WorldWideScience

Sample records for addressing environmental justice

  1. Reclaim Northside: An Environmental Justice Approach to Address Vacant Land in Pittsburgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Samantha; Sing, Evaine

    2016-01-01

    Urban decline, disinvestment, and blight have not traditionally been addressed by the environmental conservation movement. In this article, we describe an environmental justice-focused intervention located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, that aimed to increase community empowerment to address urban environmental injustices by training residents to reclaim vacant land. We use a case study approach to illustrate resident perceptions of the impact of vacant land and urban decay. The results suggest that these residents viewed vacancy as an important indicator of community well-being and social inequality. We use a social and environmental justice framework to describe results and implications for practitioners and researchers. PMID:27214676

  2. Reclaim Northside: An Environmental Justice Approach to Address Vacant Land in Pittsburgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Samantha; Sing, Evaine

    2016-01-01

    Urban decline, disinvestment, and blight have not traditionally been addressed by the environmental conservation movement. In this article, we describe an environmental justice-focused intervention located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, that aimed to increase community empowerment to address urban environmental injustices by training residents to reclaim vacant land. We use a case study approach to illustrate resident perceptions of the impact of vacant land and urban decay. The results suggest that these residents viewed vacancy as an important indicator of community well-being and social inequality. We use a social and environmental justice framework to describe results and implications for practitioners and researchers.

  3. Addressing environmental justice under the National Environment Policy Act at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, T.M.; Bleakly, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    Under Executive Order 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, the Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico (SNL) are required to identify and address, as appropriate, disproportionately high, adverse human health or environmental effects of their activities on minority and low-income populations. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) also requires that environmental justice issues be identified and addressed. This presents a challenge for SNL because it is located in a culturally diverse area. Successfully addressing potential impacts is contingent upon accurately identifying them through objective analysis of demographic information. However, an effective public participation process, which is necessarily subjective, is also needed to understand the subtle nuances of diverse populations that can contribute to a potential impact, yet are not always accounted for in a strict demographic profile. Typically, there is little or no coordination between these two disparate processes. This report proposes a five-step method for reconciling these processes and uses a hypothetical case study to illustrate the method. A demographic analysis and community profile of the population within 50 miles of SNL were developed to support the environmental justice analysis process and enhance SNL`s NEPA and public involvement programs. This report focuses on developing a methodology for identifying potentially impacted populations. Environmental justice issues related to worker exposures associated with SNL activities will be addressed in a separate report.

  4. Incorporating environmental justice into environmental decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K.; Vogt, D.P.; Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Executive Order 12898, signed on February 11, 1994, broadly states that federal activities, programs, and policies should not produce disproportionately high and adverse impacts on minority and low-income populations. Moreover, the Order indicates that these populations should not be denied the benefits of, or excluded from participation in, these activities, programs, and policies. Because a presidential memorandum accompanying the order said that National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents should begin to address environmental justice immediately, much attention has been paid to assessment-related issues. Also important, a topic that appears to have received relatively little attention, is how decision makers should be expected to use information about environmental justice in their decision making. This paper discusses issues surrounding the use of environmental justice information in the decision-making process by focusing on the following five main topics: (1) the importance, or weight, attached to environmental justice within larger decision-making contexts; (2) the potential tension between localized environmental justice issues and regional or national issues and needs; (3) the use of environmental justice information to develop (perhaps in concert with affected minority and low-income communities) appropriate mitigation strategies, or to establish conditions under which activities, programs, and policies may be accepted locally; (4) the general implications of shifting the distribution of broadly defined risks, costs, and benefits among different population groups; and (5) the implications of implementing environmental justice on an individual, ad hoc basis rather than within a larger environmental justice framework. This paper raises the issues and discusses the implications of alternative approaches to them.

  5. Environmental justice: a criminological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael J.; Stretesky, Paul B.; Long, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    This article examines studies related to environmental justice in the criminological literature and from a criminological perspective. Criminologists have long been concerned with injustices in the criminal justice system related to the enforcement of criminal law. In the 1990s, following the emergence of green criminology, a handful of criminologists have drawn attention to environmental justice as an extension of more traditional criminological studies of justice and injustice. Relevant criminological studies of environmental justice are reviewed, and suggestions for future environmental justice research are offered.

  6. Environmental justice: a criminological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    LYNCH, MICHAEL; Stretesky, Paul; Long, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article examines studies related to environmental justice in the criminological literature and from a criminological perspective. Criminologists have long been concerned with injustices in the criminal justice system related to the enforcement of criminal law. In the 1990s, following the emergence of green criminology, a handful of criminologists have drawn attention to environmental justice as an extension of more traditional criminological studies of justice and injustice. Relevant cri...

  7. 76 FR 62434 - HUD Draft Environmental Justice Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT HUD Draft Environmental Justice Strategy AGENCY: Office of the Sustainable Housing and... Environmental Justice Strategy for review and comment. DATES: Comment Due Date: November 14, 2011. Comments may... Strategy (EJ Strategy). HUD's EJ Strategy is a four-year plan to address environmental justice concerns...

  8. Environmental justice and environmental inequalities: A European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, I highlight a pressing issue facing current and future social policies in the EU: the articulation between social justice and environmental concerns. European social policies have only recently acknowledged the need to integrate the notions of environmental justice and environmental inequalities, which have been part of the US policy arsenal for almost two decades. Indeed, challenges to equality and fairness in the environmental domain are many and growing in Europe. After having defined environmental justice and environmental inequalities in the light of historical developments and recent literature, I address two dimensions of those challenges for the EU: vulnerability and exposure to environmental risk; social fairness in environmental taxation. I finally offer some thoughts on the importance of the justice approach to environmental issues in order to conceive legitimate 'socio-ecological policies' able to change in the long run not only behaviours but attitudes of citizens towards the environment. (author)

  9. Environmental Justice in World Politics

    OpenAIRE

    ORHAN, Özgüç

    2009-01-01

    All environmental problems in one way or another are involved in the question of justice. The concept of“environmental justice” has been in circulation for some time underlining the justice dimension ofenvironmental issues. Given the globalization of environmental problems since 1970s, the environmentaljustice discourse has been increasingly used to frame various international or global environmental issueslike toxic waste trade, ozone depletion, biodiversity protection, and global warming.1 ...

  10. Environmental assessment and social justice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hardee, H. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe an approach to assessing environmental justice issues at the start of proposed project. It is a structural approach to screening using readily available census data and commercial products that emphasizes the ability to replicate results and provide systematic data that can be used to identify spatial inequities. While our discussion of the methodology addresses only public health and safety issues related to certain minority and cohort sub-groups, systematic use of methodology could provide a valuable screening tool for identifying impacts particular to low-income groups. While the assumptions can be questioned as to applicability, they are based both on theory and practical knowledge.

  11. Environmental justice and healthy communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The environmental justice movement has come a long way since its birth a decade ago in rural and mostly African American Warren County, North Carolina. The selection of Warren County for a PCB landfill, they brought national attention to waste facility siting inequities and galvanized African American church and civil rights leaders` support for environmental justice. The demonstrations also put {open_quotes}environmental racism{close_quotes} on the map and challenged the myth that African Americans are not concerned about or involved in environmental issues. Grassroots groups, after decades of struggle, have grown to become the core of the multi-issue, multiracial, and multi-regional environmental justice movement. Diverse community-based groups have begun to organize and link their struggles to issues of civil and human rights, land rights and sovereignty, cultural survival , racial and social justice, and sustainable development. The impetus for getting environmental justice on the nations`s agenda has come from an alliance of grassroots activists, civil rights leaders, and a few academicians who questioned the foundation of the current environmental protection paradigm--where communities of color receive unequal protection. Whether urban ghettos and barrios, rural {open_quotes}poverty pockets,{close_quotes} Native American reservations, or communities in the Third World, grassroots groups are demanding an end to unjust and nonsustainable environmental and development policies.

  12. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  13. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  14. Bodies, Pollution, and Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The field of American Studies explores the cultures and practices of individuals and communities in the United States, as well as their transnational exchanges and impacts. It is an interdisciplinary field that is based on making "connections." Environmental justice, as a social movement, also makes important connections. It integrates social and…

  15. Educating for Environmental Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Karen

    1996-01-01

    A college teacher describes how she teaches about environmental racism using simulations and investigative trips to communities of color. Discusses coping with paralyzing feelings such as despair that accompany learning about environmental racism; making linkages to related issues such as race, gender, and class; and giving students opportunities…

  16. Environmental conflicts, environmental justice and valuation

    OpenAIRE

    MARTÍNEZ ALIER, Joan

    2001-01-01

    In this article some historical and contemporary environmental conflicts are described. The international environmental liability of mining corporations is discussed. Comparisons are made with conflicts in the United States and in South Africa which fall under the rubric of the Environmental Justice movement. Such conflicts are fought out in many languages, and the economic valuation of damages is only one of such languages. Who has the power to impose particular languages of valuation? Who r...

  17. Environmental justice regulations draw fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Advocates of "environmental justice" say that proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations are necessary to ensure that an unfair share of industrial facilities and waste plants are not sited in poor and minority communities, as they claim has occurred in the past.However, a number of state and local government agencies, business groups, and Democratic and Republican politicians argue that EPA guidelines—written to put some teeth into the Title VI clause of the Civil Rights Act that prohibits discrimination in all federally funded programs and activities—are unworkable and need to be overhauled.

  18. Environmental justice: An issue for states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, L.K.; Davis, S.; Starkey, D. [National Conference of State Legislatures, Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Environmental justice combines the social justice and the environmental movements. The very term environmental justice is often and inaccurately used interchangeably with environmental racism and environmental equity. Environmental racism refers to any policy, practice or directive, intentional or not, that differentially affects the environment of individuals, groups or communities based on their race. The concept of environmental equity holds that all populations should bear a proportionate share of environmental pollution and health risks. Environmental justice is a broader term that encompasses both these concepts and connotes the laws must be applied with fairness and impartiality. Environmental justice is defined as the achievement of equal protection from environmental and health hazards for all people regardless of race, income, culture or social class.

  19. Environmental justice: An issue for states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental justice combines the social justice and the environmental movements. The very term environmental justice is often and inaccurately used interchangeably with environmental racism and environmental equity. Environmental racism refers to any policy, practice or directive, intentional or not, that differentially affects the environment of individuals, groups or communities based on their race. The concept of environmental equity holds that all populations should bear a proportionate share of environmental pollution and health risks. Environmental justice is a broader term that encompasses both these concepts and connotes the laws must be applied with fairness and impartiality. Environmental justice is defined as the achievement of equal protection from environmental and health hazards for all people regardless of race, income, culture or social class

  20. Regulatory Impact Analyses of Environmental Justice Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer Banzhaf

    2010-01-01

    Finding an appropriate way to incorporate environmental justice considerations into policy-making has been a procedural challenge since President Clinton issued Executive Order 12,898 over 15 years ago. Moreover, environmental justice continues to be overshadowed by efficiency considerations as embodied in benefit-cost analysis. This article argues that the environmental justice and benefit-cost policies and procedures in EPA's rule-making can both be improved by bringing them closer together...

  1. 77 FR 65189 - National Environmental Justice Advisory Council; Notification of Public Teleconference Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... for Fostering Environmental Justice for Tribes and Indigenous Peoples. Enhancing Public Engagement and... foreign language interpreter may also make appropriate arrangements using the email address or...

  2. Environmental Justice (EJSCREEN) Block Group Data (USEPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN is an environmental justice (EJ) screening and mapping tool that provides EPA with a nationally consistent dataset and methodology for calculating "EJ...

  3. Environmental Justice Challengers for Ecosystem Service Valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In pursuing improved ecosystem services management, there is also an opportunity to work towards environmental justice. The practice of environmental valuation can assist with both goals, but as typically employed obscures distributional analysis. Furthermore, valuation technique...

  4. 76 FR 60590 - Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Departments of Transportation, Metropolitan Planning Organizations, public transportation providers, and other... review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement published in the Federal Register on April 11, 2000 (65 FR.... Chapter IV--Integrating Principles of Environmental Justice in Transportation Planning and...

  5. Is prophetic discourse adequate to address global economic justice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet J. Naudé

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article outlined key features of prophetic discourse and investigated whether this form of moral discourse adequately addresses issues of economic injustice. It is shown that the strength of prophetic discourse is its ability to denounce instances of injustice whilst at the same time announcing a God-willed alternative future. The ‘preferential option for the poor’ in Latin American liberation theologies is treated as a case study of the influence of prophetic discourse in contexts of perceived economic injustice. Also the core weaknesses of prophetic discourse are investigated, specifically its incomplete moral argument, weak moral analyses, silence on transition measures, and its inability to take a positive stance on reforms in the system from which itself benefits. In the final section it is concluded that prophetic discourse plays an indispensable role in addressing issues of global economic justice, but – taken by itself – it is not an adequate form of moral discourse to address concrete matters of justice.

  6. Engendering Justice: Constructing Institutions to Address Violence Against Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Drysdale Walsh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses how states improve their responsiveness to violence against women in developing countries with little political will and few resources to do so. One key to engendering justice and improving responsiveness is building specialized institutions within the state that facilitate the implementation of laws addressing violence against women. Why and how do states engage in institution-building to protect marginalized populations in these contexts? I propose that developing countries are more likely to create and maintain specialized institutions when domestic and international political and legal frameworks make the state more vulnerable to women’s demands, and when civil society coordinates with the state and/or international organizations to take advantage of this political opportunity. This coordination brings necessary pressure and resources that would be difficult, if not impossible, to deliver otherwise. This inter-institutional coordination is necessary for building and maintaining new state institutions and programs that help to monitor the implementation of laws, develop public policies, provide services for victims, and improve responsiveness of the justice system. This fills an important lacuna in the literature, which focuses on women’s state institutions as an important catalyst for responsiveness to violence against women, but does not explain how these institutions are initially constructed.

  7. Engendering Justice: Constructing Institutions to Address Violence Against Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Drysdale Walsh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses how states improve their responsiveness to violence against women in developing countries with little political will and few resources to do so. One key to engendering justice and improving responsiveness is building specialized institutions within the state that facilitate the implementation of laws addressing violence against women. Why and how do states engage in institution-building to protect marginalized populations in these contexts? I propose that developing countries are more likely to create and maintain specialized institutions when domestic and international political and legal frameworks make the state more vulnerable to women’s demands, and when civil society coordinates with the state and/or international organizations to take advantage of this political opportunity. This coordination brings necessary pressure and resources that would be difficult, if not impossible, to deliver otherwise. This inter-institutional coordination is necessary for building and maintaining new state institutions and programs that help to monitor the implementation of laws, develop public policies, provide services for victims, and improve responsiveness of the justice system. This fills an important lacuna in the literature, which focuses on women’s state institutions as an important catalyst for responsiveness to violence against women, but does not explain how these institutions are initially constructed.

  8. Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis (also referred to as the Environmental Justice Technical Guidance or EJTG) is intended for use by Agency analysts, including risk assessors, economists, and other analytic staff that conduct analyse...

  9. Environmental Justice and Green-Technology Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of an environmental justice (EJ) program adopted by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) as a part of its regulation to phase out a toxic chemical used by dry cleaners. SCAQMD provided financial incentives to switch early and gave establishments in EJ neighborhoods priority in applying for…

  10. A Conceptual Analysis of Environmental Justice Approaches: Procedural Environmental Justice in the EIA Process in South Africa and Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Towela Sambo, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    The Abstract of thesis submitted to the School of Law of The University of Manchester by Pamela Towela Sambo 7160514 for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in April 2012 is entitled “A Conceptual Analysis of Environmental Justice Approaches: Procedural Environmental Justice in the EIA Process in South Africa and Zambia.”This study argues that the basis of all environmental justice variations is the consideration of fairness, equity and justice in the environmental processes that resol...

  11. Career Psychology in South Africa: Addressing and Redressing Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the definition of social justice in career psychology and how this might be understood in the South African context. In particular, macro-contextual factors that define social justice issues in South African career psychology are described. The extent to which the discipline of career psychology in South Africa has addressed…

  12. Social Justice and the Environmental Commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Constance A; Byington, Rachel; Gallay, Erin; Sambo, Allison

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we build on the scholarship on youth civic engagement by turning attention to the environmental commons as a space for political action. We begin with a definition of the term and arguments about ways that social justice is implied in it. Following that, we raise several psychological challenges to motivating action on behalf of the environmental commons and discuss the critical experiences and actions that can defy those challenges. Finally, drawing from Ostrom's empirical evidence opposing a tragedy of the commons, we discuss practices consistent with a social justice approach that nurture in younger generations an identification with and commitment to the environmental commons and discuss how this orientation would benefit human beings, democracies, and the earth. PMID:27474427

  13. Environmental Refugees - Justice and Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Julie Fogt; Jein, Marie Amailie Rosentoft; Murray, Tamsin Sureka Parfitt

    2013-01-01

    Climate change has and will have a tremendous effect on humanity. One of the consequences is people being forced to move - fleeing from the changes in climate and environment. This new group of refugees are known as environmental refugees. Scientific evidence (produced amongst others by the IPPC) suggests that environmental refugees will challenge our globalized world in growing numbers, warning our international political and legal system to take serious considerations of the future of these...

  14. Creating Art Environments That Address Social Justice Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Gail

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I examine strategies for teaching students to make socially conscious art using a variety of media that emphasizes installation work. I present issues of social justice in the contemporary art world and include concerns of censorship that artists sometimes confront. I offer examples of team taught coordinated studies programs…

  15. Aspiring School Leaders Addressing Social Justice through Art Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boske, Christa

    2012-01-01

    There is little in the professional literature about how school leaders or other professionals committed to promoting social justice deal with and manage their emotional responses to the challenges that await them in educational arenas. Even less has been written about how art making can be utilized as a means of developing new understandings and…

  16. To What Extent Is Criminal Justice Content Specifically Addressed in MSW Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, Matthew W.; Roberts, Leslie E.; Ivanoff, Andre; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Gilmer, Christy N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which criminal justice content is addressed in all CSWE-accredited MSW programs in the United States ("N"?=?192). Criminal justice content was measured in three areas: (1) dual or joint degree programs, (2) concentrations or specializations, and (3) coursework. Excluding social work and law classes, 22%…

  17. Environmental justice, values, and scientific expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Daniel; Whyte, Kyle Powys

    2012-06-01

    This essay compares two philosophical proposals concerning the relation between values and science, both of which reject the value-free ideal but nevertheless place restrictions on how values and science should interact. The first of these proposals relies on a distinction between the direct and indirect roles of values, while the second emphasizes instead a distinction between epistemic and nonepistemic values. We consider these two proposals in connection with a case study of disputed research on the topic of environmental justice and argue that the second proposal has several advantages over the first. PMID:23002582

  18. Why is the Environmental Justice Movement so much Stronger in the USA than in Europe?

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Lobo

    2011-01-01

    Although there is a vast amount of critically influential knowledge developed by a long history of strong US environmental justice movements (EJM) from which Europe and the rest of the world can learn, in a time of strong post-neoliberal tendencies in Europe it becomes important to understand the nature of this knowledge, its context and dynamics. This research note aims to contribute to the debate on international environmental justice by addressing the different relationships that the USA a...

  19. Teaching Coastal Hazard, Risk, and Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, C. H.; Manduca, C. A.; Blockstein, D.; Davis, F.; McDaris, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscience literacy and expertise play a role in all societal issues that involve the Earth. Issues that range from environmental degradation and natural hazards to creating sustainable economic systems or livable cities. Human health and resilience also involves the Earth. Environmental hazard issues have dimensions and consequences that have connections to environmental justice and disproportionate impacts on people based on their ethnicity, gender, cultural and socioeconomic conditions. Often these dimensions are hidden or unexplored in common approaches to teaching about hazards. However, they can provide importance context and meaning to students who would not otherwise see themselves in STEM disciplines. Teaching geoscience in a framework of societal issues may be an important mechanism for building science and sustainability capacity in future graduates. In May 2015, the NSF STEP center InTeGrate held a workshop in New Orleans, LA on teaching about Coastal Hazards, Risk and Environmental Justice. This was an opportunity to bring together people who use these topics as a powerful topic for transdisciplinary learning that connects science to local communities. This workshop was tailored for faculty members from minority-serving institutions and other colleges and universities that serve populations that are under-represented in the geosciences and related fields. The workshop outcome was a set of strategies for accomplishing this work, including participants' experience teaching with local cases, making connections to communities, and building partnerships with employers to understand workforce needs related to interdisciplinary thinking, sustainability science and risk. The participants articulated both the great need and opportunity for educators to help learners to explore these dimensions with their students as well as the challenge of learning to teach across disciplines and using controversial topics.

  20. Education for climate changes, environmental health and environmental justice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The climates changes-health effects-environmental justice nexus is analyzed. The complex issue of climate changes needs to be approached from an interdisciplinary point of view. The nature of the problem necessitates dealing with scientific uncertainty. The health effects caused by climate changes are described and analyzed from a twofold inequalities point of view: health inequalities between rich and poor within countries, and inequalities between northern and southern countries. It is shown thai although the emission of greenhouse gasses is to a large extent caused by the industrialized countries, the effects, including the health effects, will merely impact the South. On the other hand, the southern countries have the highest potential to respond to and offer sustainable energy solutions to counteract climate changes. These inequalities are at the basis to call for environmental justice, of which climate justice is part. This movement calls for diversification of ecologists and their subject of study, more attention for urban ecology, more comprehensive human ecological analyses of complex environmental issues and more participation of stakeholders in the debate and the solution options. The movement advocates a more inclusive ecology targeted to management, sodo-ecological restoration, and comprehensive policies. The fundamental aspects of complexity, inter-disciplinary approaches, uncertainty, and social and natural inequalities should be core issues in environmental health programs. Training on these issues for muitidisciplinary groups of participants necessitates innovative approaches including self-directed, collaborative, and problem oriented learning in which tacit knowledge is important. It is advocated that quality assessments of environmental health programs should take these elements into account. key words: environmental justice, climate changes, sustainable energy solutions

  1. Community empowerment needs in the struggle for environmental justice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.

    1995-12-01

    The paper addresses the specific empowerment needs of communities and workers fighting for environmental justice. Thousands of people of color and poor communities throughout the United States are victimized by policies and practices of environmental racism which resulted in the disproportionate burden of exposure to environmental contamination where they live, work and play. Powerful interests who own and operate polluting industries and waste disposal facilities prey on poor, low income and non-white communities because they view them as areas of least resistance and {open_quotes}sacrifice zones.{close_quotes} Leaders and members of organizations from communities threatened or already devastated by contamination are waging determined, courageous and heroic struggles against giant corporate polluters. In many instances, the leaders and members of these grassroots environmental groups are literally sick and dying from contamination as they seek to organize for clean, safe and healthy communities. A key issue for communities and workers fighting for environmental justice is realizing true empowerment. Communities and workers must develop empowerment and capacity building skills in the areas of community and labor organizing; media relations and public education; legal advocacy; legislative and regulatory tracking; lobbying; health monitoring and health services; research; scientific technical needs (eg. air, water and soil testing); fundraising and economic sustainable development; institutional and organizational development; voter education and electoral politics; and youth and adult leadership training. When these empowerment skills are combined with a clear vision of justice for the future, communities will be able to fight cooporations armed with high-powered lawyers, lobbyists, public relations firms and bought-off politicians.

  2. Environmental Justice (EJSCREEN) Block Group Data (USEPA) for 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN is an environmental justice (EJ) screening and mapping tool that provides EPA with a nationally consistent dataset and methodology for calculating "EJ...

  3. Justice for the Environment: Developing a Set of Indicators of Environmental Justice for Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Todd; Christos Zografos

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the context of environmental justice (EJ) in Scotland, and presents a case study whereby the main attributes for an indicator of EJ were identified, encompassing procedural and distributive aspects of justice. Through a participatory process, weights were assigned using a Multi-Criteria Analysis tool, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Results show that overall, environmental injustices are mostly associated by respondents to unequal distribution of health burdens due...

  4. Environmental justice in Scotland: policy, pedagogy and praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scandrett, Eurig [Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    In the first decade of Scottish devolution, environmental justice became a significant component of environmental policy for the Scottish Executive, especially under First Minister Jack McConnell. This paper analyses how a discourse developed within policy narratives which separated environmental justice from economic growth and the interests of capital. In particular, it explores the role which research has played in justifying this discourse. By contrast, an alternative discourse has developed through reflexive and dialogical research associated with the praxis of the environmental organization Friends of the Earth Scotland. This alternative discourse is embedded in the embryonic environmental justice movement in Scotland, and identifies environmental justice as a social conflict which exposes negative externalities at the heart of economic development.

  5. Evolution of the environmental justice movement: activism, formalization and differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colsa Perez, Alejandro; Grafton, Bernadette; Mohai, Paul; Hardin, Rebecca; Hintzen, Katy; Orvis, Sara

    2015-10-01

    To complement a recent flush of research on transnational environmental justice movements, we sought a deeper organizational history of what we understand as the contemporary environmental justice movement in the United States. We thus conducted in-depth interviews with 31 prominent environmental justice activists, scholars, and community leaders across the US. Today’s environmental justice groups have transitioned from specific local efforts to broader national and global mandates, and more sophisticated political, technological, and activist strategies. One of the most significant transformations has been the number of groups adopting formal legal status, and emerging as registered environmental justice organizations (REJOs) within complex partnerships. This article focuses on the emergence of REJOs, and describes the respondents’ views about the implications of this for more local grassroots groups. It reveals a central irony animating work across groups in today’s movement: legal formalization of many environmental justice organizations has made the movement increasingly internally differentiated, dynamic, and networked, even as the passage of actual national laws on environmental justice has proven elusive.

  6. Ecological information needs for environmental justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Harris, Stuart; Harper, Barbara; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-06-01

    The concept that all peoples should have their voices heard on matters that affect their well-being is at the core of environmental justice (EJ). The inability of some people of small towns, rural areas, minority, and low-income communities, to become involved in environmental decisions is sometimes due to a lack of information. We provide a template for the ecological information that is essential to examine environmental risks to EJ populations within average communities, using case studies from South Carolina (Savannah River, a DOE site with minority impacts), Washington (Hanford, a DOE site with Native American impacts), and New Jersey (nonpoint, urbanized community pollution). While the basic ecological and public health information needs for risk evaluations and assessments are well described, less attention has been focused on standardizing information about EJ communities or EJ populations within larger communities. We suggest that information needed about EJ communities and populations includes demographics, consumptive and nonconsumptive uses of their regional environment (for example, maintenance and cosmetic, medicinal/religious/cultural uses), eco-dependency webs, and eco-cultural attributes. A purely demographics approach might not even identify EJ populations or neighborhoods, much less their spatial relation to the impact source or to each other. Using information from three case studies, we illustrate that some information is readily available (e.g., consumption rates for standard items such as fish), but there is less information about medicinal, cultural, religious, eco-cultural dependency webs, and eco-cultural attributes, all of which depend in some way on intact, functioning, and healthy ecosystems.

  7. Air pollution and environmental justice in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Bryan

    While it is true that air quality has steadily improved in the Great Lakes region, air pollution remains at unhealthy concentrations in many areas. Research suggests that vulnerable and susceptible groups in society -- e.g., minorities, the poor, children, and poorly educated -- are often disproportionately impacted by exposure to environmental hazards, including air pollution. This dissertation explores the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution (interpolated concentrations of fine particulate matter, PM2.5) and sociodemographic factors (race, housing value, housing status, education, age, and population density) at the Census block-group level in the Great Lakes region of the United States. A relatively novel approach to quantitative environmental justice analysis, geographically weighted regression (GWR), is compared with a simplified approach: ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. While OLS creates one global model to describe the relationship between air pollution exposure and sociodemographic factors, GWR creates many local models (one at each Census block group) that account for local variations in this relationship by allowing the value of regression coefficients to vary over space, overcoming OLS's assumption of homogeneity and spatial independence. Results suggest that GWR can elucidate patterns of potential environmental injustices that OLS models may miss. In fact, GWR results show that the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution and sociodemographic characteristics is non-stationary and can vary geographically and temporally throughout the Great Lakes region. This suggests that regulators may need to address environmental justice issues at the neighborhood level, while understanding that the severity of environmental injustices can change throughout the year.

  8. Impact Pathways to Address Social Well-Being and Social Justice in SLCA—Fair Wage and Level of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Neugebauer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Social well-being and social justice are meant to create a positive outcome meaningful for people and societies. According to the guidelines of social life cycle assessment, especially well-being should be considered as the main area of protection to assess social impacts of products. In addition, equity and equality need to be addressed in terms of social justice to ensure a fair and ethic society. However, even if a lot of studies focused on the definition social indicators to assess resulting impacts, neither have scientific or common agreements been founded to define a valid set of indicators, nor have consistent pathways from inventory towards impact indicators been established. This work, therefore, proposes possible pathways from life cycle inventory to impact assessment of two social midpoint categories: fair wage and level of education. Respective cause-effect-chains are developed based on the environmental life cycle assessment principle. Correspondingly, social inventory indicators throughout direct impacts to midpoint and endpoint categories are defined. Three endpoint categories are included (economic welfare, damage to human health and environmental stability to address social well-being and social justice. Qualitative characterization factors and a scaling method are proposed to evaluate the impacts according to threshold and reference values from valuable literature.

  9. Comparing Distributions of Environmental Outcomes for Regulatory Environmental Justice Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Sheriff

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Economists have long been interested in measuring distributional impacts of policy interventions. As environmental justice (EJ emerged as an ethical issue in the 1970s, the academic literature has provided statistical analyses of the incidence and causes of various environmental outcomes as they relate to race, income, and other demographic variables. In the context of regulatory impacts, however, there is a lack of consensus regarding what information is relevant for EJ analysis, and how best to present it. This paper helps frame the discussion by suggesting a set of questions fundamental to regulatory EJ analysis, reviewing past approaches to quantifying distributional equity, and discussing the potential for adapting existing tools to the regulatory context.

  10. 78 FR 77673 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Environmental Justice Technical Guidance Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... National Center for Environmental Economics along with the Office of Environmental Justice has requested... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Notification of a Public Meeting of the Environmental Justice Technical Guidance Review...

  11. 78 FR 76810 - Information Collection; Environmental Justice and the Urban Forest in Atlanta, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Relay Service (FRS) at 1-800-877-8339, 24 hours a... collection addresses environmental justice from the perspective of urban trees; and how this resource may... respondents, including the use of automated, electronic, mechanical, or other technological...

  12. Access to Justice in Environmental Cases after the Rulings of the Court of Justice of 13 January 2015: Kafka Revisited?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Schoukens

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available By ratifying the Aarhus Convention in 2005 the EU committed itself to guaranteeing broad access to justice in environmental matters both at the national and the EU level. Yet, in spite of the clear-cut obligations incumbent upon the EU, EU courts have consistently rebuked pleas for a softening of the standing requirements in the context of direct actions against EU acts that might have an impact on the environment and/or public health. In addition, the internal review procedure set out by the 2006 Aarhus Regulation has been interpreted so restrictively by the EU institutions that that its added value in the stride toward better access to courts in environmental matters remains ephemeral at best. This led the General Court to finding that the Aarhus Regulation, by excluding general EU acts from the scope of internal review, was in breach of Article 9(3 of the Aarhus Convention. In its recent rulings of 13 January 2015, however, the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU overruled the General Court by holding that the Aarhus Regulation could not be reviewed in light of the Aarhus Convention. With its refusal to use Article 9(3 of the Aarhus Convention as a reference criterion for the purpose of reviewing the EU’s compliance with the Aarhus Convention’s obligations, the CJEU avoided tackling the unsatisfactory level of judicial protection in environmental cases at the EU level. This paper argues that the rulings of the CJEU are to be qualified as a significant step backwards for judicial protection in environmental matters at the EU level. It is established that, instead of addressing the current failings of the EU with respect to access to justice in environmental cases, the CJEU’s hands-off approach paves the way for yet another decade of non-compliance by the EU in the realm of access to justice in environmental cases.

  13. Modeling Environmental Justice: A Normative Conception for Healthier Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Gendreau, Megan Smith

    2011-01-01

    The term environmental justice (EJ) is broadly used to frame discussions regarding unjust or unequal distributions of environmental harms between different communities. Typically, we see examples where air, water, and soil quality are significantly worse in poorer communities, especially poorer communities of color, than in wealthier, white communities. While poor environmental quality is not desirable, severely environmentally impacted communities, and the individuals who inhabit them, often...

  14. Environmental justice in the city? Challenges for policy and resource allocation in keeping the streets clean

    OpenAIRE

    Glen Bramley; Nick Bailey; Annette Hastings; David Watkins; Rob Crowdace

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses issues of social or environmental justice in local urban environmental services, through the particular lens of street cleaning services. While UK policy gives some legitimacy to the idea that services should be enhanced in disadavantaged areas, it is unclear how much service and resource discrimination are necessary or appropriate. In practice, this equity perspective may not have much impact at local level. An empirical analysis is presented by drawing on a number of la...

  15. Environmental Justice, Place and Nuclear Fuel Waste Management in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Richard G. [Univ. of Guelph (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Murphy, Brenda L. [Wilfrid Launer Univ., Brantford (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the basis of a Nuclear Fuel Waste management strategy for Canada, taking into account the unique legal tenets (Aboriginal rights; federal - provincial jurisdiction) and the orientation that the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has taken to date. The focus of the paper are grounded in notions of environmental justice. Bullard's definition provides a useful guideline: 'the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, colour, national origin or income with respect to the development, implementation and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations and policies'. The overriding concern is to work towards a process that is inclusive and just. Prior to developing a specific strategy to site a NFW disposal facility, we maintain that the NWMO needs to first address three fundamental issues: Expand its mandate to include the future of nuclear energy in Canada; Provide an inclusive role for First Nations (Aboriginal people) in all stages of the process; Adhere to the requirement of specifying an economic region and deal more overtly with the transportation of NF.

  16. Environmental Justice, Place and Nuclear Fuel Waste Management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the basis of a Nuclear Fuel Waste management strategy for Canada, taking into account the unique legal tenets (Aboriginal rights; federal - provincial jurisdiction) and the orientation that the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has taken to date. The focus of the paper are grounded in notions of environmental justice. Bullard's definition provides a useful guideline: 'the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, colour, national origin or income with respect to the development, implementation and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations and policies'. The overriding concern is to work towards a process that is inclusive and just. Prior to developing a specific strategy to site a NFW disposal facility, we maintain that the NWMO needs to first address three fundamental issues: Expand its mandate to include the future of nuclear energy in Canada; Provide an inclusive role for First Nations (Aboriginal people) in all stages of the process; Adhere to the requirement of specifying an economic region and deal more overtly with the transportation of NF

  17. Risky Substance Use Environments and Addiction: A New Frontier for Environmental Justice Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennis, Jeremy; Stahler, Gerald J; Mason, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Substance use disorders are widely recognized as one of the most pressing global public health problems, and recent research indicates that environmental factors, including access and exposure to substances of abuse, neighborhood disadvantage and disorder, and environmental barriers to treatment, influence substance use behaviors. Racial and socioeconomic inequities in the factors that create risky substance use environments may engender disparities in rates of substance use disorders and treatment outcomes. Environmental justice researchers, with substantial experience in addressing racial and ethnic inequities in environmental risk from technological and other hazards, should consider similar inequities in risky substance use environments as an environmental justice issue. Research should aim at illustrating where, why, and how such inequities in risky substance use environments occur, the implications of such inequities for disparities in substance use disorders and treatment outcomes, and the implications for tobacco, alcohol, and drug policies and prevention and treatment programs. PMID:27322303

  18. Risky Substance Use Environments and Addiction: A New Frontier for Environmental Justice Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennis, Jeremy; Stahler, Gerald J.; Mason, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Substance use disorders are widely recognized as one of the most pressing global public health problems, and recent research indicates that environmental factors, including access and exposure to substances of abuse, neighborhood disadvantage and disorder, and environmental barriers to treatment, influence substance use behaviors. Racial and socioeconomic inequities in the factors that create risky substance use environments may engender disparities in rates of substance use disorders and treatment outcomes. Environmental justice researchers, with substantial experience in addressing racial and ethnic inequities in environmental risk from technological and other hazards, should consider similar inequities in risky substance use environments as an environmental justice issue. Research should aim at illustrating where, why, and how such inequities in risky substance use environments occur, the implications of such inequities for disparities in substance use disorders and treatment outcomes, and the implications for tobacco, alcohol, and drug policies and prevention and treatment programs. PMID:27322303

  19. The Social Justice, Peace, and Environmental Education Standards Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewski, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Inspired by the Alaska Native Knowledge Network's "Standards for Culturally Responsive Schools," members of fourteen social justice, peace, and environmental education (SJPEE) special interest groups (SIGs) from the American Educational Research Association (AERA) and several other prominent organizations have been involved in drafting SJPEE…

  20. Environmental Education for Democracy and Social Justice in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on how democratic values and citizenship education are promoted through environmental education in Costa Rica. Data were collected through the examination of textbook and curriculum guides and interviews with classroom teachers. The qualitative study utilized Bowers' (2001) and Gruenewald's (2003) theories of eco-justice and…

  1. 77 FR 18879 - Department of Transportation Final Environmental Justice Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... Strategy AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Transportation, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation is issuing a revised environmental justice strategy, which sets forth DOT's commitment to... agency policies and activities on minority and low-income populations. This strategy is published as...

  2. Kelly White, 'The parallel battle for social and environmental justice.'

    OpenAIRE

    Interviewee: White, Kelly; Interviewer: Harrison, Don; Oral Testimony Archivist(s): Weasel Bear, Robyn; Principle Investigator: ross, Dr. annie

    2015-01-01

    Kelly White is Musqueam and originates from Cedar, B.C. just outside Snuuneymuxw, otherwise known as “people of the river”. Kelly grew up in Nanaimo BC and Medicine Hat and remembers “environmental justice and the parallel battle for social justice and human rights, starting at birth”. Born premature, she was held in incubation as mother and father were embroiled in a fishing rights court case, lasting from the time of her birth in 1957 until 1963. She fondly remembers her mom and dad’s Coast...

  3. Environmental justice: Grass roots reach the White House lawn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratch, K.

    1995-05-01

    When 500 demonstrators gathered in 1982 to protest the siting of a polychlorinated-biphenyl landfill in predominantly black Warren County, N.C., cries of environmental racism filled the air. In response, District of Columbia Congressional Delegate Walter Fauntroy requested that the General Accounting Office investigate a possible link between hazardous waste landfill siting and the racial and socio-economic mix of surrounding communities. The environmental justice movement, as it is known today, had been born. Environmental justice is conceived as the right of all people--regardless of race, ethnicity, culture or income--to live in a healthy environment, breathe clean air, drink clean water and eat uncontaminated foods. The concept assumes that everyone is entitled to fair environmental protection without any population segment bearing a disproportionate pollution burden.

  4. Technologies of Existence: The indigenous environmental justice movement

    OpenAIRE

    Dana E Powell

    2006-01-01

    Dana E. Powell argues that the Indigenous Environmental Justice Movement in North America is resignifying ‘development’ through emerging discourses and practices of ‘environmental justice’. She focuses on the emergence of wind and solar energy technologies in the movement as technologies of existence, challenging a history of biopolitical regimes of natural resource development of indigenous lands and bodies while also proposing an alternative approach to cultivating healthy economies, ecolog...

  5. Human Rights and Environmental Wrongs: Achieving Environmental Justice through Human Rights Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Lewis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The numerous interconnections between the environment and human rights are well established internationally. It is understood that environmental issues such as pollution, deforestation or the misuse of resources can impact on individuals’ and communities’ enjoyment of fundamental rights, including the right to health, the right to an adequate standard of living, the right to self-determination and the right to life itself. These are rights which are guaranteed under international human rights law and in relation to which governments bear certain responsibilities. Further, environmental issues can also impact on governments’ capacity to protect and fulfil the rights of their citizens. In this way human rights and environmental protection can be constructed as being mutually supportive. In addition to these links between the environment and human rights, human rights principles arguably offer a framework for identifying and addressing environmental injustice. The justice implications of environmental problems are well documented and there are many examples where pollution, deforestation or other degradation disproportionately impact upon poorer neighbourhoods or areas populated by minority groups. On the international level, environmental injustice exists between developed and developing States, as well as between present and future generations who will inherit the environmental problems we are creating today. This paper investigates the role of human rights principles, laws and mechanisms in addressing these instances of environmental injustice and argues that the framework of human rights norms provides an approach to environmental governance which can help to minimise injustice and promote the interests of those groups which are most adversely affected. Further, it suggests that the human rights enforcement mechanisms which exist at international law could be utilised to lend weight to claims for more equitable environmental policies.

  6. Mining conflicts around the world: Common grounds from an Environmental Justice perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Özkaynak, Begüm; Rodriguez-Labajos, Beatriz; Arsel, Murat; Avci, Duygu; Carbonell, María Helena; Chareyron, Bruno; Chicaiza, G.; Conde, Marta; Demaria, Federico; Finamore, Renan; Kohrs, Bertchen; Krishna, Venni; Mahongnao, Mirinchonme; Raeva, Dragomira; Singh, Akoijam

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract. This report aims at exploring contemporary mining conflicts in the context of the sustainable development and environmental justice movement. This is done based on 24 real case studies from 18 different countries which are described by local activists and scholars. While 17 of the reported cases focus on conflicts related to metal mining (e.g. gold, silver, copper, zinc, and lead), four address uranium mining and one refers to coal mining. As an example of a new frontier...

  7. Using Inequality Measures to Incorporate Environmental Justice into Regulatory Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan I. Levy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Formally evaluating how specific policy measures influence environmental justice is challenging, especially in the context of regulatory analyses in which quantitative comparisons are the norm. However, there is a large literature on developing and applying quantitative measures of health inequality in other settings, and these measures may be applicable to environmental regulatory analyses. In this paper, we provide information to assist policy decision makers in determining the viability of using measures of health inequality in the context of environmental regulatory analyses. We conclude that quantification of the distribution of inequalities in health outcomes across social groups of concern, considering both within-group and between-group comparisons, would be consistent with both the structure of regulatory analysis and the core definition of environmental justice. Appropriate application of inequality indicators requires thorough characterization of the baseline distribution of exposures and risks, leveraging data generally available within regulatory analyses. Multiple inequality indicators may be applicable to regulatory analyses, and the choice among indicators should be based on explicit value judgments regarding the dimensions of environmental justice of greatest interest.

  8. Incorporating Environmental Justice into Second Generation Indices of Multiple Deprivation: Lessons from the UK and Progress Internationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Fairburn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Second generation area-based indices of multiple deprivation have been extensively used in the UK over the last 15 years. They resulted from significant developments in political, technical, and conceptual spheres for deprivation data. We review the parallel development of environmental justice research and how and when environmental data was incorporated into these indices. We explain the transfer of these methods from the UK to Germany and assess the progress internationally in developing such indices. Finally, we illustrate how billions of pounds in the UK was allocated by using these tools to tackle neighbourhood deprivation and environmental justice to address the determinants of health.

  9. Incorporating Environmental Justice into Second Generation Indices of Multiple Deprivation: Lessons from the UK and Progress Internationally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairburn, Jon; Maier, Werner; Braubach, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Second generation area-based indices of multiple deprivation have been extensively used in the UK over the last 15 years. They resulted from significant developments in political, technical, and conceptual spheres for deprivation data. We review the parallel development of environmental justice research and how and when environmental data was incorporated into these indices. We explain the transfer of these methods from the UK to Germany and assess the progress internationally in developing such indices. Finally, we illustrate how billions of pounds in the UK was allocated by using these tools to tackle neighbourhood deprivation and environmental justice to address the determinants of health. PMID:27472347

  10. Kanahus Manuel 'Indigenous Environmental Justice and Activism'

    OpenAIRE

    Interviewee: Manuel, Kanahus; Interviewer: ross, Dr. annie, Harrison, Don, Weasel Bear, Robyn; Oral Testimony Archivist(s): Weasel Bear, Robyn; Principle Investigator: ross, Dr. annie

    2015-01-01

    Kanahus Manuel is from the Secwepemc Nation in British Columbia. She is a passionate and motivated social and environmental activist. Kanahus speaks about the devastating effects of the Imperial Metals, Mt. Polley tailings pond spill occuring on August 4th 2014 in her territory. It is known as the worst mining disaster in Canadian history. The spill released over 80 million litres of toxic waste onto the land and sensitive waterways. Hazeltine Creek was destroyed and Quesnel Lake was polluted...

  11. 78 FR 39284 - Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ..., Office of Policy, National Center for Environmental Economics, Mail code 1809T, Environmental Protection... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis...

  12. 78 FR 27235 - Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ..., Office of Policy, National Center for Environmental Economics, Mail code 1809T, Environmental Protection... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis...

  13. Using Constitutional Provisions to Advance Environmental Justice – Some Reflections on Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camena Guneratne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the principle of environmental justice and its potential applicability to developing countries such as Sri Lanka. It first considers the interpretation and application of the principle in its country of origin, the United States, where it is used primarily to address problems of discrimination in the context of pollution. The paper takes the view that while such an interpretation of environmental justice is valid in this particular context, it cannot address issues of environment and development that arise in countries of the global South, which are grappling with development processes. These processes give rise to issues that may be subject to judicial determination, including sustainable development, protection of natural resources, human rights and social equity. The principle must therefore be re-interpreted to encompass all these dimensions. This paper argues that such an expansion and implementation of the principle of environmental justice in a context of environment and development in countries such as Sri Lanka, is most effective within a constitutional framework of human rights. Constitutions provide both the substantive and procedural foundation of rights, which are interpreted, enforced and given validity at the highest level of the judicial process. Even where environmental rights per se are not contained in a constitution, the existing rights can be, and have been, re-formulated to address issues of environment and development and related human rights. This paper analyses constitutional rights in Sri Lanka, which although limited in scope, has nevertheless formed the basis of a wide body of jurisprudence which brings new dimensions to the principle.

  14. Commentary: what role should physician organizations play in addressing social justice issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Cedric M

    2012-06-01

    A study by Peek and colleagues in this issue reveals that although racial and ethnic health disparities are recognized as a major national challenge, few physician organizations with both the influence and ability to change practice standards and address disparities appear to be effectively directing their resources to mitigate health disparities. In this commentary, the author examines the history of U.S. health disparities through the lens of social justice. He argues that today, physician organizations have the opportunity to change the paradigm of medicine from being a reactive industry to becoming a proactive industry through collaborations such as the Commission to End Health Disparities, which brings together more than 60 organizations, and the National Medical Association's "We Stand With You" program to improve health and combat disparities. Physician organizations can also address health disparities through advocacy for fair reimbursement policies, funding for pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the workforce, diversity in clinical trials, and other issues. Health disparities present to us in organized medicine a challenge that is cleverly disguised as an immovable object but that is truly a great opportunity for innovation, improvement, and growth. Physician organizations have a unique opportunity to provide avenues of innovation and accomplishment.

  15. Pursuing Justice for Refugee Students: Addressing Issues of Cultural (Mis)Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    In this paper Nancy Fraser's conceptual tools are drawn on to theorise issues of justice in a culturally diverse primary school in Australia where approximately 30% of the student population are immigrant/refugees. The paper examines justice issues of cultural recognition in relation to refugee student identity, behaviour and assessment. Drawing…

  16. Environmental justice and regional inequality in southern California: implications for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Pastor, Manuel; Porras, Carlos; Sadd, James

    2002-04-01

    Environmental justice offers researchers new insights into the juncture of social inequality and public health and provides a framework for policy discussions on the impact of discrimination on the environmental health of diverse communities in the United States. Yet, causally linking the presence of potentially hazardous facilities or environmental pollution with adverse health effects is difficult, particularly in situations in which diverse populations are exposed to complex chemical mixtures. A community-academic research collaborative in southern California sought to address some of these methodological challenges by conducting environmental justice research that makes use of recent advances in air emissions inventories and air exposure modeling data. Results from several of our studies indicate that communities of color bear a disproportionate burden in the location of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities and Toxic Release Inventory facilities. Longitudinal analysis further suggests that facility siting in communities of color, not market-based "minority move-in," accounts for these disparities. The collaborative also investigated the health risk implications of outdoor air toxics exposures from mobile and stationary sources and found that race plays an explanatory role in predicting cancer risk distributions among populations in the region, even after controlling for other socioeconomic and demographic indicators. Although it is unclear whether study results from southern California can be meaningfully generalized to other regions in the United States, they do have implications for approaching future research in the realm of environmental justice. The authors propose a political economy and social inequality framework to guide future research that could better elucidate the origins of environmental inequality and reasons for its persistence. PMID:11929723

  17. Information, power and environmental justice in Botany: the role of community information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Smith, Mariann

    2009-04-01

    In the environmental conflict that surrounds the sighting of hazardous waste facilities there is usually a volatile mix of disparities in power, expertise and information access as well as differing views on risk, which are all played out amidst commercial arrangements and environmental justice concerns. In recent times, the volatility of this mix has been further compounded by the growing climate of public concern and distrust surrounding scientific developments and technology. While there is no 'quick fix' to the complex conflict that this entails, community information systems (CISs) based on participatory models can help address the outstanding issues of capacity, information access, power inequities and environmental justice. CISs are an effective response to the five crucial elements of a toxic dispute, that is, the dialogue, capacity building, information access, evaluation of hazards and risk, and expertise. This paper will review the role of community accessible information systems in the dispute in Botany over the management and destruction of Orica Australia's stockpile of the persistent organic pollutant, hexachlorobenzene (HCB). It will focus on the role of CIS in responding to the challenges for expert information delivery, and in addressing the disparity of informational power within the toxic dispute. PMID:18804905

  18. French people addressing environmental hazards (Eser 2013)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents the results of a survey, conducted towards the end of 2013, of 4,700 people resident in metropolitan France and its 'departements d'outre-mer' (DOM - overseas departments). The aim of the survey was to ascertain how French people perceive natural hazards (flooding, earthquakes, climate events, cyclones, etc.) and technological hazards (industrial and nuclear) to which they may be exposed. Questioned as to whether or not they felt exposed to one or several environmental hazards in their place of residence, French people's answers varied somewhat depending on the hazard invoked and place of residence. A strong feeling of exposure was expressed most frequently in the DOM. Respondents in both metropolitan France and DOM think that atmospheric pollution is a significant hazard (56%) but their opinions diverge partially where other hazards are concerned. Natural hazards (earthquakes and flooding) are cited most frequently overseas, whereas technological hazards (industrial and nuclear) are primarily metropolitan concerns. Climate change related hazards are seen as a threat by 56% of overseas respondents and by 42% in the mother country. In general, one-third of French people think that they are exposed to more than two environmental hazards. Unlike the younger members of the population, only one-quarter of respondents of 65 years of age or over felt exposed to three or more hazards. From municipal level databases providing information on exposure to flooding and technological and climate-related hazards, the survey indicates that a large majority of respondents living in these municipalities either do not feel at risk from existing hazards or feel that the risk is low (see figure below). It is in the area of climate-related hazards that awareness of threat seems to be highest in France, and more particularly in the DOM. In the face of the flooding that could affect them, overseas populations are more aware of this natural

  19. EDITORIAL: Environmental justice: a critical issue for all environmental scientists everywhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Carolyn

    2007-10-01

    It is now commonly understood that much of the worldwide burden of environmental ill health falls disproportionately on poorer peoples [1,2]. There is also substantial evidence that much environmental damage internationally is the result of the actions of richer nations or richer groups within nations—with impacts on poorer nations and poorer groups within nations [1,3,4]. It is becoming clear also that poorer peoples internationally experience multiple environmental harms, and that these may have a cumulative effect. The world is becoming more urbanized, and cities are becoming the locus for many of the local issues of environmental damage and environmental harm [4,5]. But cities are also responsible for substantial international environmental damage: for example, it is increasingly evident that cities are one of the main generators of climate change, and that the actions of people in cities in the rich world are deeply linked to the well-being of the overall ecosystem and of people worldwide. Environmental justice is a concept that links the environmental health science documenting these harms, to debates around rights, justice and equity. It fundamentally deals with the distribution of environmental goods and harms—and looks at who bears those harms and who is responsible for creating those harms, in both a practical sense but also in terms of policy decisions. It is a radical environmental health movement that has evolved from civil society groups, angered at what they perceive as the `unjust' distribution of environmental resources for health and, conversely the `unjust' distribution of environmental harms. The movement now includes a collaboration of non-governmental organizations with environmental scientists, public health professionals, and lawyers, all working on the issue of the distributions of environmental harms and the rights of everyone to a healthy environment. This special issue is both timely and important. Environmental justice is moving

  20. Can the capitalist economic system deliver environmental justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Karen

    2015-12-01

    Can a healthy environment for all social groups be delivered through capitalism via market mechanisms? Or is it the capitalist system, itself, that has been at the root of the environmental and social crises we now face? This letter engages with this ongoing debate by drawing on material from a wider study, ‘Achieving Environmental Justice’, which examined the extent, form and causes of environmental justice and injustice in a range of countries with varying depths of marketization—United States, South Korea, United Kingdom, Sweden, China, Bolivia and Cuba. The analysis described here focuses on the interview material from this mixed methods study, drawing on over 140 interviews with officials, policy makers, and civil society leaders. The letter argues that there is an apparent propensity for capitalist processes to exacerbate, rather than reduce, environmental problems and inequities though the pursuit of relentless economic growth and profit accumulation. Therefore, we should perhaps let go of efforts to resolve environmental injustice within the constraints of capitalism and, instead, build an alternative economic system that can meet human needs in the context of a harmonious and respectful relationship with nature.

  1. 75 FR 65479 - National Environmental Justice Advisory Council; Notification of Public Meeting and Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... whether you are submitting written comments before the November 1, 2010, deadline. Non-English speaking attendees wishing to arrange for a foreign language interpreter may make appropriate arrangements in writing... environmental justice into the permitting process, (3) rural environmental justice challenges; and (4)...

  2. Significant Life Experiences and Environmental Justice: Positionality and the Significance of Negative Social/Environmental Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceaser, Donovon

    2015-01-01

    Significant life experiences (SLE) research has been criticized for a disproportionate focus on privileged groups and positive experiences. In this paper, I use textual analysis to examine the SLEs within the Environmental Justice (EJ) literature. Theoretically, I blend feminist theory, the sociology of disaster, and research on EJ motives for…

  3. Potential Environmental Justice (EJ) areas in Region 2 based on 2000 Census [EPA.EJAREAS_2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Potential Environmental Justice (EJ) areas in Region 2 . This dataset was derived from 2000 census data and based on the criteria setforth in the Region 2 Interim...

  4. Research and institutional dimensions of environmental justice: Implications for NEPA documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, S.A.; Wolfe, A.K.

    1995-07-01

    Satisfying the environmental justice requirements imposed on the NEPA process is a challenging imperative. Among the challenges for NEPA documentation are: (1) adapting existing disciplinary methodologies that address distributional effects to the dictates of the executive order; (2) determining operational and, perhaps, threshold values for policy directives (e.g., disproportionately high and adverse effects); (3) identifying and involving representatives of minority, Native American, and low-income communities and populations in the NEPA process without jeopardizing their independence and integrity; (4) developing strategies, approaches, and methodologies that are more responsive to the consideration of multiple and cumulative exposures; and (5) developing professional standards for environmental justice assessment that are consistent with the letter and intent of the executive order, protective of the environments of minority, Native American, and low-income populations and communities, and useful to decision makers. This report will address current research and institutional activities associated with these issues, present alternative approaches available for their resolution, and identify the implications of those alternative approaches.

  5. Improving Environmental Health Literacy and Justice through Environmental Exposure Results Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica D. Ramirez-Andreotta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the short- and long-term impacts of a biomonitoring and exposure project and reporting personal results back to study participants is critical for guiding future efforts, especially in the context of environmental justice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate learning outcomes from environmental communication efforts and whether environmental health literacy goals were met in an environmental justice community. We conducted 14 interviews with parents who had participated in the University of Arizona’s Metals Exposure Study in Homes and analyzed their responses using NVivo, a qualitative data management and analysis program. Key findings were that participants used the data to cope with their challenging circumstances, the majority of participants described changing their families’ household behaviors, and participants reported specific interventions to reduce family exposures. The strength of this study is that it provides insight into what people learn and gain from such results communication efforts, what participants want to know, and what type of additional information participants need to advance their environmental health literacy. This information can help improve future report back efforts and advance environmental health and justice.

  6. Improving Environmental Health Literacy and Justice through Environmental Exposure Results Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brody, Julia Green; Lothrop, Nathan; Loh, Miranda; Beamer, Paloma I.; Brown, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the short- and long-term impacts of a biomonitoring and exposure project and reporting personal results back to study participants is critical for guiding future efforts, especially in the context of environmental justice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate learning outcomes from environmental communication efforts and whether environmental health literacy goals were met in an environmental justice community. We conducted 14 interviews with parents who had participated in the University of Arizona’s Metals Exposure Study in Homes and analyzed their responses using NVivo, a qualitative data management and analysis program. Key findings were that participants used the data to cope with their challenging circumstances, the majority of participants described changing their families’ household behaviors, and participants reported specific interventions to reduce family exposures. The strength of this study is that it provides insight into what people learn and gain from such results communication efforts, what participants want to know, and what type of additional information participants need to advance their environmental health literacy. This information can help improve future report back efforts and advance environmental health and justice. PMID:27399755

  7. Linking ‘toxic outliers’ to environmental justice communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several key studies have found that a small minority of producers, polluting at levels far exceeding group averages, generate the majority of overall exposure to industrial toxics. Frequently, such patterns go unnoticed and are understudied outside of the academic community. To our knowledge, no research to date has systematically described the scope and extent of extreme variations in industrially based exposure estimates and sought to link inequities in harm produced to inequities in exposure. In an analysis of all permitted industrial facilities across the United States, we show that there exists a class of hyper-polluters—the worst-of-the-worst—that disproportionately expose communities of color and low income populations to chemical releases. This study hopes to move beyond a traditional environmental justice research frame, bringing new computational methods and perspectives aimed at the empirical study of societal power dynamics. Our findings suggest the possibility that substantial environmental gains may be made through selective environmental enforcement, rather than sweeping initiatives. (letter)

  8. A Framework for Integrating Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyemaechi C. Nweke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available With increased interest in integrating environmental justice into the process for developing environmental regulations in the United States, analysts and decision makers are confronted with the question of what methods and data can be used to assess disproportionate environmental health impacts. However, as a first step to identifying data and methods, it is important that analysts understand what information on equity impacts is needed for decision making. Such knowledge originates from clearly stated equity objectives and the reflection of those objectives throughout the analytical activities that characterize Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA, a process that is traditionally used to inform decision making. The framework proposed in this paper advocates structuring analyses to explicitly provide pre-defined output on equity impacts. Specifically, the proposed framework emphasizes: (a defining equity objectives for the proposed regulatory action at the onset of the regulatory process, (b identifying specific and related sub-objectives for key analytical steps in the RIA process, and (c developing explicit analytical/research questions to assure that stated sub-objectives and objectives are met. In proposing this framework, it is envisioned that information on equity impacts informs decision-making in regulatory development, and that this is achieved through a systematic and consistent approach that assures linkages between stated equity objectives, regulatory analyses, selection of policy options, and the design of compliance and enforcement activities.

  9. Leadership for Social Justice in Hong Kong Schools: Addressing Mechanisms of Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming Ming; Walker, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to instigate a focused dialogue of social justice in Hong Kong schools and of the responsibilities this holds for school leaders. Design/methodology/approach: The authors draw on economic, psychological, and sociological research to illustrate how the unequal allocation of resources and school status hierarchies affects…

  10. Addressing Dilemmas of Social Justice Mathematics Instruction through Collaboration of Students, Educators, and Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokka, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Social justice mathematics educators explicitly aim to develop students' sociopolitical consciousness in addition to teaching mathematics content (Gutiérrez 2013; Gutstein 2006). Sociopolitical consciousness refers to Paulo Freire's (1970) concept of "conscientização," or learning to perceive social, political, and economic…

  11. Impacting sexism through social justice prevention: implications at the person and environmental levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jonathan P; Lindley, Lori D

    2009-01-01

    Sexism in our society leads to multiple negative outcomes for women. Although traditional therapeutic approaches as well as preventive interventions address the specific negative outcomes of sexism, they rarely utilize a social justice approach. The deleterious effects of sexism occur complexly; sexist interpersonal events often occur within family systems that may endorse traditional gender roles, which exist within a societal and cultural context that contains sexist norms and formalized sexist policies. These multifaceted, ingrained circumstances delineate the need for preventive social justice to address sexism on multiple levels. A prevention/social justice model will be used to critique existing interventions and identify avenues for change in research and practice. PMID:19051035

  12. Impacting sexism through social justice prevention: implications at the person and environmental levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jonathan P; Lindley, Lori D

    2009-01-01

    Sexism in our society leads to multiple negative outcomes for women. Although traditional therapeutic approaches as well as preventive interventions address the specific negative outcomes of sexism, they rarely utilize a social justice approach. The deleterious effects of sexism occur complexly; sexist interpersonal events often occur within family systems that may endorse traditional gender roles, which exist within a societal and cultural context that contains sexist norms and formalized sexist policies. These multifaceted, ingrained circumstances delineate the need for preventive social justice to address sexism on multiple levels. A prevention/social justice model will be used to critique existing interventions and identify avenues for change in research and practice.

  13. A new approach for environmental justice impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    President Clinton's Executive Order 12898 calls for examination of disproportionately high and adverse impacts to minority and low-income communities. In addition to demographic mapping, environmental justice analyses should also include quantitative impact assessment to show presence or absence of disproportionate impacts. This study demonstrates use of a geographic information system (GIS) and a computer model. For this demonstration, a safety analysis report and a computer code were used to develop impact assessment data from a hypothetical facility accident producing a radiological airborne plume. The computer code modeled the plume, plotted dose contours, and provided latitude and longitude coordinates for transfer to the GIS. The GIS integrated and mapped the impact and demographic data toprovide a graphical representation of the plume with respect to the population. Impacts were then analyzed. The GIS was used to estimate the total dose to the exposed population under the plume, the dose to the low-income population under the plume, and the dose to the minority population under the plume. Impacts among the population groups were compared to determine whether a dispropotionate share of the impacts were borne by minority or low-income populations

  14. From Protest to Policy: The Political Evolution of California Environmental Justice Activism, 1980s - 2010s

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, Tracy E.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation traces the political evolution of California environmental justice activism since its origins in the 1980s. I argue that over time environmental justice activism has been increasingly institutionalized through the creation of formal movement organizations incorporated as non-profits. This process of institutionalization has been accompanied by professionalization and a growing engagement with routine political processes. These include participation in government advisory boa...

  15. Every breath you take? Environmental justice and air pollution in Christchurch, New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Jamie Pearce; Simon Kingham; Peyman Zawar-Reza

    2006-01-01

    In a number of environmental-justice studies it has been noted that the exposure to an array of air pollutants varies between different social groups. This inequality in exposure is one possible explanation for the variations in pollution-related health outcomes such as lung cancer and other respiratory diseases. Previous environmental-justice studies that have focused upon air pollution have tended to be concerned with exposure to industrial and vehicle pollution and rely upon simple estimat...

  16. Transformative Participation in Agrobiodiversity Governance: Making the Case for an Environmental Justice Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Coolsaet, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    This paper makes the case for an environmental justice approach to the practice and study of participation and effectiveness in agrobiodiversity governance. It is argued that, in order to understand the conditions under which participation leads to improved outcomes, the concept has to be rethought, both from a political and a methodological perspective. This can be done by applying an ex-ante environmental justice approach to participation, including notions of distribution, recognition and ...

  17. Bourdieu does environmental justice? Probing the linkages between population health and air pollution epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzelli, Michael

    2007-03-01

    The environmental justice literature faces a number of conceptual and methodological shortcomings. The purpose of this paper is to probe ways in which these shortcomings can be remedied via recent developments in related literatures: population health and air pollution epidemiology. More sophisticated treatment of social structure, particularly if based on Pierre Bourdieu's relational approach to forms of capital, can be combined with the methodological rigour and established biological pathways of air pollution epidemiology. The aim is to reformulate environmental justice research in order to make further meaningful contributions to the wider movement concerned with issues of social justice and equity in health research.

  18. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives. PMID:27420080

  19. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-07-12

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  20. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Kyne

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  1. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives. PMID:27420080

  2. Social Justice and Environmental Awareness Developed through a Citizens' Jury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, J.

    2014-12-01

    A Citizens' Jury (CJ) is a discussion forum in which managers, policymakers or politicians are able to present their case to the general public ('citizens') to whom they are accountable, and for these citizens to critically ask questions of the managers/policymakers/politicians in order to better understand issues surrounding local development, planning and policy, impacts and adaptive measures, and to highlight their concerns. A CJ can be useful with respect to developing social justice and environmental awareness issues because it can empower community action and present different viewpoints. A practical CJ exercise is used in a second-year undergraduate course entitled Climate Change and Society, at University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The CJ is used to consider some of the impacts of management policies used for climate change and sustainable development adaption, based on a hypothetical scenario. This scenario is that a major energy company wants to build a dam with hydroelectric power station in a developing country. This will provide low-carbon renewable energy to the country, investment in electricity infrastructure, and the company is committed to help economic development in the country, including in jobs and education. However, building and flooding of the dam will involve displacing 10,000 people from rural communities, flooding agricultural areas and areas of high biodiversity, and archaeological sites. The exercise is based on students, in groups, assuming different 'identities' which may include a local business person, resident, politician, member of an NGO, tourist, engineer, farmer etc, from which viewpoint they must argue for/against the proposal and to question other peoples' viewpoints. This exercise is useful because it allows students to develop understandings of different viewpoints, evaluate risk and impacts on different communities, and highlights the complexity of real-world decision-making.

  3. Playing It Safe: Assessing Cumulative Impact and Social Vulnerability through an Environmental Justice Screening Method in the South Coast Air Basin, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Scoggins

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA and state authorities like the California Air Resources Board (CARB, have sought to address the concerns of environmental justice (EJ advocates who argue that chemical-by-chemical and source-specific assessments of potential health risks of environmental hazards do not reflect the multiple environmental and social stressors faced by vulnerable communities. We propose an Environmental Justice Screening Method (EJSM as a relatively simple, flexible and transparent way to examine the relative rank of cumulative impacts and social vulnerability within metropolitan regions and determine environmental justice areas based on more than simply the demographics of income and race. We specifically organize 23 indicator metrics into three categories: (1 hazard proximity and land use; (2 air pollution exposure and estimated health risk; and (3 social and health vulnerability. For hazard proximity, the EJSM uses GIS analysis to create a base map by intersecting land use data with census block polygons, and calculates hazard proximity measures based on locations within various buffer distances. These proximity metrics are then summarized to the census tract level where they are combined with tract centroid-based estimates of pollution exposure and health risk and socio-economic status (SES measures. The result is a cumulative impacts (CI score for ranking neighborhoods within regions that can inform diverse stakeholders seeking to identify local areas that might need targeted regulatory strategies to address environmental justice concerns.

  4. Neighborhood disparities in access to healthy foods and their effects on environmental justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental justice is concerned with an equitable distribution of environmental burdens. These burdens comprise immediate health hazards as well as subtle inequities, such as limited access to healthy foods. We reviewed the literature on neighborhood disparities in access to fast-food outlets and...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE: AVOIDING THE DIFFICULTY OF PROVING DISCRIMINATORY INTENT IN HAZARDOUS WASTE SITING DECISIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Kiniyalocts, Melissa

    2000-01-01

    Contrary to general public perception that environmental hazards are borne equally, the risks and accompanying burdens of exposure to environmental contaminants are distributed disproportionately along racial and class lines. The environmental justice movement has received much recent attention as being an extension of the civil rights movement, where advocates have demanded fair distribution of environmental benefits and burdens. This paper focuses on the difficulty that plaintiffs wishing t...

  6. Addressing cumulative effects in Strategic Environmental Assessment of spatial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bragagnolo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Strategic environmental Assessment (SEA is a decision support instrument for predicting and evaluating the likely environmental effects of implementing a policy, plan or programme. SEA can consider the cumulative impacts of more than one project or activity on the same environmen- tal component. This paper discusses the analysis of cumulative effects in SEA, with reference to spatial planning by: providing a review of key concepts and methods related to cumulative effects literature; presenting a rationale for the inclusion of cumulative effects in SEA of spatial plans; advancing a proposal to address cumulative effects in different SEA stages. The paper concludes that SEA offers the opportunity to support a better management of cumulative effects arising from many local-level spatial planning decisions. Three aspects emerged as critical to ensure good practices: the selection of valued environmental components, the adoption of future-oriented approaches, and the use of spatially-explicit information.

  7. Bread and Roses: A Gender Perspective on Environmental Justice and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Gender continues to be a relatively marginal issue in environmental justice debates and yet it remains an important aspect of injustice. To help redress the balance, this article explores women’s experience of environmental justice through a review of the existing literature and the author’s prior qualitative research, as well as her experience of environmental activism. The analysis confirms that women tend to experience inequitable environmental burdens (distributional injustice); and are less likely than men to have control over environmental decisions (procedural injustice), both of which impact on their health (substantive injustice). It is argued that these injustices occur because women generally have lower incomes than men and are perceived as having less social status than their male counterparts as a result of entwined and entrenched capitalist and patriarchal processes. In the light of this analysis, it is proposed that environmental justice research, teaching, policy and practice should be made more gender aware and feminist orientated. This could support cross-cutting debates and activities in support of the radical social change necessary to bring about greater social and environmental justice more generally. PMID:27754351

  8. Not so Black and White: environmental justice and cumulative impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A growing number of scientific studies in recent years have investigated disparate exposure to ecological hazards in American society. Working from an environmental justice perspective, this body of research consistently reveals that poor communities of color are most likely to bear a disproportionate burden of negative externalities. These studies utilize a wide range of research methodologies, including various indicators of ecological hazards (e.g., proximity to waste sites, industrial emissions, ambient air quality), but few, if any, utilize composite measures to approximate cumulative environmental impact. Consequently, the environmental justice (EJ) literature is characterized by a failure to effectively measure overall impact from an extensive range of ecological hazards. Limitations on available data make this a serious problem for present and future studies. We argue that cumulative measures of environmental impact can play an important role in furthering our understanding of environmental injustices in the United States. In this study of Massachusetts, we develop and implement such a cumulative measure of negative environmental impacts. By controlling for the density and severity of ecological hazardous sites and facilities within every community in the state, we demonstrate that exposure patterns take a generally linear distribution when analyzed by race and class. So, while our results reaffirm previous findings that low-income communities and communities of color bear significantly greater ecological burdens than predominantly White and more affluent communities, our findings also suggest that environmental injustices exist on a remarkably consistent continuum for nearly all communities. In other words, as the minority population and lower-income composition of a community increases, correspondingly, so does cumulative exposure to environmental hazards. In this respect, communities which are more racially mixed and of moderate income status that are

  9. Fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, Paul; Rudolph, Juergen [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Steinmann, Paul [Erlangen-Nuremberg Univ., erlangen (Germany). Chair of Applied Mechanics

    2015-04-15

    Laboratory tests consider simple trapezoidal, triangle, and sinusoidal signals. However, actual plant components are characterized by complex loading patterns and periods of holds. Fatigue tests in water environment show, that the damage from a realistic strain variation or the presence of hold-times within cyclic loading results in an environmental reduction factor (Fen) only half that of a simple waveform. This study proposes a new fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation for class 1 boiler and pressure vessel reactor components. The currently accepted method of fatigue assessment has been used as a base model and all cycles, which have been comparable with realistic fatigue tests, have been excluded from the code-based fatigue calculation and evaluated directly with the test data. The results presented show that the engineering approach can successfully be integrated in the code-based fatigue assessment. The cumulative usage factor can be reduced considerably.

  10. Fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory tests consider simple trapezoidal, triangle, and sinusoidal signals. However, actual plant components are characterized by complex loading patterns and periods of holds. Fatigue tests in water environment show, that the damage from a realistic strain variation or the presence of hold-times within cyclic loading results in an environmental reduction factor (Fen) only half that of a simple waveform. This study proposes a new fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation for class 1 boiler and pressure vessel reactor components. The currently accepted method of fatigue assessment has been used as a base model and all cycles, which have been comparable with realistic fatigue tests, have been excluded from the code-based fatigue calculation and evaluated directly with the test data. The results presented show that the engineering approach can successfully be integrated in the code-based fatigue assessment. The cumulative usage factor can be reduced considerably.

  11. Hydrocomplexity: Addressing water security and emergent environmental risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen

    2015-07-01

    Water security and emergent environmental risks are among the most significant societal concerns. They are highly interlinked to other global risks such as those related to climate, human health, food, human migration, biodiversity loss, urban sustainability, etc. Emergent risks result from the confluence of unanticipated interactions from evolving interdependencies between complex systems, such as those embedded in the water cycle. They are associated with the novelty of dynamical possibilities that have significant potential consequences to human and ecological systems, and not with probabilities based on historical precedence. To ensure water security we need to be able to anticipate the likelihood of risk possibilities as they present the prospect of the most impact through cascade of vulnerabilities. They arise due to a confluence of nonstationary drivers that include growing population, climate change, demographic shifts, urban growth, and economic expansion, among others, which create novel interdependencies leading to a potential of cascading network effects. Hydrocomplexity aims to address water security and emergent risks through the development of science, methods, and practices with the potential to foster a "Blue Revolution" akin to the Green revolution for food security. It blends both hard infrastructure based solution with soft knowledge driven solutions to increase the range of planning and design, management, mitigation and adaptation strategies. It provides a conceptual and synthetic framework to enable us to integrate discovery science and engineering, observational and information science, computational and communication systems, and social and institutional approaches to address consequential water and environmental challenges.

  12. Historical Ecology and Ethnobiology: Applied Research for Environmental Conservation and Social Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsey Geralda Armstrong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Historical ecology provides a research program and toolkit for applied interdisciplinary research in ethnobiology. With a focus on long-term changes in built environments and cultural landscapes, historical ecology emphasizes the need for scientific collaboration between disciplines for more relevant and applied academic research—particularly in service to environmental conservation and social justice.

  13. Historical Ecology and Ethnobiology: Applied Research for Environmental Conservation and Social Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Chelsey Geralda Armstrong; Veteto, James R

    2015-01-01

    Historical ecology provides a research program and toolkit for applied interdisciplinary research in ethnobiology. With a focus on long-term changes in built environments and cultural landscapes, historical ecology emphasizes the need for scientific collaboration between disciplines for more relevant and applied academic research—particularly in service to environmental conservation and social justice.

  14. Mining conflicts around the world: Common grounds from an Environmental Justice perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Özkaynak (Begüm); B. Rodriguez-Labajos (Beatriz); M. Arsel (Murat); D. Avci (Duygu); M.H. Carbonell (María Helena); B. Chareyron (Bruno); G. Chicaiza; M. Conde (Marta); F. Demaria (Federico); R. Finamore (Renan); B. Kohrs (Bertchen); V.V. Krishna (Venni); M. Mahongnao (Mirinchonme); D. Raeva (Dragomira); A.A. Singh (Akoijam); T. Slavov (Todor); T. Tkalec (Tomislav); I. Yánez (Ivonne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract. This report aims at exploring contemporary mining conflicts in the context of the sustainable development and environmental justice movement. This is done based on 24 real case studies from 18 different countries which are described by local activists and scholars. While 17 of

  15. Rawls´ legacy: a limited possibility of a non-speciesist environmental justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia T. Felipe

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Publishing A Theory of Justice in 1971 John Rawls defined a conceptual realm of justice as that of a well-ordered society in which some principles of justice should be tested before seeking to apply them to distribute primary goods among co-operative representative subjects (considered as equals within the basic structure of society and other subjects, who are not necessarily co-operative, even if they are included in the contract of justice by the representatives through the indirect moral duties theory. Representative subjects were interested in possessing and preserving − for themselves and for their descendants − all kinds of goods: natural, primary, social and public ones. They are interested in maintaining economic and social distinctions obtained by fair work distribution, as well. In explaining his theory of a fair distribution of primary social goods, John Rawls does not include, at least explicitly, the kind of goods I am suggesting in this paper to be called natural environmental goods, the kind of goods which are indispensable to secure, with no exception, the survival of all organisms subjected to basic needs, including human needs. Natural environmental goods seems to have been forgotten by Rawls, or at least considered as not implicated in his model of a fair institutional distribution of primary social goods. Following what Michael S. PRITCHARD, Wade L. ROBISON, Russ MANNING, Brent A. SINGER, Daniel P. THERO and Troy W. HARTLEY have critically pointed in some of their articles, I am going firstly to show the lack of the concept of natural environmental goods in Rawls’ Theory of Justice, and secondly, I suggest considering natural environmental goods as part of a non-speciesist theory of justice. So, I hope to contribute to extend the philosophical legacy of A Theory of Justice, in order to include in our moral consideration needs and interests of all living beings. In other words, I will try to consider the issue of justice

  16. Between activism and science : grassroots concepts for sustainability coined by Environmental Justice Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Alier, Joan; Anguelovski, Isabelle; Bond, Patrick; Del Bene, Daniela; Demaria, Federico; Gerber, Julien-Francois; Greyl, Lucie; Haas, Willi; Healy, Hali; Marín-Burgos, Victoria; Ojo, Godwin; Porto, Marcelo; Rijnhout, Leida; Rodríguez-Labajos, Beatriz; Spangenberg, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    In their own battles and strategy meetings since the early 1980s, EJOs (environmental justice organizations) and their networks have introduced several concepts to political ecology that have also been taken up by academics and policy makers. In this paper, we explain the contexts in which such notions have arisen, providing definitions of a wide array of concepts and slogans related to environmental inequities and sustainability, and explore the connections and relations between them. These ...

  17. "No justice, no peace" and the right to self-determination: an interview with Gary Grant and Naeema Muhammed of the North Carolina Environmental Justice Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Gary; Muhammed, Naeema; Slatin, Craig; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

    2014-01-01

    This is an interview with Gary Grant and Naeema Muhammed, leaders of the North Carolina Environmental Justice Network. Each of them talks about where they grew up, their politicization, how their paths crossed, their work together after Hurricane Floyd, and the unique challenges of organizing for social justice for black communities in the South. We learn of their fight against concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), primarily for the hog trade, and they take us up to North Carolina's Moral Monday protests of 2013 against legislation that threatens voting rights, public education, access to medical services, unemployment benefits, workers rights, occupational and environmental health, and women's access to reproductive health care. We are grateful to these two friends of New Solutions for their contribution to the journal, and we hope that their insights regarding struggles for social and environmental justice can serve as guides for us all. PMID:25085831

  18. Environmental justice and conceptions of the green economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ehresman, T.G.; Okereke, Chuks

    2015-01-01

    Green economy has become one of the most fashionable terms in global environmental public policy discussions and forums. Despite this popularity, and its being selected as one of the organizing themes of the United Nations Rio+20 Conference in Brazil, June 2012, its prospects as an effective mobilization tool for global environmental sustainability scholarship and practice remains unclear. A major reason for this is that much like its precursor concepts such as environmental sustainability a...

  19. Black–White Disparities in Criminal Justice Referrals to Drug Treatment: Addressing Treatment Need or Expanding the Diagnostic Net?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen McElrath

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Slightly more than half of admissions to U.S. publicly-funded treatment for marijuana use are referred by the criminal justice system; this pattern has remained for at least 20 years. Nationally, Blacks comprise nearly a third of treatment admissions for marijuana use. This article explores the interplay between race and criminal justice referrals to treatment for marijuana use. Using data from the (U.S. 2011 Treatment Episode Data Set, we examine the relationship between race and diagnosis of cannabis use disorder (dependence versus abuse among referrals to community-based treatment in North Carolina. We compare Black/White differences in cannabis diagnoses across four referral sources: the criminal justice system, healthcare providers, self, and other sources. Race was significantly related to type of diagnosis across all four referral sources, however, the nature of the relationship was distinctly different among criminal justice referrals with Whites being more likely than Blacks to be diagnosed with cannabis dependence. Moreover, the marijuana use profiles of criminal justice referrals differed substantially from individuals referred by other sources. The findings suggest that diagnoses of cannabis abuse (rather than dependence may have worked to widen the diagnostic net by “capturing” individuals under control of the criminal justice system who manifested few problems with marijuana use, other than their involvement in the criminal justice system. The potential for a net-widening effect appeared to be most pronounced for Blacks.

  20. Environmental Justice Screening Method for the San Joaquin Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Cumulative Impacts (CI) screening method is jointly being developed by Manuel Pastor, Jim Sadd (Occidental College), and Rachel Morello-Frosch (UC Berkeley) ....

  1. Rough Justice? Exploring the Relationship Between Information Access and Environmental and Ecological Justice Pertaining to Two Controversial Coastal Developments in North-east Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Baxter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between information access and environmental and ecological justice through an historical comparison of two controversial coastal developments in Aberdeenshire, North-east Scotland: the building of a North Sea gas reception terminal by the British Gas Council and the French exploration company Total Oil Marine in the 1970s; and the more recent construction of ‘the greatest golf course anywhere in the world’ by the American property tycoon, Donald Trump. These two projects have much in common, not least because each one has had actual or potential impacts on an environmentally sensitive site, and because each has also been affected by plans for another major structure in its immediate vicinity. But the Trump golf course project has taken place during a period when access to information and citizens’ influence on major planning decisions in Scotland has been significantly greater, at least theoretically. With these points in mind, the paper considers whether or not environmental justice (more specifically, procedural environmental justice and ecological justice are now more attainable in the current era of supposed openness, transparency and public engagement, than in the more secretive and less participative 1970s. It reveals that, at the planning application stage, information on the potential environmental impact of Trump’s golf resort was more readily obtainable, compared with that provided by the Gas Council and Total forty years earlier. However, during and after the construction stage, when considering whether or not the developments have met environmental planning conditions – and whether or not ecological justice has been done – the situation with the gas terminal has been far clearer than with Trump’s golf resort. Despite the golf course being built in an era of government openness, there remain a number of unanswered questions concerning its environmental impact.

  2. Community Theories of Change: Linking Environmental Justice to Sustainability through Stakeholder Perceptions in Milwaukee (WI, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn Hornik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental justice and sustainability are compatible lenses, yet action toward equity is often missing from urban sustainability initiatives. This study aims to assess the cohesion of these frameworks in practice. To do this, we parse individuals’ theories of change, or how they identify and propose to resolve environmental injustices in the pursuit of sustainability. We posit that these theories of change are comprised of three main components: (1 perceived environmental benefits and burdens; (2 the causal pathways of environmental and social injustice; and (3 visions for positive change. Drawing from 35 stakeholder interviews in Milwaukee (WI, USA we examine individual and institutional perspectives on environmental and social change and their links to the production of injustice. Our findings reveal that participants do not distinguish between environmental and social injustices. Instead, both social and environmental factors are implicated in injustice. Furthermore, we identify two mental maps for how social and economic change reproduce injustice. These findings suggest the need to reorient how urban injustice is considered and make efforts to acknowledge how a diversity of operational theories of change could either be divisive or could bring environmental justice and sustainability initiatives together.

  3. Community Theories of Change: Linking Environmental Justice to Sustainability through Stakeholder Perceptions in Milwaukee (WI, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornik, Kaitlyn; Cutts, Bethany; Greenlee, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Environmental justice and sustainability are compatible lenses, yet action toward equity is often missing from urban sustainability initiatives. This study aims to assess the cohesion of these frameworks in practice. To do this, we parse individuals’ theories of change, or how they identify and propose to resolve environmental injustices in the pursuit of sustainability. We posit that these theories of change are comprised of three main components: (1) perceived environmental benefits and burdens; (2) the causal pathways of environmental and social injustice; and (3) visions for positive change. Drawing from 35 stakeholder interviews in Milwaukee (WI, USA) we examine individual and institutional perspectives on environmental and social change and their links to the production of injustice. Our findings reveal that participants do not distinguish between environmental and social injustices. Instead, both social and environmental factors are implicated in injustice. Furthermore, we identify two mental maps for how social and economic change reproduce injustice. These findings suggest the need to reorient how urban injustice is considered and make efforts to acknowledge how a diversity of operational theories of change could either be divisive or could bring environmental justice and sustainability initiatives together. PMID:27706068

  4. ETHICS AND JUSTICE IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science and engineering are built on trust. C.P. Snow's famous quote, "the only ethical principle which has made science possible is that the truth shall be told all the time" underscores the importance of honesty in science. Environmental scientists must do work that is useful...

  5. Toxic Tourism: A New Itinerary for the Environmental Justice Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Chiro, Giovanna

    2001-01-01

    Tours of minority group neighborhoods show participants the effects of polluting industries that are disproportionately sited near them. The tours make people aware of this overt environmental racism and inspire them to take action. Such tours must be handled with tact, preferably by the affected communities themselves, to avoid voyeurism and…

  6. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  7. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  8. CHALLENGES AND BENEFITS OF CONDUCTING ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE RESEARCH IN A SCHOOL SETTING

    OpenAIRE

    GUIDRY, VIRGINIA T.; Lowman, Amy; Hall, Devon; BARON, DOTHULA; Wing, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research requires attention to consequences for research participants beyond those typically considered by institutional review boards. The imbalance of power between impacted communities and those who create and regulate pollution creates challenges for participation, yet research can also benefit those involved. Our community-academic partnership designed the Rural Air Pollutants and Children's Health (RAPCH) study to provide positive impacts while measuring healt...

  9. Just fracking: a distributive environmental justice analysis of unconventional gas development in Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Emily; Bell, Derek

    2016-02-01

    This letter presents a distributive environmental justice analysis of unconventional gas development in the area of Pennsylvania lying over the Marcellus Shale, the largest shale gas formation in play in the United States. The extraction of shale gas using unconventional wells, which are hydraulically fractured (fracking), has increased dramatically since 2005. As the number of wells has grown, so have concerns about the potential public health effects on nearby communities. These concerns make shale gas development an environmental justice issue. This letter examines whether the hazards associated with proximity to wells and the economic benefits of shale gas production are fairly distributed. We distinguish two types of distributive environmental justice: traditional and benefit sharing. We ask the traditional question: are there a disproportionate number of minority or low-income residents in areas near to unconventional wells in Pennsylvania? However, we extend this analysis in two ways: we examine income distribution and level of education; and we compare before and after shale gas development. This contributes to discussions of benefit sharing by showing how the income distribution of the population has changed. We use a binary dasymetric technique to remap the data from the 2000 US Census and the 2009-2013 American Communities Survey and combine that data with a buffer containment analysis of unconventional wells to compare the characteristics of the population living nearer to unconventional wells with those further away before and after shale gas development. Our analysis indicates that there is no evidence of traditional distributive environmental injustice: there is not a disproportionate number of minority or low-income residents in areas near to unconventional wells. However, our analysis is consistent with the claim that there is benefit sharing distributive environmental injustice: the income distribution of the population nearer to shale gas wells

  10. Addressing the Needs of Youth with Disabilities in the Juvenile Justice System: The Current Status of Evidence-Based Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Daniel P.; Aron, Laudan; Bernstein, Jenny

    This report summarizes the state of knowledge about children and youth with disabilities at risk of delinquency or already involved with the juvenile justice system. It reviews the existing research as well as perspectives of service providers, administrators, policy makers, and advocates. Following an executive summary and introductory chapter,…

  11. Is environmental justice all dried up? Drilling for water in the everglades dredges up questions regarding the potential for a just environmental sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, A.L. [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This paper considers the social, environmental, and political implications of plans to employ aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) technology as a major part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) as exemplary of the predicament inherent to the challenge of achieving the goal of just environmental sustainability. Although ASR promises to be a low cost solution to regional water issues, its implementation means the continuation of harmful agricultural and developmental practices within the region, which fostered the environmental and social crisis that the CERP is now tasked to mitigate. Further, the plan's overwhelming dependency upon ASR, a technology of questionable efficacy given the scope of its intended use, raises questions as to the refusal to seriously consider alternative solutions, such as naturalisation. This paper argues for a new approach to environmental issues of this sort, offering just environmental sustainability as an alternative to sustainable development and environmental justice initiatives, both of which neglect to fully take into account ethical considerations when addressing accountability and enforcement. (author)

  12. National parks and environmental justice: Comparing access rights and ideological legacies in three countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlberg Annika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available National parks are often places where people have previously lived and worked-they have been formed by a combination of natural and human processes that embody an identifiable history of cultural and political values. Conservation of protected areas is primarily about how we perceive such landscapes, how we place differential values on different landscape components, and who gets to decide on these values. Thus, conservation has been and still is very much about issues of power and environmental justice. This paper analyses the social, political and environmental histories of three national park regimes (South Africa, Sweden and Scotland through the lens of public access rights. We examine the evolving status of access rights-in a broad sense that includes access to land, resources and institutions of governance-as a critical indicator of the extent to which conservation policies and legislation realise the aims of environmental justice in practice. Our case studies illustrate how access rights are contingent on the historical settings and ideological contexts in which the institutions controlling national park management have evolved. Dominant cultural, political and scientific ideologies have given rise to historical precedents and institutional structures that affect the promotion of environmental justice in and around national parks today. In countries where national parks were initially created to preserve perceived ′wilderness′, with decisions taken by powerful elites and central authorities, this historical legacy has prevented profound change in line with new policy directives. The comparative analysis of national park regimes, where historical trajectories both converge and diverge, was useful in improving our understanding of contemporary issues involving conservation, people and politics.

  13. Australia’s first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution in Australia. Specifically, our analysis links the spatial distribution of sites and emissions associated with industrial pollution sources derived from the National Pollution Inventory, to Indigenous status and social disadvantage characteristics of communities derived from Australian Bureau of Statistics indicators. Our results reveal a clear national pattern of environmental injustice based on the locations of industrial pollution sources, as well as volume, and toxicity of air pollution released at these locations. Communities with the highest number of polluting sites, emission volume, and toxicity-weighted air emissions indicate significantly greater proportions of Indigenous population and higher levels of socio-economic disadvantage. The quantities and toxicities of industrial air pollution are particularly higher in communities with the lowest levels of educational attainment and occupational status. These findings emphasize the need for more detailed analysis in specific regions and communities where socially disadvantaged groups are disproportionately impacted by industrial air pollution. Our empirical findings also underscore the growing necessity to incorporate environmental justice considerations in environmental planning and policy-making in Australia. (paper)

  14. Environmental justice: a contrary finding for the case of high-voltage electric power transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartenberg, Daniel; Greenberg, Michael R; Harris, Gerald

    2010-05-01

    Environmental justice is the consideration of whether minority and/or lower-income residents in a geographic area are likely to have disproportionately higher exposures to environmental toxins than those living elsewhere. Such situations have been identified for a variety of factors, such as air pollution, hazardous waste, water quality, noise, residential crowding, and housing quality. This study investigates the application of this concept to high-voltage electric power transmission lines (HVTL), which some perceive as a health risk because of the magnetic fields they generate, and also as esthetically unpleasing. We mapped all 345 kV and higher voltage HVTL in New York State and extracted and summarized proximate US Census sociodemographic and housing characteristic data into four categories on the basis of distances from HVTL. Contrary to our expectation, people living within 2000 ft from HVTL were more likely to be exposed to magnetic fields, white, of higher income, more educated and home owners, than those living farther away, particularly in urban areas. Possible explanations for these patterns include the desire for the open space created by the rights-of-way, the preference for new homes/subdivisions that are often located near HVTL, and moving closer to HVTL before EMFs were considered a risk. This study suggests that environmental justice may not apply to all environmental risk factors and that one must be cautious in generalizing. In addition, it shows the utility of geographical information system methodology for summarizing information from extremely large populations, often a challenge in epidemiology.

  15. Developing the environment agency's policy position on addressing environmental inequalities.

    OpenAIRE

    Chalmers, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Background and drivers of the project In the UK there is growing interest in the relationship between environmental quality and social equity. Recent research has shown that the most socially and economically deprived people live in the worst environments. This presents difficult challenges to government and its agencies in delivering sustainable development, but also an opportunity to better integrate social and environmental policy and deliver a better environment and quality of life for...

  16. Membrane materials for addressing energy and environmental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drioli, Enrico; Fontananova, Enrica

    2012-01-01

    Our modern society must solve various severe problems to maintain and increase our quality of life: from water stress to global warming, to fossil fuel depletion, to environmental pollution. The process intensification (PI) strategy is expected to contribute to overcoming many of these issues by facilitating the transition from a resource-intensive to a knowledge-intensive industrial system that will guarantee sustainable growth. Membrane operations, which respond efficiently to the requirements of the PI strategy, have the potential to replace conventional energy-intensive separation techniques, which will boost the efficiency and reduce the environmental impact of separations as well as conversion processes. This work critically reviews the current status and emerging applications of (integrated) membrane operations with a special focus on energy and environmental applications. PMID:22483262

  17. Environmental justice: a form of passive revolution and civil society against capitalist system hegemony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Keuly Luz Bezerra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the notion of civil society, hegemony and passive revolution in the thoughts of Antonio Gramsci and its relation to the need for implementation of environmental justice. The concept of civil society in Gramsci's view appears as a group of organisms commonly designated as “private”, formed by the organizations responsible for drafting much as the dissemination of ideologies, so understanding the school system, the churches, trade unions, political parties, professional organizations, material culture of the organization, while the concept of hegemony arises within the Marxist tradition as a response to new social settings. Despite its origins in the Russian social democracy and to be present at the thought of Lenin, this concept was developed in a more elaborated by Gramsci. The concept of “passive revolution”, “revolution–restoration” or “evolutionism” is crucial category that Gramsci uses to understand the formation of the modern bourgeois state in Italy (starting from the facts of the Risorgiment o, which culminated in the national unification, to define the fundamental features of the passage of Italian capitalism to step monopoly capitalism and to point fascism as a form of “passive revolution”. It is from this understanding that we use the concept of “passive revolution” to discuss pratics the principles of environmental justice, given that this concept applies to many episodes of the story, as well as more generally, the transition from the industrial model capitalist development of the capitalist system of sustainable development. It consists in a literature review from the work of Gramsci, where it can be concluded that the movements that call for environmental justice in Brazil and the world, mitigated by civil society through a process of passive revolution, based on the insertion of dignity human and the environment as key goals of the state, propose a new model of sustainable

  18. Beyond Science and Hysteria: Reality and Perceptions of Environmental Justice Concerns Surrounding Marcellus and Utica Shale Gas Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Eisenberg

    2016-01-01

    This Article argues that a nuanced characterization of the HF controversy should include a more robust discussion of both environmental justice and discourse in order to account for the inordinate burden residents of Appalachia have historically borne in fossil fuel production.  Part I examines relevant regional economic and social dynamics, including the natural resource curse, Appalachia’s unique vulnerabilities, efforts to portray opponents of shale gas development as “anti-science,” and the environmental justice movement’s relationship to extractive industries.  Part II reviews the use of modern HF technology and applicable legal frameworks in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and New York.  Part III argues that across Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, environmental justice issues have arisen from shale gas development, including problems stemming from information asymmetries, power asymmetries, and limited access to justice.  In Part IV, the Article argues that the “anti-science” portrayal of shale gas opponents is unjustified, and that such “discourse-framing” obfuscates the actual costs and limitations on benefits of HF use, and thus, becomes an environmental justice issue itself.  Part IV also argues that environmental justice concerns shaped public sentiment in New York, and that the resulting “moral outrage” added to New York’s policy decision to ban HF altogether.  In Part V, the Article suggests that ideas which transcend the study of “moral outrage”/risk assessment and environmental justice advocacy may offer a way forward.

  19. Rough Justice? Exploring the Relationship Between Information Access and Environmental and Ecological Justice Pertaining to Two Controversial Coastal Developments in North-east Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Graeme Baxter

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between information access and environmental and ecological justice through an historical comparison of two controversial coastal developments in Aberdeenshire, North-east Scotland: the building of a North Sea gas reception terminal by the British Gas Council and the French exploration company Total Oil Marine in the 1970s; and the more recent construction of ‘the greatest golf course anywhere in the world’ by the American property tycoon, Donald Trump. Th...

  20. Expanding the role for psychology in addressing environmental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Susan; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Swim, Janet; Bonnes, Mirilia; Steg, Linda; Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Carrico, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    Environmental challenges, though daunting, present an important area for psychologists to apply their knowledge. Psychological theories, research methods, and interventions are essential for examining the questions about human impacts, tendencies, and capacities that are integral to constructing effective responses to these challenges. Although a great deal of relevant research has been done, there is scope for psychologists to be more extensively involved. Following a brief review of existing research, we outline some important new directions. We also highlight 2 key divergences, arguing that psychological research needs to expand beyond a traditional, theory-based and decontextualized approach to environmental issues to incorporate a contextualized or "place-based" approach and a willingness to collaborate in interdisciplinary research teams that focus on specific environmental problems. Suggestions for promoting such interdisciplinary collaborations are reviewed. We encourage psychologists to expand their engagement with important environmental issues through multiple research approaches in order to further their understanding of human behavior, contributions to human well-being, and relevance to other disciplines and to society. PMID:26147395

  1. European Court of Justice finds more possibilities for legal remedy of German environmental associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its ruling of March 12, 2011, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) states that the limitation of legal remedies under German law applying to environmental associations seeking to claim violations of provisions protecting third parties is not in line with EU law. Under EU law, environmental associations may, because of potentially considerable environmental impacts, claim violation of substantive as well as procedural provisions by litigation even if the provision stemming from Union law and seeking to protect the environment 'protects only the interests of the public, not the interests of individuals.' The ECJ had to express an opinion on the reference by the Muenster Higher Court of Administration (OVG) of March 5, 2009 about the question whether German transposition in the Environmental Legal Remedy Act of 2006 is in keeping with Article 10a of the Environmental Impact Assessment Directive of 1985 as amended on March 26, 2003. The point was whether the project in question could give rise to considerable impairment of flora and fauna habitats in the vicinity of the site of a nuclear power plant in the meaning of the EU Habitat Directive. In summary, the ECJ finds that the provisions of the Environmental Legal Remedy Act are not in compliance with EU law. The concise decision by the ECJ relates to areas of fundamental importance in societal and government politics. As laid down in the 2003 Environmental Impact Assessment Directive, the right to bring action of environmental associations is asserted first. Transposition of the Environmental Impact Assessment Directive of 2003 in the Environmental Legal Remedy Act of 2006 had been the subject of several rulings of higher courts of administration and of critical scholarly debates about the legal remedies of environmental associations, expressing concern about the German transposition being in conformity with EU law. As far as German atomic energy law is concerned, it remains to be seen whether environmental

  2. Optimizing available network resources to address questions in environmental biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, Eve-Lyn; Suzanne Andersen,; Baron, Jill S.; Peter Blanken,; Gordon Bonan,; William Bowman,; Sarah Elmendorf,; Fierer, Noah; Andrew Fox,; Keli Goodman,; Katherine Jones,; Danica Lombardozzi,; Claire Lunch,; Jason Neff,; Michael SanClements,; Katherine Suding,; Will Wieder,

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of network observatories have been established globally to collect long-term biogeochemical data at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although many outstanding questions in biogeochemistry would benefit from network science, the ability of the earth- and environmental-sciences community to conduct synthesis studies within and across networks is limited and seldom done satisfactorily. We identify the ideal characteristics of networks, common problems with using data, and key improvements to strengthen intra- and internetwork compatibility. We suggest that targeted improvements to existing networks should include promoting standardization in data collection, developing incentives to promote rapid data release to the public, and increasing the ability of investigators to conduct their own studies across sites. Internetwork efforts should include identifying a standard measurement suite—we propose profiles of plant canopy and soil properties—and an online, searchable data portal that connects network, investigator-led, and citizen-science projects.

  3. Obama address touches on research, energy, and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    President Barack Obama's State of the Union message, delivered on 24 January, touched on the need for basic research, energy production, support for clean energy, and environmental protection, but it included just one passing reference to climate change. In addition, the speech made no note of the Administration's recent denial of a controversial application for the Keystone XL pipeline to transport crude oil from Canada to the United States and made just an elliptical reference regarding the bankrupt Solyndra Corporation, which the administration had touted as a clean energy company. Innovation "demands basic research," Obama said, adding that Congress should not "gut these investments in our budget." Noting that one promise for innovation is American-made energy, Obama said he is directing the administration to "open more than 75% of our potential offshore oil and gas resources."

  4. Acting Globally: Cultivating a thousand community solutions for climate justice

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Di Chiro

    2011-01-01

    Giovanna Di Chiro is Director of Environmental Programs at Nuestras Raíces, Inc. and Research Associate at the Five College Women's Studies Research Center. She has published widely on the intersections of race, gender, and environmental justice with a focus on women's activism and policy change addressing environmental health disparities in lower income communities. She is completing a book Embodied Ecologies: Science, Politics, and Environmental Justice. Her current work examines environmen...

  5. Who benefits from environmental policy? An environmental justice analysis of air quality change in Britain, 2001-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gordon; Norman, Paul; Mullin, Karen

    2015-10-01

    Air quality in Great Britain has improved in recent years, but not enough to prevent the European Commission (EC) taking legal action for non-compliance with limit values. Air quality is a national public health concern, with disease burden associated with current air quality estimated at 29 000 premature deaths per year due to fine particulates, with a further burden due to NO2. National small-area analyses showed that in 2001 poor air quality was much more prevalent in socio-economically deprived areas. We extend this social distribution of air quality analysis to consider how the distribution changed over the following decade (2001-2011), a period when significant efforts to meet EC air quality directive limits have been made, and air quality has improved. We find air quality improvement is greatest in the least deprived areas, whilst the most deprived areas bear a disproportionate and rising share of declining air quality including non-compliance with air quality standards. We discuss the implications for health inequalities, progress towards environmental justice, and compatibility of social justice and environmental sustainability objectives.

  6. [Economic development axis and socioenvironmental conflicts generation in Brazil: challenges to sustainability and environmental justice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo; Milanez, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    The 1st National Environmental Health Conference, in December 2009, presents countless challenges to the field of Public Health. It debates key concepts as development, sustainability, production and consumption processes, democracy and public policies; advocating for innovative, interdisciplinary and intersectorial aspects of Environmental Health. The Conference recovers and articulates important themes for the Public Health, and also indicates the need of reflecting the socio-environmental determinants of health at the present time, in order to provide progresses in the construction of guidelines and actions to health surveillance and promotion. This article discusses the characteristics of the Brazilian model of development, its impacts and conflicts within social, environmental and health fields. We use theoretical and empirical contributions from the fields of Ecological Economy and Political Ecology, as well as, experiences of cooperation with the Brazilian Network on Environmental Justice and several social movements. Two cases are discussed in more detail: the first related to agribusiness and the use of pesticides, and the other about the expansion of the iron and steel industry in Brazil. We conclude proposing some elements that could be incorporated by a research agenda committed to the debate about the 'socioenvironmental crisis'.

  7. Student Empowerment in an Environmental Science Classroom: Toward a Framework for Social Justice Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimick, Alexandra Schindel

    2012-01-01

    Social justice education is undertheorized in science education. Given the wide range of goals and purposes proposed within both social justice education and social justice science education scholarship, these fields require reconciliation. In this paper, I suggest a student empowerment framework for conceptualizing teaching and learning social…

  8. Evaluating stream health based environmental justice model performance at different spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, Fariborz; Nejadhashemi, A. Pouyan; Zhang, Zhen; Herman, Matthew R.; Shortridge, Ashton; Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the effects of spatial resolution on environmental justice analysis concerning stream health. The Saginaw River Basin in Michigan was selected since it is an area of concern in the Great Lakes basin. Three Bayesian Conditional Autoregressive (CAR) models (ordinary regression, weighted regression and spatial) were developed for each stream health measure based on 17 socioeconomic and physiographical variables at three census levels. For all stream health measures, spatial models had better performance compared to the two non-spatial ones at the census tract and block group levels. Meanwhile no spatial dependency was found at the county level. Multilevel Bayesian CAR models were also developed to understand the spatial dependency at the three levels. Results showed that considering level interactions improved models' prediction. Residual plots also showed that models developed at the block group and census tract (in contrary to county level models) are able to capture spatial variations.

  9. Resilient development and environmental justice in divided territory: political ecology in the San Diego-Tijuana bioregion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Haines

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores issues in the expansion of environmental justice rhetoric to the developing world, and propose insights from resilience theory, political ecology, and bioregionalism as supplements. I do this from the frame of the San Diego-Tijuana region, where regional inequalities are stark and global processes have a heavy local footprint. Sharing a broadly-defined natural region, the growing evidence of ecological crisis increasingly calls for collaboration between two communities which often perceive themselves as relatively disconnected. Understanding challenges to social-ecological resilience and environmental justice in the San Diego-Tijuana region, however, also requires understanding it as an inflection point for global economic, military, and human migration flows occurring at many scales. It is in the context of building effective regional collaboration that environmental justice must engage the analyses of scale and political economy contained in political ecology as a challenge. I suggest, however, that any environmental justice discourse informed by political ecology cannot remain abstract from the local context. A “bioregional” community forged around shared ecological systems may serve as an important resource for creating social-ecological resilience in politically divided territory.

  10. The Politics and Reality of Environmental Justice: A History and Considerations for Public Administrators and Policy Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, William M.; Wells, Michael V.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a history of the environmental justice movement in the United States and discusses problems in its discourse. Discusses weak empirical research, failure to recognize the difference between hazard and risk, and the possibility that it is more about fear, blame, and politics than about public health in minority and low-income communities.…

  11. 77 FR 793 - National Environmental Justice Advisory Council; Request for Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... January 25, 2012. ] ADDRESSES: Submit nominations electronically with the subject line NEJAC Membership... individuals for membership. The EPA values and welcomes diversity. In an effort to obtain nominations of... jobs and economic initiatives, energy, and environmental financing. Other criteria used to...

  12. School Locations and Traffic Emissions — Environmental (InJustice Findings Using a New Screening Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philine Gaffron

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the location of schools near heavily trafficked roads can have detrimental effects on the health of children attending those schools. It is therefore desirable to screen both existing school locations and potential new school sites to assess either the need for remedial measures or suitability for the intended use. Current screening tools and public guidance on school siting are either too coarse in their spatial resolution for assessing individual sites or are highly resource intensive in their execution (e.g., through dispersion modeling. We propose a new method to help bridge the gap between these two approaches. Using this method, we also examine the public K-12 schools in the Sacramento Area Council of Governments Region, California (USA from an environmental justice perspective. We find that PM2.5 emissions from road traffic affecting a school site are significantly positively correlated with the following metrics: percent share of Black, Hispanic and multi-ethnic students, percent share of students eligible for subsidized meals. The emissions metric correlates negatively with the schools’ Academic Performance Index, the share of White students and average parental education levels. Our PM2.5 metric also correlates with the traffic related, census tract level screening indicators from the California Communities Environmental Health Screening Tool and the tool’s tract level rate of asthma related emergency department visits.

  13. Can data science inform environmental justice and community risk screening for type 2 diabetes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Allen Davis

    Full Text Available Having the ability to scan the entire country for potential "hotspots" with increased risk of developing chronic diseases due to various environmental, demographic, and genetic susceptibility factors may inform risk management decisions and enable better environmental public health policies.Develop an approach for community-level risk screening focused on identifying potential genetic susceptibility hotpots.Our approach combines analyses of phenotype-genotype data, genetic prevalence of single nucleotide polymorphisms, and census/geographic information to estimate census tract-level population attributable risks among various ethnicities and total population for the state of California.We estimate that the rs13266634 single nucleotide polymorphism, a type 2 diabetes susceptibility genotype, has a genetic prevalence of 56.3%, 47.4% and 37.0% in Mexican Mestizo, Caucasian, and Asian populations. Looking at the top quintile for total population attributable risk, 16 California counties have greater than 25% of their population living in hotspots of genetic susceptibility for developing type 2 diabetes due to this single genotypic susceptibility factor.This study identified counties in California where large portions of the population may bear additional type 2 diabetes risk due to increased genetic prevalence of a susceptibility genotype. This type of screening can easily be extended to include information on environmental contaminants of interest and other related diseases, and potentially enables the rapid identification of potential environmental justice communities. Other potential uses of this approach include problem formulation in support of risk assessments, land use planning, and prioritization of site cleanup and remediation actions.

  14. Spatial patterns of air pollutants and social groups: a distributive environmental justice study in the phoenix metropolitan region of USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Ronald; Wu, Jianguo; Boone, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Quantifying spatial distribution patterns of air pollutants is imperative to understand environmental justice issues. Here we present a landscape-based hierarchical approach in which air pollution variables are regressed against population demographics on multiple spatiotemporal scales. Using this approach, we investigated the potential problem of distributive environmental justice in the Phoenix metropolitan region, focusing on ambient ozone and particulate matter. Pollution surfaces (maps) are evaluated against the demographics of class, age, race (African American, Native American), and ethnicity (Hispanic). A hierarchical multiple regression method is used to detect distributive environmental justice relationships. Our results show that significant relationships exist between the dependent and independent variables, signifying possible environmental inequity. Although changing spatiotemporal scales only altered the overall direction of these relationships in a few instances, it did cause the relationship to become nonsignificant in many cases. Several consistent patterns emerged: people aged 17 and under were significant predictors for ambient ozone and particulate matter, but people 65 and older were only predictors for ambient particulate matter. African Americans were strong predictors for ambient particulate matter, while Native Americans were strong predictors for ambient ozone. Hispanics had a strong negative correlation with ambient ozone, but a less consistent positive relationship with ambient particulate matter. Given the legacy conditions endured by minority racial and ethnic groups, and the relative lack of mobility of all the groups, our findings suggest the existence of environmental inequities in the Phoenix metropolitan region. The methodology developed in this study is generalizable with other pollutants to provide a multi-scaled perspective of environmental justice issues.

  15. Environmental Health Literacy in Support of Social Action: An Environmental JusticePerspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different demographic groups in the U.S. experience unequal exposures to environmental hazards, i.e., 56% of the population in neighborhoods containing commercial waste facilities arc people of color, with the associated poverty rates in those communities being 50% hig...

  16. CALPUFF and CAFOs: Air Pollution Modeling and Environmental Justice Analysis in the North Carolina Hog Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Ogneva-Himmelberger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs produce large amounts of animal waste, which potentially pollutes air, soil and water and affects human health if not appropriately managed. This study uses meteorological and CAFO data and applies an air pollution dispersion model (CALPUFF to estimate ammonia concentrations at locations downwind of hog CAFOs and to evaluate the disproportionate exposure of children, elderly, whites and minorities to the pollutant. Ammonia is one of the gases emitted by swine CAFOs and could affect human health. Local indicator of spatial autocorrelation (LISA analysis uses census block demographic data to identify hot spots where both ammonia concentrations and the number of exposed vulnerable population are high. We limit our analysis to one watershed in North Carolina and compare environmental justice issues between 2000 and 2010. Our results show that the average ammonia concentrations in hot spots for 2000 and 2010 were 2.5–3-times higher than the average concentration in the entire watershed. The number of people living in the areas where ammonia concentrations exceeded the minimal risk level was 3647 people in 2000 and 3360 people in 2010. We recommend using air pollution dispersion models in future environmental justice studies to assess the impacts of the CAFOs and to address concerns regarding the health and quality of life of vulnerable populations.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE MOVEMENTS AND GANDHI’S ECOLOGICAL VISION: A STUDY ON HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATION BY DEVELOPMENTAL PROJECTS IN ODISHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braja Kishore Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The state continues to be the key institution around which struggles for environmental justice in India are articulated. Its dominant role in the economy and its hierarchical, authoritarian and legitimate role as arbiter of rights and resources, the violation of its own environmental laws or acts in ways inimical to environmental justice has been protected by indigenous people. In my paper, I draw on the theme of the protest movements against developmental projects which are rooted in the livelihood and survival of the common people and the violation of human rights. The threats of displacement, loss of livelihood, alienation from their own surroundings are catalysts for this strand of the movement. The indigenous peoples facing threats to their rights, lands and cultures are the major force behind the mobilization against the corporate, government, policies and other forces which threaten them to fragment, displace, assimilate or drive towards cultural disintegration. I describe the main aim of these movements are based around the re-scaling of development projects to the local level, the defense of common property resources and the restoration of participatory, community based forms of environmental management. Based on this perspective, I discuss how the peoples of Odisha protest against developmental projects particularly Neo-Gandhian activists incorporating the political thinking and practice practiced by Gandhiji.This research shows that protest movements against developmental projects in Odisha were by and large successful by incorporating procedural, corrective and social aspects of justice inherent in Gandhian ecological ideas.

  18. 温茨的环境正义理论解析%Analysis of Peter S. Wenz’s Environmental Justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智平

    2012-01-01

    Peter S.Wenz leads the issues of environmental justice though the scarcity of natural resource,and he think the justice of distribution is the essence of environmental justice.This not only points out the relationship between environmental justice and social justice but also highlights that establishing the consciousness of environmental justice in people’s heart is so important for solving the question of environmental justice.Peter S.Wenz hopes for the theory of "concentric circles" to realize the environmental justice.He expects that between the protection of environment and the distribution of natural resource people could form a kind of such consensus: environmental justice can really be stretched and realized only if a net of responsibility is formed between people and people with other natural objects.%温茨从自然资源的稀缺性问题引出环境正义的议题,将环境正义的实质归结为分配正义,不仅揭示了环境正义与社会正义之间的内在关联,而且突出了解决环境正义问题需要树立人类环境正义意识的事实。温茨把实现环境正义的希望寄托于"同心圆"理论,寄希望于人类在环境保护问题上和自然资源分配问题上形成这样一种共识:只有在人与人之间以及人与其他自然物之间结成一张责任之网,环境正义才可能真正得到张扬和实现。

  19. Making the Environmental Justice Grade: The Relative Burden of Air Pollution Exposure in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Paul

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses whether the Clean Air Act and its Amendments have been equally successful in ensuring the right to healthful air quality in both advantaged and disadvantaged communities in the United States. Using a method to rank air quality established by the American Lung Association in its 2009 State of the Air report along with EPA air quality data, we assess the environmental justice dimensions of air pollution exposure and access to air quality information in the United States. We focus on the race, age, and poverty demographics of communities with differing levels of ozone and particulate matter exposure, as well as communities with and without air quality information. Focusing on PM2.5 and ozone, we find that within areas covered by the monitoring networks, non-Hispanic blacks are consistently overrepresented in communities with the poorest air quality. The results for older and younger age as well as poverty vary by the pollution metric under consideration. Rural areas are typically outside the bounds of air quality monitoring networks leaving large segments of the population without information about their ambient air quality. These results suggest that substantial areas of the United States lack monitoring data, and among areas where monitoring data are available, low income and minority communities tend to experience higher ambient pollution levels.

  20. Trees grow on money: urban tree canopy cover and environmental justice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Schwarz

    Full Text Available This study examines the distributional equity of urban tree canopy (UTC cover for Baltimore, MD, Los Angeles, CA, New York, NY, Philadelphia, PA, Raleigh, NC, Sacramento, CA, and Washington, D.C. using high spatial resolution land cover data and census data. Data are analyzed at the Census Block Group levels using Spearman's correlation, ordinary least squares regression (OLS, and a spatial autoregressive model (SAR. Across all cities there is a strong positive correlation between UTC cover and median household income. Negative correlations between race and UTC cover exist in bivariate models for some cities, but they are generally not observed using multivariate regressions that include additional variables on income, education, and housing age. SAR models result in higher r-square values compared to the OLS models across all cities, suggesting that spatial autocorrelation is an important feature of our data. Similarities among cities can be found based on shared characteristics of climate, race/ethnicity, and size. Our findings suggest that a suite of variables, including income, contribute to the distribution of UTC cover. These findings can help target simultaneous strategies for UTC goals and environmental justice concerns.

  1. Making the Environmental Justice Grade: The Relative Burden of Air Pollution Exposure in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Edwards, Sharon E.; Keating, Martha H.; Paul, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses whether the Clean Air Act and its Amendments have been equally successful in ensuring the right to healthful air quality in both advantaged and disadvantaged communities in the United States. Using a method to rank air quality established by the American Lung Association in its 2009 State of the Air report along with EPA air quality data, we assess the environmental justice dimensions of air pollution exposure and access to air quality information in the United States. We focus on the race, age, and poverty demographics of communities with differing levels of ozone and particulate matter exposure, as well as communities with and without air quality information. Focusing on PM2.5 and ozone, we find that within areas covered by the monitoring networks, non-Hispanic blacks are consistently overrepresented in communities with the poorest air quality. The results for older and younger age as well as poverty vary by the pollution metric under consideration. Rural areas are typically outside the bounds of air quality monitoring networks leaving large segments of the population without information about their ambient air quality. These results suggest that substantial areas of the United States lack monitoring data, and among areas where monitoring data are available, low income and minority communities tend to experience higher ambient pollution levels. PMID:21776200

  2. Educational Reflections on the ``Ecological Crisis'': EcoJustice, Environmentalism, and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2009-08-01

    There is a tendency by scholars arguing for a more just and sustainable future to position the “ecological crisis” as a fundamental reason for major educational reforms. Relying on crisis-talk to fuel social and environmental justice and environmentalism reinforces the thinking of the past, which inadvertently perpetuates the acceptance of present cultural attitudes which frame our relationships with others and the natural world. To evaluate previous cultural thinking and associated traditions of Euro-West society, Chet Bowers asserts that we ought to analyze how assumptions are carried forward as metaphors, which are associated with attitudes towards science, technology, and nature. This pedagogy is called ecojustice education and serves to conserve and sustain cultural diversity and the biodiversity of Earth’s ecosystems, which are threatened and vulnerable. But, also carried forward in the language of ecojustice philosophy (and other ecological works) is a presumption that feeds into scientifically proving that a crisis exists, which is associated with organizing schools around an implicit shock doctrine of fear and urgency. This paper explores these assumptions and others associated with a supposition of ecological crisis. The ecological crisis has the potential to marginalize many diverse people who are needed during these times of increasing ecological awareness and uncertainties. Situating education (and the world) in the frenzy associated with crisis, versus the assertion that schools should increase awareness around the belief that a more sustainable lifestyle is beneficial for the individual, the community and the environment is a worthwhile debate and is rich with respect to research opportunities in education.

  3. HEALTH, JUSTICE, AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Resnik, David B.; Roman, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we argue that the scope of bioethical debate concerning justice in health should expand beyond the topic of access to health care and cover such issues as occupational hazards, safe housing, air pollution, water quality, food and drug safety, pest control, public health, childhood nutrition, disaster preparedness, literacy, and many other environmental factors that can cause differences in health. Since society does not have sufficient resources to address all of these enviro...

  4. Environmental Justice and Sustainability Impact Assessment: In Search of Solutions to Ethnic Conflicts Caused by Coal Mining in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese government adopted more specific and stringent environmental impact assessment (EIA guidelines in 2011, soon after the widespread ethnic protests against coal mining in Inner Mongolia. However, our research suggests that the root of the ethnic tension is a sustainability problem, in addition to environmental issues. In particular, the Mongolians do not feel they have benefited from the mining of their resources. Existing environmental assessment tools are inadequate to address sustainability, which is concerned with environmental protection, social justice and economic equity. Thus, it is necessary to develop a sustainability impact assessment (SIA to fill in the gap. SIA would be in theory and practice a better tool than EIA for assessing sustainability impact. However, China’s political system presents a major challenge to promoting social and economic equity. Another practical challenge for SIA is corruption which has been also responsible for the failing of EIA in assessing environmental impacts of coal mining in Inner Mongolia. Under the current political system, China should adopt the SIA while continuing its fight against corruption.

  5. Environmental justice and governance: Theory and lessons from the implementation of the European Union's habitats directive

    OpenAIRE

    Paavola, Jouni

    2003-01-01

    The paper investigates the role of justice in protected areas governance. The paper argues that protected areas governance faces a need to justify itself for the involved and affected interest groups in order to guarantee its legitimacy and effectiveness. The legitimacy of governance solutions is argued to rest on both distributive and procedural justice. On one hand, the distribution of beneficial and adverse consequences of protected areas governance must be justifiable and justified. On th...

  6. Assessing the environmental justice consequences of flood risk: a case study in Miami, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Marilyn C.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2015-09-01

    Recent environmental justice (EJ) research has emphasized the need to analyze social inequities in the distribution of natural hazards such as hurricanes and floods, and examine intra-ethnic diversity in patterns of EJ. This study contributes to the emerging EJ scholarship on exposure to flooding and ethnic heterogeneity by analyzing the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics of the population residing within coastal and inland flood risk zones in the Miami Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), Florida—one of the most ethnically diverse MSAs in the U.S. and one of the most hurricane-prone areas in the world. We examine coastal and inland flood zones separately because of differences in amenities such as water views and beach access. Instead of treating the Hispanic population as a homogenous group, we disaggregate the Hispanic category into relevant country-of-origin subgroups. Inequities in flood risk exposure are statistically analyzed using socio-demographic variables derived from the 2010 U.S. Census and 2007-2011 American Community Survey estimates, and 100-year flood risk zones from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Social vulnerability is represented with two neighborhood deprivation indices called economic insecurity and instability. We also analyze the presence of seasonal/vacation homes and proximity to public beach access sites as water-related amenity variables. Logistic regression modeling is utilized to estimate the odds of neighborhood-level exposure to coastal and inland 100-year flood risks. Results indicate that neighborhoods with greater percentages of non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics, and Hispanic subgroups of Colombians and Puerto Ricans are exposed to inland flood risks in areas without water-related amenities, while Mexicans are inequitably exposed to coastal flood risks. Our findings demonstrate the importance of treating coastal and inland flood risks separately while controlling for water-related amenities, and

  7. 环境保护与世界性的环境正义%Environmental Protection and Globally Environmental Justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文贤庆

    2015-01-01

    Modernization gave rise to global environmental problem. From the point of view of developed countries and regions, the root of environmental problem comes from the problem of population growth which happened in developing countries and regions, the developing countries and regions should be response for the environmental problem primary. In contrast, from the point of view of developing countries and regions, the root of environmental problem derives from inequality of social institution or structure which resulted from developed countries and regions who should undertake the duty for environment more. However, it is hard to resolve the environmental problem if we just blame each other, the most important thing for environmental problem is providing some effective plan. We have reasons to believe that, based on the analysis of two different points of view between developed countries and regions and developing countries and regions, a kind of capability approach can give us a theory of global environmental justice with multiple-dimension and multiple-level if we focus on human being ' s fully prosperity.%现代性发展带来了全球性的环境问题。面对全球性的环境问题,发达国家或地区的人们认为环境问题主要是由于发展中国家或地区急剧膨胀的人口增长所导致的,他们对环境问题具有不可推卸的主要责任。与此相对,发展中国家或地区的人们认为环境问题在根本上是源于以发达国家或地区为首设置的不平等社会制度或结构问题所导致的。然而,归责并不能解决问题,面对全球性的环境问题,提出解决问题的实际方案才是第一要务。我们有理由相信,基于对发达国家或地区和发达中国家或地区的两种不同视角的分析,当我们把人类整体的繁荣昌盛作为思考问题的起点时,一种能力方法理论可以支持我们提出一种多维度、多层次的全球性环境正义理论。

  8. Risk perceptions, general environmental beliefs, and willingness to address climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research reported here examines the relationship between risk perceptions and willingness to address climate change. The data are a national sample of 1,225 mail surveys that include measures of risk perceptions and knowledge tied to climate change, support for voluntary and government actions to address the problem, general environmental beliefs, and demographic variables. Risk perceptions matter in predicting behavior intentions. Risk perceptions are not a surrogate for general environmental beliefs, but have their own power to account for behavioral intentions. There are four secondary conclusions. First, behavioral intentions regarding climate change are complex and intriguing. People are neither nonbelievers who will take no initiatives themselves and oppose all government efforts, nor are they believers who promise both to make personal efforts and to vote for every government proposal that promises to address climate change. Second, there are separate demographic sources for voluntary actions compared with voting intentions. Third, recognizing the causes of global warming is a powerful predictor of behavioral intentions independent from believing that climate change will happen and have bad consequences. Finally, the success of the risk perception variables to account for behavioral intentions should encourage greater attention to risk perceptions as independent variables. Risk perceptions and knowledge, however, share the stage with general environmental beliefs and demographic characteristics. Although related, risk perceptions, knowledge, and general environmental beliefs are somewhat independent predictors of behavioral intentions

  9. 25 CFR 224.102 - Must a tribe establish a comment or hearing process for addressing environmental concerns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... addressing environmental concerns? 224.102 Section 224.102 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... or hearing process for addressing environmental concerns? Yes. The Act (25 U.S.C. 3504(e)(2)(C)(iii... establish an environmental review process under a TERA that: (a) Ensures that the public is notified...

  10. Is Restorative Justice for Sexual Crime Compatible with Various Criminal Justice Systems?

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce-Wojtas, Niamh; Keenan, Marie

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for restorative justice as another method of addressing sexual crime. An analysis of the limits of the criminal justice system and the need for restorative justice in the contentious area of sexual crime will be followed by a detailed examination of key justice considerations when trying to marry both criminal justice and restorative justice perspectives. Such considerations include: the meaning of justice; legislation; sentencing principles; due process; victims' rights; and ...

  11. Energy Sustainability: A Key Toto Addressing Environmental, Economic and Societal Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a critically important goal for human activity and development, particularly in the area of energy. Energy resources are critical for economic development and living standards, but their use causes significant environmental impacts. Given the pervasiveness of energy use, energy sustainability is a key to addressing environmental, economic and societal challenges. To achieve energy sustainability, many factors that need to be including harnessing sustainable energy sources, utilizing sustainable energy carriers, increasing efficiency, reducing environmental impact and improving socioeconomic acceptability (e.g., community involvement, affordability, equity and land use. To demonstrate the factors and their importance to energy sustainability, the Red-Mediterranean-Dead Seas Canal Project is considered as a case study. Conclusions are provided related both to steps for energy sustainability.

  12. Environmental Remediation to Address Childhood Lead Poisoning Epidemic due to Artisanal Gold Mining in Zamfara, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirima, Simba; Bartrem, Casey; von Lindern, Ian; von Braun, Margrit; Lind, Douglas; Anka, Shehu Mohammed; Abdullahi, Aishat

    2016-01-01

    Background: From 2010 through 2013, integrated health and environmental responses addressed an unprecedented epidemic lead poisoning in Zamfara State, northern Nigeria. Artisanal gold mining caused widespread contamination resulting in the deaths of > 400 children. Socioeconomic, logistic, and security challenges required remediation and medical protocols within the context of local resources, labor practices, and cultural traditions. Objectives: Our aim was to implement emergency environmental remediation to abate exposures to 17,000 lead poisoned villagers, to facilitate chelation treatment of children ≤ 5 years old, and to establish local technical capacity and lead health advocacy programs to prevent future disasters. Methods: U.S. hazardous waste removal protocols were modified to accommodate local agricultural practices. Remediation was conducted over 4 years in three phases, progressing from an emergency response by international personnel to comprehensive cleanup funded and accomplished by the Nigerian government. Results: More than 27,000 m3 of contaminated soils and mining waste were removed from 820 residences and ore processing areas in eight villages, largely by hand labor, and disposed in constructed landfills. Excavated areas were capped with clean soils (≤ 25 mg/kg lead), decreasing soil lead concentrations by 89%, and 2,349 children received chelation treatment. Pre-chelation geometric mean blood lead levels for children ≤ 5 years old decreased from 149 μg/dL to 15 μg/dL over the 4-year remedial program. Conclusions: The unprecedented outbreak and response demonstrate that, given sufficient political will and modest investment, the world’s most challenging environmental health crises can be addressed by adapting proven response protocols to the capabilities of host countries. Citation: Tirima S, Bartrem C, von Lindern I, von Braun M, Lind D, Anka SM, Abdullahi A. 2016. Environmental remediation to address childhood lead poisoning epidemic

  13. 75 FR 23253 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Central Palm...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    .... ADDRESSES: The public scoping workshop will be held at the Town of South Palm Beach Town Hall, 3577 South... quality, biological resources, cultural resources, cumulative impacts, environmental justice,...

  14. Addressing the Needs of the Criminal Defendant with Mental Retardation: The Special Educator as a Resource to the Criminal Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everington, Caroline; Luckasson, Ruth

    1989-01-01

    The expertise of special educators can aid in providing justice for criminal defendants with mental retardation in such areas as identification of mental retardation, evaluations and habilitation concerning competence to stand trial or enter plea agreements, and provision of services to defendants in corrections programs. (Author/DB)

  15. Finding Common Ground: Environmental Ethics, Social Justice, and a Sustainable Path for Nature-Based Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Viniece; Yun, Jessica; Larson, Lincoln

    2016-01-01

    Decades of research have documented continuous tension between anthropocentric needs and the environment's capacity to accommodate those needs and support basic human welfare. The way in which society perceives, manages, and ultimately utilizes natural resources can be influenced by underlying environmental ethics, or the moral relationship that humans share with the natural world. This discourse often centers on the complex interplay between the tangible and intangible benefits associated with nonhuman nature (e.g., green space), both of which are relevant to public health. When ecosystem degradation is coupled with socio-demographic transitions, additional concerns related to distributional equity and justice can arise. In this commentary, we explore how environmental ethics can inform the connection between the ecosystem services from green space and socially just strategies of health promotion. PMID:27571114

  16. Finding Common Ground: Environmental Ethics, Social Justice, and a Sustainable Path for Nature-Based Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Viniece; Yun, Jessica; Larson, Lincoln

    2016-01-01

    Decades of research have documented continuous tension between anthropocentric needs and the environment’s capacity to accommodate those needs and support basic human welfare. The way in which society perceives, manages, and ultimately utilizes natural resources can be influenced by underlying environmental ethics, or the moral relationship that humans share with the natural world. This discourse often centers on the complex interplay between the tangible and intangible benefits associated with nonhuman nature (e.g., green space), both of which are relevant to public health. When ecosystem degradation is coupled with socio-demographic transitions, additional concerns related to distributional equity and justice can arise. In this commentary, we explore how environmental ethics can inform the connection between the ecosystem services from green space and socially just strategies of health promotion. PMID:27571114

  17. Asthma and air pollution in the Bronx: methodological and data considerations in using GIS for environmental justice and health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maantay, Juliana

    2007-03-01

    This paper examines methods of environmental justice assessment with Geographic Information Systems, using research on the spatial correspondence between asthma and air pollution in the Bronx, New York City as a case study. Issues of spatial extent and resolution, the selection of environmental burdens to analyze, data and methodological limitations, and different approaches to delineating exposure are discussed in the context of the asthma study, which, through proximity analysis, found that people living near (within specified distance buffers) noxious land uses were up to 66 percent more likely to be hospitalized for asthma, and were 30 percent more likely to be poor and 13 percent more likely to be a minority than those outside the buffers.

  18. Addressing Emerging Risks: Scientific and Regulatory Challenges Associated with Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Tammy R.; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Cormier, Stephania A.; Dellinger, Barry; Reams, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) are often generated through widely-used thermal processes such as the combustion of fuels or the thermal decomposition of waste. Residents near Superfund sites are exposed to PM through the inhalation of windblown dust, ingestion of soil and sediments, and inhalation of emissions from the on-site thermal treatment of contaminated soils. Epidemiological evidence supports a link between exposure to airborne PM and an increased risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. It is well-known that during combustion processes, incomplete combustion can lead to the production of organic pollutants that can adsorb to the surface of PM. Recent studies have demonstrated that their interaction with metal centers can lead to the generation of a surface stabilized metal-radical complex capable of redox cycling to produce ROS. Moreover, these free radicals can persist in the environment, hence their designation as Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFR). EPFR has been demonstrated in both ambient air PM2.5 (diameter < 2.5 µm) and in PM from a variety of combustion sources. Thus, low-temperature, thermal treatment of soils can potentially increase the concentration of EPFR in areas in and around Superfund sites. In this review, we will outline the evidence to date supporting EPFR formation and its environmental significance. Furthermore, we will address the lack of methodologies for specifically addressing its risk assessment and challenges associated with regulating this new, emerging contaminant. PMID:27338429

  19. Addressing Emerging Risks: Scientific and Regulatory Challenges Associated with Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Tammy R; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Cormier, Stephania A; Dellinger, Barry; Reams, Margaret

    2016-06-08

    Airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) are often generated through widely-used thermal processes such as the combustion of fuels or the thermal decomposition of waste. Residents near Superfund sites are exposed to PM through the inhalation of windblown dust, ingestion of soil and sediments, and inhalation of emissions from the on-site thermal treatment of contaminated soils. Epidemiological evidence supports a link between exposure to airborne PM and an increased risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. It is well-known that during combustion processes, incomplete combustion can lead to the production of organic pollutants that can adsorb to the surface of PM. Recent studies have demonstrated that their interaction with metal centers can lead to the generation of a surface stabilized metal-radical complex capable of redox cycling to produce ROS. Moreover, these free radicals can persist in the environment, hence their designation as Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFR). EPFR has been demonstrated in both ambient air PM2.5 (diameter < 2.5 µm) and in PM from a variety of combustion sources. Thus, low-temperature, thermal treatment of soils can potentially increase the concentration of EPFR in areas in and around Superfund sites. In this review, we will outline the evidence to date supporting EPFR formation and its environmental significance. Furthermore, we will address the lack of methodologies for specifically addressing its risk assessment and challenges associated with regulating this new, emerging contaminant.

  20. Addressing China's grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-02-01

    China's increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies.

  1. Addressing China's grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-02-01

    China's increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies. PMID:26601127

  2. COOP+ project: Promoting the cooperation among international Research Infrastructures to address global environmental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet-García, Francisco; Materia, Paola; Kutsch, Werner; de Lucas, Jesús Marco; Tjulin, Anders

    2016-04-01

    During the Anthropocene, mankind will face several global environmental challenges. One of the first and more successful responses provided by Science to these challenges is the collecting of long-term series of biophysical variables in order to improve our knowledge of natural systems. The huge amount of information gathered during the last decades by Research Infrastructures (RIs) has helped to understand the structure and functioning of natural systems at local and regional scales. But how can we address the global cross-scale and cross-disciplinary challenges posed by the global environment change? We believe that it will be necessary to observe, model better and understand the whole biosphere using long term data generated by international RIs. RIs play a key role on many of the last advances and discoveries in science, from the observation of the Higgs Boson at CERN to the exploration of the Universe by the telescopes of the European Southern Observatory in Chile. The scale of complexity, instrumentation, computing resources, technological advances, and also of the investments, and the size of research collaborations, do not have precedents in Science. RIs in environmental field are developing fast, but the corresponding communities need yet to further reflect the need for a wider global collaboration because the challenges to tackle are in essence of global nature. This contribution describes how COOP+ project (EU Horizon 2020 Coordination and Support Action) will promote the cooperation among RIs at a global scale to address global environmental challenges. Our project evolves from the experience of the sucessful FP7 COOPEUS project (see http://www.coopeus.eu), which explored the use and access to data from RIs in environmental research in Europe and USA. The general goal of COOP+ is to strengthen the links and coordination of the ESFRI RIs related to Marine Science (EMSO), Arctic and Atmospheric Research (EISCAT), Carbon Observation (ICOS) and Biodiversity

  3. Which came first, people or pollution? A review of theory and evidence from longitudinal environmental justice studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A considerable number of quantitative analyses have been conducted in the past several decades that demonstrate the existence of racial and socioeconomic disparities in the distribution of a wide variety of environmental hazards. The vast majority of these have been cross-sectional, snapshot studies employing data on hazardous facilities and population characteristics at only one point in time. Although some limited hypotheses can be tested with cross-sectional data, fully understanding how present-day disparities come about requires longitudinal analyses that examine the demographic characteristics of sites at the time of facility siting and track demographic changes after siting. Relatively few such studies exist and those that do exist have often led to confusing and contradictory findings. In this paper we review the theoretical arguments, methods, findings, and conclusions drawn from existing longitudinal environmental justice studies. Our goal is to make sense of this literature and to identify the direction future research should take in order to resolve confusion and arrive at a clearer understanding of the processes and contributory factors by which present-day racial and socioeconomic disparities in the distribution of environmental hazards have come about. Such understandings also serve as an important step in identifying appropriate and effective societal responses to ameliorate environmental disparities. (paper)

  4. Which came first, people or pollution? A review of theory and evidence from longitudinal environmental justice studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohai, Paul; Saha, Robin

    2015-12-01

    A considerable number of quantitative analyses have been conducted in the past several decades that demonstrate the existence of racial and socioeconomic disparities in the distribution of a wide variety of environmental hazards. The vast majority of these have been cross-sectional, snapshot studies employing data on hazardous facilities and population characteristics at only one point in time. Although some limited hypotheses can be tested with cross-sectional data, fully understanding how present-day disparities come about requires longitudinal analyses that examine the demographic characteristics of sites at the time of facility siting and track demographic changes after siting. Relatively few such studies exist and those that do exist have often led to confusing and contradictory findings. In this paper we review the theoretical arguments, methods, findings, and conclusions drawn from existing longitudinal environmental justice studies. Our goal is to make sense of this literature and to identify the direction future research should take in order to resolve confusion and arrive at a clearer understanding of the processes and contributory factors by which present-day racial and socioeconomic disparities in the distribution of environmental hazards have come about. Such understandings also serve as an important step in identifying appropriate and effective societal responses to ameliorate environmental disparities.

  5. Does operational oceanography address the needs of fisheries and applied environmental scientists?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berx, B.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Skogen, M.D.;

    2011-01-01

    whether recent developments in operational oceanographic products are addressing these needs. The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) Working Group on Operational Oceanographic products for Fisheries and Environment (WGOOFE) identified a potential mismatch between user requirements......Although many oceanographic data products are now considered operational, continued dialogue between data producers and their user communities is still needed. The fisheries and environmental science communities have often been criticized for their lack of multidisciplinarity, and it is not clear...... products with monthly or annual resolution and updating on similar time scales. A significant percentage requested access to numerical data rather than graphical output. While the outcomes of this survey challenge our views of operational oceanography, several initiatives are already attempting to close...

  6. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Identify Environmental Justice Issues in an Inner-City Community and Inform Urban Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansyur, Carol Leler; Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Holloman, Erica; DeBrew, Linwood

    2016-01-01

    The Southeast CARE Coalition has been using community-based participatory research to examine environmental degradation in the Southeast Community, Newport News, Virginia. A survey was developed to collect assessment data. Up to 66% of respondents were concerned about environmental problems in their community. Those with health conditions were significantly more likely to identify specific environmental problems. The top 5 environmental concerns included coal dust, air quality, crime, water quality, and trash. The community-based participatory research process is building community capacity and participation, providing community input into strategic planning, and empowering community members to take control of environmental justice issues in their community. PMID:27214672

  7. Justiça Ambiental: uma abordagem ecossocial em saúde Justicia Ambiental: un abordaje eco-social en salud Environmental Justice: an ecossocial health approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Habermann

    2008-12-01

    .The paper addresses the risk of contemporary technologies in the light of our current technological paradigm, its perception and tolerability, as well as its unequal distribution across society. The fundamental hypothesis, which emphasizes Environmental Justice, refers to hazards that are disproportionately or unjustly distributed across more socially and economically vulnerable groups, which are generally the poor and the minorities affected by the environmental risks posed by modernity. Therefore, vulnerability and the different levels of deprivation act as drivers of the different levels of health across population groups. Although Environmental Justice has initially been observed as a grassroots movement in the United States, its principles showed compatibility with global and local geographical scales. Therefore, the aim of the study was to understand how the risks of contemporary technologies unequally affect the population under the perspective of Environmental Justice.

  8. Linear mixed model for heritability estimation that explicitly addresses environmental variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckerman, David; Gurdasani, Deepti; Kadie, Carl; Pomilla, Cristina; Carstensen, Tommy; Martin, Hilary; Ekoru, Kenneth; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Ssenyomo, Gerald; Kamali, Anatoli; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Widmer, Christian; Sandhu, Manjinder S

    2016-07-01

    The linear mixed model (LMM) is now routinely used to estimate heritability. Unfortunately, as we demonstrate, LMM estimates of heritability can be inflated when using a standard model. To help reduce this inflation, we used a more general LMM with two random effects-one based on genomic variants and one based on easily measured spatial location as a proxy for environmental effects. We investigated this approach with simulated data and with data from a Uganda cohort of 4,778 individuals for 34 phenotypes including anthropometric indices, blood factors, glycemic control, blood pressure, lipid tests, and liver function tests. For the genomic random effect, we used identity-by-descent estimates from accurately phased genome-wide data. For the environmental random effect, we constructed a covariance matrix based on a Gaussian radial basis function. Across the simulated and Ugandan data, narrow-sense heritability estimates were lower using the more general model. Thus, our approach addresses, in part, the issue of "missing heritability" in the sense that much of the heritability previously thought to be missing was fictional. Software is available at https://github.com/MicrosoftGenomics/FaST-LMM. PMID:27382152

  9. 78 FR 47696 - National Environmental Justice Advisory Council; Notification of Public Meeting and Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ...-English speaking attendees wishing to arrange for a foreign language interpreter may make appropriate..., and Indigenous Peoples; and (3) EPA's draft technical guidance on incorporating environmental...

  10. 77 FR 1079 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement To Address Grazing Permit Renewals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ..., fishing, hunting, and off-road vehicle use; wild horse management; potential wind energy development and... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement To Address... Field Office in Marsing, Idaho intends to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS), and by...

  11. Spatial Climate Justice and Green Infrastructure Assessment: A case study for the Huron River watershed, Michigan, USA. GI_Forum|GI_Forum 2016, Volume 1 – open:spatial:interfaces|

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chingwen

    2016-01-01

    Green infrastructure serves as a critical no-regret strategy to address climate change mitigation and adaptation in climate action plans. Climate justice refers to the distribution of climate change-induced environmental hazards (e.g., increased frequency and intensity of floods) among socially vulnerable groups. Yet no index has addressed both climate justice and green infrastructure planning jointly in the USA. This paper proposes a spatial climate justice and green infrastructure assessmen...

  12. Hip-Hop, Social Justice, and Environmental Education: Toward a Critical Ecological Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This essay describes an educational initiative that used environmentally themed (green) hip-hop to stimulate learning in an environmental science classroom. Students were then challenged to compose their own green hip-hop and their lyrics demonstrated skills that have thematic consistency around what is called a Critical Ecological Literacy (CEL).…

  13. Advancing the Boundaries of Urban Environmental Education through the Food Justice Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosley, Katie Lynn

    2013-01-01

    As cities and urban areas increasingly become the locus for contemporary society, there is a growing necessity for environmental education to adapt to meet the challenges and needs of an urbanized world. A key part of this adaptation means acknowledging the nuanced legacy of environmental and social injustices involved in the growth and…

  14. Ten Years of Addressing Children’s Health through Regulatory Policy at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    OpenAIRE

    Payne-Sturges, Devon; Kemp, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Background Executive Order (EO) 13045, Protection of Children From Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks, directs each federal agency to ensure that its policies, programs, activities, and standards address disproportionate environmental health and safety risks to children. Objectives We reviewed regulatory actions published by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the Federal Register from April 1998 through December 2006 to evaluate applicability of EO 13045 to U.S. EPA action...

  15. Environmental Justice Aspects of Exposure to PM2.5 Emissions from Electric Vehicle Use in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shuguang; Cherry, Christopher R; Zhou, Wenjun; Sawhney, Rapinder; Wu, Ye; Cai, Siyi; Wang, Shuxiao; Marshall, Julian D

    2015-12-15

    Plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) in China aim to improve sustainability and reduce environmental health impacts of transport emissions. Urban use of EVs rather than conventional vehicles shifts transportation's air pollutant emissions from urban areas (tailpipes) to predominantly rural areas (power plants), changing the geographic distribution of health impacts. We model PM2.5-related health impacts attributable to urban EV use for 34 major cities. Our investigation focuses on environmental justice (EJ) by comparing pollutant inhalation versus income among impacted counties. We find that EVs could increase EJ challenge in China: most (~77%, range: 41-96%) emission inhalation attributable to urban EVs use is distributed to predominately rural communities whose incomes are on average lower than the cities where EVs are used. Results vary dramatically across cities depending on urban income and geography. Discriminant analysis reveals that counties with low income and high inhalation of urban EV emissions have comparatively higher agricultural employment rates, higher mortality rates, more children in the population, and lower education levels. We find that low-emission electricity sources such as renewable energy can help mitigate EJ issues raised here. Findings here are not unique to EVs, but instead are relevant for nearly all electricity-consuming technologies in urban areas. PMID:26509330

  16. Policy approaches to address the social and environmental determinants of health inequity in Asia-pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Loring, Belinda; Aungkasuvapala, Narongsakdi; Baum, Fran; Blaiklock, Alison; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Cho, Youngtae; Dakulala, Paison; Guo, Yan; Hashimoto, Hideki; Horton, Kellie; Jayasinghe, Saroj; Matheson, Don; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Otto, Caleb; Rao, Mala; Reid, Paaparangi; Surjadi, Charles

    2012-11-01

    Asia Pacific is home to over 60% of the world's population and the fastest growing economies. Many of the leadership in the Asia Pacific region is becoming increasingly aware that improving the conditions for health would go a long way to sustaining economic prosperity in the region, as well as improving global and local health equity. There is no biological reason why males born in Cambodia can expect to live 23 years less than males born in Japan, or why females born in Tuvalu live 23 years shorter than females in New Zealand or why non-Indigenous Australian males live 12 years longer than Indigenous men. The nature and drivers of health inequities vary greatly among different social, cultural and geo-political contexts and effective solutions must take this into account. This paper utilizes the CSDH global recommendations as a basis for looking at the actions that are taking place to address the structural drivers and conditions of daily living that affect health inequities in the Asia Pacific context. While there are signs of action and hope, substantial challenges remain for health equity in Asia Pacific. The gains that have been made to date are not equally distributed and may be unsustainable as the world encounters new economic, social and environmental challenges. Tackling health inequities is a political imperative that requires leadership, political courage, social action, a sound evidence base and progressive public policy. PMID:23070757

  17. 78 FR 27220 - EPA Activities To Promote Environmental Justice in the Permit Application Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ..., among other things. This ethic of corporate responsibility can improve the neighboring environment and... positive environmental, health, economic, or social conditions within these populations or communities. EPA... the business community, state, local and tribal governments and communities,...

  18. The usable past and socio-environmental justice: From Lady Selborne to Ga-Rankuwa.

    OpenAIRE

    Kgari-Masondo, Maserole Christina

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a case study in forced removals and their ramifications from 1905 to 1977 from the perspective of socio-environmental history. It depicts environmental damages and misunderstandings suffered due to forced removals from Pretoria in a location called Lady Selborne (currently known as Suiderberg) and Ga-Rankuwa where some of the displaced were relocated. The article demonstrates that forced removals did not only result in people losing their historical lan...

  19. Pigs in Space: Determining the Environmental Justice Landscape of Swine Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Margaret; Young, Sean G; Tate, Eric

    2016-08-25

    Given the primacy of Iowa in pork production for the U.S. and global markets, we sought to understand if the same relationship with traditional environmental justice (EJ) variables such as low income and minority populations observed in other concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) studies exists in the relationship with swine CAFO densities in Iowa. We examined the potential for spatial clustering of swine CAFOs in certain parts of the state and used spatial regression techniques to determine the relationships of high swine concentrations to these EJ variables. We found that while swine CAFOs do cluster in certain regions and watersheds of Iowa, these high densities of swine are not associated with traditional EJ populations of low income and minority race/ethnicity. Instead, the potential for environmental injustice in the negative impacts of intensive swine production require a more complex appraisal. The clustering of swine production in watersheds, the presence of antibiotics used in swine production in public waterways, the clustering of manure spills, and other findings suggest that a more literal and figurative "downstream" approach is necessary. We document the presence and location of antibiotics used in animal production in the public waterways of the state. At the same time, we suggest a more "upstream" understanding of the structural, political and economic factors that create an environmentally unjust landscape of swine production in Iowa and the Upper Midwest is also crucial. Finally, we highlight the important role of publicly accessible and high quality data in the analysis of these upstream and downstream EJ questions.

  20. Pigs in Space: Determining the Environmental Justice Landscape of Swine Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Margaret; Young, Sean G; Tate, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Given the primacy of Iowa in pork production for the U.S. and global markets, we sought to understand if the same relationship with traditional environmental justice (EJ) variables such as low income and minority populations observed in other concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) studies exists in the relationship with swine CAFO densities in Iowa. We examined the potential for spatial clustering of swine CAFOs in certain parts of the state and used spatial regression techniques to determine the relationships of high swine concentrations to these EJ variables. We found that while swine CAFOs do cluster in certain regions and watersheds of Iowa, these high densities of swine are not associated with traditional EJ populations of low income and minority race/ethnicity. Instead, the potential for environmental injustice in the negative impacts of intensive swine production require a more complex appraisal. The clustering of swine production in watersheds, the presence of antibiotics used in swine production in public waterways, the clustering of manure spills, and other findings suggest that a more literal and figurative "downstream" approach is necessary. We document the presence and location of antibiotics used in animal production in the public waterways of the state. At the same time, we suggest a more "upstream" understanding of the structural, political and economic factors that create an environmentally unjust landscape of swine production in Iowa and the Upper Midwest is also crucial. Finally, we highlight the important role of publicly accessible and high quality data in the analysis of these upstream and downstream EJ questions. PMID:27571091

  1. 76 FR 8366 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations; SAB Environmental Justice Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... possible service on this expert ad hoc Panel. Nominations should be submitted in electronic format (which...; the nominee's curriculum vita; sources of recent grant and/or contract support; and a biographical...: Overview of the Panel Formation Process at the Environmental Protection Agency Science Advisory Board...

  2. 77 FR 38051 - EPA Activities To Promote Environmental Justice in the Permit Application Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... customers, shareholders, employees and communities. In short, a corporate culture is emerging in this Nation... develop cleaner products, among other things. This ethic of corporate responsibility--more than any permit... community is another facet of responsible corporate citizenship that achieves environmental results....

  3. The Role of Cumulative Risk Assessment in Decisions about Environmental Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Sexton; Linder, Stephen H.

    2010-01-01

    There is strong presumptive evidence that people living in poverty and certain racial and ethnic groups bear a disproportionate burden of environmental health risk. Many have argued that conducting formal assessments of the health risk experienced by affected communities is both unnecessary and counterproductive—that instead of analyzing the situation our efforts should be devoted to fixing obvious problems and rectifying observable wrongs. We contend that formal assessment of cumulative heal...

  4. Green new deal and the question of environmental and social justice

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The financial and economic crisis was preceded by an energy, food and climate crisis. Until 2008, prices for oil, food and various minerals were increasing due to accelerating scarcity in peak capitalism. With the outbreak of the financial turbulences, the environmental problems shifted somewhat to the background, but various academics and policy makers emphasized the multiple nature of the current crisis. A number or organizations, subsequently, called for the adoption of a Green New Deal to...

  5. Doing Justice to Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Colish

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional role of justice is to arbitrate where the good will of people is not enough, if even present, to settle a dispute between the concerned parties. It is a procedural approach that assumes a fractured relationship between those involved. Recognition, at first glance, would not seem to mirror these aspects of justice. Yet recognition is very much a subject of justice these days. The aim of this paper is to question the applicability of justice to the practice of recognition. The methodological orientation of this paper is a Kantian-style critique of the institution of justice, highlighting the limits of its reach and the dangers of overextension. The critique unfolds in the following three steps: 1 There is an immediate appeal to justice as a practice of recognition through its commitment to universality. This allure is shown to be deceptive in providing no prescription for the actual practice of this universality. 2 The interventionist character of justice is designed to address divided relationships. If recognition is only given expression through this channel, then we can only assume division as our starting ground. 3 The outcome of justice in respect to recognition is identification. This identification is left vulnerable to misrecognition itself, creating a cycle of injustice that demands recognition from anew. It seems to be well accepted that recognition is essentjustice, but less clear how to do justice to recognition. This paper is an effort in clarification. Le rôle traditionnel de la justice est celui d’arbitrer des situations où la bonne volonté ne suffit pas à régler un différend entre les parties concernées. Il s'agit d'une approche procédurale qui suppose une relation brisée entre les personnes impliquées. La reconnaissance, à première vue, ne semble pas refléter ces caractéristiques de la justice. Pourtant, elle est souvent présentée comme rétablissant une justice entre les parties concernés. Le

  6. Educational Administration and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Richard

    2006-01-01

    After observing that texts in educational administration have largely failed to address the problem of the justice and fairness of social and educational arrangements, this article goes on to examine the necessary relationships between ethical leadership, community and the notion of social justice. Such relationships are argued to be necessarily…

  7. Political ecology and environmental justice analysis of information and communication technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Wang-Jin

    There has been rapid growth in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) development during the last decades. Worldwide PC numbers will rise to 2 billion by 2015, with more than 1 billion in use by the end of 2008. Over 4 billion subscribers use mobile cellular telephones, translating into a worldwide penetration rate of 61 percent by the end of 2008. Analyses have shown evidence that ICT has significantly contributed to capitalist growth economy. Regarding the environmental impacts of ICT, optimists hail a rosy future of a weightless knowledge economy, critics, however, point out that ICT also threatens environment through reinforcing capitalist growth economy and accelerating commodification of nature. Although some case studies have shown the potential environmental benefits through ICT application, these approaches need to be balanced against a range of countervailing effects, including negative direct impacts of ICT manufacture, use, and disposal, effects of incomplete substitution of ICT for existing services, and rebound effects. In addition, the migration of ICT, which includes not only manufacturing facilities of ICT devices, but electronic wastes, coincides with the distribution of environmental and social problems of high technology. Examples of how ICT reinforces economic growth, and at the same time, results in environmental problems are evident in a Korean context. Since the middle of the 1990s, the ICT industry has been a new growth driver in the Korean economy, and has played a critical role in restoring economic activity after the financial crisis in 1997. Due to the rapid diffusion of ICT products and a market trend that makes the life span of the products become shorter, the amount of e-waste has drastically increased in Korea. However, society's concern over environmental problems caused by ICT is at a rudimentary stage in Korea. Although Korea has established the EPR program to manage the e-waste problem, limited scope of e-waste items for

  8. Transitional Justice versus Traditional Justice: The Basque Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joxerramon Bengoextea

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Transitional justice is often understood as a field or toolkit that facilitates the establishment of "justice" and rule of law in post-conflict societies. It is also the interdisciplinary understanding and study of that toolkit or field. This article explores to what extent transitional justice is a relevant way of understanding the transformations taking place in the Basque Country in the post-conflict situation created since the final ceasefire was declared by ETA on October 20, 2011. The article analyses different aspects of the field of transitional justice and the experience in Spain and the Basque Country. It underlines the prevalence of truth-seeking processes (over amnesia and of addressing violations and victims' suffering to conclude with the need to enhance the rule of law and traditional-individualised-justice and transitional justice.

  9. Prioritizing Rights in the Social Justice Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James Scott

    2009-01-01

    The biggest problem facing schools having social justice curricula, beyond implementation of a programme, I claim, is the problem of "justification": what grounds what in social justice and how do we make this manifest to ourselves and to the curricula? If we cannot address this, then social justice curricula are doomed to begging the question. I…

  10. Issues and options in addressing the environmental consequences of the livestock sector's growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.J.; Vellinga, Th.V.; Steinfeld, H.

    2010-01-01

    The growth of the livestock sector is being achieved at substantial environmental costs. Today, livestock are a major stressor of the global environmental, occupying a quarter of emerged land (including a third of arable land), contributing close to a fifth of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissi

  11. Issue-Specific Barriers to Addressing Environmental Issues in the Classroom: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chankook; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    2006-01-01

    To explore issue-specific barriers to teaching environmental issues, the authors investigated secondary science teachers' perceived current and preferred teaching levels for 23 environmental issues and perceived barriers to teaching the selected issues. Subjects in this graduate project were 41 secondary science teachers self-selected to answer a…

  12. Participatory testing and reporting in an environmental-justice community of Worcester, Massachusetts: a pilot project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvache Maria-Camila

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite indoor home environments being where people spend most time, involving residents in testing those environments has been very limited, especially in marginalized communities. We piloted participatory testing and reporting that combined relatively simple tests with actionable reporting to empower residents in Main South/Piedmont neighborhoods of Worcester, Massachusetts. We answered: 1 How do we design and implement the approach for neighborhood and household environments using participatory methods? 2 What do pilot tests reveal? 3 How does our experience inform testing practice? Methods The approach was designed and implemented with community partners using community-based participatory research. Residents and researchers tested fourteen homes for: lead in dust indoors, soil outdoors, paint indoors and drinking water; radon in basement air; PM2.5 in indoor air; mold spores in indoor/outdoor air; and drinking water quality. Monitoring of neighborhood particulates by residents and researchers used real-time data to stimulate dialogue. Results Given the newness of our partnership and unforeseen conflicts, we achieved moderate-high success overall based on process and outcome criteria: methods, test results, reporting, lessons learned. The conflict burden we experienced may be attributable less to generic university-community differences in interests/culture, and more to territoriality and interpersonal issues. Lead-in-paint touch-swab results were poor proxies for lead-in-dust. Of eight units tested in summer, three had very high lead-in-dust (>1000 μg/ft2, six exceeded at least one USEPA standard for lead-in-dust and/or soil. Tap water tests showed no significant exposures. Monitoring of neighborhood particulates raised awareness of environmental health risks, especially asthma. Conclusions Timely reporting back home-toxics' results to residents is ethical but it must be empowering. Future work should fund the active

  13. Environmental justice and health practices: understanding how health inequities arise at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Katherine L; Abel, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    While empirical evidence continues to show that people living in low socio-economic status neighbourhoods are less likely to engage in health-enhancing behaviour, our understanding of why this is so remains less than clear. We suggest that two changes could take place to move from description to understanding in this field; (i) a move away from the established concept of individual health behaviour to a contextualised understanding of health practices; and (ii) a switch from focusing on health inequalities in outcomes to health inequities in conditions. We apply Pierre Bourdieu's theory on capital interaction but find it insufficient with regard to the role of agency for structural change. We therefore introduce Amartya Sen's capability approach as a useful link between capital interaction theory and action to reduce social inequities in health-related practices. Sen's capability theory also elucidates the importance of discussing unequal chances in terms of inequity, rather than inequality, in order to underscore the moral nature of inequalities. We draw on the discussion in social geography on environmental injustice, which also underscores the moral nature of the spatial distribution of opportunities. The article ends by applying this approach to the 'Interdisciplinary study of inequalities in smoking' framework.

  14. Environmental justice and health practices: understanding how health inequities arise at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Katherine L; Abel, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    While empirical evidence continues to show that people living in low socio-economic status neighbourhoods are less likely to engage in health-enhancing behaviour, our understanding of why this is so remains less than clear. We suggest that two changes could take place to move from description to understanding in this field; (i) a move away from the established concept of individual health behaviour to a contextualised understanding of health practices; and (ii) a switch from focusing on health inequalities in outcomes to health inequities in conditions. We apply Pierre Bourdieu's theory on capital interaction but find it insufficient with regard to the role of agency for structural change. We therefore introduce Amartya Sen's capability approach as a useful link between capital interaction theory and action to reduce social inequities in health-related practices. Sen's capability theory also elucidates the importance of discussing unequal chances in terms of inequity, rather than inequality, in order to underscore the moral nature of inequalities. We draw on the discussion in social geography on environmental injustice, which also underscores the moral nature of the spatial distribution of opportunities. The article ends by applying this approach to the 'Interdisciplinary study of inequalities in smoking' framework. PMID:24372359

  15. Sí se puede: using participatory research to promote environmental justice in a Latino community in San Diego, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkler, Meredith; Garcia, Analilia P; Williams, Joy; LoPresti, Tony; Lilly, Jane

    2010-09-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is seen as a potent tool for studying and addressing urban environmental health problems by linking place-based work with efforts to help effect policy-level change. This paper explores a successful CBPR and organizing effort, the Toxic Free Neighborhoods Campaign, in Old Town National City (OTNC), CA, United States, and its contributions to both local policy outcomes and changes in the broader policy environment, laying the groundwork for a Specific Plan to address a host of interlocking community concerns. After briefly describing the broader research of which the OTNC case study was a part, we provide background on the Environmental Health Coalition (EHC) partnership and the setting in which it took place, including the problems posed for residents in this light industrial/residential neighborhood. EHC's strong in-house research, and its training and active engagement of promotoras de salud (lay health promoters) as co-researchers and policy change advocates, are described. We explore in particular the translation of research findings as part of a policy advocacy campaign, interweaving challenges faced and success factors and multi-level outcomes to which these efforts contributed. The EHC partnership's experience then is compared with that of other policy-focused CBPR efforts in urban environmental health, emphasizing common success factors and challenges faced, as these may assist other partnerships wishing to pursue CBPR in urban communities. PMID:20683782

  16. Development of a socio-ecological environmental justice model for watershed-based management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Georgina M.; Nejadhashemi, A. Pouyan; Zhang, Zhen; Woznicki, Sean A.; Habron, Geoffrey; Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra; Shortridge, Ashton

    2014-10-01

    The dynamics and relationships between society and nature are complex and difficult to predict. Anthropogenic activities affect the ecological integrity of our natural resources, specifically our streams. Further, it is well-established that the costs of these activities are born unequally by different human communities. This study considered the utility of integrating stream health metrics, based on stream health indicators, with socio-economic measures of communities, to better characterize these effects. This study used a spatial multi-factor model and bivariate mapping to produce a novel assessment for watershed management, identification of vulnerable areas, and allocation of resources. The study area is the Saginaw River watershed located in Michigan. In-stream hydrological and water quality data were used to predict fish and macroinvertebrate measures of stream health. These measures include the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI), Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), Family IBI, and total number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa. Stream health indicators were then compared to spatially coincident socio-economic data, obtained from the United States Census Bureau (2010), including race, income, education, housing, and population size. Statistical analysis including spatial regression and cluster analysis were used to examine the correlation between vulnerable human populations and environmental conditions. Overall, limited correlation was observed between the socio-economic data and ecological measures of stream health, with the highest being a negative correlation of 0.18 between HBI and the social parameter household size. Clustering was observed in the datasets with urban areas representing a second order clustering effect over the watershed. Regions with the worst stream health and most vulnerable social populations were most commonly located nearby or down-stream to highly populated areas and agricultural lands.

  17. Book review: Inside the Equal Access to Justice Act: Environmental litigation and the crippling battle over America's lands, endangered species, and critical habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, John

    2016-01-01

    Inside the Equal Access to Justice Act is authored by Lowell E. Baier, an attorney, political scientist, and historian whose conservation portfolio includes the J. N. “Ding” Darling Conservation Award from the National Wildlife Federation (2016), Citizen Conservationist Award from the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (2013), Conservationist of the Year Award from Outdoor Life magazine (2010), and Conservationist of the Year Award from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (2008). In the book, Baier stresses the need to reform the Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA) because of unintended provisions that incentivize and reward environmental litigants for filing suit against federal regulatory and land management agencies, consequentially hindering pro-active, cooperative, conservation efforts. The book is the culmination of several years of legal research, case history analyses, and personal interviews with several key individuals from congress, conservation management agencies, and non-government organizations.

  18. Environmental justice: the ethical dimension in the sustainable development of golf%环境正义:高尔夫运动可持续发展的伦理之维

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈克印; 刘远祥

    2012-01-01

      From the perspective of ethics, the authors expatiated on potential contradictions triggered by golf, inter-preted the connotation of environmental justice, and analyzed the sure embodiment of environmental justice in golf from such 3 dimensions as inter-racial justice, inner-generational justice and inter-generational justice. The authors put forward the following opinions: the sustainable development of golf fits into the conception of environmental justice; environmental justice provides moral support and ethical power for the sustainable development of golf; we can realize environmental justice and boost the sustainable development of golf by implementing such policies as establishing an environmental ethical view, establishing and perfecting relevant systems, determining evaluation standards, strengthening law enforcement and supervision etc.%  基于伦理学视角,阐述高尔夫运动所引发的潜在矛盾,诠释环境正义的内涵,并从种际正义、代内正义和代际正义3个维度分析环境正义在高尔夫运动中的应然体现。认为高尔夫运动可持续发展观与环境正义理念相契合,环境正义为高尔夫运动可持续发展提供道德支持和伦理动力。通过树立环境伦理观、建立和完善相关制度、确定评价标准、加强执法和监督等策略来实现环境正义,促进高尔夫运动的可持续发展。

  19. Addressing the Impact of Environmental Xenobiotics in Coal-Fired Flue Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia A. Bulucea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dangerous and unstable situations can result from the presence of environmental xenobiotics since their harmful effects on humans and ecosystems are often unpredictable, and building awareness of the environmental risk should be a main concern of humankind. The environmental xenobiotics in the flue gas from a fossil fuel-fired electrical generating station, such as particulate matter (PM, sulfur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx, and carbon dioxide (CO2, are analyzed in this study, since these xenobiotics are persistent pollutants. Mathematical models of the environmental pollutant vector, estimating the emission factors specific to fossil fuel combustion, are applied to the operation of thermal units in the Turceni electrical generating station, each of which produces a net electrical power of 330 MW. For each stack gas component in the pollutant vector, emission factors and pollutant concentrations are determined. A pattern is also examined depicting the mathematically modelled processes of resonant absorption of an environmental xenobiotic harmonic oscillation by an organism modulated as an absorbing oscillator structure. The xenobiotic concentration degree is represented through a spatial concentration vector, which allows further modelling and simulation of the oscillating regime of environmental xenobiotic absorption.

  20. Organizational Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Helping principals understand the importance of organizational justice is the first step in enhancing learning outcomes for all learners, regardless of their social class, race, abilities, sex, or gender. In schools, organizational justice may be defined as teachers' perceptions of fairness, respect, and equity that relate to their…

  1. Justice Globalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erin; Steger, Manfred; Siracusa, Joseph; Battersby, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of a global order founded on universal rules extends beyond economics into the normative spheres of law, politics and justice. Justice globalists claim universal principles applicable to all societies irrespective of religion or ideology. This view privileges human rights, democracy and

  2. Does operational oceanography address the needs of fisheries and applied environmental scientists?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berx, B.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Skogen, M.D.; Roeck, de Y.H.

    2011-01-01

    Although many oceanographic data products are now considered operational, continued dialogue between data producers and their user communities is still needed. The fisheries and environmental science communities have often been criticized for their lack of multidisciplinarity, and it is not clear wh

  3. Towards an Explicit Justice Framing of the Social Impacts of Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Martin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes that biodiversity conservation practice will benefit from assessment of environmental justice outcomes, especially in contexts of poverty and social marginalisation. Whilst there is an existing body of work that implicitly considers the justices and injustices arising from biodiversity conservation interventions, we suggest that a more explicit justice assessment might complement this work. We develop some general guidelines for such assessment, drawing on traditions of social and environmental justice, highlighting the importance of considering two types of justice outcome: distribution and recognition. We note the non-equivalence of these different justice values, implying that they cannot be traded-off against each other. We try out these guidelines through a case study of the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park in Uganda. We find that the assessment helps us to identify intolerable social impacts of conservation, notably failures to adequately address the long-term impoverishment and domination of the indigenous Batwa people, and offers constructive insight for how conservation can better align with the need for environmental justice.

  4. How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture.

    OpenAIRE

    Horrigan, Leo; Lawrence, Robert S.; Walker, Polly

    2002-01-01

    The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat--instead of feeding it directly to humans--involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource i...

  5. A historical review on the roles of science and politics in addressing global environmental issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter USHER; Qian YE

    2009-01-01

    Based on a historical review of the so-called Ozone crisis in the late 1970s and global climate changes since the 1980s, this paper examines the role of sciences and policies in the international community in dealing with the global environmental issues. Lessons show that a multi-discipline, multi-organizational and multi-national UN agency which remains relevant, assisting rather than guiding the process of climate negotiations is important.

  6. Societal responses for addressing nitrogen fertilizer needs: Balancing food production and environmental concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Palm, C.A.; P. L. O. A. Machado; Mahmood, T.; Melillo, J.; Murrell, S.T.; Nymangara, J.; Scholes, M.; Sisworo, E.; Olesen, J.E.; Pender, J.; Stewart, J.; J. N. Galloway

    2004-01-01

    The N fertilizer accessibility and use situations have arisen primarily from a suite of national and international policies in agriculture and environmental sectors. There is currently closer interaction among these sectors in Europe and to some extent in the US that strive to balance food production and pollution concerns. When we look to the future, can countries that are beginning to intensify their agricultural production learn from the experiences of others? Are there measures that can...

  7. European Court of Justice finds more possibilities for legal remedy of German environmental associations; Der Europaeische Gerichtshof stellt weite Klagemoeglichkeiten deutscher Umweltverbaende fest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Horst

    2011-07-15

    In its ruling of March 12, 2011, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) states that the limitation of legal remedies under German law applying to environmental associations seeking to claim violations of provisions protecting third parties is not in line with EU law. Under EU law, environmental associations may, because of potentially considerable environmental impacts, claim violation of substantive as well as procedural provisions by litigation even if the provision stemming from Union law and seeking to protect the environment 'protects only the interests of the public, not the interests of individuals.' The ECJ had to express an opinion on the reference by the Muenster Higher Court of Administration (OVG) of March 5, 2009 about the question whether German transposition in the Environmental Legal Remedy Act of 2006 is in keeping with Article 10a of the Environmental Impact Assessment Directive of 1985 as amended on March 26, 2003. The point was whether the project in question could give rise to considerable impairment of flora and fauna habitats in the vicinity of the site of a nuclear power plant in the meaning of the EU Habitat Directive. In summary, the ECJ finds that the provisions of the Environmental Legal Remedy Act are not in compliance with EU law. The concise decision by the ECJ relates to areas of fundamental importance in societal and government politics. As laid down in the 2003 Environmental Impact Assessment Directive, the right to bring action of environmental associations is asserted first. Transposition of the Environmental Impact Assessment Directive of 2003 in the Environmental Legal Remedy Act of 2006 had been the subject of several rulings of higher courts of administration and of critical scholarly debates about the legal remedies of environmental associations, expressing concern about the German transposition being in conformity with EU law. As far as German atomic energy law is concerned, it remains to be seen whether

  8. Using Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Practices to Address Scientific Misunderstandings Around Complex Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    The new NGSS provide an important opportunity for scientists to develop curriculum that links the practice of science to research-based data in order to improve understanding in areas of science that are both complex and confusing. Our curriculum focuses in particular on the fate and transport of anthropogenic radionuclides. Radioactivity, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic, is highly debated and largely misunderstood, and for large sections of the population is a source of scientific misunderstanding. Developed as part of the international GEOTRACES project which focuses on identifying ocean processes and quantifying fluxes that control the distributions of selected trace elements and isotopes in the ocean, and on establishing the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions, the curriculum topic fits nicely into the applied focus of NGSS with both environmental and topical relevance. Our curriculum design focuses on small group discussion driven by questions, yet unlike more traditional curriculum pieces these are not questions posed to the students, rather they are questions posed by the students to facilitate their deeper understanding. Our curriculum design challenges the traditional question/answer memorization approach to instruction as we strive to develop an educational approach that supports the practice of science as well as the NGSS Cross Cutting Concepts and the Science & Engineering Practices. Our goal is for students to develop a methodology they can employ when faced with a complex scientific issue. Through background readings and team discussions they identify what type of information is important for them to know and where to find a reliable source for that information. Framing their discovery around key questions such as "What type of radioactive decay are we dealing with?", "What is the potential half-life of the isotope?", and "What are the pathways of transport of radioactivity?" allows students to evaluate a

  9. Addressing public concerns about ethical and environmental issues in the discussion on nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to Swiss Federal Law, the producers of radioactive waste are responsible for its safe disposal. The government, therefore, plays a relatively modest role in the public debate on nuclear waste management. Whenever asked to express an opinion, it tries to inform openly. Active public relations campaigns are led by the National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA). The operators of nuclear power plants are ready to compensate the siting community and its Canton for services rendered in the public interest. An important way to deal with ethical and environmental issues is the inclusion of opponents in every step of the time-consuming licensing procedure. This paper discusses the upcoming vote on a concession for a low and intermediate-level waste repository for which NAGRA is actively preparing. NAGRA's public relations work is based on recognition of the fact that the only way to diminish fear and gain credibility is to inform openly and regularly over many years, and to show that results achieved are based on serious, careful and transparent scientific work. Another aspect of radioactive waste management communication lies in the explanation of the ethics of 'inter-generational' and 'intra-generational' equity. Compensation will never make up for lack of safety. The ways in which the public voices its views are discussed, as well as the concept of seeking the co-operation of opponents in working groups. (author)

  10. Langley's DEVELOP Team Applies NASA's Earth Observations to Address Environmental Issues Across the Country and Around the Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Lauren M.; Miller, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    The DEVELOP National Program was established over a decade ago to provide students with experience in the practical application of NASA Earth science research results. As part of NASA's Applied Sciences Program, DEVELOP focuses on bridging the gap between NASA technology and the public through projects that innovatively use NASA Earth science resources to address environmental issues. Cultivating a diverse and dynamic group of students and young professionals, the program conducts applied science research projects during three terms each year (spring, summer, and fall) that focus on topics ranging from water resource management to natural disasters.

  11. Health Law as Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Lindsay F

    2014-01-01

    Health law is in the midst of a dramatic transformation. From a relatively narrow discipline focused on regulating relationships among individual patients, health care providers, and third-party payers, it is expanding into a far broader field with a burgeoning commitment to access to health care and assurance of healthy living conditions as matters of social justice. Through a series of incremental reform efforts stretching back decades before the Affordable Care Act and encompassing public health law as well as the law of health care financing and delivery, reducing health disparities has become a central focus of American health law and policy. This Article labels, describes, and furthers a nascent "health justice" movement by examining what it means to view health law as an instrument of social justice. Drawing on the experiences of the reproductive justice, environmental justice, and food justice movements, and on the writings of political philosophers and ethicists on health justice, I propose that health justice offers an alternative to the market competition and patient rights paradigms that currently dominate health law scholarship, advocacy, and reform. I then examine the role of law in reducing health disparities through the health justice lens. I argue that the nascent health justice framework suggests three commitments for the use of law to reduce health disparities. First, to a broader inquiry that views access to health care as one among many social determinants of health deserving of public attention and resources. Second, to probing inquiry into the effects of class, racial, and other forms of social and cultural bias on the design and implementation of measures to reduce health disparities. And third, to collective action grounded in community engagement and participatory parity. In exploring these commitments, I highlight tensions within the social justice framework and between the social justice framework and the nascent health justice movement

  12. Health Law as Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Lindsay F

    2014-01-01

    Health law is in the midst of a dramatic transformation. From a relatively narrow discipline focused on regulating relationships among individual patients, health care providers, and third-party payers, it is expanding into a far broader field with a burgeoning commitment to access to health care and assurance of healthy living conditions as matters of social justice. Through a series of incremental reform efforts stretching back decades before the Affordable Care Act and encompassing public health law as well as the law of health care financing and delivery, reducing health disparities has become a central focus of American health law and policy. This Article labels, describes, and furthers a nascent "health justice" movement by examining what it means to view health law as an instrument of social justice. Drawing on the experiences of the reproductive justice, environmental justice, and food justice movements, and on the writings of political philosophers and ethicists on health justice, I propose that health justice offers an alternative to the market competition and patient rights paradigms that currently dominate health law scholarship, advocacy, and reform. I then examine the role of law in reducing health disparities through the health justice lens. I argue that the nascent health justice framework suggests three commitments for the use of law to reduce health disparities. First, to a broader inquiry that views access to health care as one among many social determinants of health deserving of public attention and resources. Second, to probing inquiry into the effects of class, racial, and other forms of social and cultural bias on the design and implementation of measures to reduce health disparities. And third, to collective action grounded in community engagement and participatory parity. In exploring these commitments, I highlight tensions within the social justice framework and between the social justice framework and the nascent health justice movement

  13. Empowering Energy Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Finley-Brook

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack broad public input or if policies prioritize elite or corporate interests. This paper highlights how U.S. energy transitions build from, and contribute to, environmental injustices. Energy justice requires not only ending disproportionate harm, it also entails involvement in the design of solutions and fair distribution of benefits, such as green jobs and clean air. To what extent does the confluence of state, civic, and market processes assure “just” transitions to clean, low-carbon energy production involving equitable distribution of costs, benefits, and decision-making power? To explore this question we assess trends with (1 fossil fuel divestment; (2 carbon taxes and social cost of carbon measurements; (3 cap-and-trade; (4 renewable energy; and (5 energy efficiency. Current research demonstrates opportunities and pitfalls in each area with mixed or partial energy justice consequences, leading to our call for greater attention to the specifics of distributive justice, procedural justice, and recognition justice in research, policy, and action. Illustrative energy transition case studies suggest the feasibility and benefit of empowering approaches, but also indicate there can be conflict between “green” and “just”, as evident though stark inequities in clean energy initiatives. To identify positive pathways forward, we compile priorities for an energy justice research agenda based on interactive and participatory practices aligning advocacy, activism, and academics.

  14. Empowering Energy Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley-Brook, Mary; Holloman, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack broad public input or if policies prioritize elite or corporate interests. This paper highlights how U.S. energy transitions build from, and contribute to, environmental injustices. Energy justice requires not only ending disproportionate harm, it also entails involvement in the design of solutions and fair distribution of benefits, such as green jobs and clean air. To what extent does the confluence of state, civic, and market processes assure “just” transitions to clean, low-carbon energy production involving equitable distribution of costs, benefits, and decision-making power? To explore this question we assess trends with (1) fossil fuel divestment; (2) carbon taxes and social cost of carbon measurements; (3) cap-and-trade; (4) renewable energy; and (5) energy efficiency. Current research demonstrates opportunities and pitfalls in each area with mixed or partial energy justice consequences, leading to our call for greater attention to the specifics of distributive justice, procedural justice, and recognition justice in research, policy, and action. Illustrative energy transition case studies suggest the feasibility and benefit of empowering approaches, but also indicate there can be conflict between “green” and “just”, as evident though stark inequities in clean energy initiatives. To identify positive pathways forward, we compile priorities for an energy justice research agenda based on interactive and participatory practices aligning advocacy, activism, and academics. PMID:27657101

  15. Justice at the millennium: a meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, J A; Conlon, D E; Wesson, M J; Porter, C O; Ng, K Y

    2001-06-01

    The field of organizational justice continues to be marked by several important research questions, including the size of relationships among justice dimensions, the relative importance of different justice criteria, and the unique effects of justice dimensions on key outcomes. To address such questions, the authors conducted a meta-analytic review of 183 justice studies. The results suggest that although different justice dimensions are moderately to highly related, they contribute incremental variance explained in fairness perceptions. The results also illustrate the overall and unique relationships among distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice and several organizational outcomes (e.g., job satisfaction, organizational commitment, evaluation of authority, organizational citizenship behavior, withdrawal, performance). These findings are reviewed in terms of their implications for future research on organizational justice. PMID:11419803

  16. Environmental Justice and Sustainability Impact Assessment: In Search of Solutions to Ethnic Conflicts Caused by Coal Mining in Inner Mongolia, China

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Liu; Jie Liu; Zhenguo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese government adopted more specific and stringent environmental impact assessment (EIA) guidelines in 2011, soon after the widespread ethnic protests against coal mining in Inner Mongolia. However, our research suggests that the root of the ethnic tension is a sustainability problem, in addition to environmental issues. In particular, the Mongolians do not feel they have benefited from the mining of their resources. Existing environmental assessment tools are inadequate to address su...

  17. 环境正义缺失与“三维伦理”矫正%Absence of Environmental Justice and Correction of Three-dimensional Structure Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓燕

    2012-01-01

    环境正义是环境伦理学的重要价值论关怀,其实质是环境利益和生态责任的公平分配与合理分担。有鉴于工业文明以来经济过程的反生态性、反人道性和不可持续性,在处理人际关系、代际关系和国际关系中都必须高度关注人与自然的关系,这就必然要求传统伦理学拓展研究视域,坚持"三维伦理"(利己、利他、利环境)规范,切实矫正环境正义缺失,促进社会的文明进步与人的自由全面发展。%Environmental justice,whose essence is the fair distribution and reasonable allocation of environmental interests and ecological responsibilities,is an important concern of value theory in Environmental ethnics.Due to the anti-ecology,counter-humanity and non-sustainability in economic process since the appearance of industrial civilization,great attention should be paid to the relationship between man and nature in human,agent and international relations,so the traditional ethics should broaden its research range and insist on the standards of three-dimensional theory of self-interest,other-interest,and environment interest,remedy the absence of environment justice and promote the progress of social civilization as well as man’s free and overall de-velopment.

  18. Spatiotemporal Patterns, Monitoring Network Design, and Environmental Justice of Air Pollution in the Phoenix Metropolitan Region: A Landscape Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Ronald L.

    Air pollution is a serious problem in most urban areas around the world, which has a number of negative ecological and human health impacts. As a result, it's vitally important to detect and characterize air pollutants to protect the health of the urban environment and our citizens. An important early step in this process is ensuring that the air pollution monitoring network is properly designed to capture the patterns of pollution and that all social demographics in the urban population are represented. An important aspect in characterizing air pollution patterns is scale in space and time which, along with pattern and process relationships, is a key subject in the field of landscape ecology. Thus, using multiple landscape ecological methods, this dissertation research begins by characterizing and quantifying the multi-scalar patterns of ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) in the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan region. Results showed that pollution patterns are scale-dependent, O3 is a regionally-scaled pollutant at longer temporal scales, and PM10 is a locally-scaled pollutant with patterns sensitive to season. Next, this dissertation examines the monitoring network within Maricopa County. Using a novel multiscale indicator-based approach, the adequacy of the network was quantified by integrating inputs from various academic and government stakeholders. Furthermore, deficiencies were spatially defined and recommendations were made on how to strengthen the design of the network. A sustainability ranking system also provided new insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the network. Lastly, the study addresses the question of whether distinct social groups were experiencing inequitable exposure to pollutants - a key issue of distributive environmental injustice. A novel interdisciplinary method using multi-scalar ambient pollution data and hierarchical multiple regression models revealed environmental inequities between air pollutants and race, ethnicity

  19. Restorative justice within the criminal justice system

    OpenAIRE

    Vasiljević-Prodanović Danica

    2010-01-01

    Positioning of restorative justice within the criminal justice system is one of the current questions preoccupying theorists and practitioners in the field. During decades restorative justice processes have been predominantly used within juvenile justice systems for dealing with minor offences committed by juveniles. Number of jurisdictions in Europe, USA, Canada, Australia have criminal codifications containing provisions that enable use of restorative justice processes in aim of diver...

  20. Social position, ideology, and distributive justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. d' Anjou (Leo); A.J. Steijn (Bram); D. van Aarsen (Dries)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses two important questions regarding distributive justice. First we ask whether people use standards or principles of distributive justice regarding the allocation of income. The study confirms our expectation that there are at least two principles, viz., the merit and

  1. Supervision of Group Work: Infusing the Spirit of Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Delini M.; Herlihy, Barbara R.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explore how supervisors may support the development of social justice consciousness for group leader supervisees, the role of the supervisor in generating social justice awareness and discussing social justice topics, and supervision that supports group leaders in addressing the challenges and opportunities related to social justice…

  2. Building organizational technical capabilities: a new approach to address the office of environmental management cleanup challenges in the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for the nations nuclear weapons program legacy wastes cleanup. The EM cleanup efforts continue to progress, however the cleanup continues to be technologically complex, heavily regulated, long-term, and a high life cycle cost estimate (LCCE) effort. Over the past few years, the EM program has undergone several changes to accelerate its cleanup efforts with varying degrees of success. Several cleanup projects continued to experience schedule delays and cost growth. The schedule delays and cost growth have been attributed to several factors such as changes in technical scope, regulatory and safety considerations, inadequacy of acquisition approach and project management. This article will briefly review the background and schools of thought on strategic management and organizational change practiced in the United States over the last few decades to improve an organisation's competitive edge and cost performance. The article will briefly review examples such as the change at General Electric, and the recent experience obtained from the nuclear industry, namely the long-term response to the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The long-term response to Chernobyl, though not a case of organizational change, could provide some insight in the strategic management approaches used to address people issues. The article will discuss briefly EM attempts to accelerate cleanup over the past few years, and the subsequent paradigm shift. The paradigm shift targets enhancing and/or creating organizational capabilities to achieve cost savings. To improve its ability to address the 21. century environmental cleanup challenges and achieve cost savings, EM has initiated new corporate changes to develop new and enhance existing capabilities. These new and enhanced organizational capabilities include a renewed emphasis on basics, especially technical capabilities including safety, project management

  3. Social Justice as General Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the neglect of social justice a social change in the undergraduate general education curriculum at a community college. The intended audience of this paper is community college instructors with heavy teaching loads of mostly general education courses. Without pretending to be a rigorous analysis of theories of radical pedagogy…

  4. Restorative Justice in School Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, David R.; Breslin, Beau

    2001-01-01

    Explores the recent implementation of restorative justice practices in Minnesota, Colorado, and Pennsylvania school communities, examining how their approaches can address substance abuse problems and offer alternatives to zero-tolerance policies. The three programs are committed to the idea that restoration is a more appropriate educational tool…

  5. The Climate Justice Discourse in Brazil: Potential and Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Milanez; Igor F. Fonseca

    2012-01-01

    Milanez and Fonseca (2011) argue that the climate justice discourse has not been adopted by the media, society or the communities affected by extreme climate events in Brazil. The climate justice discourse has been adapted from the concept of environmental justice and created from the idea that the impacts of climate change affect different social groups in various ways and intensities. (?)

  6. Climate Change, Human Rights, and Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Patz, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    The environmental and health consequences of climate change, which disproportionately affect low-income countries and poor people in high-income countries, profoundly affect human rights and social justice. Environmental consequences include increased temperature, excess precipitation in some areas and droughts in others, extreme weather events, and increased sea level. These consequences adversely affect agricultural production, access to safe water, and worker productivity, and, by inundating land or making land uninhabitable and uncultivatable, will force many people to become environmental refugees. Adverse health effects caused by climate change include heat-related disorders, vector-borne diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, respiratory and allergic disorders, malnutrition, collective violence, and mental health problems. These environmental and health consequences threaten civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, including rights to life, access to safe food and water, health, security, shelter, and culture. On a national or local level, those people who are most vulnerable to the adverse environmental and health consequences of climate change include poor people, members of minority groups, women, children, older people, people with chronic diseases and disabilities, those residing in areas with a high prevalence of climate-related diseases, and workers exposed to extreme heat or increased weather variability. On a global level, there is much inequity, with low-income countries, which produce the least greenhouse gases (GHGs), being more adversely affected by climate change than high-income countries, which produce substantially higher amounts of GHGs yet are less immediately affected. In addition, low-income countries have far less capability to adapt to climate change than high-income countries. Adaptation and mitigation measures to address climate change needed to protect human society must also be planned to protect

  7. Global Trade, Local Impacts: Lessons from California on Health Impacts and Environmental Justice Concerns for Residents Living near Freight Rail Yards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hricko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Global trade has increased nearly 100-fold since 1950, according to the World Trade Organization. Today, major changes in trade are occurring with the advent of mega-ships that can transport thousands more containers than cargo ships now in use. Because global trade is expected to increase dramatically, the railroad industry—in the U.S. alone—has invested more than $5 billion a year over the past decade to expand rail yards and enhance rail routes to transport goods from ports to retail destinations. This article describes cancer risks for residents living in close proximity to rail yards with emissions of diesel particulate matter pollution from locomotives, trucks and yard equipment. The article examines the demographics (income, race/ethnicity of populations living in the highest estimated cancer risk zones near 18 major rail yards in California, concluding that the majority are over-represented by either lower-income or minority residents (or both. The authors also describe a review of the news media and environmental impact reports to determine if rail yards are still being constructed or expanded in close proximity to homes and schools or in working class/working poor communities of color. The paper suggests policy efforts that might provide more public health protection and result in more “environmentally just” siting of rail yards. The authors conclude that diesel pollution from rail yards, which creates significant diesel cancer risks for those living near the facilities, is an often overlooked public health, health disparities and environmental justice issue in the U.S. The conclusions are relevant to other countries where international trade is increasing and large new intermodal rail facilities are being considered.

  8. Global trade, local impacts: lessons from California on health impacts and environmental justice concerns for residents living near freight rail yards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hricko, Andrea; Rowland, Glovioell; Eckel, Sandrah; Logan, Angelo; Taher, Maryam; Wilson, John

    2014-02-01

    Global trade has increased nearly 100-fold since 1950, according to the World Trade Organization. Today, major changes in trade are occurring with the advent of mega-ships that can transport thousands more containers than cargo ships now in use. Because global trade is expected to increase dramatically, the railroad industry-in the U.S. alone-has invested more than $5 billion a year over the past decade to expand rail yards and enhance rail routes to transport goods from ports to retail destinations. This article describes cancer risks for residents living in close proximity to rail yards with emissions of diesel particulate matter pollution from locomotives, trucks and yard equipment. The article examines the demographics (income, race/ethnicity) of populations living in the highest estimated cancer risk zones near 18 major rail yards in California, concluding that the majority are over-represented by either lower-income or minority residents (or both). The authors also describe a review of the news media and environmental impact reports to determine if rail yards are still being constructed or expanded in close proximity to homes and schools or in working class/working poor communities of color. The paper suggests policy efforts that might provide more public health protection and result in more "environmentally just" siting of rail yards. The authors conclude that diesel pollution from rail yards, which creates significant diesel cancer risks for those living near the facilities, is an often overlooked public health, health disparities and environmental justice issue in the U.S. The conclusions are relevant to other countries where international trade is increasing and large new intermodal rail facilities are being considered. PMID:24518649

  9. On the Trend of Legislation under the Vision of Environmental Justice: the Inclined Protection of the Environmental Law and Its Realization%环境正义视阈下的立法走向:环境法的倾斜保护及其实现途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兰; 王世进

    2012-01-01

    The meaning of the environmental justice is the just allocation of the environmental interest and the environmental burden. The inclined protection of the environmental law is just the need to rectify the unbalanced present situation of the allocation of the environmental interest and environmental burden. The environmental legislation should keep to the idea of environmental justice and incline to the disadvantaged interest, disadvantaged group and disadvantaged area. What's more, the environmental law shall reach the justice of the interest equity by the way of setting the principle of giving priority to the environmental interest and setting the environmental rights and obligations, and in the end reaches the common promotion of the interest.%环境正义的内涵在于环境利益和环境负担的公平分配.环境法的倾斜保护就是基于对环境利益和环境负担分配的失衡现状进行矫正的需要.环境立法应当遵循环境正义理念,向弱势利益、弱势群体和弱势地区倾斜,通过环境利益优先原则的确立和环境权利义务的设定,达致利益衡平的公平,并最终达到利益的共同增进.

  10. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  11. Teachers' understandings and enactments of social and environmental justice issues in the classroom: What's "critical" in the manufacturing of road-smart squirrels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammel, Alison J.

    How do five new teachers understand and enact counter-hegemonic pedagogies in their own classes? This study developed from this question. The question arose as I taught critical environmental education, a counter-hegemonic pedagogy, to preservice science teachers. I encouraged the exploration of social and environmental injustices and how they function to reproduce dominant economic agendas. To understand how five teachers, in the second year of their practice and my former students, made sense of the critical environmental education I taught them, I used Gadamer's hermeneutic phenomenology as my research frame. Gadamer argues that meaning develops through dialogue, so data collection occurred mainly through lively research conversations over leisurely dinners. As practicing teachers, the six of us jointly explored taken-for-granted meanings and actions in our everyday pedagogical experiences. In these conversations we made meaning (the hermeneutic aspect) of the lived experiences (phenomenological aspect) of incorporating critical environmental education into our practices. This led me to a deeper understanding and increased awareness of how science education reform agendas have influenced and shaped our individual science pedagogies. The analytic lens of critical education showed that these teachers were strongly influenced by the dominant science reform agenda. Regardless of the science curriculum, or the strong social and environmental beliefs some of these teachers held, they did not perceive the teaching of the social and environmental justice issues to be 'critical' or 'their job.' They demonstrated a belief that it was 'critical' to teach well-defined, "hard science" facts. Student success, hence teacher success, involved playing the academic game well and gaining long-term financial security. Re/viewing the data stories through the additional analytic lens of feminist poststructuralism, I saw how dominant discourse constructs the identity of teachers

  12. Scalar politics and local sustainability: rethinking governance and justice in an era of political and environmental change

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Lawhon; Zarina Patel

    2013-01-01

    The local was institutionalised as a key scale for environmental action at the Earth Summit, and remains salient in discourse, policy, and action. However, given both real changes and geographical insights into the politics of scale in the past twenty years, we suggest it is time to (re)consider this focus. We assess local sustainability through the lens of scalar politics, arguing for the need to consider what challenges particular scale frames foreground and which they silence. We focus on ...

  13. GMOs and Global Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Kristian Høyer

    2012-01-01

    claims to justice. This article investigates how GMOs might generate claims to global justice and what type of justice is involved. The paper argues that the debate on GMOs and global justice can be categorized into three views, i.e., the cosmopolitan, the pluralist, and the sceptic. The cosmopolitan...... on the premise that global cooperation on GMO production provides the relevant basis for assessing the use of GMOs by the standard of global distributive justice....

  14. The design of a medical school social justice curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria, Alexandra; McKelvey, T Greg; Charlton, Paul; Woodworth, Michael; Lahey, Timothy

    2013-10-01

    The acquisition of skills to recognize and redress adverse social determinants of disease is an important component of undergraduate medical education. In this article, the authors justify and define "social justice curriculum" and then describe the medical school social justice curriculum designed by the multidisciplinary Social Justice Vertical Integration Group (SJVIG) at the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth. The SJVIG addressed five goals: (1) to define core competencies in social justice education, (2) to identify key topics that a social justice curriculum should cover, (3) to assess social justice curricula at other institutions, (4) to catalog institutionally affiliated community outreach sites at which teaching could be paired with hands-on service work, and (5) to provide examples of the integration of social justice teaching into the core (i.e., basic science) curriculum. The SJVIG felt a social justice curriculum should cover the scope of health disparities, reasons to address health disparities, and means of addressing these disparities. The group recommended competency-based student evaluations and advocated assessing the impact of medical students' social justice work on communities. The group identified the use of class discussion of physicians' obligation to participate in social justice work as an educational tool, and they emphasized the importance of a mandatory, longitudinal, immersive, mentored community outreach practicum. Faculty and administrators are implementing these changes as part of an overall curriculum redesign (2012-2015). A well-designed medical school social justice curriculum should improve student recognition and rectification of adverse social determinants of disease.

  15. Social justice, climate change, and dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Aileen Y; Fuller, Douglas O; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Beier, John C

    2014-06-14

    Climate change should be viewed fundamentally as an issue of global justice. Understanding the complex interplay of climatic and socioeconomic trends is imperative to protect human health and lessen the burden of diseases such as dengue fever. Dengue fever is rapidly expanding globally. Temperature, rainfall, and frequency of natural disasters, as well as non-climatic trends involving population growth and migration, urbanization, and international trade and travel, are expected to increase the prevalence of mosquito breeding sites, mosquito survival, the speed of mosquito reproduction, the speed of viral incubation, the distribution of dengue virus and its vectors, human migration patterns towards urban areas, and displacement after natural disasters. The burden of dengue disproportionately affects the poor due to increased environmental risk and decreased health care. Mobilization of social institutions is needed to improve the structural inequalities of poverty that predispose the poor to increased dengue fever infection and worse outcomes. This paper reviews the link between dengue and climatic factors as a starting point to developing a comprehensive understanding of how climate change affects dengue risk and how institutions can address the issues of social justice and dengue outbreaks that increasingly affect vulnerable urban populations.

  16. Social justice, climate change, and dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Aileen Y; Fuller, Douglas O; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Beier, John C

    2014-01-01

    Climate change should be viewed fundamentally as an issue of global justice. Understanding the complex interplay of climatic and socioeconomic trends is imperative to protect human health and lessen the burden of diseases such as dengue fever. Dengue fever is rapidly expanding globally. Temperature, rainfall, and frequency of natural disasters, as well as non-climatic trends involving population growth and migration, urbanization, and international trade and travel, are expected to increase the prevalence of mosquito breeding sites, mosquito survival, the speed of mosquito reproduction, the speed of viral incubation, the distribution of dengue virus and its vectors, human migration patterns towards urban areas, and displacement after natural disasters. The burden of dengue disproportionately affects the poor due to increased environmental risk and decreased health care. Mobilization of social institutions is needed to improve the structural inequalities of poverty that predispose the poor to increased dengue fever infection and worse outcomes. This paper reviews the link between dengue and climatic factors as a starting point to developing a comprehensive understanding of how climate change affects dengue risk and how institutions can address the issues of social justice and dengue outbreaks that increasingly affect vulnerable urban populations. PMID:25474614

  17. Litigating Right to Healthy Environment in Nigeria: An Examination of the Impacts of the Fundamental Rights (Enforcement Procedure Rules 2009, in Ensuring Access to Justice for Victims of Environmental Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Polycarp Amechi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria like most other African countries is presently experiencing severe environmental degradation and uncontrolled depletion of its natural resources. Such degradation has had adverse consequences on the health and well-being of Nigerian citizens including their enjoyment of the right to a healthy environment. The degrading state of Nigeria’s environment is not due to lack of regulatory frameworks but as a result of lack of political will to enforce environmental regulations in Nigeria. Hence, in most instances of environmental degradation, the only option left to victims is to petition the court for appropriate relief. However, this route is fraught with many procedural injustices that have contrived in denying access to justice for many victims of environmental degradation. It is in the light of this that the adoption of the Fundamental Rights (Enforcement Procedure Rules 2009, which provide rules of procedure for the enforcement of fundamental rights in Nigeria, is germane to victims of environmental degradation. This article examines the impacts of the Rules in ensuring access to justice for victims of environmental degradation in Nigeria.

  18. Ontario’s Experience of Wind Energy Development as Seen through the Lens of Human Health and Environmental Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Songsore

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The province of Ontario has shown great commitment towards the development of renewable energy and, specifically, wind power. Fuelled by the Green Energy Act (GEA of 2009, the Province has emerged as Canada’s leader in wind energy development (WED. Nonetheless, Ontario’s WED trajectory is characterized by social conflicts, particularly around environmental health. Utilizing the Social Amplification of Risk Framework, this paper presents an eight-year longitudinal media content analysis conducted to understand the role Ontario’s media may be playing in both reflecting and shaping public perceptions of wind turbine health risks. We find that before and after the GEA, instances of health risk amplification were far greater than attenuations in both quantity and quality. Discourses that amplified turbine health risks often simultaneously highlighted injustices in the WED process, especially after the GEA. Based on these findings, we suggest that Ontario’s media may be amplifying perceptions of wind turbine health risks within the public domain. We conclude with policy recommendations around public engagement for more just WED.

  19. Ontario's Experience of Wind Energy Development as Seen through the Lens of Human Health and Environmental Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songsore, Emmanuel; Buzzelli, Michael

    2016-07-06

    The province of Ontario has shown great commitment towards the development of renewable energy and, specifically, wind power. Fuelled by the Green Energy Act (GEA) of 2009, the Province has emerged as Canada's leader in wind energy development (WED). Nonetheless, Ontario's WED trajectory is characterized by social conflicts, particularly around environmental health. Utilizing the Social Amplification of Risk Framework, this paper presents an eight-year longitudinal media content analysis conducted to understand the role Ontario's media may be playing in both reflecting and shaping public perceptions of wind turbine health risks. We find that before and after the GEA, instances of health risk amplification were far greater than attenuations in both quantity and quality. Discourses that amplified turbine health risks often simultaneously highlighted injustices in the WED process, especially after the GEA. Based on these findings, we suggest that Ontario's media may be amplifying perceptions of wind turbine health risks within the public domain. We conclude with policy recommendations around public engagement for more just WED.

  20. Ontario's Experience of Wind Energy Development as Seen through the Lens of Human Health and Environmental Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songsore, Emmanuel; Buzzelli, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The province of Ontario has shown great commitment towards the development of renewable energy and, specifically, wind power. Fuelled by the Green Energy Act (GEA) of 2009, the Province has emerged as Canada's leader in wind energy development (WED). Nonetheless, Ontario's WED trajectory is characterized by social conflicts, particularly around environmental health. Utilizing the Social Amplification of Risk Framework, this paper presents an eight-year longitudinal media content analysis conducted to understand the role Ontario's media may be playing in both reflecting and shaping public perceptions of wind turbine health risks. We find that before and after the GEA, instances of health risk amplification were far greater than attenuations in both quantity and quality. Discourses that amplified turbine health risks often simultaneously highlighted injustices in the WED process, especially after the GEA. Based on these findings, we suggest that Ontario's media may be amplifying perceptions of wind turbine health risks within the public domain. We conclude with policy recommendations around public engagement for more just WED. PMID:27399738

  1. Ontario’s Experience of Wind Energy Development as Seen through the Lens of Human Health and Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songsore, Emmanuel; Buzzelli, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The province of Ontario has shown great commitment towards the development of renewable energy and, specifically, wind power. Fuelled by the Green Energy Act (GEA) of 2009, the Province has emerged as Canada’s leader in wind energy development (WED). Nonetheless, Ontario’s WED trajectory is characterized by social conflicts, particularly around environmental health. Utilizing the Social Amplification of Risk Framework, this paper presents an eight-year longitudinal media content analysis conducted to understand the role Ontario’s media may be playing in both reflecting and shaping public perceptions of wind turbine health risks. We find that before and after the GEA, instances of health risk amplification were far greater than attenuations in both quantity and quality. Discourses that amplified turbine health risks often simultaneously highlighted injustices in the WED process, especially after the GEA. Based on these findings, we suggest that Ontario’s media may be amplifying perceptions of wind turbine health risks within the public domain. We conclude with policy recommendations around public engagement for more just WED. PMID:27399738

  2. Sustainability in the Apparel Industry: Improving How Companies Assess and Address Environmental Impacts Through a Revised Higg Index Facility Module

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Clare B.

    2015-01-01

    This study was focused on analyzing the Facility Environmental Module (FEM) of the Sustainable Apparel Coalition’s (SAC) Higg Index. The research objectives were twofold: 1) to test whether the indicators featured in the FEM could accommodate the data requirements for calculating environmental impacts of apparel products, and 2) to identify if the FEM indicators could satisfy the data and information needs of other key stakeholder groups. The long track record of irresponsible social and e...

  3. Justice and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1985-07-20

    Justice, in the sense of fair adjudication between conflicting claims, is held to be relevant to a wide range of issues in medical ethics. Several differing concepts of justice are briefly described, including Aristotle's formal principle of justice, libertarian theories, utilitarian theories, Marxist theories, the theory of John Rawls, and the view--held, for example, by W.D. Ross--that justice is essentially a matter of reward for individual merit. PMID:3926121

  4. Justice and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1985-07-20

    Justice, in the sense of fair adjudication between conflicting claims, is held to be relevant to a wide range of issues in medical ethics. Several differing concepts of justice are briefly described, including Aristotle's formal principle of justice, libertarian theories, utilitarian theories, Marxist theories, the theory of John Rawls, and the view--held, for example, by W.D. Ross--that justice is essentially a matter of reward for individual merit.

  5. Models of distributive justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Philosophical disagreement about justice rages over at least two questions. The most immediate is a substantial question, concerning the conditions under which particular distributive arrangements can be said to be just or unjust. The second, deeper, question concerns the nature of justice itself. What is justice? Here we can distinguish three views. First, justice as mutual advantage sees justice as essentially a matter of the outcome of a bargain. There are times when two parties can both be better off by making some sort of agreement. Justice, on this view, concerns the distribution of the benefits and burdens of the agreement. Second, justice as reciprocity takes a different approach, looking not at bargaining but at the idea of a fair return or just price, attempting to capture the idea of justice as equal exchange. Finally justice as impartiality sees justice as 'taking the other person's point of view' asking 'how would you like it if it happened to you?' Each model has significantly different consequences for the question of when issues of justice arise and how they should be settled. It is interesting to consider whether any of these models of justice could regulate behaviour between non-human animals.

  6. Assessment of the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative: Addressing Environmental and Siting Issues Associated with Wind Energy Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Cleve, Frances B.; States, Jennifer C.

    2010-11-09

    The National Wind Coordinating Collaborative (NWCC) is a consensus-based stakeholder group comprised of representatives from the utility, wind industry, environmental, consumer, regulatory, power marketer, agricultural, tribal, economic development, and state and federal government sectors. The purpose of the NWCC is to support the development of an environmentally, economically, and politically sustainable commercial market for wind power (NWCC 2010). The NWCC has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) since its inception in 1994. In order to evaluate the impact of the work of the NWCC and how this work aligns with DOE’s strategic priorities, DOE tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct a series of informal interviews with a small sample of those involved with NWCC.

  7. The options of local authorities for addressing climate change and energy efficiency through environmental regulation of companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Environmental regulation of companies is sometimes in the literature characterised as a successive broadening of focus and policy instruments: from applying command-and-control mechanism to get companies to clean and/or dilute local pollutants through end-of-pipe solutions; towards applying various...... means to influence and facilitate companies to act proactively in preventing pollution through cleaner production, waste prevention and resource efficiency. This understanding is contested in this article. The article documents instead a gap in respect to the local authorities actual execution...... of the direct regulation of companies in Denmark. The practise of the local competent authorities is found to primarily still target local environmental concerns by command-and-control means. The objective of the article is to analyse this discrepancy between the overall representation of regulatory trends...

  8. Welcome Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  9. TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE AND DEMOCRATIC CHANGE: KEY CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANDREEVSKA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This Article proposes a genealogy of transitional justice and focuses on transitional justice as one of the key steps in peace building that needs to be taken to secure a stable democratic future. Transitional justice is a response to systematic or widespread violations of human rights. It seeks recognition for victims and promotion of possibilities for peace, reconciliation and democracy. The paper focuses on key concepts of transitional justice before addressing its traditional components: justice, reparation, truth and institutional reform. This Article meeting point on the transitional process in a society which has experienced a violent conflict and needs adequate mechanisms to deal with the legacies of the past in order to prevent future violence and cover the way for reconciliation and democratic consolidation. It provides key stakeholders with an overview of transitional justice and its different components, while examining key challenges faced by those working in this area. The present paper concludes with some remarks that challenge the traditional concept of transitional justice and its processes in order to initiate important debate on where future work in this field is needed.

  10. Environmental Justice Assessment for Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of Executive Order 12898 to risk assessment of highway or rail transport of hazardous materials has proven difficult; the location and conditions affecting the propagation of a plume of hazardous material released in a potential accident are unknown, in general. Therefore, analyses have only been possible in geographically broad or approximate manner. The advent of geographic information systems and development of software enhancements at Sandia National Laboratories have made kilometer-by-kilometer analysis of populations tallied by U.S. Census Blocks along entire routes practicable. Tabulations of total, or racially/ethnically distinct, populations close to a route, its alternatives, or the broader surrounding area, can then be compared and differences evaluated statistically. This paper presents methods of comparing populations and their racial/ethnic compositions using simple tabulations, histograms and Chi Squared tests for statistical significance of differences found. Two examples of these methods are presented: comparison of two routes and comparison of a route with its surroundings

  11. Just sustainability? Sustainability and social justice in professional codes of ethics for engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Cletus S

    2013-09-01

    Should environmental, social, and economic sustainability be of primary concern to engineers? Should social justice be among these concerns? Although the deterioration of our natural environment and the increase in social injustices are among today's most pressing and important issues, engineering codes of ethics and their paramountcy clause, which contains those values most important to engineering and to what it means to be an engineer, do not yet put either concept on a par with the safety, health, and welfare of the public. This paper addresses a recent proposal by Michelfelder and Jones (2011) to include sustainability in the paramountcy clause as a way of rectifying the current disregard for social justice issues in the engineering codes. That proposal builds on a certain notion of sustainability that includes social justice as one of its dimensions and claims that social justice is a necessary condition for sustainability, not vice versa. The relationship between these concepts is discussed, and the original proposal is rejected. Drawing on insights developed throughout the paper, some suggestions are made as to how one should address the different requirements that theory and practice demand of the value taxonomy of professional codes of ethics.

  12. The Environmental Protection Agency's Watershed-based Approach: where social and natural sciences meet to address today's water resource challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    A growing number of governmental organizations at the local, state, and federal level collaborate with nongovernmental organizations and individuals to solve watershed scale problems (Imperial and Koontz, 2007). Such a shift in policy approach from hierarchical regulation to bottom-up collaboration is largely a result of regulator’s recognition of the interdependence of natural and socio-economic systems on a watershed scale (Steelman and Carmin, 2002. Agencies throughout the federal government increasingly favored new governing institutions that encourage cooperation between local actors with conflicting interests, divergent geographic bases, and overlapping administrative jurisdictions to resolve continuing disputes over resource management (Bardach 1998). This favoritism of collaborative over command-and-control approaches for managing nonpoint source pollution led to the development of watershed partnerships and the watershed-based approach (Lubell et al., 2002). This study aims to further collaborative governance scholarship and aid decision-makers in identifying the critical elements of collaborative governance resulting in environmental improvements. To date, this relationship has not been empirically determined, in spite of the fact that collaborative governance is used routinely by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in resolving issues related to watershed management and other applications. This gap in the research is largely due to the lack of longitudinal data. In order to determine whether changes have occurred, environmental data must be collected over relatively long time periods (Koontz and Thomas, 2006; Sabatier, et al., 2005). However, collecting these data is often cost prohibitive. Monitoring water quality is expensive and requires technical expertise, and is often the first line item cut in environmental management budgets. This research is interdisciplinary, looking at the physical, chemical, and biological parameters for 44 waterbodies

  13. Another Look at Distributive Justice and the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Dennis R.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses distributive justice in teaching social studies. Argues that utilitarianism is an inadequate basis for distributive justice because it does not allow for the primacy of civil or natural rights. Suggests addressing such issues in class to encourage student consideration of fundamental principles and their application to contemporary…

  14. Adapting Law-Related Education to Juvenile Justice Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curd-Larkin, Mary C.

    1987-01-01

    Notes that juvenile justice systems are increasingly turning to law-related education (LRE) programs as a means of providing youths with some of the skills and knowledge which might deter continued delinquent behavior. Describes issues which must be addressed when implementing LRE in juvenile justice settings. (JDH)

  15. Applicant Personality and Procedural Justice Perceptions of Group Selection Interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Bye, Hege Høivik; Sandal, Gro Mjeldheim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated how job applicants’ personalities influence perceptions of the structural and social procedural justice of group selection interviews (i.e., a group of several applicants being evaluated simultaneously). We especially addressed trait interactions between neuroticism and extraversion (the affective plane) and extraversion and agreeableness (the interpersonal plane). Design/Methodology/Approach: Data on personality (pre-interview) and justice perceptions (post-...

  16. Counseling Psychology Trainees' Social Justice Interest and Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J.; Sendrowitz, Kerrin

    2011-01-01

    Scholars within the field of counseling psychology have for some time now articulated eloquent and compelling calls for attending to social justice in the social sciences. To date, counseling psychologists have been at the forefront of addressing social justice issues in research, practice, and professional development. The present study advances…

  17. Megacities in the coastal zone: Using a driver-pressure-state-impact-response framework to address complex environmental problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekovski, Ivan; Newton, Alice; Dennison, William C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elaborate on the role of coastal megacities in environmental degradation and their contribution to global climate change. Although only less than 4 percent of the total world's population resides in coastal megacities, their impact on environment is significant due to their rapid development, high population densities and high consumption rate of their residents. This study was carried out by implementing a Drivers-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) framework. This analytical framework was chosen because of its potential to link the existing data, gathered from various previous studies, in causal relationship. In this text, coastal megacities have been defined as cities exceeding 10 million inhabitants, situated in "near-coastal zone". Their high rates of the consumption of food, water, space and energy were observed and linked to the high performance rates of related economic activities (industry, transportation, power generation, agriculture and water extraction). In many of the studied coastal megacities, deteriorated quality of air and water was perceived, which can, in combination with global warming, lead to health problems and economic and social disturbance among residents. The extent of problems varied between developing and developed countries, showing higher rates of population growth and certain harmful emissions in megacities of developing countries, as well as more problems regarding food and water shortages, sanitation, and health care support. Although certain projections predict slowdown of growth in most coastal megacities, their future impact on environment is still unclear due to the uncertainties regarding future climate change and trajectories of consumption patterns.

  18. Justice and Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckman, Daniel; Wagner, Lynn M

    2016-01-01

    This review article examines the literature regarding the role played by principles of justice in negotiation. Laboratory experiments and high-stakes negotiations reveal that justice is a complex concept, both in relation to attaining just outcomes and to establishing just processes. We focus on how justice preferences guide the process and outcome of negotiated exchanges. Focusing primarily on the two types of principles that have received the most attention, distributive justice (outcomes of negotiation) and procedural justice (process of negotiation), we introduce the topic by reviewing the most relevant experimental and field or archival research on the roles played by these justice principles in negotiation. A discussion of the methods used in these studies precedes a review organized in terms of a framework that highlights the concept of negotiating stages. We also develop hypotheses based on the existing literature to point the way forward for further research on this topic. PMID:26273898

  19. 环境正义视角下邻避治理模式的重构%On Reconstruction of NIMBY Governance Mode from Perspective of Environmental Justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海龙

    2016-01-01

    In the current NIMBY governance mode, the government is the only subject, making decisions by referring to technical experts without the participation of the public, which is the offside of government functions. The decisionmaking is a“decision-publicization-defense”process:government consulting technical experts comes first, publicizing the decision to the society later and defending in response to the questions raised by citizens last, which makes the process of decision making unreasonable. Meanwhile, for the lack of supporting laws, the regulations of NIMBY governance, which can't meet the needs of NIMBY governance, still need improving. The current NIMBY governance mode tends to infringe the citizens’rights to knowing about and participating in environmental affairs, which causes the circumstances of“announcing-protesting-freezing”of some NIMBY projects. The governance mode needs reconstructing from the perspective of environmental justice to safeguard citizens�� environmental rights. Citizens should be allowed to participate in the process of decision making and management, and to communicate through legal procedure so as to achieve consensus and run according to the norms and standards. First, there should be multi⁃subject in NIMBY governance. Residents and social organizations should participate in the NIMBY governance to realize the coordination of various subjects. Second, the decisionmaking procedure of NIMBY governance should be transferred from“decision- publicization- defense”mode to“participation-negotiation-consensus”mode. With various subjects participating in the negotiation, citizens’ reasonable opinions should be responded and absorbed before the making and the announcement of the decision. Third, NIMBY facility construction needs to be regulated and standardized. The system of public participation, environmental information disclosure and environmental rights and interests relief associated with NIMBY governance needs

  20. The Dimensions of Social Justice Model: Transforming Traditional Group Work into a Socially Just Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratts, Manivong J.; Anthony, Loni; Santos, KristiAnna Nicole T.

    2010-01-01

    Social justice is a complex and abstract concept that can be difficult to discuss and integrate within group work. To address this concern, this article introduces readers to the Dimensions of Social Justice Model. The model provides group leaders with a conceptual framework for understanding the degree to which social justice is integrated within…

  1. Mathematics and Social Justice in Grade 1: How Children Understand Inequality and Represent It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M. Shaun

    2009-01-01

    Social justice might be considered too complex a topic to address with 6- and 7-year-olds, particularly through mathematics. How would first-graders understand social justice? The author believes that by focusing on inequality in relation to power and access to resources, freedom, and diversity, children could understand social justice issues. The…

  2. Justice as a Dynamic Construct: Effects of Individual Trajectories on Distal Work Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausknecht, John P.; Sturman, Michael C.; Roberson, Quinetta M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite an amassing organizational justice literature, few studies have directly addressed the temporal patterning of justice judgments and the effects that changes in these perceptions have on important work outcomes. Drawing from Gestalt characteristics theory (Ariely & Carmon, 2000, 2003), we examine the concept of justice trajectories (i.e.,…

  3. Ministerial Presentation: Sudan [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, I would like to thank the IAEA and OECD for sponsoring this conference and the government of China for hosting the conference. It gives me great pleasure to address this conference. This is a very important conference dealing with nuclear power in the 21st century. Sudan as a developing nation experiences an increase in the energy demand of its people. This is due to an increase industrialization and urbanization. Sudan with the assistance of the IAEA has initiated a planning study for long term energy supply and demand. This study showed that by the year 2020 an energy gap between energy supply and demand will occur. According to this study Sudan need to consider the nuclear option as part of an energy mix. Accordingly, Sudan with the help of the IAEA has started a technical cooperation program aiming at understanding the necessary infrastructure needed for a nuclear power program. To implement this program two committees were formed. A technical committee to address the technical requirement for the project and a high administrative committee to give the necessary political support. Utilizing nuclear energy for peaceful purposes requires strong commitment towards issues of safety, security and safeguards of nuclear and radioactive material. As part of the infrastructure requirement, in Sudan we started the amendments of the legal and regulatory framework. A new atomic energy act is being drafted. The most important features of this act are that: It provide for the establishment of a separate independent regulatory authority which will deal with all regulatory aspects of radioactive sources and nuclear material. The act also covers areas like emergency preparedness, nuclear security, liability and others. The legal requirement of nuclear program is the adherences to certain international legal instrument. A national committee from the ministries of justice, foreign affairs and science and technology was formed to advice on the country position regarding the

  4. Human Rights and Teaching for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landorf, Hilary

    2010-01-01

    According to the author, teaching for social justice entails the acquisition of the following learning outcomes: (1) knowledge of the meaning, historical development, and application of human rights; (2) ability to analyze human rights from multiple perspectives; and (3) willingness to address human rights issues in local, global, intercultural,…

  5. Women and Peace through Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Sanam Naraghi-Anderlini

    2005-01-01

    Sanam Naraghi-Anderlini reflects on the experiences of women who have survived war and its atrocities and are working for peace and a social reconstruction process. She argues that indictment of war criminals alone does not address the immediate and long-term needs of the maimed and the raped, the orphans and the AIDS carriers. Justice can include reparations or support and care, access to health care and education, opportunities to become skilled and employed. But at the very minimum it mean...

  6. Citizenship and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.J. Bernts (Ton); L. d' Anjou (Leo); D. Houtman (Dick)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractDiscussions on the problems of the welfare state are increasingly framed in terms of citizenship rather than social justice. The popularity of the concept of citizenship raises the question of its implications for social justice theory and research. In this article it is argued that wher

  7. Access as justice

    OpenAIRE

    FITZPATRICK, Peter

    2005-01-01

    With the considerable help of Derrida, aptly aided by Mandela, this paper advances an idea of justice as integral to law. Thence, by way of an homology with such justice, access also is shown to be integral to law. What impels the overall argument is the primacy accorded to law in the constitution of the social bond.

  8. Justice as Europe's Signifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Suryapratim; Kochenov, Dimitry; de Burca, Grainne; Williams, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the fact that justice is never explained in European legal discourse, but is used in conjunction with other principles and institutional decisions, this contribution argues that justice is used as a rhetorical tool to provide legitimacy to such principles and decisions. An analogous proce

  9. Renewing Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallair, Daniel; Males, Mike; Enty, Dinky Manek; Vinakor, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) was commissioned by Sierra Health Foundation to critically examine California's juvenile justice system and consider the potential role of foundations in promoting systemic reform. The information gathered by CJCJ researchers for this report suggests that foundations can perform a key leadership…

  10. Social Justice in Outdoor Experiential Education: A State of Knowledge Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Karen; Roberts, Nina S.; Breunig, Mary; Alvarez, M. Antonio G.

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor experiential education has often been critiqued for its White, male, middle/upper-class, able-bodied history, thereby causing professionals and programs to consider issues of social justice. This state of knowledge paper will review the literature on social and environmental justice, identify gaps in current social justice literature and…

  11. 28 CFR 51.24 - Address for submissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be delivered to the Chief, Voting Section, Civil Rights Division, Department of Justice, 320 First....24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF... General via the U.S. Postal Service shall be addressed to the Chief, Voting Section, Civil Rights...

  12. Environmental justice implications of arsenic contamination in California’s San Joaquin Valley: a cross-sectional, cluster-design examining exposure and compliance in community drinking water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies of environmental justice examine inequities in drinking water contamination. Those studies that have done so usually analyze either disparities in exposure/harm or inequitable implementation of environmental policies. The US EPA’s 2001 Revised Arsenic Rule, which tightened the drinking water standard for arsenic from 50 μg/L to 10 μg/L, offers an opportunity to analyze both aspects of environmental justice. Methods We hypothesized that Community Water Systems (CWSs) serving a higher proportion of minority residents or residents of lower socioeconomic status (SES) have higher drinking water arsenic levels and higher odds of non-compliance with the revised standard. Using water quality sampling data for arsenic and maximum contaminant level (MCL) violation data for 464 CWSs actively operating from 2005–2007 in California’s San Joaquin Valley we ran bivariate tests and linear regression models. Results Higher home ownership rate was associated with lower arsenic levels (ß-coefficient= −0.27 μg As/L, 95% (CI), -0.5, -0.05). This relationship was stronger in smaller systems (ß-coefficient= −0.43, CI, -0.84, -0.03). CWSs with higher rates of homeownership had lower odds of receiving an MCL violation (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.16, 0.67); those serving higher percentages of minorities had higher odds (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2, 5.4) of an MCL violation. Conclusions We found that higher arsenic levels and higher odds of receiving an MCL violation were most common in CWSs serving predominantly socio-economically disadvantaged communities. Our findings suggest that communities with greater proportions of low SES residents not only face disproportionate arsenic exposures, but unequal MCL compliance challenges. PMID:23151087

  13. Environmental justice implications of arsenic contamination in California’s San Joaquin Valley: a cross-sectional, cluster-design examining exposure and compliance in community drinking water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs Carolina L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies of environmental justice examine inequities in drinking water contamination. Those studies that have done so usually analyze either disparities in exposure/harm or inequitable implementation of environmental policies. The US EPA’s 2001 Revised Arsenic Rule, which tightened the drinking water standard for arsenic from 50 μg/L to 10 μg/L, offers an opportunity to analyze both aspects of environmental justice. Methods We hypothesized that Community Water Systems (CWSs serving a higher proportion of minority residents or residents of lower socioeconomic status (SES have higher drinking water arsenic levels and higher odds of non-compliance with the revised standard. Using water quality sampling data for arsenic and maximum contaminant level (MCL violation data for 464 CWSs actively operating from 2005–2007 in California’s San Joaquin Valley we ran bivariate tests and linear regression models. Results Higher home ownership rate was associated with lower arsenic levels (ß-coefficient= −0.27 μg As/L, 95% (CI, -0.5, -0.05. This relationship was stronger in smaller systems (ß-coefficient= −0.43, CI, -0.84, -0.03. CWSs with higher rates of homeownership had lower odds of receiving an MCL violation (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.16, 0.67; those serving higher percentages of minorities had higher odds (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2, 5.4 of an MCL violation. Conclusions We found that higher arsenic levels and higher odds of receiving an MCL violation were most common in CWSs serving predominantly socio-economically disadvantaged communities. Our findings suggest that communities with greater proportions of low SES residents not only face disproportionate arsenic exposures, but unequal MCL compliance challenges.

  14. IP Addressing

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    tut quiz anim This interactive tutorial covers the following: The concept of halving a binary number space., Using the halving concept to explain how the Internet IP space is segmented into the A, B, and C address classifications., How the first octet ranges for the A, B, and C IP space are produced.In this tutorial, explanations are illustrated by simple animations. Students are asked to observe number patterns, and check their observations against automated 'answers.' There is a qu...

  15. Inaugural Address

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani

    2008-01-01

    Sardar Aseff Ahmad Ali, Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission, Dr Rashid Amjad, President, Pakistan Society of Development Economists, Honourable Ministers, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen! It is indeed a privilege and honour to address this distinguished gathering of economists. I am very happy that this meeting is being attended by internationally acclaimed economists and academics from both within and outside the country. I am especially heartened to see that students of economics from a...

  16. Justice in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocilová, Jana; Hruby, Radovan; Slepecky, Milos; Latalova, Klara; Prasko, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Justice is one of the fundamental concepts of right ordering of human relationships. Justice is a regulative idea for the arrangement of society preceding the law and already seen in animals; the sense of justice is observed as early as in young children. The ability to altruistic behavior, sense of fairness, reciprocity and mutual help are probably genetically determined as a disposition, which may further develop or be deformed by education. Although justice issues are common in psychotherapy, they may not be reflected and processed in the course of therapy. In psychotherapy, justice issues appear directly in what the client says (mostly about injustice), but more frequently the issues are implicitly contained in complaints and stories against a background of conflicts and problems. They may be related to the client's story, his or her problems with other people, and the therapeutic process itself, including client´s selection of therapy, therapeutic relationship, and therapeutic change strategies. By increasing receptiveness to the issue of justice, the therapist may help improve the therapeutic process. Problems with justice between the therapist and the client may be revealed by honest therapist self-reflection or high-quality supervision. PMID:26812291

  17. Civilisation of Criminal Justice: Restorative Justice amongst other strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Blad, John

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Is criminal justice becoming more and uncivilised if so, how could this be explained? Could Is criminal justice becoming more and uncivilised if so, how could this be explained? Could Is criminal justice becoming more and uncivilised if so, how could this be explained? Could Is criminal justice becoming more and uncivilised if so, how could this be explained? Could Is criminal justice becoming more and uncivilised if so, how could this be explained? Could Is crimi...

  18. Offshore Finfish Aquaculture in the United States: An Examination of Federal Laws That Could be Used to Address Environmental and Occupational Public Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian P. Fry

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Half of the world’s edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production.

  19. Concerning Justice and Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I explore matters concerning justice and music education. I briefly sketch responses to five interrelated questions: Why should music educators be interested in justice? What is meant by the term social justice and how is it distinguished from justice of other kinds? How do liberal views of humanity, particularly the preciousness of…

  20. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last week we were reminded once again of the after-effects of Chernobyl. Unexpectedly high values of the radioactive substance caesium were found in moose meat from the south of Vaesterbotten County. A moose cow shot in Aengersjoe had 2000 becquerel per kilo meat, and a moose calf had almost 4000 becquerel. The caesium content in Swedish moose has varied after the 1986 reactor breakdown at Chernobyl. The explanation for this year's unusually high content appears to be that, due to the warm weather, the moose have eaten blueberries which contain more caesium than plants in wood clearings. Moose meat containing caesium reminds us of the vulnerability of our society. It reminds us that emissions cross borders and that ambitious, long term environmental policies must be adopted at the national but above all at the international level. Work on environmental objectives is an important component of Swedish efforts to overcome our environmental problems within a generation. In Sweden, our work is based on 15 environmental quality objectives. We have established subgoals, action strategies and follow-up mechanisms. In an international context it is, I venture to say, unique in its systematic structure. The Swedish Government and Riksdag have laid down that: - Human health and biological diversity shall be protected against harmful effects of radiation in the outdoor environment. - By the year 2010, the content in the environment of radioactive substances emitted from all activities and operations shall be so low that human health and biological diversity are protected. - By the year 2020 the annual number of cases of skin cancer caused by the sun shall not be higher than the figure for the year 2000. The risks involved in electromagnetic fields shall be continuously reviewed and necessary measures taken when such risks are identified. These objectives describe the quality and conditions for Sweden's environmental, natural and cultural resources that are ecologically

  1. Crippling Sexual Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stormhøj, Christel

    2015-01-01

    . The article develops a normative and analytical framework, encompassing the multiple structural conditions, the virtues of citizens, and the emotional dimension of belonging, which enable or hamper justice. It integrates theories of democratic citizenship, belonging, and social justice, and provides...... an updated theorization of the social-sexual regime, considering the occurrence of a normalizing logic and its implications for the achievement of justice. The article then analyses the manifold consequences of these circumstances on the citizenship of gays by examining relations of recognition...

  2. Justice and the Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, T.F.; Lappe, M. (eds.)

    1992-01-01

    Most of the essays gathered in this volume were first presented at a conference, Justice and the Human Genome, in Chicago in early November, 1991. The goal of the, conference was to consider questions of justice as they are and will be raised by the Human Genome Project. To achieve its goal of identifying and elucidating the challenges of justice inherent in genomic research and its social applications the conference drew together in one forum members from academia, medicine, and industry with interests divergent as rate-setting for insurance, the care of newborns, and the history of ethics. The essays in this volume address a number of theoretical and practical concerns relative to the meaning of genomic research.

  3. Justice and the Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, T.F.; Lappe, M. [eds.

    1992-12-31

    Most of the essays gathered in this volume were first presented at a conference, Justice and the Human Genome, in Chicago in early November, 1991. The goal of the, conference was to consider questions of justice as they are and will be raised by the Human Genome Project. To achieve its goal of identifying and elucidating the challenges of justice inherent in genomic research and its social applications the conference drew together in one forum members from academia, medicine, and industry with interests divergent as rate-setting for insurance, the care of newborns, and the history of ethics. The essays in this volume address a number of theoretical and practical concerns relative to the meaning of genomic research.

  4. Transitional Justice and the Quality of Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Mihr

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Transitional Justice is a long-term process which seeks to address severe human rights abuses of the past through measures such as trials, commissions of inquiry, memorials, apologies, reforms of the legal or security sector, school textbook reforms, and reconciliation projects. These measures are usually applied by governments, but can also be initiated by civil society groups, such as victim groups, or the international community, for example the European Union or the UNHCR. Transitional justice measures are seen as catalysts for coming to terms with the past and establishing new, stable, and often democratic societies. As such, the measures are linked to the performance and efficacy of democratic institutions in the context of their accountability and responsiveness, transparency, and level of citizen participation. Thus, transitional justice is a process that aims to reconcile divided and conflict-torn societies by re-establishing (democratic institutions. These measures can be catalysts to leverage institutional performance.

  5. Mediating equity in shared water between community and industry: The effects of an after school program that addresses adolescents' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of water science and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Mary Chandler

    This critical ethnography deconstructs how one participant researcher came to understand young adults' changing knowledge about water science and environmental issues in an after school program in Colombia. The program intended to empower self-identified young community leaders by teaching participants to engage community members in discourse related to how environmental factors impact one's level of health and quality of life. The data presented in this study illustrate how student participants responded to long-term teacher engagement and to particular curricular components that included hands-on science teaching and social justice coaching. I assessed how student interest in and knowledge of local water ecology and sanitation infrastructure changed throughout the program. Students' responses to the use of technology and digital media were also included in the analysis. The data demonstrates a dramatic change in student's attitudes and perceptions related to their environment and how they feel about their ability to make positive changes in their community.

  6. Welcome Address

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@  On behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute, I welcome you to Beijing and to the Third Asian Conference on Food Safety and Nutrition. Many of you will remember the first Asian conference on Food Safety held in Kuala Lumpur in 1990 and the second held in Bangkok in 1994. These meetings have been so successful that ILSI made the commitment to host such a conference periodically in order to provide a forum to share the latest information and to set new goals and priorities.   This year, we have broadened the scope of the agenda to include issues on nutrition. I want to thank all of our co-sponsors and members of the Planning Committee for preparing such a comprehensive and timely program. Some of the issues and challenges facing Asia that will be addressed at this meeting are:

  7. Protecting Children Rights under International Criminal Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erinda Duraj (Male

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Children are a central concern of international criminal justice. International crimes and other forms of violence and the abuse of children are disturbing daily realities in today’s world. Children and young persons are increasingly being targeted for the purposes of murder, rape, abduction, mutilation, recruitment as child soldiers, trafficking, sexual exploitation and other abuses. Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Colombia, and many others illustrate this. The participation of children in international criminal justice and other accountability mechanisms is now one of the major issues facing criminal justice today. In this sense, this paper presents a short overview on the issue of children and their participation in international criminal justice. The paper thus focuses on giving a definition of “child/children” according to international norms, which are the key principles of children’s rights, their participation in the criminal justice system, the different international crimes committed by them or against them etc. Also, this paper briefly addresses the main contours of the normative framework regarding the criminal responsibility of children for their alleged participation in international crimes. It reviews international norms regarding children who may be accused of having participated in the commission of such crimes themselves (as child soldiers and identifies their criminal responsibility for such acts. Finally, this paper acknowledges the obligations of states under international law to prosecute persons accused of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, torture and enforced disappearances, specifically focusing on crimes against children.

  8. Crippling Sexual Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stormhøj, Christel

    2015-01-01

    Exploring homosexuals' citizenship in Denmark from a justice perspective, this article critically interrogates society's supposed gay-friendliness by asking how far it has moved in achieving sexual justice, and inquiring into the gains and pains of the existing modes of achieving this end. The...... updated theorization of the social-sexual regime, considering the occurrence of a normalizing logic and its implications for the achievement of justice. The article then analyses the manifold consequences of these circumstances on the citizenship of gays by examining relations of recognition and...... representation within family law, civil society, and in the labour market. In conclusion, I suggest the possibility of different evaluations of the level of sexual justice reached, a mainly positive, partially negative one. Additionally, I discuss the gains and pains of the existing normalizing politics....

  9. Territorial justice and Thatcherism

    OpenAIRE

    G A Boyne; Powell, M

    1993-01-01

    Changes in the level of territorial justice in the construction of new dwellings during the 1980s are examined. It has been widely argued that spatial equity has declined since the 1970s, particularly in the context of the 'north - south divide'. Thus, it may be expected that territorial justice -- spatial equity at the local authority level -- also declined during the Thatcher years. The general arguments and evidence on spatial equity are critically reviewed, and then the relationship betwe...

  10. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is encouraging to see so many experts gathered here today to discuss the important issue of environmental protection from ionizing radiation. The International Union of Radioecology (IUR) has collaborated constructively with other international organizations, notably the ICRP, the IAEA, UNSCEAR and the EU, and hope that these close links may be strengthened and developed in the future. Such international cooperation has been conducive to rapid progress on the theme of radiological protection of the environment in recent years. The IUR, as an independent scientific association, has been fighting to put environmental radioactivity in the same context as other environmental problems within regulatory and political agendas. In the early years, it could be quite embarrassing because there was little support for this initiative, but now it can give us great satisfaction that the topic appears to be receiving the international attention it deserves. However, it is imperative that any advances are built on a foundation of scientific knowledge. The IUR task group, formed in 1997, took note of a number of initiatives and ideas being developed within the radiological protection community. The IUR was the first international organization to conclude that a systematic approach was required in order to develop a framework within which various initiatives could be accommodated and, in 2000, such a system was presented and promoted. The IUR also highlighted the need to consider the broader socioeconomic context within which these ideas were beginning to evolve. I would now like to spend a few moments of your time to update you on the IUR's views and activities. A consensus conference was held in Oslo in 2001, supported by a number of representatives from NGOs, industry, academia and regulators. A surprising degree of agreement was achieved, enabling the drafting of a consensus statement - stating that the environment should receive radiological protection. Members of

  11. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs

  12. Presidential address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  13. Accountability in Teenage Dating Violence: A Comparative Examination of Adult Domestic Violence and Juvenile Justice Systems Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosky, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    Unlike in the adult criminal justice system, where domestic violence policies hold perpetrators accountable for their violence, the juvenile justice system rarely addresses teenage dating violence. Although the adult criminal justice system has pursued policies toward intimate partner violence grounded on a "zero tolerance" ideology, the juvenile…

  14. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opening address by the host country started by thanking to the International Atomic Energy Agency for holding this important scientific event in in Morocco. The themes to be considered by this conference are among the priorities of the Scientific Research Department in its endeavour to promote scientific research in the field of nuclear science and technology for peaceful uses in Morocco. By so doing, this Department is following and supporting the efforts being made by our country to provide training, and elaborate rules and regulations, and to create infrastructure, acquire material and, equipment and encourage qualified and active researchers. Hence, the convening of this conference responds to a strategic interest of our country, which, similar to other countries, is committed to the achievement of comprehensive and sustainable development for the protection of human kind and the environment. This is considered nowadays as a strategic and vital objective as it entails the protection of people from radiation and against all kinds of professional risks and health hazards. Morocco attaches great importance to radiation safety issues. Our country adhered to all international conventions related to nuclear safety. It is in the process of adapting its internal regulations to international norms and standards, and it is making progress towards the establishment of a national safety body which meets those norms and standards, with the assistance of the IAEA. For this purpose, a standing committee for the follow-up of nuclear affairs has been created on the basis of Royal Instructions, and placed under the authority of the Prime Minister. Its task is to serve as a think-tank on nuclear safety issues and to make proposals on ways and means of reinforcing radiation safety measures. It goes without saying that the peaceful uses of nuclear energy must meet the safety standards elaborated by the IAEA. However, we are convinced that the elaboration of safety standards

  15. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    and become more technical. Involving experts from all fields is then crucial for success. This perception is reflected in the goals of this meeting. It is designed as an extensive information exchange forum between decision makers, regulators, radiation and waste safety specialists, and the nuclear industry. It is this mix which promises high efficiency with respect to solving the problems that you are addressing. I am sure that the safe termination of practices involving radioactive materials during the decommissioning of nuclear installations is one of the major challenges that industrialized nations will have to face during the next decades

  16. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear terrorism has been recognized as a potential threat to human security and economic prosperity since at least the 1970s. Evidence of Al Qaeda's interest in acquiring nuclear material came to light during the 1990s. However, it is since the attacks of 11 September 2001 that the risk of nuclear terrorist acts has come to be a widespread public and governmental concern, for understandable reasons, and that efforts to combat illicit trafficking, which could lead to nuclear or other radioactive materials falling into the hands of terrorists, have intensified. Six years on, it makes sense to take stock of what has been achieved in the combat to stem illicit trafficking and of where further actions - actions of individual States and cooperative international actions - might usefully be initiated. The IAEA has maintained an Illicit Trafficking Database since 1995. Information reported to this database confirms that concerns about illicit trafficking in nuclear material are justified. Database information points to persistent theft and loss of radioactive sources. States' international obligations relevant to international nuclear trafficking are based on the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, which deals with weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons and non-State actors, and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1375, which requires all States to take the necessary steps to prevent the commission of terrorist acts, including early warning to other States. In addition to these legally binding instruments, there is the non-binding Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, which Member States of the IAEA agreed in 2003. The Code addresses the establishment of an adequate system of regulatory control, from the production of radioactive sources to their final

  17. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Being fully aware of the IAEA's central and important roles in the field of nuclear security, Japan has cooperated closely with the IAEA in the field of nuclear security. One of Japan's efforts was holding a seminar on strengthening nuclear security in Asian countries in November 2006, making use of Japan's contribution to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. The seminar was organized for the first time in Asia to address nuclear security matters, in which more than 100 experts from 19 countries participated. Japan also hosted a seminar, aimed at promoting the accession to the international counterterrorism conventions and protocols, inviting government officials and experts from Asia Pacific countries. At the seminar, Japan presented its experience and lessons learned with regard to its ratification of relevant international conventions such as the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. Japan has also provided assistance for capacity building in the field of physical protection measures, and is preparing three projects for Asian countries through the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. In Thailand, Japan has a project aimed at improving physical protection of nuclear research facilities. In Vietnam, Japan plans to host a workshop on radiation detection equipment for border officials and is also preparing for a seminar aimed at capacity building of control on nuclear material in Vietnam. Japan is committed to continue its efforts to make the IAEA Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement together with an Additional Protocol the universally accepted verification standard for the peaceful use undertakings of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Japan's basic policy on bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements is as follows. Considering the dual nature of nuclear material and technology, Japan is of the view that three Ss, that is, S for 'safeguards' (non-proliferation), S for 'safety

  18. Executive Order 12898 and Social, Economic, and Sociopolitical Factors Influencing Toxic Release Inventory Facility Location in EPA Region 6: A Multi-Scale Spatial Assessment of Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andrea Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Toxic Release Inventory facilities are among the many environmental hazards shown to create environmental inequities in the United States. This project examined four factors associated with Toxic Release Inventory, specifically, manufacturing facility location at multiple spatial scales using spatial analysis techniques (i.e., O-ring statistic and…

  19. Juvenile Justice in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Frías Armenta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The first tribunal in Mexico was established in the central state of San Luis Potosi in 1926. The Law Regarding Social Prevention and Juvenile Delinquency for the Federal District and Mexican territories was promulgated in 1928. In 2005, Article 18 of the Mexican Constitution was modified to establish a comprehensive system (“Sistema Integral de justicia” in Spanish of justice for juveniles between 12 and 18 years old who had committed a crime punishable under criminal law. Its objective was to guarantee juveniles all the due process rights established for adults, in addition to the special ones recognized for minors. The constitutional reform also provides a framework that includes special tribunals as well as alternative justice options for juveniles. With these reforms, institutionalization of minors was to be considered an extreme measure applicable only to felonies and to juveniles older than 14. In 2006, all states within the Mexican federation enacted the “Law of justice for adolescents”. This system, at both the federal and state levels, formalizes a new global paradigm with regard to the triangular relationship between children, the State and the Law. It recognizes that children are also bearers of the inherent human rights recognized for all individuals, instead of simply objects in need of protection. However, despite formally aligning Mexican juvenile justice law with the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC, issues of actual substantive rights remained and new ones have appeared. For example, juveniles younger than 14 who have not committed a felony are released from institutions without any rehabilitation or treatment options, and alternative forms of justice were included without evaluating their possibilities of application or their conditions for success. In addition, the economic status of most juvenile detainees continues to be one of the most important determining factors in the administration of justice

  20. Ten tendencies of criminal justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jiahong

    2007-01-01

    A study of the global tendencies of criminal justice will help us design a more scientific and rational pathway for the reformation of existing criminal justice system of China. In the forthcoming several hundred years to come, theworld's criminal justice is to take on ten tendencies, that is, the tendency toward unity, civilization, science, rule of law, human rights, justice, efficiency,specialization, standardization and harmony.

  1. Juvenile Justice in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others

    Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

  2. International Court of Justice on Potential Transboundary Damage and its Consequences in Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 4 May 2006, Argentina filed in the International Court of Justice ('ICJ') an application instituting proceedings against Uruguay. Argentina claimed that Uruguay, by authorizing the construction of a pulp mill (the 'CMB mill') and the construction and commissioning of another pulp mill (the 'Orion mill'), breached its obligations under the 1975 Statute of the River Uruguay, a treaty between Argentina and Uruguay, notably the obligation to take all necessary measures for the optimum and rational utilisation of the River Uruguay. On 20 April 2010,1 the court rendered its decision settling this environmental dispute between Argentina and Uruguay. This paper will first summarize the judgement and then consider the main contribution of this decision to international environmental law, e.g. the recognition of an international customary rule to conduct an environmental impact assessment. Finally, the potential consequences of the decision in nuclear law will be addressed in the last part

  3. Ecological Gentrification: Re-negotiating Justice in the City

    OpenAIRE

    Dooling, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    In this book on Justice and Segregation, I want to return to David Harvey’s book Justice, Nature&the Geography of Difference, in which he challenged scholars to explore the spatial and political forces that produce the convergence of environmental and social phenomena. Harvey called for collapsing the boundaries between social and natural through recognizing human impacts on ecosystem functioning. He also advocated incorporating ecological processes into understanding the transformation of so...

  4. Political ecology and the epistemology of social justice

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Piers Blaikie’s writings on political ecology in the 1980s represented a turning point in the generation of environmental knowledge for social justice. His writings since the 1980s demonstrated a further transition in the identification of social justice by replacing a Marxist and eco-catastrophist epistemology with approaches influenced by critical realism, post-structuralism and participatory development. Together, these works demonstrated an important engagement with the politics of how en...

  5. Developing a training module on Gender & spatial justice

    OpenAIRE

    Tummers, L.C.

    2015-01-01

    Justice is more than a legal matter: it has spatial and environmental implications and is related to engineering. The concept of ‘spatial justice’ was introduced in 2010 in planning by Eduard Soja. It indicates the accessibility of urban resources such as education and healthcare. Under democratic governments, planning territorial development is supposed to do ‘justice for all’. This position has been challenged by feminist scholars arguing that ‘all’ do not have the same point of departure i...

  6. Ministerial Presentation: Lithuania [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , its implementation is more complex, complicated and slower than it appears. Implementation requires constant coordination among all partners participating in project. We are glad that there are already some steps accomplished which I want to share with you. After the political declaration of the three Baltic States on the construction of a common nuclear power plant Lithuania started to consider project related environmental issues. The Environmental Impact Assessment Program (EIA) was approved by the Lithuanian Ministry of Environment on November 15th, 2007 after extensive national and international commenting. In August 2008 EIA report has been prepared and presented to the public. Environmental impact assessment evaluated construction and operation of a new nuclear power plant in Lithuania with an approximate electric power of 3400 MW. The environmental impact assessment did not find any environmental or social impacts of such significance, caused by construction or operation of the new NPP, that they could not be accepted or mitigated to an acceptable level. Lithuania has established the National investor company LEO LT which is responsible for the implementation and development of New Nuclear Power Plant project. LEO LT is going to bear 100% of Lithuania's participation share in the project. The step forward to project implementation was establishing a new LEO LT subsidiary - 'Visaginas nuclear power plant'. A new subsidiary will perform all the new NPP project related preparatory works. While discussing nuclear power expansion we have to think about expansion of human resources as well. The National Energy Strategy gives the national priority to ensure timely preparation of specialists for work in the new nuclear power plant as of the phase of mounting its technological equipment. In this respect Lithuania has developed a National programme for the preparation of nuclear energy specialists for the years 2008-2015. Taking into account all those mentioned

  7. GLOBALIZATION AND SOCIAL JUSTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Arye L. Hillman

    2008-01-01

    Globalization enhances efficiency and economic growth and expands the domain of personal contact and communication. Nonetheless, globalization has also evoked discontent because of claimed social injustice. The relation between globalization and social justice therefore merits attention, in order to identify whether justifications for discontent are present and, if there are reasons for discontent, to establish whether globalization should be blamed.

  8. Justice under uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cettolin, E.; Riedl, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    An important element for the public support of policies is their perceived justice. At the same time most policy choices have uncertain outcomes. We report the results of a first experiment investigating just allocations of resources when some recipients are exposed to uncertainty. Although, under c

  9. Publicity and Egalitarian Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the issue of publicity has surfaced in discussions of the correct interpretation of the Rawlsian principles of justice. In an intriguing critique of G.A. Cohen's preferred interpretation of the difference principle as a principle that is incompatible with incentive-based inequalities...

  10. Using System Dynamics to Develop Organizational Learning Process; the Neighbourhood Justice Centre in Yarra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Haslett

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Neighbourhood Justice Centre (NJC in the Melbourne suburb of Collingwood is a first for Australia and reflects a universal growing interest in addressing the underlying causes of criminal behaviour and disadvantage as well as improving access to justice.By Tim Hasslet, School of Integrative Systems, University of Queensland, Chris Ballenden, Ponte Consulting; Saroj Godbole, Ponte Consulting; Kerry Walker, Director, Neighbourhood Justice Centre, Melbourne

  11. Northern Ireland in Transition: The Role of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Mailhes

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available All post-conflict societies switching to constitutional liberal democracies have to deal with their past through transitional justice mechanisms that offer to hear the victims, try the perpetrators of all types of abuses, introduce peace and reconciliation schemes. It is time for state and non-state organs to account for past crimes. Several countries have successfully tested such mechanisms. Northern Ireland is the ideal ground for transitional justice to operate but it dispels foreign tailor-made models. However, a number of major reforms and projects have addressed sensitive issues in the wake of the Good Friday Agreement. Two key institutions, the police and the criminal justice system, whose responsibility in the conflict was undeniable, have been reformed. Law and lawyers are concerned with these changes and the introduction of a Human Rights culture in Northern Ireland. A clear break with the past must be achieved for transitional justice mechanisms to work successfully.

  12. Creating a Consortium to Increase minority and Low-Income Community Participation in Alternative Energy Development, Production and Management Melinda Downing, United States Department of Energy Geraldine Herring, United States Department of Agriculture John Rosenthall, Environmental Justice Conference, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    America's desire for energy independence places a new demand on alternative fuel production. Additional interest and emphasis are being placed on alternatives such as solar, wind, biofuels and nuclear energy. The nuclear fuel production option brings a new look at risk and residual waste management for a number of communities that have traditionally remained outside the energy debate. With the Federal requirements for environmental justice and public participation in energy and environmental decision-making, proponents of alternative energy production facilities will find themselves participating in discussions of risk, production, storage and disposal of hazardous materials and waste matters with low income and minority members in communities where these facilities are located or wish to locate. The fundamental principal of environmental justice is that all residents should have meaningful and intelligent participation in all aspects of environmental decision-making that could affect their community. Impacted communities must have the resources and ability to effectively marshall data and other information in order to make informed and intelligent decisions. Traditionally, many low-income and minority communities have lacked access to the required information, decision-makers and technical advisers to make informed decisions with respect to various risks that accompany alternative energy production, hazardous materials storage and nuclear waste management. In order to provide the necessary assistance to these communities, the Departments of Energy and Agriculture have teamed with others to cerate the Alternative Energy Consortium. The Alternative Energy Consortium is a collaboration of non-profit organizations, Federal agencies, Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Serving Institutions (HBCU/MSIs), and private sector corporations (energy industry specialists) designed to explore and develop opportunities that empower minorities to own and work

  13. Two Views of Criminology and Criminal Justice: Definitions, Trends, and the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, John P.; Myren, Richard A.

    The question of whether criminology and criminal justice are distinct fields is addressed in two papers. Differences between criminology and criminal justice are delineated by emphasizing formal definitions of the field(s), occupational roles, contemporary educational trends, and future development. According to John P. Conrad, criminology is the…

  14. Social Justice and Multicultural Issues: Implications for the Practice and Training of Counselors and Counseling Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Madonna G.; Hage, Sally M.; Kindaichi, Mai M.; Bryant, Rhonda M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors discuss the historical and contemporary connection to social justice issues in the fields of counseling and counseling psychology via the multicultural counseling movement. In addition, the authors present ways in which social justice issues can be addressed in counselors' and counseling psychologists' work with clients from diverse…

  15. Perceived Justice and Group Identification The Moderating Role of Previous Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipponen, Jukka; Wisse, Barbara; Perala, Janne

    2011-01-01

    Temporal dynamics have hardly been considered in the fields of organizational justice and group identification, yet addressing intra-individual change trajectories over time may lead to a fuller understanding of the relationship between justice and identification. Therefore, this study investigated

  16. Expatriate adjustment: the role of justice and conflict in intimate relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, van Kim J.P.M; Giebels, Ellen; Zee, van der Karen I.; Duijn, van Marijtje A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Framing expatriation as family relocation, this research examines the influence of perceived justice and conflict on the psychological adjustment of 103 expatriate couples. Based on the actor–partner interdependence model, the proposed model simultaneously addresses effects of justice and conflict o

  17. Expatriate adjustment : The role of justice and conflict in intimate relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, K.J.P.M. van; Giebels, E.; van Duijn, M.A.J.; Van Oudenhoven-van der Zee, K.I.

    2011-01-01

    Framing expatriation as family relocation, this research examines the influence of perceived justice and conflict on the psychological adjustment of 103 expatriate couples. Based on the actor-partner interdependence model, the proposed model simultaneously addresses effects of justice and conflict o

  18. A Call for Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Marques-Silva, Joao; Brahmachari, Debahuti; Sakallah, Karem; Lynce, Ines

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new development can be identified within the civil society in Malaysia. A development that has resulted in a general call for justice, voiced through coalition groups that cut across categories of affiliation. This development is triggered by an increasing inculcation of Islamic values into the political system, which has interfered with the understanding of Malaysia as a country that can provide a framework for coexistence within a multicultural society. This thesis seeks ...

  19. Hume's Theory of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Spector

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hume developed an original and revolutionary theoretical paradigm for explaining the spontaneous emergence of the classic conventions of justice - stable possession, transference of property by consent, and the obligation to fulfill promises. In a scenario of scarce external resources, Hume's central idea is that the development of the rules of justice responds to a sense of common interest that progressively tames the destructiveness of natural self-love and expands the action of natural moral sentiments. By handling conceptual tools that anticipated game theory for centuries, Hume was able to break with rationalism, the natural law school, and Hobbes's contractarianism. Unlike natural moral sentiments, the sense of justice is valuable and reaches full strength within a general plan or system of actions. However, unlike game theory, Hume does not assume that people have transparent access to the their own motivations and the inner structure of the social world. In contrast, he blends ideas such as cognitive delusion, learning by experience and coordination to construct a theory that still deserves careful discussion, even though it resists classification under contemporary headings.

  20. (In)justice contexts and work satisfaction: the mediating role of justice perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Q. Zhou; Silva, M.R.; Caetano, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the impact of the social context, namely (in)justice climate and target, in workers' justice perceptions and satisfaction. Individual's justice judgments are expected to mediate the relationship of (in)justice climate and target with work satisfaction. We found mediation effects of procedural justice in the relationship between justice climate and satisfaction, and interactional justice in the relationship between injustice target and satisfaction. Distributive justice doe...

  1. Basins of Attraction for Generative Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglash, Ron; Garvey, Colin

    It has long been known that dynamic systems typically tend towards some state - an "attractor" - into which they finally settle. The introduction of chaos theory has modified our understanding of these attractors: we no longer think of the final "resting state" as necessarily being at rest. In this essay we consider the attractors of social ecologies: the networks of people, technologies and natural resources that makeup our built environments. Following the work of "communitarians" we posit that basins of attraction could be created for social ecologies that foster both environmental sustainability and social justice. We refer to this confluence as "generative justice"; a phrase which references both the "bottom-up", self-generating source of its adaptive meta stability, as well as its grounding in the ethics of egalitarian political theory.

  2. FEDERAL JUSTICE STATISTICS RESOURCE CENTER (FJSRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), through its Federal Justice Statistics Program (FJSP), compiles comprehensive information describing suspects and defendants processed in the Federal criminal justice system. The goal of FJSP is to provide uniform case processing statistics...

  3. Applying Social Justice Principles through School-Based Restorative Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Embse, Nathan; von der Embse, Daniel; von der Embse Meghan; Levine, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Social justice has recently received attention within the school psychology community. Yet, social justice is a nebulous term, as opined by Connelly (2009), who cautioned against searching for what is wrong and instead striving for the highest standards and recognizing needs of every unique child. Shriberg and colleagues (2008) have sought to…

  4. Student Perceptions of Social Justice and Social Justice Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Steele, Cheronda; Schulz, Erica; Taha, Farah; Pico, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging students to engage in activities that actively seek to promote social justice is a goal of many educators. This study analyzed college student perceptions around social justice and related activities in a medium-sized, urban university in the United States. Students' open-ended responses to questions assessing their perceptions of…

  5. Social Justice and Career Development: Views and Experiences of Australian Career Development Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Mary; Arthur, Nancy; Collins, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Career development practice had its origins in social justice reform over 100 years ago. A social justice perspective requires practitioners to examine the environmental context of their work, including the social, economic and political systems that influence people's career development. Achieving socially just outcomes for clients may…

  6. Justice in Cyberwar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Gerd Giesen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2014v13n1p27The text aims at providing an ethical framework for cyber warfare. The latter is changing our understanding of war (and peace as well as the relationship between the human being and the machine. Rejecting Heidegger’s fatalistic stance towards technology it is argued that norms of international justice should be formulated in order to attempt to regulate this new military dimension. The potentially considerable destructive force of cyberweapon systems for civilian infrastructure is emphasized, especially as far as the « Internet of Things » (all physical objects connected to the Internet is concerned. In a foreseeable future cyberwar operations may kill many civilians. After defining the concept of cyberwar and explainig why it is a new and important moral issue, the paper heavily relies on just war ethics in order to reach norms for justice in cyberwar. It is shown that Immanuel Kant has not just been a philosopher of (perpetual peace, but (in the Metaphysics of Morals also a just war theorist who developed his normative framework in a fruitful dialog with Aquinas (against Vitoria and Suarez. His norms for jus ad bellum and jus in bello are carefully and critically applied to cyberwar. However, Kant’s major innovation in just war theory has been the concept of jus post bellum. The paper demonstrates how important this dimension of justice is in cyberwar, and how to apply it, including through recommendations for a treaty in international law.

  7. Challenging the One-Way Paradigm for More Effective Science Communication: A Critical Review of Two Public Campaigns Addressing Contentious Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntee, Marie; Mortimer, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This article examines two large-scale public communication campaigns to explore the appropriateness and effectiveness of using one-way communication in contentious environmental issues. The findings show while one-way communication can be successfully employed in contentious issues, it is not appropriate for all contexts and may contribute to…

  8. Juvenile Justice in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Frías Armenta; Livier Gómez Martínez

    2014-01-01

    The first tribunal in Mexico was established in the central state of San Luis Potosi in 1926. The Law Regarding Social Prevention and Juvenile Delinquency for the Federal District and Mexican territories was promulgated in 1928. In 2005, Article 18 of the Mexican Constitution was modified to establish a comprehensive system (“Sistema Integral de justicia†in Spanish) of justice for juveniles between 12 and 18 years old who had committed a crime punishable under criminal law. Its objective ...

  9. Arguing about justice

    OpenAIRE

    Ackerman, Bruce; Alstott, Anne L.; Audard, Catherine; Baker, John; Bendavid, Eran; Blais, François; BOULANGER Paul-Marie; Bowles, Samuel; Briey, Laurent de; Brighouse, Harry; Van Campenhoudt, Luc; Cantillon, Bea; Carter, Ian; Casal, Paula; Chaumont, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    This book brings together fifty of today’s finest thinkers. They were asked to let their imaginations run free to advance new ideas on a wide range of social and political issues. They did so as friends, on the occasion of Philippe Van Parijs’s sixtieth birthday. Rather than restricting themselves to comments on his numerous writings, the authors engage with the topics on which he has focused his attention over the years, especially with the various dimensions of justice, its scope, and its d...

  10. Biomedical enhancements as justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jeesoo

    2015-02-01

    Biomedical enhancements, the applications of medical technology to make better those who are neither ill nor deficient, have made great strides in the past few decades. Using Amartya Sen's capability approach as my framework, I argue in this article that far from being simply permissible, we have a prima facie moral obligation to use these new developments for the end goal of promoting social justice. In terms of both range and magnitude, the use of biomedical enhancements will mark a radical advance in how we compensate the most disadvantaged members of society.

  11. Educating for Social Justice: Drawing from Catholic Social Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, James R.; Mirci, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    This article uses a duoethnographic process to develop a model for socially just education based on social justice theory and Catholic social teaching. Three major issues are addressed, including: (a) the definition of socially just education, (b) explaining a vision for establishing socially just schools, and (c) providing a practical guide for…

  12. The Preparation of Inclusive Social Justice Education Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celoria, Davide

    2016-01-01

    This article is intended to spark dialogue and debate related to the preparation of inclusive social justice education leaders in a time of colorblindness. Drawing attention to the reductionist construction of the professional standards for educational leaders when it comes to preparing educational leaders who are ready to address and eliminate…

  13. Justice Judgements, School Failure, and Adolescent Deviant Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Cristina; Gouveia-Pereira, Maria; Carugati, Felice

    2012-01-01

    Background: The current paper is based on two different approaches. One is the relational model of authority (Tyler & Lind, 1992), which addresses the effects of justice perceptions on the legitimacy of authorities and behavioural compliance. The other is Emler and Reicher's theory (1995, 2005), which explains the involvement of adolescents in…

  14. Address Points - Volusia County Addresses (Point)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Situs Addresses for Volusia County. Maintained by Growth and Resource Management. Addresses are determined by the cities for their jurisdiction and by the County...

  15. Social justice and the politics of recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Comments on the original article, "Psychology and social justice: Why we do what we do" by M. J. T. Vasquez (see record 2012-18676-002). Vasquez pointed to numerous initiatives and task forces that the American Psychological Association (APA) has established to address the marginalization and subordination of various groups. There is little doubt that the concerns addressed by these initiatives and task forces are important and play a central role in the development of a just society. Although Vasquez noted that "social realities are important determinants of distress" she failed to appreciate the extent to which our social relations emerge against the background of specific political and economic structures. The cost of this oversight is the perpetuation of a politics of recognition that does little to address the economic inequalities that are a defining feature of unjust societies. Were APA to restrict its attention to psychological distress or access to resources, it would place APA in the service of maintaining rather than transforming the existing structure of society. APA should consider developing initiatives and task forces to investigate the role that capitalism plays in the perpetuation of inequality and exploitation. It may also be time to reflect on why an institution that claims to be dedicated to social justice has had so little to say about one of the dominant features of modern society. PMID:24016125

  16. Social justice and the politics of recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Comments on the original article, "Psychology and social justice: Why we do what we do" by M. J. T. Vasquez (see record 2012-18676-002). Vasquez pointed to numerous initiatives and task forces that the American Psychological Association (APA) has established to address the marginalization and subordination of various groups. There is little doubt that the concerns addressed by these initiatives and task forces are important and play a central role in the development of a just society. Although Vasquez noted that "social realities are important determinants of distress" she failed to appreciate the extent to which our social relations emerge against the background of specific political and economic structures. The cost of this oversight is the perpetuation of a politics of recognition that does little to address the economic inequalities that are a defining feature of unjust societies. Were APA to restrict its attention to psychological distress or access to resources, it would place APA in the service of maintaining rather than transforming the existing structure of society. APA should consider developing initiatives and task forces to investigate the role that capitalism plays in the perpetuation of inequality and exploitation. It may also be time to reflect on why an institution that claims to be dedicated to social justice has had so little to say about one of the dominant features of modern society.

  17. Justice wide open: working papers

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    These working papers mark the launch of the Centre of Law, Justice and Journalism’s new initiative, "Open Justice in the Digital Era", which aims to make recommendations for the way judicial information and legal data are communicated in the 21st century.

  18. Social Justice and School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.

    2008-01-01

    Despite attention in other social sciences and within other areas of psychology, social justice has received minimal attention in school psychology literature. The two studies by Shriberg et al. (2008) and McCabe and Rubinson (2008) represent significant developments in exploring school psychology's commitment to social justice. In this…

  19. Intergenerational Justice in Aging Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    I present the Intergenerational Justice Index (IJI) - a simple four-dimensional indicator developed with the Bertelsmann Stiftung in order to compare intergenerational justice in practice across 29 OECD member states. The unit of analysis is countries, and the IJI is a macro-level snapshot linked...

  20. SOCIAL WELFARE AND RESTORATIVE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell Fox

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the links and connections between social work and restorative justice. After a brief description of social work, restorative justice and family group conferencing, I will explore some the complementary theoretical links and practice applications, critically examining the potential implications and opportunities for social work practitioners and academics in relation to practice.

  1. Experiential Social Justice Judgment Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.

    2008-01-01

    Social justice can be thought of as an idea that exists within the minds of individuals and that concerns issues like what is right and wrong, what ought to be or not to be, and what is fair or unfair. This subjective quality of the justice judgment process makes it rather unpredictable how people w

  2. Justice: greater access, lower costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Saraceno

    2014-01-01

    Litigation imposes large costs on society; this justifies settlement considerations. In any case, access to justice is critical to socioeconomic development; as such, it needs to be balanced with litigation minimization. This study examines the tradeoff between litigation and access to justice and e

  3. Social Justice Language Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Margaret R.

    2011-01-01

    Social justice language teacher education conceptualizes language teacher education as responding to social and societal inequities that result in unequal access to educational and life opportunities. In this volume authors articulate a global view of Social Justice Language Teacher Education, with authors from 7 countries offering a theorized…

  4. Comparative Supreme Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditlev Tamm

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the great variety of Supreme Courts in the world today and presents some selected courts. Supreme Courts are found in most countries both as only apex courts or in a courts’ system where also supreme administrative courts or constitutional courts are found. The starting point is the variation of supreme justice in the Nordic countries where one apex court is the system of Denmark and Norway whereas administrative courts are found in Sweden and Finland. Constitutional courts stem from the European tradition and are most abundant in Europe and in countries with a civil law system but especially in Africa they are also found in common law countries. Mexico is mentioned as a specific example of a Supreme Court that has taken upon itself to be a main player in the endeavour to communicate the law to a general audience. The article is a presentation with samples of what is going to be a project on comparative supreme justice in which the position of supreme courts in the various states, the recruitment scheme and competence of the courts and other such factors will be analyzed on a global basis.

  5. Transitional Justice: A Colonizing Field?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Vieille

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Throughout its development, the transitional justice scholarship has favored the use and implementation of specific judicial institutions, including courts and tribunals, to carry out justice and hold individuals accountable in the aftermath of mass violations of human rights. These institutions, I argue, are rooted in a neo-liberal framework that sanctions the rule of law and a certain understanding the nature of law and justice. The transitional justice literature is informed by certain assumptions about the ‘goodness’ and ‘neutrality’ of the rule of law, which it blindly exports. I contend that the unquestioned promotion of the rule of law at the international level is concerning vis-a-vis the feasibility and applicability of the judicial arrangements that are transplanted to a variety of contexts. The universalizing tendency of the legalist paradigm that underlies the transitional justice scholarship and practitioners dictates the kinds of activities that are undertaken in transitional societies.

  6. Prospects for a genuine revival of primary health care--through the visible hand of social justice rather than the invisible hand of the market: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Alison Rosamund

    2009-01-01

    In a two-part article (the first part in this Journal issue), the author explores the prospects for a genuine revival of the social justice project of "Health for All by the Year 2000", launched by the WHO and UNICEF in 1978 at Alma-Ata in the former Soviet Union, with reference (in Part I) to the World Health Report 2008, Primary Health Care: Now More than Ever, and the report of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health, also published in 2008; and (in Part II) to Global Health Watch 2: An Alternative World Health Report and the perspectives of anti-capitalist, real socialist, environmental, and people's movements for economic and social justice. The reports are reviewed in terms of the original values and principles of Alma-Ata (social justice and human rights) and the structural foundations of the primary health care (PHC) project (a new international economic order and emancipatory development of decolonized countries). A genuine revival of the PHC project and of Health for All, which is its implicit objective, will not be possible unless the multiple crises that we are confronting today-in energy, water, food, finance, the environment, science, information, and democracy-are recognized as capitalist crises and addressed in these terms. In short, the invisible hand of the market must be replaced by the visible hand of social justice. PMID:19771956

  7. Scaling Environment Justice: The Case of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Brenda L. [Wilfrid Launer Univ., Brantford (Canada); Kuhn, Richard G. [Univ. of Guelph (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2006-09-15

    The growing body of literature associated with environmental justice documents the extent to which poor, peripheral or minority regions are often burdened with contamination or the siting of new noxious, unwanted facilities. More recently. environmental justice studies have also begun to explore the processes and societal structures that contribute to (in)justice. The environmental justice perspective asserts that instances of local contamination or the siting of noxious facilities in disempowered neighbourhoods are not only problems for those most affected by the facility; such situations are also instances of broader concerns about fairness and equity. At the grass-roots level. in marginalised spaces, residents may adopt the environmental justice frame as a strategy to gain recognition of their 'local' problem by regional. national or global actors. In this paper we problemise this environmental justice perspective, particularly as it relates to the issue of spatial and temporal scale. We utilise the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). the military transuranic nuclear waste disposal facility located in Carlsbad, New Mexico as an example where the environmental justice perspective was not (for the most part) invoked by local residents. Since it was mostly members of civil society groups and state and federal elected officials, most living four hours away who questioned the safety and viability of the facility, while local leaders actively lobbied to bring the facility to Carlsbad, this raises questions regarding 1) what counts as marginalised space and who gets to speak for those spaces, 2) who decides what can be defined as an environmental justice issue, and 3) at what spatial and temporal scale should justice be defined. Following a further elaboration of the conceptual ideas that underpin this discussion, in the subsequent section we present the WlPP case study.

  8. Scaling Environment Justice: The Case of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing body of literature associated with environmental justice documents the extent to which poor, peripheral or minority regions are often burdened with contamination or the siting of new noxious, unwanted facilities. More recently. environmental justice studies have also begun to explore the processes and societal structures that contribute to (in)justice. The environmental justice perspective asserts that instances of local contamination or the siting of noxious facilities in disempowered neighbourhoods are not only problems for those most affected by the facility; such situations are also instances of broader concerns about fairness and equity. At the grass-roots level. in marginalised spaces, residents may adopt the environmental justice frame as a strategy to gain recognition of their 'local' problem by regional. national or global actors. In this paper we problemise this environmental justice perspective, particularly as it relates to the issue of spatial and temporal scale. We utilise the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). the military transuranic nuclear waste disposal facility located in Carlsbad, New Mexico as an example where the environmental justice perspective was not (for the most part) invoked by local residents. Since it was mostly members of civil society groups and state and federal elected officials, most living four hours away who questioned the safety and viability of the facility, while local leaders actively lobbied to bring the facility to Carlsbad, this raises questions regarding 1) what counts as marginalised space and who gets to speak for those spaces, 2) who decides what can be defined as an environmental justice issue, and 3) at what spatial and temporal scale should justice be defined. Following a further elaboration of the conceptual ideas that underpin this discussion, in the subsequent section we present the WlPP case study

  9. 77 FR 42077 - Environmental Justice: Final Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... of Transportation, Metropolitan Planning Organizations, public transportation providers, and other... planning organizations, and the American Public Transportation Association. Some comments were submitted on... chapters based on the type of recipient (i.e., transit agencies, metropolitan planning organizations,...

  10. Roy Henry Vickers 'Indigenous Environmental Justice'

    OpenAIRE

    Interviewee: Vickers, Roy Henry; Interviewer: Pugh, Ryan; Oral Testimony Archivist(s): Weasel Bear, Robyn; Principle Investigator: ross, Dr. annie

    2015-01-01

    Roy Henry Vickers is an internationally acclaimed artist, carver and author whose atistic style fuses traditional and contemporary froms that seadk to th ereverence of British Columbia, and the natural world as a whole.  He is a recognized leaders in the First Nations community and ahs recelt spoken against Enbridge's proposed Northern Gateway Pipeline.

  11. Lyn Crompton 'Indigenous Environmental Justice & the Law'

    OpenAIRE

    Interviewee: Crompton, Lyn; Interviewer: ross, Dr. annie, Harrison, Don, Weasel Bear, Robyn; Oral Testimony Archivist(s): Weasel Bear, Robyn; Principle Investigator: ross, Dr. annie

    2015-01-01

    Lyn Crompton speaks candidly about the trauma of losing her twin sister at 4 years old, the difficult divide that event created in her family, and the long lived adversity she felt from her father for choosing to become a lawyer. Lyn discloses pivotal turning points in her first 15 years as a lawyer, opening up about the injustices and unfair treatment she witnessed in Canadian Courts towards aboriginal people and how these moments ultimately shaped her devotion to defending aboriginal people...

  12. Developing a training module on Gender & spatial justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, L.C.

    2015-01-01

    Justice is more than a legal matter: it has spatial and environmental implications and is related to engineering. The concept of ‘spatial justice’ was introduced in 2010 in planning by Eduard Soja. It indicates the accessibility of urban resources such as education and healthcare. Under democratic g

  13. Sanitary justice in scarcity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Kottow

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Justice in health care and the allocation of scarce medical resources must be analyzed differently in affluent as compared to economically weaker societies. The protective functions of the state must be extended to cover basic needs for those too poor to meet them on their own. Medical needs are a high priority, since poor health hampers the ability to secure other basic needs. The state may operate as either a health care provider or supervisor, guaranteeing that citizens be treated fairly by nongovernmental institutions. Two-tiered systems with a vigorous private health care sector are compatible with the explicit right to health care, provided the private tier operates without directly or indirectly draining public funds.

  14. Social Justice as a Pedagogy of Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonu, Debbie J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses social justice as a "pedagogy of edge." She argues that educators hold the privilege to begin reframing the dialogue on social justice as a relation of all subjects and to dredge from within the meanings drawn and practices made in honor of justice. This may require a shift away from social justice as a…

  15. JUSTICE AND LIBERTY IN HEGEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thadeu Weber

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to make explicit the concept of justice in Hegel’s Philosophy of Right. It bounds it to the idea of liberty in its different ways of determination. It starts from the notion of person of right and indicates the fundamental rights that derive from the expression of this legal capacity. It highlights the right of necessity as a right to make an exception in favor of itself aiming the actualization of justice. It shows how, through the Law, in civil society, it happens the administration of justice.

  16. Justification and Justice: Rawls, Quine and Ethics as Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Taschetto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between Rawls’s theory of justice and Quine’s philosophy constitute an almost entirely new topic of discussion. The analysis undertaken in this article aims to show that some fundamental epistemological traits of Rawls’s theory of justice may be causally explained by referring to Quine’s influence on him. Rawls’s assumptions, methods of theory-building and evaluation criteria are addressed and a close nexus between the methods of ethics and natural science is made explicit. In the light of the historical and epistemological analysis presented in this article it may be argued that Rawls’s theory of justice as fairness satisfies scientific requirements of evidence and objectivity within the sphere of ethics to the extent it is constructed and justified in accordance to Quine’s epistemology.

  17. The ideal of State and Justice in Schmitt and Arendt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Alexander Solórzano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two views of the contemporary political theory relating to the theme of justice and the State, Absolute Estatalismo Karl Schmitt and his theory Orthodox referring to the conflict. In Hannah Arendt came to be addressing the political consensus from the community and politics as public action. The political dilemma of justice in our times is ro- oted in the classical tradition policy ancient and modern but is exacerbated because of the rail- ways ideological conviction of the use of power, the handling of their political instrumentalization. The justice in the State has the features provided by the policy and level of social consensus or understanding that it troubled present.

  18. Transnational efforts for justice and social empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    2016-01-01

    of movements, organizations and communities that engage socio-cultural, political and economic activities across national territories. This paper deals with the concept of injustice herewith defined as the combined suffering from extreme poverty and the general insecurity undermining the immediate...... prerequisites for human life. The paper particularly discusses the transition from traditionalism to colonial internationalism and to the subsequent transnationalism efforts to deal with poverty and insecurity. The Somali case with its contemporary complexities of poverty and insecurity attests to a perpetual...... modernization tendencies to centralize socio-political and economic life. While transnationalism actors ideally aim at decentralizing and diversifying with bottom up more inclusive approaches in addressing poverty and insecurity. Finally in order to properly address transitional justice and consolidate social...

  19. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  20. Ministerial Presentation: Jordan. Why Nuclear? [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    and UK. One of our major challenges, and in fact a common challenge to all, is development of the requisite human resources. To address partially this challenge, a nuclear engineering B.Sc. degree program was established in 2006 at Jordan University of Science and Technology and JAEC is in the process of procurement of a nuclear research reactor for education, training, and isotope production. To sustain and enhance the contribution of nuclear power as an energy option in the Middle East, it is necessary for all countries in the region to accept the International Atomic Energy Agency's safeguards on all of their nuclear activities, leading to the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region, as a prelude for full adherence to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Jordan has been conscious to meet all its legal obligations under the NPT and IAEA safeguards, and has participated in many global fora, such as the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), to develop its civilian nuclear energy programme. In return, it is imperative for the IAEA and technology holders to share their nuclear technology and expertise to address developing countries challenges. It is time to move from unnecessary restriction of dissemination of nuclear technology, to sharing in a responsible way in the spirit of 'Atoms of Peace'', with full adherence to safety, security and safeguards. I wish you and to the Conference success in making nuclear power a real option available to all aspiring countries to address both national energy needs and the global challenge of climate change.

  1. Nursing and justice as a basic human need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the idea that justice is a basic human need akin to those famously depicted in Maslow's hierarchy of human needs and, as such, warrants recognition as a core element in representative ideas about nursing. Early nurse theorists positioned the principles and practice of nursing as having their origins in 'universal human needs'. The principle of deriving nursing care from human needs was thought to provide a guide not only for promoting health, but for preventing disease and illness. The nursing profession has had a longstanding commitment to social justice as a core professional value and ideal, obligating nurses to address the social conditions that undermine people's health. The idea of justice as a universal human need per se and its possible relationship to people's health outcomes has, however, not been considered. One reason for this is that justice in nursing discourse has more commonly been associated with law and ethics, and the legal and ethical responsibilities of nurses in relation to individualized patient care and, more recently, changing systems of care to improve health and health outcomes. Although this association is not incorrect, it is incomplete. A key aim of this paper is to redress this oversight and to encourage a broader conceptualization of justice as necessary for human survival, health and development, not merely as a professional value, or legal or ethical principle for guiding human conduct.

  2. "Show me your impact": evaluating transitional justice in contested spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Colleen

    2012-02-01

    This paper discusses some of the most significant challenges and opportunities for evaluating the effects of programs in support of transitional justice - the field that addresses how post-conflict or post authoritarian societies deal with legacies of wide spread human rights violations. The discussion is empirically grounded in a case study that assesses the efforts of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) and one of its Guatemalan partners to evaluate the effects of a museum exposition that is attempting to recast historic memory and challenge racist attitudes in post-conflict Guatemala. The paper argues that despite the increasing trend to fund transitional justice programs, many international aid donors are stuck in traditional and arguably orthodox paradigms of program evaluation. This is having a negative effect not only upon the administration of aid but also upon how transitional justice research is perceived and valued by local populations. The case study experience indicates that there is no perfect evaluation model or approach for evaluating transitional justice programming - only choices to be made by commissioners of evaluation, evaluators, and those being evaluated. These are profoundly influenced by the extreme politics and moral values that define transitional justice settings as contested spaces in which calls to remember the tragic past must be balanced with aspirations to re-build a hopeful future.

  3. "Show me your impact": evaluating transitional justice in contested spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Colleen

    2012-02-01

    This paper discusses some of the most significant challenges and opportunities for evaluating the effects of programs in support of transitional justice - the field that addresses how post-conflict or post authoritarian societies deal with legacies of wide spread human rights violations. The discussion is empirically grounded in a case study that assesses the efforts of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) and one of its Guatemalan partners to evaluate the effects of a museum exposition that is attempting to recast historic memory and challenge racist attitudes in post-conflict Guatemala. The paper argues that despite the increasing trend to fund transitional justice programs, many international aid donors are stuck in traditional and arguably orthodox paradigms of program evaluation. This is having a negative effect not only upon the administration of aid but also upon how transitional justice research is perceived and valued by local populations. The case study experience indicates that there is no perfect evaluation model or approach for evaluating transitional justice programming - only choices to be made by commissioners of evaluation, evaluators, and those being evaluated. These are profoundly influenced by the extreme politics and moral values that define transitional justice settings as contested spaces in which calls to remember the tragic past must be balanced with aspirations to re-build a hopeful future. PMID:21190735

  4. Chemistry in the Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazdra, James J.

    1980-01-01

    The application of chemistry to the justice system is presented. The role of the forensic chemist, historical development of forensic laboratories, and tools of the criminalists are also discussed. (HM)

  5. Technical assistance to Ohio closure sites; Technologies to address leachate from the on-site disposal facility at Fernald Environmental Management Project, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry

    2002-08-26

    On August 6-7, 2002, a Technical Assistance Team (''Team'') from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) met with Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) personnel in Ohio to assess approaches to remediating uranium-contaminated leachate from the On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF). The Team was composed of technical experts from national labs, technology centers, and industry and was assembled in response to a request from the FEMP Aquifer Restoration Project. Dave Brettschneider of Fluor Fernald, Inc., requested that a Team of experts be convened to review technologies for the removal of uranium in both brine ion exchange regeneration solution from the Advanced Wastewater Treatment facility and in the leachate from the OSDF. The Team was asked to identify one or more technologies for bench-scale testing as a cost effective alternative to remove uranium so that the brine regeneration solution from the Advanced Waste Water Treatment facility and the leachate from the OSDF can be discharged without further treatment. The Team was also requested to prepare a recommended development and demonstration plan for the alternative technologies. Finally, the Team was asked to make recommendations on the optimal technical solution for field implementation. The Site's expected outcomes for this effort are schedule acceleration, cost reduction, and better long-term stewardship implementation. To facilitate consideration of the most appropriate technologies, the Team was divided into two groups to consider the brine and the leachate separately, since they represent different sources with different constraints on solutions, e.g., short-term versus very long-term and concentrated versus dilute contaminant matrices. This report focuses on the technologies that are most appropriate for the leachate from the OSDF. Upon arriving at FEMP, project personnel asked the Team to concentrate its efforts on evaluating

  6. Opening Statement - Angel Gurria [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China. Our organization is now more open and plural, welcoming new members and having launched an ?enhanced engagement? process with the most important emerging economies. Forging a more structured and stronger partnership with China is fundamental in such a process. It is based on our mutual interest to develop global solutions to global challenges, such as nuclear energy in the 21st century. Thus, I urge you to look into three important issues, which we should address in the years to come, namely, security, financing and development of nuclear energy

  7. Opening Statement - Chen Qiufa [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The China Atomic Energy Authority is the authority responsible for China?s nuclear industry development and the representative organization of the Chinese Government for participating in IAEA related activities. As the Chairman of the CAEA, I would like to use this opportunity to share my views on nuclear energy development. As an important part of modern high level technology, nuclear energy, as a proven, safe and clean source of energy, plays an outstanding role in the economic and social development of humanity. The development and application of nuclear energy, involving basic nuclear research, engineering design, equipment manufacturing, nuclear fuel supply, nuclear safety regulation, nuclear waste treatment and disposal, nuclear non-proliferation, public acceptance and so on, is fairly complicated systematic engineering. Looking back on China?s more than 50 year history of nuclear energy, and looking to the promising prospect of nuclear energy development in the new century, I believe the following six development rules should be prioritized, so as to achieve sustainable and healthy development of nuclear energy for the benefits of society. MAKE OVERALL PLANS The development of nuclear energy should proceed from the strategic overall picture, including national economic development, social progress and environmental protection, obtaining a common understanding of the social, making long term development plans, and carrying them out consistently. At the beginning of reform and opening-up, when China had just begun its nuclear power development, the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident and the Chernobyl accident happened, which plunged the world nuclear industry into stagnation. The Chinese Government made the decision to continue to develop nuclear energy for economic development, which laid the foundation for China?s nuclear energy industry. In recent years, the Chinese Government has made the strategic decision of actively promoting nuclear energy

  8. Environmental guidance regulatory bulletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the background on expanding public participation in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and DOE's response. The bulletin also describes the changes made by the final rule to existing regulations, guidance provided by EPA in the preamble and in the revised RCRA Public Participation Manual, the relationship between public participation and environmental justice, and DOE's recent public participation and environmental justice initiatives

  9. Struggles for Equal Rights and Social Justice as Unrepresented and Represented in Psychological Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turiel, Elliot; Chung, Eunkyung; Carr, Jessica A

    2016-01-01

    Issues of equality and social justice remain important concerns for contemporary societies. Struggles for equal rights and fair treatment continue in both organized movements and in acts of everyday life. We first consider trends in psychological research that fail to address such struggles and may even impede theoretical understanding of the complex processes of thought and action involved when individuals confront situations of welfare, justice, and rights. Then, we consider research, which attempts to address these issues. We review studies on the development of moral judgments and on understandings of equality and distributive justice. We also discuss research that accounts for the varying social contexts of individual lives and conceives of human behavior as engaged in moral judgments, which often produce resistance and opposition to injustice. In conclusion, we call for more attention in psychological research to issues of equity and social justice.

  10. RESTORATIVE JUSTICE UNTUK PERADILAN DI INDONESIA (Perspektif Yuridis Filosofis dalam Penegakan Hukum In Concreto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuat Puji Prayitno

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Restorative justice is a philosophy, a process, an idea, a theory and an intervention, that emphasizes repairing the harm caused or revealed by criminal behaviour. This process is in stark contrast to the established way of addressing crime which are seen as offences committed against the State. Restorative justice finds its footing in the basic philosophy of the four precepts of Pancasila, namely prioritizing deliberation in decision making. Purpose of the settlement with the Victim Offender Mediation is to "humanize" the justice system, that fairness is able to answer what the actual needs of victims, offenders and communities.

  11. The Future for Social Work in Juvenile and Adult Criminal Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary C. Sarri

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Critical contemporary issues in juvenile and adult criminal justice are identified followed by an examination of particular issues for social workers, including the increase in incarceration, the over representation of people of color, and the numerous negative effects on children. The various roles for social workers in the criminal justice systems are presented and discussed. The paper also addresses the decline of social work professionals in the criminal justice systems and why it is imperative that the pattern be reversed now that there is growing interest in the rehabilitation and reintegration of offenders.

  12. Mathematics education for social justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhendra

    2016-02-01

    Mathematics often perceived as a difficult subject with many students failing to understand why they learn mathematics. This situation has been further aggravated by the teaching and learning processes used, which is mechanistic without considering students' needs. The learning of mathematics tends to be just a compulsory subject, in which all students have to attend its classes. Social justice framework facilitates individuals or groups as a whole and provides equitable approaches to achieving equitable outcomes by recognising disadvantage. Applying social justice principles in educational context is related to how the teachers treat their students, dictates that all students the right to equal treatment regardless of their background and completed with applying social justice issues integrated with the content of the subject in order to internalise the principles of social justice simultaneously the concepts of the subject. The study examined the usefulness of implementing the social justice framework as a means of improving the quality of mathematics teaching in Indonesia involved four teacher-participants and their mathematics classes. The study used action research as the research methodology in which the teachers implemented and evaluated their use of social justice framework in their teaching. The data were collected using multiple research methods while analysis and interpretation of the data were carried out throughout the study. The findings of the study indicated that there were a number of challengesrelated to the implementation of the social justice framework. The findings also indicated that, the teachers were provided with a comprehensive guide that they could draw on to make decisions about how they could improve their lessons. The interactions among students and between the teachers and the students improved, they became more involved in teaching and learning process. Using social justice framework helped the teachers to make mathematics more

  13. Energy justice and foundations for a sustainable sociology of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, Hannah Ann

    This dissertation proposes an approach to energy that transcends the focus on energy as a mere technical economic or engineering problem, is connected to sociological theory as a whole, and takes issues of equality and ecology as theoretical starting points. In doing so, the work presented here puts ecological and environmental sociological theory, and the work of environmental justice scholars, feminist ecologists, and energy scholars, in a context in which they may complement one another to broaden the theoretical basis of the current sociology of energy. This theoretical integration provides an approach to energy focused on energy justice. Understanding energy and society in the terms outlined here makes visible energy injustice, or the interface between social inequalities and ecological depredations accumulating as the social and ecological debts of the modern energy regime. Systems ecology is brought into this framework as a means for understanding unequal exchange, energy injustice more generally, and the requirements for long-term social and ecological reproduction in ecological terms. Energy developments in Ecuador and Cuba are used here as case studies in order to further develop the idea of energy justice and the theory of unequal ecological exchange. The point is to broaden the framework of the contemporary critical sociology of energy, putting energy justice at its heart. This dissertation contains previously published and unpublished co-authored material.

  14. The ECHR, Socio-Economic Disadvantage and Access to Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Liam; Walsh, Judy

    2014-01-01

    This Part addresses the dual, interrelated themes of socio-economic rights and access to justice. Both themes raise questions about the capacity of human rights law to effect positive social change in practice. The indivisibility and interdependence of all human rights is a core feature of the contemporary human rights regime, yet the inadequacy of mechanisms for redressing socio-economic rights violations in particular continues to feature in debates about the potential of transnational and ...

  15. Global health justice and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors.

  16. Distributive Justice: The Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaliq Ahmad

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of distributive justice from social and Islamic perspectives. In the former, an attempt is made to examine research conducted in the social and organizational context, while in the latter the issue is deliberated in the light of Islamic concerns, values and practices. Distributive justice is concerned with the norms of resource allocation and perception of fairness by the recipients. The norms may be merit, need, or equality. Which norm is perceived as fair depends upon several factors, such as type of resource, purpose of allocation, and relationship characteristics between the allocator and the recipients. Islamic view on distributive justice emphasizes its humanistic concerns. It subsumes three principles, namely, ʿAdl, Insāf, and Ihsān. The religion accepts merit as the basis of resource distribution yet adopts measures to minimize inequalities. The paper discusses the concept of Zakah in this context.

  17. Global health justice and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors. PMID:23215931

  18. A broader view of justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker, Nancy S

    2008-10-01

    In this paper I argue that a narrow view of justice dominates the bioethics literature. I urge a broader view. As bioethicists, we often conceive of justice using a medical model. This model focuses attention at a particular point in time, namely, when someone who is already sick seeks access to scarce or expensive services. A medical model asks how we can fairly distribute those services. The broader view I endorse requires looking upstream, and asking how disease and suffering came about. In contrast to a medical model, a social model of justice considers how social determinants affect the health of a population. For example, social factors such as access to clean drinking water, education, safe workplaces, and police protection, profoundly affect risk for disease and early death. I examine one important social determinant of health, health care coverage, to show the limits of a medical model and the merits of a broader view.

  19. Empathy, justice, and moral behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decety, Jean; Cowell, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    Empathy shapes the landscape of our social lives. It motivates prosocial and caregiving behaviors, plays a role in inhibiting aggression, and facilitates cooperation between members of a similar social group. Thus, empathy is often conceived as a driving motivation of moral behavior and justice, and as such, everyone would think that it should be cultivated. However, the relationships between empathy, morality, and justice are complex. We begin by explaining what the notion of empathy encompasses and then argue how sensitivity to others’ needs has evolved in the context of parental care and group living. Next, we examine the multiple physiological, hormonal, and neural systems supporting empathy and its functions. One troubling but important corollary of this neuro-evolutionary model is that empathy produces social preferences that can conflict with fairness and justice. An understanding of the factors that mold our emotional response and caring motivation for others helps provide organizational principles and ultimately guides decision-making in medical ethics. PMID:26877887

  20. 76 FR 39436 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) and Notice of Scoping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) and... production, and environmental justice. Special Assistance for Public Meetings If special assistance is... Environmental Officer, Mid-Pacific Region. BILLING CODE 4310-MN-P...

  1. Transitional Justice, Culture and Society: Beyond Outreach

    OpenAIRE

    Elise Ketelaars

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews Transitional Justice, Culture and Society: Beyond Outreach, edited by Clara Ramírez-Barat, International Center for Transitional Justice, New York: Social Science Research Council, 2014 ISBN 978-0-911400-02-1

  2. Transitional Justice, Culture and Society: Beyond Outreach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Ketelaars

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews Transitional Justice, Culture and Society: Beyond Outreach, edited by Clara Ramírez-Barat, International Center for Transitional Justice, New York: Social Science Research Council, 2014 ISBN 978-0-911400-02-1

  3. Editors' Introduction: Justice, Rights, Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joxerramon Bengoetxea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The articles gathered in this issue are the result of papers presented at the workshop held at the Oñati International Institute for the Sociology of Law on 20-21 May 2013 on Perspectives of Justice in Literature: Perspectives from Justice and Fundamental Rights in Literature: an Approach from Legal Culture in a European context. Literature and literary fiction can act as a thread that helps different disciplines to communicate with each other and can thus help go beyond the strictly legal field opening up to questions of justice and rights. These papers deal with issues of justice - mainly Fundamental Rights, but also procedural aspects of justice and its administration, philosophical perspectives of justice - and of legal culture - local, European, Universal - as reflected through and by literature. Los artículos que conforman este número son el resultado de las ponencias presentadas en el workshop celebrado en el Instituto Internacional de Sociología Jurídica de Oñati el 20 y 21 mayo de 2013 sobre las perspectivas de la justicia en la literatura: Perspectivas desde la Justicia y los Derechos Fundamentales en la Literatura: un Enfoque de Cultura Jurídica en el Contexto Europeo. La literatura y la ficción literaria pueden ser un hilo que favorece que diferentes disciplinas se comuniquen entre sí y pueden de esta forma ayudar a ir más allá del campo jurídico estricto, planteando cuestiones sobre justicia y derechos. Estos artículos tratan sobre aspectos de la justicia (principalmente derechos fundamentales, pero también sobre procedimiento judicial y administración de la justicia, perspectivas filosóficas de la justicia y de cultura jurídica (local, europea, universal, de la forma en la que se han reflejado en la literatura.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2543450

  4. El Derecho Victimal en México como instrumento para lograr la justicia frente al fenómeno de la victimización/The victimal law in Mexico as an instrument for achieve justice address the phenomenon of victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodríguez Campos (México

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El Derecho sirve como medio para poder llegar a la justicia, y ello se refleja en el tema del delito en la victimización, cuando una persona es tocada en su esfera jurídica, es decir, en la suma de facultades inherentes como ser humano o en aquellas facultades otorgadas por el propio sistema jurídico. Así el Derecho se concibe como una creación no terminada del ser humano como consecuencia de su dinamismo e imperfección, debido también, al atraso en contraposición con la realidad social, el Derecho Victimal como nueva rama de las ciencias jurídicas, surge por la necesidad de crear nuevas disposiciones que regulen estas afectaciones y establezcan una base normativa mínima para que la víctima llegue a recuperar el estatus previo o se acerque lo más posible a ese estado previo a la afectación ocasionada por el delito, el Derecho Victimal como nuevo orden normativo relativo a las víctimas del delito y ofendidos por hechos delictivos, se traduce en una nueva rama del Derecho que complementa al Derecho Penal, desde el aspecto de completitud jurídica, en sus dos aspectos se propone resolver este tipo de situaciones y proteger a la víctima, para lograr la ansiada justicia. The law serves as a mean to achieve justice, and this is reflected in the theme of crime victimization, when a person is touched in legal field, ie. the sum of inherent powers as human or those powers granted by the legal system itself. So the law is seen as a creation of the human being unfinished due to their dynamism and imperfection, due also to the delay as opposed to social reality, the right of victimhood as a new branch of legal science, arises from the need to create new provisions governing these effects and establish a base minimum standards so that the victim will recover the previous status or as close as possible to the state prior to the involvement caused by the offense, the victimal law as a new normative order concerning victims of crime and offended

  5. Justice, citizenship, and role definition effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, B J; Lockhart, D; Hoobler, J

    2001-08-01

    A limitation of the organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) literature is that theory and empirical evidence suggest that some employees define OCBs as part of their job. A theoretical framework that addresses this problem is tested in this article. The framework focuses on 2 effects: a role enlargement effect (i.e., employees with more favorable attitudes define OCB as inrole behavior, which, in turn, results in greater citizenship) and a role discretion effect (i.e., the relationship between employees' attitudes and their citizenship will be stronger among employees who define OCB as extrarole behavior). In tests of this framework with 2 independent samples of supervisor-subordinate dyads, role definitions were found to moderate several relationships between procedural justice and OCB, providing support for the role discretion effect. Implications for OCB theory and research are discussed. PMID:11519662

  6. Does Social Justice Ground Democracy in Education or Does Democracy Ground Social Justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-Burgess, Sheron

    2013-01-01

    The author examines one particular systematic and normative theorization of social justice in Barry Bull's "Social Justice in Education." Bull embarks on a timely and ambitious theory-to-practice project of grounding an educational theory of social justice in Rawls's seminal, liberal, distributive justice tome. The author…

  7. Social justice in medical education: strengths and challenges of a student-driven social justice curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Adrian Jacques H; Andaya, January M; Yamada, Seiji; Maskarinec, Gregory G

    2014-08-01

    In the current rapidly evolving healthcare environment of the United States, social justice programs in pre-medical and medical education are needed to cultivate socially conscious and health professionals inclined to interdisciplinary collaborations. To address ongoing healthcare inequalities, medical education must help medical students to become physicians skilled not only in the biomedical management of diseases, but also in identifying and addressing social and structural determinants of the patients' daily lives. Using a longitudinal Problem-Based Learning (PBL) methodology, the medical students and faculty advisers at the University of Hawai'i John A. Burns School of Medicine (JABSOM) developed the Social Justice Curriculum Program (SJCP) to supplement the biomedical curriculum. The SJCP consists of three components: (1) active self-directed learning and didactics, (2) implementation and action, and (3) self-reflection and personal growth. The purpose of introducing a student-driven SJ curriculum is to expose the students to various components of SJ in health and medicine, and maximize engagement by using their own inputs for content and design. It is our hope that the SJCP will serve as a logistic and research-oriented model for future student-driven SJ programs that respond to global health inequalities by cultivating skills and interest in leadership and community service. PMID:25157325

  8. Social justice in medical education: strengths and challenges of a student-driven social justice curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Adrian Jacques H; Andaya, January M; Yamada, Seiji; Maskarinec, Gregory G

    2014-08-01

    In the current rapidly evolving healthcare environment of the United States, social justice programs in pre-medical and medical education are needed to cultivate socially conscious and health professionals inclined to interdisciplinary collaborations. To address ongoing healthcare inequalities, medical education must help medical students to become physicians skilled not only in the biomedical management of diseases, but also in identifying and addressing social and structural determinants of the patients' daily lives. Using a longitudinal Problem-Based Learning (PBL) methodology, the medical students and faculty advisers at the University of Hawai'i John A. Burns School of Medicine (JABSOM) developed the Social Justice Curriculum Program (SJCP) to supplement the biomedical curriculum. The SJCP consists of three components: (1) active self-directed learning and didactics, (2) implementation and action, and (3) self-reflection and personal growth. The purpose of introducing a student-driven SJ curriculum is to expose the students to various components of SJ in health and medicine, and maximize engagement by using their own inputs for content and design. It is our hope that the SJCP will serve as a logistic and research-oriented model for future student-driven SJ programs that respond to global health inequalities by cultivating skills and interest in leadership and community service.

  9. Green Courts in India: Strengthening Environmental Governance? - Student Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghav Sharma

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution of India has been the bulwark of Indian environmental governance. Right to clean environment, as an incident of 'right to life', has become enshrined under Article 21 through judicial interpretation. The Indian experience, involving easy access to justice through Public Interest Litigation, demonstrates that 'independent' and 'powerful' superior courts are indispensable for securing environmental justice. However, this ideal turns into a mirage when the superior courts fail to satisfactorily resolve environmental disputes involving scientific and technical questions due to lack of permanent expert panels to assist them. To surmount this practical impediment, the Law Commission of India has mooted the idea of specialised Environmental (Green Courts in its 186 th Report which will be structurally modeled on similar courts functioning in Australia and New Zealand . While recognising the significance of a specialised judiciary, this paper criticizes the proposal of the Law Commission as a half hearted attempt in this direction. The proposed structure is utterly unimpressive as it purports to withdraw environmental disputes from the jurisdiction of superior courts while entrusting them to weak Environmental Courts which appear vulnerable to substantial executive interference. It fails to subserve the high aim of efficacious dispute resolution as the proposed courts have been weaned of the wide powers which the superior courts were hitherto exercising in environmental matters. Thus, as an alternative, it is proposed that a more pragmatic course will be to create specialist divisions within the existing Indian High Courts to effectively address the practical problems involved in environmental adjudication.

  10. An analysis of correlation between organizational justice and job satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Yaghoubi, Esmaeil; Ahmadzadeh Mashinchi, Sina; Ebrahimi, Ahmad; Abdollahi, Hadi; Ebrahimi, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    This study was an attempt to explore the relationship between organizational justice, encompassed by three components: (distributive justice, procedural justice and interactional justice) job satisfaction, that is employees’ perceptions of workplace justice. This study, indeed, investigated the relationship among these justice measures in the Iranian environment. The data were collected through the distribution of questionnaires among 229 employees of Furniture Manufacturing Company through a...

  11. Feminism, rape and the search for justice.

    OpenAIRE

    McGlynn, C.

    2011-01-01

    Justice for rape victims has become synonymous with punitive state punishment. Taking rape seriously is equated with increasing convictions and prison sentences and consequently most feminist activism has been focused on reforming the conventional criminal justice system to secure these aims. While important reforms have been made, justice continues to elude many victims. Many feel re-victimized by a system which marginalizes their interests and denies them a voice. Restorative justice offers...

  12. Beyond Justice: What Makes an Indigenous Justice Organization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Marianne O.; Brown, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    The data from a longitudinal study of seven indigenous justice service organizations in four colonized countries were analyzed to identify the characteristics that made them "indigenous." Although nine common organizational characteristics emerged, of these, four are essential and specific to indigenous organizations (dependency on indigenous…

  13. Six Considerations for Social Justice Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Salazar, Carmen F.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes "courageous conversations" in social justice group work and a continuum of action for social justice interventions. It analyzes themes from 20 contributions to 2 consecutive special issues of "The Journal for Specialists in Group Work" on social justice group work. Implications for future development in group leadership and…

  14. Social Studies Teachers' Conceptions of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makler, Andra

    Prior research suggests that while males tend to equate justice with fairness, females associate justice with a responsiveness to individual circumstances that embodies an ethic of care. This document reports the conclusions of research examining what conceptions of justice are embedded in the taught curriculum and whether male and female teachers…

  15. A Nonviolent Approach to Social Justice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu

    2013-01-01

    This article advocates a nonviolent approach to social justice education. First, social justice education literature is reviewed, and two contrasting and influential approaches--critical theory and poststructural theory--are the focus of critical analysis. A nonviolent approach is proposed as an alternative. Second, the notion of social justice is…

  16. Conceptualizing Social Justice: Interviews with Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Today, as the understanding of diversity is further expanded, the meaning of social justice becomes even more complicated, if not confusing. The purpose of this paper is to explore how school principals with social justice commitment understand and perceive social justice in their leadership practices. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  17. Reforming Our Expectations about Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pamela F.; Baille, Daphne M.

    2010-01-01

    Typing the term "juvenile justice reform" into a Google[TM] search will result in 60 pages of entries. But what is meant by juvenile justice reform? What does it look like? How will one know when it is achieved? This article defines juvenile justice reform, discusses the principles of effective reform, and describes the practice of juvenile…

  18. Teaching Sustainability as a Large Format Environmental Science Elective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C.; Frisch, M.; Wagner, J.

    2012-12-01

    A challenge in teaching sustainability is engaging students in the global scale and immediacy of environmental impacts, and degree of societal change required to address environmental challenges. Succeeding in a large format Environmental Science elective course with a many as 100 students is an even greater challenge. ENVSC 322 Environmental Sustainability is an innovative new course integrating multiple disciplines, a wide range of external expert speakers and a hands-on community engagement project. The course, in its third year, has been highly successful and impacting for the students, community and faculty involved. The determination of success is based on student and community impacts. Students covered science topics on Earth systems, ecosystem complexity and services through readings and specialist speakers. The interconnection of society and climate was approached through global and local examples with a strong environmental justice component. Experts in a wide range of professional fields were engaged to speak with students on the role and impacts of sustainability in their particular field. Some examples are: Region VII Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Justice Director engaged students in both urban and rural aspects of environmental justice; a Principle Architect and national leader in Green architecture and redevelopment spoke with students regarding the necessity and potential for green urbanism; and industry innovators presented closed-cycle and alternative energy projects. The capstone project and highlight of the course was an individual or team community engagement project on sustainability, designed and implemented by the students. Community engagement projects completed throughout the Kansas City metro area have increased each year in number, quality and impact from 35 the first year to 70 projects this past spring. Students directly engage their communities and through this experience integrate knowledge of environmental systems

  19. DRGs: justice and the invisible rationing of health care resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, L M

    1987-05-01

    Are DRGs just? This is the primary question which this essay will answer. But there is a prior methodological question that also needs to be addressed: How do we go about rationally (non-arbitrarily) assessing whether DRGs are just or not? I would suggest that grand, ideal theories of justice (Rawls, Nozick) have only very limited utility for answering this question. What we really need is a theory of "interstitial justice," that is, an approach to making justice judgments that is suitable to assessing the social practices and institutions that comprise the interstices of our social life as opposed to its basic structure. Rawls's appeal to "our considered moral judgments" provides us with a useful starting point for this task, which we shall discuss in the first part of this essay. In the second part, we shall actually assess DRGs from the perspective of interstitial justice. What we shall show is that DRGs violate a large number of our considered judgments regarding a just approach to financing health care for the elderly in a cost-effective manner. This is true to such an extent that efforts to reform DRGs and make them fairer, such as the recent effort by Robert Veatch, should be abandoned. In the concluding section of the essay we discuss one especially pernicious feature of DRGs, namely, that they represent an invisible approach to rationing access to health care. In the minds of many this is one of the virtues of DRGs. That claim needs critical examination.

  20. Transformation in the Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Carol Cramer; Roush, David

    2014-01-01

    This article describes four waves of juvenile justice reform across the past century that have profoundly impacted how youth are served in community-based, detention, and correctional settings. This first wave of reform began in 1899 as Jane Addams founded the modern juvenile court in Chicago. These progressive reforms soon spread worldwide.…

  1. Terrorism, forgiveness and restorative justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pemberton, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is intended to enhance understanding of the complexities of restorative justice in cases of terrorism from a victimological perspective. It does so first by analysing what separates terrorism from other forms of crime. The author argues that the main distinction concerns the peculiarly pu

  2. Social Justice for Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Nathalia

    2010-01-01

    The topic of social justice in U.S. teacher education has a long and protracted history that harkens back to the civil rights movement of the mid-20th century, with its attendant legal rulings and constitutional amendments that sought to undo the legacy of discrimination against communities of color, women, and the poor. What is lost,…

  3. Cultural Cleavage and Criminal Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingold, Stuart A.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews major theories of criminal justice, proposes an alternative analytic framework which focuses on cultural factors, applies this framework to several cases, and discusses implications of a cultural perspective for rule of law values. Journal available from Office of Publication, Department of Political Science, University of Florida,…

  4. Justice and Immigrant Latino Recreation Geography in Cache Valley, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Jodie; Radel, Claudia; Endter-Wada, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Latinos are the largest U.S. non-mainstreamed ethnic group, and social and environmental justice considerations dictate recreation professionals and researchers meet their recreation needs. This study reconceptualizes this diverse group’s recreation patterns, looking at where immigrant Latino individuals in Cache Valley, Utah do recreate rather than where they do not. Through qualitative interviews and interactive mapping, thirty participants discussed what recreation means to them and explai...

  5. Contemporary Issues of Social Justice: A Focus on Race and Physical Education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Louis; Clark, Langston

    2016-09-01

    Ongoing events in the United States show the continual need to address issues of social justice in every social context. Of particular note in this article, the contemporary national focus on race has thrust social justice issues into the forefront of the country's conscious. Although legal segregation has ran its course, schools and many neighborhoods remain, to a large degree, culturally, ethnically, linguistically, economically, and racially segregated and unequal (Orfield & Lee, 2005). Even though an African American president presently occupies the White House, the idea of a postracial America remains an unrealized ideal. Though social justice and racial discussions are firmly entrenched in educational research, investigations that focus on race are scant in physical education literature. Here, we attempt to develop an understanding of social justice in physical education with a focus on racial concerns. We purposely confine the examination to the U.S. context to avoid the dilution of the importance of these issues, while recognizing other international landscapes may differ significantly. To accomplish this goal, we hope to explicate the undergirding theoretical tenants of critical race theory and culturally relevant pedagogy in relation to social justice in physical education. Finally, we make observations of social justice in the physical education and physical education teacher education realms to address and illuminate areas of concern.

  6. DNA evidence in rape cases and the Debbie Smith Act: forensic practice and criminal justice implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telsavaara, Terhi V T; Arrigo, Bruce A

    2006-10-01

    The Debbie Smith or "Justice for All" Act was passed on November 1, 2004. The act addresses the problem of collecting and analyzing DNA evidence from backlogged rape kits sitting in crime laboratories around the country. Presently, no empirical data exist by which to assess the soundness of the legislation. However, the act clearly affects discrete operations within the forensic and criminal justice systems. This article explores the relative merits of the Debbie Smith law, highlighting changes in Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs, law enforcement, court administration, correctional treatment, and juvenile justice practices. Concerns linked to the likely impact of the "Justice for All" Act raise significant questions about its overall programmatic utility and treatment efficacy.

  7. Moving beyond Green: Sustainable Development toward Healthy Environments, Social Justice, and Strong Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Keith E.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability initiatives in higher education in general and student affairs specifically must recognize the impact of one's present decisions on environmental health, social justice, and economic strength. Efforts must push beyond "green" ideas to identify solutions that move toward a future that is environmentally capable, more just and…

  8. Roadmap towards justice in urban climate adaptation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Linda; Chu, Eric; Anguelovski, Isabelle; Aylett, Alexander; Debats, Jessica; Goh, Kian; Schenk, Todd; Seto, Karen C.; Dodman, David; Roberts, Debra; Roberts, J. Timmons; Vandeveer, Stacy D.

    2016-02-01

    The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris (COP21) highlighted the importance of cities to climate action, as well as the unjust burdens borne by the world's most disadvantaged peoples in addressing climate impacts. Few studies have documented the barriers to redressing the drivers of social vulnerability as part of urban local climate change adaptation efforts, or evaluated how emerging adaptation plans impact marginalized groups. Here, we present a roadmap to reorient research on the social dimensions of urban climate adaptation around four issues of equity and justice: (1) broadening participation in adaptation planning; (2) expanding adaptation to rapidly growing cities and those with low financial or institutional capacity; (3) adopting a multilevel and multi-scalar approach to adaptation planning; and (4) integrating justice into infrastructure and urban design processes. Responding to these empirical and theoretical research needs is the first step towards identifying pathways to more transformative adaptation policies.

  9. Rawlsian Justice and Palliative Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knight, Carl; Albertsen, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Palliative care serves both as an integrated part of treatment and as a last effort to care for those we cannot cure. The extent to which palliative care should be provided and our reasons for doing so have been curiously overlooked in the debate about distributive justice in health and healthcare...... to provide pain relief to those who need it as a supplement to treatment and, without justice-based reasons to provide palliative care to those whose opportunities cannot be restored. We conclude that this makes Daniels' framework much less attractive........ We argue that one prominent approach, the Rawlsian approach developed by Norman Daniels, is unable to provide such reasons and such care. This is because of a central feature in Daniels' account, namely that care should be provided to restore people's opportunities. Daniels' view is both unable...

  10. Beneficence, justice, and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, J Paul

    2014-03-01

    This paper argues that societal duties of health promotion are underwritten (at least in large part) by a principle of beneficence. Further, this principle generates duties of justice that correlate with rights, not merely "imperfect" duties of charity or generosity. To support this argument, I draw on a useful distinction from bioethics and on a somewhat neglected approach to social obligation from political philosophy. The distinction is that between general and specific beneficence; and the approach from political philosophy has at times been called equality of concern. After clarifying the distinction and setting out the basis of the equality of concern view, I argue that the result is a justice-based principle of "specific" beneficence that should be reflected in a society's health policy. I then draw on this account to criticize, refine, and extend some prominent health care policy proposals from the bioethics literature.

  11. Courting High-Profile Justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alphonce; Shiundu

    2011-01-01

    Uganda has jurisdiction to try war criminals if the cases are referred to Kampala THE pending global arrest warrants issued against Sudan’s President Omar al Bashir and Libya’s President Muammar Gaddafi are some of the high-profile cases that Uganda is banking on to successfully prosecute,as it seeks to become a beacon of justice in East Africa. Speaking to ChinAfrica from Kampala,capital of Uganda,the spokesperson of the Uganda Judi-

  12. Spheres of Justice within Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabbagh, Clara; Resh, Nura; Mor, Michal;

    2006-01-01

    , and on the practices used in the actual allocation of these goods. In line with normative ‘spheres of justice’ arguments in social theory, we conclude that the ideals of social justice within schools vary strongly according to the particular resource to be distributed. Moreover, these ideals often do not correspond...... with the practices that actually guide resource distribution in education, which may go some way toward explaining explicit or latent conflicts in this sphere...

  13. What Justice Entails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. Muñiz-Fraticelli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In The Birthright Lottery, Ayelet Shachar subjects the institution of birthright citizenship to close scrutiny by applying to citizenship the historical and philosophical critique of hereditary ownership built up over four centuries of liberal and democratic theory, and proposing compelling alternatives drawn from the theory of private law to the usual modes of conveyance of membership. Nonetheless, there are some difficulties with this critique. First, the analogy between entailed property and birthright citizenship is not as illustrative as Shachar intends it to be; second, the mechanism of the birthright privilege levy is insufficient for addressing structural impediments to growth; and third, the principle of ius nexi, while an important corrective to currently dominant principles of nationality, will likely have effects both unnecessary and insufficient to correct the injustices that Shachar identifies. In the end, the most significant improvements in the lives of the neediest persons on the planet are more likely advanced through conventional arguments for the lowering of barriers to the circulation of goods, labor, and capital. This shift in attention from opening borders to extending citizenship risks being a distraction from more effective means of addressing the injustices associated with global inequality.Dans son livre The Birthright Lottery, Ayelet Shachar soumet l’institution de la citoyenneté par droit de naissance à un examen rigoureux, en appliquant à la citoyenneté la critique philosophique et historique de la propriété héritée construite pendant quatre siècles de théorie démocratique libérale, et en proposant aux modes habituels d’attribution de la citoyenneté une alternative séduisante tirée de la théorie du droit privé. Néanmoins, cette critique comporte certaines difficultés. Premièrement, l’analogie entre la transmission de la propriété par l’institution de la taille et la citoyenneté par

  14. Review - China's Environmental Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Bleisch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Judith Shapiro. 2012. China's Environmental Challenges. Cambridge: UK and Malden, MA: Polity Press. Judith Shapiro's latest ambitious work picks up the story of modern China's checkered relationship with the environment at approximately the point where her previous study, Mao's War Against Nature (2001, left off. This latest book sets out to address questions of grave importance to China and to the world. The litany of challenges – poisonous water and toxic air, scarcity of water and other resources, deforestation, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity – seem nearly insurmountable, despite evidence of considerable attention from the Chinese government and from China's public, and despite the rocket-like rise of China's economic power and political influence in the world. Shapiro adds to this list the growing problems with lapses in environmental justice, both within China and passed on to its neighbours and to the countries with which it trades. Not only do growing environmental problems affect China's ability to achieve the government's stated goals of a 'harmonious society' with 'moderate prosperity for all,' but these problems, and the ways that ...

  15. Food justice and Christian ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Bedford-Strohm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article dealt with the moral and political problem of international food justice in which the deep contradiction between the present situation of malnourishment and starvation in large parts of the global population on the one hand and the biblical notion of the preferential option for the poor on the other hand was described. This ecumenically widely accepted notion was clarified in several aspects. How deeply this is rooted in the history of Christian social thought was shown by Martin Luther�s writings on the economy which have remained relatively unknown in the churches and in the scholarly world. The article then presented three models of Christian economic ethic: the technical economic model, the utopian economic model and the public theological economic model. On the basis of the public theological model seven challenges for international food justice were presented. The basis for these challenges is an understanding of globalisation which guarantees just participation for everyone and deals with nature in an ecologically sustainable way. The interests of small farmers are the basis for judging the activities of big agro-corporations. Public theology is the background for an active involvement of the churches as agents of a global civil society to promote international food justice.

  16. Governance and Restoration:Social Patterns and Research Methods to Address Environmental Issues%治理与恢复:解决环境问题的社会方式和研究方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐代兴

    2016-01-01

    环境即是被人类有意识地关注的存在世界。当我们存在于其中的存在世界被我们所有意识地关注时,则表明它自身出现了危及到人类生存的问题。解决环境问题的基本社会方式有二,即治理和恢复:前者将环境视为静态的对象而形成治表思路,其基本方法是实证分析,具体为定量分析和定性分析的综合运用;后者正视环境的自生功能而形成治本努力,其基本方法是原理分析,并以其自生境原理和退化原理为双向规范。实证分析以社会科学为母体,它为解决具体问题提供操作技术;原理分析以自然科学为源泉,它为解决整体问题提供智识方法。环境问题的最终解决,必是治理与恢复并举,其方法论前提却是实证分析和原理分析的整合运用。%Environment is the being world consciously concerned by mankind. When paying close and conscious attention to the being world that we are existing in, we can discover issues threatening the survival of mankind. There are two basic social patterns to address environmental issues, namely governance and restora⁃tion. Taking environment as a static object, the former employs the basic method of empirical analysis, specif⁃ically as the comprehensive application of quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis, to address the symp⁃toms;acknowledging the viability of environment, the latter applies the basic method of principle analysis, un⁃der bilateral norms of habitat principle and degeneration principle, to tackle the root causes. Based upon social sciences, the method of empirical analysis provides operating techniques to address concrete issues;while the method of principle analysis, regarding natural sciences as its fountain, presents intellectual way to solve the integrated problem. On the methodological premise to integrate the application of empirical analysis and princi⁃ple analysis, the final solution to

  17. Green justice in the city: A new agenda for urban green space research in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutt, Rebecca Leigh; Gulsrud, Natalie Marie

    2016-01-01

    tIn this short communication, we discuss European urban green space (UGS) research from an environ-mental justice perspective. We show that European UGS scholarship primarily focuses on functionalvalues and managerial aspects of UGS, while paying less attention to equity in the enjoyment of andde......tIn this short communication, we discuss European urban green space (UGS) research from an environ-mental justice perspective. We show that European UGS scholarship primarily focuses on functionalvalues and managerial aspects of UGS, while paying less attention to equity in the enjoyment...... of anddecision-making around UGS. On this basis we discuss potentials for European urban green space researchto take up a more explicit environmental justice framing to shed much-needed light on injustices inEuropean cities and inspire change in policy and practice....

  18. 75 FR 9613 - Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... of Justice Programs Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, DOJ. ACTION: Notice of Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal... Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice'' and (2) a draft companion document entitled, ``NIJ...

  19. The Influence of Procedural and Distributive Justice on Organizational Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Sheldon; Ruderman, Marion

    Research on justice in organizational behavior has emphasized distributive rather than procedural justice. Distributive justice focuses on the fairness of rewards, while procedural justice focuses on the fairness of the procedures used in allocating rewards. To examine the procedural-distributive justice distinction as it relates to organizatonal…

  20. Inequitable Chronic Lead Exposure: A Dual Legacy of Social and Environmental Injustice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Tamara G J; Adams, Elizabeth A; Weathers, Tess D; Staten, Lisa K; Filippelli, Gabriel M

    2016-01-01

    Both historic and contemporary factors contribute to the current unequal distribution of lead in urban environments and the disproportionate impact lead exposure has on the health and well-being of low-income minority communities. We consider the enduring impact of lead through the lens of environmental justice, taking into account well-documented geographic concentrations of lead, legacy sources that produce chronic exposures, and intergenerational transfers of risk. We discuss the most promising type of public health action to address inequitable lead exposure and uptake: primordial prevention efforts that address the most fundamental causes of diseases by intervening in structural and systemic inequalities. PMID:27214670

  1. Individualistic and social motives for justice judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem

    2013-09-01

    Justice judgments are subjective by nature, and are influenced substantially by motivational processes. In the present contribution, two motives underlying justice judgments are examined: individualistic motives to evaluate solutions to social problems that benefit the self in material or immaterial ways as fair versus social motives to conceptualize justice in terms of the well-being of others, such as a desire for equality, adherence to in-group norms, and a concern for the collective interest. A review of relevant research reveals evidence for both motivations when people make evaluations of justice. Moreover, which motive is most dominant in the justice judgment process depends on perceptual salience: whereas individualistic motives are activated when a perceiver's own needs and goals are perceptually salient, social motives are activated when others' needs and goals are perceptually salient. It is concluded that both individualistic and social motives contribute in predictable ways to justice judgments.

  2. Children. The unwitting target of environmental injustices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, D L; Stewart, V

    2001-10-01

    Children have little control over where they live, what they eat, the financial circumstances of their families, or the developmental activities and behaviors that make them vulnerable to environmental contaminants. Minority and poor families disproportionately live in communities with landfills, hazardous waste facilities, incinerators, industrial plants, and old housing with poor indoor air quality and lead-based paint. Residents of these communities are also more likely than are more affluent communities to consume fish on a regular basis from local waters, many of which have banned fishing. Consequently, these children and their families are exposed more frequently than are children in other communities to potentially dangerous chemicals that can affect health. Data indicate that poor and minority children have higher rates of asthma, elevated blood lead levels, learning disabilities, and hyperactivity than do non-minority and more affluent children. When a group of people is exposed unfairly and inequitably to toxins in their communities, workplaces, and schools, a phenomenon called environmental discrimination or environmental racism exists. Environmental justice is a US governmental remedy that requires the application of fair strategies and processes in the resolution of inequality related to environmental contamination. The US response resulted in the establishment of offices of Environmental Justice within the EPA and ATSDR and passage of important legislation and policies, such as the Community Planning and Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Executive Order 12898 (Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations), and Executive Order 13045, a parallel order to protect low-income and minority children from actual and potential environmental hazards. Communities and advocacy groups play an important role in promoting healthier environments for children. Frequently, low-income and minority communities are perceived as less powerful, less

  3. Social justice in education revisited1

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwenhuis, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Social justice is a primary concern of politicians and human rights practitioners, but has lost much of its currency as it has been elevated through philosophical debates to the level of an idealised or “imagined social order” of modern state formations. This article is based on a conceptual analysis of social justice and the trajectory of philosophical discourse. It is argued that much of the social justice discourse ignores the specificity of the geo-historical and social contexts of develo...

  4. The Value Of Justice In Child Criminal Justice System A Review Of Indonesian Criminal Law

    OpenAIRE

    Andi Sofyan

    2015-01-01

    The value of justice in Act No. 11 of 2012 concerns the Child Criminal Justice System Act No. SPPA confirms the Restorative Justice Approach as a method of disputes resolution. The method of research used was normative-legal research with philosophical approach. The results showed that the value of restorative justice through diversion contained in Act SPPA but the diversion limit for certain types of criminal acts and threats of punishment under seven 7 years and not a repetition criminal re...

  5. Transitional justice failing? A gendered evaluation of the transitional justice program in post-genocide Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Purdon, Simone Jacqueline

    2008-01-01

    This thesis explores the experiences of women in the transitional justice process that has followed the war in Rwanda. Transitional justice is implemented to satisfy the state’s need to regain legitimacy in the eyes of its citizens by entrenching the rule of law and building capacity in justice institutions. In Rwanda, women have experienced lasting effects from the trauma of the genocide, and in order to heal, they have sought to participate in the country’s transitional justice program. Thr...

  6. The Relationship between Justice and Attitudes: An Examination of Justice Effects on Event and System-Related Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Maureen; Hess, Ronald L.; Ganesan, Shankar

    2007-01-01

    Research in organizational justice has always been interested in the relationship between justice and attitudes. This research often examines how different types of justice affect different attitudes, with distributive justice predicted to affect attitudes about specific events (e.g., performance evaluation) and procedural justice predicted to…

  7. Procedural Justice, Distributive Justice: How Experiences with Downsizing Condition Their Impact on Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay-Warner, Jody; Hegtvedt, Karen A.; Roman, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both procedural justice and distributive justice are important predictors of work attitudes. This research, however, fails to examine conditions that affect the relative importance of each type of justice. Here we argue that prior experiences with regard to downsizing shape individuals' workplace schemas, which…

  8. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  9. Addressing Social Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  10. When Organizational Justice Matters for Affective Merger Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Ralf Bebenroth; Kai Oliver Thiele

    2015-01-01

    We investigate when organizational justice matters to employees' commitment in the post-acquisition process after a company is overtaken in a cross-border acquisition. There is overwhelming evidence that employees who are treated fairly during acquisitions are more committed to their new firms. We extend this finding by dividing organizational justice into three sub-dimensions: informational justice, interpersonal justice, and procedural justice. We find evidence that procedural justice is an...

  11. ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE AND MOTIVATION RELATIONSHIP: THE CASE OF ADIYAMAN UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Mucahit CELIK; Mehmet SARITURK

    2012-01-01

    Organizational Justice is fairly influential factor acting on the workers’ motivation level in the public institutions and establishments and private businesses. An empirical study has been carried out in the Adýyaman University in order to determine the level of the relationship between organizational justice and motivation. In this study, organizational justice has been handled from the distributional justice, procedural justice and interpersonal justice approaches. At the end of the study ...

  12. Access to Justice for Persons with Disabilities: An Emerging Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Allen Larson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Persons with disabilities often find themselves marginalized by society and by our justice systems. We can improve access to justice by training better advocates. Advocates not only must be knowledgeable concerning relevant laws and regulations, but also must be able to interact effectively on a personal, professional level with persons who have disabilities. We also want to make certain that persons with disabilities have the opportunity to learn to advocate for themselves and for other persons with disabilities. Technologies are available that can help us accomplish these goals. This article provides a brief survey of legal protections (and gaps in such protection for persons with disabilities. Successful advocate training programs from around the world are identified and described. The article provides examples of how technology is being used to support these efforts and provides suggestions regarding additional ways in which technology could be employed. Law schools around the world have begun to embrace the goal of better advocacy, but improving access will require well-prepared advocates to answer the call. Training advocates to provide services to a population that may have significantly different needs even within that population may be a more efficient and effective way to improve access to justice than by attempting to draft laws and regulations that somehow address all possible circumstances.

  13. A Critical Appraisal of the Juvenile Justice System under Cameroon's 2005 Criminal Procedure Code: Emerging Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Tabe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to examine the changes introduced by the 2005 Cameroonian Criminal Procedure Code on matters of juvenile justice, considering that before this Code, juvenile justice in Cameroon was governed by extra-national laws. In undertaking this analysis, the article highlights the evolution of the administration of juvenile justice 50 years after independence of Cameroon. It also points out the various difficulties and shortcomings in the treatment of juvenile offenders in Cameroon since the enactment of the new Criminal Procedure Code. The article reveals that the 2005 Code is an amalgamation of all hitherto existing laws in the country that pertained to juvenile justice, and that despite the considerable amount of criticism it has received, the Code is clearly an improvement of the system of juvenile justice in Cameroon, since it represents a balance of the due process rights of young people, the protection of society and the special needs of young offenders. This is so because the drafters of the Code took a broad view of the old laws on juvenile justice. Also a wide range of groups were consulted, including criminal justice professionals, children’s service organisations, victims, parents, young offenders, educators, advocacy groups and social-policy analysts. However, to address the challenges that beset the juvenile justice system of Cameroon, the strategy of the government should be focussed on three areas: the prevention of youth crime, the provision of meaningful consequences for the actions of young people, and the rehabilitation and reintegration of young offenders. Cameroonian law should seek educative solutions rather than to impose prison sentences or other repressive measures on young offenders. Special courts to deal with young offenders should be established outside the regular penal system and should be provided with resources that are adequate for and appropriate to fostering their understanding of

  14. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor develop...

  15. Ministerial Presentation: Sri Lanka. Presentation by Tissa Vitarana [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thank you, Mr. Chairman for giving me the opportunity to address this distinguished audience at short notice. I would also like to thank the Government of China and the China Atomic Energy Authority together with the IAEA and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD for hosting and organizing this second ministerial meeting on nuclear energy. It takes place at a time when the world is faced with an energy crisis and also an environmental crisis. Besides cost considerations, dependence on fossil fuels is no longer feasible because of their impact on climate leading to global warming with all the adverse consequences for all forms of life on this planet. Therefore, from the point of view of generating electricity on a large scale without carbon emissions, nuclear energy is the need of the hour. This meeting is addressing the main issues that arise in expanding the use of nuclear energy as a source of power, such as fuel supply, waste management, infrastructure development, technology availability and environmental aspects. In addition by providing time for ministerial presentations the current experience and needs of the various countries are being surfaced and shared. Before discussing some issues pertaining to Sri Lanka, I wish to express my agreement with the statement made by the Vice Prime Minister of China who clearly emphasized the need for a total ban on nuclear weapons, which was supported by speakers from several other countries. The statement attributed to US President Barak Obama that he is prepared to work towards reducing nuclear arms in the USA is also welcome. Further, the right of every country to resort to peaceful use of nuclear energy for generating power should be respected so long as they conform to the regulations of the IAEA, including the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). I wish to share with the learned delegates a few issues pertaining to Sri Lanka as a country which has not yet taken a firm decision to turn to nuclear energy as a part of its

  16. The Value Of Justice In Child Criminal Justice System A Review Of Indonesian Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sofyan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The value of justice in Act No. 11 of 2012 concerns the Child Criminal Justice System Act No. SPPA confirms the Restorative Justice Approach as a method of disputes resolution. The method of research used was normative-legal research with philosophical approach. The results showed that the value of restorative justice through diversion contained in Act SPPA but the diversion limit for certain types of criminal acts and threats of punishment under seven 7 years and not a repetition criminal recidivists. This indicates that Act SPPA still contained a retributive justice not promote the interests of protection for child.

  17. Social Justice at the Microlevel: Working with Clients' Prejudices

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Bailey P.

    2013-01-01

    Social justice is considered the 5th force in counseling and has largely been aimed toward advocating for oppressed individuals and groups by creating change in the societal structures that maintain oppression. However, there is a lack of information for counselors who work with clients who oppress others. This article addresses assessment,…

  18. The Impact of the Economic Downturn in the Spanish Civil Justice System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Carballo Pineiro (Laura); J. Nieva Fenoll (Jordi)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe Spanish justice system has been shaken by the econom- ic downturn as many other institutions have. This article addresses in the first place some statistical data that shed light as regards to the number of judges and the costs and length of the procedure in Spain. These figures help

  19. Space, Place, and Social Justice: Developing a Rhythmanalysis of Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Pam

    2013-01-01

    This article develops a methodological approach based on the spatial theory of Henri Lefebvre to address relationships between space, place, and social justice in education. In understanding the contradictory effects of globalization on local education policies and the continuing effects of historical geographies in education, Lefebvre's…

  20. School Counseling to Close the Achievement Gap: A Social Justice Framework for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    School counselors can play a powerful role in closing the achievement gap when they incorporate the principles of social justice into their practice. In this much-needed resource for preservice and inservice counselors, the author addresses factors (such as racism, sexism, heterosexism, and classism) that can contribute to academic failure, and…

  1. The Potential of Critical Feminist Citizenship Frameworks for Citizenship and Social Justice in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozalek, Vivienne; Carolissen, Ronelle

    2012-01-01

    There is a paucity of South African literature that uses feminist critical approaches as a conceptual tool to examine intersections of social justice and citizenship. This article aims to address this gap by examining the potential of critical feminist approaches to transform conceptions of citizenship in higher education. It outlines how…

  2. Rethinking Teaching and Learning Mathematics for Social Justice from a Critical Race Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larnell, Gregory V.; Bullock, Erika C.; Jett, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    What is teaching and learning mathematics for social justice (TLMSJ)? How has TLMSJ been taken up in mathematics education--both historically and contemporarily? Along with unpacking these two central questions, this article assesses the current capacity and stance of TLMSJ toward addressing issues of racial injustice. The authors begin with an…

  3. Infusing Social Justice into Rehabilitation Education: Making a Case for Curricula Refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Debra A.; Alston, Reginald J.; Middleton, Renee A.

    2007-01-01

    Persons with disabilities are among minority groups who frequently experience marginalization and disenfranchisement. As a paradigm, social justice attempts to address marginalization through equitable redistribution of resources, policy and legislative revisions, and personal empowerment. The limited response of rehabilitation counseling to…

  4. Using a Participatory Culture-Specific Model to Increase the Effectiveness of Social Justice Courses in School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybill, Emily C.; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel; Greenberg, Daphne; Roach, Andrew T.

    2013-01-01

    The Participatory Culture-Specific Model of Course Development (PCSMCD), adapted from the Participatory Culture-Specific Intervention Model, is a proposed framework to address challenges to social justice education by addressing the following four course variables: instructor characteristics, instructor experiences, student characteristics, and…

  5. Address of Wm. Bradford Reynolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, William Bradford

    This speech, presented at the "Symposium for the Advancement of Non-Aversive Behavioral Management" by the counselor to the Attorney General and Assistant Attorney General from the U.S. Department of Justice, supports the view that use of aversive procedures on institutionalized severely handicapped individuals is inappropriate. The 14th amendment…

  6. Capabilities and Incapabilities of the Capabilities Approach to Health Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    This first part of this article critiques Sridhar Venkatapuram's conception of health as a capability. It argues that Venkatapuram relies on the problematic concept of dignity, implies that those who are unhealthy lack lives worthy of dignity (which seems politically incorrect), sets a low bar for health, appeals to metaphysically problematic thresholds, fails to draw clear connections between appealed-to capabilities and health, and downplays the importance/relevance of health functioning. It concludes by questioning whether justice entitlements should pertain to the capability for health versus health achievements, challenging Venkatapuram's claims about the strength of health entitlements, and demonstrating that the capabilities approach is unnecessary to address social determinants of health.

  7. Justice and Social Cohesion: Some conservative perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Hviid

    2011-01-01

    of this problem. The argument presented in this paper will, first, take its point of departure from David Hume’s notion of sympathy and how this makes social cohesion possible. Second, it will be argued that social cohesion is a prerequisite for the existence of justice, and therefore justice is a derivative...

  8. Social Justice in School Psychology: Moving Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Alissa

    2009-01-01

    The topic of social justice is not new to dialogue and research within disciplines that serve children, such as education and psychology. The commitment to social justice within the fields of education and psychology is evidenced by the attention that their organizations--the American Educational Research Association (AERA) and the American…

  9. Strategic Activism, Educational Leadership and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, James

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the strategic activism of educational leaders who promote social justice. Given the risks, educational leaders need to be strategic about the ways in which they pursue their activism. Citing current research, this article explores the ways in which leaders strategically pursue their social justice agendas within their own…

  10. Social Justice Leadership and Inclusion: A Genealogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to engage in an historical analysis of research about two concepts: social justice leadership and leadership for inclusion. Recent experiences have caused me to wonder about our interpretations of justice, equity, and inclusion. Analysis of the relevant literature revealed a lack of consensus among scholars as to a…

  11. Social Justice, Disability, and Rehabilitation Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Daniel; Smart, Julie F.

    2012-01-01

    The academic field and the professional practice of rehabilitation counseling focuses on one aspect of social justice, assisting individuals with disabilities to attain full community inclusion. Nonetheless, social justice focuses on many marginalized groups and in the related fields of counseling and psychology, those with disabilities are rarely…

  12. The Dutch criminal justice system: third edition

    OpenAIRE

    Tak, P.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    This book covers both the organization of the present Dutch criminal justice system and the main procedures used within the system. It deals with the basic principles that guide the operation of the Dutch criminal justice system. The latest statistical information available is that of the year 2006.

  13. Operationalizing Social Justice Counseling: Paradigm to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    Social justice counseling, like all humanistic models, recognizes the dignity of each human being, affirms the right of all people to choose and work toward their own goals, and asserts the importance of service to community. The social justice paradigm brings a special emphasis on the role of the environment. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

  14. Social Justice and Educational Administration: Mutually Exclusive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, Carol F.; Lugg, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore some of the current tensions within educational administration in the USA and conclude with a few cautions for educators who engage in social justice projects. Design/methodology/approach: Using a selective case, this historical essay examines the issues of social justice and equity as they have…

  15. Christian Social Justice Advocate: Contradiction or Legacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cher N.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between Christian religiosity and the principles of social justice is explored, including the sociopolitical aspects of faith and advocacy. A particular emphasis is placed on the historical legacy and theological relationships between Christianity and social justice. The author concludes with a call for…

  16. Organizational Justice and Commitment in Interscholastic Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisenant, Warren

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three organizational justice dimensions on the commitment of high school student athletes (N = 480) to continue playing a referent sport. The athletes were asked to complete an instrument designed to assess their perceived levels of justice displayed by their coaches in three justice…

  17. Why global distributive justice cannot work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues that a political theory of global distributive justice, as envisaged by neo-Rawlsian cosmopolitans, makes no sense. Political theorists such as Charles Beitz, Thomas Pogge, and Darrel Moellendorf have argued that John Rawls's egalitarian conception of distributive justice should be

  18. Values and Social Justice in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crethar, Hugh C.; Winterowd, Carrie L.

    2012-01-01

    The construct of social justice in counseling is defined and operationalized in this article. This is followed by a discussion about the intersection between social justice in counseling and philosophy, ethics, and spirituality. A call to action for counseling professionals is offered. (Contains 1 figure.)

  19. Mister Chief Justice. A Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, John W.

    Intended to accompany the film "Mister Chief Justice," this study guide introduces the life of John Marshall and early U.S. history through a fictional account of a dinner party at the home of the chief justice in March, 1801. The guide presents the historical characters who attended the dinner, including John Marshall, Mary Willis Marshall, Eliza…

  20. PUBLIC EQUALITY, DEMOCRACY AND JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mladenović

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the principle of public equality which, according to the view Thomas Christiano defends in his book The Constitution of Equality: Democratic Authority and Its Limits, is of central importance for social justice and democracy. Christiano also holds that the authority of democracy, and its limits, are grounded in this principle. Christiano’s democratic theory can be, broadly speaking, divided in two parts. The first part deals with the derivation and justification of the principle of public equality. The second part argues why and how the authority of democracy, and its limits, are based on this principle. This article will deal only with the first part of Christiano’s theory. While I believe that the second part is crucially important for Christiano’s democratic theory, I think that before examining the role of the principle of public equality, it is necessary to examine its nature. For that reason, this paper deals primarily with the nature of the principle of public equality as the requirement of social justice and the basis for the justification of democracy.

  1. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  2. The Relationship between Organizational Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad G. Chegini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Organizational justice and its relationship with citizenship behavior is one of the basic and important subjects of successful organizations. In this competitive world, making a sense of organizational justice in staff, increases functional ability and organizational citizenship behavior. Approach: This research includes 5 hypotheses which evaluate the relationship between organizational justice dimensions and organizational citizenship behavior. Organizational justice dimensions consist of: organizational justice, distributive justice, policy justice, inter individual justice and informational justice. The present research method is analytical-descriptive and its type is correlation. The method of collecting data is questionnaire. It is also a field research. Results: The findings of this research show that all the organizational justice dimensions which were qualified by correlation coefficient test are positively related to organizational citizenship behavior. Thus, the hypotheses were verified. Conclusion: Finally, informational justice mechanisms should be planned in a way that policies and relations are made justly.

  3. Justice in context: assessing contextualism as an approach to justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Buckley

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Moral and political philosophers are increasingly using empirical data to inform their normative theories. This has sparked renewed interest into questions concerning the relationship between facts and principles. A recent attempt to frame these questions within a broader approach to normative theory comes from David Miller, who has on several occasions defended ‘contextualism’ as the best approach to justice. Miller argues that the context of distribution itself brings one or another political principle into play. This paper examines this claim. It considers several plausible strategies for carrying out Miller's general project and argues that each strategy fails. Nevertheless, the author maintains that an investigation into why they fail paves the way for a philosophically plausible account of the relationship between facts and principles.

  4. Youth Crime and Justice:Key Messages from the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    McAra, Lesley; McVie, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Based on findings from the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime, this article challenges the evidence-base which policy-makers have drawn on to justify the evolving models of youth justice across the UK (both in Scotland and England/Wales). It argues that to deliver justice, systems need to address four key facts about youth crime: serious offending is linked to a broad range of vulnerabilities and social adversity; early identification of at-risk children is not an exact science an...

  5. Environmental Law Survey 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Within the EGP Project “The Capacity Building of Environmental Justice and Guarding Environmental Rights in Western China”, the scholars of the University of Bologna, partner of the China University of Political Science and Law (CUPL) and its Center for Legal Assistance to Pollution Victims (CLAPV), have worked on an Environmental Law Survey so as to provide to the interested public –in particular, Chinese judges, lawyers, academics, and civil society as a whole – with the most interesting an...

  6. Towards New Literacies and Social Justice for Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Marie Cumming-Potvin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues for the need to develop engineering students with high levels of technical competency as well as critical awareness for the realities of working and living ethically in the global community. Drawing on social constructivist principles of learning (Vygotsky, 1978 and a pedagogy of multiliteracies (New London Group, 1996, 2000, the paper explores new approaches for engineering education to meet the challenges embedded in current undergraduate programs and professional accreditation standards. To improve the ability of engineers to contribute to social and environmental justice, there needs to be a rethinking of engineering curriculum and pedagogy to develop engineering literacies that encompass a social and technical focus.

  7. Justice, community knowledge, and waste facility siting in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Mei-Fang

    2012-05-01

    This article examines justice in the context of a controversial industrial waste facility siting in a Hakka (a minority ethnic group) town in Taiwan. It provides analysis of local perceptions of disproportionate risk, community knowledge claims, and the challenges of citizens to the controversial environmental impact assessment process. It explores knowledge disputes among regulators, developers, and local activists; it considers the struggle of local actors for recognition and inclusion in decision-making; and it argues for the development of institutional procedures that promote dialogue among stakeholders in order to avoid the preemption of debate, the control of the frame by the government and experts, and the centralization of power.

  8. Riscos, saúde e justiça ambiental: o protagonismo das populações atingidas na produção de conhecimento Environmental risk, health and justice: the protagonism of affected populations in the production of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Firpo Porto

    2012-06-01

    concealment of conflicts and uncertainties, the lack of contextualization of exposure to risk and effects on health, as well as the difficulties of dialogue with the communities. The article also presents contributions and advances presented by environmental justice movements. The conclusion is that a constructivist, procedural and democratic perspective of confronting forms of knowledge and practices can guide the scientific production to benefit of environmental justice.

  9. THE CHILD JUSTICE ACT: PROCEDURAL SENTENCING ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan S Terblanche

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution a number of procedural issues related to the sentencing of child offenders and emanating from the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 are considered in some detail. As a general rule, the Act requires pre-sentence reports to be obtained from probation officers before sentencing any child offender, with only a limited number of exceptions. The article argues that the peremptory nature of the Act means that a probation report is always required, even if reports by other experts are also available. The exceptions are limited to instances other than those where the child offender is sentenced to any form of imprisonment or to residence in a care centre. The article addresses the question of whether or not the reference to imprisonment includes alternative imprisonment which is imposed only as an alternative to a fine. It suggests that alternative imprisonment should, generally, not be imposed on child offenders. When an exception is not prevented because of the sentence, a pre-sentence report may be dispensed with only when the offence is a schedule-1 offence (the least serious class of offences or when obtaining a report would prejudice the child. It is argued that these exceptions are likely to occur rather rarely. A final aspect of the Act’s provisions on pre-sentence reports is the requirement that reasons be given for a departure from the recommendations in a pre-sentence report. This requirement merely confirms the status quo.The Act permits the prosecutor to provide the court with a victim impact statement. Such a statement is defined in the Act. It is a sworn statement by a victim or someone authorised by the victim explaining the consequences to the victim of the commission of the crime. The article also addresses the issue of whether or not the child justice court might mero motu obtain a victim impact statement when the prosecution does not do so.Finally, the article addresses appeals against and reviews of the trial

  10. Polluter-Pays-Principle: The Cardinal Instrument for Addressing Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizan R. Khan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the evolution of polluter-pays-principle (PPP as an economic, ethical and legal instrument and argues that it has the potential of effecting global responsibility for adaptation and mitigation and for generating reliable funding for the purpose. However, the contradiction is that while it rests on neoliberal market principles, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change did not include the PPP as its provision though the principle of “common but differentiated responsibility based on respective capabilities” (Article 3.1 implicitly recognizes this. The article raises the basic question that under a free-market global system: why should the polluters not take responsibility of their actions so that the global society does not suffer? The Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD countries apply this PPP in many of its forms. Some developing countries are also applying it albeit still more as a governmental rather than polluter responsibility. Currently there is an emerging consensus that a carbon tax should be applied globally to address the intractable problem of climate change. Since the problem relates to a global commons, the issue is how to apply the PPP globally yet equitably. This article brings in Caney’s proposal that as complementary to the PPP. The “ability to pay principle” (APP can take care of emissions of the past agreed by the Parties and current and future legitimate emissions of the disadvantaged countries and groups of people. He calls the latter poverty-sensitive PPP. While PPP is primarily a market principle, APP is a principle of justice and equity. That polluters should pay the social and environmental costs of their pollution reflects the most fundamental principles of justice and responsibility.

  11. Reframing Citizenship and Gender Justice -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    Marshall’s classical formulation of citizenship was associated with equal rights and duties of citizens within the nation state (Marshall 1950). It was at the same time based upon inequality within the category citizen, i.e. based on gender and ethnicity, as well between citizens and non...... to reframe the concept of citizenship to include visions of gender equality and gender justice within and beyond the nation states (Siim 2013). One crucial issue is how to expand the understanding of citizenship to include cultural diversity within the nation state. Scholars have proposed a multicultural...... citizenship (Kymlicka 1995), which recognizes the diversity and accommodate the cultural difference of minority groups within the nation states. Another crucial issue is how to expand citizenship to the transnational/global level. Scholars have proposed a notion of rooted cosmopolitan citizenship (Benhabib...

  12. A survey on constitutional justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheirollah Parvin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of supervising the conformity of statutory law with constitutional law, is due to necessities rooted in two essential principles: the supremacy of constitution and the hierarchy of the law. Constitution as the supreme law in the sense of status and legal value , is placed at the top of the legal pyramid of every political system and therefore requires a special organization and discipline that will act as the sanction of the principles and the main content incorporated in this legal instrument. this special organization and discipline known as Constitutional justice in legal Literature now and have studing in two main patterns. Firs pattern based on Supervision of courts on rules and other pattern is Apply by Emphasis on role of Political Institutions in Supervision on rules. This two patterns have common purpose but have different backgrounds and methods.

  13. Global Poverty, Justice and Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Niţu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The question of poverty and justice inside global economic system has received three major types of responses in political theory. The communitarian perspective considers political culture of a society as the main cause of the wealth of that society, and accordingly limits the redistributive duty to the nation-state borders. A second view, which can be called liberal internationalism, claims that trade liberalization is the best way to reduce poverty in developing countries and create a more equitable and stable economic order. This paper argues that a third perspective seems to be a better approach. The cosmopolitan perspective points out that international economic system should be reformed by building up a global tax regime.

  14. Mathematics education and social justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Skovsmose

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades there has been an increase in researchwork connecting mathematics education with society and concernsfor equity, social justice and democracy. In particular we discussthe role of mathematics education and mathematics education re-search in the ‘informational society’. This society contains contra-dictions that we express in two paradoxes. The paradox of inclu-sion refers to the fact that current processes of globalisation, al-though stating a concern for inclusion, exercise an exclusion ofcertain social sectors. The paradox of citizenship alludes to the factthat education, although seeming ready to prepare for active citi-zenship, exercises an adaptation of the individual to the given so-cial order. Much research in mathematics education ignores thesetwo paradoxes. We try to point out what it could mean for math-ematics education research to face the paradoxes of the informa-tional society in search of more just social relationships.

  15. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal justice policy coordination. 0.85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal...

  16. 28 CFR 0.93 - Bureau of Justice Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bureau of Justice Statistics. 0.93...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.93 Bureau of Justice Statistics. The Bureau of Justice Statistics is headed by a Director appointed by the President. Under the general authority of...

  17. The Relationship between Organizational Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad G. Chegini

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Organizational justice and its relationship with citizenship behavior is one of the basic and important subjects of successful organizations. In this competitive world, making a sense of organizational justice in staff, increases functional ability and organizational citizenship behavior. Approach: This research includes 5 hypotheses which evaluate the relationship between organizational justice dimensions and organizational citizenship behavior. Organizational justice dime...

  18. Procedural and Distributive Justice Effects: The Role of Personal Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Sheldon; And Others

    Distributive justice concerns the fairness of outcomes or allocations, while procedural justice refers to the fairness of the rules and processes used in the distribution of outcomes. Previous research which showed procedural justice to be more powerful than distributive justice used a work context in which the allocation recipient had no personal…

  19. 44 CFR 11.17 - Referral to Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Referral to Department of Justice. When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required under § 11.16, the referral or request shall be transmitted to the Department of Justice by the Chief Counsel... Justice. 11.17 Section 11.17 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT...

  20. Incorporating feminist theory and insights into a restorative justice response to sex offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, C Quince; Koss, Mary P

    2005-05-01

    Sex offenses, particularly nonpenetration sex offenses and acquaintance sexual assault, are all too common. Because these crimes reinforce women's fear of crime and restrict spatial and social freedom, it is paramount for the justice system to act affirmatively; however, it does not. This article identifies several failures in the current response to these sex offenses. We describe the research demonstration project, RESTORE, operating in Pima County, Arizona, which uses a restorative justice response as a way of remedying some of those failures. Identifying central feminist insights that guided the development of that project, the article addresses concerns raised by feminists about the use of restorative justice for gendered violence. We conclude that most if not all of these concerns apply to cases of on going domestic violence--cases specifically excluded from the RESTORE program--rather than to cases of acquaintance sexual assault or nonpenetration sex offenses.