to nickel chloride and sodium during the charging phase.

  2. Factors influencing customer retention, satisfaction and loyalty in the South African banking industry

    Craucamp, Frederik Willem


    Customer retention, loyalty and satisfaction are extremely important elements in any company’s strategy, especially in the highly competitive South African banking industry. Understanding the various factors that could influence these constructs is therefore critical to organizational success. Several studies showed the impact of these measures on profitability and shareholder value, but there has been little effort to access the factors that might lead to higher levels of retention, loyal...

  3. Comparing fairness perceptions of personnel selection techniques of American, French and South African job applicants.


    The purpose of the study was to determine whether job applicants' perceptions of commonly used selection procedures vary across nationalities, because a negative impression of prospective employers that use selection techniques that are viewed as unfair, may result. In this study the fairness perceptions of 179 South African employees were compared with results obtained with 142 American and 117 French participants with regard to ten selection techniques using the framework of organisational ...

  4. Exploring sexual practices of South African soldiers to determine vulnerability to the Human Immune Deficiency Virus.


    Although HIV occurs in all social groups in South African society, certain populations are more vulnerable to HIV through risky behaviour patterns. Of relevance to the present study, are the high risk situations that deployed soldiers are exposed to. Three issues indicated the necessity for a study of this kind to be conducted; (a) the statistics pointing to a higher incidence of HIV infections among military personnel than among the general population, (b) military personnel’s unique vulnera...

  5. Internet’s influence on the marketing activities of South African companies

    Kirsty-Lee Sharp; Ayesha Lian Bevan-Dye; Natasha De Klerk


    Although research studies regarding the Internet’s impact on marketing conducted in the past in different countries and at different times produced quite similar trends in responses, advances in Internet technologies and the increased Internet usage necessitated reinvestigating marketers’ perceptions as to the changes in marketing practices brought about by the Internet. This study sought to determine the South African marketing practitioners’ perceptions of the Internet’s influence on the pr...

  6. An analysis of the South African beef supply chain: from farm to fork.


    The primary objective of this dissertation is to perform an analysis of the South African beef supply chain ‘from farm to fork’. This will contribute towards a better understanding of the beef supply chain, aiding collaboration, transparency and supply chain strategies to enhance national industry competitiveness. Currently, the industry, and the supply chain is facing pertinent challenges such as globalisation, the declining consumption of beef, the disconnection of the farmer from the suppl...

  7. Cancer prevention: attitudes and practices among black South African university students

    Karl Peltzer


    Full Text Available This study intended to investigate the attitudes and practices of cancer prevention among Black South African university students.

    Die doelwit van hierdie navorsing was om die houdings en praktyke vir die voorkoming van kanker onder swart studente aan Universiteite in Suid Afrika na te vors. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  8. Sanctions, the South African Coal Industry and the anti-apartheid movement


    The report was compiled late last year by two British MPs, a member of the Economic and Social Committee to the European Communities and a representative of the Conservative Research Department. The report records the results of a fact-finding tour undertaken to investigate allegations by the anti-apartheid movement in the UK. The report is not a propaganda exercise, and was not sponsored by the South African Government.

  9. A Xhosa language translation of the CORE-OM using South African university student samples.

    Campbell, Megan M; Young, Charles


    The translation of well established psychometric tools from English into Xhosa may assist in improving access to psychological services for Xhosa speakers. The aim of this study was to translate the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), a measure of general distress and dysfunction developed in the UK, into Xhosa for use at South African university student counselling centres. The CORE-OM and embedded CORE-10 were translated into Xhosa using a five-stage translation design. This design included (a) forward-translation, (b) back-translation, (c) committee approach, (d) qualitative piloting, and (e) quantitative piloting on South African university students. Clinical and general samples were drawn from English-medium South African universities. Clinical samples were generated from university student counselling centres. General student samples were generated through random stratified cluster sampling of full-time university students. Qualitative feedback from the translation process and results from quantitative piloting of the 34-item CORE-OM English and Xhosa versions supported the reduction of the scale to 10 items. This reduced scale is referred to as the South African CORE-10 (SA CORE-10). A measurement and structural model of the SA CORE-10 English version was developed and cross-validated using an English-speaking university student sample. Equivalence of this model with the SA CORE-10 Xhosa version was investigated using a first-language Xhosa-speaking university sample. Partial measurement equivalence was achieved at the metric level. The resultant SA CORE-10 Xhosa and English versions provide core measures of distress and dysfunction. Additional, culture- and language-specific domains could be added to increase sensitivity and specificity.

  10. Expectations of and satisfaction with the South African Police Service in the Rustenburg area / Ebenhaezer Kleyn

    Kleyn, Ebenhaezer


    Little quantitative research has been published on expectations of and satisfaction with the South African Police Service (SAPS) from the perspective of both the public and the police. Furthermore, scientific information is also needed about how police members perceive their own jobs and services to their clients, namely the public. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the expectations and satisfaction of the community and the police as well as the congruen...

  11. Visitors' perceived contribution of South African arts festivals to the arts / Susanna Cornelia Pretorius.

    Pretorius, Susanna Cornelia


    The primary goal of the study was to determine the contribution of three distinct South African arts festivals to the arts, namely Klein Karoo National Arts Festival (KKNK), Innibos and Vryfees arts festivals as perceived by visitors to the festivals. To achieve this goal, five objectives were formulated. Firstly, to provide a literature overview of the arts phenomena, by exploring the relationship between arts and culture, the arts context, the arts-related tourism product and then the perce...

  12. Traditional healing, biomedicine and the treatment of HIV/AIDS: contrasting south african and native American experiences.

    Flint, Adrian


    Traditional healing remains an important aspect of many people's engagement with healthcare and, in this, responses to the treatment of HIV/AIDS are no different. However, given the gravity of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic, there has been much debate as to the value of traditional healing in this respect. Accordingly, this paper explores the extent to which meaningful accommodation between the biomedical and traditional sectors is possible (and/or even desirable). It does this through a consideration of Native American and South African experiences, looking at how the respective groups, in which medical pluralism is common, have addressed the issue of HIV/AIDS. The paper points to the importance of developing "culturally appropriate" forms of treatment that emphasise complementary rather than adversarial engagement between the traditional and biomedical systems and how policymakers can best facilitate this.

  13. A Systemic Functional Linguistic Analysis of the Utterances of Three South African Physical Sciences Teachers

    Jawahar, Kavish; Dempster, Edith R.


    In this study, the sociocultural view of science as a language and some quantitative language features of the complementary theoretical framework of systemic functional linguistics are employed to analyse the utterances of three South African Physical Sciences teachers. Using a multi-case study methodology, this study provides a sophisticated description of the utterances of Pietermaritzburg Physical Sciences teachers in language contexts characterised by varying proportions of English Second Language (ESL) students in each class. The results reveal that, as expected, lexical cohesion as measured by the cohesive harmony index and proportion of repeated content words relative to total words, increased with an increasing proportion of ESL students. However, the use of nominalisation by the teachers and the lexical density of their utterances did not decrease with an increasing proportion of ESL students. Furthermore, the results reveal that each individual Physical Sciences teacher had a 'signature' talk, unrelated to the language context in which they taught. This study signals the urgent and critical need for South African science teacher training programmes to place a greater emphasis on the functional use of language for different language contexts in order to empower South African Physical Sciences teachers to adequately apprentice their students into the use of the register of scientific English.

  14. Critically examining language bias in the South African adaptation of the WAIS-III

    Cheryl D Foxcroft


    Full Text Available In response to the growing demand for a test of cognitive ability for South African adults, the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC adapted the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, third edition (WAIS-III for Englishspeaking South Africans. The standardisation sample included both first and second language English speakers who were either educated largely in English or Afrikaans. The purpose of this article is to critically examine the adaptation process undertaken by the HSRC when standardising the WAIS-III for English-speaking South Africans by deliberating whether sufficient attention was paid to establishing if the measure was equivalent for various groups of English first and second language test-takers. In performing this critical examination, international test adaptation guidelines and standards, psychometric conventions, and national and international research findings were contemplated. The general conclusion reached was that the equivalence of the WAIS-III across diverse language groups has not been unequivocally established and there are indications that some bias may exist for English second language test-takers, especially if they are black or Afrikaans-speaking. Based on these conclusions, recommendations are made regarding the way forward.

  15. Factors influencing the preparation, support and training of South African expatriates

    A. J. Vogel


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine if the independent variables; location of an international assignment, the age of an expatriate, the duration of an assignment and the management level of an expatriate, influence the preparation, support and training that they require for an international assignment. Design/Methodology/Approach: This formal, empirical study was undertaken using an electronic questionnaire that was distributed to expatriates who were on an international assignment. Expatriates who were on an international assignment were thought to be in the best position to respond to their preparation, support and training needs. Findings: The research found that the preparation, support and training required by South African expatriates are not influenced by the location of an international assignment, the age of the expatriate, the duration of an international assignment or the management level of the expatriate. Implications: The findings highlight the fact that human resource managers of South African multinational enterprises should provide all their expatriates with the same preparation, support and training, as well as identifies five requirements that should be included in all South African expatriate policies.

  16. Supplier relationship management – anathema for the South African public procurement sector

    Micheline J. Naude


    Full Text Available The public sector is recognised as being one of the most important customer groups for many suppliers and service providers because of the volume of public expenditure. Supplier relationship management (SRM is a necessary tool on which businesses in the public and private sectors rely. However, in the South African public sector, despite the intention to boost service delivery through efficient and effective supplier-management processes, the development of sound supplier relationships is a challenge. The purpose of this article is to provide insight into supplier-relationship challenges and to suggest a framework for implementing SRM in the South African public sector. The research presented is based on a survey using both descriptive and exploratory research. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews with 15 participants at eight institutions in KwaZulu-Natal. Purposive sampling techniques were used. The findings reveal that the main supplier-related challenges that handicap procurement practices in the province are a lack of experience, a lack of affirmable suppliers, threats and bribes, a lack of integrity, an inability to meet delivery deadlines and quality issues. The findings further reveal that supplier relationships in the public sector are of a transactional nature. A five-stage framework is therefore recommended for implementing SRM in the South African public sector and in order to assist government procurement officials to reap the benefits of SRM whilst supporting the requirements of public-sector procurement.

  17. Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of South African Cashew Apple Juice as a Biofuel Feedstock

    Evanie Devi Deenanath


    Full Text Available Cashew apple juice (CAJ is one of the feedstocks used for biofuel production and ethanol yield depends on the physical and chemical properties of the extracted juice. As far as can be ascertained, information on physical and chemical properties of South African cashew apple juice is limited in open literature. Therefore, this study provides information on the physical and chemical properties of the South African cashew apple juice. Physicochemical characteristics of the juice, such as specific gravity, pH, sugars, condensed tannins, Vitamin C, minerals, and total protein, were measured from a mixed variety of cashew apples. Analytical results showed the CAJ possesses specific gravity and pH of 1.050 and 4.52, respectively. The highest sugars were glucose (40.56 gL−1 and fructose (57.06 gL−1. Other chemical compositions of the juice were condensed tannin (55.34 mgL−1, Vitamin C (112 mg/100 mL, and total protein (1.78 gL−1. The minerals content was as follows: zinc (1.39 ppm, copper (2.18 ppm, magnesium (4.32 ppm, iron (1.32 ppm, sodium (5.44 ppm, and manganese (1.24 ppm. With these findings, South African CAJ is a suitable biomass feedstock for ethanol production.

  18. Virulence of South African isolates of Haemophilus paragallinarum. Part 1: NAD-dependent field isolates.

    Bragg, R R


    The virulence of four South African field isolates of NAD-dependent Haemophilus paragallinarum, representing the four serovars known to occur in that country, was investigated. During this study an alternative challenge model for infectious coryza was used, in which the infectivity as well the virulence of different isolates could be evaluated. The challenge model consisted of the direct challenge, via intrasinus injection of one chicken in a row of interconnected layer cages, containing 10 chickens, which are subsequently infected by natural routes. A scoring system of the clinical signs was established in which a score is given to the ability of the isolate to produce clinical signs in the challenge birds. The mean daily disease score for the flock can be calculated and plotted on a graph to give a graphic representation of the disease profile. A mean disease score, calculated over a 20-day examination period can be calculated. Isolates can then be compared to each other, either graphically or by a comparison of the mean disease scores. It has been demonstrated using this scoring system that the South African serogroup C isolates appear to be more virulent than the South African serogroup A or B isolates. It was further established that the serovar C-3 isolate appeared to be the most virulent.

  19. A homiletic reflection on the theological aesthetics involved in picturing God in a fragmented South African society

    Ben J. de Klerk


    Full Text Available This article investigates the problematic field of authentic speech in a fragile South African society where the imminence of shattering fragmentation is often addressed either by aggravating hate- speech or pacifying speech that seems to lack the will to come to terms with the full implications of the issues at hand. We attempt to reflect on the possibility of authentic speech in this context by picturing God and his purposeful presence in our fragmented world; speech that reflects and acts out the implications of what is observed in the revealing light of God`s living Word. In addressing the research problem the following aspects are researched: (1 we briefly reflect on the theological aesthetics involved in picturing God through the eyes and acts of faith, (2 explore the painful manifestation of fragmentation in the South African society (with poverty and HIV and AIDS as examples, and (3 attempt to homiletically speak the language of faith by picturing God in our fragmented world through the lens of the parable of the Good Samaritan. We come to the conclusion that authentic homiletic speech can only flow from a heart in which the hardened crust of perpetual attempts at self-righteousness and conservation of the own comfort-zone are shattered by the words and deeds of our Lord. It is through the words and deeds of our Lord that the preacher is enlightened to bear authentic witness to how God fuses a shattered reality and a shattered heart into a prismatic, multifaceted witness to the glory of his all-conquering healing power.

  20. Occupational respiratory diseases in the South African mining industry

    Gill Nelson


    Full Text Available Background: Crystalline silica and asbestos are common minerals that occur throughout South Africa, exposure to either causes respiratory disease. Most studies on silicosis in South Africa have been cross-sectional and long-term trends have not been reported. Although much research has been conducted on the health effects of silica dust and asbestos fibre in the gold-mining and asbestos-mining sectors, little is known about their health effects in other mining sectors. Objective: The aims of this thesis were to describe silicosis trends in gold miners over three decades, and to explore the potential for diamond mine workers to develop asbestos-related diseases and platinum mine workers to develop silicosis. Methods: Mine workers for the three sub-studies were identified from a mine worker autopsy database at the National Institute for Occupational Health. Results: From 1975 to 2007, the proportions of white and black gold mine workers with silicosis increased from 18 to 22% and from 3 to 32% respectively. Cases of diamond and platinum mine workers with asbestos-related diseases and silicosis, respectively, were also identified. Conclusion: The trends in silicosis in gold miners at autopsy clearly demonstrate the failure of the gold mines to adequately control dust and prevent occupational respiratory disease. The two case series of diamond and platinum mine workers contribute to the evidence for the risk of asbestos-related diseases in diamond mine workers and silicosis in platinum mine workers, respectively. The absence of reliable environmental dust measurements and incomplete work history records impedes occupational health research in South Africa because it is difficult to identify and/or validate sources of dust exposure that may be associated with occupational respiratory disease.

  1. First report of perfluoroalkyl substances in South African Odonata.

    Lesch, Velesia; Bouwman, Hindrik; Kinoshita, Ayako; Shibata, Yasuyuki


    Perfluorinated substances are global and ubiquitous pollutants. However, very little is known about these substances in invertebrates, and even less in terrestrial invertebrates in particular. We analysed adult male dragonflies from six sites in South Africa for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluro-n-undecanoic acid (PFUnA), perfluoro-n-dodecanoic acid (PFDoA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS). PFOS was detected in all individuals, with less quantifiable occurrences of the other substances. The dragonflies from the three northern sites located in farming areas had significantly lower ΣPFASs concentrations than the southern sites located closer to industrial areas (median ΣPFASs of 0.32 ng/g wm (wet mass) for North, and 9.3 ng/g wm for South). All substances except PFOS occurred at similar concentrations at all six sites when quantifiable, but PFOS dominated in the Southern sites. The highest median concentration was from Bloemhof Dam (ΣPFASs = 21 ng/g wm), which is known to be polluted by PFOS. Perfluorinated substances are not known to be manufactured in South Africa, therefore the residues detected are likely to have been derived from imported products. Odonata play a significant role in freshwater ecology. Any impacts on these aquatic and aerial predators are likely to have effects on aquatic and associated ecosystems. Further studies are required over a much larger geographic region and to investigate sources.

  2. Applying adaptive management in resource use in South African National Parks: A case study approach

    Kelly Scheepers


    Full Text Available South African National Parks (SANParks has a history of formal and informal natural resource use that is characterised by polarised views on national conservation interests and benefits to communities. Current efforts aim to determine the sustainability of existing resource use in parks and to formalise these activities through the development of resource use protocols. The resource use policy of SANParks outlines principles for sustainable resource use, including greater involvement of local communities in management of protected areas and an adaptive management approach to determining sustainable use levels. This paper examines three case studies on plant use in national parks with regard to the development of criteria and indicators for monitoring resource use, and the role of thresholds of potential concern in measuring effectiveness of managing for sustainable use levels. Opportunities and challenges for resource use management are identified. Findings show that platforms for discussion and knowledge sharing, including research committees and community associations, are critical to building relationships, trust and a shared vision of sustainable resource use between stakeholders. However, additional capacity building is needed to enable local community structures to manage internal social conflicts and jealousy, and to participate fully in monitoring efforts. Long-term monitoring is essential for developing flexible harvest prescriptions for plant use, but this is a time-consuming and resource-intensive exercise. Flexible management strategies are difficult to implement and sometimes command-and-control measures are necessary to protect rare or endangered species. A holistic approach that considers resource use in national parks as a complement to broader community development initiatives offers a way forward.Conservation implications: There is no blueprint for the development of sustainable resource use systems and resource use is often

  3. Towards adaptive fire management for biodiversity conservation: Experience in South African National Parks

    Brian W. van Wilgen


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the experience gained in three South African national parks (Kruger, Table Mountain and Bontebok with regard to the adaptive management of fire for the conservation of biodiversity. In the Kruger National Park, adaptive approaches have evolved over the past 15 years, beginning initially as a form of ‘informed trial and error’, but progressing towards active adaptive management in which landscape-scale, experimental burning treatments are being applied in order to learn. In the process, significant advances in understanding regarding the role and management of fire have been made. Attempts have been made to transfer the approaches developed in Kruger National Park to the other two national parks. However, little progress has been made to date, both because of a failure to provide an agreed context for the introduction of adaptive approaches, and because (in the case of Bontebok National Park too little time has passed to be able to make an assessment. Fire management interventions, ultimately, will manifest themselves in terms of biodiversity outcomes, but definite links between fire interventions and biodiversity outcomes have yet to be made.Conservation implications: Significant challenges face the managers of fire-prone and fire adapted ecosystems, where the attainment of ecosystem goals may require approaches (like encouraging high-intensity fires at hot and dry times of the year that threaten societal goals related to safety. In addition, approaches to fire management have focused on encouraging particular fire patterns in the absence of a sound understanding of their ecological outcomes. Adaptive management offers a framework for addressing these issues, but will require higher levels of agreement, monitoring and assessment than have been the case to date.

  4. South African Agricultural Research and Development: A Century of Change

    Liebenberg, Frikkie; Pardey, Philip G.; Kahn, Michael


    The 20th Century saw substantive shifts in the structure of agriculture and agricultural production in South Africa. Farm size grew, farm numbers eventually declined, and production increasingly emphasized higher-valued commodities, notably a range of horticultural crops. The real gross value of agricultural output grew steadily (by 3.32 percent per year) from 1910-1981, but declined thereafter (by 0.21 percent per year from 1982-2008). These long-run sectoral changes provide a context to pre...

  5. Development of the learning programme management and evaluation scale for the South African skills development context

    Maelekanyo C. Tshilongamulenzhe


    Full Text Available Research purpose: The present study developed and tested the construct validity and reliability of the learning programme management and evaluation (LPME scale.Motivation for the study: The LPME scale was developed to measure and enhance the effectiveness of the management and evaluation of occupational learning programmes in the South African skills development context. Currently no such instrument exists in the South African skills development context; hence there is a need for it.Research design, approach and method: This study followed a quantitative, non-experimental, cross-sectional design using primary data. The LPME scale was administered to a sample of 652 skills development practitioners and learners or apprentices drawn from six organisations representing at least five economic sectors in South Africa. Data were analysed using SPSS and Rasch modelling to test the validity and reliability of the new scale.Main findings: The findings show that the LPME scale is a valid and reliable 11-dimensional measure comprising 81 items.Practical/managerial implications: In view of the seriousness of the skills shortage challenge facing South Africa, this study provides a solid base upon which skills development practitioners can effectively manage and evaluate occupational learning programmes. Furthermore, the newly developed LPME scale provides a basis for further human resource development research in the quest for a solution to the skills shortage challenge.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes by developing a new scale and testing its validity and reliability. As a valid and reliable measure, the LPME scale can be applied with confidence in various South African workplaces.

  6. Between history, amnesia and selective memory: The South African armed forces, a century’s perspective

    Ian Van der Waag


    Full Text Available 2012 has a double significance for this year sees the centenary of the founding of the African National Congress (8 January and of the creation of the Union Defence Forces (1 July, two organisations that have for much of the twentieth century shared a contested history. Yet, in a remarkable bouleversement, South Africa has come through this difficult past and, over the past two decades, a new South African society has been recreated following an interesting period of adjustment following the end of the Cold War and the growth of democracy in the developing world. These changes have necessarily affected her armed forces and the roles defined for them. Some commentators, particularly in the years immediately following 1994, asserted that military power had lost all of its vaunted, Cold-War importance in a new postmodern environment. Others still, recognising future challenges, argued that South Africa, beset with far-reaching socio-economic crises, could no longer afford the burden of military forces. Most scholars agree now that these perspectives were short-sighted and that, while the risk of major conflict has receded, the events of 9/11, and its consequences, demonstrate that the continental and international landscapes are less certain, less stable and less predictable, than that for which many had hoped. Clearly, South African interests are intertwined inextricably in regional and global affairs and if she is to protect these interests and ensure her security, she must maintain credible military force capable of meeting an array of contingencies. It was with this in mind that the strategic arms deal, since the subject of much debate, was passed by parliament:[i] the promise of a full technological transformation, to accompany the human transformation, offered. [i] J Sylvester & A Seegers. “South Africa’s Strategic Arms Package: A Critical Analysis”. Scientia Militaria 36/1. 2008. 52-77.

  7. Strategic positioning of EAP in South African workplaces

    M. G. Matlhape


    Full Text Available Two phenomena are having a profound effect on management and industry in the 21st century. The first one is the increasing rate and depth of competition locally, regionally, and globally, and the consequent increase in focus on achieving competitiveness by companies. The second phenomenon is the increasing appreciation of the importance of employees in assisting the company to gain a competitive advantage over its competitors. Employee Assistance Programmes have been used as part of the business strategy to enhance employee functioning, loyalty, and performance in organisations around the world for a good part of the 20th century. In South Africa this service did not gain much momentum until the 1980. Despite the growth of EAP in South Africa, however, in most cases it still remains on the periphery of real business activities and is often regarded as a "nice to have" rather than as a business imperative. The location of EAP within a company is very important in determining its impact within the organisation. Because of EAPs capacity to impact on both individual employees and the organisation as its primary client, it has potential to make a great impact in organisations' business processes, where these interface with individual output and wellbeing. A service-profit-chain model was introduced as a link between employee satisfaction and company profitability. This article gives an in-depth focus on EAP and the important role it can play in achieving employee satisfaction.

  8. South African night sky brightness during high aerosol epochs

    Winkler, Hartmut; Marang, Fred


    Sky conditions in the remote, dry north-western interior of South Africa are now the subject of considerable interest in view of the imminent construction of numerous solar power plants in this area. Furthermore, the part of this region in which the core of the SKA is to be located (which includes SALT) has been declared an Astronomical Advantage Zone, for which sky brightness monitoring will now be mandatory. In this project we seek to characterise the sky brightness profile under a variety of atmospheric conditions. Key factors are of course the lunar phase and altitude, but in addition the sky brightness is also significantly affected by the atmospheric aerosol loading, as that influences light beam scattering. In this paper we chose to investigate the sky characteristics soon after the Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption in 1991, which resulted in huge ash masses reaching the stratosphere (where they affected solar irradiance for several years). We re-reduced photometric sky measurements from the South Afric...

  9. The African swine fever control zone in South Africa and its current relevance

    Noluvuyo R. Magadla


    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF has been reported in South Africa since the early 20th century. The disease has been controlled and confined to northern South Africa over the past 80 years by means of a well-defined boundary line, with strict control measures and movement restrictions north of this line. In 2012, the first outbreak of ASF outside the ASF control zone since 1996 occurred. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current relevance of the ASF control line as a demarcation line between endemic ASF (north areas and ASF-free (south area and to determine whether there was a need to realign its trajectory, given the recent outbreaks of ASF, global climate changes and urban development since the line’s inception. A study of ASF determinants was conducted in an area 20 km north and 20 km south of the ASF control line, in Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West and Gauteng provinces between May 2008 and September 2012. The study confirmed that warthogs, warthog burrows and the soft tick reservoir, Ornithodoros moubata, are present south of the ASF control line, but no virus or viral DNA was detected in these ticks. There appears to be an increasing trend in the diurnal maximum temperature and a decrease in humidity along the line, but the impact of these changes is uncertain. No discernible changes in minimum temperatures and average rainfall along the disease control line were observed between 1992 and 2014. Even though the reservoirs were found south of the ASF boundary line, the study concluded that there was no need to realign the trajectory of the ASF disease control line, with the exception of Limpopo Province. However, the provincial surveillance programmes for the reservoir, vector and ASF virus south of this line needs to be maintained and intensified as changing farming practices may favour the spread of ASF virus beyond the control line.Keywords: African swine fever; warthog burrow; Ornithodoros moubata;control line

  10. Post-Pan-African tectonic evolution of South Malawi in relation to the Karroo and recent East African rift systems

    Castaing, C.


    Structural studies conducted in the Lengwe and Mwabvi Karroo basins and in the basement in South Malawi, using regional maps and published data extended to cover Southeast Africa, serve to propose a series of geodynamic reconstructions which reveal the persistence of an extensional tectonic regime, the minimum stress σ3 of which has varied through time. The period of Karroo rifting and the tholeiitic and alkaline magmatism which terminated it, were controlled by NW-SE extension, which resulted in the creation of roughly NE-SW troughs articulated by the Tanganyika-Malawi and Zambesi pre-transform systems. These were NW-SE sinistral-slip systems with directions of movement dipping slightly to the Southeast, which enabled the Mwanza fault to play an important role in the evolution of the Karroo basins of the Shire Valley. The Cretaceous was a transition period between the Karroo rifting and the formation of the Recent East African Rift System. Extension was NE-SW, with some evidence for a local compressional episode in the Lengwe basin. Beginning in the Cenozoic, the extension once more became NW-SE and controlled the evolution in transtension of the Recent East African Rift System. This history highlights the major role of transverse faults systems dominated by strike-slip motion in the evolution and perpetuation of the continental rift systems. These faults are of a greater geological persistence than the normal faults bounding the grabens, especially when they are located on major basement anisotropies.

  11. Measuring the Carbon Intensity of the South African Economy

    Arndt, Channing; Davies, Rob; Makrelov, Konstantin


    We estimate the carbon intensity of industries, products and households in South Africa using data from a high resolution supply-use table. Direct and indirect carbon usage is measured using multiplier methods that capture inter-industry linkages and multi-product supply chains. Carbon intensity...... is found to be high for exports but low for major employing sectors. Middle-income households are the most carbon-intensive consumers. These results suggest that carbon pricing policies (without border tax adjustments) would adversely affect export earnings, but should not disproportionately hurt workers...... or poorer households. Seven percent of emissions arise through marketing margins, implying that carbon pricing should be accompanied by supporting public policies and investments....

  12. Impact of land cover changes on the South African climate

    Ngwana, T I [South African Weather Service, Pretoria (South Africa); Demory, M-E; Vidale, P L; Plant, R S [University of Reading, Earley Gate, Reading (United Kingdom); Mbedzi, M P, E-mail: [Eskom Holdings, Cleveland (South Africa)


    The Joint UK Land Environmental Simulator (JULES) was run offline to investigate the sensitivity of land surface type changes over South Africa. Sensitivity tests were made in idealised experiments where the actual land surface cover is replaced by a single homogeneous surface type. The vegetation surface types on which some of the experiments were made are static. Experimental tests were evaluated against the control. The model results show among others that the change of the surface cover results in changes of other variables such as soil moisture, albedo, net radiation and etc. These changes are also visible in the spin up process. The model shows different surfaces spinning up at different cycles. Because JULES is the land surface model of Unified Model, the results could be more physically meaningful if it is coupled to the Unified Model.

  13. A Rural South African Experience of an ESL Computer Program

    Marius Dieperink


    Full Text Available This article reports on a case study that explored the effect of an English-as-Second Language (ESL computer program at Tshwane University of Technology (TUT, South Africa. The case study explored participants’ perceptions, attitudes and beliefs regarding the ESL reading enhancement program, Reading Excellence™. The study found that participants experienced the program in a positive light. They experienced improved ESL reading as well as listening and writing proficiency. In addition, they experienced improved affective well-being in the sense that they generally felt more comfortable using ESL. This included feeling more self-confident in their experience of their academic environment. Interviews as well as document review resulted in dissonance, however: data pointed towards poor class attendance as well as a perturbing lack of progress in terms of reading comprehension and speed.

  14. The management of AIDS in South African schools

    Izak Oosthuizen


    Full Text Available According to the Third National Survey conducted among women attending antenatal clinics in South Africa, 120,000 more people are estimated to have become infected with HIV since 1991 (Kustner, 1993a:34. Pupils and schools cannot be isolated from this serious health hazard in our country. In this article the relationship o f confidentiality between a doctor and his patient is compared to the relationship between a pupil and a teacher. The question arises as to whether a teacher (i.e. the school principal should be allowed to breach this confidence by revealing to the staff of his school the fa c t that a pupil is HIV-infected. Under certain circumstances the public interest in preserving human life outweighs the HIV-infected pupil's right to privacy.

  15. Institutional, gender and racial profiles of South African optometrists

    U. Nirghin


    Full Text Available This paper sets out to profile optometric gradu-ates in South Africa. The 2008 register of the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA was used to identify the number of registered optometrists, their qualifications and institutions where they obtained their primary optometry qualification. The gender and racial profiles of these optometrists were obtained from the institutions where they qualified. A comparison of the profiles ofthe registered practitioners pre-democracy (1930-1994 and post-democracy (1995-2008 was made. Few (28.1% of the optometrists were trained in the years 1930-1994, while the rest (71.9% were trained from 1995-2008. During the period of1930-1994, 64.2% of the optometrists were males and 35.8% were females and from 1995 to 2008, the gender profile changed to 66.4% females and 33.6% males. In the pre-democracy period (1930-1994, almost three quarters (74% of the registered optometrists were White, 15.3% were Indians, 7.9% were Black and 2.8% were Coloured. Many (56.9% that were registered pre-1994 were trained at the Technikon Witwatersrand (TWR, 17.1% were trained at the University of Durban Westville (UDW, 11.9% at the Rand Afrikaans University (RAU, 6.7% at the University of the North (UNIN and 7.4% had trained in institutions outside South Africa. The percentage of White optometrists post-democracy (1995-2008 decreased to 44.3%, while those of Indians increased to 22%, Blacks increased to 28.9% and Coloured to 4.8%. Almost half (48.2% of the optometrists in the post-apartheid era (1995-2008 were trained at the University of Johannesburg (UJ, TWR and RAU, 21.5% at UDW and University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN, 23.7% at UNIN and the University of Limpopo (UL, 4% at the University of Free State (UFS and others (2.6% had trained outside South Africa. As at 2008, the majority (51.7% of all registered optometrists were White, 22.2% were Black, 21.9% were Indian while 4.2% were Coloured and included 57.8% females and 42

  16. Job involvement and job satisfaction of South African nurses compared with other professions

    R.A. Kaplan


    Full Text Available The study was designed primarily to compare the work outcomes of job satisfaction and job involvement of South African nurses with those of members of 13 other professional groups in South Africa and with American nurses where data was available. Secondary aims included identifying areas where job satisfaction was particularly low and demonstrating the relative independence of the job involvement and job satisfaction constructs. A questionnaire incorporating the Kanungo Job Involvement Scale and the Short Form of the Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire was mailed to random samples of people between the ages of 29 and 41 drawn from 14 professional registers. There were 114 nurses in the final sample and 1677members of other professions. Differences among professions were tested for significance using one-way analyses of variance and Bonferroni ranges tests. South African Nurses were shown to have extremely low job satisfaction relative to American nurses and to other professional groups in South-Africa. By contrast their job involvement was moderately high. The implications of these findings for the medical profession as a whole and for nurses in particular are discussed. The fear is expressed that wide spread dissatisfaction may lead to fewer people entering the profession and highly trained people leaving.

  17. Greenhouse gases accounting and reporting for waste management--a South African perspective.

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina


    This paper investigates how greenhouse gases are accounted and reported in the waste sector in South Africa. Developing countries (including South Africa) do not have binding emission reduction targets, but many of them publish different greenhouse gas emissions data which have been accounted and reported in different ways. Results show that for South Africa, inventories at national and municipal level are the most important tools in the process of accounting and reporting greenhouse gases from waste. For the development of these inventories international initiatives were important catalysts at national and municipal levels, and assisted in developing local expertise, resulting in increased output quality. However, discrepancies in the methodology used to account greenhouse gases from waste between inventories still remain a concern. This is a challenging issue for developing countries, especially African ones, since higher accuracy methods are more data intensive. Analysis of the South African inventories shows that results from the recent inventories can not be compared with older ones due to the use of different accounting methodologies. More recently the use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) procedures in Africa, geared towards direct measurements of greenhouse gases from landfill sites, has increased and resulted in an improvement of the quality of greenhouse gas inventories at municipal level.

  18. The Viability and Constitutionality of the South African National Register for Sex Offenders: A Comparative Study

    Nina Mollema


    Full Text Available Section 42 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters Amendment Act 32 of 2007 established a National Register for Sex Offenders where the particulars of all offenders guilty of sexual transgressions against children or mentally-ill persons have to be included, regardless of whether they were found guilty before or after the coming into force of the Act. Although the purpose of the Act clearly is to protect and promote the constitutional rights of victims and society in general, it is apparent that the register may infringe on the rights of sexual offenders. The inclusion of the personal details of sex offenders in a register without their permission and sometimes without their knowledge amounts to a violation amongst other rights of the right to privacy stipulated in section 14 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. In this article the constitutionality of the South African register will be examined by means of a comparative study with the United States and United Kingdom, where similar registers are already in place. This legislative assessment will also provide answers as to the viability of the South African register. It is argued that South Africa's sex offender registration system may not fulfil the function it was designed for because of misconceptions as well as serious implementation and administrative issues; and that alternative solutions may be more suitable in this regard.

  19. South African National Survey of Arachnida: A checklist of the spiders (Arachnida, Araneae) of the Lekgalameetse Nature Reserve, Limpopo province, South Africa

    Foord, Stefan H.; Anna S. Dippenaar-Schoeman; Rudy Jocqué; Charles R. Haddad; Robin Lyle; Peter Webb


    The aim of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA) is to document the Arachnida fauna of South Africa. One of the focus areas of SANSA is to survey protected areas to obtain species-specific information, and species distribution patterns for Red Data assessments. Here, we provide the first checklist of the spider species of Lekgalameetse Nature Reserve (LNR) in the Limpopo province of South Africa collected during five surveys between 2009 and 2016 using methods targeting both ...

  20. Thermal history from both sides of the South Atlantic passive margin - A comparison: Argentinean pampa vs. South African escarpement.

    Kollenz, Sebastian; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.


    The eastern Argentina South Atlantic passive continental margin is distinguished by a very flat topography. Out of the so called Pampean flat two mountain ranges are arising. These mountain ranges, the Sierras Australes and the Sierras Septentrionales, are located in the State of Buenos Aires south of the capital Buenos Aires. In existing literature the Sierras Australes are correlated with the South African cape fold belt (Torsvik 2009; Lopez Gamundi & Rossello 1998). Existing thermochronological data shows different post-breakup cooling histories for both areas and different AFT-ages. Published thermochronological ages (e.g. Raab et al. 2002, 2005, Gallagher et al et al. 1998)from the south African escarpement vary around 150 and 100 Ma (Gallagher et al. 1998). Only some spots in the eastern part of South Africa towards the pacific margin show older ages of 250 Ma and older than 350 Ma (Gallagher et al. 1998). New thermochronological data (AHe, AFT and ZHe) from the Sierras Australes indicate a different cooling history by revealing a range of varying ages due to younger tectonic activity. By comparing the data sets from both areas it is getting clear that the post-rift evolution of both continents is differing very strong. Gallagher, K., Brown, R. and Johnson, C. 1998. Fission track analysis and its application to geological problems. Annual review of Earth and Planetary Science, 26, 519-572. Lopez Gamundi, O.R., Rossello, E.A. (1998): Basin fill evolution and paleotectonic patterns along the Samfrau geosyncline: the Sauce Grande basin-Ventana foldbelt (Argentina) and Karoo basin-Cape foldbelt (South Africa) revisited. Geol Rundsch 86 :819-834. Raab, M.J., Brown, R.W., Gallagher, K., Carter, A. and Webber, K. 2002. late Cretaceous reactivation of major crustal shear zones in northern Namibia: constraints from apatite fission track analysis. Tectonophysics. 349, 75-92. Raab, M.J., Brown, R.W., Gallagher, K., Webber, K. and Gleadow, A.J.W. 2005. denudational and

  1. The effects of job crafting on subjective well-being amongst South African high school teachers

    Sergio Peral


    Full Text Available Orientation: Job crafting can result in a number of positive outcomes for teachers, such as increased meaningfulness and engagement at work. Increased work engagement and psychological meaningfulness may yield positive benefits for the practice of teaching, thus highlighting the pivotal role of job crafting.Research purpose: The study’s aim was to investigate the relationship between job crafting and subjective well-being amongst South African high school teachers. Subjective well-being comprises psychological meaningfulness and work engagement. The potential mediating effect that psychological meaningfulness had on this relationship was further explored.Motivation for the study: Being in a highly stressful occupation, teachers need to continuously find ways to craft their working practices in order to deal effectively with their job demands and to capitalise on their available job resources. Furthermore, South Africa’s current education system calls for serious proactive measures to be taken to improve and rectify the current status, such as job crafting.Research approach, design and method: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey design was used and administered to a sample of South African high school teachers situated in Gauteng, South Africa (N = 251.Main findings: A positive relationship was found between job crafting (increasing structural resources and challenging job demands and work engagement. Furthermore, psychological meaningfulness mediated the relationship between job crafting and work engagement amongst the sampled high school teachers.Practical/managerial implications: Teachers who craft their work to better suit their preferences and needs will obtain greater meaning in their work and experience increased levels of work engagement. Training programmes and/or group-based interventions targeted around job crafting techniques may be particularly useful in the South African teaching context.Contribution/value-add: This study

  2. Assessing the Impact of Globalization on South African Education and Training: A Review of the Evidence so Far

    Akoojee, Salim; McGrath, Simon


    This article reviews the effects of globalization on South Africa a decade after the transition to a post-apartheid system. It brings together some of the recent literature of the performance of the economy and concomitant changes in education. It shows the pervasive force of globalization on South African education and training and explores in…

  3. Narratives of Agency: The Experiences of Braille Literacy Practitioners in the "Kha Ri Gude" South African Mass Literacy Campaign

    McKay, Veronica I.; Romm, Norma R. A.


    In this article, we locate the "Kha Ri Gude" South African Mass Literacy Campaign within the context of the problem of illiteracy and exclusion in South Africa, while concentrating on various post-apartheid initiatives designed to give visually challenged adults the opportunity to become literate. We shall provide a detailed account of…

  4. The Birth of a South African Child Development Center for 2- to 6-Year-Olds: An International Partnership

    DeMarie, Darlene; Cherian, Lily


    Providing high-quality education and care for young children at a historically Black university in rural South Africa was a challenging task. But despite many obstacles, two teacher educators (an American and a South African) worked together, partnered with a surprising collection of others, seized every possible opportunity, and persisted, seeing…


    Lindelwa Simphiwe Mnyandu


    Full Text Available Between the end of 1999 and the early months of the year 2000, the south western parts of South Africa (SA were subjected to raging infernos that saw a lot of commercial wine farms as well as tourist spots almost irreparably ravaged. With volunteers and rescue personnel still gasping for fresh breath another disaster, in the form of torrential rains, struck the impoverished country of Mozambique and the north western parts of SA. The attendant floods did not only cripple agriculture but also drowned people and livestock alike. With them, also came the first "treebirth" in this new millennium (if not in the history of mankind. In both catastrophes, the men and women of the South African Air Force (SAAF, as well as thousands of other volunteers, worked tirelessly and unselfishly in efforts to save endangered lives and property and to bring a sense of normality in otherwise tragic circumstances.

  6. Diversity in the ministry of chaplaincy in the South African Department of Correctional Services

    Maake J. Masango


    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of diversity in the South African Department of Correctional Services and how it challenges the ministry of chaplains. The diversity is manifest in the religious affiliations of inmates, crime categories, various categories of offenders, and programmes and services as unpacked in this article. This article precisely aims to shed light on how the chaplaincy functions within the framework of corrections in South Africa and how the diversity of the inmates’ population impacts on its theory and praxis. The Authors delineate the role that chaplains have to play to remain relevant to the correctional environment and accentuate the required empathic and non-judgmental stance by spiritual care personnel. Religious flexibility and adaptability is essential, as chaplains are managers of all religious activities. The article provides solid insights into what being a correctional chaplain in South Africa entails.

  7. Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: The South African problem

    Margaretha Viljoen


    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents are on the increase worldwide.Overweight and obesity increase the risk for the development of non-communicable diseases during childhood and adolescence, and predispose the individual to the development of overweight, obesity,ardiovascular disease, and metabolic and other disorders in adulthood.In Africa the number of overweight or obese children has doubled since 1990. In South Africa,overweight and obesity in children and adolescents are on the increase, but the prevalencevaries with age, gender and population group. These differences are important when intervention programmes and policies are considered. South Africa faces a double burden of disease where undernutrition and overweight or obesity are found in the same populations, in the same households and even in the same children. Malnutrition is a major contributor to the double burden of disease in South African children and adolescents.

  8. The financial burden of national road infrastructure and the equity thereof: A South African perspective

    Anton Brits


    Full Text Available Economic activities in South Africa during the past decade have caused, inter alia, road traffic congestion to accelerate annually and road infrastructure to deteriorate rapidly. Motor vehicle sales, correlated with economic trends and the economic empowerment of citizens, have and still are increasing at a faster rate than the supply of necessary infrastructure. As such, congestion, especially in the Gauteng area, has reached unacceptable levels during peak hours, necessitating the upgrading and continual maintenance of these roads and other national roads. The financial burden of upgrading and maintaining road infrastructure is enormous and, although the South African government makes contributions, an income from the road infrastructure is necessary to sustain quality infrastructure. However, a road-user paying approach, especially the structure thereof, should be acceptable to society in terms of economic efficiency and various means of equity. This article reviews the relevance of a road-user paying approach as applied in South Africa.

  9. Constructing and rolling out the new South African Sign Language (SASL curriculum – Reflexive critique

    Morgan, Ruth Zilla


    Full Text Available South Africa has one of the most progressive constitutions in the world protecting the linguistic and cultural rights of Deaf people. However, there is a huge gap between policies and reality in schools for Deaf learners in South Africa. In this paper we critically unpack and reflexively explore the linguistic and cultural issues that emerged during the process of creating and implementing the new South African Sign Language (SASL curriculum. This curriculum was produced as a result of a landmark court case. We use an ethnographic framework based on our own reflections, discussions with Deaf people, notes from meetings, and discussions with the other team members. Why and how did the process that started off with so much energy, excitement and goodwill break down? We argue that a key reason for this breakdown is inadequate linguistic knowledge and cultural sensitivity in relation to SASL and Deaf cultural identity. The paper concludes with an outline of lessons learnt.

  10. Evaluating the internalisation of core values at a South African public service organisation

    Susanna M. O’Neil


    Full Text Available Orientation: Fully entrenched and internalised organisational values have proved a competitive advantage for many leading organisations. The benefits range from higher profit margins to the improvement of employees’ commitment and ethical performance. Nevertheless, the process of value shaping is often no more than a management goal. It is rarely truly internalised by the whole organisation.Research purpose: This article presents an effort to describe a value internalisation effort within a South African public service organisation as well as the results of a subsequent evaluation to ascertain to what extent those efforts actually led to internalisation throughout the organisation. A set of actions and practices were implemented within the public service organisation; the intent was that they should enhance value internalisation in the organisation. A long-term strategy of value internalisation was followed that focussed mainly on the clear articulation and communication of the values through different communication mediums and platforms, such as road shows and branded value material hand-outs, as well as through extensive value internalisation training.Motivation for the study: Documentation of value internalisation processes and its evaluation, especially in South African public service organisations is extremely rare. To ensure that public service organisations do not repeat the same mistakes in their value internalisation practices and implementation processes, proper documentation of these processes in the public and research domains are needed. The need for the evaluation of value internalisation programmes should also be propagated as in many instances, programmes are implemented, but the subsequent success thereof is never evaluated.Research design, approach and method: A survey questionnaire consisting of a 5-point rating scale was developed to measure the extent of value internalisation after the implementation of long

  11. South African Weather Service operational satellite based precipitation estimation technique: applications and improvements

    E. de Coning


    Full Text Available Extreme weather related to heavy or more frequent precipitation events seem to be a likely possibility for the future of our planet. While precipitation measurements can be done by means of rain gauges, the obvious disadvantages of point measurements are driving meteorologists towards remotely sensed precipitation methods. In South Africa more sophisticated and expensive nowcasting technology such as radar and lightning networks are available, supported by a fairly dense rain gauge network of about 1500 gauges. In the rest of southern Africa rainfall measurements are more difficult to obtain. The availability of the local version of the Unified Model and the Meteosat Second Generation satellite data make these products ideal components of precipitation measurement in data sparse regions such as Africa. In this article the local version of the Hydroestimator (originally from NOAA/NESDIS is discussed as well as its applications for precipitation measurement in this region. Hourly accumulations of the Hydroestimator are currently used as a satellite based precipitation estimator for the South African Flash Flood Guidance system. However, the Hydroestimator is by no means a perfect representation of the real rainfall. In this study the Hydroestimator and the stratiform rainfall field from the Unified Model are both bias corrected and then combined into a new precipitation field which can feed into the South African Flash Flood Guidance system. This new product should provide a more accurate and comprehensive input to the Flash Flood Guidance systems in South Africa as well as southern Africa. In this way the southern African region where data is sparse and very few radars are available can have access to more accurate flash flood guidance.

  12. The practices, challenges and recommendations of South African audiologists regarding managing children with auditory processing disorders

    Claire Fouché-Copley


    Full Text Available Audiologists managing children with auditory processing disorders (APD encounter challenges that include conflicting definitions, several classification profiles, problems with differential diagnosis and a lack of standardised guidelines. The heterogeneity of the disorder and its concomitant childhood disorders makes diagnosis difficult. Linguistic and cultural issues are additional challenges faced by South African audiologists. The study aimed to describe the practices, challenges and recommendations of South African audiologists managing children with APD. A quantitative, non-experimental descriptive survey was used to obtain data from 156 audiologists registered with the Health Professions of South Africa. Findings revealed that 67% screened for APD, 42% assessed while 43% provided intervention. A variety of screening and assessment procedures were being administered, with no standard test battery identified. A range of intervention strategies being used are discussed. When the relationship between the number of years of experience and the audiologists’ level of preparedness to practice in the field of APD was compared, a statistically significant difference (p = 0.049 was seen in that participants with more than 10 years of experience were more prepared to practice in this area. Those participants having qualified as speech-language therapists and audiologists were significantly more prepared (p = 0.03 to practice than the audiologists who comprised the sample. Challenges experienced by the participants included the lack of linguistically and culturally appropriate screening and assessment tools and limited normative data. Recommendations included reviewing the undergraduate audiology training programmes, reinstituting the South African APD Taskforce, developing linguistically and culturally appropriate normative data, creating awareness among educators and involving them in the multidisciplinary team.Keywords: Screening; assessment

  13. Exposure to respirable crystalline silica in South African farm workers

    Swanepoel, Andrew; Rees, David [University of the Witwatersrand, School of Public Health, Johannesburg (South Africa); Renton, Kevin [National Institute for Occupational Health, Johannesburg (South Africa); Kromhout, Hans, E-mail: [Environmental Epidemiology Division, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, University of Utrecht (Netherlands)


    Although listed in some publications as an activity associated with silica (quartz) exposure, agriculture is not widely recognized as an industry with a potential for silica associated diseases. Because so many people work in agriculture; and because silica exposure and silicosis are associated with serious diseases such as tuberculosis (TB), particular in those immunological compromised by the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), silica exposure in agriculture is potentially very important. But in South Africa (SA) very little is known about silica exposure in this industry. The objectives of this project are: (a) to measure inhalable and respirable dust and its quartz content on two typical sandy soil farms in the Free State province of SA for all major tasks done on the farms; and (b) to characterise the mineralogy soil type of these farms. Two typical farms in the sandy soil region of the Free State province were studied. The potential health effects faced by these farm workers from exposure to respirable crystalline silica are discussed.

  14. Shaken Baby Syndrome: A South African Medico-Legal Perspective

    Andra Le Roux-Kemp


    Full Text Available Shaken Baby Syndrome refers to the violent and repetitive shaking of an infant, and is a form of abusive head trauma. It was first described in 1974, and has since been the topic of intensive study and discussion. The syndrome has classically been diagnosed with a triad of injuries, namely subdural haemorrhage, retinal haemorrhage and encephalopathy (brain abnormalities. However, recent publications have led to some doubt regarding the causation and diagnostic significance of the triad. It is now generally accepted that other conditions, even natural diseases, may cause the findings listed in the so-called "triad". To date, no reported case law is available on Shaken Baby Syndrome in South Africa; therefore this article focuses on cases in the United States and United Kingdom to delineate some of the issues associated with litigating the condition. This includes the obligation of expert witnesses to give independent, factual evidence about their areas of expertise. It is recommended that medical and legal professionals involved in cases of alleged child abuse should collect as much information as possible about the context of the case. Confessions by parents or caregivers should be treated with circumspection. Awareness campaigns should be aimed at informing the public of the dangers of shaking an infant. And with regards to Shaken Baby Syndrome an increased focus on evidence-based medicine is necessary to dissipate the uncertainty around the condition.

  15. Modelling New Particle Formation Events in the South African Savannah

    Gierens, Rosa; Laakso, Lauri; Mogensen, Ditte; Vakkari, Ville; Beukes, J. P.; Van Zyl, Pieter; Hakola, H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Pienaar, J. J.; Boy, Michael


    Africa is one of the less studied continents with respect to atmospheric aerosols. Savannahs are complex dynamic systems sensitive to climate and land-use changes, but the interaction with the atmosphere is not well understood. Atmospheric particles, aka aerosols, affect the climate on regional and global scale, and are an important factor in air quality. In this study measurements from a relatively clean savannah environment in South Africa were used to model new particle formation and growth. There are already some combined long-term measurements of trace gas concentrations together with aerosol and meteorological variables available, but to our knowledge this is the first time detailed simulations, that include all the main processes relevant to particle formation, were done. The results show that both investigated particle formation mechanisms overestimated the formation rates dependency on sulphuric acid. The approach including low volatile organic compounds to the particle formation process was more accurate in describing the nucleation events. To get reliable estimation of aerosol concentration in simulations for larger scales, nucleation mechanisms would need to include organic compounds, at least in southern Africa.

  16. Justice and justiciability: advancing solidarity and justice through South Africans' right to health jurisprudence.

    Forman, Lisa


    The South African Constitutional Court's jurisprudence provides a path-breaking illustration of the social justice potential of an enforceable right to health. It challenges traditional objections to social rights by showing that their enforcement need not be democratically unsound or make zero-sum claims on limited resources. Indeed the South African experience suggests that enforcing health rights may in fact contribute to greater degrees of collective solidarity and justice as the Court has sought to ensure that the basic needs of the poor are not unreasonably restricted by competing public and private interests. This approach has seen the Court adopt a novel fights paradigm which locates individual civil and social rights within a communitarian framework drawing from the traditional African notion of'ubuntu', denoting collective solidarity, humaneness and mutual responsibilities to recognize the respect, dignity and value of all members of society. Yet this jurisprudence also illustrates the limits of litigation as a tool of social transformation, and of social rights that remain embedded in ideological baggage even where they have been constitutionally entrenched and enforced. This paper explores the Constitutional Court's unfolding jurisprudence on the right to health, providing background to the constitutional entrenchment of a justiciable right to health; exploring early Constitutional Court jurisprudence on this right; turning to the forceful application of this right in relation to government policy on AIDS treatment; and concluding with thoughts about the strengths and limits of this jurisprudence in light of subsequent case-law.

  17. Teaching German as a foreign language in a multilingual South African context

    Anne Baker


    Full Text Available Arguments for the promotion of indigenous languages should not be used as reasons against teaching German in a multilingual South African context. Elevating the status of the indigenous languages can go hand in hand with continuing to teach German as a foreign language. This article argues that teachers of German as a foreign language could valuably affirm African languages in their classrooms. The article demonstrates the importance of taking cognizance of the learners’ first language in learning a foreign language. Knowing what to emphasise and which elements in the primary language are useful for more effective language learning to take place can be problematic for the teacher who is not familiar with the primary language of the learners. An error analysis of the written work of grade 10 and grade 12 learners of German as a foreign language provides valuable insights for teachers in South Africa who find that their classes are increasingly multilingual. It also suggests ways of providing opportunities to affirm African languages in the foreign language classroom.

  18. Association between Perceived Built Environment and Prevalent Hypertension among South African Adults

    Pasmore Malambo


    Full Text Available Introduction. The association between perceived built environmental attributes and hypertension among adults has received little attention in an African context. We investigated the association between the perceived built environment and prevalent hypertension in adult South Africans. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted using 2008-2009 Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology data among South African (n=671 adults aged ≥35 years. Perceived built environment was assessed using the neighborhood environment walkability scale questionnaire. Prevalent hypertension was defined as previously diagnosed by a physician, screen-detected hypertension as ≥140/90 mmHg, and a combination of both as any hypertension. Logistic regressions were applied for analyses. Results. In crude logistic regressions, self-reported hypertension was associated with land use mix-diversity, street connectivity, infrastructure for walking/cycling, aesthetics, traffic, and crime. In adjusted model, land use mix-diversity was significantly associated with self-reported hypertension. In similar multivariable models, the direction and magnitude of the effects were mostly similar to the outcomes of “screen-detected hypertension” which was further predicted by perceived lack of safety from traffic. Conclusion. Perceived built environment attributes were significantly associated with hypertension. This has relevance to population-based approaches to hypertension prevention and control.

  19. Inculcating safe sex attitudes in South African adolescents: a directive for the government's anti-HIV/AIDS policy.

    D'Souza, Jayesh


    South Africa has one of the highest rates of HIV/AIDS in the world. Much blame for this has been laid on the apathy of the South African government and the cultural traits of South Africans. AIDS prevention research calls for early childhood education to raise awareness of the causes, dangers, and prevention of HIV/AIDS. This study involved surveys among a select sample of South African adolescents to determine their sexual attitudes before and after a cognitive-behavioral intervention. Overall, the results did not make a significant difference in their attitudes, suggesting pre-adolescent sex education might prove to be a more useful tool in anti-HIV/AIDS education. Risky sexual behavior, under the influence of alcohol, also serves as a warning to educate young consumers of alcohol.

  20. Diversity management in a South African university: A case study

    J. B. Strydom


    Full Text Available To establish the perception of employees regarding diversity management at South Africa's largest residential university, the questionnaires of Gardenswartz & Rowe (1993 was adapted and a case study approach with a sample of 25 employees was used. The diversity audit measured the sample's perceptions on symptoms of diversity related problems; openness to change of the university; the status quo regarding diversity management; organisational barriers to diversity; the valuing of diversity; and the management of diversity by managers or supervisors. It was found that a high number of symptoms of diversity-related problems are perceived and that respondents believed that the university is relatively unresponsive to the need to change. The university was believed to be in a mono cultural stage of development and barriers to developing into a multicultural organisation were identified. Respondents did report a very positive attitude towards diversity but perceived that certain procedures are not supportive.

    Die vraelyste van Gardenswartz en Rowe (1993 en 'n gevalstudiebenadering is benut om die persepsies van 'n steekproef van 25 personeellede aangaande die bestuur van diversiteit in 'n Suid Afrikaanse universiteit te ondersoek. Die diversiteitsaudit meet die steekproef se waameming van simptome van diversiteitsverwante probleme, die bereidwilligheid van die universiteit om te verander, die huidige stand van diversiteitsbestuur, organisatoriese hindemisse, die waarde wat aan diversiteitsbestuur geheg word, en die bestuur van diversiteit deur bestuurders en toesighouers. Die resultate toon dat 'n beduidende aantal simptome van diversiteitsverwante probleme gei'dentinseer word en dat die respondente meen dat die universiteit relatief min bewustheid vir die nodigheid van verandering toon. Respondente meen dat die universiteit in 'n monokulturele fase van onfrwikkeling is en hindemisse in die ontplooїng na 'n multikulturele organisasie


    D. Dimitrov


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The current development of the rapid prototyping industry in South Africa is characterised by the strong dominance and fast growth in sales of three dimensional printers. Although it reflects the international trend, it seems that the industrial community lacks a clear appreciation of the real strength of this technology, especially with respect to the large variety of devices available today on the market. This paper surveys the current state and capabilities of three dimensional printing (3DP. Based on its technical background – the ink-jet printing known from the printer and plotter industry – a classification structure is developed and proposed. Different printing techniques and process concepts, together with their advantages and limitations, are described and analysed. Typical examples from three completely different application areas – manufacturing, medicine, and architecture – are presented and discussed. Some basic considerations for an informed selection of the right technology for a particular application are then presented.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Sterk groei in die verkope van drie dimensionele drukkers (3DP kenmerk die onlangse groei in die snelle prototipe industrie in Suid-Afrika. Ten spyte daarvan dat hierdie ‘n internasionale tendens reflekteer, blyk dit dat die werklike waarde van die tegnologie nog nie ten volle waardeer word in die industriële gemeenskap nie, veral aangesien daar so ‘n groot verskeidenheid masjiene in die mark beskikbaar is. ‘n Oorsig oor die huidige stand en vermoë van drie dimensionele drukkers word hier gegee. ‘n Klassifikasiestruktuur – gebaseer op die inkspuitdrukkertegnologie – word ontwikkel en voorgestel. Verskillende druktegnieke en konsepprosesse word ontleed. Daar word ook gekyk na die voor- en nadele hiervan. Tipiese voorbeelde van drie verskillende toepassings (vervaardiging, medies, en argitektuur word aangebied en bespreek. Basiese riglyne vir

  2. Modelling new particle formation events in the South African savannah

    Gierens, Rosa; Laakso, Lauri; Mogensen, Ditte; Vakkari, Ville; Buekes, Johan P.; Van Zyl, Pieter; Hakola, H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Pienaar, J. J.; Boy, Michael


    Africa is one of the less studied continents with respect to atmospheric aerosols. Savannahs are complex dynamic systems sensitive to climate and land-use changes, but the interaction of these systems with the atmosphere is not well understood. Atmospheric particles, called aerosols, affect the climate on regional and global scales, and are an important factor in air quality. In this study, measurements from a relatively clean savannah environment in South Africa were used to model new particle formation and growth. There already are some combined long-term measurements of trace gas concentrations together with aerosol and meteorological variables available, but to our knowledge this is the first detailed simulation that includes all the main processes relevant to particle formation. The results show that both of the particle formation mechanisms investigated overestimated the dependency of the formation rates on sulphuric acid. From the two particle formation mechanisms tested in this work, the approach that included low volatile organic compounds to the particle formation process was more accurate in describing the nucleation events than the approach that did not. To obtain a reliable estimate of aerosol concentration in simulations for larger scales, nucleation mechanisms would need to include organic compounds, at least in southern Africa. This work is the first step in developing a more comprehensive new particle formation model applicable to the unique environment in southern Africa. Such a model will assist in better understanding and predicting new particle formation – knowledge which could ultimately be used to mitigate impacts of climate change and air quality.

  3. Uncovering Web search strategies in South African higher education

    Surika Civilcharran


    Full Text Available Background: In spite of the enormous amount of information available on the Web and the fact that search engines are continuously evolving to enhance the search experience, students are nevertheless faced with the difficulty of effectively retrieving information. It is, therefore, imperative for the interaction between students and search tools to be understood and search strategies to be identified, in order to promote successful information retrieval.Objectives: This study identifies the Web search strategies used by postgraduate students and forms part of a wider study into information retrieval strategies used by postgraduate students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN, Pietermaritzburg campus, South Africa. Method: Largely underpinned by Thatcher’s cognitive search strategies, the mixed-methods approach was utilised for this study, in which questionnaires were employed in Phase 1 and structured interviews in Phase 2. This article reports and reflects on the findings of Phase 2, which focus on identifying the Web search strategies employed by postgraduate students. The Phase 1 results were reported in Civilcharran, Hughes and Maharaj (2015.Results: Findings reveal the Web search strategies used for academic information retrieval. In spite of easy access to the invisible Web and the advent of meta-search engines, the use of Web search engines still remains the preferred search tool. The UKZN online library databases and especially the UKZN online library, Online Public Access Catalogue system, are being underutilised.Conclusion: Being ranked in the top three percent of the world’s universities, UKZN is investing in search tools that are not being used to their full potential. This evidence suggests an urgent need for students to be trained in Web searching and to have a greater exposure to a variety of search tools. This article is intended to further contribute to the design of undergraduate training programmes in order to deal

  4. Conceptualising the professional identity of industrial or organisational psychologists within the South African context

    Llewellyn E. van Zyl


    Full Text Available Orientation: Lack in congruence amongst industrial and organisational psychologists (IOPs as to the conceptualisation of its profession poses a significant risk as to the relevance, longevity and professional identity of the profession within the South African context.Research purpose: This study aimed to explore the professional identity of IOPs within the South African context. Specifically, the aim of this study was four-fold: (1 to develop a contemporary definition for IOP, (2 to investigate IOP roles, (3 to determine how the profession should be labelled and (4 to differentiate IOP from human resource management (HRM from IOPs’ perspectives within South Africa.Motivation for the study: IOPs do not enjoy the same benefits in stature or status as other professions such as medicine, finances and engineering in the world of work. IOPs need to justify its relevance within organisational contexts as a globally shared understanding of ‘what it is’, ‘what it does’ and ‘what makes it different from other professions’, which is non-existent. In order to enhance its perceived relevance, clarity as to IOPs professional identity is needed.Research design, approach and method: A post-positivistic qualitative content analytic and descriptive research design was employed in this study. Data from practising industrial and organisational psychology (IOP within South Africa (N = 151 were gathered through an electronic web-based survey and were analysed through thematic content analysis.Main findings: The results indicate that IOP in South Africa seeks to optimise the potential of individuals, groups, organisations and the community by implementing scientific processes to support both individual and organisational wellness and sustainability. ‘Work Psychology’ was considered a more fitting professional designation or label than industrial and/or organisational psychology. The industrial psychologist’s major roles related to the well

  5. Realisation of a Child'S Right to a Basic Education in the South African School System: Some Lessons from Germany

    Chrizell Chürr


    Full Text Available Education has, since the beginning of time, been regarded as the formal process by which society conveys its accumulated knowledge, skills, customs and values from one generation to another. Today, education is a human right, and the right to education and specifically the right to (a basic education is acknowledged and emphasised worldwide. In South Africa the right to a basic education is entrenched in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 and is regarded as one of the most crucial constitutional rights, particularly because it promotes economic and social well-being. However, the South African school system is crippled by a myriad of unfavourable challenges, situations and circumstances which will be discussed throughout the article. Many of these challenges, situations and circumstances are frustrating and solutions have been sought diligently – many with success and many without success. The focus in this article falls on the questions of whether the current South African school system sufficiently realises the constitutional rights of learners and whether an alternative school system could lead to the increased fulfilment and realisation of South African children's rights (with a specific focus on the rights to a basic education, equality and dignity. The article therefore deals with the "acceptability" of the South African school system. A comparative analysis with Germany will be done and the German school system will be used as a valuable framework in order to propose an alternative school system for South Africa.

  6. South African banks and their online privacy policy statements: A content analysis

    Salah K. Kabanda


    Full Text Available In Internet banking and Internet-related transactions, security and privacy are of great concern. To alleviate these concerns, the South African government has promulgated the Electronic Communications and Transactions (ECT Act No. 25 of 2002. The Act regulates all electronic communication transactions in South Africa. Business organisations implement the Act by, for example, posting a privacy policy statement on their websites, which, in accordance with the requirements of the ECT Act, states how the organisation will use any personal identifiable information provided by the client. This study investigates whether South African banks that subscribe to the ECT Act comply with the principles relating to the protection of a consumer’s personal information. The study employed the research methods of content analysis and interviews. The findings indicate that some banks only complied with a few of the ECT Act principles, which, according to the interview respondents, undermines the levels of trust which are in play between their banks and themselves. The respondents themselves were not fully aware of all the ECT Act requirements. This lack of awareness results in consumers failing to assess the comprehensiveness of their bank’s policy statements and to what extent such banks comply with the ECT Act.

  7. Understanding teenage pregnancy in a post-apartheid South African township.

    Mkhwanazi, Nolwazi


    Although South Africa's total fertility rate is one of the lowest in sub-Saharan Africa, high rates of early childbearing remain a concern. Most teenage pregnancies occur among poor black and coloured South Africans. The majority of these pregnancies are said to be unwanted and unplanned and the teenager's relationships, unstable. Becoming a mother during one's teenage years is perceived to be socially, economically and physically deleterious for the teenager and her baby. This paper presents ethnographic data collected over a five-year period in the South African township of Nyanga East in the Western Cape. It draws attention to the circumstances that surround teenage pregnancy and discusses reactions to teenage pregnancies in this community. Findings highlight that despite the negative perception of teenage pregnancy within the township, particular social and cultural circumstances provided fertile ground for its occurrence. Furthermore, the paper argues that in this particular community the management of a teenage pregnancy played a functional and critical role in maintaining and reproducing social norms and ideals regarding intergenerational relationships, which ultimately ensured that the rates of early childbearing remained high.

  8. Concerns about the South African Mathematical Literacy curriculum arising from experience of materials development

    Lynn Bowie


    Full Text Available In this paper we reflect on our experience of developing mathematical literacy material for the Further Education and Training (FET band in South African schools, adult learners, university students and for participants in a youth development project. We use this experience to highlight some problems and concerns about the South African Mathematical Literacy curriculum for learners in the FET band and offer some cautions and suggestions. In particular we highlight the importance of the educational community in South Africa developing a shared understanding of what Mathematical Literacy is. We discuss the importance of distinguishing between Mathematics and Mathematical Literacy and of clarifying the role of Technology in Mathematical Literacy. We explore the difficulties and importance of a proper understanding of the contexts used to teach Mathematical Literacy and argue that more attention needs to be paid to the integration of Mathematical Literacy with other school subjects.  Finally we raise some of the issues that a common final assessment task might have on the learning and teaching of Mathematical Literacy.

  9. Contributing factors to potential turnover in a sample of South African management-level employees

    Rudolph Muteswa


    Full Text Available Purpose: The overall purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which a number of key organisational variables influence the potential decision to leave the organisation in a sample of managerial-level employees. Organisational variables focused on included: career path strategies, management style, intrinsic and extrinsic rewards, team dynamics, training and development opportunities, and work / life balance. Methodology: An exploratory and descriptive research design was adopted. A questionnaire was developed by the researchers based on the related literature. 106 MBA students based in KwaZulu-Natal participated in the study. Findings: The three aspects of internal organisational functioning found to have a significant influence on the participant's potential turnover considerations were: management / leadership style, career path strategies and rewards. Value of the research: According to the Department of Labour (2008:5 there is need for an additional 22 600 managers in various professions in South Africa. As a result of the skills shortages, South African organisations find themselves competing with international organisations for managerial-level employees, resulting in a 'war for talent'. This research is of significant value to organisations as it provides information relevant to the design and support of talent management and retention strategies in South African organisations.

  10. Current management for word finding difficulties by speech-language therapists in South African remedial schools.

    de Rauville, Ingrid; Chetty, Sandhya; Pahl, Jenny


    Word finding difficulties frequently found in learners with language learning difficulties (Casby, 1992) are an integral part of Speech-Language Therapists' management role when working with learning disabled children. This study investigated current management for word finding difficulties by 70 Speech-Language Therapists in South African remedial schools. A descriptive survey design using a quantitative and qualitative approach was used. A questionnaire and follow-up focus group discussion were used to collect data. Results highlighted the use of the Renfrew Word Finding Scale (Renfrew, 1972, 1995) as the most frequently used formal assessment tool. Language sample analysis and discourse analysis were the most frequently used informal assessment procedures. Formal intervention programmes were generally not used. Phonetic, phonemic or phonological cueing were the most frequently used therapeutic strategies. The authors note strengths and raise concerns about current management for word finding difficulties in South African remedial schools, particularly in terms of bilingualism. Opportunities are highlighted regarding the development of assessment and intervention measures relevant to the diverse learning disabled population in South Africa.

  11. Measurement of organisational inertia: portability of a South African scale in an Australian context

    Gert Roodt


    Full Text Available This research investigates whether the metric qualities of the South African Organisational Inertia Scale have cross-cultural equivalence in the Australian context. The underlying theoretical model and research in South Africa is discussed and problems associated with assuming cross-cultural equivalence of measuring instruments are noted. A sample of convenience of 340 participants, constituted from different populations, participated in this investigation. A single factor with a high internal consistency was extracted in contrast to the South African results of two factors with high internal consistencies. Opsomming Hierdie navorsing is daarop gerig om vas te stel of die metriese eienskappe van die Suid-Afrikaanse Organisational Inertia Scale kruiskulturele ekwivalensie in die Australiese konteks het. Die onderliggende teoretiese model en navorsing in Suid-Afrika word bespreek en probleme wat met die aanvaarding van kruis-kulturele ekwivalensie gepaard gaan, word aangedui.n Geleentheidsteekproefvan 340 deelnemers, saamgestel uit verskeie populasies, het aan die ondersoek deelgeneem.'n Enkele faktor met hoe interne konstantheid is onttrek in teenstelling met die Suid-Afrikaanse resultate waar twee faktore met hoe interne konstanthede verkry is.


    Christina Lane Cappy


    Full Text Available South Africa has risen to the forefront of educational debates that claim schooling can promote social justice and social cohesion. By drawing on Freire’s (1970 theory of critical pedagogy, this paper examines how South African teachers in rural and township schools encourage students to reflect critically upon their own lives and take action to improve issues of inequality, violence, and insecurity. It argues that teachers understand their roles as agents of social change primarily as encouraging respect, morality, and racial reconciliation among learners. The ways in which the youth take up the teachers’ efforts to promote change depends upon how the teachers’ practices speak to the students’ own life circumstances. When the youth relate to the teachers’ life stories and course material, they engage in the process of moral translation. In other words, the youth rework their lessons into ideas of how they should behave as moral human beings. Yet, frequently young South Africans do not learn a morality based on a Freirean notion of social justice – a seemingly central component to the national curriculum – but instead a morality based on individualised notions of personal responsibility and hope for a better future. The paper concludes with several suggestions to improve educational practices for social justice.

  13. Viewpoint – Why Has the South African National Water Act Been so Difficult to Implement?

    Barbara Schreiner


    Full Text Available The South African National Water Act (Act 36 of 1998 was hailed by the international water community as one of the most progressive pieces of water legislation in the world, and a major step forward in the translation of the concept of integrated water resources management (IWRM into legislation. It has been widely quoted and referred to, and a number of countries ranging from China to Zambia have used it as an example in the revision of their own water legislation. And yet, 15 years down the line, implementation of the act has been only partially successful. In a number of critical aspects, implementation has, in fact, been weak. This paper sets out some personal reflections on the challenges facing the implementation of this remarkable piece of legislation and on the failure to achieve the initial high ambitions within the South African water sector. Through this process, it may be that there are lessons for other countries and for South Africa itself as it continues to face the challenge of implementation of the National Water Act (NWA.


    E. Steinmeyer


    Full Text Available The ancient myth of Electra seems to be of particular interest to South African writers and playwrights. This article focuses on the adaptation by Mervyn McMurtry, entitled Electra, which was produced in Durban in 2000. The underlying theme of his adaptation, which is based on the four Greek “Electra” tragedies by Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, is the question of truth. This question — an important post-modern one — was of particular relevance for the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC in South Africa as it tried to deal with the legacy of the former apartheid regime. McMurtry’s play begins with a prologue six days after the matricide, while the actual play is performed as a sort of flashback. All the characters suffer from various symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. The chorus consists exclusively of women who all have been victims / survivors of male violence. This article proposes that McMurtry uses the ancient Electra myth to reflect on the situation of contemporary South African society (and particularly women, as it struggles to come to terms with a traumatic past.

  15. Speech-language therapy for adolescents with written-language difficulties: The South African context

    Danel Erasmus


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether privately practising speech-language therapists in South Africa are fulfilling their role of identification, assessment and intervention for adolescents with written-language and reading difficulties. Further needs concerning training with regard to this population group were also determined.Method: A survey study was conducted, using a self-administered questionnaire. Twenty-two currently practising speech-language therapists who are registered members of the South African Speech-Language-Hearing Association (SASLHA participated in the study.Results: The respondents indicated that they are aware of their role regarding adolescents with written-language difficulties. However, they feel that South-African speech-language therapists are not fulfilling this role. Existing assessment tools and interventions for written-language difficulties are described as inadequate, and culturally and age inappropriate. Yet, the majority of the respondents feel that they are adequately equipped to work with adolescents with written-language difficulties, based on their own experience, self-study and secondary training. The respondents feel that training regarding effective collaboration with teachers is necessary to establish specific roles, and to promote speech-language therapy for adolescents among teachers.Conclusion: Further research is needed in developing appropriate assessment and intervention tools as well as improvement of training at an undergraduate level.

  16. Alignment between South African mathematics assessment standards and the TIMSS assessment frameworks

    Mdutshekelwa Ndlovu


    Full Text Available South Africa’s performance in international benchmark tests is a major cause for concern amongst educators and policymakers, raising questions about the effectiveness of the curriculum reform efforts of the democratic era. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to investigate the degree of alignment between the TIMSS 2003 Grade 8 Mathematics assessment frameworks and the Revised National Curriculum Statements (RNCS assessment standards for Grade 8 Mathematics, later revised to become the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements (CAPS. Such an investigation could help to partly shed light on why South African learners do not perform well and point out discrepancies that need to be attended to. The methodology of document analysis was adopted for the study, with the RNCS and the TIMSS 2003 Grade 8 Mathematics frameworks forming the principal documents. Porter’s moderately complex index of alignment was adopted for its simplicity. The computed index of 0.751 for the alignment between the RNCS assessment standards and the TIMSS assessment objectives was found to be significantly statistically low, at the alpha level of 0.05, according to Fulmer’s critical values for 20 cells and 90 or 120 standard points. The study suggests that inadequate attention has been paid to the alignment of the South African mathematics curriculum to the successive TIMSS assessment frameworks in terms of the cognitive level descriptions. The study recommends that participation in TIMSS should rigorously and critically inform ongoing curriculum reform efforts.

  17. LRRK2 G2019S mutation: frequency and haplotype data in South African Parkinson's disease patients.

    Bardien, Soraya; Marsberg, Angelica; Keyser, Rowena; Lombard, Debbie; Lesage, Suzanne; Brice, Alexis; Carr, Jonathan


    Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) are the most significant genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). The exact function of LRRK2 is currently unknown but the presence of multiple protein interaction domains including WD40 and ankyrin indicates that it may act a scaffold for assembly of a multi-protein signaling complex. The G2019S mutation in LRRK2 represents the most clinically relevant PD-causing mutation and has been found in both familial and sporadic forms of the disorder. This mutation is situated in the highly conserved kinase MAPKKK domain, and has been found in up to 40% of PD patients from North African Arabic, 30% of Ashkenazi Jewish and approximately 10% of Portuguese and Spanish populations. Although extensively investigated in numerous European and North American populations, studies on the frequency of G2019S in African countries have been rare. The present study is the first on the South African population. High-resolution melt analysis was used to identify the G2019S mutation and it was found in 2% (4/205) of the patients studied. G2019S was not found in any of the Black PD patients screened. In all four G2019S-positive probands the mutation was shown to be present on the common haplotype referred to as haplotype 1. This reveals that the four South African G2019S-positive probands (three Caucasian and one of mixed ancestry) share a common ancestor with the other haplotype 1-associated families reported worldwide.

  18. Targeted high-throughput growth hormone 1 gene sequencing reveals high within-breed genetic diversity in South African goats.

    Ncube, K T; Mdladla, K; Dzomba, E F; Muchadeyi, F C


    This study assessed the genetic diversity in the growth hormone 1 gene (GH1) within and between South African goat breeds. Polymerase chain reaction-targeted gene amplification together with Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to generate the full length (2.54 kb) of the growth hormone 1 gene and screen for SNPs in the South African Boer (SAB) (n = 17), Tankwa (n = 15) and South African village (n = 35) goat populations. A range of 27-58 SNPs per population were observed. Mutations resulting in amino acid changes were observed at exons 2 and 5. Higher within-breed diversity of 97.37% was observed within the population category consisting of SA village ecotypes and the Tankwa goats. Highest pairwise FST values ranging from 0.148 to 0.356 were observed between the SAB and both the South African village and Tankwa feral goat populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicated nine genetic clusters, which reflected close relationships between the South African populations and the other international breeds with the exception of the Italian Sarda breeds. Results imply greater potential for within-population selection programs, particularly with SA village goats.

  19. Bullying victimisation, internalising symptoms, and conduct problems in South African children and adolescents: a longitudinal investigation.

    Boyes, Mark E; Bowes, Lucy; Cluver, Lucie D; Ward, Catherine L; Badcock, Nicholas A


    Bullying victimisation has been prospectively linked with mental health problems among children and adolescents in longitudinal studies in the developed world. However, research from the developing world, where adolescents face multiple risks to social and emotional development, has been limited by cross-sectional designs. This is the first longitudinal study of the psychological impacts of bullying victimisation in South Africa. The primary aim was to examine prospective relationships between bullying victimisation and internalising and externalising symptoms in South African youth. Secondary aims were to examine gender and age-related differences in experiences of bullying victimisation. Children and adolescents (10-17 years, 57 % female, n = 3,515) from high HIV-prevalent (>30 %) communities in South Africa were interviewed and followed-up 1 year later (97 % retention). Census enumeration areas were randomly selected from urban and rural sites in two provinces and door-to-door sampling included all households with a resident child/adolescent. Exposure to multiple experiences of bullying victimisation at baseline predicted internalising symptoms and conduct problems 1 year later. Additionally, baseline mental health scores predicted later bullying victimisation, demonstrating bi-directionality of relationships between bullying victimisation and mental health outcomes in this sample. Expected gender differences in physical, verbal, and relational bullying victimisation were evident and predicted declines in bullying victimisation over time were observed. In the developed world, school-based anti-bullying programmes have been shown to be effective in reducing bullying and victimisation. Anti-bullying programmes should be implemented and rigorously evaluated in South Africa, as this may promote improved mental health among South African children and adolescents.

  20. Dietary adequacies among South African adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal.

    Fariba Kolahdooz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food quality, determined by micronutrient content, is a stronger determinant of nutritional status than food quantity. Health concerns resulting from the co-existence of over-nutrition and under-nutrition in low income populations in South Africa have been fully recognized in the last two decades. This study aimed to further investigate dietary adequacy amongst adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal, by determining daily energy and nutrient intakes, and identifying the degree of satisfaction of dietary requirements. METHODS: Cross-sectional study assessing dietary adequacy from 24-hour dietary recalls of randomly selected 136 adults in Empangeni, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. RESULTS: Results are presented for men (n = 52 and women (n = 84 19-50 and >50 years old. Mean energy intake was greatest in women >50 years (2852 kcal/day and exceeded Dietary Reference Intake's for both men and women, regardless of age. Mean daily energy intake from carbohydrates was 69% for men and 67% for women, above the Dietary Reference Intake range of 45-65%. Sodium was also consumed in excess, and the Dietary Reference Intakes of vitamins A, B12, C, D, and E, calcium, zinc and pantothenic acid were not met by the majority of the population. CONCLUSION: Despite mandatory fortification of staple South African foods, micronutrient inadequacies are evident among adults in rural South African communities. Given the excess caloric intake and the rising prevalence of obesity and other non-communicable diseases in South Africa, a focus on diet quality may be a more effective approach to influence micronutrient status than a focus on diet quantity.

  1. Building customer relationships as retention strategy in the South African domestic passenger airline industry

    Pierre Mostert


    Full Text Available Organisations are increasingly focusing on building long-term relationships with customers, thereby increasing their probability for success by offering customers higher levels of satisfaction, increasing customer loyalty, and ultimately retaining customers. Airlines in particular can benefit from retaining customers as the airline industry is characterised by fierce competition and many airlines are finding it difficult to survive against the backdrop of enormous challenges in the past decade, including the significant decline in demand for air travel together with rising costs and the worldwide economic downturn. This study investigates the effect which a strategy by airlines of building relationships with customers has on customer satisfaction, loyalty, and ultimately customer retention. The effect of service failures on customers' relationships with airlines are also considered as a negative experience could results in customers defecting to competitors. A questionnaire, comprising six sections, was specifically compiled to determine customer retention in the South African domestic passenger airline industry. Data were collected by trained fieldworkers from OR Tambo International Airport by means of a non-probability convenience sampling method from 324 passengers flying with the various domestic airlines. Findings indicate that most respondents were satisfied with the airlines' overall service; respondents who formed relationships with domestic airlines were more loyal toward the airlines; and the relationships of respondents who were satisfied with airlines' service recovery efforts were either strengthened or unchanged. The findings from this study support findings from international studies by providing a unique South African perspective on the effect of a strategy of building relationships with customers on their satisfaction, loyalty and ultimately retention. It can therefore be recommended that the organisations competing in the South

  2. Stature estimation from the femur and tibia in Black South African sub-adults.

    Brits, Desiré M; Bidmos, Mubarak A; Manger, Paul R


    Stature estimation can play a role in the positive identification of unknown individuals and as such it is routinely assessed during the examination of adult remains. Unfortunately, this is not a standard procedure when dealing with sub-adult remains due to the general lack of standard procedures for the estimation of sub-adult stature. The aim of this study was therefore to derive regression equations for the estimation of stature in black South African sub-adults. Fifty nine black South African sub-adult males and females, aged 10-17 years, voluntarily participated in the study by undergoing a full body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan. Living stature was measured with a stadiometer and the maximum and diaphyseal lengths of the femur and tibia were measured from the MRI scans using the image processing software OsiriX. Pearson's correlation coefficients and linear least square regression analyses were used to assess the correlations between living stature and the measurements and to generate sub-adult stature estimation equations for males, females and a combined sex sample. Measurements of the femur, tibia and the combined measures thereof showed strong statistically significant positive correlations with living stature, while the obtained regression equations were characterized by low standard error of estimates. The strong correlations and low standard error of estimates are comparable to stature estimation models reported for Black South African adults and therefore these variables can be considered good estimators of sub-adult stature which will contribute valuable information to the biological profile of unidentified sub-adult skeletal remains.

  3. Factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II among South Africans receiving antiretroviral therapy.

    Kagee, Ashraf; Nel, Adriaan; Saal, Wylene


    Considerable evidence suggests that mood disturbance is common among patients living with HIV and may be an important barrier to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) adherence. Thus the assessment of depressed mood is an important and necessary aspect of the experience of persons living with HIV as it may impact the health status of individuals directly and indirectly. We sought to determine the factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) among a sample of 185 South Africans living with HIV and receiving ART. The mean BDI score was 16.5 (SD 12.15) with a range from 0-50 (out of a possible 63), indicating on average moderate levels of depression. Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was 0.90. Although the four factors had eigenvalues that were technically above 1.0, only three factors could logically be extracted, the combination of which accounted for 47.29% of the variance. These three factors were Cognitive, Affective and Somatic. The results indicate that the BDI-II is a reliable measure of symptoms of depression among persons living with HIV. The factor structure among South Africans receiving ART is similar to that of other samples, although surprisingly, the item assessing appetite disturbance did not load on any factor. The results of the study suggest that the BDI-II is a useful measure among South Africans living with HIV. In the context of the need to rapidly identify depressed mood among persons receiving ART in public health clinics, the BDI may be a useful instrument. We end the paper with certain cautions associated with routine screening.

  4. What drives Web 2.0 adoption in South African civil society organisations

    Kiru Pillay


    Full Text Available Background: The impact and consequences of social media adoption on society are only just being realised and studied in detail; consequently, there is no universal agreement as to the reasons for the adoption of these services. Even understanding why some social media services are popular remains to some extent elusive. The practical use of Web 2.0 does not provide any answers either with, for example, a noticeable difference in the way social media was strategically used by Barack Obama and Mitch Romney in the lead-up to the 2009 American elections. However, recent studies that have focused on social media adoption within specific sectors have begun to shed some light on these emerging adoption patterns; two studies in particular are illustrative: a 2012 study on the newspaper sector and a study on social media adoption and e-government. Objectives: This study investigates why South African civil society organisations (CSOs adopt Web 2.0 services and the perceived and actual benefits of such adoption. Method: A survey questionnaire was sent to 1712 South African CSOs listed in the Prodder database to explore why certain social media services were adopted and the perceived benefits thereof. Results: Internal reasons for the adoption of social media services by South African CSOs coalesce around organisational visibility and access to information. External reasons focus on organisations needing to become more relevant and more connected to like-minded organisations and initiatives. Conclusion: The pervasiveness of Web 2.0 technologies makes it inevitable that CSOs will have to restructure themselves to remain relevant.

  5. What drives Web 2.0 adoption in South African civil society organisations

    Kiru Pillay


    Full Text Available Background: The impact and consequences of social media adoption on society are only just being realised and studied in detail; consequently, there is no universal agreement as to the reasons for the adoption of these services. Even understanding why some social media services are popular remains to some extent elusive. The practical use of Web 2.0 does not provide any answers either with, for example, a noticeable difference in the way social media was strategically used by Barack Obama and Mitch Romney in the lead-up to the 2009 American elections. However, recent studies that have focused on social media adoption within specific sectors have begun to shed some light on these emerging adoption patterns; two studies in particular are illustrative: a 2012 study on the newspaper sector and a study on social media adoption and e-government.Objectives: This study investigates why South African civil society organisations (CSOs adopt Web 2.0 services and the perceived and actual benefits of such adoption.Method: A survey questionnaire was sent to 1712 South African CSOs listed in the Prodder database to explore why certain social media services were adopted and the perceived benefits thereof.Results: Internal reasons for the adoption of social media services by South African CSOs coalesce around organisational visibility and access to information. External reasons focus on organisations needing to become more relevant and more connected to like-minded organisations and initiatives.Conclusion: The pervasiveness of Web 2.0 technologies makes it inevitable that CSOs will have to restructure themselves to remain relevant.

  6. Biomass and productivity of fishes in estuaries: a South African case study.

    Whitfield, A K


    Estuaries are well known for their role as nutrient and detrital sinks that stimulate high levels of both primary and secondary production which, in turn, support a large biomass of fishes per unit area. This study reviews available information on coastal fish biomasses (g m(-2) wet mass) and productivity (g m(-2) wet mass year(-1) ) in order to place South African data on these topics into a global perspective. Using biogeographic fish productivity estimates, together with estuarine water area, the approximate annual teleost production in South African estuaries was calculated at 585, 1706 and 13 904 t in the cool temperate, warm temperate and subtropical regions, respectively. Total annual fish production in estuaries on the subcontinent is conservatively estimated at 16 195 t, but this figure is likely to fluctuate widely, depending on recruitment success and annual environmental conditions pertaining to these systems. Approximately 2000 t of fish are estimated to be harvested by fishing activities in South African estuaries each year, which represents c. 12% of annual fish production. Although this figure may appear sustainable, the reality is that there are a few heavily targeted estuary-associated marine species at the top of the food chain that are being overexploited by both anglers and subsistence fishermen. Natural mortalities due to piscivorous fish and bird predation has been estimated at c. 3% of total fish biomass per month in the East Kleinemonde Estuary, but this figure will vary considerably depending on bird abundance and foraging patterns along the coast. In contrast to catches made by the fishermen, piscivorous fishes and birds are targeting mainly juvenile marine fish and small estuarine resident species that are very abundant and generally low down in the food web.

  7. Risk Management And Liability For EnvironmentalL Harm Caused By GMOS – The South African Regulatory Framework

    L Feris


    Full Text Available Biotechnology is still relatively new and as with any new technology, it carries some level of risk. This necessitates appropriate risk assessments and appropriate risk management. One element of risk management however, is taking into account that during the production, development, transport or release of a GMO it may cause injury to person, property or the environment, regardless of risk management procedures. This calls for the existence of a liability regime that will place some legal responsibility on the party responsible for the harm. This paper assesses the South African regulatory framework of relevance to GMOs, which is composed of a fragmented set of laws that deals with risk assessment, risk management and liability for damage to the environment. It discusses the GMO Act as the principle legislation regulation GMOs and also the recent amendment thereof and also consider other legislation such as the ECA, NEMA and NEMA Biodiversity Act in an attempt to determine whether the regulatory framework addresses risk management and liability in an effective and adequate manner. It comes to the conclusion that South Africa does not as yet have a satisfactory legal regime that provides for risk management and liability in the context of GMOs.


    Leopold Scholtz


    Full Text Available Ever since 1988, a war of words has been waged about the question whowon the so-called Battle of Cuito Cuanavale – the SADF, or the Cuban and Angolaforces. A lot depends, of course, on what the South Africans’ strategic andoperational objectives were, and whether they reached these or not. On a somewhatlower level, the debate has centred on the question whether the SADF wanted tooccupy Cuito Cuanavale. If they did, it becomes easier to argue that South Africawas dealt a heavy reverse there; if not, such an argument becomes more difficult tosustain. In this article, South Africa’s strategic and operational objectives areanalysed, based on archival sources. The basic conclusions are that the SouthAfrican government was realistic enough to see that it could not replace the MPLAwith UNITA by force, although it was hoped this might happen through elections.As far as Cuito Cuanavale is concerned, the sources are unequivocal: Although theoccupation of the town was indeed discussed, it was never seriously considered. Theobjective was simply to drive FAPLA over the Cuito River, to prepare the riverbankas a defensive line, to turn it over to UNITA and then to pull back. By far most ofthe South Africans’ objectives were reached.

  9. Human African trypanosomiasis in South Sudan: how can we prevent a new epidemic?

    José A Ruiz-Postigo

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT has been a major public health problem in South Sudan for the last century. Recurrent outbreaks with a repetitive pattern of responding-scaling down activities have been observed. Control measures for outbreak response were reduced when the prevalence decreased and/or socio-political crisis erupted, leading to a new increase in the number of cases. This paper aims to raise international awareness of the threat of another outbreak of sleeping sickness in South Sudan. It is a review of the available data, interventions over time, and current reports on the status of HAT in South Sudan. Since 2006, control interventions and treatments providing services for sleeping sickness have been reduced. Access to HAT diagnosis and treatment has been considerably diminished. The current status of control activities for HAT in South Sudan could lead to a new outbreak of the disease unless 1 the remaining competent personnel are used to train younger staff to resume surveillance and treatment in the centers where HAT activities have stopped, and 2 control of HAT continues to be given priority even when the number of cases has been substantially reduced. Failure to implement an effective and sustainable system for HAT control and surveillance will increase the risk of a new epidemic. That would cause considerable suffering for the affected population and would be an impediment to the socioeconomic development of South Sudan.

  10. South African Reformed Baptists and contextualisation: Contemporary understanding, attitudes and praxis

    John Koning


    Full Text Available Postmodernism and urbanisation pose significant challenges and opportunities to Christian witness in the West. In South Africa, Reformed Baptists as well as the Reformed Churches in South Africa (RCSA seem to be battling to engage with and reach new generations in the cities with the gospel. While the reasons for this may be many and varied, one reason for our faltering and seemingly ineffective witness can be traced back to inadequate and unbiblical views of contextualisation. While South African Reformed Baptists are passionately committed to biblical truth and orthodoxy, they appear to be negligent in the matter of faithful biblical contextualisation. Reformed Baptist pastors appear to be slow to take cognisance of and adjust to the unique challenges and opportunities that Postmodernism and urbanisation presents to gospel ministry in South Africa. Some conservative Baptists are suspicious of, or even critical of contextualisation, considering it a compromise with liberal theology. This article provides an overview of the findings of an empirical research that was done among a selected group of Reformed Baptist pastors as well as a selected group of ministers of the RCSA concerning their views on and practice of contextualisation. The article also provides some critical reflection on the findings and some proposals for more effective outreach to postmodern urban people.Keywords: Contextualisation, Reformed, Baptists Reformed Churches in South Africa Church, growth, Postmodernism

  11. Some Aspects of South African Cross-Border Insolvency Relief: The Lehane Matter

    Alastair David Smith


    Full Text Available The Lehane matter wound its way through the Cape Provincial Division of the High Court and reached the Supreme Court of Appeal. Mr Dunne, the Irish debtor who had taken up residence in the United States of America, ran an international web of companies, including Lagoon Beach Hotel, which operated a Cape Town hotel. He filed for chapter 7 bankruptcy in the United States and soon was also bankrupted by the Irish High Court. The Irish official assignee, Lehane, applied to the Cape court for recognition and assistance, and succeeded at every stage of the South African proceedings. Initially, Steyn J recognised Lehane as the foreign trustee as though a sequestration order had been granted against Mr Dunne in terms of the Insolvency Act 24 of 1936, thus diverging from the approach taken by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in Singularis Holdings Ltd v PricewaterhouseCoopers (Bermuda. Subsequently, Yekiso J's approach to applying the Insolvency Act without derogating from its generality opens up the possibility of applying section 21 of the Insolvency Act to significant effect against Mrs Dunne's South African property. Yet the territorialist restriction in Yekiso J's order that only creditors with causes of action which arose in South Africa were entitled to claim against the insolvent estate excluded many foreign creditors, even those from the Republic of Ireland (Eire. Of the many issues raised by the Lagoon Beach Hotel company, two chosen for discussion in this case note are the possible application of the automatic stay under section 362 of the United States Bankruptcy Code 1978 to the South African proceedings, and the standing of Lehane because of the litigants' dispute whether Mr Dunne was domiciled in the United States or Ireland. Yekiso J and subsequently Leach JA held that the American automatic stay did not govern the South African proceedings. Significantly, the American and the Irish trustees were co-operating with respect to

  12. Occupational lung disease in the South African mining industry: research and policy implementation.

    Murray, Jill; Davies, Tony; Rees, David


    South African miners face an epidemic of occupational lung diseases. Despite a plethora of research on the mining industry, and the gold mining industry in particular, research impact (including disease surveillance) on policy implementation and occupational health systems performance lags. We describe the gold mining environment, and research on silicosis, tuberculosis, HIV and AIDS, and compensation for occupational disease including initiatives to influence policy and thus reduce dust levels and disease. As these have been largely unsuccessful, we identify possible impediments, some common to other low- and middle-income countries, to the translation of research findings and policy initiatives into effective interventions.

  13. An analysis of buyer-supplier collaboration in the South African textile industry

    H. Parker


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore perceptions regarding buyer and supplier collaboration around product development. The aim is to gain an understanding of which factors influence buyer-supplier collaboration outcomes in the South African textile industry. Methodology: This study comprised two data collection stages. The first stage comprised the design and administration of a questionnaire survey. The second stage utilised a qualitative interview methodology and entailed interviewing a subset of the questionnaire respondents in order to probe respondents’ own experiences in collaborative product developments and their perception of the factors that determine collaboration outcome. Findings: This study has shed light on the experiences of South African firms in the textile industry engaging in buyer-supplier collaboration around product development. While this study is exploratory, it has provided evidence that there are certain factors which are perceived to have a significant influence on collaboration. Implications: Under the past protective shield of tariffs, South African clothing and textile manufacturers could afford to allow an adversarial mode of operation to perpetuate inefficiencies. However, the increasing external pressures, including the very real threat of overseas competition, heighten the need for collaboration between buyers and suppliers. This relates, in particular, to collaboration aimed at new product development, which can be seen as a new imperative for the survival and growth of this industry. Currently, there are numerous barriers to effective collaboration. The overwhelming power of retailers in the value chain is one such barrier, as it creates an environment which is pressurised, strained and not conducive to buyer-supplier collaboration. Contribution and Value: Studies on collaborative new product development have primarily been done in developed countries, with a focus on technology intensive

  14. Social constructionism and relational practices as a paradigm for organisational psychology in the South African context

    Dirk J. Geldenhuys


    Full Text Available Orientation: This article is about introducing social constructionism and relational practices as a paradigm perspective to organisational psychology, especially as these are applied in organisation development. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of social constructionism and relational practices as a paradigm perspective for studying and practising organisational psychology in the South African context. Motivation for the study: The relevance of the paradigm perspective that is currently used in studying and practising organisational psychology in South Africa seems to be biased towards an individual perspective of human behaviour that is incongruent with the African context, which asks for an Afro-centric approach with the emphasis on human relationships. It was argued that social constructionism and relational practices could provide a relevant perspective that can help to transform workplace relationships in the South African context. Research approach, design and method: This study was based on a non-empirical, theoretical research design. Articles written in English and published between 2002 and 2013 using specific keywords relating to social constructionism and organisational psychology were retrieved. This was supplemented by other relevant electronic and hardcopy resources. The main findings are reported and discussed and recommendations made. Main findings: Although the literature on social constructionism and relational practices is limited in organisational psychology, it does provide an additional perspective, not only on the mainstream theory, but also as a practice in organisation development for transforming workplace relationships in the South African context. Practical/managerial implications: Organisational psychology should be cautious about the possibility of constructing a monologue at the expense of introducing new perspectives on behaviour in the workplace. Organisational

  15. South African English as a late 19th-century etraterritorial variety

    20209371 - Bekker, Ian


    This article argues that the external history of South African English (SAfE) points towards the merits of conceptualizing SAfE as the product of a three-stage koinéization process, the last stage of which takes place contemporaneously with the establishment of Johannesburg. This is at odds with the standard position, which views SAfE as an early-to-mid 19th-century variety with its characteristic features having been fixed during the earlier colonization of the Cape and Natal. This reconcept...

  16. The African swine fever control zone in South Africa and its current relevance.

    Magadla, Noluvuyo R; Vosloo, Wilna; Heath, Livio; Gummow, Bruce


    African swine fever (ASF) has been reported in South Africa since the early 20th century. The disease has been controlled and confined to northern South Africa over the past 80 years by means of a well-defined boundary line, with strict control measures and movement restrictions north of this line. In 2012, the first outbreak of ASF outside the ASF control zone since 1996 occurred. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current relevance of the ASF control line as a demarcation line between endemic ASF (north) areas and ASF-free (south) area and to determine whether there was a need to realign its trajectory, given the recent outbreaks of ASF, global climate changes and urban development since the line's inception. A study of ASF determinants was conducted in an area 20 km north and 20 km south of the ASF control line, in Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West and Gauteng provinces between May 2008 and September 2012. The study confirmed that warthogs, warthog burrows and the soft tick reservoir, Ornithodoros moubata, are present south of the ASF control line, but no virus or viral DNA was detected in these ticks. There appears to be an increasing trend in the diurnal maximum temperature and a decrease in humidity along the line, but the impact of these changes is uncertain. No discernible changes in minimum temperatures and average rainfall along the disease control line were observed between 1992 and 2014. Even though the reservoirs were found south of the ASF boundary line, the study concluded that there was no need to realign the trajectory of the ASF disease control line, with the exception of Limpopo Province. However, the provincial surveillance programmes for the reservoir, vector and ASF virus south of this line needs to be maintained and intensified as changing farming practices may favour the spread of ASF virus beyond the control line.

  17. Plural religious beliefs: A Comparison between the Dutch and white South Africans

    H. J.C. Pieterse


    Full Text Available The concept of religious beliefs is distilled from the perspective of one’s belief in God. With regard to this belief in God we propose to distinguish between two dimensions: The personal versus the a-personal characte r of God and his transcendent versus his immanent nature. This leaves us with a plurality of beliefs in God. Does this plurality of beliefs exist in the minds of people in the Netherlands and in South Africa? Together with this we explore the relationship between church involvement and plural religious beliefs in both countries. We have found a sharp contrast between the Dutch and a sample of church-going white South Africans regarding secularization and church involvement. Nevertheless, we have found a highly similar structure of religious beliefs among both people.

  18. The challenges of rescaling South African water resources management: Catchment Management Agencies and interbasin transfers

    Bourblanc, Magalie; Blanchon, David


    The implementation of Catchment Management Agencies (CMAs) was supposed to be the cornerstone of the rescaling process of the South African water reform policy. Yet, less than 10 years after the adoption of the National Water Act, the process was suspended for 4 years and by 2012 only two CMAs had been established. Combining approaches in geography and political science, this paper investigates the reasons for the delays in CMAs' implementation in South Africa. It shows that the construction of interbasin transfers (IBTs) since the 1950s by the apartheid regime and nowadays the power struggles between CMAs and the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) are two of the main obstacles to the creation of CMAs planned by the 1998 National Water Act (NWA). Finally, the paper advocates taking the "hydrosocial cycle" as an analytical framework for designing new institutional arrangements that will include both rectifying the legacy of the past (the specific role of DWA) and acknowledging legitimate local interests.

  19. Meiotic studies of some South African cultivars of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae

    J. J. Spies


    Full Text Available Lantana camara L. is a polyploid species with a basic chromosome number of 11 (x = l l . Chromosome association in 39 cultivars indicated the occurrence of univalents to heptavalents with bivalents predominating. Multivalent association analysis revealed the presence in South Africa of at least four different groups of L. camara at the diploid level. The potential for sexual reproduction must exist, at least at the diploid level, to account for differences in chromosomal behaviour that can only be attributed to hybridization. The possibility exists that the basic chromosome number may be lower than 11, or else postspeciation genomic evolution must have occurred. No cytogenetical correlation exists between the South African and Indian cultivars. The number of chiasmata per genome increases with an increase in the polyploid level. Most multivalents are of the chain type. Univalents during diakinesis are the result of asynapsis. Triploid and pentaploid plants display a markedly abnormal meiosis.  L. camara is a segmental allopolyploid species.

  20. Maternal incest as moral panic: envisioning futures without fathers in the South African lowveld.

    Niehaus, Isak


    During 2008, rumours about revolting incestuous encounters between sons and their mothers circulated in the Bushbuckridge municipality of the South African lowveld. This article views these rumours as expressing moral panic, paying particular attention to the historical contexts of their emergence and circulation, and to their temporal orientation. I locate these rumours in the periphery of South Africa's de-industrialising economy, marked by increased unemployment and criminality among men and by a growing prominence of women-headed households. They express a regressive temporalisation and pessimistic vision, not of development, progress and civilisation, but rather of deterioration and de-civilisation. Through the alleged act of incest, sons who engage in crime usurp the authority of fathers who once produced value in strategic industries and mines. As such the rumours envision a dystopia marked by the 'death of the father' and chaotic disorder without morality and law.

  1. Official pedagogic identities from South African policy – some implications for mathematics teacher education practice

    Diane Parker


    Full Text Available In South Africa the National Curriculum Statement for Grades 10 – 12 (General: Mathematics (DoE, 2003 together with the Norms and Standards for Educators (DoE, 2000a are key policy documents that provide the official basis for mathematics education reform and for the construction of new pedagogic identities. In this paper I use a framework based on the work of Bernstein (1996, 2000 to theorise the construction of pedagogic identities. I use this to build on Graven’s (2002 description of the new official pedagogic identity of the South African mathematics teacher, and on Adler et al. (2002 and others to raise questions related to teacher knowledge and the challenges  of developing specialist mathematics teacher identities through initial teacher education programmes.

  2. The Conduciveness of the South African Economic Environment and Small, Medium and Micro Enterprise Sustainability: A Literature Review

    Juan-Pierré BRUWER


    Full Text Available Since the early 1980s Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs have been regarded as the driving forces of both developing and developed economies around the world. In a South African dispensation, SMMEs are responsible for adding imperative socio-economic value to the country, particularly in terms of eradicating poverty and diminishing unemployment levels. By doing so, these business entities are believed to contribute at least 50% to the national Gross Domestic Product. Albeit the aforementioned, previous research studies report that up to 75% of South African SMMEs fail after being in existence for only 42 months. Though the latter dispensation has been blamed on many economic factors, over the years the sustainability of South African SMMEs has not improved to a great extent. In order to provide insight on the latter dispensation, this literature review paper was conducted to ultimately formulate two hypotheses for further empirical testing.

  3. Policy implementation in wheelchair service delivery in a rural South African setting

    Surona Visagie


    Full Text Available Background: Wheelchairs allow users to realise basic human rights and improved quality of life. South African and international documents guide rehabilitation service delivery and thus the provision of wheelchairs. Evidence indicates that rehabilitation policy implementation gaps exist in rural South Africa.Objectives: The aim of this article was to explore the extent to which wheelchair service delivery in a rural, remote area of South Africa was aligned with the South African National Guidelines on Provision of Assistive Devices, The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and The World Health Organization Guidelines on Provision of Wheelchairs in Less-Resourced Settings.Method: Qualitative methods were used. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 22 participants who were identified through purposive sampling. Content analysis of data was preformed around the construct of wheelchair service delivery.Results: Study findings identified gaps between the guiding documents and wheelchair service delivery. Areas where gaps were identified included service aspects such as referral, assessment, prescription, user and provider training, follow up, maintenance and repair as well as management aspects such as staff support, budget and monitoring. Positive findings related to individual assessments, enthusiastic and caring staff and the provision of wheelchairs at no cost.Conclusion: The gaps in policy implementation can have a negative impact on users and the service provider. Inappropriate or no wheelchairs limit user function, participation and quality of life. In addition, an inappropriate wheelchair will have a shorter lifespan, requiring frequent repairs and replacements with cost implications for the service provider.

  4. Non-Standard Workers: The South African Context, International Law and Regulation by The European Union

    ES Fourie


    Full Text Available The current labour market has many forms of employment relations that differ from full-time employment. "Atypical," "non-standard," or even "marginal" are terms used to describe these new workers and include, amongst others, part-time work, contract work, self-employment, temporary, fixed-term, seasonal, casual, piece-rate work, employees supplied by employment agencies, home workers and those employed in the informal economy. These workers are often paid for results rather than time. Their vulnerability is linked in many instances to the absence of an employment relationship or the existence of a flimsy one. Most of these workers are unskilled or work in sectors with limited trade union organisation and limited coverage by collective bargaining, leaving them vulnerable to exploitation. They should, in theory, have the protection of current South African labour legislation, but in practice the unusual circumstances of their employment render the enforcement of their rights problematic. The majority of non-standard workers in South Africa are those previously disadvantaged by the apartheid regime, compromising women and unskilled black workers. The exclusion of these workers from labour legislation can be seen as discrimination, which is prohibited by almost all labour legislation in South Africa. This contribution illustrates how the concept of indirect discrimination can be an important tool used to provide labour protection to these workers. The purpose of this article is to explore the scope of the extension of labour rights to non-standard workers in the context of South African labour laws and the international framework.

  5. A Spring without Water: The Conundrum of Anti-Dumping Duties in South African Law

    Clive Vinti


    Full Text Available The Agreement on the Implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1994 (Anti-Dumping Agreement permits the imposition of anti-dumping duties for as long and to the extent necessary to counteract dumping which is causing injury, subject to the proviso that they must be terminated after five years unless a sunset review has been initiated. A sunset review has the purpose of either permitting or terminating the continuation of an anti-dumping duty. This is significant because if the sunset review is not initiated prior to the expiry of the five-year period, the anti-dumping duties will be terminated. Therefore, this places an emphasis on the determination of the precise date of commencement of the anti-dumping duties. This is because an incorrect determination of the date of the imposition of the anti-dumping duty has obvious financial implications for the interested parties. The Supreme Court of Appeal in South Africa has delivered two salient judgments in this regard: firstly, in Progress Office Machines CC v SARS 2008 2 SA 13 (SCA (POM, and then more recently, in Association of Meat Importers v ITAC 2013 4 All SA 253 (SCA (AMIE. This paper contends that these two judgments are in conflict and are riddled with inconsistencies. Secondly, the paper contends that the SCA has in the recent AMIE case virtually rewritten its earlier judgment of Progress Office Machines. Lastly, the paper shows that the approach of South African courts to whether the Anti-Dumping Agreement is binding on South African law is fraught with uncertainty and ambivalence. The case analysis also reflects on the impact of the newly minted but yet to be implemented Customs Duty Act with a view to assessing the impact of the new legislation on the issues currently plaguing the anti-dumping regime of South Africa.

  6. Human rights violations and smoking status among South African adults enrolled in the South Africa Stress and Health (SASH) study.

    Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Gupta, Jhumka; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A


    Despite South Africa's history of violent political conflict, and the link between stressful experiences and smoking in the literature, no public health study has examined South Africans' experiences of human rights violations and smoking. Using data from participants in the nationally representative cross-sectional South Africa Stress and Health study (SASH), this analysis examined the association between respondent smoking status and both human rights violations experienced by the respondent and violations experienced by the respondents' close friends and family members. SAS-Callable SUDAAN was used to construct separate log-binomial models by political affiliation during apartheid (government or liberation supporters). In comparison to those who reported no violations, in adjusted analyses, government supporters who reported violations of themselves but not others (RR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.25-2.46) had a significantly higher smoking prevalence. In comparison to liberation supporters who reported no violations, those who reported violations of self only (RR = 1.56, 95%CI: 1.07-2.29), close others only (RR = 1.97, 95%CI: 1.12-3.47), or violations of self and close others due to close others' political beliefs and the respondent's political beliefs (RR = 2.86, 95%CI: 1.70-4.82) had a significantly higher prevalence of smoking. The results of this analysis suggest that a relationship may exist between human rights violations and smoking among South Africa adults. Future research should use longitudinal data to assess causality, test the generalizability of these findings, and consider how to apply these findings to smoking cessation interventions.

  7. The CORE-OM Intake Norms of Students Attending a South African University Counseling Service: A Comparison with UK Counseling Service Data

    Young, Charles


    This paper provides CORE-OM intake norms for a South African university counseling service, and compares these to the United Kingdom counseling service data reported by Connell, Barkham and Mellor-Clark (2007). The South African norms are very similar to the United Kingdom norms, with no statistical differences in the total or domain scores. There…

  8. Portraits of resilience : writing a socio-cultural history of a black South African location with the Ngilima photographic collection. Benoni, 1950s-1960s.

    Feyder, Sophie


    This thesis engages with the ongoing debate regarding how photographs can contribute to the writing of black South African history. In the field of South African visual history, a significant literature explores the “white gaze” that emanates from the administrative and missionary photographic archi

  9. An informatics system to support knowledge management in the health sector--the South African National Health Knowledge Network.

    Louw, J A; Seebregts, C J; Makgoba, W M; Fouché, B


    This paper discusses the planning and development of a South African national health knowledge network. The methodology is in essence based on the principles of knowledge management and the drivers of a system of innovation. The knowledge network, SA HealthInfo, aims to provide a one-stop interactive forum/resource, for quality-controlled and evidence-based health research information, to a wide spectrum of users, at various levels of aggregation, with the necessary security arrangements and facilities for interaction among users to promote explicit (codified) and tacit knowledge flow. It will therefore stimulate the process of innovation within the South African health system.

  10. Nematodes of the small intestine of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Taylor, William A; Skinner, John D; Boomker, Joop


    The abundance and distribution of parasitic helminths in populations of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, have not been well documented. A total of 28 buffaloes of different ages and sexeswere sampled in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, for nematodes of the small intestine. Three nematode species were identified, namely Cooperia fuelleborni, Cooperia hungi and Trichostrongylus deflexus, with C. hungi being a new country record for African buffalo in South Africa. The overall prevalence was 71%and the average number of worms was 2346 (range: 0-15 980). This is a small burden for such a large mammal. Sex, age and body condition of the buffaloes had no significant effect on worm occurrence.

  11. The Law and Practice of Criminal Asset Forfeiture in South African Criminal Procedure: A Constitutional Dilemma

    Vinesh Basdeo


    Full Text Available The deprivation of the proceeds of crime has been a feature of criminal law for many years. The original rationale for the confiscation of criminal assets at international level was the fight against organised crime, a feature of society described by the European Court of Human Rights as a "scourge" so that the draconian powers which are a feature of confiscation regimes around the world have been approved in circumstances which otherwise might have caused governments considerable difficulties before the international human rights tribunals. The primary objective of this article is to determine if the asset forfeiture measures employed in the South African criminal justice system are in need of any reform and/or augmentation in accordance with the "spirit, purport and object" of the South African Constitution. This article attempts to answer three questions. Firstly, why is criminal asset forfeiture important to law enforcement? Secondly, in which circumstances can property be forfeited and what types of property are subject to forfeiture? Thirdly, how is forfeiture accomplished, and what are its constitutional ramifications?

  12. Reading comprehension in South African schools: Are teachers getting it, and getting it right?

    Pretorius, Lilli


    Full Text Available Much research exists about South African learners’ low literacy and numeracy levels and about poorly performing schools. In contrast, there are far fewer detailed descriptions of instructional practices and what teachers are actually doing in their classrooms, and far less evidence exists of in-depth research attempts to understand in what way and why teachers may experience problems with the teaching of reading literacy, particularly reading comprehension. This article aims to contribute to narrowing that gap by reviewing recent South African research on classroom comprehension instruction and obtaining information from teachers about how they perceive themselves as readers, what their teaching context is, what they claim to be doing about reading in their classrooms, and to match these responses with ANA results at their schools. Data were obtained through a quantitative questionnaire from 159 teachers at 30 schools across three provinces. The results show that many teachers are not themselves immersed in rich reading practices, many teachers claim to be doing more than is reflected in their schools’ literacy results, and in general teachers don’t seem to have a clear understanding of reading concepts, reading development and reading methodology.

  13. Zupta's Next Nightmare: The South African Local Government Elections of 3 August 2016

    Ulf Engel


    Full Text Available On 3 August 2016 South Africa held its fifth local government elections (LGE since the end of Apartheid in 1994. Against a backdrop of increasing political frustration with the ruling party’s poor performance and continued debates about corruption and cronyism in the highest government circles, the African National Congress (ANC maintained its dominant position but lost 8 per cent of the aggregate vote (53.91 per cent. The Democratic Alliance (DA gained some 3 per cent (26.89 per cent of the vote, and the Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF, first-time LGE campaigners, garnered 8.02 per cent. Importantly, the ANC lost control of three of the seven big metropolitan municipalities it had previously held. Since there was no clear-cut majority in four of the eight metros, coalition politics and the art of compromise will become a major feature of South African politics in the coming years. The elections were highly competitive and considered free and fair. At 57.97 per cent, voter turnout was slightly higher than in 2011.

  14. The Frequency of Cytochrome P450 2E1 Polymorphisms in Black South Africans

    Paul K. Chelule


    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the Cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1 gene reportedly modify the metabolic activity of CYP2E1 enzyme, and have been associated with increased susceptibility to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the oesophagus in high prevalence areas such as China. To assess the frequency of these polymorphisms in Black South Africans, a population with a high incidence of oesophageal SCC, this study examined genomic DNA from 331 subjects for restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the CYP2E1 (RsaI and PstI digestion. The frequency of the CYP2E1 c1/c1 and c1/c3 genotypes was 95% and 5% respectively. The frequency of the CYP2E1 allele distribution was found to be markedly different between Chinese and South African populations; hence it is important to place racial differences into consideration when proposing allelic variants as genetic markers for cancer.

  15. Environmental Management Practices and Firm Performance in a South African Mining Firm

    Gibson Nyirenda


    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of environmental management practices on the financial performance of a South African mining firm. The major aim of this paper is to investigate whether such practices have a close relationship with the mining firm’s financial performance (represented by return on equity [ROE]. The approach is a case study of a South African mining firm listed under the socially responsible index (SRI of the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE. It uses Green-Steel sa (pseudonym used in place of the real name as a case study. Using multiple regression statistics, the return on equity of Green-Steel sa is regressed on three environmental management practices of Green- Steel (carbon reduction, energy efficiency, and water usage. The result shows there is no significant relationship between the variables and this lends credence to information gathered from Green-Steel environmental reports that Green-Steel’s environmental management practices are driven mostly by a desire to abide by regulations and also by a moral obligation to use environmental management practices to mitigate climate change impact.

  16. The representation of sex workers in South African media: Danger, morals and human rights

    Sally Hunt


    Full Text Available The ideological construct of gender typically positions women below men, and “others” certain types of women even more, especially those distinguished from idealised femininity by aspects of their sexuality. This paper explores the representation of sex work and sex workers in the South African media in 2009 and 2010, a time during which there was an increase in news coverage of sex work during the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Analysis of the two data sets revealed that sex work is still often perceived as immoral and dangerous, and that sex workers – overwhelmingly represented as women – are criminalised for their actions while client agency is largely obscured, which is in line with previous studies of South African newspapers. However, a strong liberal representation of sex workers was also found in one data set, which advocates the decriminalisation of sex work in the context of human rights. The use of the term “sex work” and its derivatives, rather than “prostitution”, was found to index this progressive stance.

  17. Removal of sulphates from South African mine water using coal fly ash

    Madzivire, G.; Petrik, L.F. [Western Cape Univ., Bellville (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry; Gitari, W.M. [Cape Peninsula Univ. of Technology, Cape Town (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry; Ojumu, T.V. [Cape Peninsula Univ. of Technology, Cape Town (South Africa). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Misheer, N. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Research and Innovation


    This study investigated the use of alkaline fly ash (FA) produced by South African power stations as a means of neutralizing acid mine drainage South African mines. The mine water has circumneutral pH, low concentrations of iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al), and is rich in calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}). The FA was used to remove SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} from the mine water. A geochemical modelling tool was used to investigate the effect of Fe and Al on sulphate removal from NMD when reacted with FA. The study also investigated the mineral phases responsible for the removal of sulphates, Fe, Al and Mn from mine water samples. The samples were analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma-atomic emission mass spectrometry and ion chromatography for cations and anions. Results of the geochemical modelling study showed that the removal of sulphates, Mg, Mn, Al and Fe was significantly influenced by the final pH of the water. When mine water pH was raised to greater than 6, 8, 9, and 11, approximately 100 percent of Al, Fe, Mn and Mg were removed. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  18. South African women's conceptualisations of and responses to sexual coercion in relation to hegemonic masculinities.

    Stern, Erin; Buikema, Rosemarie; Cooper, Diane


    Despite the documented relationship between hegemonic norms of masculinities and South African men's use of sexual violence, less is known about how women's engagement with norms of masculinity influences their agency in sexually coercive experiences. This study applied a narrative approach to assess how women's understandings of hegemonic male norms affected their perceptions of and responses to sexually coercive experiences. Twenty-five sexual history narrative interviews were conducted with women across five South African provinces representing a range of ages, language and sociocultural backgrounds. Interviews elicited stories of first experiences of sex and the range of sexual relationships through adulthood. Data were analysed using principles of thematic and narrative analysis. Coercive sexual experiences informed many women's normative ideas about men's sexuality including being impulsive, controlling and aggressive. This could underpin women's limited ability to exercise agency and their increased vulnerability to sexual abuse. Some women reported levels of trust and respect in subsequent relationships, which typically involved deconstructing norms of men's use of coercion and moving beyond self-blame and guilt. The findings highlight the need to appreciate the fluid and situated nature of women's agency from a relational perspective in terms of how women condone and challenge gender norms that support men's use of sexual violence in their relationships.

  19. Evolution of placental specializations in viviparous African and South American lizards.

    Flemming, Alexander F; Blackburn, Daniel G


    Phylogenetic information offers an important resource in analyses of reproductive diversity, including interpretations of fetal membrane evolution. In this paper, we draw upon ongoing studies of South American and African lizards to consider the value of combining phylogenetic and reproductive evidence in the construction of evolutionary interpretations. South American lizards of the genus Mabuya exhibit several reproductive specializations that are convergent on those of eutherian mammals, including viviparity, long gestation periods, ovulation of tiny eggs, and placental supply of the nutrients for development. Studies of placental morphology and development indicate that New World Mabuya share several other derived features, including chorionic areolae and a "Type IV" epitheliochorial placenta with a villous, mesometrial placentome. Some characteristics of these lizards are shared by two African skinks, M. ivensii and Eumecia anchietae, including minuscule eggs, placentotrophy, an absorptive chorioallantois, and features of the yolk sac. Available evidence is consistent with two explanations: (1) placentotrophy originated in Africa, predating a trans-Atlantic colonization by Mabuya of the New World; and (2) placentotrophy arose two or three separate times among these closely related skinks. As illustrated by analysis of these animals, not only can data on fetal membrane morphology yield phylogenetic information, but phylogenetic evidence in turn provides a valuable way to reconstruct the evolution of fetal membranes in a biogeographic context. When appropriately interpreted, morphological and phylogenetic evidence can be combined to yield robust evolutionary conclusions that avoid the pitfalls of circular reasoning.

  20. Acknowledging others as 'whole beings'. Managers' perceptions of spirituality and health in the South African workplace.

    Honiball, George; Geldenhuys, Dirk; Mayer, Claude-Hélène


    This article explores the concept of spirituality within selected South African managerial work contexts. The aim of the study was to determine managers' perceptions of spirituality and health-related aspects in various South African workplaces. A phenomenological research paradigm was used, applying an in-depth qualitative research approach. The sample consisted of 12 senior managers from different organizations, including, for example, an international healthcare provider, an international auditing and consulting firm, a manufacturer of paint supplies and decorations and an ecclesiastical organization. Research methods included semi-structured interviews and observation. Data was analysed through content analysis, identifying themes, categories and codes. The findings indicate that spirituality promotes the development of health-related aspects of individuals, such as self-awareness, inner peace and the management of stress and depression. Managers emphasize that spirituality also has an impact on managing teams and teamwork, engaging in competitive behaviour, encouraging honesty and reducing selfishness. Based on the findings, a conclusion is given and practical as well as scientific recommendations are emphasized. In love lies the seed of our growth. The more we love, the closer we are to the spiritual experience. (Paulo Coelho, 1994).