WorldWideScience

Sample records for addressing cancer clusters

  1. Native Women at Risk: Addressing Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Kay M. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses outcomes of a conference that brought together representatives from Indian tribes, state health departments, the Indian Health Service, the Mayo Clinic, and the American Cancer Society, to address the high rate of cervical cancer among American Indian women. Describes barriers to health care and plans to promote cancer screening among…

  2. Presidential Address: Industry Location, Economic Development Incentives, and Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, Douglas P.

    2012-01-01

    In his Presidential Address, Professor Woodward uses South Carolina’s economic development experience as a case study of significant challenges in regional development. The state has re-industrialized and emerged as a leader in attracting capital investment through generous financial incentives, after watching the demise of its major industry cluster (textiles and apparel) since the 1970s. The address argues that regional science research continues to advance our understanding of regional pol...

  3. Inflammatory breast cancer clusters: A hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Paul H; Hashmi, Salman; Minaei, Ashley A; Veneroso, Carmela

    2014-01-01

    Cancer clusters have long been a focus of interest because of the possibility of identifying etiologic agents. Only on rare occasions, however, have such cluster investigations been successful. One major difficulty in cluster investigations, particularly in the area of breast cancer, is the long latent period. There have been a number of publications providing a discouraging picture regarding cancer cluster investigations. The possibility of learning from a cluster investigation, however, is ...

  4. Testicular cancer: addressing the psychosexual issues.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Annamarie

    2012-01-31

    Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in men aged 15-35 years and predominantly occurs at a time in a man\\'s life when important decisions about marriage, starting a family and a professional career are being made. While treatments for testicular cancer are very successful, they can have a major impact on the person\\'s sexuality and sense of self. The focus of this article is on exploring the impact of cancer treatments for testicular cancer on men\\'s sexuality and how nurses can respond to their concerns in a sensitive and informed manner.

  5. Cluster stability scores for microarray data in cancer studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Debashis

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A potential benefit of profiling of tissue samples using microarrays is the generation of molecular fingerprints that will define subtypes of disease. Hierarchical clustering has been the primary analytical tool used to define disease subtypes from microarray experiments in cancer settings. Assessing cluster reliability poses a major complication in analyzing output from clustering procedures. While most work has focused on estimating the number of clusters in a dataset, the question of stability of individual-level clusters has not been addressed. Results We address this problem by developing cluster stability scores using subsampling techniques. These scores exploit the redundancy in biologically discriminatory information on the chip. Our approach is generic and can be used with any clustering method. We propose procedures for calculating cluster stability scores for situations involving both known and unknown numbers of clusters. We also develop cluster-size adjusted stability scores. The method is illustrated by application to data three cancer studies; one involving childhood cancers, the second involving B-cell lymphoma, and the final is from a malignant melanoma study. Availability Code implementing the proposed analytic method can be obtained at the second author's website.

  6. Opportunities to address lung cancer disparities among African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Matthews-Juarez, Patricia; Juarez, Paul D.; Melton, Courtnee E; King, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Race and socioeconomic status are well known to influence lung cancer incidence and mortality patterns in the U.S. Lung cancer incidence and mortality rates are higher among blacks than whites. In this article we review opportunities to address disparities in lung cancer incidence, mortality, and survivorship among African Americans. First, we summarize recent advances in the early detection and treatment of lung cancer. Then we consider black-white disparities in lung cancer treatment includ...

  7. Space-time clusters of breast cancer using residential histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A large proportion of breast cancer cases are thought related to environmental factors. Identification of specific geographical areas with high risk (clusters) may give clues to potential environmental risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether clusters of breast...... cancer existed in space and time in Denmark, using 33 years of residential histories. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of 3138 female cases from the Danish Cancer Registry, diagnosed with breast cancer in 2003 and two independent control groups of 3138 women each, randomly...... selected from the Civil Registration System. Residential addresses of cases and controls from 1971 to 2003 were collected from the Civil Registration System and geo-coded. Q-statistics were used to identify space-time clusters of breast cancer. All analyses were carried out with both control groups...

  8. Adaptation of a Counseling Intervention to Address Multiple Cancer Risk Factors among Overweight/Obese Latino Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Yessenia; Fernández, Maria E.; Strong, Larkin L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Krasny, Sarah; Hernandez Robles, Eden; Heredia, Natalia; Spears, Claire A.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Eakin, Elizabeth; Resnicow, Ken; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Wetter, David W.

    2015-01-01

    More than 60% of cancer-related deaths in the United States are attributable to tobacco use, poor nutrition, and physical inactivity, and these risk factors tend to cluster together. Thus, strategies for cancer risk reduction would benefit from addressing multiple health risk behaviors. We adapted an evidence-based intervention grounded in social…

  9. Adoptive T cell therapy: Addressing challenges in cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Cassian

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adoptive T cell therapy involves the ex vivo selection and expansion of effector cells for the treatment of patients with cancer. In this review, the advantages and limitations of using antigen-specific T cells are discussed in counterpoint to vaccine strategies. Although vaccination strategies represent more readily available reagents, adoptive T cell therapy provides highly selected T cells of defined phenotype, specificity and function that may influence their biological behavior in vivo. Adoptive T cell therapy offers not only translational opportunities but also a means to address fundamental issues in the evolving field of cancer immunotherapy.

  10. Knowledge based cluster ensemble for cancer discovery from biomolecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiwen; Wongb, Hau-San; You, Jane; Yang, Qinmin; Liao, Hongying

    2011-06-01

    The adoption of microarray techniques in biological and medical research provides a new way for cancer diagnosis and treatment. In order to perform successful diagnosis and treatment of cancer, discovering and classifying cancer types correctly is essential. Class discovery is one of the most important tasks in cancer classification using biomolecular data. Most of the existing works adopt single clustering algorithms to perform class discovery from biomolecular data. However, single clustering algorithms have limitations, which include a lack of robustness, stability, and accuracy. In this paper, we propose a new cluster ensemble approach called knowledge based cluster ensemble (KCE) which incorporates the prior knowledge of the data sets into the cluster ensemble framework. Specifically, KCE represents the prior knowledge of a data set in the form of pairwise constraints. Then, the spectral clustering algorithm (SC) is adopted to generate a set of clustering solutions. Next, KCE transforms pairwise constraints into confidence factors for these clustering solutions. After that, a consensus matrix is constructed by considering all the clustering solutions and their corresponding confidence factors. The final clustering result is obtained by partitioning the consensus matrix. Comparison with single clustering algorithms and conventional cluster ensemble approaches, knowledge based cluster ensemble approaches are more robust, stable and accurate. The experiments on cancer data sets show that: 1) KCE works well on these data sets; 2) KCE not only outperforms most of the state-of-the-art single clustering algorithms, but also outperforms most of the state-of-the-art cluster ensemble approaches.

  11. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  12. Cancer incidence in men: a cluster analysis of spatial patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Alò Daniela

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial clustering of different diseases has received much less attention than single disease mapping. Besides chance or artifact, clustering of different cancers in a given area may depend on exposure to a shared risk factor or to multiple correlated factors (e.g. cigarette smoking and obesity in a deprived area. Models developed so far to investigate co-occurrence of diseases are not well-suited for analyzing many cancers simultaneously. In this paper we propose a simple two-step exploratory method for screening clusters of different cancers in a population. Methods Cancer incidence data were derived from the regional cancer registry of Umbria, Italy. A cluster analysis was performed on smoothed and non-smoothed standardized incidence ratios (SIRs of the 13 most frequent cancers in males. The Besag, York and Mollie model (BYM and Poisson kriging were used to produce smoothed SIRs. Results Cluster analysis on non-smoothed SIRs was poorly informative in terms of clustering of different cancers, as only larynx and oral cavity were grouped, and of characteristic patterns of cancer incidence in specific geographical areas. On the other hand BYM and Poisson kriging gave similar results, showing cancers of the oral cavity, larynx, esophagus, stomach and liver formed a main cluster. Lung and urinary bladder cancers clustered together but not with the cancers mentioned above. Both methods, particularly the BYM model, identified distinct geographic clusters of adjacent areas. Conclusion As in single disease mapping, non-smoothed SIRs do not provide reliable estimates of cancer risks because of small area variability. The BYM model produces smooth risk surfaces which, when entered into a cluster analysis, identify well-defined geographical clusters of adjacent areas. It probably enhances or amplifies the signal arising from exposure of more areas (statistical units to shared risk factors that are associated with different cancers. In

  13. Message Passing vs. Shared Address Space on a Cluster of SMPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hongzhang; Singh, Jaswinder Pal; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

    2000-01-01

    The convergence of scalable computer architectures using clusters of PCs (or PC-SMPs) with commodity networking has become an attractive platform for high end scientific computing. Currently, message-passing and shared address space (SAS) are the two leading programming paradigms for these systems. Message-passing has been standardized with MPI, and is the most common and mature programming approach. However message-passing code development can be extremely difficult, especially for irregular structured computations. SAS offers substantial ease of programming, but may suffer from performance limitations due to poor spatial locality, and high protocol overhead. In this paper, we compare the performance of and programming effort, required for six applications under both programming models on a 32 CPU PC-SMP cluster. Our application suite consists of codes that typically do not exhibit high efficiency under shared memory programming. due to their high communication to computation ratios and complex communication patterns. Results indicate that SAS can achieve about half the parallel efficiency of MPI for most of our applications: however, on certain classes of problems SAS performance is competitive with MPI. We also present new algorithms for improving the PC cluster performance of MPI collective operations.

  14. Cluster stability scores for microarray data in cancer studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh Debashis; Smolkin Mark

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background A potential benefit of profiling of tissue samples using microarrays is the generation of molecular fingerprints that will define subtypes of disease. Hierarchical clustering has been the primary analytical tool used to define disease subtypes from microarray experiments in cancer settings. Assessing cluster reliability poses a major complication in analyzing output from clustering procedures. While most work has focused on estimating the number of clusters in a dataset, t...

  15. Adaptive Fuzzy Consensus Clustering Framework for Clustering Analysis of Cancer Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiwen; Chen, Hantao; You, Jane; Liu, Jiming; Wong, Hau-San; Han, Guoqiang; Li, Le

    2015-01-01

    Performing clustering analysis is one of the important research topics in cancer discovery using gene expression profiles, which is crucial in facilitating the successful diagnosis and treatment of cancer. While there are quite a number of research works which perform tumor clustering, few of them considers how to incorporate fuzzy theory together with an optimization process into a consensus clustering framework to improve the performance of clustering analysis. In this paper, we first propose a random double clustering based cluster ensemble framework (RDCCE) to perform tumor clustering based on gene expression data. Specifically, RDCCE generates a set of representative features using a randomly selected clustering algorithm in the ensemble, and then assigns samples to their corresponding clusters based on the grouping results. In addition, we also introduce the random double clustering based fuzzy cluster ensemble framework (RDCFCE), which is designed to improve the performance of RDCCE by integrating the newly proposed fuzzy extension model into the ensemble framework. RDCFCE adopts the normalized cut algorithm as the consensus function to summarize the fuzzy matrices generated by the fuzzy extension models, partition the consensus matrix, and obtain the final result. Finally, adaptive RDCFCE (A-RDCFCE) is proposed to optimize RDCFCE and improve the performance of RDCFCE further by adopting a self-evolutionary process (SEPP) for the parameter set. Experiments on real cancer gene expression profiles indicate that RDCFCE and A-RDCFCE works well on these data sets, and outperform most of the state-of-the-art tumor clustering algorithms. PMID:26357330

  16. Potential opportunities to reduce cervical cancer by addressing risk factors other than HPV

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Ramaiah Vinay; Bhasker, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in developing world and 80% of global burden is reported from these nations. Human papillomavirus along with poverty, illiteracy/lower education level and standards, multi-parity, tobacco, malnutrition and poor genital hygiene may act synergistically to cause cervical cancer. Risk factor of cervical cancer may in itself be the reason for non-viability of cervical cancer vaccine program in this part of the world. Interventions to address these risk fac...

  17. Tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters in colorectal cancer.

    KAUST Repository

    Cima, Igor

    2016-06-29

    Clusters of tumor cells are often observed in the blood of cancer patients. These structures have been described as malignant entities for more than 50 years, although their comprehensive characterization is lacking. Contrary to current consensus, we demonstrate that a discrete population of circulating cell clusters isolated from the blood of colorectal cancer patients are not cancerous but consist of tumor-derived endothelial cells. These clusters express both epithelial and mesenchymal markers, consistent with previous reports on circulating tumor cell (CTC) phenotyping. However, unlike CTCs, they do not mirror the genetic variations of matched tumors. Transcriptomic analysis of single clusters revealed that these structures exhibit an endothelial phenotype and can be traced back to the tumor endothelium. Further results show that tumor-derived endothelial clusters do not form by coagulation or by outgrowth of single circulating endothelial cells, supporting a direct release of clusters from the tumor vasculature. The isolation and enumeration of these benign clusters distinguished healthy volunteers from treatment-naïve as well as pathological early-stage (≤IIA) colorectal cancer patients with high accuracy, suggesting that tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters could be used as a means of noninvasive screening for colorectal cancer. In contrast to CTCs, tumor-derived endothelial cell clusters may also provide important information about the underlying tumor vasculature at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and throughout the course of the disease.

  18. Addressing future challenges for cancer services: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jane; Radford, Gina

    2016-02-01

    Jane Maher & Gina Radford speak to Gemma Westcott, Commissioning Editor Jane Maher has been Macmillan's Chief Medical Officer since 1999 and now shares the role as Joint Chief Medical Officer with general practitioner Rosie Loftus, reflecting the growing need for specialists and generalists to work more effectively together. She has been an National Health Service (NHS) improvement clinical leader for over 10 years and is a Consultant Clinical Oncologist at Mount Vernon Cancer Centre and Hillingdon Hospital where she has worked for more than 20 years, during which she helped develop nonsurgical oncology services in five district general hospitals. She is a senior Clinical Lecturer at University College London and Visiting Professor in Cancer and Supportive Care at the Centre for Complexity Management at the University of Hertfordshire. Jane chaired the Maher Committee for the Department of Health in 1995, led the UK National Audit of Late Effects Pelvic Radiotherapy for the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) in 2000 and, most recently, chaired the National Cancer Survivorship Initiative Consequences of Treatment work stream. She co-founded one of the first Cancer Support and Information services in the UK, winning the Nye Bevan award in 1992 and there are now more than 60 units based on this model. She is a member of the Older People and Cancer Clinical Advisory Group. She has written more than 100 published articles and is a UK representative for cancer survivorship in Europe and advises on cancer survivorship programs in Denmark and Canada. Gina Radford is Deputy Chief Medical Officer for England, a post she took up in January 2015. Prior to that, she has held a number of roles in public health, at local and regional level. Most recently she was Centre Director for Anglia and Essex for Public Health England, and as a part of that role helped lead nationally on the public health response to Ebola. She was until very recently Chair of one of the NICE public health

  19. Message passing vs. shared address space on a cluster of SMPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergence of scalable computer architectures using clusters of PCs or PC-SMPs with commodity networking has made them attractive platforms for high-end scientific computing. Currently, message passing (MP) and shared address space (SAS) are the two leading programming paradigms for these systems. MP has been standardized with MPI, and is the most common and mature parallel programming approach. However, MP code development can be extremely difficult, especially for irregularly structured computations. SAS offers substantial ease of programming, but may suffer from performance limitations due to poor spatial locality and high protocol overhead. In this paper, they compare the performance of and programming effort required for six applications under both programming models on a 32-CPU PC-SMP cluster. Our application suite consists of codes that typically do not exhibit scalable performance under shared-memory programming due to their high communication-to-computation ratios and complex communication patterns. Results indicate that SAS can achieve about half the parallel efficiency of MPI for most of the applications; however, on certain classes of problems, SAS performance is competitive with MPI

  20. Message Passing and Shared Address Space Parallelism on an SMP Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hongzhang; Singh, Jaswinder P.; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Currently, message passing (MP) and shared address space (SAS) are the two leading parallel programming paradigms. MP has been standardized with MPI, and is the more common and mature approach; however, code development can be extremely difficult, especially for irregularly structured computations. SAS offers substantial ease of programming, but may suffer from performance limitations due to poor spatial locality and high protocol overhead. In this paper, we compare the performance of and the programming effort required for six applications under both programming models on a 32-processor PC-SMP cluster, a platform that is becoming increasingly attractive for high-end scientific computing. Our application suite consists of codes that typically do not exhibit scalable performance under shared-memory programming due to their high communication-to-computation ratios and/or complex communication patterns. Results indicate that SAS can achieve about half the parallel efficiency of MPI for most of our applications, while being competitive for the others. A hybrid MPI+SAS strategy shows only a small performance advantage over pure MPI in some cases. Finally, improved implementations of two MPI collective operations on PC-SMP clusters are presented.

  1. Addressing future challenges for cancer services: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jane; Radford, Gina

    2016-02-01

    Jane Maher & Gina Radford speak to Gemma Westcott, Commissioning Editor Jane Maher has been Macmillan's Chief Medical Officer since 1999 and now shares the role as Joint Chief Medical Officer with general practitioner Rosie Loftus, reflecting the growing need for specialists and generalists to work more effectively together. She has been a National Health Service (NHS) Improvement Clinical Leader for over 10 years and is a Consultant Clinical Oncologist at Mount Vernon Cancer Centre where she has worked for more than 20 years, during which she helped develop nonsurgical oncology services in five district general hospitals. Jane chaired the Maher Committee for the Department of Health in 1995, led the UK National Audit of Late Effects Pelvic Radiotherapy for the Royal College Of Radiologists (RCR) in 2000 and, most recently, chaired the 'National Cancer Survivorship Initiative, consequences of treatment work stream'. She co-founded one of the first Cancer Support and Information services in the UK, winning the Nye Bevan award in 1992 and there are now more than 60 units based on this model. She is a member of the Older People and Cancer Clinical Advisory Group. She has written more than 100 published articles and is a UK representative for cancer survivorship in Europe and advises on Cancer survivorship programs in Denmark and Canada. Gina Radford is Deputy Chief Medical Officer for England, a post she took up in January 2015. Prior to that, she has held a number of roles in public health, at local and regional level. Most recently she was as Centre Director for Anglia and Essex for Public Health England, and as part of that role helped lead nationally on the public health response to Ebola. She was until very recently Chair of one of the NICE public health advisory committees. She has previously worked on a number of national projects, including leading the Department of Health's response to the Shipman Enquiry, undertaking a review of specialist public health for

  2. Intelligent Pattern Mining and Data Clustering for Pattern Cluster Analysis using Cancer Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Raj Kumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Data mining techniques are used for the knowledge discovery process under the large data set environment. Clustering techniques are used to group up the relevant data sets. Hierarchical and partitioned clustering techniques are used for the clustering process. The clustering process is the complex task with high process time. The pattern extraction scheme is applied to find frequent item sets. Association rule mining techniques are applied to carry out the pattern extraction process. The pattern extraction scheme and the clustering scheme are integrated in the simultaneous pattern extraction and clustering scheme. The clustering process is improved with pattern comparison and transaction transfer process. The simultaneous clustering scheme is implemented to analyze the cancer patient diagnosis reports. The system is implemented as four major modules data set management, pattern extraction, clustering process and performance analysis. The data sets are preprocessed before the pattern extraction process. The patterns are used in the simultaneous clustering process. The performance analysis is done with the comparison of the data clustering scheme and pattern clustering schemes. The process time and memory factors are used in the performance analysis process. The cluster accuracy is represented using the fitness values. The system is enhanced with the K-means clustering algorithm.

  3. Presidential address: Gastrointestinal cancer. Surgical survey of abdominal tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, I

    1978-01-01

    The experience with gastrointestinal cancer at a single large hospital has been utilized as a "micro-model" of the experience for the country at large, and the reasons why such a comparison might be possible have been presented. The incidence of various lesions has been discussed in terms of sex, age, and race. The changing incidence of various lesions has been pointed out. Survival results have been determined for total series, for various types of operative procedures, and for various extents of disease. The comparability of survival results from this one institution and those collected from the literature have been discussed. The emergence of newer diagnostic and therapeutic measures has been highlighted. The importance of education of both patients and physicians is emphasized repeatedly by the late stage at which so many of the patients with any gastrointestinal cancer present to and are diagnosed by the physician. The educational task for all of medicine is apparent and must be faced in some effective fashion.

  4. Coupled Two-Way Clustering Analysis of Breast Cancer and Colon Cancer Gene Expression Data

    CERN Document Server

    Getz, G; Kela, I; Domany, E; Notterman, D A; Getz, Gad; Gal, Hilah; Kela, Itai; Domany, Eytan; Notterman, Dan A.

    2003-01-01

    We present and review Coupled Two Way Clustering, a method designed to mine gene expression data. The method identifies submatrices of the total expression matrix, whose clustering analysis reveals partitions of samples (and genes) into biologically relevant classes. We demonstrate, on data from colon and breast cancer, that we are able to identify partitions that elude standard clustering analysis.

  5. Cancer detection based on Raman spectra super-paramagnetic clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solís, José Luis; Guizar-Ruiz, Juan Ignacio; Martínez-Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Zerega, Brenda Esmeralda; Juárez-López, Héctor Alfonso; Vargas-Rodríguez, Héctor; Gallegos-Infante, Luis Armando; González-Silva, Ricardo Armando; Espinoza-Padilla, Pedro Basilio; Palomares-Anda, Pascual

    2016-08-01

    The clustering of Raman spectra of serum sample is analyzed using the super-paramagnetic clustering technique based in the Potts spin model. We investigated the clustering of biochemical networks by using Raman data that define edge lengths in the network, and where the interactions are functions of the Raman spectra's individual band intensities. For this study, we used two groups of 58 and 102 control Raman spectra and the intensities of 160, 150 and 42 Raman spectra of serum samples from breast and cervical cancer and leukemia patients, respectively. The spectra were collected from patients from different hospitals from Mexico. By using super-paramagnetic clustering technique, we identified the most natural and compact clusters allowing us to discriminate the control and cancer patients. A special interest was the leukemia case where its nearly hierarchical observed structure allowed the identification of the patients's leukemia type. The goal of this study is to apply a model of statistical physics, as the super-paramagnetic, to find these natural clusters that allow us to design a cancer detection method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of preliminary results evaluating the usefulness of super-paramagnetic clustering in the discipline of spectroscopy where it is used for classification of spectra.

  6. Designing a Community-Based Lay Health Advisor Training Curriculum to Address Cancer Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwede, Clement K.; Ashley, Atalie A.; McGinnis, Kara; Montiel-Ishino, F. Alejandro; Standifer, Maisha; Baldwin, Julie; Williams, Coni; Sneed, Kevin B.; Wathington, Deanna; Dash-Pitts, Lolita; Green, B. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Racial and ethnic minorities have disproportionately higher cancer incidence and mortality than their White counterparts. In response to this inequity in cancer prevention and care, community-based lay health advisors (LHAs) may be suited to deliver effective, culturally relevant, quality cancer education, prevention/screening, and early detection services for underserved populations. Approach and Strategies Consistent with key tenets of community-based participatory research (CBPR), this project engaged community partners to develop and implement a unique LHA training curriculum to address cancer health disparities among medically underserved communities in a tricounty area. Seven phases of curriculum development went into designing a final seven-module LHA curriculum. In keeping with principles of CBPR and community engagement, academic–community partners and LHAs themselves were involved at all phases to ensure the needs of academic and community partners were mutually addressed in development and implementation of the LHA program. Discussion and Conclusions Community-based LHA programs for outreach, education, and promotion of cancer screening and early detection, are ideal for addressing cancer health disparities in access and quality care. When community-based LHAs are appropriately recruited, trained, and located in communities, they provide unique opportunities to link, bridge, and facilitate quality cancer education, services, and research. PMID:22982709

  7. New Statistical Methodology for Determining Cancer Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of an innovative statistical technique that shows that women living in a broad stretch of the metropolitan northeastern United States, which includes Long Island, are slightly more likely to die from breast cancer than women in other parts of the Northeast.

  8. Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfei Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DBSCAN is a well-known density-based clustering algorithm which offers advantages for finding clusters of arbitrary shapes compared to partitioning and hierarchical clustering methods. However, there are few papers studying the DBSCAN algorithm under the privacy preserving distributed data mining model, in which the data is distributed between two or more parties, and the parties cooperate to obtain the clustering results without revealing the data at the individual parties. In this paper, we address the problem of two-party privacy preserving DBSCAN clustering. We first propose two protocols for privacy preserving DBSCAN clustering over horizontally and vertically partitioned data respectively and then extend them to arbitrarily partitioned data. We also provide performance analysis and privacy proof of our solution..

  9. Commentary: Utilizing Community-Engaged Approaches to Investigate and Address Hmong Women’s Cancer Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M.A. Sparks

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a growing concern for women in the Hmong community. Hmong women experience poor health outcomes for both cervical and breast cancer, largely due to low rates of screening and resultant late-stage at diagnosis. Both breast and cervical cancer screening are complicated by a multitude of social, cultural and environmental factors which influence health care decision-making and can otherwise serve to restrict access. We argue that community-engaged research, an orientation which prioritizes collaborative, equitable partnerships and community voice in identifying both problems and solutions, can be a valuable approach to helping address cancer health disparities for Hmong women. Using the Milwaukee-based “Healthy Hmong Women” project as a case example, we detail how the community-engaged approach implemented by the project partners was critical in identifying factors contributing to Hmong cancer disparities and appropriate interventions, as well as the overall acceptance and success of the project. Specifically, we discuss how this approach: (1 promoted community investment and ownership in the project; (2 facilitated the integration of local perspectives and experiences; (3 built capacity to address cancer screening disparities; (4 facilitated the creation of interventions targeting multiple ecological levels; and (5 framed the community as the foundation and driver of positive change.

  10. Centrosomal clustering contributes to chromosomal instability and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milunović-Jevtić, A; Mooney, P; Sulerud, T; Bisht, J; Gatlin, J C

    2016-08-01

    Cells assemble mitotic spindles during each round of division to insure accurate segregation of their duplicated genome. In animal cells, stereotypical spindles have two poles, each containing one centrosome, from which microtubules are nucleated. By contrast, many cancer cells often contain more than two centrosomes and form transient multipolar spindle structures with more than two poles. In order to divide and produce viable progeny, the multipolar spindle intermediate must be reshaped into a pseudo-bipolar structure via a process called centrosomal clustering. Pseudo-bipolar spindles appear to function normally during mitosis, but they occasionally give rise to aneuploid and transformed daughter cells. Agents that inhibit centrosomal clustering might therefore work as a potential cancer therapy, specifically targeting mitosis in supernumerary centrosome-containing cells. PMID:27046071

  11. Addressing the financial consequences of cancer: qualitative evaluation of a welfare rights advice service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Moffatt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The onset, treatment and trajectory of cancer is associated with financial stress among patients across a range of health and welfare systems and has been identified as a significant unmet need. Welfare rights advice can be delivered effectively in healthcare settings, has the potential to alleviate financial stress, but has not yet been evaluated. We present an evaluation of a welfare rights advice intervention designed to address the financial consequences of cancer. METHODS: Descriptive study of welfare outcomes among 533 male and 641 female cancer patients and carers aged 4-95 (mean 62 years, who accessed the welfare rights advice service in North East England between April 2009 and March 2010; and qualitative interview study of a maximum variation sample of 35 patients and 9 carers. RESULTS: Over two thirds of cancer patients and carers came from areas of high socio-economic deprivation. Welfare benefit claims were successful for 96% of claims made and resulted in a median increase in weekly income of £70.30 ($109.74, €84.44. Thirty-four different types of benefits or grants were awarded. Additional resources were perceived to lessen the impact of lost earnings, help offset costs associated with cancer, reduce stress and anxiety and increase ability to maintain independence and capacity to engage in daily activities, all of which were perceived to impact positively on well-being and quality of life. Key barriers to accessing benefit entitlements were knowledge, system complexity, eligibility concerns and assumptions that health professionals would alert patients to entitlements. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention proved feasible, effectively increased income for cancer patients and was highly valued. Addressing the financial sequelae of cancer can have positive social and psychological consequences that could significantly enhance effective clinical management and suitable services should be routinely available. Further research

  12. Addressing Risk and Reluctance at the Nexus of HIV and Anal Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I; Cassel, Kevin; Shiramizu, Bruce; Stotzer, Rebecca L; Robles, Andrew; Kapua, Cathy; Orton, Malulani; Milne, Cris; Sesepasara, Maddalynn

    2016-01-01

    Anal cancer disproportionately burdens persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) regardless of natal sex, sexual orientation, gender expression, and ethnic identity. Culturally competent communications are recommended to address health disparities, with sociocultural relevance ensured through constituent dialogic processes. Results are presented from six provider focus groups conducted to inform the promotion/education component of a Hawai'i-based project on anal cancer screening tools. Krueger's focus group methodology guided discussion queries. Verbatim transcripts of digitally recorded discussions were analyzed using grounded theory and PEN-3 procedures. Adherence to an audit trail ensured analytic rigor. Grounded theory analysis detected the overall theme of risk and reluctance to anal cancer screening, characterized by anal cancer not being "on the radar" of PLHIV, conflicting attributions of the anus and anal sex, fear of sex-shaming/-blaming, and other interrelated conceptual categories. PEN-3 analysis revealed strategies for destigmatizing anal cancer, through "real talk" (proactive, candid, nonjudgmental discussion) nested in a framework of sexual health and overall well-being, with additional tailoring for relevance to Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, transgender persons, and other marginalized groups. Application of strategies for health practice are specific to the Hawai'i context, yet may offer considerations for developing strengths-based, culturally relevant screening promotion/education with diverse PLHIV in other locales. PMID:26630979

  13. Addressing preference heterogeneity in public health policy by combining Cluster Analysis and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis: Proof of Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Turner, Robin; Cunich, Michelle; Salkeld, Glenn; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Dowie, Jack

    2015-01-01

    The use of subgroups based on biological-clinical and socio-demographic variables to deal with population heterogeneity is well-established in public policy. The use of subgroups based on preferences is rare, except when religion based, and controversial. If it were decided to treat subgroup preferences as valid determinants of public policy, a transparent analytical procedure is needed. In this proof of method study we show how public preferences could be incorporated into policy decisions in a way that respects both the multi-criterial nature of those decisions, and the heterogeneity of the population in relation to the importance assigned to relevant criteria. It involves combining Cluster Analysis (CA), to generate the subgroup sets of preferences, with Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), to provide the policy framework into which the clustered preferences are entered. We employ three techniques of CA to demonstrate that not only do different techniques produce different clusters, but that choosing among techniques (as well as developing the MCDA structure) is an important task to be undertaken in implementing the approach outlined in any specific policy context. Data for the illustrative, not substantive, application are from a Randomized Controlled Trial of online decision aids for Australian men aged 40-69 years considering Prostate-specific Antigen testing for prostate cancer. We show that such analyses can provide policy-makers with insights into the criterion-specific needs of different subgroups. Implementing CA and MCDA in combination to assist in the development of policies on important health and community issues such as drug coverage, reimbursement, and screening programs, poses major challenges -conceptual, methodological, ethical-political, and practical - but most are exposed by the techniques, not created by them.

  14. Hierarchical clustering of breast cancer methylomes revealed differentially methylated and expressed breast cancer genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available Oncogenic transformation of normal cells often involves epigenetic alterations, including histone modification and DNA methylation. We conducted whole-genome bisulfite sequencing to determine the DNA methylomes of normal breast, fibroadenoma, invasive ductal carcinomas and MCF7. The emergence, disappearance, expansion and contraction of kilobase-sized hypomethylated regions (HMRs and the hypomethylation of the megabase-sized partially methylated domains (PMDs are the major forms of methylation changes observed in breast tumor samples. Hierarchical clustering of HMR revealed tumor-specific hypermethylated clusters and differential methylated enhancers specific to normal or breast cancer cell lines. Joint analysis of gene expression and DNA methylation data of normal breast and breast cancer cells identified differentially methylated and expressed genes associated with breast and/or ovarian cancers in cancer-specific HMR clusters. Furthermore, aberrant patterns of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI was found in breast cancer cell lines as well as breast tumor samples in the TCGA BRCA (breast invasive carcinoma dataset. They were characterized with differentially hypermethylated XIST promoter, reduced expression of XIST, and over-expression of hypomethylated X-linked genes. High expressions of these genes were significantly associated with lower survival rates in breast cancer patients. Comprehensive analysis of the normal and breast tumor methylomes suggests selective targeting of DNA methylation changes during breast cancer progression. The weak causal relationship between DNA methylation and gene expression observed in this study is evident of more complex role of DNA methylation in the regulation of gene expression in human epigenetics that deserves further investigation.

  15. Performance of cancer cluster Q-statistics for case-control residential histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Chantel D.; Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Ward, Mary H.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R.

    2012-01-01

    Few investigations of health event clustering have evaluated residential mobility, though causative exposures for chronic diseases such as cancer often occur long before diagnosis. Recently developed Q-statistics incorporate human mobility into disease cluster investigations by quantifying space- and time-dependent nearest neighbor relationships. Using residential histories from two cancer case-control studies, we created simulated clusters to examine Q-statistic performance. Results suggest the intersection of cases with significant clustering over their life course, Qi, with cases who are constituents of significant local clusters at given times, Qit, yielded the best performance, which improved with increasing cluster size. Upon comparison, a larger proportion of true positives were detected with Kulldorf’s spatial scan method if the time of clustering was provided. We recommend using Q-statistics to identify when and where clustering may have occurred, followed by the scan method to localize the candidate clusters. Future work should investigate the generalizability of these findings. PMID:23149326

  16. A Multidisciplinary Investigation of a Polycythemia Vera Cancer Cluster of Unknown Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Klotz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cluster investigations rarely receive significant public health resource allocations due to numerous inherent challenges and the limited success of past efforts. In 2008, a cluster of polycythemia vera, a rare blood cancer with unknown etiology, was identified in northeast Pennsylvania. A multidisciplinary group of federal and state agencies, academic institutions, and local healthcare providers subsequently developed a multifaceted research portfolio designed to better understand the cause of the cluster. This research agenda represents a unique and important opportunity to demonstrate that cancer cluster investigations can produce desirable public health and scientific outcomes when necessary resources are available.

  17. Performance of cancer cluster Q-statistics for case-control residential histories

    OpenAIRE

    Sloan, Chantel D.; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Ward, Mary H; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R.

    2012-01-01

    Few investigations of health event clustering have evaluated residential mobility, though causative exposures for chronic diseases such as cancer often occur long before diagnosis. Recently developed Q-statistics incorporate human mobility into disease cluster investigations by quantifying space- and time-dependent nearest neighbor relationships. Using residential histories from two cancer case-control studies, we created simulated clusters to examine Q-statistic performance. Results suggest ...

  18. The use of music therapy to address the suffering in advanced cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, L

    2001-01-01

    Pain associated with advanced cancer is multifaceted and complex, and is influenced by physiological, psychological, social, and spiritual phenomena. Suffering may be identified in patients when pain is associated with impending loss, increased dependency, and an altered understanding of one's existential purpose. Comprehensive pain management aims to address problematic symptoms in order to improve comfort, peace of mind, and quality of life. Music therapy is a treatment modality of great diversity that can offer a range of benefits to patients with advanced cancer pain and symptoms of suffering. Music therapists perform comprehensive assessments that include reviews of social, cultural, and medical history; current medical status; and the ways in which emotions are affecting the pain. A variety of music therapy techniques may be used, including vocal techniques, listening, and instrumental techniques. These techniques provide opportunities for exploration of the feelings and issues compounding the pain experience. Case examples are presented to demonstrate the "lifting", "transporting", and "bringing of peace" qualities of music that offer patients moments of release, reflection, and renewal. PMID:11816757

  19. Space-time clusters of breast cancer using residential histories: A Danish case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R.; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Background A large proportion of breast cancer cases are thought related to environmental factors. Identification of specific geographical areas with high risk (clusters) may give clues to potential environmental risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether clusters of breast cancer existed in space and time in Denmark, using 33 years of residential histories. Methods We conducted a population-based case–control study of 3138 female cases from the Danish Cancer Registry, dia...

  20. Multiobjective Simulated Annealing-Based Clustering of Tissue Samples for Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Sudipta; Saha, Sriparna; Thadisina, Yamini

    2016-03-01

    In the field of pattern recognition, the study of the gene expression profiles of different tissue samples over different experimental conditions has become feasible with the arrival of microarray-based technology. In cancer research, classification of tissue samples is necessary for cancer diagnosis, which can be done with the help of microarray technology. In this paper, we have presented a multiobjective optimization (MOO)-based clustering technique utilizing archived multiobjective simulated annealing(AMOSA) as the underlying optimization strategy for classification of tissue samples from cancer datasets. The presented clustering technique is evaluated for three open source benchmark cancer datasets [Brain tumor dataset, Adult Malignancy, and Small Round Blood Cell Tumors (SRBCT)]. In order to evaluate the quality or goodness of produced clusters, two cluster quality measures viz, adjusted rand index and classification accuracy ( % CoA) are calculated. Comparative results of the presented clustering algorithm with ten state-of-the-art existing clustering techniques are shown for three benchmark datasets. Also, we have conducted a statistical significance test called t-test to prove the superiority of our presented MOO-based clustering technique over other clustering techniques. Moreover, significant gene markers have been identified and demonstrated visually from the clustering solutions obtained. In the field of cancer subtype prediction, this study can have important impact. PMID:25706936

  1. The 4th Bi-annual international African-Caribbean Cancer Consortium conference: building capacity to address cancer health disparities in populations of African descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Elizabeth; Campbell, Jasmine; Bowen, Carlene; Delmoor, Ernestine; Jean-Louis, Gilda; Noumbissi, Raphiatou; O'Garro, Yvonne; Richards-Waritay, Oni; Straughter, Stanley; Tolbert, Vera; Wilson, Barbara; Ragin, Camille

    2014-01-01

    This is a brief summary of the 4(th) International Meeting of the African-Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3), organized and sponsored by Fox Chase Cancer Center (FCCC), and held on July 21-22, 2012 at the Lincoln University Graduate Center, Lincoln Plaza, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. AC3 investigators gathered in Philadelphia, PA to present the results of our ongoing collaborative research efforts throughout the African Diaspora. The general theme addressed cancer health disparities and presentations represented all cancer types. However, there was particular emphasis on women's cancers, related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. PMID:26422007

  2. Cluster and SOHO - A joint endeavor by ESA and NASA to address problems in solar, heliospheric, and space plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Rudolf; Domingo, Vicente; Shawhan, Stanley D.; Bohlin, David

    1988-01-01

    The NASA/ESA Solar-Terrestrial Science Program, which consists of the four-spacecraft cluster mission and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), is examined. It is expected that the SOHO spacecraft will be launched in 1995 to study solar interior structure and the physical processes associated with the solar corona. The SOHO design, operation, data, and ground segment are discussed. The Cluster mission is designed to study small-scale structures in the earth's plasma environment. The Soviet Union is expected to contribute two additional spacecraft, which will be similar to Cluster in instrumentation and design. The capabilities, mission strategy, spacecraft design, payload, and ground segment of Cluster are discussed.

  3. Evaluation of community level interventions to address social and structural determinants of health: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draper Alizon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In London and the rest of the UK, diseases associated with poor diet, inadequate physical activity and mental illness account for a large proportion of area based health inequality. There is a lack of evidence on interventions promoting healthier behaviours especially in marginalised populations, at a structural or ecological level and utilising a community development approach. The Well London project financed by the Big Lottery 'Wellbeing' Fund and implemented by a consortium of London based agencies led by the Greater London Authority and the London Health Commission is implementing a set of complex interventions across 20 deprived areas of London. The interventions focus on healthy eating, healthy physical activity and mental health and wellbeing and are designed and executed with community participation complementing existing facilities and services. Methods/Design The programme will be evaluated through a cluster randomised controlled trial. Forty areas across London were chosen based on deprivation scores. Areas were characterised by high proportion of Black and Minority Ethnic residents, worklessness, ill-health and poor physical environments. Twenty areas were randomly assigned to the intervention arm of Well London project and twenty 'matched' areas assigned as controls. Measures of physical activity, diet and mental health are collected at start and end of the project and compared to assess impact. The quantitative element will be complemented by a longitudinal qualitative study elucidating pathways of influence between intervention activities and health outcomes. A related element of the study investigates the health-related aspects of the structural and ecological characteristics of the project areas. The project 'process' will also be evaluated. Discussion The size of the project and the fact that the interventions are 'complex' in the sense that firstly, there are a number of interacting components with a wide

  4. Analysis of breast cancer progression using principal component analysis and clustering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Alexe; G S Dalgin; S Ganesan; C DeLisi; G Bhanot

    2007-08-01

    We develop a new technique to analyse microarray data which uses a combination of principal components analysis and consensus ensemble -clustering to find robust clusters and gene markers in the data. We apply our method to a public microarray breast cancer dataset which has expression levels of genes in normal samples as well as in three pathological stages of disease; namely, atypical ductal hyperplasia or ADH, ductal carcinoma in situ or DCIS and invasive ductal carcinoma or IDC. Our method averages over clustering techniques and data perturbation to find stable, robust clusters and gene markers. We identify the clusters and their pathways with distinct subtypes of breast cancer (Luminal, Basal and Her2+). We confirm that the cancer phenotype develops early (in early hyperplasia or ADH stage) and find from our analysis that each subtype progresses from ADH to DCIS to IDC along its own specific pathway, as if each was a distinct disease.

  5. A Multidisciplinary Investigation of a Polycythemia Vera Cancer Cluster of Unknown Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Klotz; Carol Ann Gross-Davis; Arthur Frank; Manxia Wu; Zachary Myles; Linda Mulvihill; John Mellow; Robert Lewis; Joseph Iannuzzo; Paul Roda; Glenn Gerhard; Porat Erlich; David Carey; Mingjiang Xu; Ronald Hoffman

    2010-01-01

    Cancer cluster investigations rarely receive significant public health resource allocations due to numerous inherent challenges and the limited success of past efforts. In 2008, a cluster of polycythemia vera, a rare blood cancer with unknown etiology, was identified in northeast Pennsylvania. A multidisciplinary group of federal and state agencies, academic institutions, and local healthcare providers subsequently developed a multifaceted research portfolio designed to better understand the ...

  6. Cancer Clusters in Delaware? How One Newspaper Turned Official Statistics into News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor W. Perez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The flagship newspaper for the state of Delaware, the News Journal, has been instrumental in disseminating information from state-generated reports of cancer clusters to its readers over the past 7 years. The stories provide colorful maps of census tracts designated as clusters, often on the front page, and detail the types of elevated cancers found in these tracts and the purported relationship of elevated cancer rates to local industry pollution. Though the News Journal also provided its readers with advice about interpreting these data with caution, it uncritically presented these data. Using the state’s unusual definition and measurement of elevated cancer incidence as cancer clusters, it transformed questionable statistics into an alarming public issue. This article critically examines these news reports and the state-generated reports they utilized.

  7. Cancer Cluster Investigations: Review of the Past and Proposals for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Goodman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Residential clusters of non-communicable diseases are a source of enduring public concern, and at times, controversy. Many clusters reported to public health agencies by concerned citizens are accompanied by expectations that investigations will uncover a cause of disease. While goals, methods and conclusions of cluster studies are debated in the scientific literature and popular press, investigations of reported residential clusters rarely provide definitive answers about disease etiology. Further, it is inherently difficult to study a cluster for diseases with complex etiology and long latency (e.g., most cancers. Regardless, cluster investigations remain an important function of local, state and federal public health agencies. Challenges limiting the ability of cluster investigations to uncover causes for disease include the need to consider long latency, low statistical power of most analyses, uncertain definitions of cluster boundaries and population of interest, and in- and out-migration. A multi-disciplinary Workshop was held to discuss innovative and/or under-explored approaches to investigate cancer clusters. Several potentially fruitful paths forward are described, including modern methods of reconstructing residential history, improved approaches to analyzing spatial data, improved utilization of electronic data sources, advances using biomarkers of carcinogenesis, novel concepts for grouping cases, investigations of infectious etiology of cancer, and “omics” approaches.

  8. Understanding and effectively addressing breast cancer in African American women: Unpacking the social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R; Mohammed, Selina A; Shields, Alexandra E

    2016-07-15

    Black women have a higher incidence of breast cancer before the age of 40 years, more severe disease at all ages, and an elevated mortality risk in comparison with white women. There is limited understanding of the contribution of social factors to these patterns. Elucidating the role of the social determinants of health in breast cancer disparities requires greater attention to how risk factors for breast cancer unfold over the lifecourse and to the complex ways in which socioeconomic status and racism shape exposure to psychosocial, physical, chemical, and other individual and community-level assaults that increase the risk of breast cancer. Research that takes seriously the social context in which black women live is also needed to maximize the opportunities to prevent breast cancer in this underserved group. Cancer 2016;122:2138-49. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26930024

  9. Addressing preference heterogeneity in public health policy by combining Cluster Analysis and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Turner, Robin; Cunich, Michelle;

    2015-01-01

    of the population in relation to the importance assigned to relevant criteria. It involves combining Cluster Analysis (CA), to generate the subgroup sets of preferences, with Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), to provide the policy framework into which the clustered preferences are entered. We employ three...... preferences as valid determinants of public policy, a transparent analytical procedure is needed. In this proof of method study we show how public preferences could be incorporated into policy decisions in a way that respects both the multi-criterial nature of those decisions, and the heterogeneity...

  10. Identification of certain cancer-mediating genes using Gaussian fuzzy cluster validity index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anupam Ghosh; Rajat K De

    2015-10-01

    In this article, we have used an index, called Gaussian fuzzy index (GFI), recently developed by the authors, based on the notion of fuzzy set theory, for validating the clusters obtained by a clustering algorithm applied on cancer gene expression data. GFI is then used for the identification of genes that have altered quite significantly from normal state to carcinogenic state with respect to their mRNA expression patterns. The effectiveness of the methodology has been demonstrated on three gene expression cancer datasets dealing with human lung, colon and leukemia. The performance of GFI is compared with 19 exiting cluster validity indices. The results are appropriately validated biologically and statistically. In this context, we have used biochemical pathways, -value statistics of GO attributes, -test and -score for the validation of the results. It has been reported that GFI is capable of identifying high-quality enriched clusters of genes, and thereby is able to select more cancer-mediating genes.

  11. Violent Behavior in Cancer Patients--A Rarely Addressed Phenomenon in Oncological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Dealing with violent cancer patients can be particularly challenging. The purpose of this study was to collect data on the frequency, quality, and underlying variables affecting violent behavior as well as to examine the role played by this behavior in the premature interruption of treatment. A total of 388 cancer inpatients were examined by…

  12. Addressing Childhood Cancer in Low-Resource Countries: Current Challenges, Strategies, and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbah Afungchwi, Glenn; Challinor, Julia

    2016-07-01

    Children and adolescents represent a small, but critically important, number of patients with cancer worldwide (14.1 million newly diagnosed adults versus 160,000 children annually). The life years saved when a child is cured of cancer are about 71 compared to 15 years for an adult in most high-income countries (HICs). In HICs, about 80% of children survive cancer. Unfortunately, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), the survival rates are generally 50% or less. In these resource-limited settings, only 15%-37% of children and adolescents have access to cancer treatment, and most are diagnosed with advanced-stage disease, making cure impossible. PMID:27314196

  13. Pancreatic cancer clusters and arsenic-contaminated drinking water wells in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background We sought to identify high-risk areas of pancreatic cancer incidence, and determine if clusters of persons diagnosed with pancreatic cancer were more likely to be located near arsenic-contaminated drinking water wells. Methods A total of 5,707 arsenic samples were collected from December 2000 to May 2008 by the Florida Department of Health, representing more than 5,000 individual privately owned wells. During that period, 0.010 ppm (10 ppb) or greater arsenic levels in private well water were considered as the threshold based on standard of United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Spatial modeling was applied to pancreatic cancer cases diagnosed between 1998–2002 in Florida (n = 11,405). Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine if sociodemographic indicators, smoking history, and proximity to arsenic-contaminated well sites were associated with residence at the time of pancreatic cancer diagnosis occurring within versus outside a cluster. Results Spatial modeling identified 16 clusters in which 22.6% of all pancreatic cancer cases were located. Cases living within 1 mile of known arsenic-contaminated wells were significantly more likely to be diagnosed within a cluster of pancreatic cancers relative to cases living more than 3 miles from known sites (odds ratio = 2.1 [95% CI = 1.9, 2.4]). Conclusions Exposure to arsenic-contaminated drinking water wells may be associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. However, case–control studies are needed in order to confirm the findings of this ecological analysis. These cluster areas may be appropriate to evaluate pancreatic cancer risk factors, and to perform targeted screening and prevention studies. PMID:23510413

  14. Risk of Anal Cancer in People Living with HIV: Addressing Anal Health in the HIV Primary Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Crystal Martin; Likes, Wendy; Bernard, Marye; Kedia, Satish; Tolley, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Anal health and anal cancer are rarely addressed in HIV primary care. We sought to understand factors that impeded or promoted addressing anal health in HIV primary care from providers' perspectives. In this exploratory study, HIV primary care providers from the Mid-South region of the United States participated in brief individual interviews. We analyzed transcribed data to identify barriers and facilitators to addressing anal health. Our study sample included five physicians and four nurse practitioners. The data revealed a number of barriers such as perception of patient embarrassment, provider embarrassment, external issues such as time constraints, demand of other priorities, lack of anal complaints, lack of resources, and gender discordance. Facilitators included awareness, advantageous circumstances, and the patient-provider relationship. Anal health education should be prioritized for HIV primary care providers. Preventive health visits should be considered to mitigate time constraints, demands for other priorities, and unequal gender opportunities. PMID:27080925

  15. Strategies for Integrated Analysis of Genetic, Epigenetic, and Gene Expression Variation in Cancer: Addressing the Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Louise Bruun; Andersen, Lars; Makalic, Enes;

    2016-01-01

    to integration strategies used for analyzing genetic risk factors for cancer. We critically examine the ability of these strategies to handle the complexity of the human genome and also accommodate information about the biological and functional interactions between the elements that have been measured......The development and progression of cancer, a collection of diseases with complex genetic architectures, is facilitated by the interplay of multiple etiological factors. This complexity challenges the traditional single-platform study design and calls for an integrated approach to data analysis...

  16. Are We Doing Enough to Address the Cancer Care Needs 
of the LGBT Community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carlton; Mayer, Deborah K

    2015-06-01

    The 2011 film titled Gen Silent (http://gensilent.com) focuses on the needs and issues of six aging lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, at least two of whom had cancer. One of the issues made apparent in the film was the lack of trust in the healthcare system and the discrimination these individuals faced at a time when their needs were growing and they were increasingly vulnerable. It was sad and caused us to reflect on what we, as oncology nurses, are doing to meet the needs of LGBT individuals faced with a cancer diagnosis.
. PMID:26000571

  17. Local bladder cancer clusters in southeastern Michigan accounting for risk factors, covariates and residential mobility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey M Jacquez

    Full Text Available In case control studies disease risk not explained by the significant risk factors is the unexplained risk. Considering unexplained risk for specific populations, places and times can reveal the signature of unidentified risk factors and risk factors not fully accounted for in the case-control study. This potentially can lead to new hypotheses regarding disease causation.Global, local and focused Q-statistics are applied to data from a population-based case-control study of 11 southeast Michigan counties. Analyses were conducted using both year- and age-based measures of time. The analyses were adjusted for arsenic exposure, education, smoking, family history of bladder cancer, occupational exposure to bladder cancer carcinogens, age, gender, and race.Significant global clustering of cases was not found. Such a finding would indicate large-scale clustering of cases relative to controls through time. However, highly significant local clusters were found in Ingham County near Lansing, in Oakland County, and in the City of Jackson, Michigan. The Jackson City cluster was observed in working-ages and is thus consistent with occupational causes. The Ingham County cluster persists over time, suggesting a broad-based geographically defined exposure. Focused clusters were found for 20 industrial sites engaged in manufacturing activities associated with known or suspected bladder cancer carcinogens. Set-based tests that adjusted for multiple testing were not significant, although local clusters persisted through time and temporal trends in probability of local tests were observed.Q analyses provide a powerful tool for unpacking unexplained disease risk from case-control studies. This is particularly useful when the effect of risk factors varies spatially, through time, or through both space and time. For bladder cancer in Michigan, the next step is to investigate causal hypotheses that may explain the excess bladder cancer risk localized to areas of

  18. Near infrared observations of galaxies in the Coma supercluster and in the cancer cluster. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present new near infrared observations of 110 galaxies in the Coma/A1367 supercluster region, and 40 galaxies in the Cancer cluster. These observations are part of an on-going investigation of the properties of normal galaxies and of their near-IR emission, which aims at obtaining homogeneous, multifrequency data for a large sample of galaxies in different density environments. The addition of these observations to the sample presented in Gavazzi and Trinchieri raises the number of Coma/A1367 galaxies with near-IR data to 275. Our measurements, together with data published by Bothun et al, give a sample of 45 spirals in the Cancer cluster

  19. HSET overexpression fuels tumor progression via centrosome clustering-independent mechanisms in breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Pannu, Vaishali; Rida, Padmashree C. G.; Ogden, Angela; Turaga, Ravi Chakra; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; Bowen, Nathan J.; Rudd, Katie; Gupta, Meenakshi V.; Reid, Michelle D.; Cantuaria, Guilherme; Walczak, Claire E.; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    Human breast tumors harbor supernumerary centrosomes in almost 80% of tumor cells. Although amplified centrosomes compromise cell viability via multipolar spindles resulting in death-inducing aneuploidy, cancer cells tend to cluster extra centrosomes during mitosis. As a result cancer cells display bipolar spindle phenotypes to maintain a tolerable level of aneuploidy, an edge to their survival. HSET/KifC1, a kinesin-like minus-end directed microtubule motor has recently found fame as a cruci...

  20. NOVEL CONTEXT-AWARE CLUSTERING WITH HIERARCHICAL ADDRESSING (CCHA) FOR THE INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahalle, Parikshit N.; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    As computing technology becomes more tightly coupled into dynamic and mobile world of the Internet of Things (IoT), security mechanism becomes more stringent, less flexible and intrusive. Scalability issue in the IoT makes Identity Management (IdM) of ubiquitous things more challenging. Forming ad......-hoc network, interaction between these nomadic devices to provide seamless service extend the need of new identi-ties to the things, addressing and IdM in the IoT. New identities and identifier format to alleviate the perfor-mance issue is introduced in this paper. This paper pre-sents novel Context....... Furthermore, this paper also presents the framework for IdM in the IoT and mathematical model for queuing analysis....

  1. The Geographical Clusters of Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Askarian

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Analysis of the geographical distribution of GI.C will provide opportunities for policymakers for applying preventive measures. Furthermore, it could be helpful for researchers for future epidemiological studies for investigation of etiological agents in regions with significant spatial clustering of high incidence of cancer.

  2. Strategies for integrated analysis of genetic, epigenetic and gene expression variation in cancer: addressing the challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Bruun Thingholm

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development and progression of cancer, a collection of diseases with complex genetic architectures, is facilitated by the interplay of multiple etiological factors. This complexity challenges the traditional single-platform study design and calls for an integrated approach to data analysis. However, integration of heterogeneous measurements of biological variation is a non-trivial exercise due to the diversity of the human genome and the variety of output data formats and genome coverage obtained from the commonly used molecular platforms. This review article will provide an introduction to integration strategies used for analyzing genetic risk factors for cancer. We critically examine the ability of these strategies to handle the complexity of the human genome and also accommodate information about the biological and functional interactions between the elements that have been measured – making the assessment of disease risk against a composite genomic factor possible. The focus of this review is to provide an overview and introduction to the main strategies and to discuss where there is a need for further development.

  3. Identifying unproven cancer treatments on the health web: addressing accuracy, generalizability and scalability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphinyanaphongs, Yin; Fu, Lawrence D; Aliferis, Constantin F

    2013-01-01

    Building machine learning models that identify unproven cancer treatments on the Health Web is a promising approach for dealing with the dissemination of false and dangerous information to vulnerable health consumers. Aside from the obvious requirement of accuracy, two issues are of practical importance in deploying these models in real world applications. (a) Generalizability: The models must generalize to all treatments (not just the ones used in the training of the models). (b) Scalability: The models can be applied efficiently to billions of documents on the Health Web. First, we provide methods and related empirical data demonstrating strong accuracy and generalizability. Second, by combining the MapReduce distributed architecture and high dimensionality compression via Markov Boundary feature selection, we show how to scale the application of the models to WWW-scale corpora. The present work provides evidence that (a) a very small subset of unproven cancer treatments is sufficient to build a model to identify unproven treatments on the web; (b) unproven treatments use distinct language to market their claims and this language is learnable; (c) through distributed parallelization and state of the art feature selection, it is possible to prepare the corpora and build and apply models with large scalability. PMID:23920640

  4. Cluster analysis of Wisconsin Breast Cancer dataset using self-organizing maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazi, Stefan; Kagolovsky, Yuri; Moehr, Jochen R

    2002-01-01

    This work deals with multidimensional data analysis, precisely cluster analysis applied to a very well known dataset, the Wisconsin Breast Cancer dataset. After the introduction of the topics of the paper the cluster analysis concept is shortly explained and different methods of cluster analysis are compared. Further, the Kohonen model of self-organizing maps is briefly described together with an example and with explanations of how the cluster analysis can be performed using the maps. After describing the data set and the methodology used for the analysis we present the findings using textual as well as visual descriptions and conclude that the approach is a useful complement for assessing multidimensional data and that this dataset has been overused for automated decision benchmarking purposes, without a thorough analysis of the data it contains. PMID:15460731

  5. Lung Cancer Signature Biomarkers: tissue specific semantic similarity based clustering of Digital Differential Display (DDD data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Mousami

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tissue-specific Unigene Sets derived from more than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs in the NCBI, GenBank database offers a platform for identifying significantly and differentially expressed tissue-specific genes by in-silico methods. Digital differential display (DDD rapidly creates transcription profiles based on EST comparisons and numerically calculates, as a fraction of the pool of ESTs, the relative sequence abundance of known and novel genes. However, the process of identifying the most likely tissue for a specific disease in which to search for candidate genes from the pool of differentially expressed genes remains difficult. Therefore, we have used ‘Gene Ontology semantic similarity score’ to measure the GO similarity between gene products of lung tissue-specific candidate genes from control (normal and disease (cancer sets. This semantic similarity score matrix based on hierarchical clustering represents in the form of a dendrogram. The dendrogram cluster stability was assessed by multiple bootstrapping. Multiple bootstrapping also computes a p-value for each cluster and corrects the bias of the bootstrap probability. Results Subsequent hierarchical clustering by the multiple bootstrapping method (α = 0.95 identified seven clusters. The comparative, as well as subtractive, approach revealed a set of 38 biomarkers comprising four distinct lung cancer signature biomarker clusters (panel 1–4. Further gene enrichment analysis of the four panels revealed that each panel represents a set of lung cancer linked metastasis diagnostic biomarkers (panel 1, chemotherapy/drug resistance biomarkers (panel 2, hypoxia regulated biomarkers (panel 3 and lung extra cellular matrix biomarkers (panel 4. Conclusions Expression analysis reveals that hypoxia induced lung cancer related biomarkers (panel 3, HIF and its modulating proteins (TGM2, CSNK1A1, CTNNA1, NAMPT/Visfatin, TNFRSF1A, ETS1, SRC-1, FN1, APLP2, DMBT1

  6. Polyclonal breast cancer metastases arise from collective dissemination of keratin 14-expressing tumor cell clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kevin J; Padmanaban, Veena; Silvestri, Vanesa; Schipper, Koen; Cohen, Joshua D; Fairchild, Amanda N; Gorin, Michael A; Verdone, James E; Pienta, Kenneth J; Bader, Joel S; Ewald, Andrew J

    2016-02-16

    Recent genomic studies challenge the conventional model that each metastasis must arise from a single tumor cell and instead reveal that metastases can be composed of multiple genetically distinct clones. These intriguing observations raise the question: How do polyclonal metastases emerge from the primary tumor? In this study, we used multicolor lineage tracing to demonstrate that polyclonal seeding by cell clusters is a frequent mechanism in a common mouse model of breast cancer, accounting for >90% of metastases. We directly observed multicolored tumor cell clusters across major stages of metastasis, including collective invasion, local dissemination, intravascular emboli, circulating tumor cell clusters, and micrometastases. Experimentally aggregating tumor cells into clusters induced a >15-fold increase in colony formation ex vivo and a >100-fold increase in metastasis formation in vivo. Intriguingly, locally disseminated clusters, circulating tumor cell clusters, and lung micrometastases frequently expressed the epithelial cytoskeletal protein, keratin 14 (K14). RNA-seq analysis revealed that K14(+) cells were enriched for desmosome and hemidesmosome adhesion complex genes, and were depleted for MHC class II genes. Depletion of K14 expression abrogated distant metastases and disrupted expression of multiple metastasis effectors, including Tenascin C (Tnc), Jagged1 (Jag1), and Epiregulin (Ereg). Taken together, our findings reveal K14 as a key regulator of metastasis and establish the concept that K14(+) epithelial tumor cell clusters disseminate collectively to colonize distant organs. PMID:26831077

  7. HSET overexpression fuels tumor progression via centrosome clustering-independent mechanisms in breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannu, Vaishali; Rida, Padmashree C.G.; Ogden, Angela; Turaga, Ravi Chakra; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; Bowen, Nathan J.; Rudd, Katie; Gupta, Meenakshi V.; Reid, Michelle D.; Cantuaria, Guilherme; Walczak, Claire E.; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    Human breast tumors harbor supernumerary centrosomes in almost 80% of tumor cells. Although amplified centrosomes compromise cell viability via multipolar spindles resulting in death-inducing aneuploidy, cancer cells tend to cluster extra centrosomes during mitosis. As a result cancer cells display bipolar spindle phenotypes to maintain a tolerable level of aneuploidy, an edge to their survival. HSET/KifC1, a kinesin-like minus-end directed microtubule motor has recently found fame as a crucial centrosome clustering molecule. Here we show that HSET promotes tumor progression via mechanisms independent of centrosome clustering. We found that HSET is overexpressed in breast carcinomas wherein nuclear HSET accumulation correlated with histological grade and predicted poor progression-free and overall survival. In addition, deregulated HSET protein expression was associated with gene amplification and/or translocation. Our data provide compelling evidence that HSET overexpression is pro-proliferative, promotes clonogenic-survival and enhances cell-cycle kinetics through G2 and M-phases. Importantly, HSET co-immunoprecipitates with survivin, and its overexpression protects survivin from proteasome-mediated degradation, resulting in its increased steady-state levels. We provide the first evidence of centrosome clustering-independent activities of HSET that fuel tumor progression and firmly establish that HSET can serve both as a potential prognostic biomarker and as a valuable cancer-selective therapeutic target. PMID:25788277

  8. Non-negative matrix factorization by maximizing correntropy for cancer clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2013-03-24

    Background: Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) has been shown to be a powerful tool for clustering gene expression data, which are widely used to classify cancers. NMF aims to find two non-negative matrices whose product closely approximates the original matrix. Traditional NMF methods minimize either the l2 norm or the Kullback-Leibler distance between the product of the two matrices and the original matrix. Correntropy was recently shown to be an effective similarity measurement due to its stability to outliers or noise.Results: We propose a maximum correntropy criterion (MCC)-based NMF method (NMF-MCC) for gene expression data-based cancer clustering. Instead of minimizing the l2 norm or the Kullback-Leibler distance, NMF-MCC maximizes the correntropy between the product of the two matrices and the original matrix. The optimization problem can be solved by an expectation conditional maximization algorithm.Conclusions: Extensive experiments on six cancer benchmark sets demonstrate that the proposed method is significantly more accurate than the state-of-the-art methods in cancer clustering. 2013 Wang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  9. Differential localization of LGR5 and Nanog in clusters of colon cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsterdam, Abraham; Raanan, Calanit; Schreiber, Letizia; Freyhan, Ora; Fabrikant, Yakov; Melzer, Ehud; Givol, David

    2013-05-01

    One paradigm of cancer development claims that cancer emerges at the niche of tissue stem cells and these cells continue to proliferate in the tumor as cancer stem cells. LGR5, a membrane receptor, was recently found to be a marker of normal colon stem cells in colon polyps and is also expressed in colon cancer stem cells. Nanog, an embryonic stem cell nuclear factor, is expressed in several embryonic tissues, but Nanog expression is not well documented in cancerous stem cells. Our aim was to examine whether both LGR5 and Nanog are expressed in the same clusters of colon stem cells or cancer stem cells, using immunocytochemistry with specific antibodies to each antigen. We analyzed this aspect using paraffin embedded tumor tissue sections obtained from 18 polyps and 36 colon cancer specimens at stages I-IV. Antibodies to LGR5 revealed membrane and cytoplasm immunostaining of scattered labeled cells in normal crypts, with no labeling of Nanog. However, in close proximity to the tumors, staining to LGR5 was much more intensive in the crypts, including that of the epithelial cells. In cancer tissue, positive LGR5 clusters of stem cells were observed mainly in poorly differentiated tumors and in only a few scattered cells in the highly differentiated tumors. In contrast, antibodies to Nanog mainly stained the growing edges of carcinoma cells, leaving the poorly differentiated tumor cells unlabeled, including the clustered stem cells that could be detected even by direct morphological examination. In polyp tissues, scattered labeled cells were immunostained with antibodies to Nanog and to a much lesser extent with antibodies to LGR5. We conclude that expression of LGR5 is probably specific to stem cells of poorly differentiated tumors, whereas Nanog is mainly expressed at the edges of highly differentiated tumors. However, some of the cell layers adjacent to the carcinoma cell layers that still remained undifferentiated, expressed mainly Nanog with only a few cells

  10. Cluster of liver cancer and immigration: A geographic analysis of incidence data for Ontario 1998–2002

    OpenAIRE

    Mao Yang; Yi Qilong; Chen Yue

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Liver cancer is not common in Canada in general; however, clustering of the disease causes a concern. We conducted a spatial analysis to determine the geographic variation of liver cancer and its association with the proportion of immigration in Ontario. Liver cancer incidence data between 1998 and 2002 were obtained from the Ontario Cancer Registry. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) in 2001 provided information on potential risk factors. Results Age standardized...

  11. The Geographical Clusters of Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Askarian; Ali Goli; Mahbobeh Oroei; Hossein Faramarzi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gastrointestinal tract cancer (GI.C) is one of the common cancers in world-wide. The incidence rate of it is different in various geographical regions. This study was performed to assess spatial clusters of the occurrence of GI.C in Fars Province. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the new cases were 4569 cases from 2001 to 2009. The crude incidence rates were standardized based on world population for both sexes. The spatial analysis was conducted using the geographical ...

  12. Addressing Burnout in Oncology: Why Cancer Care Clinicians Are At Risk, What Individuals Can Do, and How Organizations Can Respond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlubocky, Fay J; Back, Anthony L; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2016-01-01

    Despite their benevolent care of others, today, more than ever, the cancer care professional who experiences overwhelming feelings of exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy is in grave jeopardy of developing burnout. Clinicians are repeatedly physically and emotionally exposed to exceedingly long hours in direct care with seriously ill patients/families, limited autonomy over daily responsibilities, endless electronic documentation, and a shifting medical landscape. The physical and emotional well-being of the cancer care clinician is critical to the impact on quality care, patient satisfaction, and overall success of their organizations. The prevention of burnout as well as targeting established burnout need to be proactively addressed at the individual level and organizational level. In fact, confronting burnout and promoting wellness are the shared responsibility of both oncology clinicians and their organizations. From an individual perspective, oncology clinicians must be empowered to play a crucial role in enhancing their own wellness by identification of burnout symptoms in both themselves and their colleagues, learning resilience strategies (e.g., mindful self-compassion), and cultivating positive relationships with fellow clinician colleagues. At the organizational level, leadership must recognize the importance of oncology clinician well-being; engage leaders and physicians in collaborative action planning, improve overall practice environment, and provide institutional wellness resources to physicians. These effective individual and organizational interventions are crucial for the prevention and improvement of overall clinician wellness and must be widely and systematically integrated into oncology care.

  13. Addressing Burnout in Oncology: Why Cancer Care Clinicians Are At Risk, What Individuals Can Do, and How Organizations Can Respond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlubocky, Fay J; Back, Anthony L; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2016-01-01

    Despite their benevolent care of others, today, more than ever, the cancer care professional who experiences overwhelming feelings of exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy is in grave jeopardy of developing burnout. Clinicians are repeatedly physically and emotionally exposed to exceedingly long hours in direct care with seriously ill patients/families, limited autonomy over daily responsibilities, endless electronic documentation, and a shifting medical landscape. The physical and emotional well-being of the cancer care clinician is critical to the impact on quality care, patient satisfaction, and overall success of their organizations. The prevention of burnout as well as targeting established burnout need to be proactively addressed at the individual level and organizational level. In fact, confronting burnout and promoting wellness are the shared responsibility of both oncology clinicians and their organizations. From an individual perspective, oncology clinicians must be empowered to play a crucial role in enhancing their own wellness by identification of burnout symptoms in both themselves and their colleagues, learning resilience strategies (e.g., mindful self-compassion), and cultivating positive relationships with fellow clinician colleagues. At the organizational level, leadership must recognize the importance of oncology clinician well-being; engage leaders and physicians in collaborative action planning, improve overall practice environment, and provide institutional wellness resources to physicians. These effective individual and organizational interventions are crucial for the prevention and improvement of overall clinician wellness and must be widely and systematically integrated into oncology care. PMID:27249706

  14. Families of microRNAs Expressed in Clusters Regulate Cell Signaling in Cervical Cancer

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    Luis Steven Servín-González

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tumor cells have developed advantages to acquire hallmarks of cancer like apoptosis resistance, increased proliferation, migration, and invasion through cell signaling pathway misregulation. The sequential activation of genes in a pathway is regulated by miRNAs. Loss or gain of miRNA expression could activate or repress a particular cell axis. It is well known that aberrant miRNA expression is well recognized as an important step in the development of cancer. Individual miRNA expression is reported without considering that miRNAs are grouped in clusters and may have similar functions, such as the case of clusters with anti-oncomiRs (23b~27b~24-1, miR-29a~29b-1, miR-29b-2~29c, miR-99a~125b-2, miR-99b~125a, miR-100~125b-1, miR-199a-2~214, and miR-302s or oncomiRs activity (miR-1-1~133a-2, miR-1-2~133a-1, miR-133b~206, miR-17~92, miR-106a~363, miR183~96~182, miR-181a-1~181b-1, and miR-181a-2~181b-2, which regulated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K, NOTCH, proteasome-culling rings, and apoptosis cell signaling. In this work we point out the pathways regulated by families of miRNAs grouped in 20 clusters involved in cervical cancer. Reviewing how miRNA families expressed in cluster-regulated cell path signaling will increase the knowledge of cervical cancer progression, providing important information for therapeutic, diagnostic, and prognostic methodology design.

  15. eMBI: Boosting Gene Expression-based Clustering for Cancer Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zheng; Wang, Zhenjia; Ashby, Cody; Zhou, Chuan; Li, Guojun; Zhang, Shuzhong; Huang, Xiuzhen

    2014-01-01

    Identifying clinically relevant subtypes of a cancer using gene expression data is a challenging and important problem in medicine, and is a necessary premise to provide specific and efficient treatments for patients of different subtypes. Matrix factorization provides a solution by finding checker-board patterns in the matrices of gene expression data. In the context of gene expression profiles of cancer patients, these checkerboard patterns correspond to genes that are up- or down-regulated in patients with particular cancer subtypes. Recently, a new matrix factorization framework for biclustering called Maximum Block Improvement (MBI) is proposed; however, it still suffers several problems when applied to cancer gene expression data analysis. In this study, we developed many effective strategies to improve MBI and designed a new program called enhanced MBI (eMBI), which is more effective and efficient to identify cancer subtypes. Our tests on several gene expression profiling datasets of cancer patients consistently indicate that eMBI achieves significant improvements in comparison with MBI, in terms of cancer subtype prediction accuracy, robustness, and running time. In addition, the performance of eMBI is much better than another widely used matrix factorization method called nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) and the method of hierarchical clustering, which is often the first choice of clinical analysts in practice. PMID:25374455

  16. Cluster of liver cancer and immigration: A geographic analysis of incidence data for Ontario 1998–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Yang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver cancer is not common in Canada in general; however, clustering of the disease causes a concern. We conducted a spatial analysis to determine the geographic variation of liver cancer and its association with the proportion of immigration in Ontario. Liver cancer incidence data between 1998 and 2002 were obtained from the Ontario Cancer Registry. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS in 2001 provided information on potential risk factors. Results Age standardized incidence ratios (SIR for liver cancer and prevalence of potential risk factors were calculated for each of 35 health regions. The SIRs for liver cancer varied across the 35 health regions (p Conclusion Immigration is an important reason for the clustering of liver cancer in Ontario. More attention should be paid to areas with a high proportion of immigrants.

  17. Geographical clustering of prostate cancer grade and stage at diagnosis, before and after adjustment for risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curriero Frank

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial variation in patterns of disease outcomes is often explored with techniques such as cluster detection analysis. In other types of investigations, geographically varying individual or community level characteristics are often used as independent predictors in statistical models which also attempt to explain variation in disease outcomes. However, there is a lack of research which combines geographically referenced exploratory analysis with multilevel models. We used a spatial scan statistic approach, in combination with predicted block group-level disease patterns from multilevel models, to examine geographic variation in prostate cancer grade and stage at diagnosis. Results We examined data from 20928 Maryland men with incident prostate cancer reported to the Maryland Cancer Registry during 1992–1997. Initial cluster detection analyses, prior to adjustment, indicated that there were four statistically significant clusters of high and low rates of each outcome (later stage at diagnosis and higher histologic grade of tumor for prostate cancer cases in Maryland during 1992–1997. After adjustment for individual case attributes, including age, race, year of diagnosis, patterns of clusters changed for both outcomes. Additional adjustment for Census block group and county-level socioeconomic measures changed the cluster patterns further. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that, in locations where adjustment changed patterns of clusters, the adjustment factors may be contributing causes of the original clusters. In addition, clusters identified after adjusting for individual and area-level predictors indicate area of unexplained variation, and merit further small-area investigations.

  18. Methylome sequencing in triple-negative breast cancer reveals distinct methylation clusters with prognostic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirzaker, Clare; Zotenko, Elena; Song, Jenny Z; Qu, Wenjia; Nair, Shalima S; Locke, Warwick J; Stone, Andrew; Armstong, Nicola J; Robinson, Mark D; Dobrovic, Alexander; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A; Peters, Kate M; French, Juliet D; Stein, Sandra; Korbie, Darren J; Trau, Matt; Forbes, John F; Scott, Rodney J; Brown, Melissa A; Francis, Glenn D; Clark, Susan J

    2015-02-02

    Epigenetic alterations in the cancer methylome are common in breast cancer and provide novel options for tumour stratification. Here, we perform whole-genome methylation capture sequencing on small amounts of DNA isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and matched normal samples. We identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) enriched with promoters associated with transcription factor binding sites and DNA hypersensitive sites. Importantly, we stratify TNBCs into three distinct methylation clusters associated with better or worse prognosis and identify 17 DMRs that show a strong association with overall survival, including DMRs located in the Wilms tumour 1 (WT1) gene, bi-directional-promoter and antisense WT1-AS. Our data reveal that coordinated hypermethylation can occur in oestrogen receptor-negative disease, and that characterizing the epigenetic framework provides a potential signature to stratify TNBCs. Together, our findings demonstrate the feasibility of profiling the cancer methylome with limited archival tissue to identify regulatory regions associated with cancer.

  19. 1842676957299765Latent class cluster analysis to understand heterogeneity in prostate cancer treatment utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghani Salimah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men with prostate cancer are often challenged to choose between conservative management and a range of available treatment options each carrying varying risks and benefits. The trade-offs are between an improved life-expectancy with treatment accompanied by important risks such as urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Previous studies of preference elicitation for prostate cancer treatment have found considerable heterogeneity in individuals' preferences for health states given similar treatments and clinical risks. Methods Using latent class mixture model (LCA, we first sought to understand if there are unique patterns of heterogeneity or subgroups of individuals based on their prostate cancer treatment utilities (calculated time trade-off utilities for various health states and if such unique subgroups exist, what demographic and urological variables may predict membership in these subgroups. Results The sample (N = 244 included men with prostate cancer (n = 188 and men at-risk for disease (n = 56. The sample was predominantly white (77%, with mean age of 60 years (SD ± 9.5. Most (85.9% were married or living with a significant other. Using LCA, a three class solution yielded the best model evidenced by the smallest Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC, substantial reduction in BIC from a 2-class solution, and Lo-Mendell-Rubin significance of < .001. The three identified clusters were named high-traders (n = 31, low-traders (n = 116, and no-traders (n = 97. High-traders were more likely to trade survival time associated with treatment to avoid potential risks of treatment. Low-traders were less likely to trade survival time and accepted risks of treatment. The no-traders were likely to make no trade-offs in any direction favouring the status quo. There was significant difference among the clusters in the importance of sexual activity (Pearson's χ2 = 16.55, P = 0.002; Goodman and Kruskal tau = 0.039, P < 0.001. In

  20. Cancer-Related NEET Proteins Transfer 2Fe-2S Clusters to Anamorsin, a Protein Required for Cytosolic Iron-Sulfur Cluster Biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipper, Colin H.; Paddock, Mark L.; Onuchic, José N.; Mittler, Ron; Nechushtai, Rachel; Jennings, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis is executed by distinct protein assembly systems. Mammals have two systems, the mitochondrial Fe-S cluster assembly system (ISC) and the cytosolic assembly system (CIA), that are connected by an unknown mechanism. The human members of the NEET family of 2Fe-2S proteins, nutrient-deprivation autophagy factor-1 (NAF-1) and mitoNEET (mNT), are located at the interface between the mitochondria and the cytosol. These proteins have been implicated in cancer cell proliferation, and they can transfer their 2Fe-2S clusters to a standard apo-acceptor protein. Here we report the first physiological 2Fe-2S cluster acceptor for both NEET proteins as human Anamorsin (also known as cytokine induced apoptosis inhibitor-1; CIAPIN-1). Anamorsin is an electron transfer protein containing two iron-sulfur cluster-binding sites that is required for cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly. We show, using UV-Vis spectroscopy, that both NAF-1 and mNT can transfer their 2Fe-2S clusters to apo-Anamorsin with second order rate constants similar to those of other known human 2Fe-2S transfer proteins. A direct protein-protein interaction of the NEET proteins with apo-Anamorsin was detected using biolayer interferometry. Furthermore, electrospray mass spectrometry of holo-Anamorsin prepared by cluster transfer shows that it receives both of its 2Fe-2S clusters from the NEETs. We propose that mNT and NAF-1 can provide parallel routes connecting the mitochondrial ISC system and the CIA. 2Fe-2S clusters assembled in the mitochondria are received by NEET proteins and when needed transferred to Anamorsin, activating the CIA. PMID:26448442

  1. Innovative patient-centered skills training addressing challenging issues in cancer communications: Using patient's stories that teach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Thomas W; Gorniewicz, James; Floyd, Michael; Tudiver, Fred; Odom, Amy; Zoppi, Kathy

    2016-05-01

    This workshop demonstrated the utility of a patient-centered web-based/digital Breaking Bad News communication training module designed to educate learners of various levels and disciplines. This training module is designed for independent, self-directed learning as well as group instruction. These interactive educational interventions are based upon video-recorded patient stories. Curriculum development was the result of an interdisciplinary, collaborative effort involving faculty from the East Tennessee State University (ETSU) Graduate Storytelling Program and the departments of Family and Internal Medicine at the James H. Quillen College of Medicine. The specific goals of the BBN training module are to assist learners in: (1) understanding a five-step patient-centered model that is based upon needs, preferences, and expectations of patients with cancer and (2) individualizing communication that is consistent with patient preferences in discussing emotions, informational detail, prognosis and timeline, and whether or not to discuss end-of-life issues. The pedagogical approach to the training module is to cycle through Emotional Engagement, Data, Modeled Practices, Adaptation Opportunities, and Feedback. The communication skills addressed are rooted in concepts found within the Reaching Common Ground communication training. A randomized control study investigating the effectiveness of the Breaking Bad News module found that medical students as well as resident physicians improved their communication skills as measured by an Objective Structured Clinical Examination. Four other similarly designed modules were also created: Living Through Treatment, Transitions: From Curable to Treatable/From Treatable to End-of-Life, Spirituality, and Family. PMID:27497456

  2. Cluster detection methods applied to the Upper Cape Cod cancer data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozonoff David

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of statistical methods have been suggested to assess the degree and/or the location of spatial clustering of disease cases. However, there is relatively little in the literature devoted to comparison and critique of different methods. Most of the available comparative studies rely on simulated data rather than real data sets. Methods We have chosen three methods currently used for examining spatial disease patterns: the M-statistic of Bonetti and Pagano; the Generalized Additive Model (GAM method as applied by Webster; and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. We apply these statistics to analyze breast cancer data from the Upper Cape Cancer Incidence Study using three different latency assumptions. Results The three different latency assumptions produced three different spatial patterns of cases and controls. For 20 year latency, all three methods generally concur. However, for 15 year latency and no latency assumptions, the methods produce different results when testing for global clustering. Conclusion The comparative analyses of real data sets by different statistical methods provides insight into directions for further research. We suggest a research program designed around examining real data sets to guide focused investigation of relevant features using simulated data, for the purpose of understanding how to interpret statistical methods applied to epidemiological data with a spatial component.

  3. Functional categories associated with clusters of genes that are co-expressed across the NCI-60 cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry R Zeeberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The NCI-60 is a panel of 60 diverse human cancer cell lines used by the U.S. National Cancer Institute to screen compounds for anticancer activity. In the current study, gene expression levels from five platforms were integrated to yield a single composite transcriptome profile. The comprehensive and reliable nature of that dataset allows us to study gene co-expression across cancer cell lines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Hierarchical clustering revealed numerous clusters of genes in which the genes co-vary across the NCI-60. To determine functional categorization associated with each cluster, we used the Gene Ontology (GO Consortium database and the GoMiner tool. GO maps genes to hierarchically-organized biological process categories. GoMiner can leverage GO to perform ontological analyses of gene expression studies, generating a list of significant functional categories. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: GoMiner analysis revealed many clusters of coregulated genes that are associated with functional groupings of GO biological process categories. Notably, those categories arising from coherent co-expression groupings reflect cancer-related themes such as adhesion, cell migration, RNA splicing, immune response and signal transduction. Thus, these clusters demonstrate transcriptional coregulation of functionally-related genes.

  4. Enhancing Psychosocial Outcomes for Young Adult Childhood CNS Cancer Survivors: Importance of Addressing Vocational Identity and Community Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauser, David R.; Wagner, Stacia; Wong, Alex W. K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between vocational identity, community integration, positive and negative affect, and satisfaction with life in a group of young adult central nervous system (CNS) cancer survivors. Participants in this study included 45 young adult CNS cancer survivors who ranged in age from 18 to 30 years…

  5. A CEP215-HSET complex links centrosomes with spindle poles and drives centrosome clustering in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavali, Pavithra L; Chandrasekaran, Gayathri; Barr, Alexis R; Tátrai, Péter; Taylor, Chris; Papachristou, Evaggelia K; Woods, C Geoffrey; Chavali, Sreenivas; Gergely, Fanni

    2016-01-01

    Numerical centrosome aberrations underlie certain developmental abnormalities and may promote cancer. A cell maintains normal centrosome numbers by coupling centrosome duplication with segregation, which is achieved through sustained association of each centrosome with a mitotic spindle pole. Although the microcephaly- and primordial dwarfism-linked centrosomal protein CEP215 has been implicated in this process, the molecular mechanism responsible remains unclear. Here, using proteomic profiling, we identify the minus end-directed microtubule motor protein HSET as a direct binding partner of CEP215. Targeted deletion of the HSET-binding domain of CEP215 in vertebrate cells causes centrosome detachment and results in HSET depletion at centrosomes, a phenotype also observed in CEP215-deficient patient-derived cells. Moreover, in cancer cells with centrosome amplification, the CEP215-HSET complex promotes the clustering of extra centrosomes into pseudo-bipolar spindles, thereby ensuring viable cell division. Therefore, stabilization of the centrosome-spindle pole interface by the CEP215-HSET complex could promote survival of cancer cells containing supernumerary centrosomes. PMID:26987684

  6. Welcome Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  7. The Activities and Impact of State Programs to Address Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer, 2011–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina F. Trivers

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC, at the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, released a three-year funding opportunity announcement (FOA for a competitive, non-research cooperative agreement. The agreement enhanced the capacities of state health departments to promote the application of best practices for evidence-based breast cancer genomics through education, surveillance, and policy activities. The FOA required that applicants focus on activities related to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC. The DCPC funded three states: Georgia, Michigan, and Oregon. Georgia was a first-time recipient of cancer genomics funding, whereas Michigan and Oregon had long standing activities in cancer genomics and had received CDC funding in the past. By the end of the funding period, each state had well-functioning and impactful state-based programs in breast cancer genomics. This article highlights the impact of a few key state activities by using CDC’s Science Impact Framework. There were challenges to implementing public health genomics programs, including the need to develop relevant partnerships, the highly technical nature of the subject matter, a lack of genetic services in certain areas, and the difficulty in funding genetic services. Georgia, Michigan, and Oregon have served as models for others interested in initiating or expanding cancer genomics programs, and they helped to determine what works well for promoting and integrating public health genomics into existing systems.

  8. Genomic distance entrained clustering and regression modelling highlights interacting genomic regions contributing to proliferation in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter Tim J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic copy number changes and regional alterations in epigenetic states have been linked to grade in breast cancer. However, the relative contribution of specific alterations to the pathology of different breast cancer subtypes remains unclear. The heterogeneity and interplay of genomic and epigenetic variations means that large datasets and statistical data mining methods are required to uncover recurrent patterns that are likely to be important in cancer progression. Results We employed ridge regression to model the relationship between regional changes in gene expression and proliferation. Regional features were extracted from tumour gene expression data using a novel clustering method, called genomic distance entrained agglomerative (GDEC clustering. Using gene expression data in this way provides a simple means of integrating the phenotypic effects of both copy number aberrations and alterations in chromatin state. We show that regional metagenes derived from GDEC clustering are representative of recurrent regions of epigenetic regulation or copy number aberrations in breast cancer. Furthermore, detected patterns of genomic alterations are conserved across independent oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer datasets. Sequential competitive metagene selection was used to reveal the relative importance of genomic regions in predicting proliferation rate. The predictive model suggested additive interactions between the most informative regions such as 8p22-12 and 8q13-22. Conclusions Data-mining of large-scale microarray gene expression datasets can reveal regional clusters of co-ordinate gene expression, independent of cause. By correlating these clusters with tumour proliferation we have identified a number of genomic regions that act together to promote proliferation in ER+ breast cancer. Identification of such regions should enable prioritisation of genomic regions for combinatorial functional studies to pinpoint

  9. A Gene Selection Approach based on Clustering for Classification Tasks in Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio CASTELLANOS GARZÓN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene selection (GS is an important research area in the analysis of DNA-microarray data, since it involves gene discovery meaningful for a particular target annotation or able to discriminate expression profiles of samples coming from different populations. In this context, a wide number of filter methods have been proposed in the literature to identify subsets of relevant genes in accordance with prefixed targets. Despite the fact that there is a wide number of proposals, the complexity imposed by this problem (GS remains a challenge. Hence, this paper proposes a novel approach for gene selection by using cluster techniques and filter methods on the found groupings to achieve informative gene subsets. As a result of applying our methodology to Colon cancer data, we have identified the best informative gene subset between several one subsets. According to the above, the reached results have proven the reliability of the approach given in this paper.

  10. The role of in-depth reproductive health counseling in addressing reproductive health concerns in female survivors of nongynecologic cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, M S; Letourneau, J M; Niemasik, E E; Bleil, M; McCulloch, Charles E; Rosen, M P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize reproductive concerns among female cancer survivors and determine the role of targeted counseling in improving overall reproductive quality of life (QOL). A survey was administered to women from the California Cancer Registry, ages 18-40, with nongynecologic cancers diagnosed from 1993 to 2007, who received fertility-compromising treatments. In total, 356 women completed the survey, which included questions regarding their reproductive health counseling history and the reproductive concerns scale (RCS), a validated reproductive QOL tool. Factors independently associated with higher RCS scores included a desire for children at the time of diagnosis, posttreatment infertility, treatment with chemoradiation or bone marrow transplant, and income less than $100,000 per year at diagnosis. Among the highest reported reproductive concerns were those related to loss of control over one's reproductive future and concerns about the effect of illness on one's future fertility. Across our population and independent of age, in-depth reproductive health counseling prior to cancer treatment was associated with significantly lower RCS scores. Our findings highlight the importance of early counseling and targeting high-risk groups for additional counseling after completion of cancer treatment. This approach may be an effective strategy for optimizing long-term reproductive QOL in this vulnerable population. PMID:27144587

  11. Global methylation silencing of clustered proto-cadherin genes in cervical cancer: serving as diagnostic markers comparable to HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Hung; Lin, Cuei-Jyuan; Liu, Chou-Jen; Liu, Dai-Wei; Huang, Rui-Lan; Ding, Dah-Ching; Weng, Ching-Feng; Chu, Tang-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic remodeling of cell adhesion genes is a common phenomenon in cancer invasion. This study aims to investigate global methylation of cell adhesion genes in cervical carcinogenesis and to apply them in early detection of cancer from cervical scraping. Genome-wide methylation array was performed on an investigation cohort, including 16 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN3) and 20 cervical cancers (CA) versus 12 each of normal, inflammation and CIN1 as controls. Twelve members of clustered proto-cadherin (PCDH) genes were collectively methylated and silenced, which were validated in cancer cells of the cervix, endometrium, liver, head and neck, breast, and lung. In an independent cohort including 107 controls, 66 CIN1, 85 CIN2/3, and 38 CA, methylated PCDHA4 and PCDHA13 were detected in 2.8%, 24.2%, 52.9%, and 84.2% (P diagnostic markers for cervical cancer noninferior to HPV.

  12. Molecular-receptor-specific, non-toxic, near-infrared-emitting Au cluster-protein nanoconjugates for targeted cancer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular-receptor-targeted imaging of folate receptor positive oral carcinoma cells using folic-acid-conjugated fluorescent Au25 nanoclusters (Au NCs) is reported. Highly fluorescent Au25 clusters were synthesized by controlled reduction of Au+ ions, stabilized in bovine serum albumin (BSA), using a green-chemical reducing agent, ascorbic acid (vitamin-C). For targeted-imaging-based detection of cancer cells, the clusters were conjugated with folic acid (FA) through amide linkage with the BSA shell. The bioconjugated clusters show excellent stability over a wide range of pH from 4 to 14 and fluorescence efficiency of ∼5.7% at pH 7.4 in phosphate buffer saline (PBS), indicating effective protection of nanoclusters by serum albumin during the bioconjugation reaction and cell-cluster interaction. The nanoclusters were characterized for their physico-chemical properties, toxicity and cancer targeting efficacy in vitro. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests binding energies correlating to metal Au 4f7/2∼83.97 eV and Au 4f5/2∼87.768 eV. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed the formation of individual nanoclusters of size ∼1 nm and protein cluster aggregates of size ∼8 nm. Photoluminescence studies show bright fluorescence with peak maximum at ∼674 nm with the spectral profile covering the near-infrared (NIR) region, making it possible to image clusters at the 700-800 nm emission window where the tissue absorption of light is minimum. The cell viability and reactive oxygen toxicity studies indicate the non-toxic nature of the Au clusters up to relatively higher concentrations of 500 μg ml-1. Receptor-targeted cancer detection using Au clusters is demonstrated on FR+ve oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB) and breast adenocarcinoma cell MCF-7, where the FA-conjugated Au25 clusters were found internalized in significantly higher concentrations compared to the negative control cell lines. This study demonstrates the

  13. Molecular-receptor-specific, non-toxic, near-infrared-emitting Au cluster-protein nanoconjugates for targeted cancer imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retnakumari, Archana; Setua, Sonali; Menon, Deepthy; Ravindran, Prasanth; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor [Amrita Centre for Nanoscience and Molecular Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Science, Cochin, 682 041 (India); Muhammed, Habeeb; Pradeep, Thalappil, E-mail: manzoor_nanomed@yahoo.com [Indian Institute of Technology, DST unit on Nanoscience, Chennai, 600 036 (India)

    2010-02-05

    Molecular-receptor-targeted imaging of folate receptor positive oral carcinoma cells using folic-acid-conjugated fluorescent Au{sub 25} nanoclusters (Au NCs) is reported. Highly fluorescent Au{sub 25} clusters were synthesized by controlled reduction of Au{sup +} ions, stabilized in bovine serum albumin (BSA), using a green-chemical reducing agent, ascorbic acid (vitamin-C). For targeted-imaging-based detection of cancer cells, the clusters were conjugated with folic acid (FA) through amide linkage with the BSA shell. The bioconjugated clusters show excellent stability over a wide range of pH from 4 to 14 and fluorescence efficiency of {approx}5.7% at pH 7.4 in phosphate buffer saline (PBS), indicating effective protection of nanoclusters by serum albumin during the bioconjugation reaction and cell-cluster interaction. The nanoclusters were characterized for their physico-chemical properties, toxicity and cancer targeting efficacy in vitro. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests binding energies correlating to metal Au 4f{sub 7/2{approx}}83.97 eV and Au 4f{sub 5/2{approx}}87.768 eV. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed the formation of individual nanoclusters of size {approx}1 nm and protein cluster aggregates of size {approx}8 nm. Photoluminescence studies show bright fluorescence with peak maximum at {approx}674 nm with the spectral profile covering the near-infrared (NIR) region, making it possible to image clusters at the 700-800 nm emission window where the tissue absorption of light is minimum. The cell viability and reactive oxygen toxicity studies indicate the non-toxic nature of the Au clusters up to relatively higher concentrations of 500 {mu}g ml{sup -1}. Receptor-targeted cancer detection using Au clusters is demonstrated on FR{sup +ve} oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB) and breast adenocarcinoma cell MCF-7, where the FA-conjugated Au{sub 25} clusters were found internalized in significantly higher concentrations

  14. Emergence of nanomedicine as cancer targeted magic bullets: recent development and need to address the toxicity apprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahfoozur; Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki; Kazmi, Imran; Akhter, Sohail; Afzal, Muhammad; Gupta, Gaurav; Sinha, Vivek Ranjan

    2012-12-01

    Multi drug resistance and non specific targeting is a major problem with conventional therapy. To overcome this problem, nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as an important tool to deliver conventional drugs, recombinant proteins, vaccines and more recently, nucleotides. NPs modify the drug release pattern, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) and therapeutic response. This review focuses on the potential of nanotechnology in cancer and discusses the different nanoparticulate drug-delivery systems including quantum dot, iron oxide nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, silica nanoparticles, dendrimer, graphene and polymeric nanoparticles with their applications in therapeutics, diagnostics, and imaging pattern. Further, the recent development and progress of theranostic nanoparticles in the treatment of cancer and toxicity associated with nanoparticles is also covered here. PMID:22725687

  15. Addressing the Growing Cancer Burden in the Wake of the AIDS Epidemic in Botswana: The BOTSOGO Collaborative Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efstathiou, Jason A., E-mail: jefstathiou@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bvochora-Nsingo, Memory [Gaborone Private Hospital, Gaborone (Botswana); Gierga, David P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Alphonse Kayembe, Mukendi K. [Department of Anatomical Pathology, National Health Laboratory, Gaborone (Botswana); Department of Pathology, University of Botswana School of Medicine, Gaborone (Botswana); Mmalane, Mompati [Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute, Gaborone (Botswana); Russell, Anthony H.; Paly, Jonathan J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brown, Carolyn [Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute, Gaborone (Botswana); Musimar, Zola [Princess Marina Hospital, Gaborone (Botswana); Abramson, Jeremy S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bruce, Kathy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Karumekayi, Talkmore [Gaborone Private Hospital, Gaborone (Botswana); Clayman, Rebecca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hodgeman, Ryan [Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute, Gaborone (Botswana); Kasese, Joseph [Bokamoso Private Hospital, Gaborone (Botswana); Makufa, Remigio [Gaborone Private Hospital, Gaborone (Botswana); Bigger, Elizabeth [Princess Marina Hospital, Gaborone (Botswana); Department of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Suneja, Gita [Department of Radiation Oncology and Leonard David Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Busse, Paul M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); and others

    2014-07-01

    Botswana has experienced a dramatic increase in HIV-related malignancies over the past decade. The BOTSOGO collaboration sought to establish a sustainable partnership with the Botswana oncology community to improve cancer care. This collaboration is anchored by regular tumor boards and on-site visits that have resulted in the introduction of new approaches to treatment and perceived improvements in care, providing a model for partnership between academic oncology centers and high-burden countries with limited resources.

  16. Addressing the Growing Cancer Burden in the Wake of the AIDS Epidemic in Botswana: The BOTSOGO Collaborative Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botswana has experienced a dramatic increase in HIV-related malignancies over the past decade. The BOTSOGO collaboration sought to establish a sustainable partnership with the Botswana oncology community to improve cancer care. This collaboration is anchored by regular tumor boards and on-site visits that have resulted in the introduction of new approaches to treatment and perceived improvements in care, providing a model for partnership between academic oncology centers and high-burden countries with limited resources

  17. How few cancer cells can be detected by positron emission tomography? A frequent question addressed by an in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Barbara M.; Mortensen, Jann; Hoejgaard, Liselotte [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Copenhagen (Denmark); Olsen, Minna W.B.; Ley, Carsten D.; Kristjansen, Paul E.G. [University of Copenhagen, Laboratory of Experimental Oncology, Molecular Pathology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Klausen, Thomas L. [Herlev University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, DK-2730 Herlev (Denmark)

    2006-06-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has gained widespread use in cancer diagnosis and treatment, but how many malignant cells are required for a tumour to be detected by PET ?Three human cancer cell lines [glioblastoma and two subtypes of small cell lung cancer (SCLC)] in concentrations from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 7} were seeded on six-well plates or plastic tubes and treated with [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxy-glucose (FDG) in vitro. FDG retention was measured in a PET/CT scanner and in a calibrated well counter. The clinical situation was simulated using a cylinder phantom with a background concentration of FDG. The theoretical detection limit was found to be around 10{sup 5} malignant cells. In a cylinder phantom the detection limit was increased by a factor of 10. The FDG retention by the glioblastoma cell line was significantly higher than the activity of the SCLC cell line. FDG retention measured by PET and a gamma counter was closely correlated to the number of cells and a linear relationship was found. The detection limit of PET is in the magnitude of 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 6} malignant cells. The experimental set-up was robust and well suited as a platform for further investigations of factors influencing the detection limit of PET. (orig.)

  18. Leveling the playing field: the personal coach program as an innovative approach to assess and address the supportive care needs of underserved cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenadel, Joanne; Kaegi, Elizabeth; Laidlaw, Jack; Kovacik, Galina; Cortinois, Andrea; Kang, Rita; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2007-04-01

    Supportive care addresses informational, social, emotional, spiritual, physical, and practical needs that impact the lives of patients and their families. Accessing supportive care services is particularly challenging for patients facing significant financial and social barriers. This report discusses the Personal Coach Program (PCP), which provides specially trained coach navigators of supportive care for cancer patients, with special focus on those facing the above-mentioned barriers. The PCP was piloted with 63 patients treated at the Princess Margaret Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Patients faced barriers of language, poverty, culture, social isolation, and literacy. Triangulation was used to compare and contrast multiple sources of quantitative and qualitative evaluation data. Identifying appropriate patients for referral to the PCP was a major challenge. Six categories of unmet needs were identified: practical factors related to daily living, cancer information, emotional support, interaction with the healthcare team, problems with physical health,and factors related to family and friends. Many significant barriers to supportive care and unmet needs are not identified by time-pressured clinical staff in cancer clinics. The PCP helped to identify needs and to improve ability to access services. Participants were highly satisfied with the program and believed it had positive implications for both physical and emotional health. Based on these results, a demonstration model for a supportive-care program is proposed as an integral component of care for all cancer patients, including those at risk for underservice. PMID:17500506

  19. Implementation of a Theory-based, Non-clinical Patient Navigator Program to Address Barriers in an Urban Cancer Center Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, Linda; Miller, Suzanne M; Crookes, Danielle; Kandadai, Venk; Wen, Kuang Yi; Slamon, Rachel E; Chaivous, Jeanne

    2012-06-01

    Cancer patients face a myriad of psychosocial and practical issues. Especially challenging is the time from an initial diagnosis to the onset of treatment and patient navigation services are important to guide patients, especially underserved populations, through this maze of uncertainty. Here we report on the Pennsylvania Patient Navigator Demonstration Project (PaPND) designed to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and impact of a culturally and linguistically appropriate non-clinical navigator program. The development of the project, based on behavioral theory and community-based participatory research principles, is described. Forty-four cancer patients from diverse backgrounds participated, which included a baseline assessment, navigation services, and a four week and twelve week follow-up assessment. On average, participants experienced 1.8 barriers with transportation and insurance issues the most common barriers. The majority (56%) of the barriers required more than an hour of the navigator's time to address, with insurance, transportation and caregiver/support issues requiring the most time. Overall patients were fairly satisfied with the navigation services. The findings showed improvement patient's stress-related thoughts, cognition (understanding of their disease), expectancies and beliefs or values/goals, as well as self-efficacy of managing cancer related issues from the baseline to follow-up assessments. The evaluation results suggest that providing and connecting cancer patients to appropriate information to improve their understanding of their diagnosis and recommended treatments needs to be addressed, and where the integration of non-clinical and clinical navigation is essential. In addition, more attention to the assessment of psychosocial issues, such as the patients' emotional worries, and more comprehensive training in these areas would enhance navigation programs.

  20. Addressing the disconnect between public health science and personalised health care: the potential role of cluster analysis in combination with multi-criteria decision analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Dowie, Jack; Turner, Robin;

    2013-01-01

    is to arrive at the necessary compromise between an individualised public policy (using each individual's preferences) and a deindividualised policy (using mean population preferences) in a more rigorous and transparent way. We show how cluster analysis can be combined with multi-criteria decision analysis......Background: Public health promotion and person-centred health care are being pursued simultaneously, with little attempt to resolve the conflict between them. One necessary step is to accept that health-care decisions involve multiple criteria and hence are preference sensitive. A second...... rather than the entire population. The characteristics can be objective health indicators or, as in our case, individual's preferences, expressed as importance weights for criteria. The techniques vary in their assumptions and procedures, and typically produce different results, although their common aim...

  1. Transitions at CpG dinucleotides, geographic clustering of TP53 mutations and food availability patterns in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Verginelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is mainly attributed to diet, but the role exerted by foods remains unclear because involved factors are extremely complex. Geography substantially impacts on foods. Correlations between international variation in colorectal cancer-associated mutation patterns and food availabilities could highlight the influence of foods on colorectal mutagenesis. METHODOLOGY: To test such hypothesis, we applied techniques based on hierarchical clustering, feature extraction and selection, and statistical pattern recognition to the analysis of 2,572 colorectal cancer-associated TP53 mutations from 12 countries/geographic areas. For food availabilities, we relied on data extracted from the Food Balance Sheets of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Dendrograms for mutation sites, mutation types and food patterns were constructed through Ward's hierarchical clustering algorithm and their stability was assessed evaluating silhouette values. Feature selection used entropy-based measures for similarity between clusterings, combined with principal component analysis by exhaustive and heuristic approaches. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Mutations clustered in two major geographic groups, one including only Western countries, the other Asia and parts of Europe. This was determined by variation in the frequency of transitions at CpGs, the most common mutation type. Higher frequencies of transitions at CpGs in the cluster that included only Western countries mainly reflected higher frequencies of mutations at CpG codons 175, 248 and 273, the three major TP53 hotspots. Pearson's correlation scores, computed between the principal components of the datamatrices for mutation types, food availability and mutation sites, demonstrated statistically significant correlations between transitions at CpGs and both mutation sites and availabilities of meat, milk, sweeteners and animal fats, the energy-dense foods at the basis of

  2. Lung cancer tissue diagnosis in poor lung function: addressing the ongoing percutaneous lung biopsy FEV1 paradox using Heimlich valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, R; Tavare, A N; Creamer, A; Creer, D; Vancheeswaran, R; Hare, S S

    2016-08-01

    Many centres continue to decline percutaneous lung biopsy (PLB) in patients with poor lung function (particularly FEV1 pneumothorax. This practice limits access to novel lung cancer therapies and minimally invasive surgical techniques. Our retrospective single-centre analysis of 212 patients undergoing PLB, all performed prospectively and blinded to lung function, demonstrates that using ambulatory Heimlich valve chest drain (HVCD) to treat significant postbiopsy pneumothorax facilitates safe, diagnostic, early discharge lung biopsy irrespective of lung function with neither FEV1 pneumothorax outcomes. Incorporating ambulatory HVCD into standard PLB practice thereby elegantly bridges the gap that currently exists between tissue diagnosis in patients with poor lung function and the advanced therapeutic options available for this cohort. PMID:26980011

  3. IP Addressing

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    tut quiz anim This interactive tutorial covers the following: The concept of halving a binary number space., Using the halving concept to explain how the Internet IP space is segmented into the A, B, and C address classifications., How the first octet ranges for the A, B, and C IP space are produced.In this tutorial, explanations are illustrated by simple animations. Students are asked to observe number patterns, and check their observations against automated 'answers.' There is a qu...

  4. Inaugural Address

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani

    2008-01-01

    Sardar Aseff Ahmad Ali, Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission, Dr Rashid Amjad, President, Pakistan Society of Development Economists, Honourable Ministers, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen! It is indeed a privilege and honour to address this distinguished gathering of economists. I am very happy that this meeting is being attended by internationally acclaimed economists and academics from both within and outside the country. I am especially heartened to see that students of economics from a...

  5. Clustering of sebaceous gland carcinoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma and breast cancer in a woman as a new cancer susceptibility disorder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newman Brian D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Multiple distinct tumors arising in a single individual or within members of a family raise the suspicion of a genetic susceptibility disorder. Case presentation We present the case of a 52-year-old Caucasian woman diagnosed with sebaceous gland carcinoma of the eyelid, followed several years later with subsequent diagnoses of breast cancer and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Although the patient was also exposed to radiation from a pipe used in the oil field industry, the constellation of neoplasms in this patient suggests the manifestation of a known hereditary susceptibility cancer syndrome. However, testing for the most likely candidates such as Muir-Torre and Cowden syndrome proved negative. Conclusion We propose that our patient's clustering of neoplasms either represents a novel cancer susceptibility disorder, of which sebaceous gland carcinoma is a characteristic feature, or is a variant of the Muir-Torre syndrome.

  6. Role of DNA methylation in miR-200c/141 cluster silencing in invasive breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernet Peter

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The miR-200c/141 cluster has recently been implicated in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT process. The expression of these two miRNAs is inversely correlated with tumorigenicity and invasiveness in several human cancers. The role of these miRNAs in cancer progression is based in part on their capacity to target the EMT activators ZEB1 and ZEB2, two transcription factors, which in turn repress expression of E-cadherin. Little is known about the regulation of the mir200c/141 cluster, whose targeting has been proposed as a promising new therapy for the most aggressive tumors. Findings We show that the miR-200c/141 cluster is repressed by DNA methylation of a CpG island located in the promoter region of these miRNAs. Whereas in vitro methylation of the miR-200c/141 promoter led to shutdown of promoter activity, treatment with a demethylating agent caused transcriptional reactivation in breast cancer cells formerly lacking expression of miR-200c and miR-141. More importantly, we observed that DNA methylation of the identified miR-200c/141 promoter was tightly correlated with phenotype and the invasive capacity in a panel of 8 human breast cancer cell lines. In line with this, in vitro induction of EMT by ectopic expression of the EMT transcription factor Twist in human immortalized mammary epithelial cells (HMLE was accompanied by increased DNA methylation and concomitant repression of the miR-200c/141 locus. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that expression of the miR-200c/141 cluster is regulated by DNA methylation, suggesting epigenetic regulation of this miRNA locus in aggressive breast cancer cell lines as well as untransformed mammary epithelial cells. This epigenetic silencing mechanism might represent a novel component of the regulatory circuit for the maintenance of EMT programs in cancer and normal cells.

  7. Data Perturbation Independent Diagnosis and Validation of Breast Cancer Subtypes Using Clustering and Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alexe

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular stratification of disease based on expression levels of sets of genes can help guide therapeutic decisions if such classifications can be shown to be stable against variations in sample source and data perturbation. Classifications inferred from one set of samples in one lab should be able to consistently stratify a different set of samples in another lab. We present a method for assessing such stability and apply it to the breast cancer (BCA datasets of Sorlie et al. 2003 and Ma et al. 2003. We find that within the now commonly accepted BCA categories identified by Sorlie et al. Luminal A and Basal are robust, but Luminal B and ERBB2+ are not. In particular, 36% of the samples identified as Luminal B and 55% identified as ERBB2+ cannot be assigned an accurate category because the classification is sensitive to data perturbation. We identify a “core cluster” of samples for each category, and from these we determine “patterns” of gene expression that distinguish the core clusters from each other. We find that the best markers for Luminal A and Basal are (ESR1, LIV1, GATA-3 and (CCNE1, LAD1, KRT5, respectively. Pathways enriched in the patterns regulate apoptosis, tissue remodelling and the immune response. We use a different dataset (Ma et al. 2003 to test the accuracy with which samples can be allocated to the four disease subtypes. We find, as expected, that the classification of samples identified as Luminal A and Basal is robust but classification into the other two subtypes is not.

  8. Alpha6beta4 integrin crosslinking induces EGFR clustering and promotes EGF-mediated Rho activation in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodward Wendy A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The α6β4 integrin is overexpressed in the basal subtype of breast cancer and plays an important role in tumor cell motility and invasion. EGFR is also overexpressed in the basal subtype of breast cancer, and crosstalk between α6β4 integrin and EGFR appears to be important in tumor progression. Methods We evaluated the effects of α6β4 crosslinking on the distribution and function of EGFR in breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231. Receptor distribution was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and multispectral imaging flow cytometry, and ligand-mediated EGFR signaling was evaluated using Western blots and a Rho pull-down assay. Results Antibody-mediated crosslinking of α6β4 integrin was sufficient to induce cell-surface clustering of not only α6β4 but also EGFR in nonadherent cells. The induced clustering of EGFR was observed minimally after 5 min of integrin crosslinking but was more prominent after 15 min. EGFR clustering had minimal effect on the phosphorylation of Akt or Erk1,2 in response to EGF in suspended cells or in response to HB-EGF in adherent cells. However, EGFR clustering induced by crosslinking α6β4 had a marked effect on Rho activation in response to EGF. Conclusion Crosslinking α6β4 integrin in breast carcinoma cells induces EGFR clustering and preferentially promotes Rho activation in response to EGF. We hypothesize that this integrin-EGFR crosstalk may facilitate tumor cell cytoskeletal rearrangements important for tumor progression.

  9. Geographical clustering of lung cancer in the province of Lecce, Italy: 1992–2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedespina Alessandro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The triennial mortality rates for lung cancer in the two decades 1981–2001 in the province of Lecce, Italy, are significantly higher than those for the entire region of Apulia (to which the Province of Lecce belongs and the national reference rates. Moreover, analyzing the rates in the three-year periods 1993–95, 1996–98 and 1999–01, there is a dramatic increase in mortality for both males and females, which still remains essentially unexplained: to understand the extent of this phenomenon, it is worth noting that the standardized mortality rate for males in 1999–01 is equal to 13.92 per 10000 person-years, compared to a value of 6.96 for Italy in the 2000–2002 period. These data have generated a considerable concern in the press and public opinion, which with little scientific reasoning have sometimes identified suspected culprits of the risk excess (for example, the emission caused by a number of large industrial sites located in the provinces of Brindisi and Taranto, bordering the Province of Lecce. The objective of this paper is to study on a scientifically sound basis the spatial distribution of risk for lung cancer mortality in the province of Lecce. Our goal is to demonstrate that most of the previous explanations are not supported by data: to this end, we will follow a hybrid approach that combines both frequentist and Bayesian disease mapping methods. Furthermore, we define a new sequential algorithm based on a modified version of the Besag-York-Mollié (BYM model, suitably modified to detect geographical clusters of disease. Results Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs for lung cancer in the province of Lecce: For males, the relative risk (measured by means of SMR, i.e. the ratio between observed and expected cases in each area under internal standardization was judged to be significantly greater than 1 in many municipal areas, the significance being evaluated under the null hypothesis of neutral risk on

  10. Increased risk of male cancer and identification of a potential prostate cancer cluster region in BRCA2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed Nielsen, Henriette; Petersen, Janne; Therkildsen, Christina;

    2016-01-01

    families with comparison to matched controls with the aim to motivate genetic testing and optimize recommendations for surveillance. RESULTS: Mutation carriers in BRCA1 families were not at increased risk of cancer, whereas mutation carriers in BRCA2 families were at increased risk of male breast cancer......BACKGROUND: The risk of cancer in men from BRCA1 and BRCA2 families is relevant to define to motivate genetic testing and optimize recommendations for surveillance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We assessed the risk of cancer in male mutation carriers and their first-degree relatives in 290 BRCA1 and BRCA2...... and prostate cancer with cumulative risks of 12.5% and 18.8%, respectively. Breast cancer developed at a mean age of 59 years, typically as ER/PR positive ductal carcinomas. Prostate cancer developed at a mean age of 68 years, with Gleason scores ≥ 8 in 40% of the tumors. The hazard ratio for BRCA2-associated...

  11. Welcome Address

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@  On behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute, I welcome you to Beijing and to the Third Asian Conference on Food Safety and Nutrition. Many of you will remember the first Asian conference on Food Safety held in Kuala Lumpur in 1990 and the second held in Bangkok in 1994. These meetings have been so successful that ILSI made the commitment to host such a conference periodically in order to provide a forum to share the latest information and to set new goals and priorities.   This year, we have broadened the scope of the agenda to include issues on nutrition. I want to thank all of our co-sponsors and members of the Planning Committee for preparing such a comprehensive and timely program. Some of the issues and challenges facing Asia that will be addressed at this meeting are:

  12. Cancer cluster among young Indian adults living near power transmission lines in Bom Jesus do Tocantins, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koifman Sergio

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study was carried out to explore the occurrence of a cancer cluster in 1992 among young indian adults living in an Amazonian village near two 500 kV power transmission lines that began operating a decade ago. Current blood levels of DDT and organophosphorus pesticides and metal levels in hair samples were measured. Extremely low magnetic field exposure was determined during current daily activities carried out by the Indian villagers. Taking into account the cancer incidence rates in different Brazilian cities, the probability of the occurrence of this cluster by chance was considered remote (p< 0.003, Poisson distribution. High blood levels of p,p'-DDT (median levels ranging from 26 to 58 ppb were observed. As a whole, this community showed a pattern of low exposure to organophosphorus pesticides, and high recent exposure was only observed in a few blood samples. Continuous exposure to extremely low electromagnetic fields originated in the power transmission lines (which reached 95.0 mG under the lines was observed on several opportunities during daily activities carried out by Indian villagers. Further observational studies should evaluate the interaction between exposure to extremely low electromagnetic fields and prior exposure to tumor initiators in cancer development.

  13. Development and initial evaluation of a telephone-delivered, behavioral activation, and problem-solving treatment program to address functional goals of breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kathleen D; Hull, Jay G; Kaufman, Peter A; Li, Zhongze; Seville, Janette L; Ahles, Tim A; Kornblith, Alice B; Hegel, Mark T

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and pilot test an intervention to optimize functional recovery for breast cancer survivors. Over two studies, 31 women enrolled in a goal-setting program via telephone. All eligible women enrolled (37% of those screened) and 66% completed all study activities. Completers were highly satisfied with the intervention, using it to address, on average, four different challenging activities. The longitudinal analysis showed a main effect of time for overall quality of life (F(5, 43.1) = 5.1, p = 0.001) and improvements in active coping (F (3, 31.7) = 4.9, p = 0.007), planning (F (3, 36.0) = 4.1, p = 0.01), reframing (F (3, 29.3) = 8.5, p < 0.001), and decreases in self-blame (F (3,31.6) = 4.3, p = 0.01). The intervention is feasible and warrants further study to determine its efficacy in fostering recovery and maximizing activity engagement after cancer treatment.

  14. Personal factors influence use of cervical cancer screening services: epidemiological survey and linked administrative data address the limitations of previous research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesen Sarah C

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National screening programs have reduced cervical cancer mortality; however participation in these programs varies according to women's personal and social characteristics. Research into these inequalities has been limited by reliance on self-reported service use data that is potentially biased, or administrative data that lacks personal detail. We address these limitations and extend existing research by examining rates and correlates of cervical screening in a large epidemiological survey with linked administrative data. Methods The cross-sectional sample included 1685 women aged 44-48 and 64-68 years from the Australian Capital Territory and Queanbeyan, Australia. Relative risk was assessed by logistic regression models and summary Population Attributable Risk (PAR was used to quantify the effect of inequalities on rates of cervical cancer screening. Results Overall, 60.5% of women participated in screening over the two-year period recommended by Australian guidelines. Screening participation was associated with having children, moderate or high use of health services, employment, reported lifetime history of drug use, and better physical functioning. Conversely, rates of cervical screening were lower amongst women who were older, reliant on welfare, obese, current smokers, reported childhood sexual abuse, and those with anxiety symptoms. A summary PAR showed that effective targeting of women with readily observable risk-factors (no children, no partner, receiving income support payments, not working, obese, current smoker, anxiety, poor physical health, and low overall health service use could potentially reduce overall non-participation in screening by 74%. Conclusions This study illustrates a valuable method for investigating the personal determinants of health service use by combining representative survey data with linked administrative records. Reliable knowledge about the characteristics that predict uptake of

  15. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs

  16. Presidential address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  17. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last week we were reminded once again of the after-effects of Chernobyl. Unexpectedly high values of the radioactive substance caesium were found in moose meat from the south of Vaesterbotten County. A moose cow shot in Aengersjoe had 2000 becquerel per kilo meat, and a moose calf had almost 4000 becquerel. The caesium content in Swedish moose has varied after the 1986 reactor breakdown at Chernobyl. The explanation for this year's unusually high content appears to be that, due to the warm weather, the moose have eaten blueberries which contain more caesium than plants in wood clearings. Moose meat containing caesium reminds us of the vulnerability of our society. It reminds us that emissions cross borders and that ambitious, long term environmental policies must be adopted at the national but above all at the international level. Work on environmental objectives is an important component of Swedish efforts to overcome our environmental problems within a generation. In Sweden, our work is based on 15 environmental quality objectives. We have established subgoals, action strategies and follow-up mechanisms. In an international context it is, I venture to say, unique in its systematic structure. The Swedish Government and Riksdag have laid down that: - Human health and biological diversity shall be protected against harmful effects of radiation in the outdoor environment. - By the year 2010, the content in the environment of radioactive substances emitted from all activities and operations shall be so low that human health and biological diversity are protected. - By the year 2020 the annual number of cases of skin cancer caused by the sun shall not be higher than the figure for the year 2000. The risks involved in electromagnetic fields shall be continuously reviewed and necessary measures taken when such risks are identified. These objectives describe the quality and conditions for Sweden's environmental, natural and cultural resources that are ecologically

  18. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opening address by the host country started by thanking to the International Atomic Energy Agency for holding this important scientific event in in Morocco. The themes to be considered by this conference are among the priorities of the Scientific Research Department in its endeavour to promote scientific research in the field of nuclear science and technology for peaceful uses in Morocco. By so doing, this Department is following and supporting the efforts being made by our country to provide training, and elaborate rules and regulations, and to create infrastructure, acquire material and, equipment and encourage qualified and active researchers. Hence, the convening of this conference responds to a strategic interest of our country, which, similar to other countries, is committed to the achievement of comprehensive and sustainable development for the protection of human kind and the environment. This is considered nowadays as a strategic and vital objective as it entails the protection of people from radiation and against all kinds of professional risks and health hazards. Morocco attaches great importance to radiation safety issues. Our country adhered to all international conventions related to nuclear safety. It is in the process of adapting its internal regulations to international norms and standards, and it is making progress towards the establishment of a national safety body which meets those norms and standards, with the assistance of the IAEA. For this purpose, a standing committee for the follow-up of nuclear affairs has been created on the basis of Royal Instructions, and placed under the authority of the Prime Minister. Its task is to serve as a think-tank on nuclear safety issues and to make proposals on ways and means of reinforcing radiation safety measures. It goes without saying that the peaceful uses of nuclear energy must meet the safety standards elaborated by the IAEA. However, we are convinced that the elaboration of safety standards

  19. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    and become more technical. Involving experts from all fields is then crucial for success. This perception is reflected in the goals of this meeting. It is designed as an extensive information exchange forum between decision makers, regulators, radiation and waste safety specialists, and the nuclear industry. It is this mix which promises high efficiency with respect to solving the problems that you are addressing. I am sure that the safe termination of practices involving radioactive materials during the decommissioning of nuclear installations is one of the major challenges that industrialized nations will have to face during the next decades

  20. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear terrorism has been recognized as a potential threat to human security and economic prosperity since at least the 1970s. Evidence of Al Qaeda's interest in acquiring nuclear material came to light during the 1990s. However, it is since the attacks of 11 September 2001 that the risk of nuclear terrorist acts has come to be a widespread public and governmental concern, for understandable reasons, and that efforts to combat illicit trafficking, which could lead to nuclear or other radioactive materials falling into the hands of terrorists, have intensified. Six years on, it makes sense to take stock of what has been achieved in the combat to stem illicit trafficking and of where further actions - actions of individual States and cooperative international actions - might usefully be initiated. The IAEA has maintained an Illicit Trafficking Database since 1995. Information reported to this database confirms that concerns about illicit trafficking in nuclear material are justified. Database information points to persistent theft and loss of radioactive sources. States' international obligations relevant to international nuclear trafficking are based on the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, which deals with weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons and non-State actors, and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1375, which requires all States to take the necessary steps to prevent the commission of terrorist acts, including early warning to other States. In addition to these legally binding instruments, there is the non-binding Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, which Member States of the IAEA agreed in 2003. The Code addresses the establishment of an adequate system of regulatory control, from the production of radioactive sources to their final

  1. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Being fully aware of the IAEA's central and important roles in the field of nuclear security, Japan has cooperated closely with the IAEA in the field of nuclear security. One of Japan's efforts was holding a seminar on strengthening nuclear security in Asian countries in November 2006, making use of Japan's contribution to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. The seminar was organized for the first time in Asia to address nuclear security matters, in which more than 100 experts from 19 countries participated. Japan also hosted a seminar, aimed at promoting the accession to the international counterterrorism conventions and protocols, inviting government officials and experts from Asia Pacific countries. At the seminar, Japan presented its experience and lessons learned with regard to its ratification of relevant international conventions such as the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. Japan has also provided assistance for capacity building in the field of physical protection measures, and is preparing three projects for Asian countries through the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. In Thailand, Japan has a project aimed at improving physical protection of nuclear research facilities. In Vietnam, Japan plans to host a workshop on radiation detection equipment for border officials and is also preparing for a seminar aimed at capacity building of control on nuclear material in Vietnam. Japan is committed to continue its efforts to make the IAEA Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement together with an Additional Protocol the universally accepted verification standard for the peaceful use undertakings of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Japan's basic policy on bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements is as follows. Considering the dual nature of nuclear material and technology, Japan is of the view that three Ss, that is, S for 'safeguards' (non-proliferation), S for 'safety

  2. Functional Interference Clusters in Cancer Patients With Bone Metastases: A Secondary Analysis of RTOG 9714

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To explore the relationships (clusters) among the functional interference items in the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) in patients with bone metastases. Methods: Patients enrolled in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9714 bone metastases study were eligible. Patients were assessed at baseline and 4, 8, and 12 weeks after randomization for the palliative radiotherapy with the BPI, which consists of seven functional items: general activity, mood, walking ability, normal work, relations with others, sleep, and enjoyment of life. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was used to determine the clusters between the functional items at baseline and the follow-up. Cronbach's alpha was used to determine the consistency and reliability of each cluster at baseline and follow-up. Results: There were 448 male and 461 female patients, with a median age of 67 years. There were two functional interference clusters at baseline, which accounted for 71% of the total variance. The first cluster (physical interference) included normal work and walking ability, which accounted for 58% of the total variance. The second cluster (psychosocial interference) included relations with others and sleep, which accounted for 13% of the total variance. The Cronbach's alpha statistics were 0.83 and 0.80, respectively. The functional clusters changed at week 12 in responders but persisted through week 12 in nonresponders. Conclusion: Palliative radiotherapy is effective in reducing bone pain. Functional interference component clusters exist in patients treated for bone metastases. These clusters changed over time in this study, possibly attributable to treatment. Further research is needed to examine these effects.

  3. Prospective assessment of the prognostic value of circulating tumor cells and their clusters in patients with advanced-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Zhaomei; Wang, Chun; Ye, Zhong; Austin, Laura; Civan, Jesse; Hyslop, Terry; Palazzo, Juan P; Jaslow, Rebecca; Li, Bingshan; Myers, Ronald E; Jiang, Juntao; Xing, Jinliang; Yang, Hushan; Cristofanilli, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    The enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) provides important prognostic values in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Recent studies indicate that individual CTCs form clusters and these CTC-clusters play an important role in tumor metastasis. We aimed to assess whether quantification of CTC-clusters provides additional prognostic value over quantification of individual CTCs alone. In 115 prospectively enrolled advanced-stage (III and IV) breast cancer patients, CTCs and CTC-clusters were counted in 7.5 ml whole blood using the CellSearch system at baseline before first-line therapy. The individual and joint effects of CTC and CTC cluster counts on patients' progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Of the 115 patients, 36 (31.3 %) had elevated baseline CTCs (≥5 CTCs/7.5 ml) and 20 (17.4 %) had CTC-clusters (≥2 CTCs/7.5 ml). Patients with elevated CTCs and CTC-clusters both had worse PFS with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.76 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.57-4.86, P log-rank = 0.0005] and 2.83 (1.48-5.39, P log-rank = 0.001), respectively. In joint analysis, compared with patients with IBC), the most aggressive form of breast cancer with the poorest survival. Baseline counts of both individual CTCs and CTC-clusters were associated with PFS in advanced-stage breast cancer patients. CTC-clusters might provide additional prognostic value compared with CTC enumeration alone, in patients with elevated CTCs. PMID:26573830

  4. Symptom Clusters in Cancer Patients%癌症患者的症状群调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧瑜; 缪景霞; 张立力; 夏群

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore symptom clusters among inpatients with different cancers during disease trajectories. Methods A sample of 155 patients with various cancers completed the Chinese version of the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI-C). Exploratory factor analysis was used to analyze the data. Results The top common symptoms experienced were fatigue, dry mouth and disturbed sleep. The top four most-severe symptoms were lack of appetite, vomiting, fatigue and sleep disturbed sleep. The spearman correlation analysis revealed that the associations of all symptom items except shortness of breath and lack of appetite, shortness of breath and vomiting were of statistic significance and positive related. Exploratory factor analysis of symptoms revealed three major symptom clusters, which were sickness-behavior symptom cluster, upper-gastrointestinal symptom cluster and emotional symptom cluster. The Cronbach’s α coefficients of symptom clusters were 0.69, 0.83 and 0.75 respectively. Conclusion Symptom clusters are identified in cancer patients. Treatments directed at symptom clusters rather than individual symptoms can provide greater therapeutic benefit and further improve quality of life.%  目的了解癌症患者疾病发展和治疗过程中的相关症状,探讨其症状群种类和数量。方法使用中文版安德森症状评估量表对155例住院癌症患者进行调查,采用探索性因子分析法统计症状群。结果癌症患者发生率高的症状依次是疲乏、口干、睡眠不安。严重程度症状依次为食欲下降、呕吐、疲乏和睡眠不安。Spearman相关分析显示,除气短与食欲下降、呕吐之间相关性无统计学意义(P>0.05)之外,其余各症状之间相关性均具有统计学意义且均存在正相关关系(P<0.05)。探索性因子分析得出3个症状群,分别为疾病行为症状群、上消化道症状群、心理症状群。各症状群的Cronbach’sα系数分别为0

  5. Expression profiling based on graph-clustering approach to determine colon cancer pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-qu Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. DNA microarray-based technologies allow simultaneous analysis of expression of thousands of genes. Aim: To search for important molecular markers and pathways that hold great promise for further treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. Materials and Methods: Here, we performed a comprehensive gene-level assessment of colorectal cancer using 35 colorectal cancer and 24 normal samples. Results: It was shown that AURKA, MT1G, and AKAP12 had a high degree of response in colorectal cancer. Besides, we further explored the underlying molecular mechanism within these different genes. Conclusions: The results indicated calcium signaling pathway and vascular smooth muscle contraction pathway were the two significant pathways, giving hope to provide insights into the development of novel therapeutic targets and pathways.

  6. Evaluation of a Bladder Cancer Cluster in a Population of Criminal Investigators with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives—Part 1: The Cancer Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan R. Davis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated a bladder cancer cluster in a cohort of employees, predominately criminal investigators, participating in a medical surveillance program with the United States Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF between 1995 and 2007. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs were used to compare cancer incidences in the ATF population and the US reference population. Seven cases of bladder cancer (five cases verified by pathology report at time of analysis were identified among a total employee population of 3,768 individuals. All cases were white males and criminal investigators. Six of seven cases were in the 30 to 49 age range at the time of diagnosis. The SIRs for white male criminal investigators undergoing examinations were 7.63 (95% confidence interval = 3.70–15.75 for reported cases and 5.45 (2.33–12.76 for verified cases. White male criminal investigators in the ATF population are at statistically significant increased risk for bladder cancer.

  7. Myeloid clusters are associated with a pro-metastatic environment and poor prognosis in smoking-related early stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to understand the role of myeloid cell clusters in uninvolved regional lymph nodes from early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients. METHODS: Uninvolved regional lymph node sections from 67 patients with stage I-III resected non-small cell lung cancer were immunostained to detect myeloid clusters, STAT3 activity and occult metastasis. Anthracosis intensity, myeloid cluster infiltration associated with anthracosis and pSTAT3 level were scored and correlated with patient survival. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed with prognostic variables. Human macrophages were used for in vitro nicotine treatment. RESULTS: CD68+ myeloid clusters associated with anthracosis and with an immunosuppressive and metastasis-promoting phenotype and elevated overall STAT3 activity were observed in uninvolved lymph nodes. In patients with a smoking history, myeloid cluster score significantly correlated with anthracosis intensity and pSTAT3 level (P<0.01. Nicotine activated STAT3 in macrophages in long-term culture. CD68+ myeloid clusters correlated and colocalized with occult metastasis. Myeloid cluster score was an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.049 and was associated with survival by Kaplan-Maier estimate in patients with a history of smoking (P = 0.055. The combination of myeloid cluster score with either lymph node stage or pSTAT3 level defined two populations with a significant difference in survival (P = 0.024 and P = 0.004, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Myeloid clusters facilitate a pro-metastatic microenvironment in uninvolved regional lymph nodes and associate with occult metastasis in early stage non-small cell lung cancer. Myeloid cluster score is an independent prognostic factor for survival in patients with a history of smoking, and may present a novel method to inform therapy choices in the adjuvant setting. Further validation studies are warranted.

  8. Relative Expression of Vitamin D Hydroxylases, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1, and of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Heterogeneity of Human Colorectal Cancer in Relation to Age, Gender, Tumor Location, and Malignancy: Results from Factor and Cluster Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies on the significance of vitamin D insufficiency and chronic inflammation in colorectal cancer development clearly indicated that maintenance of cellular homeostasis in the large intestinal epithelium requires balanced interaction of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and prostaglandin cellular signaling networks. The present study addresses the question how colorectal cancer pathogenesis depends on alterations of activities of vitamin D hydroxylases, i.e., CYP27B1-encoded 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase and CYP24A1-encoded 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase, and inflammation-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Data from 105 cancer patients on CYP27B1, VDR, CYP24A1, and COX-2 mRNA expression in relation to tumor grade, anatomical location, gender and age were fit into a multivariate model of exploratory factor analysis. Nearly identical results were obtained by the principal factor and the maximum likelihood method, and these were confirmed by hierarchical cluster analysis: Within the eight mutually dependent variables studied four independent constellations were found that identify different features of colorectal cancer pathogenesis: (i) Escape of COX-2 activity from restraints by the CYP27B1/VDR system can initiate cancer growth anywhere in the colorectum regardless of age and gender; (ii) variations in COX-2 expression are mainly responsible for differences in cancer incidence in relation to tumor location; (iii) advancing age has a strong gender-specific influence on cancer incidence; (iv) progression from well differentiated to undifferentiated cancer is solely associated with a rise in CYP24A1 expression

  9. Relative Expression of Vitamin D Hydroxylases, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1, and of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Heterogeneity of Human Colorectal Cancer in Relation to Age, Gender, Tumor Location, and Malignancy: Results from Factor and Cluster Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozek, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.brozek@gmx.at; Manhardt, Teresa; Kállay, Enikö; Peterlik, Meinrad; Cross, Heide S. [Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-07-26

    Previous studies on the significance of vitamin D insufficiency and chronic inflammation in colorectal cancer development clearly indicated that maintenance of cellular homeostasis in the large intestinal epithelium requires balanced interaction of 1,25-(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} and prostaglandin cellular signaling networks. The present study addresses the question how colorectal cancer pathogenesis depends on alterations of activities of vitamin D hydroxylases, i.e., CYP27B1-encoded 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase and CYP24A1-encoded 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase, and inflammation-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Data from 105 cancer patients on CYP27B1, VDR, CYP24A1, and COX-2 mRNA expression in relation to tumor grade, anatomical location, gender and age were fit into a multivariate model of exploratory factor analysis. Nearly identical results were obtained by the principal factor and the maximum likelihood method, and these were confirmed by hierarchical cluster analysis: Within the eight mutually dependent variables studied four independent constellations were found that identify different features of colorectal cancer pathogenesis: (i) Escape of COX-2 activity from restraints by the CYP27B1/VDR system can initiate cancer growth anywhere in the colorectum regardless of age and gender; (ii) variations in COX-2 expression are mainly responsible for differences in cancer incidence in relation to tumor location; (iii) advancing age has a strong gender-specific influence on cancer incidence; (iv) progression from well differentiated to undifferentiated cancer is solely associated with a rise in CYP24A1 expression.

  10. Simulation-extrapolation method to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates, 1950-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allodji, Rodrigue S; Schwartz, Boris; Diallo, Ibrahima; Agbovon, Césaire; Laurier, Dominique; de Vathaire, Florent

    2015-08-01

    Analyses of the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bombing survivors have routinely incorporated corrections for additive classical measurement errors using regression calibration. Recently, several studies reported that the efficiency of the simulation-extrapolation method (SIMEX) is slightly more accurate than the simple regression calibration method (RCAL). In the present paper, the SIMEX and RCAL methods have been used to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates. For instance, it is shown that using the SIMEX method, the ERR/Gy is increased by an amount of about 29 % for all solid cancer deaths using a linear model compared to the RCAL method, and the corrected EAR 10(-4) person-years at 1 Gy (the linear terms) is decreased by about 8 %, while the corrected quadratic term (EAR 10(-4) person-years/Gy(2)) is increased by about 65 % for leukaemia deaths based on a linear-quadratic model. The results with SIMEX method are slightly higher than published values. The observed differences were probably due to the fact that with the RCAL method the dosimetric data were partially corrected, while all doses were considered with the SIMEX method. Therefore, one should be careful when comparing the estimated risks and it may be useful to use several correction techniques in order to obtain a range of corrected estimates, rather than to rely on a single technique. This work will enable to improve the risk estimates derived from LSS data, and help to make more reliable the development of radiation protection standards. PMID:25894839

  11. Tumor-Promoting Circuits That Regulate a Cancer-Related Chemokine Cluster: Dominance of Inflammatory Mediators Over Oncogenic Alterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here, we investigated the relative contribution of genetic/signaling components versus microenvironmental factors to the malignancy phenotype. In this system, we took advantage of non-transformed fibroblasts that carried defined oncogenic modifications in Ras and/or p53. These cells were exposed to microenvironmental pressures, and the expression of a cancer-related chemokine cluster was used as readout for the malignancy potential (CCL2, CCL5, CXCL8, CXCL10). In cells kept in-culture, synergism between Ras hyper-activation and p53 dysfunction was required to up-regulate the expression of the chemokine cluster. The in vivo passage of RasHigh/p53Low-modified cells has led to tumor formation, accompanied by potentiation of chemokine release, implicating a powerful role for the tumor microenvironment in up-regulating the chemokine cluster. Indeed, we found that inflammatory mediators which are prevalent in tumor sites, such as TNFα and IL-1β, had a predominant impact on the release of the chemokines, which was substantially higher than that obtained by the oncogenic modifications alone, possibly acting through the transcription factors AP-1 and NF-κB. Together, our results propose that in the unbiased model system that we were using, inflammatory mediators of the tumor milieu have dominating roles over oncogenic modifications in dictating the expression of a pro-malignancy chemokine readout

  12. Tumor-Promoting Circuits That Regulate a Cancer-Related Chemokine Cluster: Dominance of Inflammatory Mediators Over Oncogenic Alterations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibovich-Rivkin, Tal [Department of Cell Research and Immunology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Buganim, Yosef; Solomon, Hilla [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Meshel, Tsipi [Department of Cell Research and Immunology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Rotter, Varda [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Ben-Baruch, Adit, E-mail: aditbb@tauex.tau.ac.il [Department of Cell Research and Immunology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2012-01-20

    Here, we investigated the relative contribution of genetic/signaling components versus microenvironmental factors to the malignancy phenotype. In this system, we took advantage of non-transformed fibroblasts that carried defined oncogenic modifications in Ras and/or p53. These cells were exposed to microenvironmental pressures, and the expression of a cancer-related chemokine cluster was used as readout for the malignancy potential (CCL2, CCL5, CXCL8, CXCL10). In cells kept in-culture, synergism between Ras hyper-activation and p53 dysfunction was required to up-regulate the expression of the chemokine cluster. The in vivo passage of Ras{sup High}/p53{sup Low}-modified cells has led to tumor formation, accompanied by potentiation of chemokine release, implicating a powerful role for the tumor microenvironment in up-regulating the chemokine cluster. Indeed, we found that inflammatory mediators which are prevalent in tumor sites, such as TNFα and IL-1β, had a predominant impact on the release of the chemokines, which was substantially higher than that obtained by the oncogenic modifications alone, possibly acting through the transcription factors AP-1 and NF-κB. Together, our results propose that in the unbiased model system that we were using, inflammatory mediators of the tumor milieu have dominating roles over oncogenic modifications in dictating the expression of a pro-malignancy chemokine readout.

  13. Comparison of Address-based Sampling and Random-digit Dialing Methods for Recruiting Young Men as Controls in a Case-Control Study of Testicular Cancer Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clagett, Bartholt; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Ciosek, Stephanie L.; McDermoth, Monique; Vaughn, David J.; Mitra, Nandita; Weiss, Andrew; Martonik, Rachel; Kanetsky, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Random-digit dialing (RDD) using landline telephone numbers is the historical gold standard for control recruitment in population-based epidemiologic research. However, increasing cell-phone usage and diminishing response rates suggest that the effectiveness of RDD in recruiting a random sample of the general population, particularly for younger target populations, is decreasing. In this study, we compared landline RDD with alternative methods of control recruitment, including RDD using cell-phone numbers and address-based sampling (ABS), to recruit primarily white men aged 18–55 years into a study of testicular cancer susceptibility conducted in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, metropolitan area between 2009 and 2012. With few exceptions, eligible and enrolled controls recruited by means of RDD and ABS were similar with regard to characteristics for which data were collected on the screening survey. While we find ABS to be a comparably effective method of recruiting young males compared with landline RDD, we acknowledge the potential impact that selection bias may have had on our results because of poor overall response rates, which ranged from 11.4% for landline RDD to 1.7% for ABS. PMID:24008901

  14. eMBI: Boosting Gene Expression-based Clustering for Cancer Subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Zheng; Wang, Zhenjia; Ashby, Cody; Zhou, Chuan; Li, Guojun; Zhang, Shuzhong; Huang, Xiuzhen

    2014-01-01

    Identifying clinically relevant subtypes of a cancer using gene expression data is a challenging and important problem in medicine, and is a necessary premise to provide specific and efficient treatments for patients of different subtypes. Matrix factorization provides a solution by finding checker-board patterns in the matrices of gene expression data. In the context of gene expression profiles of cancer patients, these checkerboard patterns correspond to genes that are up- or down-regulated...

  15. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRi) plasmids | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    CTD2 researchers at the University of California in San Francisco developed a modified Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) CRISPR/dCas9 system. Catalytically inactive dCas9 enables modular and programmable RNA-guided genome regulation in eukaryotes.

  16. Discovering biomarkers from gene expression data for predicting cancer subgroups using neural networks and relational fuzzy clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Animesh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The four heterogeneous childhood cancers, neuroblastoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma present a similar histology of small round blue cell tumor (SRBCT and thus often leads to misdiagnosis. Identification of biomarkers for distinguishing these cancers is a well studied problem. Existing methods typically evaluate each gene separately and do not take into account the nonlinear interaction between genes and the tools that are used to design the diagnostic prediction system. Consequently, more genes are usually identified as necessary for prediction. We propose a general scheme for finding a small set of biomarkers to design a diagnostic system for accurate classification of the cancer subgroups. We use multilayer networks with online gene selection ability and relational fuzzy clustering to identify a small set of biomarkers for accurate classification of the training and blind test cases of a well studied data set. Results Our method discerned just seven biomarkers that precisely categorized the four subgroups of cancer both in training and blind samples. For the same problem, others suggested 19–94 genes. These seven biomarkers include three novel genes (NAB2, LSP1 and EHD1 – not identified by others with distinct class-specific signatures and important role in cancer biology, including cellular proliferation, transendothelial migration and trafficking of MHC class antigens. Interestingly, NAB2 is downregulated in other tumors including Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Neuroblastoma but we observed moderate to high upregulation in a few cases of Ewing sarcoma and Rabhdomyosarcoma, suggesting that NAB2 might be mutated in these tumors. These genes can discover the subgroups correctly with unsupervised learning, can differentiate non-SRBCT samples and they perform equally well with other machine learning tools including support vector machines. These biomarkers lead to four simple human interpretable

  17. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRi) plasmids | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    CTD2 researchers at the University of California in San Francisco developed a modified Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) CRISPR/dCas9 system. Catalytically inactive dCas9 enables modular and programmable RNA-guided genome regulation in eukaryotes. The CRISPR/dCas9 system has several advantages:  i) enables robust gene repression (CRISPRi) or activation (CRISPRa) in human cells, ii) allows specific knockdown with minimal off-target effects in human cells, iii) works efficiently in human and yeast cells, and iv) does not cause  double-strand breaks.

  18. Preformulated Implementation Intentions to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Cluster-Randomized Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, S. H.; Good, A; Sheeran, P.; G. Baio; Rainbow, S; Vart, G.; von Wagner, C

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate an intervention based on implementation intention principles designed to increase uptake of colorectal cancer screening, and to examine differential efficacy by socioeconomic deprivation. Method: In England, adults aged between 60 and 69 years are invited for biennial fecal occult blood testing. A test kit and an information leaflet are mailed to each individual by the "Hubs" that deliver the national screening program. In the intervention group, three preformulated imp...

  19. Identification of new candidate drugs for lung cancer using chemical-chemical interactions, chemical-protein interactions and a K-means clustering algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Chen, Lei; Yin, Jun; Huang, Tao; Bi, Yi; Kong, Xiangyin; Zheng, Mingyue; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer, characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in the lung tissue, is the leading cause of global cancer deaths. Until now, effective treatment of this disease is limited. Many synthetic compounds have emerged with the advancement of combinatorial chemistry. Identification of effective lung cancer candidate drug compounds among them is a great challenge. Thus, it is necessary to build effective computational methods that can assist us in selecting for potential lung cancer drug compounds. In this study, a computational method was proposed to tackle this problem. The chemical-chemical interactions and chemical-protein interactions were utilized to select candidate drug compounds that have close associations with approved lung cancer drugs and lung cancer-related genes. A permutation test and K-means clustering algorithm were employed to exclude candidate drugs with low possibilities to treat lung cancer. The final analysis suggests that the remaining drug compounds have potential anti-lung cancer activities and most of them have structural dissimilarity with approved drugs for lung cancer.

  20. Physical activity levels and supportive care needs for physical activity among breast cancer survivors with different psychosocial profiles: a cluster-analytical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, C; Pauwels, E; Lechner, L; Spittaels, H; Bourgois, J; DE Bourdeaudhuij, I; VAN Hoof, E

    2012-11-01

    The transition from breast cancer patient to survivor is associated with many treatment-related and psychosocial factors, which can influence health behaviour and associated needs. First, this study aimed to identify clusters of treatment-related and psychosocial factors among breast cancer survivors. Second, clusters' physical activity levels and care needs for physical activity were evaluated. Breast cancer survivors (n= 440; 52 ± 8 years) (3 weeks to 6 months post treatment) completed self-reports on physical and psychological symptoms; illness representations; social support and coping; physical activity and care needs for physical activity. Analyses identified four clusters: (1) a low distress-active approach group; (2) a low distress-resigned approach group; (3) a high distress-active approach group; and (4) a high distress-emotional approach group. Physical activity levels were higher in the low distress groups than in the high distress-emotional approach group. However, women with low distress and an active approach reported equal care needs for physical activity than women with high distress and an emotional approach. These findings suggest that care needs for physical activity are unrelated to distress and actual physical activity levels. The results emphasise the importance of screening for needs and provide a framework supporting the referral of breast cancer survivors to tailored interventions.

  1. Address Points - Volusia County Addresses (Point)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Situs Addresses for Volusia County. Maintained by Growth and Resource Management. Addresses are determined by the cities for their jurisdiction and by the County...

  2. Enhancing photothermal cancer therapy by clustering gold nanoparticles into spherical polymeric nanoconstructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iodice, Carmen; Cervadoro, Antonio; Palange, AnnaLisa; Key, Jaehong; Aryal, Santosh; Ramirez, Maricela R.; Mattu, Clara; Ciardelli, Gianluca; O'Neill, Brian E.; Decuzzi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been proposed as agents for enhancing photothermal therapy in cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Different geometrical configurations have been used, ranging from spheres to rods and more complex star shapes, to modulate optical and ablating properties. In this work, multiple, ultra-small 6 nm AuNPs are encapsulated into larger spherical polymeric nanoconstructs (SPNs), made out of a poly(lactic acid-co-glycol acid) (PLGA) core stabilized by a superficial lipid-PEG monolayer. The optical and photothermal properties of the resulting nanoconstructs (Au-SPNs) are modulated by varying the initial loading input of AuNPs, ranging between 25 and 150 μgAu. Au-SPNs exhibit a hydrodynamic diameter varying from ~100 to 180 nm, growing with the gold content, and manifest up to 2-fold increase in thermal energy production per unit mass of gold for an initial input of 100 μgAu. Au-SPNs are stable under physiological conditions up to 7 days and have direct cytotoxic effect on tumor cells. The superior photothermal performance of Au-SPNs is assessed in vitro on monolayers of breast cancer cells (SUM-159) and tumor spheroids of glioblastoma multiforme cells (U87-MG). The encapsulation of small AuNPs into larger spherical nanoconstructs enhances photothermal ablation and could favor tumor accumulation.

  3. The miR-15a/miR-16-1 cluster controls prostate cancer progression by targeting multiple oncogenic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer among men. Despite its high incidence, the molecular and genetic events involved in prostate cancer development and progression remain poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding, single-stranded RNAs of ∼ 22 nucleotides that constitute a novel class of gene regulators likely involved in a wide range of cellular functions. The first indication that miRNAs can have a role in tumorigenesis came from a recent study showing an association between B-cell chronic leukaemia (B-CLL) and the deletion or downregulation of two clustered miRNA genes, miR-15a and miR-16, located at 13q14 and targeting Bcl-2 mRNA. Deletion within this locus has been found in different tumor types, including prostate cancer, in which it correlates with tumor progression and metastases 1-4

  4. An integrative analysis of cellular contexts, miRNAs and mRNAs reveals network clusters associated with antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Seungyoon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major goal of the field of systems biology is to translate genome-wide profiling data (e.g., mRNAs, miRNAs into interpretable functional networks. However, employing a systems biology approach to better understand the complexities underlying drug resistance phenotypes in cancer continues to represent a significant challenge to the field. Previously, we derived two drug-resistant breast cancer sublines (tamoxifen- and fulvestrant-resistant cell lines from the MCF7 breast cancer cell line and performed genome-wide mRNA and microRNA profiling to identify differential molecular pathways underlying acquired resistance to these important antiestrogens. In the current study, to further define molecular characteristics of acquired antiestrogen resistance we constructed an “integrative network”. We combined joint miRNA-mRNA expression profiles, cancer contexts, miRNA-target mRNA relationships, and miRNA upstream regulators. In particular, to reduce the probability of false positive connections in the network, experimentally validated, rather than prediction-oriented, databases were utilized to obtain connectivity. Also, to improve biological interpretation, cancer contexts were incorporated into the network connectivity. Results Based on the integrative network, we extracted “substructures” (network clusters representing the drug resistant states (tamoxifen- or fulvestrant-resistance cells compared to drug sensitive state (parental MCF7 cells. We identified un-described network clusters that contribute to antiestrogen resistance consisting of miR-146a, -27a, -145, -21, -155, -15a, -125b, and let-7s, in addition to the previously described miR-221/222. Conclusions By integrating miRNA-related network, gene/miRNA expression and text-mining, the current study provides a computational-based systems biology approach for further investigating the molecular mechanism underlying antiestrogen resistance in breast cancer cells. In

  5. Gold conjugate-based liposomes with hybrid cluster bomb structure for liver cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Chen, Huan; Liu, Ai-Yun; Shen, Jia-Jia; Shah, Vishva; Zhang, Can; Hong, Jin; Ding, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid drug delivery system containing both organic and inorganic nanocarriers is expected to achieve its complementary advantages for the aim of improving the performance of antineoplastic drugs in tumor therapy. Here we report the use of liposomes and gold nanoparticles to construct a liposome with a hybrid Cluster Bomb structure and discuss its unique multi-order drug release property for liver tumor treatment. A very simple method is used for the hybrid liposome preparation and involves mixing two solutions containing liposomes loaded with either non-covalent or covalent Paclitaxel (PTX, namely free PTX or PTX-conjugated GNPs, respectively) by different ratio of volume (25:75, 50:50, 25:75, v/v). Various mixed liposomes were tested to determine the optimal conditions for maximum drug delivery. The optimized liposome was then tested using xenograft Heps tumor-bearing mice and showed the best efficacy for chemotherapeutic inhibition of tumor at PTX liposome: PTX-conjugated GNP liposome of 25:75 ratio (v/v). This system allows for simple and easy preparation while providing a more accurate site- and time-release mode for tumor treatment using antitumor drugs.

  6. The GRAIDS Trial: a cluster randomised controlled trial of computer decision support for the management of familial cancer risk in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Emery, J.; Morris, H.; R. Goodchild; Fanshawe, T.; Prevost, A.T.; Bobrow, M.; Kinmonth, A L

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of an assessment strategy using the computer decision support system (the GRAIDS software), on the management of familial cancer risk in British general practice in comparison with best current practice. The design included cluster randomised controlled trial, and involved forty-five general practice teams in East Anglia, UK. Randomised to GRAIDS (Genetic Risk Assessment on the Internet with Decision Support) support (intervention n=23) or comparison (...

  7. Regularization in Retrieval-Driven Classification of Clustered Microcalcifications for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Jing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a regularization based approach for case-adaptive classification in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD of breast cancer. The goal is to improve the classification accuracy on a query case by making use of a set of similar cases retrieved from an existing library of known cases. In the proposed approach, a prior is first derived from a traditional CAD classifier (which is typically pre-trained offline on a set of training cases. It is then used together with the retrieved similar cases to obtain an adaptive classifier on the query case. We consider two different forms for the regularization prior: one is fixed for all query cases and the other is allowed to vary with different query cases. In the experiments the proposed approach is demonstrated on a dataset of 1,006 clinical cases. The results show that it could achieve significant improvement in numerical efficiency compared with a previously proposed case adaptive approach (by about an order of magnitude while maintaining similar (or better improvement in classification accuracy; it could also adapt faster in performance with a small number of retrieved cases. Measured by the area of under the ROC curve (AUC, the regularization based approach achieved AUC = 0.8215, compared with AUC = 0.7329 for the baseline classifier (-value=0.001.

  8. Regularization in Retrieval-Driven Classification of Clustered Microcalcifications for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Hao; Yang, Yongyi; Nishikawa, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a regularization based approach for case-adaptive classification in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of breast cancer. The goal is to improve the classification accuracy on a query case by making use of a set of similar cases retrieved from an existing library of known cases. In the proposed approach, a prior is first derived from a traditional CAD classifier (which is typically pre-trained offline on a set of training cases). It is then used together with the retrieved similar cases to obtain an adaptive classifier on the query case. We consider two different forms for the regularization prior: one is fixed for all query cases and the other is allowed to vary with different query cases. In the experiments the proposed approach is demonstrated on a dataset of 1,006 clinical cases. The results show that it could achieve significant improvement in numerical efficiency compared with a previously proposed case adaptive approach (by about an order of magnitude) while maintaining similar (or better) improvement in classification accuracy; it could also adapt faster in performance with a small number of retrieved cases. Measured by the area of under the ROC curve (AUC), the regularization based approach achieved AUC = 0.8215, compared with AUC = 0.7329 for the baseline classifier (P-value = 0.001). PMID:22919363

  9. [Childhood leukaemia in a residential area with a high-voltage power line: approach according to the Dutch Community Health Services' guideline 'Cancer Clusters'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegger, Carola; Reedijk, Ardine M J

    2013-01-01

    The new Dutch Community Health Services' (GGD) guideline titled 'Cancer Clusters' describes a phased plan for investigating reported cancer clusters. In each phase, attention is paid to both health and environmental issues and their possible links to one another. Throughout the entire cluster investigation, good risk communication is essential. In accordance with the new guideline, the Rotterdam-Rijnmond Public Health Services investigated the incidence of childhood leukaemia in a residential area as well as the data available on the high-voltage power line located there. More children in this residential area had been diagnosed with leukaemia than expected. However, the children had not been subjected to prolonged exposure to strong magnetic fields emitted from the high-voltage power line. With this type of cluster investigation, it is not possible to establish a causal relationship between childhood leukaemia and high-voltage power lines. However, the research did provide stakeholders insight into the health-and-environment situation and thereby, the opportunity to assess the situation appropriately and to act accordingly, if desired.

  10. Evaluation of secular trend and the existence of cases of clusters of bladder cancer in Goiania: descriptive study population-based; Avaliacao da tendencia temporal e da existencia de casos de clusters de cancer de bexiga em Goiania: estudo descritivo de base populacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Gisele Guimaraes Daflon

    2008-07-01

    More than 20 years after the radiological accident with cesium-137 in the city of Goiania, there is still a feeling in local population that the number of cases of cancer in the city is growing up due to the past radiation exposure and that the number of people contaminated or exposed was higher than the number reported. The present study aims to evaluate the temporal trend and the space-time distribution of bladder cancer cases in Goiania from 1988 and 2003, taking into account that bladder cancer presents the highest risk coefficients per unit of radiation dose among solid cancers. The study population was composed of all incident cases of bladder cancer registered in the Population-Based Cancer Registry of Goiania, between 1988 and 2003.Temporal trend of bladder cancer incidence was analyzed by sex and age groups ( < 60 and {>=} 60 years of age) through polynomial regression using age standardized incidence rates of bladder cancer (world population). SaTscan was used to determine whether statistical significant geographic clusters of high incidence of bladder cancer cases can be located in the city. The results showed a significant increase of bladder cancer incidence rates in males of all ages (p= 0.025) and for age group higher or equal to 60 years old (p=O.022), and a stability in trends for female sex. In the space-time analysis, a cluster was identified, however without statistical significance (p=0.278) and its location has no relationship with the main focuses of contamination of the radiological accident in 1987. We concluded that, despite of the increase of incidence rates in males, this can be explained by the improvement in diagnostic procedures throughout time, being this increase still not perceived in females considering the small number of cases. As chance can not be ruled out as the explanation of the identified cluster, we do not suggest any further detailed investigation in this cluster, as the occurrence of cluster diseases in space can occur

  11. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  12. MicroRNA-210 regulates mitochondrial free radical response to hypoxia and krebs cycle in cancer cells by targeting iron sulfur cluster protein ISCU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Favaro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypoxia in cancers results in the upregulation of hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1 and a microRNA, hsa-miR-210 (miR-210 which is associated with a poor prognosis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In human cancer cell lines and tumours, we found that miR-210 targets the mitochondrial iron sulfur scaffold protein ISCU, required for assembly of iron-sulfur clusters, cofactors for key enzymes involved in the Krebs cycle, electron transport, and iron metabolism. Down regulation of ISCU was the major cause of induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS in hypoxia. ISCU suppression reduced mitochondrial complex 1 activity and aconitase activity, caused a shift to glycolysis in normoxia and enhanced cell survival. Cancers with low ISCU had a worse prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Induction of these major hallmarks of cancer show that a single microRNA, miR-210, mediates a new mechanism of adaptation to hypoxia, by regulating mitochondrial function via iron-sulfur cluster metabolism and free radical generation.

  13. Are there efficacious treatments for treating the fatigue–sleep disturbance–depression symptom cluster in breast cancer patients? A Rapid Evidence Assessment of the Literature (REAL©

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Shamini Jain,1 Courtney Boyd,2 Lavinia Fiorentino,1 Raheleh Khorsan,3 Cindy Crawford2 1Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA; 2Samueli Institute, Alexandria, VA, USA; 3Samueli Institute, Corona Del Mar, CA, USA Purpose: While fatigue, sleep disturbance, and depression often co-occur in breast cancer patients, treatment efficacy for this symptom cluster is unknown. A systematic review was conducted to determine whether there are specific interventions (ie, medical, pharmacological, behavioral, psychological, and complementary medicine approaches that are effective in mitigating the fatigue–sleep disturbance–depression symptom cluster in breast cancer patients, using the Rapid Evidence Assessment of the Literature (REAL© process. Methods: Peer-reviewed literature was searched across multiple databases; from database inception – October 2011, using keywords pre-identified to capture randomized controlled trials (RCT relevant to the research question. Methodological bias was assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN 50 checklist. Confidence in the estimate of effect and assessment of safety were also evaluated across the categories of included interventions via the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE methodology. Results: The initial search yielded 531 citations, of which 41 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, twelve RCTs reported on all three symptoms, and eight of these were able to be included in the GRADE analysis. The remaining 29 RCTs reported on two symptoms. Studies were of mixed quality and many were underpowered. Overall, results suggest that there is: 1 promising evidence for the effectiveness of various treatment types in mitigating sleep disturbance in breast cancer patients; 2 mixed evidence for fatigue; 3 little evidence for treating depression; and 4 no clear evidence that treatment of one symptom results in effective

  14. SEARCHBreast: a new resource to locate and share surplus archival material from breast cancer animal models to help address the 3Rs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Karen; Carter, Phil; Morrissey, Bethny; Chelala, Claude; Jones, Louise; Holen, Ingunn; Speirs, Valerie

    2016-04-01

    Animal models have contributed to our understanding of breast cancer, with publication of results in high-impact journals almost invariably requiring extensive in vivo experimentation. As such, many laboratories hold large collections of surplus animal material, with only a fraction being used in publications relating to the original projects. Despite being developed at considerable cost, this material is an invisible and hence an underutilised resource, which often ends up being discarded. Within the breast cancer research community there is both a need and desire to make this valuable material available for researchers. Lack of a coordinated system for visualisation and localisation of this has prevented progress. To fulfil this unmet need, we have developed a novel initiative called Sharing Experimental Animal Resources: Coordinating Holdings-Breast (SEARCHBreast) which facilitates sharing of archival tissue between researchers on a collaborative basis and, de facto will reduce overall usage of animal models in breast cancer research. A secure searchable database has been developed where researchers can find, share, or upload materials related to animal models of breast cancer, including genetic and transplant models. SEARCHBreast is a virtual compendium where the physical material remains with the original laboratory. A bioanalysis pipeline is being developed for the analysis of transcriptomics data associated with mouse models, allowing comparative study with human and cell line data. Additionally, SEARCHBreast is committed to promoting the use of humanised breast tissue models as replacement alternatives to animals. Access to this unique resource is freely available to all academic researchers following registration at https://searchbreast.org . PMID:27083180

  15. SEARCHBreast: a new resource to locate and share surplus archival material from breast cancer animal models to help address the 3Rs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Karen; Carter, Phil; Morrissey, Bethny; Chelala, Claude; Jones, Louise; Holen, Ingunn; Speirs, Valerie

    2016-04-01

    Animal models have contributed to our understanding of breast cancer, with publication of results in high-impact journals almost invariably requiring extensive in vivo experimentation. As such, many laboratories hold large collections of surplus animal material, with only a fraction being used in publications relating to the original projects. Despite being developed at considerable cost, this material is an invisible and hence an underutilised resource, which often ends up being discarded. Within the breast cancer research community there is both a need and desire to make this valuable material available for researchers. Lack of a coordinated system for visualisation and localisation of this has prevented progress. To fulfil this unmet need, we have developed a novel initiative called Sharing Experimental Animal Resources: Coordinating Holdings-Breast (SEARCHBreast) which facilitates sharing of archival tissue between researchers on a collaborative basis and, de facto will reduce overall usage of animal models in breast cancer research. A secure searchable database has been developed where researchers can find, share, or upload materials related to animal models of breast cancer, including genetic and transplant models. SEARCHBreast is a virtual compendium where the physical material remains with the original laboratory. A bioanalysis pipeline is being developed for the analysis of transcriptomics data associated with mouse models, allowing comparative study with human and cell line data. Additionally, SEARCHBreast is committed to promoting the use of humanised breast tissue models as replacement alternatives to animals. Access to this unique resource is freely available to all academic researchers following registration at https://searchbreast.org.

  16. Clustering High-Dimensional Data: The Expression of E-cadherin, CD44 and p53 Molecules in Lip Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki KITIKIDOU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clustering techniques can determine which expression patterns are important and which genes contribute to such patterns. We evaluate performance on data from a lip carcinoma study in Greece. Lip carcinoma is one of the most common malignant oral and maxillofacial tumours and in advanced clinical stages has a poor prognosis. E-cadherin, CD44 and p53 molecules are associated with cellular adhesion. Material and Methods: To prepare for clustering, we divided each of the median normalized gene expression values by the range of that gene. Next, we set our prior parameters and we performed the final inference using pooled sets of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC runs. After pooling the chains, we grouped the data into clusters and selected E-cadherin, CD44 and p53 molecules using the marginal median model as cut off. The selection of a small set of genes is advantageous here. A small number of selected genes is appealing to biologists because they constitute a manageable set of candidates on which further studies can be performed. Results: E-cadherin, CD44 and p53 molecules were selected as discriminatory. Results highlight the fact that clustering method has successfully selected genes that are biologically consistent with current research and that provide strong biological validation of the cluster configuration suggested. Conclusion: A clustering method that takes advantage of known substructure in the data when simultaneously clustering high-dimensional data with an unknown number of clusters, and selecting the best discriminating variables for those clusters implies the opportunity to handle bigger datasets. When analyzing real data, clustering has found three genes that agree with current biological research and literature and that provide biological validation of the cluster configuration. Overall, clustering can provide biologists with both useful and manageable information for further experimental research.

  17. Addressing the expected survival benefit for clinical trial design in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: Sensitivity analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, Francesco; Modena, Alessandra; Ciccarese, Chiara; Pilotto, Sara; Maines, Francesca; Bracarda, Sergio; Sperduti, Isabella; Giannarelli, Diana; Carlini, Paolo; Santini, Daniele; Tortora, Giampaolo; Porta, Camillo; Bria, Emilio

    2016-02-01

    We performed a sensitivity analysis, cumulating all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in which patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) received systemic therapy, to evaluate if the comparison of RCTs may drive to biased survival estimations. An overall survival (OS) significant difference according to therapeutic strategy was more likely be determined in RCTs evaluating hormonal drugs versus those studies testing immunotherapy, chemotherapy or other strategies. With regard to control arm, an OS significant effect was found for placebo-controlled trials versus studies comparing experimental treatment with active therapies. Finally, regarding to docetaxel (DOC) timing, the OS benefit was more likely to be proved in Post-DOC setting in comparison with DOC and Pre-DOC. These data suggest that clinical trial design should take into account new benchmarks such as the type of treatment strategy, the choice of the comparator and the phase of the disease in relation to the administration of standard chemotherapy.

  18. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  19. New strategy to address DNA-methyl transferase activity in ovarian cancer cell cultures by monitoring the formation of 5-methylcytosine using HPLC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias González, T; Blanco-González, E; Montes-Bayón, M

    2016-08-15

    Methylation of mammalian genomic DNA is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). Aberrant expression and activity of these enzymes has been reported to play an important role in the initiation and progression of tumors and its response to chemotherapy. Therefore, there is a great interest in developing strategies to detect human DNMTs activity. We propose a simple, antibody-free, label-free and non-radioactive analytical strategy in which methyltransferase activity is measured trough the determination of the 5-methylcytosine (5mC) content in DNA by a chromatographic method (HPLC-UV) previously developed. For this aim, a correlation between the enzyme activity and the concentration of 5mC obtained by HPLC-UV is previously obtained under optimized conditions using both, un-methylated and hemi-methylated DNA substrates and the prokaryotic methyltransferase M.SssI as model enzyme. The evaluation of the methylation yield in un-methylated known sequences (a 623bp PCR-amplicon) turned to be quantitative (110%) in experiments conducted in-vitro. Methylation of hemi-methylated and low-methylated sequences could be also detected with the proposed approach. The application of the methodology to the determination of the DNMTs activity in nuclear extracts from human ovarian cancer cells has revealed the presence of matrix effects (also confirmed by standard additions) that hampered quantitative enzyme recovery. The obtained results showed the high importance of adequate sample clean-up steps. PMID:27318640

  20. 癌症患者症状群发生状况的调查研究与管理对策%Research on symptom clusters in cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄娟; 曹洁; 薛美琴; 郝建玲; 张玲娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and analysis symptom incidence, severity and symptom clusters among Chinese cancer patients. Methods: A total of 973 Chinese cancer patients were investigated by the Chinese version Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS-Ch). Results: Five symptom clusters were identified in cancer patients and can explain 60.12% of the variance. These five symptom clusters were named fatigue-lack of appetite-gastrointestinal symptom cluster, illness behavior symptom cluster, psychic symptom cluster, weight loss-constipation symptom cluster, and treatment-related symptom cluster, respectively. Conclusion: This study identified five different symptom clusters among cancer patients. It helps healthcare professionals develop optimized therapies to manage multiple symptoms.%目的:调查并分析癌症患者症状的发生率、严重程度和症状群.方法:采用中文版记忆症状评估量表(MSAS-Ch)对973名癌症患者进行问卷调查.结果:癌症患者存在5个症状群,共能解释总变异的60.12%,分别为乏力 厌食-胃肠道症状群、病态行为症状群、心理症状群、体重下降 便秘症状群和治疗相关的症状群.结论:癌症患者存在不同的症状群,了解症状群有助于临床医务人员制定出有针对性的干预措施,以减轻患者的症状.

  1. Global methylation silencing of clustered proto-cadherin genes in cervical cancer: serving as diagnostic markers comparable to HPV

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kai-Hung; Lin, Cuei-Jyuan; Liu, Chou-Jen; Liu, Dai-Wei; Huang, Rui-Lan; Ding, Dah-Ching; Weng, Ching-Feng; Chu, Tang-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic remodeling of cell adhesion genes is a common phenomenon in cancer invasion. This study aims to investigate global methylation of cell adhesion genes in cervical carcinogenesis and to apply them in early detection of cancer from cervical scraping. Genome-wide methylation array was performed on an investigation cohort, including 16 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN3) and 20 cervical cancers (CA) versus 12 each of normal, inflammation and CIN1 as controls. Twelve members of c...

  2. Identification of familial clustering for cancer through the family health strategy program in the municipality of Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Daniela Koeller Rodrigues; Attianezi, Margareth; Esposito, Ana Carolina; Barth, Anneliese; Sequeira, Cecília; Krause, Nathália; Oliveira, Vivian; Lucidi, Alexandre; Serao, Cassio; Llerena, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Identification of families with history of cancer in the municipality of Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), through the Brazilian Unified Primary Health Care System was explored based in the Community Health Agents (CHA) program. This study was divided into two phases: a descriptive one with a cross-sectional epidemiological data of families with history of cancer based on CHA-collected data from home visits in four primary health care units. The second phase consisted in identifying familial clustering of three or more individuals with cancer through construction of a three-generation pedigree and revisited by an itinerant group of medical geneticists. Genetic counseling was carried out with the intent of selecting potential families at risk for hereditary familial cancers. In the first phase of the study, 1,581 families were interviewed by the CHA at their homes. A positive history for cancer was present in 42.3 % of families, comprising 22.3 % with only one case per family, 11.2 % with two cases, and 8.6 % with three or more cases in the family. The informant reported that 15 % of the cases were from the father lineage, 12 % from the mother lineage, and 12.1 % within siblings. In the remaining 60.9 % families, cancer was present in both sides of the family. The types of cancer reported were uterus 8.7 % (n = 137), stomach 7.7 % (n = 122), breast 6.9 % (n = 109), throat 6.8 % (n = 99), prostate 5.4 % (n = 85), lung 5.6 % (n = 88), bowel 3.7 % (n = 59), and unspecified sites in 6.8 % (n = 108) of families. No statistical differences were noted between the data collected on each primary care unit. In the second phase of the study, 136 families (2.9 %) from the total of families interviewed in phase 1 were selected due to the presence of three or more individuals with cancer in the family. Among those, only 73 families attended genetic counseling. Comparison between the data obtained by the CHA and the medical

  3. Clustering High-Dimensional Data: The Expression of E-cadherin, CD44 and p53 Molecules in Lip Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    KITIKIDOU, Kyriaki; Aris NTOMOUCHTSIS; Chrisoula TSOMPANIDOU; Konstantinos VAHTSEVANOS

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Clustering techniques can determine which expression patterns are important and which genes contribute to such patterns. We evaluate performance on data from a lip carcinoma study in Greece. Lip carcinoma is one of the most common malignant oral and maxillofacial tumours and in advanced clinical stages has a poor prognosis. E-cadherin, CD44 and p53 molecules are associated with cellular adhesion. Material and Methods: To prepare for clustering, we divided each of the median normali...

  4. A joint model for the dependence between clustered times to tumour progression and deaths: A meta-analysis of chemotherapy in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau, Virginie; Pignon, Jean-Pierre; Michiels, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    The observation of time to tumour progression (TTP) or progression-free survival (PFS) may be terminated by a terminal event. In this context, deaths may be due to tumour progression, and the time to the major failure event (death) may be correlated with the TTP. The usual assumption of independence between the TTP process and death, required by many commonly used statistical methods, can be violated. Furthermore, although the relationship between TTP and time to death is most relevant to the anti-cancer drug development or to evaluation of TTP as a surrogate endpoint, statistical models that try to describe the dependence structure between these two characteristics are not frequently used. We propose a joint frailty model for the analysis of two survival endpoints, TTP and time to death, or PFS and time to death, in the context of data clustering (e.g. at the centre or trial level). This approach allows us to simultaneously evaluate the prognostic effects of covariates on the two survival endpoints, while accounting both for the relationship between the outcomes and for data clustering. We show how a maximum penalized likelihood estimation can be applied to a nonparametric estimation of the continuous hazard functions in a general joint frailty model with right censoring and delayed entry. The model was motivated by a large meta-analysis of randomized trials for head and neck cancers (Meta-Analysis of Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancers), in which the efficacy of chemotherapy on TTP or PFS and overall survival was investigated, as adjunct to surgery or radiotherapy or both.

  5. Disruption of human papillomavirus 16 E6 gene by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas system in human cervical cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu L

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lan Yu, Xiaoli Wang, Da Zhu, Wencheng Ding, Liming Wang, Changlin Zhang, Xiaohui Jiang, Hui Shen, Shujie Liao, Ding Ma, Zheng Hu, Hui Wang Cancer Biology Research Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China Abstract: High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV, especially HPV16, is considered a main causative agent of cervical cancer. Upon HPV infection, the viral oncoprotein E6 disrupts the host tumor-suppressor protein p53, thus promoting malignant transformation of normal cervical cells. Here, we used the newly developed programmable ribonucleic acid-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas system to disrupt the HPV16 E6 gene. We showed that HPV16 E6 deoxyribonucleic acid was cleaved at specific sites, leading to apoptosis and growth inhibition of HPV16-positive SiHa and CaSki cells, but not HPV-negative C33A or human embryonic kidney 293 cells. We also observed downregulation of the E6 protein and restoration of the p53 protein. These data proved that the HPV16 E6 ribonucleic acid-guided CRISPR/Cas system might be an effective therapeutic agent in treating HPV infection-related cervical malignancy. Keywords: CRISPR/Cas system, E6, p53, SiHa, CaSki, cervical cancer

  6. MRI screening for breast cancer in women at high risk; is the Australian breast MRI screening access program addressing the needs of women at high risk of breast cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Schenberg, Tess; Mitchell, Gillian; Taylor, Donna; Saunders, Christobel

    2015-01-01

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening of women under 50 years old at high familial risk of breast cancer was given interim funding by Medicare in 2009 on the basis that a review would be undertaken. An updated literature review has been undertaken by the Medical Services Advisory Committee but there has been no assessment of the quality of the screening or other screening outcomes. This review examines the evidence basis of breast MRI screening and how this fits within an Australi...

  7. ER stress negatively modulates the expression of the miR-199a/214 cluster to regulates tumor survival and progression in human hepatocellular cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanlu Duan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have emphasized causative links between microRNAs (miRNAs deregulation and tumor development. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, more and more miRNAs were identified as diagnostic and prognostic cancer biomarkers, as well as additional therapeutic tools. This study aimed to investigate the functional significance and regulatory mechanism of the miR-199a2/214 cluster in HCC progression. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study, we showed that miR-214, as well as miR-199a-3p and miR-199a-5p levels were significantly reduced in the majority of examined 23 HCC tissues and HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cell lines, compared with their nontumor counterparts. To further explore the role of miR-214 in hepatocarcinogenesis, we disclosed that the ER stress-induced pro-survival factor XBP-1 is a target of miR-214 by using western blot assay and luciferase reporter assay. Re-expression of miR-214 in HCC cell lines (HepG2 and SMMC-7721 inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, ectopic expression of miR-214 dramatically suppressed the ability of HCC cells to form colonies in vitro and to develop tumors in a subcutaneous xenotransplantation model of the BALB/c athymic nude mice. Moreover, reintroduction of XBP-1s attenuated miR-214-mediated suppression of HCC cells proliferation, colony and tumor formation. To further understand the mechanism of the miR-199a/214 cluster down-expression in HCC, we found that thapsigargin (TG and tunicamycin (TM or hypoxia-induced unfolded protein response (UPR suppresses the expression of the miR-199a/214 cluster in HCC cells. By promoter analysis of the miR-199a2/214 gene, we conjectured NFκB as a potential negative regulator. We further found that UPR and LPS-induced NFκB activation suppressed miR-199a2/214 transcription, and this suppression was reversed by NFκB inhibition in HCC cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggest that modulation of miR-214 levels may provide a new therapeutic approach for

  8. Data clustering algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2013-01-01

    Research on the problem of clustering tends to be fragmented across the pattern recognition, database, data mining, and machine learning communities. Addressing this problem in a unified way, Data Clustering: Algorithms and Applications provides complete coverage of the entire area of clustering, from basic methods to more refined and complex data clustering approaches. It pays special attention to recent issues in graphs, social networks, and other domains.The book focuses on three primary aspects of data clustering: Methods, describing key techniques commonly used for clustering, such as fea

  9. End of Life Experience of Symptom Cluster and Their Management in Hong Kong Chinese Patients with Lung Cancer Who Receive Palliative Radiotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carmen W.H.CHAN; S.Y.CHAIR; YX.CHUI

    2009-01-01

    Breathlessness,fatigue,and anxiety are distressing symptoms for patients with advanced lung cancer,however,they are not relieved by palliative RT and are often viewed as neglected areas of clinical practice.This paper aims to review definitions of,and explore patients' experiences of,breathlessness,fatigue,and anxiety.Further,it will outline existing approaches,both pharmacological and non-pharmacological,to treat them.Current treatments and perceptions of these symptoms will be discussed in the context of Hong Kong health care service.The review of literature also shows that breathlessness,fatigue and anxiety appears to have similar emotional origins.A contemporary approach of using a common pyschoeducational intervention to treat these symptoms together as a cluster in end of life care will be discussed.

  10. The effectiveness of the Screening Inventory of Psychosocial Problems (SIPP in cancer patients treated with radiotherapy: design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eekers Daniëlle

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Screening Inventory of Psychosocial Problems (SIPP is a short, validated self-reported questionnaire to identify psychosocial problems in Dutch cancer patients. The one-page 24-item questionnaire assesses physical complaints, psychological complaints and social and sexual problems. Very little is known about the effects of using the SIPP in consultation settings. Our study aims are to test the hypotheses that using the SIPP (a may contribute to adequate referral to relevant psychosocial caregivers, (b should facilitate communication between radiotherapists and cancer patients about psychosocial distress and (c may prevent underdiagnosis of early symptoms reflecting psychosocial problems. This paper presents the design of a cluster randomised controlled trial (CRCT evaluating the effectiveness of using the SIPP in cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Methods/Design A CRCT is developed using a Solomon four-group design (two intervention and two control groups to evaluate the effects of using the SIPP. Radiotherapists, instead of cancer patients, are randomly allocated to the experimental or control groups. Within these groups, all included cancer patients are randomised into two subgroups: with and without pre-measurement. Self-reported assessments are conducted at four times: a pre-test at baseline before the first consultation and a post-test directly following the first consultation, and three and 12 months after baseline measurement. The primary outcome measures are the number and types of referrals of cancer patients with psychosocial problems to relevant (psychosocial caregivers. The secondary outcome measures are patients' satisfaction with the radiotherapist-patient communication, psychosocial distress and quality of life. Furthermore, a process evaluation will be carried out. Data of the effect-evaluation will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle and data regarding the types of referrals

  11. The effectiveness of the Screening Inventory of Psychosocial Problems (SIPP) in cancer patients treated with radiotherapy: design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Screening Inventory of Psychosocial Problems (SIPP) is a short, validated self-reported questionnaire to identify psychosocial problems in Dutch cancer patients. The one-page 24-item questionnaire assesses physical complaints, psychological complaints and social and sexual problems. Very little is known about the effects of using the SIPP in consultation settings. Our study aims are to test the hypotheses that using the SIPP (a) may contribute to adequate referral to relevant psychosocial caregivers, (b) should facilitate communication between radiotherapists and cancer patients about psychosocial distress and (c) may prevent underdiagnosis of early symptoms reflecting psychosocial problems. This paper presents the design of a cluster randomised controlled trial (CRCT) evaluating the effectiveness of using the SIPP in cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. A CRCT is developed using a Solomon four-group design (two intervention and two control groups) to evaluate the effects of using the SIPP. Radiotherapists, instead of cancer patients, are randomly allocated to the experimental or control groups. Within these groups, all included cancer patients are randomised into two subgroups: with and without pre-measurement. Self-reported assessments are conducted at four times: a pre-test at baseline before the first consultation and a post-test directly following the first consultation, and three and 12 months after baseline measurement. The primary outcome measures are the number and types of referrals of cancer patients with psychosocial problems to relevant (psychosocial) caregivers. The secondary outcome measures are patients' satisfaction with the radiotherapist-patient communication, psychosocial distress and quality of life. Furthermore, a process evaluation will be carried out. Data of the effect-evaluation will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle and data regarding the types of referrals to health care providers and patient

  12. Design and methods for a cluster randomized trial of the Sunless Study: A skin cancer prevention intervention promoting sunless tanning among beach visitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merriam Philip

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin cancer is the most prevalent yet most preventable cancer in the US. While protecting oneself from ultraviolet radiation (UVR can largely reduce risk, rates of unprotected sun exposure remain high. Because the desire to be tan often outweighs health concerns among sunbathers, very few interventions have been successful at reducing sunbathing behavior. Sunless tanning (self-tanners and spray tans, a method of achieving the suntanned look without UVR exposure, might be an effective supplement to prevention interventions. Methods and Design This cluster randomized trial will examine whether a beach-based intervention that promotes sunless tanning as a substitute for sunbathing and includes sun damage imaging and sun safety recommendations is superior to a questionnaire only control group in reducing sunbathing frequency. Female beach visitors (N = 250 will be recruited from 2 public beaches in eastern Massachusetts. Beach site will be the unit of randomization. Follow-up assessment will occur at the end of the summer (1-month following intervention and 1 year later. The primary outcome is average sunbathing time per week. The study was designed to provide 90% power for detecting a difference of .70 hours between conditions (standard deviation of 2.0 at 1-year with an intra-cluster correlation coefficient of 0.01 and assuming a 25% rate of loss to follow-up. Secondary outcomes include frequency of sunburns, use of sunless tanning products, and sun protection behavior. Discussion Interventions might be improved by promoting behavioral substitutes for sun exposure, such as sunless tanners, that create a tanned look without exposure to UVR. Trial registration NCT00403377

  13. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  14. Addressing Social Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  15. MRI screening for breast cancer in women at high risk; is the Australian breast MRI screening access program addressing the needs of women at high risk of breast cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening of women under 50 years old at high familial risk of breast cancer was given interim funding by Medicare in 2009 on the basis that a review would be undertaken. An updated literature review has been undertaken by the Medical Services Advisory Committee but there has been no assessment of the quality of the screening or other screening outcomes. This review examines the evidence basis of breast MRI screening and how this fits within an Australian context with the purpose of informing future modifications to the provision of Medicare-funded breast MRI screening in Australia. Issues discussed will include selection of high-risk women, the options for MRI screening frequency and measuring the outcomes of screening

  16. MRI screening for breast cancer in women at high risk; is the Australian breast MRI screening access program addressing the needs of women at high risk of breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenberg, Tess; Mitchell, Gillian; Taylor, Donna; Saunders, Christobel

    2015-09-01

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening of women under 50 years old at high familial risk of breast cancer was given interim funding by Medicare in 2009 on the basis that a review would be undertaken. An updated literature review has been undertaken by the Medical Services Advisory Committee but there has been no assessment of the quality of the screening or other screening outcomes. This review examines the evidence basis of breast MRI screening and how this fits within an Australian context with the purpose of informing future modifications to the provision of Medicare-funded breast MRI screening in Australia. Issues discussed will include selection of high-risk women, the options for MRI screening frequency and measuring the outcomes of screening. PMID:26451244

  17. MRI screening for breast cancer in women at high risk; is the Australian breast MRI screening access program addressing the needs of women at high risk of breast cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenberg, Tess [Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Familial Cancer Centre, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Mitchell, Gillian [Familial Cancer Centre, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Taylor, Donna [School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Department of Radiology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); BreastScreen Western Australia, Adelaide Terrace, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Saunders, Christobel [School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Department of General Surgery, St John of God Hospital, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening of women under 50 years old at high familial risk of breast cancer was given interim funding by Medicare in 2009 on the basis that a review would be undertaken. An updated literature review has been undertaken by the Medical Services Advisory Committee but there has been no assessment of the quality of the screening or other screening outcomes. This review examines the evidence basis of breast MRI screening and how this fits within an Australian context with the purpose of informing future modifications to the provision of Medicare-funded breast MRI screening in Australia. Issues discussed will include selection of high-risk women, the options for MRI screening frequency and measuring the outcomes of screening.

  18. Robustness and backbone motif of a cancer network regulated by miR-17-92 cluster during the G1/S transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijian Yang

    Full Text Available Based on interactions among transcription factors, oncogenes, tumor suppressors and microRNAs, a Boolean model of cancer network regulated by miR-17-92 cluster is constructed, and the network is associated with the control of G1/S transition in the mammalian cell cycle. The robustness properties of this regulatory network are investigated by virtue of the Boolean network theory. It is found that, during G1/S transition in the cell cycle process, the regulatory networks are robustly constructed, and the robustness property is largely preserved with respect to small perturbations to the network. By using the unique process-based approach, the structure of this network is analyzed. It is shown that the network can be decomposed into a backbone motif which provides the main biological functions, and a remaining motif which makes the regulatory system more stable. The critical role of miR-17-92 in suppressing the G1/S cell cycle checkpoint and increasing the uncontrolled proliferation of the cancer cells by targeting a genetic network of interacting proteins is displayed with our model.

  19. Analysis of the Symptom Cluster of Cervical Cancer Patients%宫颈癌患者症状群的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段怡; 刘怡; 黄绢; 庄薇

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查并分析宫颈癌患者患病期间的症状发生情况及严重程度,全面了解其症状群,以期提高临床护理工作的针对性和有效性.方法便利抽样法选取2012年11月至2013年8月在上海市第一妇婴保健院住院手术的92名宫颈癌患者为研究对象,采用中文版记忆症状评估量表(chinese version memorial symptom assessment scale,MSAS-Ch)对其进行调查,并分析其调查结果.结果发生频度最高的症状是缺乏活力/乏力(占98.91%),其次是感到悲伤(占97.83%),再次为睡眠不好及没有食欲(占96.74%);症状严重程度评分依次是脱发(3.06±1.28)分、感到“看起来不像自己”(2.74±1.28)分、皮肤改变(2.48±1.29)分,其次是乏力(1.86±0.88)分、睡眠不好(1.85±0.89)分、感到悲伤(1.76±0.76)分、没有食欲(1.71±0.98)分和急躁易怒(1.71±0.98)分.因子分析得出的7个公因子的累计方差贡献率达98.354%,分别为乏力-负面心理症状群、自我形象紊乱症状群、治疗相关症状群、胃肠道症状群、体重下降-皮肤瘙痒症状群、拒性-焦虑症状群、厌食-病态行为症状群,其中因子1、2、3解释总体方差的88.953%.结论乏力-心理症状群、自我形象紊乱症状群和治疗相关症状群是宫颈癌较为常见的症状群.%Objective To investigated the incidence and severity level of symptoms of cervical cancer,in order to comprehensively understand the symptom cluster,and thus to enhance the pertinence and effec-tiveness in clinical nursing.Methods By convenience sampling,92 patients were selected and investigated by the Chinese version memorial symptom assessment scale (MSAS-Ch),and the results were analyzed.Re-sults The highest frequency symptom was lacking vitality/lacking in strength (98.91%),followed by the feeling sad (97.83%),thirdly was poor sleep and inappetence (96.74%).Marks of symptom severity degree from high to low

  20. Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship of Griseofulvin Analogues as Inhibitors of Centrosomal Clustering in Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Mads Holger; Rebacz, Blanka; Markworth, Lene;

    2009-01-01

    griseofulvin analogues as inhibitors of centrosomal clustering. The variations in the griseofulvin structure cover five positions, namely the 4, 5, 2', 3', and 4' positions. Modification of the 4 and 5 positions affords inactive molecules. The enol ether must be at the 2' position, and the 4' position needs...... to be Sp2 hybridized. The most active analogues were the 2'-benzyloxy and 2'-(4-methylbenzyloxy) analogues as well as the oxime of the former with a 25-fold increase of activity compared to griscofulvin. Comparison of the results obtained in this work with prior reported growth inhibition data...

  1. The effectiveness of the Liverpool care pathway in improving end of life care for dying cancer patients in hospital. A cluster randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellegrini Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cancer patients still die in hospital, mainly in medical wards. Many studies in different countries have shown the poor quality of end-of-life care delivery in hospitals. The Program "Liverpool Care Pathway for the dying patient" (LCP, developed in the UK to transfer the hospice model of care into hospitals and other care settings, is a complex intervention to improve the quality of end-of-life care. The results from qualitative and quantitative studies suggest that the LCP Program can improve significantly the quality of end-of-life care delivery in hospitals, but no randomised trial has been conducted till now. Methods and design This is a randomized cluster trial, stratified by regions and matched for assessment period. Pairs of eligible medical wards from different hospitals will be randomized to receive the LCP-I Program or no intervention until the end of the trial. The LCP-I Program will be implemented by a Palliative Care Unit. The assessment of the end-points will be performed for all cancer deaths occurred in the six months after the end of the LCP-I implementation in the experimental wards and, in the same period of time, in the matched control wards. The primary end-point is the overall quality of end-of-life care provided on the ward to dying cancer patients and their families, assessed using the Global Scale of the Italian version of the Toolkit "After-death Bereaved Family Member Interview". Discussion This study can be interpreted as a Phase III trial according to the Medical Research Council Framework. In this study, the effectiveness of a fully defined intervention is assessed by comparing the distribution of the endpoints in the experimental and in the control arm. Research ID RFPS-2006-6-341619 Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01081899

  2. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor develop...

  3. The spatial evaluation of neighborhood clusters of birth defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, J.D.

    1990-04-16

    Spatial statistics have recently been applied in epidemiology to evaluate clusters of cancer and birth defects. Their use requires a comparison population, drawn from the population at risk for disease, that may not always be readily available. In this dissertation the plausibility of using data on all birth defects, available from birth defects registries, as a surrogate for the spatial distribution of all live births in the analysis of clusters is assessed. Three spatial statistics that have been applied in epidemiologic investigations of clusters, nearest neighbor distance, average interpoint distance, and average distance to a fixed point, were evaluated by computer simulation for their properties in a unit square, and in a zip code region. Comparison of spatial distributions of live births and birth defects was performed by drawing samples of live births and birth defects from Santa Clara County, determining the street address at birth, geocoding this address and evaluating the resultant maps using various statistical techniques. The proposed method was then demonstrated on a previously confirmed cluster of oral cleft cases. All live births for the neighborhood were geocoded, as were all birth defects. Evaluation of this cluster using the nearest neighbor and average interpoint distance statistics was performed using randomization techniques with both the live births population and the birth defect population as comparison groups. 113 refs., 36 figs., 16 tabs.

  4. Clustering Techniques in Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Masood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with data means to group information into a set of categories either in order to learn new artifacts or understand new domains. For this purpose researchers have always looked for the hidden patterns in data that can be defined and compared with other known notions based on the similarity or dissimilarity of their attributes according to well-defined rules. Data mining, having the tools of data classification and data clustering, is one of the most powerful techniques to deal with data in such a manner that it can help researchers identify the required information. As a step forward to address this challenge, experts have utilized clustering techniques as a mean of exploring hidden structure and patterns in underlying data. Improved stability, robustness and accuracy of unsupervised data classification in many fields including pattern recognition, machine learning, information retrieval, image analysis and bioinformatics, clustering has proven itself as a reliable tool. To identify the clusters in datasets algorithm are utilized to partition data set into several groups based on the similarity within a group. There is no specific clustering algorithm, but various algorithms are utilized based on domain of data that constitutes a cluster and the level of efficiency required. Clustering techniques are categorized based upon different approaches. This paper is a survey of few clustering techniques out of many in data mining. For the purpose five of the most common clustering techniques out of many have been discussed. The clustering techniques which have been surveyed are: K-medoids, K-means, Fuzzy C-means, Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN and Self-Organizing Map (SOM clustering.

  5. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina;

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both the...... partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  6. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  7. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  8. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  9. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood tests (which look for chemicals such as tumor markers) Bone marrow biopsy (for lymphoma or leukemia) Chest ... the case with skin cancers , as well as cancers of the lung, breast, and colon. If the tumor has spread ...

  10. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  11. Case-control geographic clustering for residential histories accounting for risk factors and covariates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goovaerts Pierre

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methods for analyzing space-time variation in risk in case-control studies typically ignore residential mobility. We develop an approach for analyzing case-control data for mobile individuals and apply it to study bladder cancer in 11 counties in southeastern Michigan. At this time data collection is incomplete and no inferences should be drawn – we analyze these data to demonstrate the novel methods. Global, local and focused clustering of residential histories for 219 cases and 437 controls is quantified using time-dependent nearest neighbor relationships. Business address histories for 268 industries that release known or suspected bladder cancer carcinogens are analyzed. A logistic model accounting for smoking, gender, age, race and education specifies the probability of being a case, and is incorporated into the cluster randomization procedures. Sensitivity of clustering to definition of the proximity metric is assessed for 1 to 75 k nearest neighbors. Results Global clustering is partly explained by the covariates but remains statistically significant at 12 of the 14 levels of k considered. After accounting for the covariates 26 Local clusters are found in Lapeer, Ingham, Oakland and Jackson counties, with the clusters in Ingham and Oakland counties appearing in 1950 and persisting to the present. Statistically significant focused clusters are found about the business address histories of 22 industries located in Oakland (19 clusters, Ingham (2 and Jackson (1 counties. Clusters in central and southeastern Oakland County appear in the 1930's and persist to the present day. Conclusion These methods provide a systematic approach for evaluating a series of increasingly realistic alternative hypotheses regarding the sources of excess risk. So long as selection of cases and controls is population-based and not geographically biased, these tools can provide insights into geographic risk factors that were not specifically

  12. Chemical exposure and leukemia clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper draws attention to the heterogeneous distribution of leukemia in childhood and in adults. The topic of cluster reports and generalized clustering is addressed. These issues are applied to what is known of the risk factor for both adult and childhood leukemia. Finally, the significance of parental occupational exposure and childhood leukemia is covered. (author). 23 refs

  13. Reducing the Social Gradient in Uptake of the NHS Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme Using a Narrative-Based Information Leaflet: A Cluster-Randomised Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley M. McGregor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To test the effectiveness of adding a narrative leaflet to the current information material delivered by the NHS English colorectal cancer (CRC screening programme on reducing socioeconomic inequalities in uptake. Participants. 150,417 adults (59–74 years routinely invited to complete the guaiac Faecal Occult Blood test (gFOBt in March 2013. Design. A cluster randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN74121020 to compare uptake between two arms. The control arm received the standard NHS CRC screening information material (SI and the intervention arm received the standard information plus a supplementary narrative leaflet, which had previously been shown to increase screening intentions (SI + N. Between group comparisons were made for uptake overall and across socioeconomic status (SES. Results. Uptake was 57.7% and did not differ significantly between the two trial arms (SI: 58.5%; SI + N: 56.7%; odds ratio = 0.93; 95% confidence interval: 0.81–1.06; p=0.27. There was no interaction between group and SES quintile (p=0.44. Conclusions. Adding a narrative leaflet to existing information materials does not reduce the SES gradient in uptake. Despite the benefits of using a pragmatic trial design, the need to add to, rather than replace, existing information may have limited the true value of an evidence-based intervention on behaviour.

  14. Reducing the Social Gradient in Uptake of the NHS Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme Using a Narrative-Based Information Leaflet: A Cluster-Randomised Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Lesley M; von Wagner, Christian; Atkin, Wendy; Kralj-Hans, Ines; Halloran, Stephen P; Handley, Graham; Logan, Richard F; Rainbow, Sandra; Smith, Steve; Snowball, Julia; Thomas, Mary C; Smith, Samuel G; Vart, Gemma; Howe, Rosemary; Counsell, Nicholas; Hackshaw, Allan; Morris, Stephen; Duffy, Stephen W; Raine, Rosalind; Wardle, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To test the effectiveness of adding a narrative leaflet to the current information material delivered by the NHS English colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programme on reducing socioeconomic inequalities in uptake. Participants. 150,417 adults (59-74 years) routinely invited to complete the guaiac Faecal Occult Blood test (gFOBt) in March 2013. Design. A cluster randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN74121020) to compare uptake between two arms. The control arm received the standard NHS CRC screening information material (SI) and the intervention arm received the standard information plus a supplementary narrative leaflet, which had previously been shown to increase screening intentions (SI + N). Between group comparisons were made for uptake overall and across socioeconomic status (SES). Results. Uptake was 57.7% and did not differ significantly between the two trial arms (SI: 58.5%; SI + N: 56.7%; odds ratio = 0.93; 95% confidence interval: 0.81-1.06; p = 0.27). There was no interaction between group and SES quintile (p = 0.44). Conclusions. Adding a narrative leaflet to existing information materials does not reduce the SES gradient in uptake. Despite the benefits of using a pragmatic trial design, the need to add to, rather than replace, existing information may have limited the true value of an evidence-based intervention on behaviour. PMID:27069473

  15. Reducing the Social Gradient in Uptake of the NHS Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme Using a Narrative-Based Information Leaflet: A Cluster-Randomised Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Lesley M; von Wagner, Christian; Atkin, Wendy; Kralj-Hans, Ines; Halloran, Stephen P; Handley, Graham; Logan, Richard F; Rainbow, Sandra; Smith, Steve; Snowball, Julia; Thomas, Mary C; Smith, Samuel G; Vart, Gemma; Howe, Rosemary; Counsell, Nicholas; Hackshaw, Allan; Morris, Stephen; Duffy, Stephen W; Raine, Rosalind; Wardle, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To test the effectiveness of adding a narrative leaflet to the current information material delivered by the NHS English colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programme on reducing socioeconomic inequalities in uptake. Participants. 150,417 adults (59-74 years) routinely invited to complete the guaiac Faecal Occult Blood test (gFOBt) in March 2013. Design. A cluster randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN74121020) to compare uptake between two arms. The control arm received the standard NHS CRC screening information material (SI) and the intervention arm received the standard information plus a supplementary narrative leaflet, which had previously been shown to increase screening intentions (SI + N). Between group comparisons were made for uptake overall and across socioeconomic status (SES). Results. Uptake was 57.7% and did not differ significantly between the two trial arms (SI: 58.5%; SI + N: 56.7%; odds ratio = 0.93; 95% confidence interval: 0.81-1.06; p = 0.27). There was no interaction between group and SES quintile (p = 0.44). Conclusions. Adding a narrative leaflet to existing information materials does not reduce the SES gradient in uptake. Despite the benefits of using a pragmatic trial design, the need to add to, rather than replace, existing information may have limited the true value of an evidence-based intervention on behaviour.

  16. Isotopic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectra of isotopically mixed clusters (dimers of SF6) are calculated as well as transition frequencies. The result leads to speculations about the suitability of the laser-cluster fragmentation process for isotope separation. (Auth.)

  17. Clusters galore: insights about environmental clusters from probability theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutra, R; Swan, S; Mack, T

    1992-12-15

    The posterior probability of a causal explanation given that an environmental cancer cluster is statistically significant depends on the prior probability of an environmentally caused cluster, the sensitivity of the statistical test and its specificity. The prior probability is low, because it is rare to have enough carcinogen in the general environment to cause a relative risk of cancer high enough to achieve statistical significance in a small geographic area. The sensitivity and specificity are not great. The likelihood that a census tract escapes statistically significant elevations in all 80 types of cancer can be calculated. Many of the thousands of census tracts will, by chance alone, have at least one type of cancer whose elevation is statistically significant. Actual observation from a large cancer registry confirms this probabilistic prediction. Applying the principles of Bayes' Theorem would suggest that most statistically significant environmental cancer clusters are not due to environmental carcinogens. One would have to investigate hundreds of environmental cancer clusters to find one with a true environmental cause.

  18. Meaningful Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Crow, Vernon L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2004-05-26

    We present an approach to the disambiguation of cluster labels that capitalizes on the notion of semantic similarity to assign WordNet senses to cluster labels. The approach provides interesting insights on how document clustering can provide the basis for developing a novel approach to word sense disambiguation.

  19. Software-Defined Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂华; 杨晓君; 刘淘英

    2015-01-01

    The cluster architecture has played an important role in high-end computing for the past 20 years. With the advent of Internet services, big data, and cloud computing, traditional clusters face three challenges: 1) providing flexible system balance among computing, memory, and I/O capabilities;2) reducing resource pooling overheads;and 3) addressing low performance-power efficiency. This position paper proposes a software-defined cluster (SDC) architecture to deal with these challenges. The SDC architecture inherits two features of traditional cluster: its architecture is multicomputer and it has loosely-coupled interconnect. SDC provides two new mechanisms: global I/O space (GIO) and hardware-supported native access (HNA) to remote devices. Application software can define a virtual cluster best suited to its needs from resources pools provided by a physical cluster, and traditional cluster ecosystems need no modification. We also discuss a prototype design and implementation of a 32-processor cloud server utilizing the SDC architecture.

  20. MicroRNA-106b-25 cluster targets β-TRCP2, increases the expression of Snail and enhances cell migration and invasion in H1299 (non small cell lung cancer) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •miR-106b-25 cluster directly targets the 3′UTR of the β-TRCP2 transcript. •β-TRCP2 mRNA was lower in H1299 cells stably expressing miR-106b-25 cluster. •miR-106b-25 cluster increased the expression of Snail. •miR-106b-25 cluster promoted the migration, colony formation and invasion. •miR-106b-25 cluster enhanced endothelial tube formation. -- Abstract: Lung cancer causes high mortality without a declining trend and non small cell lung cancer represents 85% of all pulmonary carcinomas. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) serve as fine regulators of proliferation, migration, invasion/metastasis and angiogenesis of normal and cancer cells. Using TargetScan6.2, we predicted that the ubiquitin ligase, β-TRCP2, could be a target for two of the constituent miRNAs of the miR-106b-25 cluster (miR-106b and miR-93). We generated a stable clone of miR-106b-25 cluster (CL) or the empty vector (EV) in H1299 (non small cell lung cancer) cells. The expression of β-TRCP2 mRNA was significantly lower in CL than that in EV cells. Transient expression of miR-93 but not antimiR-93 decreased the expression of β-TRCP2 mRNA in H1299 cells. β-TRCP2-3′UTR reporter assay revealed that its activity in CL cells was only 60% of that in EV cells. Snail protein expression was higher in CL than that in EV cells and H1299 cells exhibited an increase in the expression of Snail upon transient transfection with miR-93. miR-106b-25 cluster-induced migration of CL measured by scratch assay was more than that in EV cells and no significant difference in migration was observed between antimiR-93-transfected H1299 cells and the corresponding control-oligo-transfected cells. miR-106b-25 cluster-induced migration of CL cells was again confirmed in a Boyden chamber assay without the matrigel. CL cells were more invasive than EV cells when assessed using Boyden chambers with matrigel but there were no significant changes in the cell viabilities between EV and CL cells. Colony formation assay

  1. MicroRNA-106b-25 cluster targets β-TRCP2, increases the expression of Snail and enhances cell migration and invasion in H1299 (non small cell lung cancer) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savita, Udainiya; Karunagaran, Devarajan, E-mail: karuna@iitm.ac.in

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •miR-106b-25 cluster directly targets the 3′UTR of the β-TRCP2 transcript. •β-TRCP2 mRNA was lower in H1299 cells stably expressing miR-106b-25 cluster. •miR-106b-25 cluster increased the expression of Snail. •miR-106b-25 cluster promoted the migration, colony formation and invasion. •miR-106b-25 cluster enhanced endothelial tube formation. -- Abstract: Lung cancer causes high mortality without a declining trend and non small cell lung cancer represents 85% of all pulmonary carcinomas. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) serve as fine regulators of proliferation, migration, invasion/metastasis and angiogenesis of normal and cancer cells. Using TargetScan6.2, we predicted that the ubiquitin ligase, β-TRCP2, could be a target for two of the constituent miRNAs of the miR-106b-25 cluster (miR-106b and miR-93). We generated a stable clone of miR-106b-25 cluster (CL) or the empty vector (EV) in H1299 (non small cell lung cancer) cells. The expression of β-TRCP2 mRNA was significantly lower in CL than that in EV cells. Transient expression of miR-93 but not antimiR-93 decreased the expression of β-TRCP2 mRNA in H1299 cells. β-TRCP2-3′UTR reporter assay revealed that its activity in CL cells was only 60% of that in EV cells. Snail protein expression was higher in CL than that in EV cells and H1299 cells exhibited an increase in the expression of Snail upon transient transfection with miR-93. miR-106b-25 cluster-induced migration of CL measured by scratch assay was more than that in EV cells and no significant difference in migration was observed between antimiR-93-transfected H1299 cells and the corresponding control-oligo-transfected cells. miR-106b-25 cluster-induced migration of CL cells was again confirmed in a Boyden chamber assay without the matrigel. CL cells were more invasive than EV cells when assessed using Boyden chambers with matrigel but there were no significant changes in the cell viabilities between EV and CL cells. Colony formation assay

  2. [Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña-López, Roberto; Remolina-Bonilla, Yuly Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases which represents a significant public health problem in Mexico and worldwide. In Mexico neoplasms are the second leading cause of death. An increased morbidity and mortality are expected in the next decades. Several preventable risk factors for cancer development have been identified, the most relevant including tobacco use, which accounts for 30% of the cancer cases; and obesity, associated to another 30%. These factors, in turn, are related to sedentarism, alcohol abuse and imbalanced diets. Some agents are well knokn to cause cancer such as ionizing radiation, viruses such as the papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis virus (B and C), and more recently environmental pollution exposure and red meat consumption have been pointed out as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC). The scientific evidence currently available is insufficient to consider milk either as a risk factor or protective factor against different types of cancer. PMID:27603890

  3. Addressing psychiatric comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, G E; McLellan, A T; O'Brien, C P; Luborsky, L

    1991-01-01

    Research studies indicate that addressing psychiatric comorbidity can improve treatment for selected groups of substance-abusing patients. However, the chances for implementing the necessary techniques on a large scale are compromised by the absence of professional input and guidance within programs. This is especially true in public programs, which treat some of the most disadvantaged, disturbed, and socially destructive individuals in the entire mental health system. One starting point for upgrading the level of knowledge and training of staff members who work in this large treatment system could be to develop a better and more authoritative information dissemination network. Such a system exists in medicine; physicians are expected to read appropriate journals and to guide their treatment decisions using the data contained in the journals. Standards of practice and methods for modifying current practice are within the tradition of reading new facts, studying old ones, and comparing treatment outcome under different conditions with what is actually being done. No such general system of information-gathering or -sharing exists, particularly in public treatment programs. One of the most flagrant examples of this "educational shortfall" can be found among those methadone programs that adamantly insist on prescribing no more than 30 to 35 mg/day for all patients, in spite of the overwhelming evidence that these dose levels generally are inadequate. In some cases, program directors are unaware of studies that have shown the relationship between dose and outcome. In other cases, they are aware of the studies but do not modify their practices accordingly. This example of inadequate dosing is offered as an example of one situation that could be improved by adherence to a system of authoritative and systematic information dissemination. Many issues in substance abuse treatment do not lend themselves to information dissemination as readily as that of methadone dosing

  4. MicroRNA-106b-25 cluster targets β-TRCP2, increases the expression of Snail and enhances cell migration and invasion in H1299 (non small cell lung cancer) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savita, Udainiya; Karunagaran, Devarajan

    2013-05-17

    Lung cancer causes high mortality without a declining trend and non small cell lung cancer represents 85% of all pulmonary carcinomas. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) serve as fine regulators of proliferation, migration, invasion/metastasis and angiogenesis of normal and cancer cells. Using TargetScan6.2, we predicted that the ubiquitin ligase, β-TRCP2, could be a target for two of the constituent miRNAs of the miR-106b-25 cluster (miR-106b and miR-93). We generated a stable clone of miR-106b-25 cluster (CL) or the empty vector (EV) in H1299 (non small cell lung cancer) cells. The expression of β-TRCP2 mRNA was significantly lower in CL than that in EV cells. Transient expression of miR-93 but not antimiR-93 decreased the expression of β-TRCP2 mRNA in H1299 cells. β-TRCP2-3'UTR reporter assay revealed that its activity in CL cells was only 60% of that in EV cells. Snail protein expression was higher in CL than that in EV cells and H1299 cells exhibited an increase in the expression of Snail upon transient transfection with miR-93. miR-106b-25 cluster-induced migration of CL measured by scratch assay was more than that in EV cells and no significant difference in migration was observed between antimiR-93-transfected H1299 cells and the corresponding control-oligo-transfected cells. miR-106b-25 cluster-induced migration of CL cells was again confirmed in a Boyden chamber assay without the matrigel. CL cells were more invasive than EV cells when assessed using Boyden chambers with matrigel but there were no significant changes in the cell viabilities between EV and CL cells. Colony formation assay revealed that the CL cells formed more number of colonies than EV cells but they were smaller in size than those formed by EV cells. The supernatant from CL cells was more effective than that from EV cells in inducing tube formation in endothelial cells. Taken together, our data indicate that miR-106b-25 cluster may play an important role in the metastasis of human non-small cell

  5. Address Points, Addressing, Published in 2008, Taylor County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as 'Addressing'. Data by this publisher are often...

  6. Clustering Game Behavior Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders; Sifa, Rafet

    2015-01-01

    and other techniques for player profiling and play style analysis have, therefore, become popular in the nascent field of game analytics. However, the proper use of clustering techniques requires expertise and an understanding of games is essential to evaluate results. With this paper, we address game data...... scientists and present a review and tutorial focusing on the application of clustering techniques to mine behavioral game data. Several algorithms are reviewed and examples of their application shown. Key topics such as feature normalization are discussed and open problems in the context of game analytics...

  7. Active matter clusters at interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Copenhagen, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Collective and directed motility or swarming is an emergent phenomenon displayed by many self-organized assemblies of active biological matter such as clusters of embryonic cells during tissue development, cancerous cells during tumor formation and metastasis, colonies of bacteria in a biofilm, or even flocks of birds and schools of fish at the macro-scale. Such clusters typically encounter very heterogeneous environments. What happens when a cluster encounters an interface between two different environments has implications for its function and fate. Here we study this problem by using a mathematical model of a cluster that treats it as a single cohesive unit that moves in two dimensions by exerting a force/torque per unit area whose magnitude depends on the nature of the local environment. We find that low speed (overdamped) clusters encountering an interface with a moderate difference in properties can lead to refraction or even total internal reflection of the cluster. For large speeds (underdamped), wher...

  8. Observations of IPv6 Addresses

    OpenAIRE

    Malone, David

    2008-01-01

    IPv6 addresses are longer than IPv4 addresses, and are so capable of greater expression. Given an IPv6 address, conventions and standards allow us to draw conclusions about how IPv6 is being used on the node with that address. We show a technique for analysing IPv6 addresses and apply it to a number of datasets. The datasets include addresses seen at a busy mirror server, at an IPv6-enabled TLD DNS server and when running traceroute across the production IPv6 network. The technique quantif...

  9. Data Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2012-03-01

    On obtaining a new data set, the researcher is immediately faced with the challenge of obtaining a high-level understanding from the observations. What does a typical item look like? What are the dominant trends? How many distinct groups are included in the data set, and how is each one characterized? Which observable values are common, and which rarely occur? Which items stand out as anomalies or outliers from the rest of the data? This challenge is exacerbated by the steady growth in data set size [11] as new instruments push into new frontiers of parameter space, via improvements in temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution, or by the desire to "fuse" observations from different modalities and instruments into a larger-picture understanding of the same underlying phenomenon. Data clustering algorithms provide a variety of solutions for this task. They can generate summaries, locate outliers, compress data, identify dense or sparse regions of feature space, and build data models. It is useful to note up front that "clusters" in this context refer to groups of items within some descriptive feature space, not (necessarily) to "galaxy clusters" which are dense regions in physical space. The goal of this chapter is to survey a variety of data clustering methods, with an eye toward their applicability to astronomical data analysis. In addition to improving the individual researcher’s understanding of a given data set, clustering has led directly to scientific advances, such as the discovery of new subclasses of stars [14] and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) [38]. All clustering algorithms seek to identify groups within a data set that reflect some observed, quantifiable structure. Clustering is traditionally an unsupervised approach to data analysis, in the sense that it operates without any direct guidance about which items should be assigned to which clusters. There has been a recent trend in the clustering literature toward supporting semisupervised or constrained

  10. caBIG™ VISDA: Modeling, visualization, and discovery for cluster analysis of genomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Jianhua

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main limitations of most existing clustering methods used in genomic data analysis include heuristic or random algorithm initialization, the potential of finding poor local optima, the lack of cluster number detection, an inability to incorporate prior/expert knowledge, black-box and non-adaptive designs, in addition to the curse of dimensionality and the discernment of uninformative, uninteresting cluster structure associated with confounding variables. Results In an effort to partially address these limitations, we develop the VIsual Statistical Data Analyzer (VISDA for cluster modeling, visualization, and discovery in genomic data. VISDA performs progressive, coarse-to-fine (divisive hierarchical clustering and visualization, supported by hierarchical mixture modeling, supervised/unsupervised informative gene selection, supervised/unsupervised data visualization, and user/prior knowledge guidance, to discover hidden clusters within complex, high-dimensional genomic data. The hierarchical visualization and clustering scheme of VISDA uses multiple local visualization subspaces (one at each node of the hierarchy and consequent subspace data modeling to reveal both global and local cluster structures in a "divide and conquer" scenario. Multiple projection methods, each sensitive to a distinct type of clustering tendency, are used for data visualization, which increases the likelihood that cluster structures of interest are revealed. Initialization of the full dimensional model is based on first learning models with user/prior knowledge guidance on data projected into the low-dimensional visualization spaces. Model order selection for the high dimensional data is accomplished by Bayesian theoretic criteria and user justification applied via the hierarchy of low-dimensional visualization subspaces. Based on its complementary building blocks and flexible functionality, VISDA is generally applicable for gene clustering, sample

  11. Lung cancer screening: radiological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoop, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Lung Cancer Screening: Radiological Aspects Multiple lung cancer screening studies are currently being conducted to study whether lung cancer screening with Computed Tomography (CT) can decrease lung cancer mortality. This thesis addresses radiological methods that can increase efficacy and efficien

  12. Cluster Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Cansisting of eight scientists from the State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Xiamen University, this creative research group is devoted to the research of cluster chemistry and creation of nanomaterials.After three-year hard work, the group scored a series of encouraging progresses in synthesis of clusters with special structures, including novel fullerenes, fullerene-like metal cluster compounds as well as other related nanomaterials, and their properties study.

  13. Cosmology with clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bahcall, Neta A

    1995-01-01

    Rich clusters of galaxies, the largest virialized systems known, provide a powerful tool for the study of cosmology. Some of the fundamental questions that can be addressed with clusters of galaxies include: how did galaxies and large-scale structure form and evolve? What is the amount, composition and distribution of matter in the universe? I review some of the studies utilizing clusters of galaxies to investigare, among others: - The dark matter on clusters scale and the mean mass-density of the universe; - The large-scale structure of the universe; - The peculiar velocity field on large scales; - The mass-function of groups and clusters of galaxies; - The constraints placed on specific cosmological models using the cluster data.

  14. Partially supervised speaker clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Chu, Stephen Mingyu; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark; Huang, Thomas S

    2012-05-01

    Content-based multimedia indexing, retrieval, and processing as well as multimedia databases demand the structuring of the media content (image, audio, video, text, etc.), one significant goal being to associate the identity of the content to the individual segments of the signals. In this paper, we specifically address the problem of speaker clustering, the task of assigning every speech utterance in an audio stream to its speaker. We offer a complete treatment to the idea of partially supervised speaker clustering, which refers to the use of our prior knowledge of speakers in general to assist the unsupervised speaker clustering process. By means of an independent training data set, we encode the prior knowledge at the various stages of the speaker clustering pipeline via 1) learning a speaker-discriminative acoustic feature transformation, 2) learning a universal speaker prior model, and 3) learning a discriminative speaker subspace, or equivalently, a speaker-discriminative distance metric. We study the directional scattering property of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) mean supervector representation of utterances in the high-dimensional space, and advocate exploiting this property by using the cosine distance metric instead of the euclidean distance metric for speaker clustering in the GMM mean supervector space. We propose to perform discriminant analysis based on the cosine distance metric, which leads to a novel distance metric learning algorithm—linear spherical discriminant analysis (LSDA). We show that the proposed LSDA formulation can be systematically solved within the elegant graph embedding general dimensionality reduction framework. Our speaker clustering experiments on the GALE database clearly indicate that 1) our speaker clustering methods based on the GMM mean supervector representation and vector-based distance metrics outperform traditional speaker clustering methods based on the “bag of acoustic features” representation and statistical

  15. Fuzzy Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berks, G.; Keyserlingk, Diedrich Graf von; Jantzen, Jan;

    2000-01-01

    -mean clustering is an easy and well improved tool, which has been applied in many medical fields. We used c-mean fuzzy clustering after feature extraction from an aphasia database. Factor analysis was applied on a correlation matrix of 26 symptoms of language disorders and led to five factors. The factors...

  16. Convex clustering: an attractive alternative to hierarchical clustering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary K Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal in cluster analysis is to discover natural groupings of objects. The field of cluster analysis is crowded with diverse methods that make special assumptions about data and address different scientific aims. Despite its shortcomings in accuracy, hierarchical clustering is the dominant clustering method in bioinformatics. Biologists find the trees constructed by hierarchical clustering visually appealing and in tune with their evolutionary perspective. Hierarchical clustering operates on multiple scales simultaneously. This is essential, for instance, in transcriptome data, where one may be interested in making qualitative inferences about how lower-order relationships like gene modules lead to higher-order relationships like pathways or biological processes. The recently developed method of convex clustering preserves the visual appeal of hierarchical clustering while ameliorating its propensity to make false inferences in the presence of outliers and noise. The solution paths generated by convex clustering reveal relationships between clusters that are hidden by static methods such as k-means clustering. The current paper derives and tests a novel proximal distance algorithm for minimizing the objective function of convex clustering. The algorithm separates parameters, accommodates missing data, and supports prior information on relationships. Our program CONVEXCLUSTER incorporating the algorithm is implemented on ATI and nVidia graphics processing units (GPUs for maximal speed. Several biological examples illustrate the strengths of convex clustering and the ability of the proximal distance algorithm to handle high-dimensional problems. CONVEXCLUSTER can be freely downloaded from the UCLA Human Genetics web site at http://www.genetics.ucla.edu/software/.

  17. Functional Principal Component Analysis and Randomized Sparse Clustering Algorithm for Medical Image Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lin

    Full Text Available Due to the advancement in sensor technology, the growing large medical image data have the ability to visualize the anatomical changes in biological tissues. As a consequence, the medical images have the potential to enhance the diagnosis of disease, the prediction of clinical outcomes and the characterization of disease progression. But in the meantime, the growing data dimensions pose great methodological and computational challenges for the representation and selection of features in image cluster analysis. To address these challenges, we first extend the functional principal component analysis (FPCA from one dimension to two dimensions to fully capture the space variation of image the signals. The image signals contain a large number of redundant features which provide no additional information for clustering analysis. The widely used methods for removing the irrelevant features are sparse clustering algorithms using a lasso-type penalty to select the features. However, the accuracy of clustering using a lasso-type penalty depends on the selection of the penalty parameters and the threshold value. In practice, they are difficult to determine. Recently, randomized algorithms have received a great deal of attentions in big data analysis. This paper presents a randomized algorithm for accurate feature selection in image clustering analysis. The proposed method is applied to both the liver and kidney cancer histology image data from the TCGA database. The results demonstrate that the randomized feature selection method coupled with functional principal component analysis substantially outperforms the current sparse clustering algorithms in image cluster analysis.

  18. Port virtual addressing for PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper

  19. 2015 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  20. Reclaiming unused IPv4 addresses

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information).   Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...

  1. Active matter clusters at interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copenhagen, Katherine; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2016-03-01

    Collective and directed motility or swarming is an emergent phenomenon displayed by many self-organized assemblies of active biological matter such as clusters of embryonic cells during tissue development, cancerous cells during tumor formation and metastasis, colonies of bacteria in a biofilm, or even flocks of birds and schools of fish at the macro-scale. Such clusters typically encounter very heterogeneous environments. What happens when a cluster encounters an interface between two different environments has implications for its function and fate. Here we study this problem by using a mathematical model of a cluster that treats it as a single cohesive unit that moves in two dimensions by exerting a force/torque per unit area whose magnitude depends on the nature of the local environment. We find that low speed (overdamped) clusters encountering an interface with a moderate difference in properties can lead to refraction or even total internal reflection of the cluster. For large speeds (underdamped), where inertia dominates, the clusters show more complex behaviors crossing the interface multiple times and deviating from the predictable refraction and reflection for the low velocity clusters. We then present an extreme limit of the model in the absence of rotational damping where clusters can become stuck spiraling along the interface or move in large circular trajectories after leaving the interface. Our results show a wide range of behaviors that occur when collectively moving active biological matter moves across interfaces and these insights can be used to control motion by patterning environments.

  2. Active matter clusters at interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eCopenhagen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Collective and directed motility or swarming is an emergent phenomenon displayed by many self-organized assemblies of active biological matter such as clusters of embryonic cells during tissue development, cancerous cells during tumor formation and metastasis, colonies of bacteria in a biofilm, or even flocks of birds and schools of fish at the macro-scale. Such clusters typically encounter very heterogeneous environments. What happens when a cluster encounters an interface between two different environments has implications for its function and fate. Here we study this problem by using a mathematical model of a cluster that treats it as a single cohesive unit that moves in two dimensions by exerting a force/torque per unit area whose magnitude depends on the nature of the local environment. We find that low speed (overdamped clusters encountering an interface with a moderate difference in properties can lead to refraction or even total internal reflection of the cluster. For large speeds (underdamped, where inertia dominates, the clusters show more complex behaviors crossing the interface multiple times and deviating from the predictable refraction and reflection for the low velocity clusters. We then present an extreme limit of the model in the absence of rotational damping where clusters can become stuck spiraling along the interface or move in large circular trajectories after leaving the interface. Our results show a wide range of behaviors that occur when collectively moving active biological matter moves across interfaces and these insights can be used to control motion by patterning environments.

  3. Weighted Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerman, Margareta; Branzei, Simina; Loker, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate clustering in the weighted setting, in which every data point is assigned a real valued weight. We conduct a theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in each of the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterising the precise conditions under which such algorithms react to weights, and classifying clustering methods into three broad categories: weight-responsive, weight-considering, and weight-robust. Our analysis raises several interesting questions and can be directly mapped to the classical unweighted setting.

  4. Cluster analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, Brian S; Leese, Morven; Stahl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis comprises a range of methods for classifying multivariate data into subgroups. By organizing multivariate data into such subgroups, clustering can help reveal the characteristics of any structure or patterns present. These techniques have proven useful in a wide range of areas such as medicine, psychology, market research and bioinformatics.This fifth edition of the highly successful Cluster Analysis includes coverage of the latest developments in the field and a new chapter dealing with finite mixture models for structured data.Real life examples are used throughout to demons

  5. Cluster editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böcker, S.; Baumbach, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The Cluster Editing problem asks to transform a graph into a disjoint union of cliques using a minimum number of edge modifications. Although the problem has been proven NP-complete several times, it has nevertheless attracted much research both from the theoretical and the applied side. The...... algorithms for biological problems. © 2013 Springer-Verlag....... problem has been the inspiration for numerous algorithms in bioinformatics, aiming at clustering entities such as genes, proteins, phenotypes, or patients. In this paper, we review exact and heuristic methods that have been proposed for the Cluster Editing problem, and also applications of these...

  6. 多中心动态聚类算法及对癌症与非癌症彩色手掌图像的分类%Multi-central Dynamic Clustering Algorithm Classifying Color Palm Images for Cancer Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宽全; 刘莉; 邬向前; 张大鹏

    2003-01-01

    Observing palm is one of diagnosis methods in Traditional Chinese Medicine and HolographicMedicine. Generally, the shape, color, ridge and line features of palm are all important for palm diagnosis. As thefirst attempt for automated palm diagnosis, the color is used and a new statistical feature of color, moment feature, isdefined in this paper. Multi-central dynamic clustering algorithm based on our new feature is proposed to recognizecancerous palm images. Applying our approach to the images in the palm database including all kinds of pathologicaland healthy palm images, the experimental results indicate that it is effective to recognize cancerous palm images andsuperior over the K-mean algorithm.

  7. Does access to a colorectal cancer screening website and/or a nurse-managed telephone help line provided to patients by their family physician increase fecal occult blood test uptake?: A pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clouston Kathleen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fecal occult blood test screening in Canada is sub-optimal. Family physicians play a central role in screening and are limited by the time constraints of clinical practice. Patients face multiple barriers that further reduce completion rates. Tools that support family physicians in providing their patients with colorectal cancer information and that support uptake may prove useful. The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of a patient decision aid (nurse-managed telephone support line and/or colorectal cancer screening website distributed by community-based family physicians, in improving colorectal cancer screening rates. Secondary objectives include evaluation of (disincentives to patient FOBT uptake and internet use among 50 to 74 year old males and females for health-related questions. Challenges faced by family physicians in engaging in collaborative partnerships with primary healthcare researchers will be documented. Methods/design A pragmatic, two-arm, randomized cluster controlled trial conducted in 22 community-based family practice clinics (36 clusters with 76 fee-for-service family physicians in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Each physician will enroll 30 patients attending their periodic health examination and at average risk for colorectal cancer. All physicians will follow their standard clinical practice for screening. Intervention group physicians will provide a fridge magnet to each patient that contains information facilitating access to the study-specific colorectal cancer screening decision aids (telephone help-line and website. The primary endpoint is patient fecal occult blood test completion rate after four months (intention to treat model. Multi-level analysis will include clinic, physician and patient level variables. Patient Personal Health Identification Numbers will be collected from those providing consent to facilitate analysis of repeat screening behavior. Secondary outcome

  8. Symptom clusters and the relationship to quality of life in patients with lung cancer%肺癌患者的症状群及其与生活质量的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹丹; 付菊芳; 房宁宁; 邾萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore symptom clusters in lung cancer, to examine the relationship of symptom clusters to quality of life (QOL), and to provide references for study of symptomatology of lung cancer and for palliative care. Methods A sample of 183 pa tients with lung cancer completed a demographic questionnaire, the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI) , the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Lung (FACT L) , the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) , and the Karnofsky Per formance Scale (KPS). Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify symptom clusters. Two subgroups were classified based on the scores of symptoms by using cluster analysis to compare differences in QOL, KPS and mood. Results Four symptom clusters were identified; gastrointestinal, emotional, fatigue related, and general. Severity of symptoms scored 1. 39—6. 24 points of 10, and the occurrence rates of symptoms ranged from 43. 17% to 99. 45%. Except the family/society dimension of QOL, patients in the high score group had significantly poorer QOL and functional status than their counterparts in the low score group, and the high score group experienced severe anxiety and depression (P<0. 01 for all). Conclusion Lung cancer patients experience high oc currence and strong intensity of symptoms; different symptom clusters can be identified and they have negative effects on quality of life. Nurses should assess symptoms timely and accurately, and take effective measures to manage and relieve symptoms, so as to improve quality of life of patients.%目的 了解肺癌患者各症状是否存在群集现象及症状群对患者生活质量的影响,为癌症症状学研究及姑息护理奠定基础.方法 采用安德森症状评估表(MDASI)、肺癌生活质量评估量表(FACT-L)、医院焦虑抑郁量表(HADS)、身体功能状态量表(KPS)对183例肺癌患者进行调查;通过因子分析提取肺癌患者症状群,聚类分析将研究对象分为两组(症状得分高低)

  9. Synchronization in complex clustered networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Liang; LAI Ying-Cheng; Kwangho PARK; WANG Xingang; LAI Choy Heng; Robert A. GATENBY

    2007-01-01

    Synchronization in complex networks has been an active area of research in recent years. While much effort has been devoted to networks with the small-world and scale-free topology, structurally they are often assumed to have a single, densely connected component. Recently it has also become apparent that many networks in social, biological, and tech-nological systems are clustered, as characterized by a number (or a hierarchy) of sparsely linked clusters, each with dense and complex internal connections. Synchronization is funda-mental to the dynamics and functions of complex clustered networks, but this problem has just begun to be addressed. This paper reviews some progress in this direction by focus-ing on the interplay between the clustered topology and net-work synchronizability. In particular, there are two parame-ters characterizing a clustered network: the intra-cluster and the inter-cluster link density. Our goal is to clarify the roles of these parameters in shaping network synchronizability. By using theoretical analysis and direct numerical simulations of oscillator networks, it is demonstrated that clustered net-works with random inter-cluster links are more synchroniz-able, and synchronization can be optimized when inter-cluster and intra-cluster links match. The latter result has one coun-terintuitive implication: more links, if placed improperly, can actually lead to destruction of synchronization, even though such links tend to decrease the average network distance. It is hoped that this review will help attract attention to the fun-damental problem of clustered structures/synchronization in network science.

  10. CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kavoussi

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many carcinogenetic elements in industry and it is for this reason that study and research concerning the effect of these materials is carried out on a national and international level. The establishment and growth of cancer are affected by different factors in two main areas:-1 The nature of the human or animal including sex, age, point and method of entry, fat metabolism, place of agglomeration of carcinogenetic material, amount of material absorbed by the body and the immunity of the body.2 The different nature of the carcinogenetic material e.g. physical, chemical quality, degree of solvency in fat and purity of impurity of the element. As the development of cancer is dependent upon so many factors, it is extremely difficult to determine whether a causative element is principle or contributory. Some materials are not carcinogenetic when they are pure but become so when they combine with other elements. All of this creates an industrial health problem in that it is almost impossible to plan an adequate prevention and safety program. The body through its system of immunity protects itself against small amounts of carcinogens but when this amount increases and reaches a certain level the body is not longer able to defend itself. ILO advises an effective protection campaign against cancer based on the Well –equipped laboratories, Well-educated personnel, the establishment of industrial hygiene within factories, the regular control of safety systems, and the implementation of industrial health principles and research programs.

  11. Astrophysics of galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettori, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    As the nodes of the cosmic web, clusters of galaxies trace the large-scale distribution of matter in the Universe. They are thus privileged sites in which to investigate the complex physics of structure formation. However, the complete story of how these structures grow, and how they dissipate the gravitational and non-thermal components of their energy budget over cosmic time, is still beyond our grasp. Most of the baryons gravitationally bound to the cluster's halo is in the form of a diffuse, hot, metal-enriched plasma that radiates primarily in the X-ray band. X-ray observations of the evolving cluster population provide a unique opportunity to address such fundamental open questions as: How do hot diffuse baryons accrete and dynamically evolve in dark matter potentials? How and when was the energy that we observe in the ICM generated and distributed? Where and when are heavy elements produced and how are they circulated? We will present the ongoing activities to define the strategy on how an X-ray observatory with large collecting area and an unprecedented combination of high spectral and angular resolution, such as Athena, can address these questions.

  12. Spatial clustering with Density-Ordered tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qing; Lu, Xin; Liu, Zhong; Huang, Jincai; Cheng, Guangquan

    2016-10-01

    Clustering has emerged as an active research direction for knowledge discovery in spatial databases. Most spatial clustering methods become ineffective when inappropriate parameters are given or when datasets of diverse shapes and densities are provided. To address this issue, we propose a novel clustering method, called SCDOT (Spatial Clustering with Density-Ordered Tree). By projecting a dataset to a Density-Ordered Tree, SCDOT partitions the data into several relatively small sub-clusters with a box-plot method. A heuristic method is proposed to find the genuine clusters by repeatedly merging sub-clusters and an iteration strategy is utilized to automatically determine input parameters. Moreover, we also provide an innovative way to identify cluster center and noise. Extensive experiments on both synthetic and real-world datasets demonstrate the superior performance of SCDOT over the baseline methods.

  13. Accounting for regional background and population size in the detection of spatial clusters and outliers using geostatistical filtering and spatial neutral models: the case of lung cancer in Long Island, New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goovaerts Pierre

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete Spatial Randomness (CSR is the null hypothesis employed by many statistical tests for spatial pattern, such as local cluster or boundary analysis. CSR is however not a relevant null hypothesis for highly complex and organized systems such as those encountered in the environmental and health sciences in which underlying spatial pattern is present. This paper presents a geostatistical approach to filter the noise caused by spatially varying population size and to generate spatially correlated neutral models that account for regional background obtained by geostatistical smoothing of observed mortality rates. These neutral models were used in conjunction with the local Moran statistics to identify spatial clusters and outliers in the geographical distribution of male and female lung cancer in Nassau, Queens, and Suffolk counties, New York, USA. Results We developed a typology of neutral models that progressively relaxes the assumptions of null hypotheses, allowing for the presence of spatial autocorrelation, non-uniform risk, and incorporation of spatially heterogeneous population sizes. Incorporation of spatial autocorrelation led to fewer significant ZIP codes than found in previous studies, confirming earlier claims that CSR can lead to over-identification of the number of significant spatial clusters or outliers. Accounting for population size through geostatistical filtering increased the size of clusters while removing most of the spatial outliers. Integration of regional background into the neutral models yielded substantially different spatial clusters and outliers, leading to the identification of ZIP codes where SMR values significantly depart from their regional background. Conclusion The approach presented in this paper enables researchers to assess geographic relationships using appropriate null hypotheses that account for the background variation extant in real-world systems. In particular, this new

  14. Clustering of cancer among families of cases with Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL, Multiple Myeloma (MM, Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL, Soft Tissue Sarcoma (STS and control subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunanayake Chandima P

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A positive family history of chronic diseases including cancer can be used as an index of genetic and shared environmental influences. The tumours studied have several putative risk factors in common including occupational exposure to certain pesticides and a positive family history of cancer. Methods We conducted population-based studies of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL, Multiple Myeloma (MM, non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL, and Soft Tissue Sarcoma (STS among male incident case and control subjects in six Canadian provinces. The postal questionnaire was used to collect personal demographic data, a medical history, a lifetime occupational history, smoking pattern, and the information on family history of cancer. The family history of cancer was restricted to first degree relatives and included relationship to the index subjects and the types of tumours diagnosed among relatives. The information was collected on 1528 cases (HL (n = 316, MM (n = 342, NHL (n = 513, STS (n = 357 and 1506 age ± 2 years and province of residence matched control subjects. Conditional logistic regression analyses adjusted for the matching variables were conducted. Results We found that most families were cancer free, and a minority included two or more affected relatives. HL [(ORadj (95% CI 1.79 (1.33, 2.42], MM (1.38(1.07, 1.78, NHL (1.43 (1.15, 1.77, and STS cases (1.30(1.00, 1.68 had higher incidence of cancer if any first degree relative was affected with cancer compared to control families. Constructing mutually exclusive categories combining "family history of cancer" (yes, no and "pesticide exposure ≥10 hours per year" (yes, no indicated that a positive family history was important for HL (2.25(1.61, 3.15, and for the combination of the two exposures increased risk for MM (1.69(1.14,2.51. Also, a positive family history of cancer both with (1.72 (1.21, 2.45 and without pesticide exposure (1.43(1.12, 1.83 increased risk of NHL. Conclusion HL, MM, NHL

  15. Rationale, design, and implementation protocol of the Dutch clinical practice guideline Pain in patients with cancer: a cluster randomised controlled trial with short message service (SMS and interactive voice response (IVR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    te Boveldt Nienke

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One-half of patients with cancer have pain. In nearly one out of two cancer patients with pain, this was undertreated. Inadequate pain control still remains an important problem in this group of patients. Therefore, in 2008 a national, evidence-based multidisciplinary clinical practice guideline 'pain in patients with cancer' has been developed. Yet, publishing a guideline is not enough. Implementation is needed to improve pain management. An innovative implementation strategy, Short Message Service with Interactive Voice Response (SVS-IVR, has been developed and pilot tested. This study aims to evaluate on effectiveness of this strategy to improve pain reporting, pain measurement and adequate pain therapy. In addition, whether the active role of the patient and involvement of caregivers in pain management may change. Methods/design A cluster randomised controlled trial with two arms will be performed in six oncology outpatient clinics of hospitals in the Southeastern region of the Netherlands, with three hospitals in the intervention and three in the control condition. Follow-up measurements will be conducted in all hospitals to study the long-term effect of the intervention. The intervention includes training of professionals (medical oncologists, nurses, and general practitioners and SMS-IVR to report pain in patients with cancer to improve pain reporting by patients, pain management by medical oncologists, nurses, and general practitioners, and decrease pain intensity. Discussion This innovative implementation strategy with technical tools and the involvement of patients, may enhance the use of the guideline 'pain in patients with cancer' for pain management. Short Message Service alerts may serve as a tool to support self-management of patients. Therefore, the SMS-IVR intervention may increase the feeling of having control over one's life. Trail registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR: NTR2739

  16. An Investigation of Symptom Clusters of Gastrointestinal Cancer Patients Within One Week After Operation%胃肠道肿瘤患者术后一周内症状群的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宇; 王维利; 周利华; 王婷; 栾贝贝

    2015-01-01

    目的:探索胃肠道肿瘤患者术后1周内的症状及症状群的发生情况。方法选取2013年1—12月于上海市第六人民医院普外科住院治疗的胃肠道肿瘤术后第7天的患者84例为研究对象。采取横断面研究方法,利用一般情况问卷、记忆症状评估量表( MSAS)对患者进行问卷调查。结果发放问卷84份,回收有效问卷79份,有效回收率为94.0%。发生率前10位的症状依次是体质量下降(97.5%,77/79)、口干(96.2%,76/79)、疼痛(91.1%,72/79)、冒汗(84.8%,67/79)、精力不足(78.5%,62/79)、咳嗽(69.6%,55/79)、入睡困难(67.1%,53/79)、昏昏欲睡(51.9%,41/79)、腹胀(48.1%,38/79)、紧张(40.5%,32/79)。 Spearman相关性分析结果显示,精力不足与体质量下降、口干、疼痛、冒汗、咳嗽、入睡困难、昏昏欲睡、紧张,冒汗与口干、疼痛、入睡困难、昏昏欲睡、腹胀,疼痛与入睡困难、昏昏欲睡、紧张,紧张与咳嗽、入睡困难、腹胀,口干与体质量下降、入睡困难,咳嗽与腹胀分别呈正相关(P<0.05)。探索性因子分析结果显示,共有6个症状群,分别为疾病行为症状群、困惑症状群、消化道症状群、手术相关症状群、疼痛相关症状群和其他症状群,总方差贡献率为56.54%,各症状群的方差贡献率分别为26.65%、8.02%、6.81%、5.78%、4.78%、4.50%, Cronbach′sα系数分别为0.83、0.72、0.82、0.57、0.61、0.51。结论胃肠道肿瘤患者术后1周内存在多个症状群,即疾病行为症状群、困惑症状群、消化道症状群、手术相关症状群、疼痛相关症状群和其他症状群,针对症状群的干预模式可能产生更好的临床效果。%Objective To explore the occurrences of symptoms and symptom clusters of gastrointestinal cancer patients within one week after

  17. The SMART CLUSTER METHOD - adaptive earthquake cluster analysis and declustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-04-01

    Earthquake declustering is an essential part of almost any statistical analysis of spatial and temporal properties of seismic activity with usual applications comprising of probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs) and earthquake prediction methods. The nature of earthquake clusters and subsequent declustering of earthquake catalogues plays a crucial role in determining the magnitude-dependent earthquake return period and its respective spatial variation. Various methods have been developed to address this issue from other researchers. These have differing ranges of complexity ranging from rather simple statistical window methods to complex epidemic models. This study introduces the smart cluster method (SCM), a new methodology to identify earthquake clusters, which uses an adaptive point process for spatio-temporal identification. Hereby, an adaptive search algorithm for data point clusters is adopted. It uses the earthquake density in the spatio-temporal neighbourhood of each event to adjust the search properties. The identified clusters are subsequently analysed to determine directional anisotropy, focussing on a strong correlation along the rupture plane and adjusts its search space with respect to directional properties. In the case of rapid subsequent ruptures like the 1992 Landers sequence or the 2010/2011 Darfield-Christchurch events, an adaptive classification procedure is applied to disassemble subsequent ruptures which may have been grouped into an individual cluster using near-field searches, support vector machines and temporal splitting. The steering parameters of the search behaviour are linked to local earthquake properties like magnitude of completeness, earthquake density and Gutenberg-Richter parameters. The method is capable of identifying and classifying earthquake clusters in space and time. It is tested and validated using earthquake data from California and New Zealand. As a result of the cluster identification process, each event in

  18. Vacancy-indium clusters in implanted germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander I.

    2010-04-01

    Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements of heavily indium doped germanium samples revealed that a significant proportion of the indium dose is immobile. Using electronic structure calculations we address the possibility of indium clustering with point defects by predicting the stability of indium-vacancy clusters, InnVm. We find that the formation of large clusters is energetically favorable, which can explain the immobility of the indium ions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Residential Mobility and Breast Cancer in Marin County, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey M. Jacquez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marin County (California, USA has among the highest incidences of breast cancer in the U.S. A previously conducted case-control study found eight significant risk factors in participants enrolled from 1997–1999. These included being premenopausal, never using birth control pills, lower highest lifetime body mass index, having four or more mammograms from 1990–1994, beginning drinking alcohol after age 21, drinking an average two or more alcoholic drinks per day, being in the highest quartile of pack-years of cigarette smoking, and being raised in an organized religion. Previously conducted surveys provided residential histories; while  statistic accounted for participants’ residential mobility, and assessed clustering of breast cancer cases relative to controls based on the known risk factors. These identified specific cases, places, and times of excess breast cancer risk. Analysis found significant global clustering of cases localized to specific residential histories and times. Much of the observed clustering occurred among participants who immigrated to Marin County. However, persistent case-clustering of greater than fifteen years duration was also detected. Significant case-clustering among long-term residents may indicate geographically localized risk factors not accounted for in the study design, as well as uncertainty and incompleteness in the acquired addresses. Other plausible explanations include environmental risk factors and cases tending to settle in specific areas. A biologically plausible exposure or risk factor has yet to be identified.

  20. Cluster headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctors do not know exactly what causes cluster headaches. They seem to be related to the body's sudden release of histamine (chemical in the body released during an allergic response) or serotonin (chemical made by nerve cells). A problem in a small area at ...

  1. Identification of familial clustering for cancer through the family health strategy program in the municipality of Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Daniela Koeller Rodrigues; Attianezi, Margareth; Esposito, Ana Carolina; Barth, Anneliese; Sequeira, Cecília; Krause, Nathália; Oliveira, Vivian; Lucidi, Alexandre; Serao, Cassio; Llerena, Juan C

    2014-01-01

    Identification of families with history of cancer in the municipality of Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), through the Brazilian Unified Primary Health Care System was explored based in the Community Health Agents (CHA) program. This study was divided into two phases: a descriptive one with a cross-sectional epidemiological data of families with history of cancer based on CHA-collected data from home visits in four primary health care units. The second phase consisted in identifying fa...

  2. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems.

  3. Toxic Shock: The Environment-Cancer Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilbacher, Mike

    1995-01-01

    Examines cancer research policy and recent research that addresses the relationship between pollution, pesticides, and cancer. Discusses increasing cancer rates in children and opposing viewpoints on the impact of chemicals on cancer rates. (LZ)

  4. CADx of mammographic masses and clustered microcalcifications: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elter, Matthias; Horsch, Alexander [Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits (IIS), Am Wolfsmantel 33, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Institute for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, TU Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany) and Department of Computer Science, University of Tromsoe Breivika, N-9037 Tromsoe (Norway)

    2009-06-15

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women in the western world. While mammography is regarded as the most effective tool for the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer, the interpretation of mammograms is a difficult and error-prone task. Hence, computer aids have been developed that assist the radiologist in the interpretation of mammograms. Computer-aided detection (CADe) systems address the problem that radiologists often miss signs of cancers that are retrospectively visible in mammograms. Furthermore, computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) systems have been proposed that assist the radiologist in the classification of mammographic lesions as benign or malignant. While a broad variety of approaches to both CADe and CADx systems have been published in the past two decades, an extensive survey of the state of the art is only available for CADe approaches. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the state of the art of CADx approaches is presented in this work. Besides providing a summary, the goals for this article are to identify relations, contradictions, and gaps in literature, and to suggest directions for future research. Because of the vast amount of publications on the topic, this survey is restricted to the two most important types of mammographic lesions: masses and clustered microcalcifications. Furthermore, it focuses on articles published in international journals.

  5. Korean women: breast cancer knowledge, attitudes and behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryujin Lisa T

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Clustered within the nomenclature of Asian American are numerous subgroups, each with their own ethnic heritage, cultural, and linguistic characteristics. An understanding of the prevailing health knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors of these subgroups is essential for creating population-specific health promotion programs. Methods Korean American women (123 completed baseline surveys of breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors as part of an Asian grocery store-based breast cancer education program evaluation. Follow-up telephone surveys, initiated two weeks later, were completed by 93 women. Results Low adherence to the American Cancer Society's breast cancer screening guidelines and insufficient breast cancer knowledge were reported. Participants' receptiveness to the grocery store-based breast cancer education program underscores the importance of finding ways to reach Korean women with breast cancer early detection information and repeated cues for screening. The data also suggest that the Asian grocery store-based cancer education program being tested may have been effective in motivating a proportion of the women to schedule a breast cancer screening between the baseline and follow-up surveys. Conclusion The program offers a viable strategy to reach Korean women that addresses the language, cultural, transportation, and time barriers they face in accessing breast cancer early detection information.

  6. Clustering of financial time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urso, Pierpaolo; Cappelli, Carmela; Di Lallo, Dario; Massari, Riccardo

    2013-05-01

    This paper addresses the topic of classifying financial time series in a fuzzy framework proposing two fuzzy clustering models both based on GARCH models. In general clustering of financial time series, due to their peculiar features, needs the definition of suitable distance measures. At this aim, the first fuzzy clustering model exploits the autoregressive representation of GARCH models and employs, in the framework of a partitioning around medoids algorithm, the classical autoregressive metric. The second fuzzy clustering model, also based on partitioning around medoids algorithm, uses the Caiado distance, a Mahalanobis-like distance, based on estimated GARCH parameters and covariances that takes into account the information about the volatility structure of time series. In order to illustrate the merits of the proposed fuzzy approaches an application to the problem of classifying 29 time series of Euro exchange rates against international currencies is presented and discussed, also comparing the fuzzy models with their crisp version.

  7. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  8. Introduction to IP address management

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Tim

    2010-01-01

    "The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--

  9. Communities Address Barriers to Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Rural areas lag behind urban areas in access to information technologies. Public institutions play a critical role in extending the benefits of information technologies to those who would not otherwise have access. The most successful rural telecommunications plans address barriers to use, such as unawareness of the benefits, technophobia, the…

  10. Regional Innovation Clusters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — The Regional Innovation Clusters serve a diverse group of sectors and geographies. Three of the initial pilot clusters, termed Advanced Defense Technology clusters,...

  11. Gene Expression Data Knowledge Discovery using Global and Local Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    H, Swathi

    2010-01-01

    To understand complex biological systems, the research community has produced huge corpus of gene expression data. A large number of clustering approaches have been proposed for the analysis of gene expression data. However, extracting important biological knowledge is still harder. To address this task, clustering techniques are used. In this paper, hybrid Hierarchical k-Means algorithm is used for clustering and biclustering gene expression data is used. To discover both local and global clustering structure biclustering and clustering algorithms are utilized. A validation technique, Figure of Merit is used to determine the quality of clustering results. Appropriate knowledge is mined from the clusters by embedding a BLAST similarity search program into the clustering and biclustering process. To discover both local and global clustering structure biclustering and clustering algorithms are utilized. To determine the quality of clustering results, a validation technique, Figure of Merit is used. Appropriate ...

  12. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    The cluster theory attributed to Michael Porter has significantly influenced industrial policies in countries across Europe and North America since the beginning of the 1990s. Institutions such as the EU, OECD and the World Bank and governments in countries such as the UK, France, The Netherlands......, Portugal and New Zealand have adopted the concept. Public sector interventions that aim to support cluster development in industries most often focus upon economic policy goals such as enhanced employment and improved productivity, but rarely emphasise broader societal policy goals relating to e...... a difference in terms of enhancing regional development but the paper also concludes that the interventions tend to follow the development path of the established industry and thus tend to neglect long term sustainable development issues while failing to escape the traditional confines of regional industrial...

  13. Clustering experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhengwei; Tan, Ken; Di, Zengru; Roehner, Bertrand M

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that bees cluster together in cold weather, in the process of swarming (when the ``old'' queen leaves with part of the colony) or absconding (when the queen leaves with all the colony) and in defense against intruders such as wasps or hornets. In this paper we describe a fairly different clustering process which occurs at any temperature and independently of any special stimulus or circumstance. As a matter of fact, this process is about four times faster at 28 degree Celsius than at 15 degrees. Because of its simplicity and low level of ``noise'' we think that this phenomenon can provide a means for exploring the strength of inter-individual attraction between bees or other living organisms. For instance, and at first sight fairly surprisingly, our observations showed that this attraction does also exist between bees belonging to different colonies. As this study is aimed at providing a comparative perspective, we also describe a similar clustering experiment for red fire ants.

  14. Irradiation and various cytotoxic drugs enhance tyrosine phosphorylation and {beta}{sub 1}-integrin clustering in human A549 lung cancer cells in a substratum-dependent manner in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, N.; Beinke, C.; Beuningen, D. van [Inst. of Radiobiology, German Armed Forces, Munich (Germany); Plasswilm, L. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Hospital Basel (Swaziland)

    2004-03-01

    Background and purpose: interactions of cells with a substratum, especially extracellular matrix proteins, initiate clustering of integrin receptors in the cell membrane. This process represents the initial step for the activation of signaling pathways regulating survival, proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration, and could, furthermore, be important for cellular resistance-mediating mechanisms against radiation or cytotoxic drugs. The lack of data elucidating the impact of irradiation or cytotoxic drugs on this important phenomenon led to this study on human A549 lung cancer cells in vitro. Material and methods: the human lung carcinoma cell line A549 grown on polystyrene or fibronectin (FN) was irradiated with 0-8 Gy or treated with cisplatin (0.1-50 {mu}M), paclitaxel (0.1-50 nM), or mitomycin (0.1-50 {mu}M). Colony formation assays, immunofluorescence staining in combination with activation of integrin clustering using anti-{beta}{sub 1}-integrin antibodies (K20), and Western blotting for tyrosine phosphorylation under treatment of cells with the IC{sub 50} for irradiation (2 Gy; IC{sub 50} = 2.2 Gy), cisplatin (2 {mu}M), paclitaxel (5 nM), or mitomycin (7 {mu}M) were performed. Results: attachment of cells to FN resulted in a significantly reduced radio- and chemosensitivity compared to polystyrene. The clustering of {beta}{sub 1}-integrins examined by immunofluorescence staining was only stimulated by irradiation, cisplatin, paclitaxel, or mitomycin in case of cell attachment to FN. By contrast, tyrosine phosphorylation, as one of the major events following {beta}{sub 1}-integrin clustering, showed a 3.7-fold, FN-related enhancement, and treatment of cells with the IC{sub 50} of radiation, cisplatin, paclitaxel, or mitomycin showed a substratum-dependent induction. Conclusion: for the first time, a strong influence of irradiation and a variety of cytotoxic drugs on the clustering of {beta}{sub 1}-integrins could be shown. This event is a

  15. Choice Internal report I-5: Clustering for Success: Cluster to establish EU-China

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, TJ; Itagaki, T

    2014-01-01

    A lot of work has been done which highlights the important role clustering plays in the establishment of EU-China collaborative activities in ICT R&D&I. This report reviews much of this work and in doing so provides an overview of different approaches to clustering that have been taken and their effectiveness. The review addresses the European ICT Poles of Excellence, clustering in ICT in China, cross-sector clustering in the EU, regional clustering in the EU, individual ‘broadband’ links, na...

  16. Clustering of Sun Exposure Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai;

    2002-01-01

    In a medically motivated Sun-exposure study, questionnaires concerning Sun-habits were collected from a number of subjects together with UV radiation measurements. This paper focuses on identifying clusters in the heterogeneous set of data for the purpose of understanding possible relations between...... Sun-habits exposure and eventually assessing the risk of skin cancer. A general probabilistic framework originally developed for text and Web mining is demonstrated to be useful for clustering of behavioral data. The framework combines principal component subspace projection with probabilistic...

  17. Gain of a 500-fold sensitivity on an intravital MR Contrast Agent based on an endohedral Gadolinium-Cluster-Fullerene-Conjugate: A new chance in cancer diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Braun, Lothar Dunsch, Ruediger Pipkorn, Michael Bock, Tobias Baeuerle, Shangfeng Yang, Waldemar Waldeck, Manfred Wiessler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the applications of fullerene technology in health sciences the expanding field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of molecular processes is most challenging. Here we present the synthesis and application of a GdxSc3-xN@C80-BioShuttle-conjugate referred to as Gd-cluster@-BioShuttle, which features high proton relaxation and, in comparison to the commonly used contrast agents, high signal enhancement at very low Gd concentrations. This modularly designed contrast agent represents a new tool for improved monitoring and evaluation of interventions at the gene transcription level. Also, a widespread monitoring to track individual cells is possible, as well as sensing of microenvironments. Furthermore, BioShuttle can also deliver constructs for transfection or active pharmaceutical ingredients, and scaffolding for incorporation with the host's body. Using the Gd-cluster@-BioShuttle as MRI contrast agent allows an improved evaluation of radio- or chemotherapy treated tissues.

  18. Gain of a 500-fold sensitivity on an intravital MR Contrast Agent based on an endohedral Gadolinium-Cluster-Fullerene-Conjugate: A new chance in cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Klaus; Dunsch, Lothar; Pipkorn, Ruediger; Bock, Michael; Baeuerle, Tobias; Yang, Shangfeng; Waldeck, Waldemar; Wiessler, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Among the applications of fullerene technology in health sciences the expanding field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of molecular processes is most challenging. Here we present the synthesis and application of a GdxSc3-xN@C80-BioShuttle-conjugate referred to as Gd-cluster@-BioShuttle, which features high proton relaxation and, in comparison to the commonly used contrast agents, high signal enhancement at very low Gd concentrations. This modularly designed contrast agent represents a new tool for improved monitoring and evaluation of interventions at the gene transcription level. Also, a widespread monitoring to track individual cells is possible, as well as sensing of microenvironments. Furthermore, BioShuttle can also deliver constructs for transfection or active pharmaceutical ingredients, and scaffolding for incorporation with the host's body. Using the Gd-cluster@-BioShuttle as MRI contrast agent allows an improved evaluation of radio- or chemotherapy treated tissues. PMID:20567614

  19. Gain of a 500-fold sensitivity on an intravital MR Contrast Agent based on an endohedral Gadolinium-Cluster-Fullerene-Conjugate: A new chance in cancer diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Klaus; Dunsch, Lothar; Pipkorn, Ruediger; Bock, Michael; Baeuerle, Tobias; Yang, Shangfeng; Waldeck, Waldemar; Wiessler, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Among the applications of fullerene technology in health sciences the expanding field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of molecular processes is most challenging. Here we present the synthesis and application of a GdxSc3-xN@C80-BioShuttle-conjugate referred to as Gd-cluster@-BioShuttle, which features high proton relaxation and, in comparison to the commonly used contrast agents, high signal enhancement at very low Gd concentrations. This modularly designed contrast agent represents a new ...

  20. Investigation of spatio-temporal cancer clusters using residential histories in a case–control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Sloan, Chantel D.; Shahid, Haseeb; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Cerhan, James R.; Cozen, Wendy; Severson, Richard; Ward, Mary H; Morton, Lindsay; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Meliker, Jaymie R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is an enigmatic disease with few known risk factors. Spatio-temporal epidemiologic analyses have the potential to reveal patterns that may give clues to new risk factors worthy of investigation. We sought to investigate clusters of NHL through space and time based on life course residential histories. Methods We used residential histories from a population-based NHL case–control study of 1300 cases and 1044 controls with recruitment centers in Iowa, Detro...

  1. The dyslipidemia-associated SNP on the APOA1/C3/A5 gene cluster predicts post-surgery poor outcome in Taiwanese breast cancer patients: a 10-year follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-surgery therapies are given to early-stage breast cancer patients due to the possibility of residual micrometastasis, and optimized by clincopathological parameters such as tumor stage, and hormone receptor/lymph node status. However, current efficacy of post-surgery therapies is unsatisfactory, and may be varied according to unidentified patient genetic factors. Increases of breast cancer occurrence and recurrence have been associated with dyslipidemia, which can attribute to other known risk factors of breast cancer including obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Thus we reasoned that dyslipidemia-associated nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the APOA1/C3/A5 gene cluster may predict breast cancer risk and tumor progression. We analyzed the distribution of 5 selected APOA1/C3/A5 SNPs in recruited Taiwanese breast cancer patients (n=223) and healthy controls (n=162). The association of SNP (APOA1 rs670) showing correlation with breast cancer with baseline and follow-up parameters was further examined. APOA1 rs670 A allele carriage was higher in breast cancer patients than controls (59.64% vs. 48.77%, p=0.038). The rs670 A allele carrying patients showed less favorable baseline phenotype with positive lymph nodes (G/A: OR=3.32, 95% CI=1.77-6.20, p<0.001; A/A: OR=2.58, 95% CI=1.05-6.32, p=0.039) and negative hormone receptor expression (A/A: OR=4.85, 95%CI=1.83-12.83, p=0.001) in comparison to G/G carriers. Moreover, rs670 A/A carrying patients had higher risks in both tumor recurrence (HR=3.12, 95% CI=1.29-7.56, p=0.012) and mortality (HR=4.36, 95% CI=1.52-12.47, p=0.006) than patients with no A alleles after adjustments for associated baseline parameters. Furthermore, the prognostic effect of rs670 A/A carriage was most evident in lymph node-negative patients, conferring to the highest risks of recurrence (HR=4.98, 95% CI=1.40-17.70, p=0.013) and mortality (HR=9.87, 95%CI=1.60-60.81, p=0.014) than patients with no A alleles. APOA1 rs670 A/A carriage showed

  2. Quantifying the morphologies of galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Buote, D A; Buote, David A; Tsai, John C

    1995-01-01

    We describe a method to quantitatively classify clusters of galaxies according to their observed X--ray morphologies. We specifically address structure that is easily discernible in projection and dynamically important to the cluster. The method derives from the two-dimensional multipole expansion of the projected gravitational potential and yields dimensionless {\\it power ratios} as morphological statistics. We demonstrate the feasibility of the method by analyzing simulated observations of simple models of X-ray clusters using the instrument parameters of the ROSAT PSPC. For illustrative purposes, we apply the method to ROSAT PSPC images of A85, A514, A1750, and A2029. These differ substantially in their X-ray morphology: the clusters are easily distinguished by their respective power ratios. We discuss the suitability of this method to address the Morphology - Cosmology connection proposed by Evrard et al. (1993) and to assess whether an individual cluster is sufficiently relaxed for analysis of its intrin...

  3. Rotation and flattening of globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, S. M.; Frenk, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    Methods for measuring globular cluster ellipticities and the results of such measurements are reviewed, and the processes that determine the shapes of globular clusters and the ways in which they change with time are discussed. The use of the virial tensor theorem to study the connection between the global rotation, velocity anisotropy, and the shape of a self-gravitating system is addressed, and the employment of N-body models to simulate the evolution of globular clusters with initially anisotropic velocity distributions is examined. The application of a simple evaporation model and Fokker-Planck integrations to study the two-body diffusion in globular clusters is reviewed.

  4. Addressing passive smoking in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha G Hutchinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A significant number of parents are unaware or unconvinced of the health consequences of passive smoking (PS in children. Physicians could increase parental awareness by giving personal advice. AIM: To evaluate the current practices of three Dutch health professions (paediatricians, youth health care physicians, and family physicians regarding parental counselling for passive smoking (PS in children. METHODS: All physicians (n = 720 representing the three health professions in Limburg, The Netherlands, received an invitation to complete a self-administered electronic questionnaire including questions on their: sex, work experience, personal smoking habits, counselling practices and education regarding PS in children. RESULTS: The response rate was 34%. One tenth (11% of the responding physicians always addressed PS in children, 32% often, 54% occasionally and 4% reported to never attend to it. The three health professions appeared comparable regarding their frequency of parental counselling for PS in children. Addressing PS was more likely when children had respiratory problems. Lack of time was the most frequently mentioned barrier, being very and somewhat applicable for respectively 14% and 43% of the physicians. One fourth of the responders had received postgraduate education about PS. Additionally, 49% of the responders who did not have any education about PS were interested in receiving it. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians working in the paediatric field in Limburg, The Netherlands, could more frequently address PS in children with parents. Lack of time appeared to be the most mentioned barrier and physicians were more likely to counsel parents for PS in children with respiratory complaints/diseases. Finally, a need for more education on parental counselling for PS was expressed.

  5. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need. (authors)

  6. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  7. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating. PMID:26420812

  8. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  9. Globular Cluster Formation in the Virgo Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Moran, C Corbett; Lake, G

    2014-01-01

    Metal poor globular clusters (MPGCs) are a unique probe of the early universe, in particular the reionization era. Systems of globular clusters in galaxy clusters are particularly interesting as it is in the progenitors of galaxy clusters that the earliest reionizing sources first formed. Although the exact physical origin of globular clusters is still debated, it is generally admitted that globular clusters form in early, rare dark matter peaks (Moore et al. 2006; Boley et al. 2009). We provide a fully numerical analysis of the Virgo cluster globular cluster system by identifying the present day globular cluster system with exactly such early, rare dark matter peaks. A popular hypothesis is that that the observed truncation of blue metal poor globular cluster formation is due to reionization (Spitler et al. 2012; Boley et al. 2009; Brodie & Strader 2006); adopting this view, constraining the formation epoch of MPGCs provides a complementary constraint on the epoch of reionization. By analyzing both the l...

  10. Cancer Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  11. Using an innovative multiple regression procedure in a cancer population (Part II: fever, depressive affect, and mobility problems clarify an influential symptom pair (pain–fatigue/weakness and cluster (pain–fatigue/weakness–sleep problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francoeur RB

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Richard B Francoeur1,2 1School of Social Work and the Center for Health Innovation, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA; 2Center for the Psychosocial Study of Health and Illness, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA Background: Most patients with advanced cancer experience symptom pairs or clusters among pain, fatigue, and insomnia. However, only combinations where symptoms are mutually influential hold potential for identifying patient subgroups at greater risk, and in some contexts, interventions with "cross-over" (multisymptom effects. Improved methods to detect and interpret interactions among symptoms, signs, or biomarkers are needed to reveal these influential pairs and clusters. I recently created sequential residual centering (SRC to reduce multicollinearity in moderated regression, which enhances sensitivity to detect these interactions. Methods: I applied SRC to moderated regressions of single-item symptoms that interact to predict outcomes from 268 palliative radiation outpatients. I investigated: 1 the hypothesis that the interaction, pain × fatigue/weakness × sleep problems, predicts depressive affect only when fever presents, and 2 an exploratory analysis, when fever is absent, that the interaction, pain × fatigue/weakness × sleep problems × depressive affect, predicts mobility problems. In the fever context, three-way interactions (and derivative terms of the four symptoms (pain, fatigue/weakness, fever, sleep problems are tested individually and simultaneously; in the non-fever context, a single four-way interaction (and derivative terms is tested. Results: Fever interacts separately with fatigue/weakness and sleep problems; these comoderators each magnify the pain–depressive affect relationship along the upper or full range of pain values. In non-fever contexts, fatigue/weakness, sleep problems, and depressive affect comagnify the relationship between pain and mobility problems. Conclusion: Different mechanisms

  12. Quantum information processing with noisy cluster states

    CERN Document Server

    Tame, M S; Kim, M S; Vedral, V

    2005-01-01

    We provide an analysis of basic quantum information processing protocols under the effect of intrinsic non-idealities in cluster states. These non-idealities are based on the introduction of randomness in the entangling steps that create the cluster state and are motivated by the unavoidable imperfections faced in creating entanglement using condensed-matter systems. Aided by the use of an alternative and very efficient method to construct cluster state configurations, which relies on the concatenation of fundamental cluster structures, we address quantum state transfer and various fundamental gate simulations through noisy cluster states. We find that a winning strategy to limit the effects of noise, is the management of small clusters processed via just a few measurements. Our study also reinforces recent ideas related to the optical implementation of a one-way quantum computer.

  13. Relativistic Particles in Clusters of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ensslin, T A

    2002-01-01

    A brief overview on the theory and observations of relativistic particle populations in clusters of galaxies is given. The following topics are addressed: (i) the diffuse relativistic electron population within the intra-cluster medium (ICM) as seen in the cluster wide radio halos and possibly also seen in the high energy X-ray and extreme ultraviolet excess emissions of some clusters, (ii) the observed confined relativistic electrons within fresh and old radio plasma and their connection to cluster radio relics at cluster merger shock waves, (iii) the relativistic proton population within the ICM, and its observable consequences (if it exists), and (iv) the confined relativistic proton population (if it exists) within radio plasma. The importance of upcoming, sensitive gamma-ray telescopes for this research area is highlighted.

  14. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  15. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  16. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snir, Marc [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Wisniewski, Robert [Intel Corporation; Abraham, Jacob [unknown; Adve, Sarita [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Bagchi, Saurabh [Purdue University; Balaji, Pavan [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Belak, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Bose, Pradip [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center; Cappello, Franck [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Carlson, Bill [unknown; Chien, Andrew [University of Chicago; Coteus, Paul [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center; DeBardeleben, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Diniz, Pedro [University of Southern California; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Erez, Mattan [University of Texas at Austin; Fazzari, Saverio [Booz Allen Hamilton; Geist, Al [ORNL; Gupta, Rinku [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Johnson, Fred [Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), Oak Ridge, TN; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Leyffer, Sven [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Liberty, Dean [AMD; Mitra, Subhasish [Stanford University; Munson, Todd [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Schreiber, Rob [HP Labs; Stearley, Jon [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Van Hensbergen, Eric [ARM

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  17. The Birth of Massive Stars and Star Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Jonathan C.

    2005-01-01

    In the present-day universe, it appears that most, and perhaps all, massive stars are born in star clusters. It also appears that all star clusters contain stars drawn from an approximately universal initial mass function, so that almost all rich young star clusters contain massive stars. In this review I discuss the physical processes associated with both massive star formation and with star cluster formation. First I summarize the observed properties of star-forming gas clumps, then address...

  18. Morphology of Open Clusters NGC 1857 and Czernik 20 using Clustering Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Souradeep; Pandaokar, Samay; Singh, Parikshit Kishor

    2016-01-01

    The morphology and cluster membership of the Galactic open clusters - Czernik 20 and NGC 1857 were analyzed using two different clustering algorithms. We present the maiden use of density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) to determine open cluster morphology from spatial distribution. The region of analysis has also been spatially classified using a statistical membership determination algorithm. We utilized near infrared (NIR) data for a suitably large region around the clusters from the United Kingdom Infrared Deep Sky Survey Galactic Plane Survey star catalogue database, and also from the Two Micron All Sky Survey star catalogue database. The densest regions of the cluster morphologies (1 for Czernik 20 and 2 for NGC 1857) thus identified were analyzed with a K-band extinction map and color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). To address significant discrepancy in known distance and reddening parameters, we carried out field decontamination of these CMDs and subsequent isochrone fitting of...

  19. Seismic constraints on open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Piau, L; Turck-Chièze, S

    2005-01-01

    We derive knowledge on the global and structural parameters of low-mass stars using asteroseismology and taking advantage of the stellar collective behavior within open clusters. We build stellar models and compute the seismic signal expected from main sequence objects in the 0.8-1.6 Msun range. We first evaluate apparent magnitudes and oscillations-induced luminosity fluctuations expected in the Hyades, the Pleiades and the alpha Persei clusters. The closest cluster presents a feasible challenge to observational asteroseismology in the present and near future. We combine seismological and classical computations to address three questions: what can be inferred about 1) mass, 2) composition and 3) extension of outer convection zones of solar analogs in the Hyades. The first issue relies on the strong sensitivity of the large separation to mass. Then large separations and second differences are used to respectively constrain metal and helium fractions in the Hyades.When plotted for several masses, the relation ...

  20. Spherical k-Means Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Hornik

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clustering text documents is a fundamental task in modern data analysis, requiring approaches which perform well both in terms of solution quality and computational efficiency. Spherical k-means clustering is one approach to address both issues, employing cosine dissimilarities to perform prototype-based partitioning of term weight representations of the documents.This paper presents the theory underlying the standard spherical k-means problem and suitable extensions, and introduces the R extension package skmeans which provides a computational environment for spherical k-means clustering featuring several solvers: a fixed-point and genetic algorithm, and interfaces to two external solvers (CLUTO and Gmeans. Performance of these solvers is investigated by means of a large scale benchmark experiment.

  1. Building Footprints - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Structures/Addresses Framework is a statewide spatial database of structure and address points in the State of Montana. The Montana Structures/Addresses...

  2. Spatial analysis of lung, colorectal, and breast cancer on Cape Cod: An application of generalized additive models to case-control data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschengrau Ann

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of geographic information from cancer and birth defect registries has increased public demands for investigation of perceived disease clusters. Many neighborhood-level cluster investigations are methodologically problematic, while maps made from registry data often ignore latency and many known risk factors. Population-based case-control and cohort studies provide a stronger foundation for spatial epidemiology because potential confounders and disease latency can be addressed. Methods We investigated the association between residence and colorectal, lung, and breast cancer on upper Cape Cod, Massachusetts (USA using extensive data on covariates and residential history from two case-control studies for 1983–1993. We generated maps using generalized additive models, smoothing on longitude and latitude while adjusting for covariates. The resulting continuous surface estimates disease rates relative to the whole study area. We used permutation tests to examine the overall importance of location in the model and identify areas of increased and decreased risk. Results Maps of colorectal cancer were relatively flat. Assuming 15 years of latency, lung cancer was significantly elevated just northeast of the Massachusetts Military Reservation, although the result did not hold when we restricted to residences of longest duration. Earlier non-spatial epidemiology had found a weak association between lung cancer and proximity to gun and mortar positions on the reservation. Breast cancer hot spots tended to increase in magnitude as we increased latency and adjusted for covariates, indicating that confounders were partly hiding these areas. Significant breast cancer hot spots were located near known groundwater plumes and the Massachusetts Military Reservation. Discussion Spatial epidemiology of population-based case-control studies addresses many methodological criticisms of cluster studies and generates new exposure

  3. Cluster Decline and Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark, 1963...... in new resources to the cluster but being quick to withdraw in times of crisis....

  4. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications.

  5. 集束护理干预策略对乳腺癌保乳术后放化疗患者的影响%Influence of Cluster Nursing Intervention on Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiochemotherapy after Conservative Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽芬

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨集束护理干预策略对乳腺癌保乳术后放化疗患者的影响。方法:将进行保乳术且术后同期接受放化疗的乳腺癌患者随机分为观察组和对照组,每组60例。对照组给予常规护理(放疗护理常规、化疗护理常规、专科护理常规),观察组在此基础上给予集束护理干预。观察2组患者心理状态、营养状态及生活质量。结果:自评抑郁量表(SDS)、焦虑自评量表(SAS)评分干预后观察组低于对照组(P<0.05)。MNA评分观察组护理干预后在不同时段MNA评分均优于对照组(P<0.05)。各项生活评分护理干预后在不同时段观察组均优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:集束护理干预策略对乳腺癌患者保乳治疗术后同期放化疗所出现的不良情绪具有缓解作用,并可提高患者的生活质量,改善近、远期营养状况。%To explore the influence of cluster nursing intervention on breast cancer patients with conservative surgery undergoing radiochemotherapy. Methods: The breast cancer patients accepting current ra-diochemotherapy after conservative surgery were randomly divided into the observation group and the control groups with 60 cases in each. Patients in the control group were given routine nursing care (routine radiotherapy care, routine chemotherapy care, routine nursing care), while the observation group was given cluster nursing inter-vention on the basis of routine nursing. Psychological state, nutritional status and life quality of patients in two groups were analyzed. Results: The SDS and SAS scores in the observation group were lower than that in the control group (P<0.05).The MNA scores in the observation group were better than that in the control group in different pe-riod (P<0.05). All life scores of the observation group in different period were better than that in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Cluster nursing intervention can effectively relieve the negative emotions

  6. Anti-human CD73 monoclonal antibody inhibits metastasis formation in human breast cancer by inducing clustering and internalization of CD73 expressed on the surface of cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terp, Mikkel G; Olesen, Kristina A; Christensen, Eva Arnspang;

    2013-01-01

    -linking of CD73, because both whole IgG anti-CD73 AD2 mAb and Fab' fragments thereof exhibited this effect. Ex vivo treatment of different breast cancer cell lines with anti-CD73 AD2 mAb before i.v. injection into mice inhibited extravasation/colonization of circulating tumor cells and significantly reduced...

  7. Scientific Cluster Deployment and Recovery – Using puppet to simplify cluster management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deployment, maintenance and recovery of a scientific cluster, which has complex, specialized services, can be a time consuming task requiring the assistance of Linux system administrators, network engineers as well as domain experts. Universities and small institutions that have a part-time FTE with limited time for and knowledge of the administration of such clusters can be strained by such maintenance tasks. This current work is the result of an effort to maintain a data analysis cluster (DAC) with minimal effort by a local system administrator. The realized benefit is the scientist, who is the local system administrator, is able to focus on the data analysis instead of the intricacies of managing a cluster. Our work provides a cluster deployment and recovery process (CDRP) based on the puppet configuration engine allowing a part-time FTE to easily deploy and recover entire clusters with minimal effort. Puppet is a configuration management system (CMS) used widely in computing centers for the automatic management of resources. Domain experts use Puppet's declarative language to define reusable modules for service configuration and deployment. Our CDRP has three actors: domain experts, a cluster designer and a cluster manager. The domain experts first write the puppet modules for the cluster services. A cluster designer would then define a cluster. This includes the creation of cluster roles, mapping the services to those roles and determining the relationships between the services. Finally, a cluster manager would acquire the resources (machines, networking), enter the cluster input parameters (hostnames, IP addresses) and automatically generate deployment scripts used by puppet to configure it to act as a designated role. In the event of a machine failure, the originally generated deployment scripts along with puppet can be used to easily reconfigure a new machine. The cluster definition produced in our CDRP is an integral part of automating cluster deployment

  8. Addressing verification challenges [International safeguards symposium on addressing verification challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In his welcome address the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Mr. M. ElBaradei, stated that safeguards activities are probably the most difficult task entrusted to an international organization and to determine all the details of a country's nuclear programme is a daunting challenge that raises a number of questions. There is an increase in nuclear power around the globe as a result of shortages of energy and concerns about energy independence and climate change. On the one hand, this is good, because without energy there is no hope for development on the other hand, however, it means that nuclear know-how and nuclear technology will continue to spread to more and more countries. There is also an increase in the number of countries interested in developing nuclear fuel cycle capabilities: sensitive fuel cycle activities, reprocessing and above all uranium enrichment. It even seems that some countries might be hedging their bets in order to have the know-how should they need to develop their own deterrence. Verifying enrichment or reprocessing facilities is quite difficult, and the so-called conversion time is extremely short. Thus, the IAEA is dealing with what is called 'virtual nuclear weapon States'. The IAEA has been talking for a number of years about the need to develop a new international or multinational approach to the fuel cycle in order to avoid a situation with nine nuclear weapon States and another 20 or 30 States having the capacity to develop nuclear weapons in a very short period of time. There is a need to remember that there is a linkage between nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. Furthermore safeguards activities, though fundamentally technical in nature, are carried out in a political charged environment. The security dimension - that is, nuclear terrorism - also presents a new challenge, because State systems of accounting for and control of nuclear material are no longer simply tools for safeguards, but

  9. Partitional clustering algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book summarizes the state-of-the-art in partitional clustering. Clustering, the unsupervised classification of patterns into groups, is one of the most important tasks in exploratory data analysis. Primary goals of clustering include gaining insight into, classifying, and compressing data. Clustering has a long and rich history that spans a variety of scientific disciplines including anthropology, biology, medicine, psychology, statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. As a result, numerous clustering algorithms have been proposed since the early 1950s. Among these algorithms, partitional (nonhierarchical) ones have found many applications, especially in engineering and computer science. This book provides coverage of consensus clustering, constrained clustering, large scale and/or high dimensional clustering, cluster validity, cluster visualization, and applications of clustering. Examines clustering as it applies to large and/or high-dimensional data sets commonly encountered in reali...

  10. Modernization typologies industrial clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karapetian, Eduard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Generalized theoretical approach to the criteria of industrial clusters. On this basis, a detailed typology of industrial cluster structures, which takes into account the peculiarities of the functioning of clusters in the domestic economy.

  11. Large scale cluster computing workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dane Skow; Alan Silverman

    2002-12-23

    Recent revolutions in computer hardware and software technologies have paved the way for the large-scale deployment of clusters of commodity computers to address problems heretofore the domain of tightly coupled SMP processors. Near term projects within High Energy Physics and other computing communities will deploy clusters of scale 1000s of processors and be used by 100s to 1000s of independent users. This will expand the reach in both dimensions by an order of magnitude from the current successful production facilities. The goals of this workshop were: (1) to determine what tools exist which can scale up to the cluster sizes foreseen for the next generation of HENP experiments (several thousand nodes) and by implication to identify areas where some investment of money or effort is likely to be needed. (2) To compare and record experimences gained with such tools. (3) To produce a practical guide to all stages of planning, installing, building and operating a large computing cluster in HENP. (4) To identify and connect groups with similar interest within HENP and the larger clustering community.

  12. Validating the use of Hospital Episode Statistics data and comparison of costing methodologies for economic evaluation: an end-of-life case study from the Cluster randomised triAl of PSA testing for Prostate cancer (CAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Joanna C; Turner, Emma L; Hounsome, Luke; Walsh, Eleanor; Down, Liz; Verne, Julia; Donovan, Jenny L; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Martin, Richard M; Noble, Sian M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the accuracy of routine data for costing inpatient resource use in a large clinical trial and to investigate costing methodologies. Design Final-year inpatient cost profiles were derived using (1) data extracted from medical records mapped to the National Health Service (NHS) reference costs via service codes and (2) Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data using NHS reference costs. Trust finance departments were consulted to obtain costs for comparison purposes. Setting 7 UK secondary care centres. Population A subsample of 292 men identified as having died at least a year after being diagnosed with prostate cancer in Cluster randomised triAl of PSA testing for Prostate cancer (CAP), a long-running trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. Results Both inpatient cost profiles showed a rise in costs in the months leading up to death, and were broadly similar. The difference in mean inpatient costs was £899, with HES data yielding ∼8% lower costs than medical record data (differences compatible with chance, p=0.3). Events were missing from both data sets. 11 men (3.8%) had events identified in HES that were all missing from medical record review, while 7 men (2.4%) had events identified in medical record review that were all missing from HES. The response from finance departments to requests for cost data was poor: only 3 of 7 departments returned adequate data sets within 6 months. Conclusions Using HES routine data coupled with NHS reference costs resulted in mean annual inpatient costs that were very similar to those derived via medical record review; therefore, routinely available data can be used as the primary method of costing resource use in large clinical trials. Neither HES nor medical record review represent gold standards of data collection. Requesting cost data from finance departments is impractical for large clinical trials. Trial registration number ISRCTN92187251

  13. t he Cluster Approach in northern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Huber; Birkeland, Nina M.

    2007-01-01

    The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) strongly believes that the Cluster Approach holds promise for improving the international response to internal displacement. The approach represents a serious attempt by the UN, NGOs, international organisations and governments to address critical gaps in the humanitarian system. We want this reform effort to succeed and to play an active role in northern Uganda to supportthe work of the clusters and improve their effectiveness.

  14. t he Cluster Approach in northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Huber

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC strongly believes that the Cluster Approach holds promise for improving the international response to internal displacement. The approach represents a serious attempt by the UN, NGOs, international organisations and governments to address critical gaps in the humanitarian system. We want this reform effort to succeed and to play an active role in northern Uganda to supportthe work of the clusters and improve their effectiveness.

  15. Accelerating semantic graph databases on commodity clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morari, Alessandro; Castellana, Vito G.; Haglin, David J.; Feo, John T.; Weaver, Jesse R.; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste

    2013-10-06

    We are developing a full software system for accelerating semantic graph databases on commodity cluster that scales to hundreds of nodes while maintaining constant query throughput. Our framework comprises a SPARQL to C++ compiler, a library of parallel graph methods and a custom multithreaded runtime layer, which provides a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model with fork/join parallelism and automatic load balancing over a commodity clusters. We present preliminary results for the compiler and for the runtime.

  16. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  17. Using Concept Mapping to Explore Barriers and Facilitators to Breast Cancer Screening in Formerly Homeless Women with Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lara Carson; LaNoue, Marianna; Hurley, Katelyn; Sifri, Randa; Myers, Ronald

    2015-08-01

    Women with serious mental illness (SMI) have disproportionately worse breast cancer profiles than those of other women. The purpose of this project was to examine barriers to and facilitators of breast cancer screening, specifically in formerly homeless women with SMI using the participatory methodology of concept mapping. A series of three concept mapping focus groups were held with 27 women over the age of 40 with a diagnosis of a SMI who live in supportive housing programs, and with 16 housing program staff. Data from the focus groups were combined through multidimensional scaling to create a visual cluster map. Barriers and facilitators to mammography screening generated by the participants clustered into eight categories. Participants rated addressing educational issues as most important and feasible. Interventions designed to improve mammogram screening in this population should address patients' perception of personal risk and should target education and support systems as modifiable factors. PMID:26320922

  18. Virial masses of galaxy clusters in the post-Newtonian limit

    CERN Document Server

    Roshan, Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    We estimate virial masses of galaxy clusters using the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) virial theorem. Also, we show explicitly that post-Newtonian corrections can not address the mass discrepancy in the galaxy clusters.

  19. Factorial PD-Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Tortora, Cristina; Summa, Mireille Gettler

    2011-01-01

    Factorial clustering methods have been developed in recent years thanks to the improving of computational power. These methods perform a linear transformation of data and a clustering on transformed data optimizing a common criterion. Factorial PD-clustering is based on Probabilistic Distance clustering (PD-clustering). PD-clustering is an iterative, distribution free, probabilistic, clustering method. Factorial PD-clustering make a linear transformation of original variables into a reduced number of orthogonal ones using a common criterion with PD-Clustering. It is demonstrated that Tucker 3 decomposition allows to obtain this transformation. Factorial PD-clustering makes alternatively a Tucker 3 decomposition and a PD-clustering on transformed data until convergence. This method could significantly improve the algorithm performance and allows to work with large dataset, to improve the stability and the robustness of the method.

  20. Possibilistic Exponential Fuzzy Clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiatichai Treerattanapitak; Chuleerat Jaruskulchai

    2013-01-01

    Generally,abnormal points (noise and outliers) cause cluster analysis to produce low accuracy especially in fuzzy clustering.These data not only stay in clusters but also deviate the centroids from their true positions.Traditional fuzzy clustering like Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) always assigns data to all clusters which is not reasonable in some circumstances.By reformulating objective function in exponential equation,the algorithm aggressively selects data into the clusters.However noisy data and outliers cannot be properly handled by clustering process therefore they are forced to be included in a cluster because of a general probabilistic constraint that the sum of the membership degrees across all clusters is one.In order to improve this weakness,possibilistic approach relaxes this condition to improve membership assignment.Nevertheless,possibilistic clustering algorithms generally suffer from coincident clusters because their membership equations ignore the distance to other clusters.Although there are some possibilistic clustering approaches that do not generate coincident clusters,most of them require the right combination of multiple parameters for the algorithms to work.In this paper,we theoretically study Possibilistic Exponential Fuzzy Clustering (PXFCM) that integrates possibilistic approach with exponential fuzzy clustering.PXFCM has only one parameter and not only partitions the data but also filters noisy data or detects them as outliers.The comprehensive experiments show that PXFCM produces high accuracy in both clustering results and outlier detection without generating coincident problems.

  1. Biology of cancer and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, F F; Wilson, J; Blesch, K S; Kaesberg, P R; Miller, R; Sprott, R

    1991-12-01

    The greatest risk factor for cancer is aging. Human cancer incidence increases exponentially with advancing age. Cancer growth rate and potential for metastatic spread may be influenced by age-specific change in host response. Because cancer and aging are, thus, inextricably linked, the American Cancer Society should encourage submission of research proposals that address the mechanisms of aging and how aging alters cancer development.

  2. PATIENT-SPECIFIC DATA FUSION FOR CANCER STRATIFICATION AND PERSONALISED TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorijević, Vladimir; Malod-Dognin, Noël; Pržulj, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    According to Cancer Research UK, cancer is a leading cause of death accounting for more than one in four of all deaths in 2011. The recent advances in experimental technologies in cancer research have resulted in the accumulation of large amounts of patient-specific datasets, which provide complementary information on the same cancer type. We introduce a versatile data fusion (integration) framework that can effectively integrate somatic mutation data, molecular interactions and drug chemical data to address three key challenges in cancer research: stratification of patients into groups having different clinical outcomes, prediction of driver genes whose mutations trigger the onset and development of cancers, and repurposing of drugs treating particular cancer patient groups. Our new framework is based on graph-regularised non-negative matrix tri-factorization, a machine learning technique for co-clustering heterogeneous datasets. We apply our framework on ovarian cancer data to simultaneously cluster patients, genes and drugs by utilising all datasets.We demonstrate superior performance of our method over the state-of-the-art method, Network-based Stratification, in identifying three patient subgroups that have significant differences in survival outcomes and that are in good agreement with other clinical data. Also, we identify potential new driver genes that we obtain by analysing the gene clusters enriched in known drivers of ovarian cancer progression. We validated the top scoring genes identified as new drivers through database search and biomedical literature curation. Finally, we identify potential candidate drugs for repurposing that could be used in treatment of the identified patient subgroups by targeting their mutated gene products. We validated a large percentage of our drug-target predictions by using other databases and through literature curation. PMID:26776197

  3. E6 Addressing Scheme and Network Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitry Anatolyevich Zaitsev; Sergey Ivanovich Bolshakov

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes new E6 addressing scheme for the creation of world-wide networks totally constructed on the base of Ethernet technology. Hierarchic E6 addresses with the length of 6 octets are used instead of both Ethernet MAC-addresses and IP-addresses that allows the routing within world-wide networks and cuts overhead of TCP, IP headers; the address space is extended in 16K times regarding IP addresses. Standard Ethernet LLC2 facilities are employed for guaranteed delivery of informati...

  4. 肺癌患者常见症状群及与生存质量的相关性研究%Symptom cluster and its relationship with life quality of patients with lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林双兰; 周建荣; 赵良辉; 向峰儀

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the incidence and severity of fatigue,disturbed sleep,pain and distress and to examine whether the above four symptoms occur in symptom cluster during the trajectory of disease.Methods:This cross-sectional study design was assessed by M.D.Anderson symptom inventory and quality of life instruments for cancer patients-lung cancer.Three-hundred and eighty four individuals were involved in the survey.Results:There were significant inter-correlations among fatigue,disturbed sleep,pain and distress(r=0.474-0.716,P<0.01).About 9.1%(n=35) and 21.1%(n=81) patients reported co-occurrence of any two and any three symptoms of fatigue,disturbed sleep,pain and distress and 62.8% (n=241) patients reported co-occurrence of all four symptoms.Negative relationship was found between the top four symptoms and subscale/total scores of life quality.Conclusions:Fatigue,disturbed sleep,pain and distress are the most common and severe symptoms of patients with lung cancer,which exert negatively effects on life quality through symptom cluster.%目的:探讨肺癌患者乏力、失眠、疼痛和苦恼的发生率及严重程度,并检测以上4种症状是否以症状群的形式影响患者的病情结果.方法:采用横断面的研究方法,应用安德森症状评估量表及癌症病人生命质量测定量表体系中的肺癌量表对384名住院肺癌患者进行问卷调查.结果:失眠、乏力、疼痛和苦恼各症状间具有显著的内部相关性(r=0.474~0.716,P<0.0),其中9.1%(n=35)和21.1%(n=81)的患者表示在治疗过程中出现过上述症状中的2种或3种症状,62.8%(n=241)的肺癌患者同时遭受到4种症状的困扰;症状群与生存质量各维度得分及总分均呈负相关性.结论:失眠、乏力、疼痛和苦恼为肺癌患者疾病发展轨迹过程中出现频率最高、程度最重的4种症状,且常常以症状群的形式影响患者的生存质量.

  5. Management of cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer C; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2012-01-01

    and agitation. Patients may have up to eight attacks per day. Episodic cluster headache (ECH) occurs in clusters of weeks to months duration, whereas chronic cluster headache (CCH) attacks occur for more than 1 year without remissions. Management of cluster headache is divided into acute attack treatment...

  6. Structures of Mn clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tina M Briere; Marcel H F Sluiter; Vijay Kumar; Yoshiyuki Kawazoe

    2003-01-01

    The geometries of several Mn clusters in the size range Mn13–Mn23 are studied via the generalized gradient approximation to density functional theory. For the 13- and 19-atom clusters, the icosahedral structures are found to be most stable, while for the 15-atom cluster, the bcc structure is more favoured. The clusters show ferrimagnetic spin configurations.

  7. A Novel Approach for TNA Address Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    We present a new scheme to allocate/de-allocate Transport Network Assigned (TN A) address using Link Management Protocol (LMP) and to register/resolution these addresses using Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) for Automatically Switched Optical Network (ASON).

  8. SAVI: The IETF Standard in Address Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Bagnulo, Marcelo; García-Martínez, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    In this article we describe Source Address Validation Implementation (SAVI), a security architecture being standardized by the IETF to prevent source address spoofing within a link. SAVI devices, usually layer 2 switches, create bindings between the IP address of a node and a property of the host¿s network attachment, such as the port through which the packet is received. Bindings are created by monitoring the packet exchange associated with IP address configuration mechanisms such as DHCP, S...

  9. Address allocation to mobile ad hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sakander, Zeeshan

    2006-01-01

    Addressing in MANETs is of significant importance, as a mobile device cannot participate in unicast communications until it is assigned a conflict-free IP address. All routing protocols assume nodes to be configured a priori with a unique IP address. Allocating addresses to mobile nodes is a fundamental and difficult problem. Unlike infrastructure based networks, MANETs support autonomous and spontaneous networking and therefore, should be capable of self-organization and self-configuration. ...

  10. Graded cluster algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Grabowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In the cluster algebra literature, the notion of a graded cluster algebra has been implicit since the origin of the subject. In this work, we wish to bring this aspect of cluster algebra theory to the foreground and promote its study. We transfer a definition of Gekhtman, Shapiro and Vainshtein to the algebraic setting, yielding the notion of a multi-graded cluster algebra. We then study gradings for finite type cluster algebras without coefficients, giving a full classification. Translating ...

  11. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  12. Spatial analysis of childhood cancer: a case/control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Ramis

    Full Text Available Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, NHL. Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors.The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of the three main childhood cancer causes, looking to increase etiological knowledge.We ran a case-control study. The cases were children aged 0 to 14 diagnosed with leukemia, lymphomas (HL and NHL or CNS neoplasm in five Spanish regions for the period 1996-2011. As a control group, we used a sample from the Birth Registry matching every case by year of birth, autonomous region of residence and sex with six controls. We geocoded and validated the address of the cases and controls. For our two objectives we used two different methodologies. For the first, for overall spatial clustering detection, we used the differences of K functions from the spatial point patterns perspective proposed by Diggle and Chetwynd and the second, for cluster detection, we used the spatial scan statistic proposed by Kulldorff with a level for statistical significance of 0.05.We had 1062 cases of leukemia, 714 cases of CNS, 92 of HL and 246 of NHL. Accordingly we had 6 times the number of controls, 6372 controls for leukemia, 4284 controls for CNS, 552 controls for HL and 1476 controls for NHL. We found variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers, including some overall spatial clustering for specific regions and distances. We did not find statistically significant clusters.The variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers could be partially explained by the differences in the spatial distribution of the population; however, according to the

  13. MicroRNA expression profile in head and neck cancer: HOX-cluster embedded microRNA-196a and microRNA-10b dysregulation implicated in cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current evidence implicates aberrant microRNA expression patterns in human malignancies; measurement of microRNA expression may have diagnostic and prognostic applications. Roles for microRNAs in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are largely unknown. HNSCC, a smoking-related cancer, is one of the most common malignancies worldwide but reliable diagnostic and prognostic markers have not been discovered so far. Some studies have evaluated the potential use of microRNA as biomarkers with clinical application in HNSCC. MicroRNA expression profile of oral squamous cell carcinoma samples was determined by means of DNA microarrays. We also performed gain-of-function assays for two differentially expressed microRNA using two squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and normal oral keratinocytes. The effect of the over-expression of these molecules was evaluated by means of global gene expression profiling and cell proliferation assessment. Altered microRNA expression was detected for a total of 72 microRNAs. Among these we found well studied molecules, such as the miR-17-92 cluster, comprising potent oncogenic microRNA, and miR-34, recently found to interact with p53. HOX-cluster embedded miR-196a/b and miR-10b were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in tumor samples. Since validated HOX gene targets for these microRNAs are not consistently deregulated in HNSCC, we performed gain-of-function experiments, in an attempt to outline their possible role. Our results suggest that both molecules interfere in cell proliferation through distinct processes, possibly targeting a small set of genes involved in cell cycle progression. Functional data on miRNAs in HNSCC is still scarce. Our data corroborate current literature and brings new insights into the role of microRNAs in HNSCC. We also show that miR-196a and miR-10b, not previously associated with HNSCC, may play an oncogenic role in this disease through the deregulation of cell proliferation. The study of micro

  14. Improving IPV6 Addressing Types and Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoun Batiha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available IPv6 protocol is the next candidate protocol after IPv4 protocolthatused foralong time. For this protocoltheaddressing types and address sizeare discussedto list some modifications that could improve itsperformancethrough the internet. Atthe same time, we prove that multicast addressing type is the mostimportant addressing type since it can mimic any other addressing type. Finally,a short studyis developedin order to reduce the current IPv6 address size to haveless overhead in the basic header packet, thisreductionomitsabout 40% of the over all basic IPv6 basic packet overhead.

  15. Adaptation and change in creative clusters: Findings from Vienna's New Media sector

    OpenAIRE

    Tanja Sinozic; Franz Tödtling

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores cluster change using the case example of New Media in Vienna. It addresses the question of how cluster elements (such as firms and institutions) interact to shape and transform the thematic and spatial boundaries of clusters as they shift along their developmental stages. Clusters go through different phases underpinned by technical change, renewing and destroying previous cluster specialisations. Creativity is a key feature in modern economies underlying...

  16. Tuning Properties in Silver Clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Joshi, Chakra P

    2015-07-09

    The properties of Ag nanoclusters are not as well understood as those of their more precious Au cousins. However, a recent surge in the exploration of strategies to tune the physicochemical characteristics of Ag clusters addresses this imbalance, leading to new insights into their optical, luminescence, crystal habit, metal-core, ligand-shell and environmental properties. In this Perspective, we provide an overview of the latest strategies along with a brief introduction of the theoretical framework necessary to understand the properties of silver nanoclusters and the basis for their tuning. The advances in cluster research and the future prospects presented in this Perspective will eventually guide the next large systematic study of nanoclusters, resulting in a single collection of data similar to the periodic table of elements.

  17. Gene Expression Data Knowledge Discovery using Global and Local Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    H, Swathi.

    2010-01-01

    To understand complex biological systems, the research community has produced huge corpus of gene expression data. A large number of clustering approaches have been proposed for the analysis of gene expression data. However, extracting important biological knowledge is still harder. To address this task, clustering techniques are used. In this paper, hybrid Hierarchical k-Means algorithm is used for clustering and biclustering gene expression data is used. To discover both local and global cl...

  18. Are clusters of mental retardation correlated with clusters of developmental delay?

    OpenAIRE

    Huiling Zhen; Suzanne McDermott; Lawson, Andrew B.; C. Marjorie Aelion

    2009-01-01

    Mental retardation (MR) is a subset of developmental delay (DD), a broader classification of childhood disability. The purpose of this study was to determine if clusters of these two conditions were statistically significantly correlated. The residential addresses of 81,935 Medicaid insured pregnant women during each month of pregnancy were used to identify clusters of MR and DD in their children. Correlations between MR and DD were computed based on the sets of P-value surface from selected ...

  19. What Makes Clusters Decline?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark....... The longitudinal study on the high-tech cluster reveals that technological lock-in and exit of key firms have contributed to decline. Entrepreneurship has a positive effect on the cluster’s adaptive capabilities, while multinational companies have contradicting effects by bringing in new resources to the cluster...

  20. Collagen attachment to the substrate controls cell clustering through migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell clustering and scattering play important roles in cancer progression and tissue engineering. While the extracellular matrix (ECM) is known to control cell clustering, much of the quantitative work has focused on the analysis of clustering between cells with strong cell–cell junctions. Much less is known about how the ECM regulates cells with weak cell–cell contact. Clustering characteristics were quantified in rat adenocarcinoma cells, which form clusters on physically adsorbed collagen substrates, but not on covalently attached collagen substrates. Covalently attaching collagen inhibited desorption of collagen from the surface. While changes in proliferation rate could not explain differences seen in the clustering, changes in cell motility could. Cells plated under conditions that resulted in more clustering had a lower persistence time and slower migration rate than those under conditions that resulted in less clustering. Understanding how the ECM regulates clustering will not only impact the fundamental understanding of cancer progression, but also will guide the design of tissue engineered constructs that allow for the clustering or dissemination of cells throughout the construct. (paper)

  1. Cluster identification based on correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, L. S.

    2012-04-01

    The problem addressed is the identification of cooperating agents based on correlations created as a result of the joint action of these and other agents. A systematic method for using correlations beyond second moments is developed. The technique is applied to a didactic example, the identification of alphabet letters based on correlations among the pixels used in an image of the letter. As in this example, agents can belong to more than one cluster. Moreover, the identification scheme does not require that the patterns be known ahead of time.

  2. Space-time clustering of non-hodgkin lymphoma using residential histories in a Danish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baastrup Nordsborg, Rikke; Meliker, Jaymie R; Kjær Ersbøll, Annette; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a frequent cancer and incidence rates have increased markedly during the second half of the 20(th) century; however, the few established risk factors cannot explain this rise and still little is known about the aetiology of NHL. Spatial analyses have been applied in an attempt to identify environmental risk factors, but most studies do not take human mobility into account. The aim of this study was to identify clustering of NHL in space and time in Denmark, using 33 years of residential addresses. We utilised the nation-wide Danish registers and unique personal identification number that all Danish citizens have to conduct a register-based case-control study of 3210 NHL cases and two independent control groups of 3210 each. Cases were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry and controls were matched by age and sex and randomly selected from the Civil Registration System. Residential addresses of cases and controls from 1971 to 2003 were collected from the Civil Registration System and geocoded. Data on pervious hospital diagnoses and operations were obtained from the National Patient Register. We applied the methods of the newly developed Q-statistics to identify space-time clustering of NHL. All analyses were conducted with each of the two control groups, and we adjusted for previous history of autoimmune disease, HIV/AIDS or organ transplantation. Some areas with statistically significant clustering were identified; however, results were not consistent across the two control groups; thus we interpret the results as chance findings. We found no evidence for clustering of NHL in space and time using 33 years of residential histories, suggesting that if the rise in incidence of NHL is a result of risk factors that vary across space and time, the spatio-temporal variation of such factors in Denmark is too small to be detected with the applied method. PMID:23560108

  3. Space-time clustering of non-hodgkin lymphoma using residential histories in a Danish case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Baastrup Nordsborg

    Full Text Available Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL is a frequent cancer and incidence rates have increased markedly during the second half of the 20(th century; however, the few established risk factors cannot explain this rise and still little is known about the aetiology of NHL. Spatial analyses have been applied in an attempt to identify environmental risk factors, but most studies do not take human mobility into account. The aim of this study was to identify clustering of NHL in space and time in Denmark, using 33 years of residential addresses. We utilised the nation-wide Danish registers and unique personal identification number that all Danish citizens have to conduct a register-based case-control study of 3210 NHL cases and two independent control groups of 3210 each. Cases were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry and controls were matched by age and sex and randomly selected from the Civil Registration System. Residential addresses of cases and controls from 1971 to 2003 were collected from the Civil Registration System and geocoded. Data on pervious hospital diagnoses and operations were obtained from the National Patient Register. We applied the methods of the newly developed Q-statistics to identify space-time clustering of NHL. All analyses were conducted with each of the two control groups, and we adjusted for previous history of autoimmune disease, HIV/AIDS or organ transplantation. Some areas with statistically significant clustering were identified; however, results were not consistent across the two control groups; thus we interpret the results as chance findings. We found no evidence for clustering of NHL in space and time using 33 years of residential histories, suggesting that if the rise in incidence of NHL is a result of risk factors that vary across space and time, the spatio-temporal variation of such factors in Denmark is too small to be detected with the applied method.

  4. Reliably Addressing "What Matters" Through a Quality Improvement Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Patricia A

    2016-02-01

    Oncology nurses have a critical role in mitigating the intense vulnerability, loss of control, and fear of the unknown that characterizes the experiences of patients with cancer and their family members. Reliably inquiring about the issues that are at the forefront for patients and their loved ones can encourage a deeper dialogue-where nurses can understand and address the issues that are most important to them. A practical quality improvement approach can help to ensure that processes are in place to assist nurses in devoting time to reliably inquire about "what matters" to each patient at every encounter.

  5. Star clusters and associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All 33 papers presented at the symposium were inputted to INIS. They dealt with open clusters, globular clusters, stellar associations and moving groups, and local kinematics and galactic structures. (E.S.)

  6. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution.

  7. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  8. Dynamically allocated virtual clustering management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Kelvin; Cannata, Jess

    2013-05-01

    The U.S Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has built a "Wireless Emulation Lab" to support research in wireless mobile networks. In our current experimentation environment, our researchers need the capability to run clusters of heterogeneous nodes to model emulated wireless tactical networks where each node could contain a different operating system, application set, and physical hardware. To complicate matters, most experiments require the researcher to have root privileges. Our previous solution of using a single shared cluster of statically deployed virtual machines did not sufficiently separate each user's experiment due to undesirable network crosstalk, thus only one experiment could be run at a time. In addition, the cluster did not make efficient use of our servers and physical networks. To address these concerns, we created the Dynamically Allocated Virtual Clustering management system (DAVC). This system leverages existing open-source software to create private clusters of nodes that are either virtual or physical machines. These clusters can be utilized for software development, experimentation, and integration with existing hardware and software. The system uses the Grid Engine job scheduler to efficiently allocate virtual machines to idle systems and networks. The system deploys stateless nodes via network booting. The system uses 802.1Q Virtual LANs (VLANs) to prevent experimentation crosstalk and to allow for complex, private networks eliminating the need to map each virtual machine to a specific switch port. The system monitors the health of the clusters and the underlying physical servers and it maintains cluster usage statistics for historical trends. Users can start private clusters of heterogeneous nodes with root privileges for the duration of the experiment. Users also control when to shutdown their clusters.

  9. Quantum Annealing for Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Kurihara, Kenichi; Tanaka, Shu; Miyashita, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies quantum annealing (QA) for clustering, which can be seen as an extension of simulated annealing (SA). We derive a QA algorithm for clustering and propose an annealing schedule, which is crucial in practice. Experiments show the proposed QA algorithm finds better clustering assignments than SA. Furthermore, QA is as easy as SA to implement.

  10. Emergence of regional clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Østergaard, Christian Richter; Dalum, Bent

    2010-01-01

    approach to analyse how successful early firms can lead to formation of clusters. Three key determinants are identified: (1) the geographical dimension of entrepreneurial activity, (2) spinoffs from successful firms and (3) new market opportunities. The chapter studies in great detail the evolution...... of the wireless communications cluster in Northern Denmark and compare it with the evolution of other clusters....

  11. The Durban Auto Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jochen; Robbins, Glen; Barnes, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the formation of the Durban Auto Cluster in the context of trade liberalization. It argues that the improvement of operational competitiveness of firms in the cluster is prominently due to joint action. It tests this proposition by comparing the gains from cluster activities i...

  12. Cluster Physics with Merging Galaxy Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor M. Molnar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Collisions between galaxy clusters provide a unique opportunity to study matter in a parameter space which cannot be explored in our laboratories on Earth. In the standard LCDM model, where the total density is dominated by the cosmological constant ($Lambda$ and the matter density by cold dark matter (CDM, structure formation is hierarchical, and clusters grow mostly by merging.Mergers of two massive clusters are the most energetic events in the universe after the Big Bang,hence they provide a unique laboratory to study cluster physics.The two main mass components in clusters behave differently during collisions:the dark matter is nearly collisionless, responding only to gravity, while the gas is subject to pressure forces and dissipation, and shocks and turbulenceare developed during collisions. In the present contribution we review the different methods used to derive the physical properties of merging clusters. Different physical processes leave their signatures on different wavelengths, thusour review is based on a multifrequency analysis. In principle, the best way to analyze multifrequency observations of merging clustersis to model them using N-body/HYDRO numerical simulations. We discuss the results of such detailed analyses.New high spatial and spectral resolution ground and space based telescopeswill come online in the near future. Motivated by these new opportunities,we briefly discuss methods which will be feasible in the near future in studying merging clusters.

  13. Cluster beam sources. Part 1. Methods of cluster beams generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Ju. Karpenko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The short review on cluster beams generation is proposed. The basic types of cluster sources are considered and the processes leading to cluster formation are analyzed. The parameters, that affects the work of cluster sources are presented.

  14. An Experimental of IPv6 Address Assignment for Global Unicast Address Using NS-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. P. Sumathi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6 is the next generation protocol and in the near future, routers are going to become more faster and new technologies are going to reduce the Internet delay. IPv6 global unicast address is similar to IPv4 public address and globally routable. This Global unicast address assignment process provides new function called Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC is a significant feature for host itself generating and configuring own addresses to enable communication. In this paper aims to describe experimental about IPv6 address assignment for global unicast address and evaluation of a host using various parameters such as Default router IP address, Throughput, Average End to End Delay and Domain Name Server (DNS IP address. The study was carried out using an open source Network Simulator (NS-3 to study and analyses the behavior of IPv6 address assignment.

  15. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RUS addresses. 1730.3 Section 1730.3 Agriculture... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain...) Documents required to be submitted to RUS under this part are to be sent to the office of the...

  16. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  17. A Novel Approach for TNA Address Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Wang; Yaohui Jin; Weishen Hu; Shenli Zhu

    2003-01-01

    We present a new scheme to allocate/de- allocate Transport Network Assigned (TNA) address using Link ManagementProtocol (LMP) and to register/resolution these addresses using Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) forAutomatically Switched Optical Network (ASON).

  18. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  19. Image compression using address-vector quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu

    1990-12-01

    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  20. An Experimental of IPv6 Address Assignment for Global Unicast Address Using NS-3

    OpenAIRE

    DR.P.SUMATHI; Dr. Saroj Patel; Prabhakaran,, Dorairaj

    2015-01-01

    Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is the next generation protocol and in the near future, routers are going to become more faster and new technologies are going to reduce the Internet delay. IPv6 global unicast address is similar to IPv4 public address and globally routable. This Global unicast address assignment process provides new function called Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC) is a significant feature for host itself generating and configuring own addresses to enable communi...

  1. Data structure, method and system for address lookup

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanakis, G.; Sourdis, I.; Nedeltchev, G.G.; De Smet, R.

    2010-01-01

    Method and computer system for constructing a decision tree for use in address lookup of a requested address in an address space. The address space is arranged as a set of basic address ranges. Each basic address range is defined by a lower and an upper bound address, and an address in the address space is represented by a predetermined number of bits.

  2. Cluster analysis for applications

    CERN Document Server

    Anderberg, Michael R

    1973-01-01

    Cluster Analysis for Applications deals with methods and various applications of cluster analysis. Topics covered range from variables and scales to measures of association among variables and among data units. Conceptual problems in cluster analysis are discussed, along with hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering methods. The necessary elements of data analysis, statistics, cluster analysis, and computer implementation are integrated vertically to cover the complete path from raw data to a finished analysis.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the subject o

  3. Clusters in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Christian

    Following the pioneering discovery of alpha clustering and of molecular resonances, the field of nuclear clustering is today one of those domains of heavy-ion nuclear physics that faces the greatest challenges, yet also contains the greatest opportunities. After many summer schools and workshops, in particular over the last decade, the community of nuclear molecular physicists has decided to collaborate in producing a comprehensive collection of lectures and tutorial reviews covering the field. This third volume follows the successful Lect. Notes Phys. 818 (Vol. 1) and 848 (Vol. 2), and comprises six extensive lectures covering the following topics:  - Gamma Rays and Molecular Structure - Faddeev Equation Approach for Three Cluster Nuclear Reactions - Tomography of the Cluster Structure of Light Nuclei Via Relativistic Dissociation - Clustering Effects Within the Dinuclear Model : From Light to Hyper-heavy Molecules in Dynamical Mean-field Approach - Clusterization in Ternary Fission - Clusters in Light N...

  4. Unconventional methods for clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyrba, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Cluster analysis or clustering is a task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more similar (in some sense or another) to each other than to those in other groups (clusters). It is the main task of exploratory data mining and a common technique for statistical data analysis used in many fields, including machine learning, pattern recognition, image analysis, information retrieval, and bioinformatics. The topic of this paper is one of the modern methods of clustering namely SOM (Self Organising Map). The paper describes the theory needed to understand the principle of clustering and descriptions of algorithm used with clustering in our experiments.

  5. Spatial cluster modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, Andrew B

    2002-01-01

    Research has generated a number of advances in methods for spatial cluster modelling in recent years, particularly in the area of Bayesian cluster modelling. Along with these advances has come an explosion of interest in the potential applications of this work, especially in epidemiology and genome research. In one integrated volume, this book reviews the state-of-the-art in spatial clustering and spatial cluster modelling, bringing together research and applications previously scattered throughout the literature. It begins with an overview of the field, then presents a series of chapters that illuminate the nature and purpose of cluster modelling within different application areas, including astrophysics, epidemiology, ecology, and imaging. The focus then shifts to methods, with discussions on point and object process modelling, perfect sampling of cluster processes, partitioning in space and space-time, spatial and spatio-temporal process modelling, nonparametric methods for clustering, and spatio-temporal ...

  6. Survey on Text Document Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    M.Thangamani; Dr.P.Thangaraj

    2010-01-01

    Document clustering is also referred as text clustering, and its concept is merely equal to data clustering. It is hardly difficult to find the selective information from an ‘N’number of series information, so that document clustering came into picture. Basically cluster means a group of similar data, document clustering means segregating the data into different groups of similar data. Clustering can be of mathematical, statistical or numerical domain. Clustering is a fundamental data analysi...

  7. Address forms in Chinese audit opinions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziye; Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Although forms of address are widely used in textual and other types of disclosure,empirical evidence of their effects is rare.China provides a unique setting in which to test the economic consequences of the forms of address used in audit reports.From 2003 to 2011,about 60%of auditors surveyed addressed their clients by their real names in audit opinions,while the others used honorifics.Based on a sample of Chinese audit opinions,I report the following findings.First,the announcement of an audit opinion that uses the client’s real name elicits a greater market response than the announcement of an opinion featuring an honorific form of address.Second,the effects of real-name forms of address are stronger in firms with weak board governance.Third,the association between audit fees and audit risk factors,such as loss-making,is stronger in firms that are addressed by their real names in audit reports.I conclude from these findings that the forms of address used in audit opinions may reveal private information on audit quality.The results of this study are consistent with the power-solidarity effect described by sociolinguists.

  8. The Ecology of Black Holes in Star Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2004-01-01

    In this lecture we investigate the formation and evolution of black holes in star clusters. The star clusters under consideration are generally rich, containing more than 10^4 stars, and with a density exceeding 10^4 stars/pc^3. Among these are young dense clusters (YoDeCs), globular cluster and the nuclei of galaxies. We will also address the the possible evolutionary link between stellar mass black holes, via intermediate mass black holes to supermassive black holes, mainly focus on the eco...

  9. Why Do Only Some Galaxy Clusters Have Cool Cores?

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, Jack O.; Hallman, Eric J.; Gantner, Brennan; Motl, Patrick M; Michael L. Norman

    2007-01-01

    Flux-limited X-ray samples indicate that about half of rich galaxy clusters have cool cores. Why do only some clusters have cool cores while others do not? In this paper, cosmological N-body + Eulerian hydrodynamic simulations, including radiative cooling and heating, are used to address this question as we examine the formation and evolution of cool core (CC) and non-cool core (NCC) clusters. These adaptive mesh refinement simulations produce both CC and NCC clusters in the same volume. They...

  10. SPECTRAL CLUSTERING STRATEGIES FOR HETEROGENEOUS DISEASE EXPRESSION DATA†

    Science.gov (United States)

    HUANG, GRACE T.; CUNNINGHAM, KATHRYN I.; BENOS, PANAYIOTIS V.; CHENNUBHOTLA, CHAKRA S.

    2015-01-01

    Clustering of gene expression data simplifies subsequent data analyses and forms the basis of numerous approaches for biomarker identification, prediction of clinical outcome, and personalized therapeutic strategies. The most popular clustering methods such as K-means and hierarchical clustering are intuitive and easy to use, but they require arbitrary choices on their various parameters (number of clusters for K-means, and a threshold to cut the tree for hierarchical clustering). Human disease gene expression data are in general more difficult to cluster efficiently due to background (genotype) heterogeneity, disease stage and progression differences and disease subtyping; all of which cause gene expression datasets to be more heterogeneous. Spectral clustering has been recently introduced in many fields as a promising alternative to standard clustering methods. The idea is that pairwise comparisons can help reveal global features through the eigen techniques. In this paper, we developed a new recursive K-means spectral clustering method (ReKS) for disease gene expression data. We benchmarked ReKS on three large-scale cancer datasets and we compared it to different clustering methods with respect to execution time, background models and external biological knowledge. We found ReKS to be superior to the hierarchical methods and equally good to K-means, but much faster than them and without the requirement for a priori knowledge of K. Overall, ReKS offers an attractive alternative for efficient clustering of human disease data. PMID:23424126

  11. Local address and emergency contact details

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The HR Department would like to remind members of the personnel that they are responsible for ensuring that their personal data concerning local address and preferred emergency contact details remains valid and up-to-date.   Both are easily accessible via the links below: Local address: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/LocalAddressChange   Emergency contacts: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/EC   Please take a few minutes to check your details and modify if necessary. Thank you in advance. HR Department Head Office

  12. Agricultural Clusters in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, M.A.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Michael Porter was the first to use the term cluster in an economic context. He introduced the term in The Competitive Advantage of Nations (1990). The term cluster is also known as business cluster, industry cluster, competitive cluster or Porterian cluster. This article aims at determining and mea

  13. Cancer Statistics: Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a third party. HPF: Did You Know? Endometrial Cancer Endometrial Cancer - Did you know that endometrial cancer ... mfhs0vbvWi8?rel=0 SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Endometrial Cancer Expand All Collapse All Lifetime risk estimates are ...

  14. Combined Mapping of Multiple clUsteriNg ALgorithms (COMMUNAL): A Robust Method for Selection of Cluster Number, K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Timothy E; Chen, Albert C; Gevaert, Olivier

    2015-11-19

    In order to discover new subsets (clusters) of a data set, researchers often use algorithms that perform unsupervised clustering, namely, the algorithmic separation of a dataset into some number of distinct clusters. Deciding whether a particular separation (or number of clusters, K) is correct is a sort of 'dark art', with multiple techniques available for assessing the validity of unsupervised clustering algorithms. Here, we present a new technique for unsupervised clustering that uses multiple clustering algorithms, multiple validity metrics, and progressively bigger subsets of the data to produce an intuitive 3D map of cluster stability that can help determine the optimal number of clusters in a data set, a technique we call COmbined Mapping of Multiple clUsteriNg ALgorithms (COMMUNAL). COMMUNAL locally optimizes algorithms and validity measures for the data being used. We show its application to simulated data with a known K, and then apply this technique to several well-known cancer gene expression datasets, showing that COMMUNAL provides new insights into clustering behavior and stability in all tested cases. COMMUNAL is shown to be a useful tool for determining K in complex biological datasets, and is freely available as a package for R.

  15. Addressing Transition Issues in Languages Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigler-Peters, Susi; Moran, Wendy; Piccioli, Maria Teresa; Chesterton, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on what has been learned from the implementation and evaluation of the Australian Language and Continuity Initiative (LCI) in relation to addressing transition issues in language education. (Author/VWL)

  16. Radiation and occupational health: opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The part of address discusses the following issue: benefits of radiological protection in Malaysia, traceability and accountability as assurance of the validity of radiation measurement, Laboratory Accreditation Scheme, Atomic Energy Licensing Act

  17. Address Points, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Geographic coordinate system; in a Not Sure projection; The extent of these...

  18. An Efficient Reconfigurable Content Addressable Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswathy Sekharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an efficient reconfigurable Content Addressable memory (CAMs which is a hardware search engine that are much faster than other algorithmic approaches for search intensive applications. Content Addressable Memories are composed of conventional semiconductor memory (usually SRAM with added comparison circuitry that enables a search operation to complete in a single clock cycle. To understand more about Content Addressable Memory, it helps to contrast it with RAM. A RAM is an integrated circuit that stores data temporarily. In CAM, the user supplies the data and gets back the address.In this paper we introduce a temporary memory called Cache. The cache-CAM (C-CAM saves 80% power over a conventional CAM. Compared with existing software search engines proposed hardware search engine can do multiple searches at a time with more flexibility.

  19. Addressing Your Child's Weight at the Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Beverage Toolkit Addressing your Child's Weight at the Doctor Updated:Aug 4,2014 The discussion of weight ... tips on how to make talking with your doctor about weight and childhood obesity less daunting: Come ...

  20. Census Bureau Planned Acquisition: Address Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The Census Bureau updates and maintains address data to support the correct allocation of population and housing for censuses and surveys. Boundaries, streets,...

  1. Measuring the Density Matrix by Local Addressing

    CERN Document Server

    Kis, Z

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a procedure to measure the density matrix of a material system. The density matrix is addressed locally in this scheme by applying a sequence of delayed light pulses. The procedure is based on the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) technique. It is shown that a series of population measurements on the target state of the population transfer process yields unambiguous information about the populations and coherences of the addressed states, which therefore can be determined.

  2. Why Do Only Some Galaxy Clusters Have Cool Cores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jack O.; Hallman, Eric J.; Gantner, Brennan; Motl, Patrick M.; Norman, Michael L.

    2008-03-01

    Flux-limited X-ray samples indicate that about half of rich galaxy clusters have cool cores. Why do only some clusters have cool cores while others do not? In this paper, cosmological N-body + Eulerian hydrodynamic simulations, including radiative cooling and heating, are used to address this question as we examine the formation and evolution of cool core (CC) and noncool core (NCC) clusters. These adaptive mesh refinement simulations produce both CC and NCC clusters in the same volume. They have a peak resolution of 15.6 h-1 kpc within a (256 h-1 Mpc)3 box. Our simulations suggest that there are important evolutionary differences between CC clusters and their NCC counterparts. Many of the numerical CC clusters accreted mass more slowly over time and grew enhanced CCs via hierarchical mergers; when late major mergers occurred, the CCs survived the collisions. By contrast, NCC clusters experienced major mergers early in their evolution that destroyed embryonic CCs and produced conditions that prevented CC reformation. As a result, our simulations predict observationally testable distinctions in the properties of CC and NCC beyond the core regions in clusters. In particular, we find differences between CC versus NCC clusters in the shapes of X-ray surface brightness profiles, between the temperatures and hardness ratios beyond the cores, between the distribution of masses, and between their supercluster environs. It also appears that CC clusters are no closer to hydrostatic equilibrium than NCC clusters, an issue important for precision cosmology measurements.

  3. 2009 Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures GRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai-Sheng Wang

    2009-07-19

    For over thirty years, this Gordon Conference has been the premiere meeting for the field of cluster science, which studies the phenomena that arise when matter becomes small. During its history, participants have witnessed the discovery and development of many novel materials, including C60, carbon nanotubes, semiconductor and metal nanocrystals, and nanowires. In addition to addressing fundamental scientific questions related to these materials, the meeting has always included a discussion of their potential applications. Consequently, this conference has played a critical role in the birth and growth of nanoscience and engineering. The goal of the 2009 Gordon Conference is to continue the forward-looking tradition of this meeting and discuss the most recent advances in the field of clusters, nanocrystals, and nanostructures. As in past meetings, this will include new topics that broaden the field. In particular, a special emphasis will be placed on nanomaterials related to the efficient use, generation, or conversion of energy. For example, we anticipate presentations related to batteries, catalysts, photovoltaics, and thermoelectrics. In addition, we expect to address the controversy surrounding carrier multiplication with a session in which recent results addressing this phenomenon will be discussed and debated. The atmosphere of the conference, which emphasizes the presentation of unpublished results and lengthy discussion periods, ensures that attendees will enjoy a valuable and stimulating experience. Because only a limited number of participants are allowed to attend this conference, and oversubscription is anticipated, we encourage all interested researchers from academia, industry, and government institutions to apply as early as possible. An invitation is not required. We also encourage all attendees to submit their latest results for presentation at the poster sessions. We anticipate that several posters will be selected for 'hot topic' oral

  4. Address Points, address, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Juab County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'address'....

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, rural addressing does collect address points, Published in unknown, Gibson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'rural addressing does collect address points'. The extent of these data is generally Gila...

  6. Cancer - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org Cancer Care -- www.cancercare.org National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov

  7. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

  8. Clustering Categorical Data:A Cluster Ensemble Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Zengyou(何增友); Xu Xiaofei; Deng Shengchun

    2003-01-01

    Clustering categorical data, an integral part of data mining,has attracted much attention recently. In this paper, the authors formally define the categorical data clustering problem as an optimization problem from the viewpoint of cluster ensemble, and apply cluster ensemble approach for clustering categorical data. Experimental results on real datasets show that better clustering accuracy can be obtained by comparing with existing categorical data clustering algorithms.

  9. Spatial Scan Statistic: Selecting clusters and generating elliptic clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl

    2004-01-01

    The spatial scan statistic is widely used to search for clusters. This paper shows that the usually applied elimination of overlapping clusters to find secondary clusters is sensitive to smooth changes in the shape of the clusters. We present an algorithm for generation of set of confocal elliptic...... clusters. In addition, we propose a new way to present the information in a given set of clusters based on the significance of the clusters....

  10. Using Design-Based Latent Growth Curve Modeling with Cluster-Level Predictor to Address Dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiun-Yu; Kwok, Oi-Man; Willson, Victor L.

    2014-01-01

    The authors compared the effects of using the true Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Model (MLGCM) with single-level regular and design-based Latent Growth Curve Models (LGCM) with or without the higher-level predictor on various criterion variables for multilevel longitudinal data. They found that random effect estimates were biased when the…

  11. Using Enrichment Clusters to Address the Needs of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer K.; Robbins, Margaret A.; Payne, Yolanda Denise; Brown, Katherine Backes

    2016-01-01

    Using data from teacher interviews, classroom observations, and a professional development workshop, this article explains how one component of the schoolwide enrichment model (SEM) has been implemented at a culturally diverse elementary school serving primarily Latina/o and African American students. Based on a broadened conception of giftedness,…

  12. Cosmology with cluster surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subhabrata Majumdar

    2004-10-01

    Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the density and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state parameter . Upcoming Sunyaev–Zel'dovich (SZ) surveys would provide us large yields of clusters to very high red-shifts. Self-calibration of cluster scaling relations, possible for such a huge sample, would be able to constrain systematic biases on mass estimators. Combining cluster red-shift abundance with limited mass follow-up and cluster mass power spectrum can then give constraints on , as well as on 8 and to a few per cents.

  13. CSR in Industrial Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Pillay, Renginee G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The paper seeks to review the literature on CSR in industrial clusters in developing countries, identifying the main strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in this literature, pointing to future research directions and policy implications in the area of CSR and industrial cluster development...... in this field and their comments incorporated in the final version submitted to Corporate Governance. Findings – The article traces the origins of the debate on industrial clusters and CSR in developing countries back to the early 1990s when clusters began to be seen as an important vehicle for local economic...... development in the South. At the turn of the millennium the industrial cluster debate expanded as clusters were perceived as a potential source of poverty reduction, while their role in promoting CSR among small and medium-sized enterprises began to take shape from 2006 onwards. At present, there is still...

  14. Melting of sodium clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes-Nava, J A; Beltran, M R; Michaelian, K

    2002-01-01

    Thermal stability properties and the melting-like transition of Na_n, n=13-147, clusters are studied through microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations. The metallic bonding in the sodium clusters is mimicked by a many-body Gupta potential based on the second moment approximation of a tight-binding Hamiltonian. The characteristics of the solid-to-liquid transition in the sodium clusters are analyzed by calculating physical quantities like caloric curves, heat capacities, and root-mean-square bond length fluctuations using simulation times of several nanoseconds. Distinct melting mechanisms are obtained for the sodium clusters in the size range investigated. The calculated melting temperatures show an irregular variation with the cluster size, in qualitative agreement with recent experimental results. However, the calculated melting point for the Na_55 cluster is about 40 % lower than the experimental value.

  15. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  16. Starburst clusters in the Galactic center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Maryam

    2014-09-01

    The central region of the Galaxy is the most active site of star formation in the Milky Way, where massive stars have formed very recently and are still forming today. The rich population of massive stars in the Galactic center provide a unique opportunity to study massive stars in their birth environment and probe their initial mass function, which is the spectrum of stellar masses at their birth. The Arches cluster is the youngest among the three massive clusters in the Galactic center, providing a collection of high-mass stars and a very dense core which makes this cluster an excellent site to address questions about massive star formation, the stellar mass function and the dynamical evolution of massive clusters in the Galactic center. In this thesis, I perform an observational study of the Arches cluster using K_{s}-band imaging obtained with NAOS/CONICA at the VLT combined with Subaru/Cisco J-band data to gain a full understanding of the cluster mass distribution out to its tidal radius for the first time. Since the light from the Galactic center reaches us through the Galactic disc, the extinction correction is crucial when studying this region. I use a Bayesian method to construct a realistic extinction map of the cluster. It is shown in this study that the determination of the mass of the most massive star in the Arches cluster, which had been used in previous studies to establish an upper mass limit for the star formation process in the Milky Way, strongly depends on the assumed slope of the extinction law. Assuming the two regimes of widely used infrared extinction laws, I show that the difference can reach up to 30% for individually derived stellar masses and Δ A_{Ks}˜ 1 magnitude in acquired K_{s}-band extinction, while the present-day mass function slope changes by ˜ 0.17 dex. The present-day mass function slope derived assuming the more recent extinction law, which suggests a steeper wavelength dependence for the infrared extinction law, reveals

  17. Structures in Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Escalera, E; Girardi, M; Giuricin, G; Mardirossian, F; Mazure, A; Mezzetti, M

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of the presence of substructures in 16 well-sampled clusters of galaxies suggests a stimulating hypothesis: Clusters could be classified as unimodal or bimodal, on the basis of to the sub-clump distribution in the {\\em 3-D} space of positions and velocities. The dynamic study of these clusters shows that their fundamental characteristics, in particular the virial masses, are not severely biased by the presence of subclustering if the system considered is bound.

  18. Cluster Symmetries and Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freer Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many light nuclei display behaviour that indicates that rather than behaving as an A-body systems, the protons and neutrons condense into clusters. The α-particle is the most obvious example of such clustering. This contribution examines the role of such α-clustering on the structure, symmetries and dynamics of the nuclei 8Be, 12C and 16O, recent experimental measurements and future perspectives.

  19. Occupational asbestos exposure and risk of pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer in the prospective netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offermans, N.S.M.; Vermeulen, R.; Burdorf, A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kauppinen, T.; Kromhout, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To study the association between occupational asbestos exposure and pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer, specifically addressing risk associated with the lower end of the exposure distribution, risk of cancer subtypes, and the interaction between asbestos and smoking.

  20. Development of Automatic Cluster Algorithm for Microcalcification in Digital Mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seok Yoon [Dept. of Medical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Soo [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    Digital Mammography is an efficient imaging technique for the detection and diagnosis of breast pathological disorders. Six mammographic criteria such as number of cluster, number, size, extent and morphologic shape of microcalcification, and presence of mass, were reviewed and correlation with pathologic diagnosis were evaluated. It is very important to find breast cancer early when treatment can reduce deaths from breast cancer and breast incision. In screening breast cancer, mammography is typically used to view the internal organization. Clusterig microcalcifications on mammography represent an important feature of breast mass, especially that of intraductal carcinoma. Because microcalcification has high correlation with breast cancer, a cluster of a microcalcification can be very helpful for the clinical doctor to predict breast cancer. For this study, three steps of quantitative evaluation are proposed : DoG filter, adaptive thresholding, Expectation maximization. Through the proposed algorithm, each cluster in the distribution of microcalcification was able to measure the number calcification and length of cluster also can be used to automatically diagnose breast cancer as indicators of the primary diagnosis.

  1. 15th Cluster workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Laakso, Harri; Escoubet, C. Philippe; The Cluster Active Archive : Studying the Earth’s Space Plasma Environment

    2010-01-01

    Since the year 2000 the ESA Cluster mission has been investigating the small-scale structures and processes of the Earth's plasma environment, such as those involved in the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetospheric plasma, in global magnetotail dynamics, in cross-tail currents, and in the formation and dynamics of the neutral line and of plasmoids. This book contains presentations made at the 15th Cluster workshop held in March 2008. It also presents several articles about the Cluster Active Archive and its datasets, a few overview papers on the Cluster mission, and articles reporting on scientific findings on the solar wind, the magnetosheath, the magnetopause and the magnetotail.

  2. Galaxy Clusters with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Forman, W; Markevitch, M L; Vikhlinin, A A; Churazov, E

    2002-01-01

    We discuss Chandra results related to 1) cluster mergers and cold fronts and 2) interactions between relativistic plasma and hot cluster atmospheres. We describe the properties of cold fronts using NGC1404 in the Fornax cluster and A3667 as examples. We discuss multiple surface brightness discontinuities in the cooling flow cluster ZW3146. We review the supersonic merger underway in CL0657. Finally, we summarize the interaction between plasma bubbles produced by AGN and hot gas using M87 and NGC507 as examples.

  3. Management of cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer C; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2012-07-01

    The prevalence of cluster headache is 0.1% and cluster headache is often not diagnosed or misdiagnosed as migraine or sinusitis. In cluster headache there is often a considerable diagnostic delay - an average of 7 years in a population-based survey. Cluster headache is characterized by very severe or severe orbital or periorbital pain with a duration of 15-180 minutes. The cluster headache attacks are accompanied by characteristic associated unilateral symptoms such as tearing, nasal congestion and/or rhinorrhoea, eyelid oedema, miosis and/or ptosis. In addition, there is a sense of restlessness and agitation. Patients may have up to eight attacks per day. Episodic cluster headache (ECH) occurs in clusters of weeks to months duration, whereas chronic cluster headache (CCH) attacks occur for more than 1 year without remissions. Management of cluster headache is divided into acute attack treatment and prophylactic treatment. In ECH and CCH the attacks can be treated with oxygen (12 L/min) or subcutaneous sumatriptan 6 mg. For both oxygen and sumatriptan there are two randomized, placebo-controlled trials demonstrating efficacy. In both ECH and CCH, verapamil is the prophylactic drug of choice. Verapamil 360 mg/day was found to be superior to placebo in one clinical trial. In clinical practice, daily doses of 480-720 mg are mostly used. Thus, the dose of verapamil used in cluster headache treatment may be double the dose used in cardiology, and with the higher doses the PR interval should be checked with an ECG. At the start of a cluster, transitional preventive treatment such as corticosteroids or greater occipital nerve blockade can be given. In CCH and in long-standing clusters of ECH, lithium, methysergide, topiramate, valproic acid and ergotamine tartrate can be used as add-on prophylactic treatment. In drug-resistant CCH, neuromodulation with either occipital nerve stimulation or deep brain stimulation of the hypothalamus is an alternative treatment strategy

  4. Rationale, design, and implementation protocol of the Dutch clinical practice guideline Pain in patients with cancer: a cluster randomised controlled trial with short message service (SMS) and interactive voice response (IVR)

    OpenAIRE

    te Boveldt Nienke; Engels Yvonne; Besse Kees; Vissers Kris; Vernooij-Dassen Myrra

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background One-half of patients with cancer have pain. In nearly one out of two cancer patients with pain, this was undertreated. Inadequate pain control still remains an important problem in this group of patients. Therefore, in 2008 a national, evidence-based multidisciplinary clinical practice guideline 'pain in patients with cancer' has been developed. Yet, publishing a guideline is not enough. Implementation is needed to improve pain management. An innovative implementation stra...

  5. Countdown for the Cluster quartet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Following the successful completion of the Cluster II Flight Readiness Review on 23 June, final launch preparations are progressing smoothly and combined operations with the Soyuz-Fregat launch vehicle are now under way. The dual launches, each involving two Cluster spacecraft built under the prime contractorship of Astrium (former Dornier Satellitensysteme GmbH, Germany), are currently scheduled for 15 July with a launch window opening at 14:40 CEST, 12:40 GMT and lasting 6 minutes, and 9 August from Baikonur Space Centre in Kazakhstan. A number of press events have been organised in various countries to coincide with both launches. The main press centre for the first launch will be located at ESA's European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) at Darmstadt in Germany. Local press centres are also being set up in the other ESA establishments: ESRIN (Italy), ESTEC (The Netherlands), and VILSPA (Spain). See attachment for more detailed information and reply form to register at the various sites. Details of the second launch press event, which will be held in London (UK), will be available at a later date. Cluster II Competition Attracts Record Entries. A highlight of the first launch event at ESOC will be the announcement of the overall winner of ESA's "Name the Cluster quartet" competition and the chosen names of the four Cluster II satellites. Last February, members of the public in all of ESA's 15 member states were asked to suggest the most suitable names for the Cluster II spacecraft. The satellites are currently known as flight models (FM) 5, 6, 7 and 8. Competitors were asked to propose a set of four names (places, people, or things from history, mythology, or fiction, but not living persons) and explain in a few sentences the reasons for their choice. After sifting through more than 5,000 entries from all over Europe and debating at length the merits of the various suggestions, the multinational jury eventually produced a list of 15 national prize winners - one

  6. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSA tests. Read More "6 Common Cancers" Articles Lung Cancer / Breast Cancer / Prostate Cancer / Colorectal Cancer / Skin Cancer / Gynecologic Cancers Spring 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 2 Page 10 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & ...

  7. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certain people. Read More "6 Common Cancers" Articles Lung Cancer / Breast Cancer / Prostate Cancer / Colorectal Cancer / Skin Cancer / Gynecologic Cancers Spring 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 2 Page 11 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & ...

  8. Document Clustering Based on Semi-Supervised Term Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mahmoodi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study is conducted to propose a multi-step feature (term selection process and in semi-supervised fashion, provide initial centers for term clusters. Then utilize the fuzzy c-means (FCM clustering algorithm for clustering terms. Finally assign each of documents to closest associated term clusters. While most text clustering algorithms directly use documents for clustering, we propose to first group the terms using FCM algorithm and then cluster documents based on terms clusters. We evaluate effectiveness of our technique on several standard text collections and compare our results with the some classical text clustering algorithms.

  9. Clustering Genes of Common Evolutionary History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Kevin; Suchan, Tomasz; Alvarez, Nadir; Goldman, Nick; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    Phylogenetic inference can potentially result in a more accurate tree using data from multiple loci. However, if the loci are incongruent-due to events such as incomplete lineage sorting or horizontal gene transfer-it can be misleading to infer a single tree. To address this, many previous contributions have taken a mechanistic approach, by modeling specific processes. Alternatively, one can cluster loci without assuming how these incongruencies might arise. Such "process-agnostic" approaches typically infer a tree for each locus and cluster these. There are, however, many possible combinations of tree distance and clustering methods; their comparative performance in the context of tree incongruence is largely unknown. Furthermore, because standard model selection criteria such as AIC cannot be applied to problems with a variable number of topologies, the issue of inferring the optimal number of clusters is poorly understood. Here, we perform a large-scale simulation study of phylogenetic distances and clustering methods to infer loci of common evolutionary history. We observe that the best-performing combinations are distances accounting for branch lengths followed by spectral clustering or Ward's method. We also introduce two statistical tests to infer the optimal number of clusters and show that they strongly outperform the silhouette criterion, a general-purpose heuristic. We illustrate the usefulness of the approach by 1) identifying errors in a previous phylogenetic analysis of yeast species and 2) identifying topological incongruence among newly sequenced loci of the globeflower fly genus Chiastocheta We release treeCl, a new program to cluster genes of common evolutionary history (http://git.io/treeCl). PMID:26893301

  10. Strategies for Addressing Spreadsheet Compliance Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Brandon

    2006-01-01

    Most organizations today use spreadsheets in some form or another to support critical business processes. However the financial resources, and developmental rigor dedicated to them are often minor in comparison to other enterprise technology. The increasing focus on achieving regulatory and other forms of compliance over key technology assets has made it clear that organizations must regard spreadsheets as an enterprise resource and account for them when developing an overall compliance strategy. This paper provides the reader with a set of practical strategies for addressing spreadsheet compliance from an organizational perspective. It then presents capabilities offered in the 2007 Microsoft Office System which can be used to help customers address compliance challenges.

  11. Addressing techniques of liquid crystal displays

    CERN Document Server

    Ruckmongathan, Temkar N

    2014-01-01

    Unique reference source that can be used from the beginning to end of a design project to aid choosing an appropriate LCD addressing technique for a given application This book will be aimed at design engineers who are likely to embed LCD drivers and controllers in many systems including systems on chip. Such designers face the challenge of making the right choice of an addressing technique that will serve them with best performance at minimal cost and complexity. Readers will be able to learn about various methods available for driving matrix LCDs and the comparisons at the end of each chap

  12. Welfare work addressing immigrants and refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine

    In this presentation I will discuss the ways in which welfare workers addressing immigrants and refugees (re)produce integrationist visions, symbolizing society as an integrated whole and immigrants/refugees as a distraction to that whole. Paradoxically, welfare workers also oppose...... these integrationist visions in their quest to protect immigrants’ and refugees’ fundamental wellbeing and status as human beings with equal rights, group life and history. These opposing elements generate ambiguity and contradiction within integrationist welfare work. The ambition of the presentation is to enquire......, nurses and more) addressing immigrants and refugees and their families and descendants in the Danish welfare nation-state....

  13. Lung cancer and environmental radon exposure: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer accounts for approximately 100,000 deaths annually and nearly 30% of these are due to factors other than smoking. The prognosis for lung cancer is very poor and control of this disease depends on the identification and manipulation of etiologic agents. Radon is a demonstrated pulmonary carcinogen among uranium miners and is a ubiquitous environmental agent. This study addresses two principal issues: (a) the assessment of the potential health effects due to radon exposure from radioactive waste disposal in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, and (b) the broader scientific question of the existence of an association between lung cancer and environmental radon exposure. Indoor radon concentrations were taken in the homes of 50 lung cancer cases and 48 ASHD controls as an index of cumulative exposure. The distribution of concentrations was similar among case and control homes. The range of exposures was within background expectations as were lung cancer rates in the area. There was, furthermore, no geographic clustering of cases near the tailings site. Although an association between lung cancer and environmental radon exposure cannot be ruled out, the evidence suggests that radon exposure due to the disposal of tailings did not have a significant impact on the health of the residents living in the area and that indoor radon is not an important lung cancer risk factor at concentrations less than about 4pCi/I

  14. The relationship of cancer stem cells in urological cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pokrywczyńska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies are ongoing to identify and isolate cancer stem cells from cancers of genito-urinary tracts. Better understanding of their role in prostate, urothelial and kidney cancer origin, growth and progression opens new pathways in development of more effective treatment methods. However there are still many issues before advances in this field can be introduced for clinical application. This review addresses current achievements in cancer stem cells research in uro-oncology.

  15. From collisions to clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loukonen, Ville; Bork, Nicolai; Vehkamaki, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    to overcome the possible initial non-optimal collision orientations. No post-collisional cluster break up is observed. The reasons for the efficient clustering are (i) the proton transfer reaction which takes place in each of the collision simulations and (ii) the subsequent competition over the proton...

  16. Cost-Effective Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Gottlieb, S

    2001-01-01

    Small Beowulf clusters can effectively serve as personal or group supercomputers. In such an environment, a cluster can be optimally designed for a specific problem (or a small set of codes). We discuss how theoretical analysis of the code and benchmarking on similar hardware lead to optimal systems.

  17. Coma cluster of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Atlas Image mosaic, covering 34' x 34' on the sky, of the Coma cluster, aka Abell 1656. This is a particularly rich cluster of individual galaxies (over 1000 members), most prominently the two giant ellipticals, NGC 4874 (right) and NGC 4889 (left). The remaining members are mostly smaller ellipticals, but spiral galaxies are also evident in the 2MASS image. The cluster is seen toward the constellation Coma Berenices, but is actually at a distance of about 100 Mpc (330 million light years, or a redshift of 0.023) from us. At this distance, the cluster is in what is known as the 'Hubble flow,' or the overall expansion of the Universe. As such, astronomers can measure the Hubble Constant, or the universal expansion rate, based on the distance to this cluster. Large, rich clusters, such as Coma, allow astronomers to measure the 'missing mass,' i.e., the matter in the cluster that we cannot see, since it gravitationally influences the motions of the member galaxies within the cluster. The near-infrared maps the overall luminous mass content of the member galaxies, since the light at these wavelengths is dominated by the more numerous older stellar populations. Galaxies, as seen by 2MASS, look fairly smooth and homogeneous, as can be seen from the Hubble 'tuning fork' diagram of near-infrared galaxy morphology. Image mosaic by S. Van Dyk (IPAC).

  18. Clustering Text Data Streams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Bao Liu; Jia-Rong Cai; Jian Yin; Ada Wai-Chee Fu

    2008-01-01

    Clustering text data streams is an important issue in data mining community and has a number of applications such as news group filtering, text crawling, document organization and topic detection and tracing etc. However, most methods are similarity-based approaches and only use the TF*IDF scheme to represent the semantics of text data and often lead to poor clustering quality. Recently, researchers argue that semantic smoothing model is more efficient than the existing TF.IDF scheme for improving text clustering quality. However, the existing semantic smoothing model is not suitable for dynamic text data context. In this paper, we extend the semantic smoothing model into text data streams context firstly. Based on the extended model, we then present two online clustering algorithms OCTS and OCTSM for the clustering of massive text data streams. In both algorithms, we also present a new cluster statistics structure named cluster profile which can capture the semantics of text data streams dynamically and at the same time speed up the clustering process. Some efficient implementations for our algorithms are also given. Finally, we present a series of experimental results illustrating the effectiveness of our technique.

  19. Brightest Cluster Galaxy Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisman, Luke; Haarsma, D. B.; Sebald, D. A.; ACCEPT Team

    2011-01-01

    Brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) play an important role in several fields of astronomical research. The literature includes many different methods and criteria for identifying the BCG in the cluster, such as choosing the brightest galaxy, the galaxy nearest the X-ray peak, or the galaxy with the most extended profile. Here we examine a sample of 75 clusters from the Archive of Chandra Cluster Entropy Profile Tables (ACCEPT) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), measuring masked magnitudes and profiles for BCG candidates in each cluster. We first identified galaxies by hand; in 15% of clusters at least one team member selected a different galaxy than the others.We also applied 6 other identification methods to the ACCEPT sample; in 30% of clusters at least one of these methods selected a different galaxy than the other methods. We then developed an algorithm that weighs brightness, profile, and proximity to the X-ray peak and centroid. This algorithm incorporates the advantages of by-hand identification (weighing multiple properties) and automated selection (repeatable and consistent). The BCG population chosen by the algorithm is more uniform in its properties than populations selected by other methods, particularly in the relation between absolute magnitude (a proxy for galaxy mass) and average gas temperature (a proxy for cluster mass). This work supported by a Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship and a Sid Jansma Summer Research Fellowship.

  20. Blue emitting undecaplatinum clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Indranath; Bhuin, Radha Gobinda; Bhat, Shridevi; Pradeep, T.

    2014-07-01

    A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents.A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of experimental procedures, instrumentation, chromatogram of the crude cluster; SEM/EDAX, DLS, PXRD, TEM, FT-IR, and XPS of the isolated Pt11 cluster; UV/Vis, MALDI MS and SEM/EDAX of isolated 2 and 3; and 195Pt NMR of the K2PtCl6 standard. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02778g

  1. 大肠癌术后化疗患者症状群发生状况及其对患者日常活动的影响%Investigation of the influence of symptom clusters and related interference on the daily activities of colorectal cancer patients during the chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 李淑霞

    2015-01-01

    目的 调查大肠癌术后化疗患者症状发生状况,探讨其症状群种类及其对患者日常活动的影响.方法 使用中文版安德森消化道癌症症状评估表(MDASI-GI)对112例大肠癌术后化疗患者进行问卷调查,利用探索性因子及回归分析方法探讨症状群对患者日常活动的影响.结果 大肠癌术后化疗患者发生率高的症状依次为疲乏[99.1%(111/112)]、悲伤[98.2%(110/112)]、味觉改变[97.3%(109/112)];症状严重程度依次为疲乏[92.8%(104/112)]、睡眠不安[92.0%(103/112)]和口干[89.3%(100/112)],且存在上肖化道症状群、情绪症状群、疲乏相关症状群与排泄相关症状群,这4个症状群对患者日常活动的影响差异有统计学意义(R2=0.782,F=96.071,P< 0.01),均为症状困扰的有效预测因子.结论 大肠癌术后化疗患者症状发生率高、困扰程度重,多种症状群并存,对日常生活影响严重.医护人员应对患者症状及时评估并采取针对性的干预措施,以减轻患者的症状,改善生命质量.%Objective To investigate the influence of symptom incidence,severity,symptom clusters and related interference on the daily activities of colorectal cancer patients during the chemotherapy.Methods A sample of 112 colorectal cancer patients during the chemotherapy has been presented by M.D.Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI-GI) of Chinese Version.Exploratory factor and regression analysis are utilized to discuss influence of symptoms on the daily activities of patients.Results For patients with colorectal cancer after chemotherapy,the high incidence of symptoms are successively fatigue [99.1% (111/112)],sadness [98.2% (110/112)] and changes in taste [97.3% (109/112)].Meanwhile,the severe symptoms are successively fatigue [92.8% (104/112)],disturbed sleep [92.0% (103/112)] and dry mouth.Furthermore,four symptom clusters are identified as upper-gastrointestinal symptom cluster,emotional symptom cluster

  2. Cross-cancer profiling of molecular alterations within the human autophagy interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebovitz, Chandra B; Robertson, A Gordon; Goya, Rodrigo; Jones, Steven J; Morin, Ryan D; Marra, Marco A; Gorski, Sharon M

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant activation or disruption of autophagy promotes tumorigenesis in various preclinical models of cancer, but whether the autophagy pathway is a target for recurrent molecular alteration in human cancer patient samples is unknown. To address this outstanding question, we surveyed 211 human autophagy-associated genes for tumor-related alterations to DNA sequence and RNA expression levels and examined their association with patient survival outcomes in multiple cancer types with sequence data from The Cancer Genome Atlas consortium. We found 3 (RB1CC1/FIP200, ULK4, WDR45/WIPI4) and one (ATG7) core autophagy genes to be under positive selection for somatic mutations in endometrial carcinoma and clear cell renal carcinoma, respectively, while 29 autophagy regulators and pathway interactors, including previously identified KEAP1, NFE2L2, and MTOR, were significantly mutated in 6 of the 11 cancer types examined. Gene expression analyses revealed that GABARAPL1 and MAP1LC3C/LC3C transcripts were less abundant in breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancers than in matched normal tissue controls; ATG4D transcripts were increased in lung squamous cell carcinoma, as were ATG16L2 transcripts in kidney cancer. Unsupervised clustering of autophagy-associated mRNA levels in tumors stratified patient overall survival in 3 of 9 cancer types (acute myeloid leukemia, clear cell renal carcinoma, and head and neck cancer). These analyses provide the first comprehensive resource of recurrently altered autophagy-associated genes in human tumors, and highlight cancer types and subtypes where perturbed autophagy may be relevant to patient overall survival.

  3. Challenges in Cluster Analyses for Longitudinal Data

    OpenAIRE

    Bruckers, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation, we have addressed clustering for high dimensional data, possibly subject to missingness. The research was inspired by a number of data sets, ranging from data collected in a mental care setting, studies in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm or heart failure, to an EEG study in rats. The communality in these studies is the believe that the population under investigation is not homogenous, but instead consists of subpopulations. A direct labelling of these subpopulati...

  4. Singular electrostatic energy of nanoparticle clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Jian; Krapf, Nathan W.; Witten, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    The binding of clusters of metal nanoparticles is partly electrostatic. We address difficulties in calculating the electrostatic energy when high charging energies limit the total charge to a single quantum, entailing unequal potentials on the particles. We show that the energy at small separation $h$ has a singular logarithmic dependence on $h$. We derive a general form for this energy in terms of the singular capacitance of two spheres in near contact $c(h)$, together with nonsingular geome...

  5. Rationale, design, and implementation protocol of the Dutch clinical practice guideline Pain in patients with cancer: a cluster randomised controlled trial with short message service (SMS) and interactive voice response (IVR).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boveldt, N.D. te; Engels, Y.M.P.; Besse, K.; Vissers, K.C.P.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: One-half of patients with cancer have pain. In nearly one out of two cancer patients with pain, this was undertreated. Inadequate pain control still remains an important problem in this group of patients. Therefore, in 2008 a national, evidence-based multidisciplinary clinical

  6. Investigation of Cluster and Cluster Queuing System

    OpenAIRE

    Halifu, Saerda

    2008-01-01

    Cluster became main platform as parallel and distributed computing structure for high performance computing. Following the development of high performance computer architecture more and more different branches of natural science benefit fromhuge and efficient computational power. For instance bio-informatics, climate science, computational physics, computational chemistry, marine science, etc. Efficient and reliable computing powermay not only expending demand of existing high performance com...

  7. The Cluster Substructure - Alignment Connection

    CERN Document Server

    Plionis, M

    2002-01-01

    Using the APM cluster data we investigate whether the dynamical status of clusters is related to the large-scale structure of the Universe. We find that cluster substructure is strongly correlated with the tendency of clusters to be aligned with their nearest neighbour and in general with the nearby clusters that belong to the same supercluster. Furthermore, dynamically young clusters are more clustered than the overall cluster population. These are strong indications that cluster develop in a hierarchical fashion by anisotropy merging along the large-scale filamentary superclusters within which they are embedded.

  8. Automatic Clustering Approaches Based On Initial Seed Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V.S.N.R.V.Prasad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Since clustering is applied in many fields, a number of clustering techniques and algorithms have been proposed and are available in the literature. This paper proposes a novel approach to address the major problems in any of the partitional clustering algorithms like choosing appropriate K-value and selection of K-initial seed points. The performance of any partitional clustering algorithms depends oninitial seed points which are random in all the existing partitional clustering algorithms. To overcome this problem, a novel algorithm called Weighted Interior Clustering (WIC algorithm to find approximate initial seed-points, number of clusters and data points in the clusters is proposed in this paper. This paper also proposes another novel approach combining a newly proposed WIC algorithm with K-means named as Weighted Interior K-means Clustering (WIKC. The novelty of this WIKC is that it improves the quality and performance of K-means clustering algorithm with reduced complexity. The experimental results on various datasets, with various instances clearly indicates the efficacy of the proposed methods over the other methods.

  9. Model-based clustering of array CGH data

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Sohrab P.; Cheung, K-John; Johnson, Nathalie A.; Alain, Guillaume; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Horsman, Douglas E.; Ng, Raymond T.; Murphy, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Analysis of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data for recurrent DNA copy number alterations from a cohort of patients can yield distinct sets of molecular signatures or profiles. This can be due to the presence of heterogeneous cancer subtypes within a supposedly homogeneous population. Results: We propose a novel statistical method for automatically detecting such subtypes or clusters. Our approach is model based: each cluster is defined in terms of a sparse profile...

  10. A Density Based Dynamic Data Clustering Algorithm based on Incremental Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R.S. Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Clustering and visualizing high-dimensional dynamic data is a challenging problem. Most of the existing clustering algorithms are based on the static statistical relationship among data. Dynamic clustering is a mechanism to adopt and discover clusters in real time environments. There are many applications such as incremental data mining in data warehousing applications, sensor network, which relies on dynamic data clustering algorithms. Approach: In this work, we present a density based dynamic data clustering algorithm for clustering incremental dataset and compare its performance with full run of normal DBSCAN, Chameleon on the dynamic dataset. Most of the clustering algorithms perform well and will give ideal performance with good accuracy measured with clustering accuracy, which is calculated using the original class labels and the calculated class labels. However, if we measure the performance with a cluster validation metric, then it will give another kind of result. Results: This study addresses the problems of clustering a dynamic dataset in which the data set is increasing in size over time by adding more and more data. So to evaluate the performance of the algorithms, we used Generalized Dunn Index (GDI, Davies-Bouldin index (DB as the cluster validation metric and as well as time taken for clustering. Conclusion: In this study, we have successfully implemented and evaluated the proposed density based dynamic clustering algorithm. The performance of the algorithm was compared with Chameleon and DBSCAN clustering algorithms. The proposed algorithm performed significantly well in terms of clustering accuracy as well as speed.

  11. Job Oriented Monitoring Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalaxmi Cigala,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been a lot of development in the field of clusters and grids. Recently, the use of clusters has been on rise in every possible field. This paper proposes a system that monitors jobs onlarge computational clusters. Monitoring jobs is essential to understand how jobs are being executed. This helps us in understanding the complete life cycle of the jobs being executed on large clusters. Also, this paper describes how the information obtained by monitoring the jobs would help in increasing the overall throughput of clusters. Heuristics help in efficient job distribution among the computational nodes, thereby accomplishing fair job distribution policy. The proposed system would be capable of loadbalancing among the computational nodes, detecting failures, taking corrective actions after failure detection, job monitoring, system resource monitoring, etc.

  12. Pulsars in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Camilo, F; Camilo, Fernando; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2005-01-01

    More than 100 radio pulsars have been detected in 24 globular clusters. The largest observed samples are in Terzan 5 and 47 Tucanae, which together contain 45 pulsars. Accurate timing solutions, including positions in the cluster, are known for many of these pulsars. Here we provide an observational overview of some properties of pulsars in globular clusters, as well as properties of the globular clusters with detected pulsars. The many recent detections also provide a new opportunity to re-examine theoretically the formation and evolution of recycled pulsars in globular clusters. Our brief review considers the most important dynamical interaction and binary evolution processes: collisions, exchange interactions, mass transfer, and common-envelope phases.

  13. Mathematical classification and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Mirkin, Boris

    1996-01-01

    I am very happy to have this opportunity to present the work of Boris Mirkin, a distinguished Russian scholar in the areas of data analysis and decision making methodologies. The monograph is devoted entirely to clustering, a discipline dispersed through many theoretical and application areas, from mathematical statistics and combina­ torial optimization to biology, sociology and organizational structures. It compiles an immense amount of research done to date, including many original Russian de­ velopments never presented to the international community before (for instance, cluster-by-cluster versions of the K-Means method in Chapter 4 or uniform par­ titioning in Chapter 5). The author's approach, approximation clustering, allows him both to systematize a great part of the discipline and to develop many in­ novative methods in the framework of optimization problems. The optimization methods considered are proved to be meaningful in the contexts of data analysis and clustering. The material presented in ...

  14. On TPC cluster reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Dydak, F; Nefedov, Y; Wotschack, J; Zhemchugov, A

    2004-01-01

    For a bias-free momentum measurement of TPC tracks, the correct determination of cluster positions is mandatory. We argue in particular that (i) the reconstruction of the entire longitudinal signal shape in view of longitudinal diffusion, electronic pulse shaping, and track inclination is important both for the polar angle reconstruction and for optimum r phi resolution; and that (ii) self-crosstalk of pad signals calls for special measures for the reconstruction of the z coordinate. The problem of 'shadow clusters' is resolved. Algorithms are presented for accepting clusters as 'good' clusters, and for the reconstruction of the r phi and z cluster coordinates, including provisions for 'bad' pads and pads next to sector boundaries, respectively.

  15. Cool Cluster Correctly Correlated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergey Aleksandrovich Varganov

    2005-12-17

    Atomic clusters are unique objects, which occupy an intermediate position between atoms and condensed matter systems. For a long time it was thought that physical and chemical properties of atomic dusters monotonically change with increasing size of the cluster from a single atom to a condensed matter system. However, recently it has become clear that many properties of atomic clusters can change drastically with the size of the clusters. Because physical and chemical properties of clusters can be adjusted simply by changing the cluster's size, different applications of atomic clusters were proposed. One example is the catalytic activity of clusters of specific sizes in different chemical reactions. Another example is a potential application of atomic clusters in microelectronics, where their band gaps can be adjusted by simply changing cluster sizes. In recent years significant advances in experimental techniques allow one to synthesize and study atomic clusters of specified sizes. However, the interpretation of the results is often difficult. The theoretical methods are frequently used to help in interpretation of complex experimental data. Most of the theoretical approaches have been based on empirical or semiempirical methods. These methods allow one to study large and small dusters using the same approximations. However, since empirical and semiempirical methods rely on simple models with many parameters, it is often difficult to estimate the quantitative and even qualitative accuracy of the results. On the other hand, because of significant advances in quantum chemical methods and computer capabilities, it is now possible to do high quality ab-initio calculations not only on systems of few atoms but on clusters of practical interest as well. In addition to accurate results for specific clusters, such methods can be used for benchmarking of different empirical and semiempirical approaches. The atomic clusters studied in this work contain from a few atoms

  16. Cluster ion beam evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluster ions can be made by the supercooling due to adiabatic expansion of substances to be vaporized which are ejected from a nozzle. This paper is described on the recent progress of studies concerning the cluster beam. The technique of cluster ion beam has been applied for the studies of thermonuclear plasma, the fabrication of thin films, crystal growth and electronic devices. The density of cluster ion beam is larger than that of atomic ion beam, and the formation of thin films can be easily done in high vacuum. This method is also useful for epitaxial growth. Metallic vapour cluster beam was made by the help of jetting rare gas beam. Various beam sources were developed. The characteristics of these sources were measured and analyzed. (Kato, T.)

  17. Road Map to Address Cognitive Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-09

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Lynda Anderson highlights the important roles that states and communities can play in addressing cognitive health as part of overall health.  Created: 6/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/9/2014.

  18. China-ROK Forum Addresses Monetary Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟

    2008-01-01

    On June 12th,2008,the China-Korea Forum was held in Shanghai to address hot issues in China’s nancial sector such as banking reform,securities market and RMB appreciation,Vice Mayor of Shanghai,o cials from Shanghai Securities Exchange Research Center and the Korea Financial Service Commission were invited to share their wisdom on these issues.

  19. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops...

  20. Addressing Student Debt in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, David; Johnston, Tim; Lytle, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Student debt is a national concern. The authors address debt in the classroom to enhance students' understanding of the consequences of debt and the need for caution when financing their education. However, student feedback indicates this understanding has a delayed effect on borrowing behavior and underscores the importance of making difficult…

  1. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  2. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  3. Problem Solvers: Solutions--The Inaugural Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dause, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Fourth graders in Miss Dause's and Mrs. Hicks's mathematics classes at South Mountain Elementary School in Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, worked with the data from the Inauagural Address problem that was previously published published in the February 2013 issue of "Teaching Children Mathematics". This activity allowed students to…

  4. IP Address Use in Internetworking Routing

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    tut quiz present anim This interactive tutorial covers the following: How routers use the elements of the IP address to forward packets of information., How information travels through the Internet.The interactions consists of pop-up definitions of terms, animations and self-check questions. EC3760 Introduction to Information Operations Engineering

  5. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  6. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores how…

  7. Mouse models of colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunguang Tong; Wancai Yang; H. Phillip Koeffler

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world. Many mouse models have been developed to evaluate features of colorectal cancer in humans. These can be grouped into genetically-engineered, chemically-induced, and inoculated models. However, none recapitulates all of the characteristics of human colorectal cancer. It is critical to use a specific mouse model to address a particular research question. Here, we review commonly used mouse models for human colorectal cancer.

  8. Efficacy of neonatal HBV vaccination on liver cancer and other liver diseases over 30-year follow-up of the Qidong hepatitis B intervention study: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfeng Qu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neonatal hepatitis B vaccination has been implemented worldwide to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV infections. Its long-term protective efficacy on primary liver cancer (PLC and other liver diseases has not been fully examined. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Qidong Hepatitis B Intervention Study, a population-based, cluster randomized, controlled trial between 1985 and 1990 in Qidong, China, included 39,292 newborns who were randomly assigned to the vaccination group in which 38,366 participants completed the HBV vaccination series and 34,441 newborns who were randomly assigned to the control group in which the participants received neither a vaccine nor a placebo. However, 23,368 (67.8% participants in the control group received catch-up vaccination at age 10-14 years. By December 2013, a total of 3,895 (10.2% in the vaccination group and 3,898 (11.3% in the control group were lost to follow-up. Information on PLC incidence and liver disease mortality were collected through linkage of all remaining cohort members to a well-established population-based tumor registry until December 31, 2013. Two cross-sectional surveys on HBV surface antigen (HBsAg seroprevalence were conducted in 1996-2000 and 2008-2012. The participation rates of the two surveys were 57.5% (21,770 and 50.7% (17,204 in the vaccination group and 36.3% (12,184 and 58.6% (17,395 in the control group, respectively. Using intention-to-treat analysis, we found that the incidence rate of PLC and the mortality rates of severe end-stage liver diseases and infant fulminant hepatitis were significantly lower in the vaccination group than the control group with efficacies of 84% (95% CI 23%-97%, 70% (95% CI 15%-89%, and 69% (95% CI 34%-85%, respectively. The estimated efficacy of catch-up vaccination on HBsAg seroprevalence in early adulthood was 21% (95% CI 10%-30%, substantially weaker than that of the neonatal vaccination (72%, 95% CI 68%-75%. Receiving a booster at age 10

  9. A Proposed Process Model for Removing IP Address Conflicts when Different MANETs merge: Check the Performance of Server when Address Conflict Occurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chand Mukesh H. L. Mandoria

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available As the number of nodes increases the complexity of MANET [1, 11] increases in various issues. For this reason various approaches has been produced to reduce the complexity such as cluster head technique and dominating set based gateway technique. Another issue is distribution of IP in MANET. There are various approaches is given to assign the IP address but they are not much effective and each and every approach has its limitation. In this paper a conflict free process model is proposed to solve the configuration problem where two or more than two MANET merge and remove the limitation from the above-mentioned approaches .And also the performance of server due IP address conflict is tested with the help of a scenario to solve IP address configuration [2, 4, 8, 13, and 16] problem in mobile adhoc network.

  10. Relação entre a magnitude de sintomas e a qualidade de vida: análise de agrupamentos de pacientes com câncer de pulmão no Brasil Relationship between the magnitude of symptoms and the quality of life: a cluster analysis of lung cancer patients in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Franceschini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Muitas vezes pacientes com câncer de pulmão vivenciam mudanças físicas e psicossociais profundas que resultam da progressão da doença ou dos efeitos colaterais do tratamento. Fadiga, dor, dispneia, depressão e distúrbios do sono parecem ser os sintomas mais comuns nesses pacientes. O objetivo deste estudo foi examinar a prevalência de sintomas em pacientes com câncer de pulmão a fim de identificar subgrupos (clusters de pacientes, agrupados de acordo com a magnitude dos sintomas, bem como comparar os subgrupos quanto à qualidade de vida. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal utilizando agrupamento hierárquico aglomerativo. Foram avaliadas as características demográficas de 50 pacientes com câncer de pulmão, bem como sua pontuação em três questionários de qualidade de vida: o 30-item European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30, o Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung e o Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-form Survey. A análise de agrupamentos (clusters levou em conta a magnitude dos sintomas de maior prevalência de acordo com as escalas de sintomas do EORTC QLQC-30; esses sintomas foram fadiga, dor, dispneia e insônia. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados três agrupamentos (subgrupos de pacientes, baseados na magnitude dos quatro sintomas mais prevalentes. Os três subgrupos de pacientes foram os seguintes: pacientes com sintomas leves (n = 30; 60%; pacientes com sintomas moderados (n = 14; 28% e pacientes com sintomas graves (n = 6; 12%. O subgrupo de pacientes com sintomas graves apresentou a pior qualidade de vida, conforme mensurada pelos escores totais e pelas dimensões integradas dos três instrumentos. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo destaca a importância da avaliação de agrupamentos de sintomas como uma ferramenta relevante para medir a qualidade de vida de pacientes com doenças crônicas, como o câncer de pulmão.OBJECTIVE: Lung cancer patients

  11. Vulva cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - vulva; Cancer - perineum; Cancer - vulvar; Genital warts - vulvar cancer; HPV - vulvar cancer ... cells. Other types of cancers found on the vulva are: Adenocarcinoma Basal cell carcinoma Melanoma Sarcoma Vulvar ...

  12. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  13. Textile Industrial Clusters in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    "National Textile Industry Cluster Development Seminar" convened, held by China National Textile and Apparel Council, 23 cities and towns were awarded as China’s Textile Industry Cluster Pilot District. By far, China’s textile industrial clusters have grown

  14. Spanning Tree Based Attribute Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Jorge, Cordero Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    inconsistent edges from a maximum spanning tree by starting appropriate initial modes, therefore generating stable clusters. It discovers sound clusters through simple graph operations and achieves significant computational savings. We compare the Star Discovery algorithm against earlier attribute clustering...

  15. Cluster knockout reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun K Jain; B N Joshi

    2014-04-01

    Cluster knockout reactions are expected to reveal the amount of clustering (such as that of , d and even of heavier clusters such as 12C, 16O etc.) in the target nucleus. In simple terms, incident medium high-energy nuclear projectile interacts strongly with the cluster (present in the target nucleus) as if it were existing as a free entity. Theoretically, the relatively softer interactions of the two outgoing particles with the residual nucleus lead to optical distortions and are treated in terms of distorted wave (DW) formalism. The long-range projectile–cluster interaction is accounted for, in terms of the finite range (FR) direct reaction formalism, as against the more commonly adopted zero-range (ZR) distorted wave impulse approximation (DWIA) formalism. Comparison of the DWIA calculations with the observed data provide information about the momentum distribution and the clustering spectroscopic factor of the target nucleus. Interesting results and some recent advancements in the area of (, 2) reactions and heavy cluster knockout reactions are discussed. Importance of the finite-range vertex and the final-state interactions are brought out.

  16. The Cognitive Limits to Economic Cluster Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Carrol

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the social dimensions of economic clusters. The literature now includes select examples of social network analysis plus an extensive discussion of learning regions. Unfortunately, much of this work treats the network as the primary unit of analysis. It may be that network attributes such as density, centrality, and power are primarily dependent on human limitations and not instituted factors. In other words, a human’s limited ability to process information may be a better determinant of cluster success than economic or network theory. The purpose of this paper is to highlight human limits in cluster formation. To do this, we draw on recent developments in the cognitive psychology and communications literatures. We explain that many of the factors that lead to underperforming cluster policies are the result of a human’s inability to develop and sustain a large number of social interactions. Any cluster policy must be cognizant of such limitations and carefully address these limits in the formation of the initial strategy.

  17. B0-correction and k-means clustering for accurate and automatic identification of regions with reduced apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in adva nced cervical cancer at the time of brachytherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Søren; Pedersen, Erik Morre; Vinding, Mads Sloth;

    Diffusion weighted MRI has shown great potential in diagnostic cancer imaging and may also have value for monitoring tumor response during radiotherapy. Uncertainties due to geometric distortions caused by B0-inhomogeneity and tumor delineation are major obstacles for implementing DWI for use in ...... of advanced cervical cancer.......Diffusion weighted MRI has shown great potential in diagnostic cancer imaging and may also have value for monitoring tumor response during radiotherapy. Uncertainties due to geometric distortions caused by B0-inhomogeneity and tumor delineation are major obstacles for implementing DWI for use...

  18. SMART: unique splitting-while-merging framework for gene clustering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Fa

    Full Text Available Successful clustering algorithms are highly dependent on parameter settings. The clustering performance degrades significantly unless parameters are properly set, and yet, it is difficult to set these parameters a priori. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose a unique splitting-while-merging clustering framework, named "splitting merging awareness tactics" (SMART, which does not require any a priori knowledge of either the number of clusters or even the possible range of this number. Unlike existing self-splitting algorithms, which over-cluster the dataset to a large number of clusters and then merge some similar clusters, our framework has the ability to split and merge clusters automatically during the process and produces the the most reliable clustering results, by intrinsically integrating many clustering techniques and tasks. The SMART framework is implemented with two distinct clustering paradigms in two algorithms: competitive learning and finite mixture model. Nevertheless, within the proposed SMART framework, many other algorithms can be derived for different clustering paradigms. The minimum message length algorithm is integrated into the framework as the clustering selection criterion. The usefulness of the SMART framework and its algorithms is tested in demonstration datasets and simulated gene expression datasets. Moreover, two real microarray gene expression datasets are studied using this approach. Based on the performance of many metrics, all numerical results show that SMART is superior to compared existing self-splitting algorithms and traditional algorithms. Three main properties of the proposed SMART framework are summarized as: (1 needing no parameters dependent on the respective dataset or a priori knowledge about the datasets, (2 extendible to many different applications, (3 offering superior performance compared with counterpart algorithms.

  19. SMART: unique splitting-while-merging framework for gene clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, Rui; Roberts, David J; Nandi, Asoke K

    2014-01-01

    Successful clustering algorithms are highly dependent on parameter settings. The clustering performance degrades significantly unless parameters are properly set, and yet, it is difficult to set these parameters a priori. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose a unique splitting-while-merging clustering framework, named "splitting merging awareness tactics" (SMART), which does not require any a priori knowledge of either the number of clusters or even the possible range of this number. Unlike existing self-splitting algorithms, which over-cluster the dataset to a large number of clusters and then merge some similar clusters, our framework has the ability to split and merge clusters automatically during the process and produces the the most reliable clustering results, by intrinsically integrating many clustering techniques and tasks. The SMART framework is implemented with two distinct clustering paradigms in two algorithms: competitive learning and finite mixture model. Nevertheless, within the proposed SMART framework, many other algorithms can be derived for different clustering paradigms. The minimum message length algorithm is integrated into the framework as the clustering selection criterion. The usefulness of the SMART framework and its algorithms is tested in demonstration datasets and simulated gene expression datasets. Moreover, two real microarray gene expression datasets are studied using this approach. Based on the performance of many metrics, all numerical results show that SMART is superior to compared existing self-splitting algorithms and traditional algorithms. Three main properties of the proposed SMART framework are summarized as: (1) needing no parameters dependent on the respective dataset or a priori knowledge about the datasets, (2) extendible to many different applications, (3) offering superior performance compared with counterpart algorithms. PMID:24714159

  20. Extending Beowulf Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinwand, Daniel R.; Maddox, Brian; Beckmann, Tim; Hamer, George

    2003-01-01

    Beowulf clusters can provide a cost-effective way to compute numerical models and process large amounts of remote sensing image data. Usually a Beowulf cluster is designed to accomplish a specific set of processing goals, and processing is very efficient when the problem remains inside the constraints of the original design. There are cases, however, when one might wish to compute a problem that is beyond the capacity of the local Beowulf system. In these cases, spreading the problem to multiple clusters or to other machines on the network may provide a cost-effective solution.

  1. Cluster Management Institutionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normann, Leo; Agger Nielsen, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    institutionalism together with a longitudinal case-based inquiry into how cluster management has entered and penetrated the management practices of day care in Denmark. We demonstrate how cluster management became widely adopted in the day care field not only because of its intrinsic properties but also because...... legitimized at the field level, then spread, and finally translated into action in the adopting organizations. Instead, we observed entangled field and organizational-level processes. Accordingly, we argue that cluster management institutionalization is most readily understood by simultaneously investigating...

  2. Introduction to cluster dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, Paul-Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Clusters as mesoscopic particles represent an intermediate state of matter between single atoms and solid material. The tendency to miniaturise technical objects requires knowledge about systems which contain a ""small"" number of atoms or molecules only. This is all the more true for dynamical aspects, particularly in relation to the qick development of laser technology and femtosecond spectroscopy. Here, for the first time is a highly qualitative introduction to cluster physics. With its emphasis on cluster dynamics, this will be vital to everyone involved in this interdisciplinary subje

  3. Dwarfs in Coma Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger poster version This false-color mosaic of the central region of the Coma cluster combines infrared and visible-light images to reveal thousands of faint objects (green). Follow-up observations showed that many of these objects, which appear here as faint green smudges, are dwarf galaxies belonging to the cluster. Two large elliptical galaxies, NGC 4889 and NGC 4874, dominate the cluster's center. The mosaic combines visible-light data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (color coded blue) with long- and short-wavelength infrared views (red and green, respectively) from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

  4. Raspberry Pi super cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a step-by-step, tutorial-based approach which will teach you how to develop your own super cluster using Raspberry Pi computers quickly and efficiently.Raspberry Pi Super Cluster is an introductory guide for those interested in experimenting with parallel computing at home. Aimed at Raspberry Pi enthusiasts, this book is a primer for getting your first cluster up and running.Basic knowledge of C or Java would be helpful but no prior knowledge of parallel computing is necessary.

  5. Clustering in nuclear environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of few-body clusters (mass number A ≤ 4) are modified if they are immersed in a nuclear medium. In particular, Pauli blocking that reflects the antisymmetrization of the many-body wave function is responsible for the medium modification of light clusters and the dissolution with increasing density. A more consistent description is given with takes also the contribution of correlations in the continuum into account. The relation between cluster formation in warm dense matter and in nuclear structure is discussed

  6. Class Restricted Clustering and Micro-Perturbation for Data Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiao-Bai; Sarkar, Sumit

    2013-01-01

    The extensive use of information technologies by organizations to collect and share personal data has raised strong privacy concerns. To respond to the public’s demand for data privacy, a class of clustering-based data masking techniques is increasingly being used for privacy-preserving data sharing and analytics. Traditional clustering-based approaches for masking numeric attributes, while addressing re-identification risks, typically do not consider the disclosure risk of categorical confid...

  7. Improving student learning by addressing misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Carol A.; Huntoon, Jacqueline E.

    2011-12-01

    Students—and often those who teach them—come to class with preconceptions and misconceptions that hinder their learning. For instance, many K-12 students and teachers believe groundwater exists in the ground in actual rivers or lakes, but in fact, groundwater is found in permeable rock layers called aquifers. Such misconceptions need to be addressed before students can learn scientific concepts correctly. While other science disciplines have been addressing preconceptions and misconceptions for many years, the geoscience community has only recently begun to concentrate on the impact these have on students' learning. Valuable research is being done that illuminates how geologic thinking evolves from the "novice" to "expert" level. The expert is defined as an individual with deep understanding of Earth science concepts. As research progresses, geoscientists are realizing that correcting preconceptions and misconceptions can move teachers and students closer to the "expert" level [Libarkin, 2005].

  8. CANE: The Content Addressed Network Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner-Stephen, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The fragmented nature and asymmetry of local and remote file access and network access, combined with the current lack of robust authenticity and privacy, hamstrings the current internet. The collection of disjoint and often ad-hoc technologies currently in use are at least partially responsible for the magnitude and potency of the plagues besetting the information economy, of which spam and email borne virii are canonical examples. The proposed replacement for the internet, Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), does little to tackle these underlying issues, instead concentrating on addressing the technical issues of a decade ago. This paper introduces CANE, a Content Addressed Network Environment, and compares it against current internet and related technologies. Specifically, CANE presents a simple computing environment in which location is abstracted away in favour of identity, and trust is explicitly defined. Identity is cryptographically verified and yet remains pervasively open in nature. It is argued tha...

  9. Politeness Strategies in American Presidential Inaugural Addresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立文; 朱琳靓

    2008-01-01

    American presidential inaugural address(PIA)a very important variety with worldwide influence and long-lasting significance.Its main task and purpose is to outline the main policies of the new government and win people's support.However.the prerequisite of winning people's sympathy and support lies in people's good relationship with and trust in the government.Therefore almost all the speakers resort to"approached-based" positive politeness strategy quite often which performs this function very well.

  10. Partnerships as panacea for addressing global problems?

    OpenAIRE

    Kolk, Ans

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter examines partnerships and their peculiarities, based on recent research from various disciplines, in the context of the large problems faced by (global) society. These problems are very complex, often cross national boundaries, and cannot easily be 'solved' by one single actor. Previous 'unilateral' attempts to address them have not been particularly successful, and there are limits to what a single actor can do. Cooperation also enables different actors to leverage t...

  11. Forest Policies Addressing Climate Change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As a developing country with a large population and a fragile ecological environment, China is particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. Beginning with the Rio Conference of 1992 China has played a progressively enhanced role in combating climate change. A series of policies and measures to address climate change have been taken in the overall context of national sustainable development strategy, making positive contributions to the mitigation and adaptation to climate change, among ...

  12. Addressing spiritual leadership: an organizational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Lisa; Solari-Twadell, P Ann; Haas, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Commission requires health systems to address spiritual care. Research indicates that spirituality is associated with better physical, psychological, and social health and that culturally diverse populations and individuals at end-of-life often request spiritual care. The authors report the results of a consensus conference of 21 executives representing 10 large faith-based health systems who discussed the input, process, and outcomes of a corporate model for spiritual leadership. Specific initiatives are highlighted.

  13. Combining cluster number counts and galaxy clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasa, Fabien; Rosenfeld, Rogerio

    2016-08-01

    The abundance of clusters and the clustering of galaxies are two of the important cosmological probes for current and future large scale surveys of galaxies, such as the Dark Energy Survey. In order to combine them one has to account for the fact that they are not independent quantities, since they probe the same density field. It is important to develop a good understanding of their correlation in order to extract parameter constraints. We present a detailed modelling of the joint covariance matrix between cluster number counts and the galaxy angular power spectrum. We employ the framework of the halo model complemented by a Halo Occupation Distribution model (HOD). We demonstrate the importance of accounting for non-Gaussianity to produce accurate covariance predictions. Indeed, we show that the non-Gaussian covariance becomes dominant at small scales, low redshifts or high cluster masses. We discuss in particular the case of the super-sample covariance (SSC), including the effects of galaxy shot-noise, halo second order bias and non-local bias. We demonstrate that the SSC obeys mathematical inequalities and positivity. Using the joint covariance matrix and a Fisher matrix methodology, we examine the prospects of combining these two probes to constrain cosmological and HOD parameters. We find that the combination indeed results in noticeably better constraints, with improvements of order 20% on cosmological parameters compared to the best single probe, and even greater improvement on HOD parameters, with reduction of error bars by a factor 1.4-4.8. This happens in particular because the cross-covariance introduces a synergy between the probes on small scales. We conclude that accounting for non-Gaussian effects is required for the joint analysis of these observables in galaxy surveys.

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer ...

  15. Tobacco and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  16. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Prevention Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient ...

  17. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution. PMID:24758452

  18. Matching Alternative Addresses: a Semantic Web Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariannamazi, S.; Karimipour, F.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI) provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature's literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  19. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  20. Evolution of clustered storage

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Van de Vyvre, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The session actually featured two presentations: * Evolution of clustered storage by Lance Hukill, Quantum Corporation * ALICE DAQ - Usage of a Cluster-File System: Quantum StorNext by Pierre Vande Vyvre, CERN-PH the second one prepared at short notice by Pierre (thanks!) to present how the Quantum technologies are being used in the ALICE experiment. The abstract to Mr Hukill's follows. Clustered Storage is a technology that is driven by business and mission applications. The evolution of Clustered Storage solutions starts first at the alignment between End-users needs and Industry trends: * Push-and-Pull between managing for today versus planning for tomorrow * Breaking down the real business problems to the core applications * Commoditization of clients, servers, and target devices * Interchangeability, Interoperability, Remote Access, Centralized control * Oh, and yes, there is a budget and the "real world" to deal with This presentation will talk through these needs and trends, and then ask the question, ...

  1. Dynamic Bayesian clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Anna; Menon, Vilas; Heard, Nicholas A

    2013-10-01

    Clusters of time series data may change location and memberships over time; in gene expression data, this occurs as groups of genes or samples respond differently to stimuli or experimental conditions at different times. In order to uncover this underlying temporal structure, we consider dynamic clusters with time-dependent parameters which split and merge over time, enabling cluster memberships to change. These interesting time-dependent structures are useful in understanding the development of organisms or complex organs, and could not be identified using traditional clustering methods. In cell cycle data, these time-dependent structure may provide links between genes and stages of the cell cycle, whilst in developmental data sets they may highlight key developmental transitions. PMID:24131050

  2. Internal Cluster Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Bartelmann, Matthias; Meneghetti, Massimo; Schmidt, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The core structure of galaxy clusters is fundamentally important. Even though self-gravitating systems have no stable equilibrium state due to their negative heat capacity, numerical simulations find density profiles which are universal in the sense that they are fairly flat within a scale radius and gradually steepen farther outward, asymptotically approaching a logarithmic slope of $\\approx-3$ near the virial radius. We argue that the reason for the formation of this profile is not satisfactorily understood. The ratio between the virial radius and the scale radius, the so-called concentration, is found in simulations to be closely related to the mass and the redshift and low for cluster-sized haloes, but observed to be substantially higher at least in a subset of observed clusters. Haloes formed from cold dark matter should furthermore be richly substructured. We review theoretical and observational aspects of cluster cores here, discuss modifications by baryonic physics and observables that can provide bet...

  3. Cancer stem cells: therapeutic implications and perspectives in cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Han

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell (CSC theory is gaining increasing attention from researchers and has become an important focus of cancer research. According to the theory, a minority population of cancer cells is capable of self-renewal and generation of differentiated progeny, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs. Understanding the properties and characteristics of CSCs is key to future study on cancer research, such as the isolation and identification of CSCs, the cancer diagnosis, and the cancer therapy. Standard oncology treatments, such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgical resection, can only shrink the bulk tumor and the tumor tends to relapse. Thus, therapeutic strategies that focus on targeting CSCs and their microenvironmental niche address the ineffectiveness of traditional cancer therapies to eradicate the CSCs that otherwise result in therapy resistance. The combined use of traditional therapies with targeted CSC-specific agents may target the whole cancer and offer a promising strategy for lasting treatment and even cure.

  4. Finnish Mobile Gaming Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Masira, Elijah; Chowdhury, Nafis Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Finnish mobile gaming cluster is one of the most promising industries that have been growing significantly in the past few years to become a substantial cultural export product / service of Finland. The main objective of this research was to gain a persuasive understanding about the emergence of the mobile gaming cluster in Finland and explore the factors behind its success. The literature review centers on M. E Porter’s publications on competitiveness and other publication...

  5. Clustering audiology data

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar, Naveed; Oakes, Michael; Wermter, Stefan; Heinrich, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe new results of statistical and neural data mining of audiology patient records, with the ultimate aim of looking for factors influencing which patients would most benefit from being fitted with a hearing aid. We describe how a combination of neural and statistical techniques can usefully subdivide a set of patients into clusters, based on their hearing thresholds at six different frequencies, and then label the clusters with meaningful text labels. In our first exper...

  6. Industry clusters and SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Arnoud Muizer; Gert Jan Hospers

    1999-01-01

    Studie naar de rol van clusters van bedrijven in de economie. Clusters van bedrijven krijgen een groeiende aandacht op alle bestuurlijke niveaus. De achterliggende gedachte is dat samenwerking tussen bedrijven op technologisch gebied leidt tot de creatie van extra toegevoegde waarde, niet alleen voor de samenwerkingspartners zelf, maar ook voor de lokale, regionale en nationale economie. In de studie wordt een clusterdefinitie gepresenteerd en een raamwerk dat als basis kan dienen voor nader ...

  7. Clustering gene expression data using a diffraction‐inspired framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinger Steven C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent developments in microarray technology has allowed for the simultaneous measurement of gene expression levels. The large amount of captured data challenges conventional statistical tools for analysing and finding inherent correlations between genes and samples. The unsupervised clustering approach is often used, resulting in the development of a wide variety of algorithms. Typical clustering algorithms require selecting certain parameters to operate, for instance the number of expected clusters, as well as defining a similarity measure to quantify the distance between data points. The diffraction‐based clustering algorithm however is designed to overcome this necessity for user‐defined parameters, as it is able to automatically search the data for any underlying structure. Methods The diffraction‐based clustering algorithm presented in this paper is tested using five well‐known expression datasets pertaining to cancerous tissue samples. The clustering results are then compared to those results obtained from conventional algorithms such as the k‐means, fuzzy c‐means, self‐organising map, hierarchical clustering algorithm, Gaussian mixture model and density‐based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN. The performance of each algorithm is measured using an average external criterion and an average validity index. Results The diffraction‐based clustering algorithm is shown to be independent of the number of clusters as the algorithm searches the feature space and requires no form of parameter selection. The results show that the diffraction‐based clustering algorithm performs significantly better on the real biological datasets compared to the other existing algorithms. Conclusion The results of the diffraction‐based clustering algorithm presented in this paper suggest that the method can provide researchers with a new tool for successfully analysing microarray data.

  8. Electron attachment to anionic clusters in ion traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Franklin, E-mail: franklin.martinez@uni-rostock.de [University of Rostock, Institute of Physics (Germany); Bandelow, Steffi; Marx, Gerrit; Schweikhard, Lutz; Vass, Albert [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University, Institute of Physics (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Ion traps are versatile tools for the investigation of gas-phase cluster ions, allowing, e.g., cluster-size selection and extended reaction times. Taking advantage of their particular storage capability of simultaneous trapping of electrons and clusters, Penning traps have been applied for the production of clusters with high negative charge states. Recently, linear radio-frequency quadrupole traps have been demonstrated to be another candidate to produce polyanionic clusters. Operation with rectangular, rather than harmonic, radio-frequency voltages provides field-free time slots for unhindered electron passage through the trap. Several aspects of electron-attachment techniques by means of Penning and radio-frequency traps are addressed and recent experimental results are presented.

  9. Infrared Observational Manifestations of Young Dusty Super Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Gonzalez, Sergio; Silich, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    The growing evidence pointing at core-collapse supernovae as large dust producers makes young massive stellar clusters ideal laboratories to study the evolution of dust immersed into a hot plasma. Here we address the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae and follow its evolution due to thermal sputtering within the hot and dense plasma generated by young stellar clusters. Under these considerations, dust grains are heated by means of random collisions with gas particles which results on the appearance of infrared spectral signatures. We present time-dependent infrared spectral energy distributions which are to be expected from young stellar clusters. Our results are based on hydrodynamic calculations that account for the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae. These also consider gas and dust radiative cooling, stochastic dust temperature fluctuations, the exit of dust grains out of the cluster volume due to the cluster wind and a time-dependent grain size distribution.

  10. Multiple-resolution clustering for recursive divide and conquer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Steven E.; Szu, Harold H.

    1997-04-01

    In recent work, a recursive divide-and-conquer approach was developed for path-minimization problems such as the traveling salesman problem (TSP). The approach is based on multiple-resolution clustering to decompose a problem into minimally-dependent parts. It is particularly effective for large-scale, fractal data sets, which exhibit clustering on all scales, and hence at all resolutions. This leads to the application of wavelets for performing the necessary multiple-resolution clustering. While the general topic of multiple-resolution clustering via wavelets is relatively immature, it has been explored for certain specific applications. However, nothing in the literature addresses the specific type of multiple-resolution clustering needed for the divide-and-conquer approach. That is the primary goal of this paper.

  11. INFRARED OBSERVATIONAL MANIFESTATIONS OF YOUNG DUSTY SUPER STAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-González, Sergio; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy, E-mail: sergiomtz@inaoep.mx [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Óptica y Electrónica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2016-01-01

    The growing evidence pointing at core-collapse supernovae as large dust producers makes young massive stellar clusters ideal laboratories to study the evolution of dust immersed in a hot plasma. Here we address the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae, and follow its evolution due to thermal sputtering within the hot and dense plasma generated by young stellar clusters. Under these considerations, dust grains are heated by means of random collisions with gas particles which result in the appearance of  infrared spectral signatures. We present time-dependent infrared spectral energy distributions that are to be expected from young stellar clusters. Our results are based on hydrodynamic calculations that account for the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae. These also consider gas and dust radiative cooling, stochastic dust temperature fluctuations, the exit of dust grains out of the cluster volume due to the cluster wind, and a time-dependent grain size distribution.

  12. Centroid Based Text Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Maheshwari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Web mining is a burgeoning new field that attempts to glean meaningful information from natural language text. Web mining refers generally to the process of extracting interesting information and knowledge from unstructured text. Text clustering is one of the important Web mining functionalities. Text clustering is the task in which texts are classified into groups of similar objects based on their contents. Current research in the area of Web mining is tacklesproblems of text data representation, classification, clustering, information extraction or the search for and modeling of hidden patterns. In this paper we propose for mining large document collections it is necessary to pre-process the web documents and store the information in a data structure, which is more appropriate for further processing than a plain web file. In this paper we developed a php-mySql based utility to convert unstructured web documents into structured tabular representation by preprocessing, indexing .We apply centroid based web clustering method on preprocessed data. We apply three methods for clustering. Finally we proposed a method that can increase accuracy based on clustering ofdocuments.

  13. Galaxy cluster's rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Manolopoulou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We study the possible rotation of cluster galaxies, developing, testing and applying a novel algorithm which identifies rotation, if such does exits, as well as its rotational centre, its axis orientation, rotational velocity amplitude and, finally, the clockwise or counterclockwise direction of rotation on the plane of the sky. To validate our algorithms we construct realistic Monte-Carlo mock rotating clusters and confirm that our method provides robust indications of rotation. We then apply our methodology on a sample of Abell clusters with z<~0.1 with member galaxies selected from the SDSS DR10 spectroscopic database. We find that ~35% of our clusters are rotating when using a set of strict criteria, while loosening the criteria we find this fraction increasing to ~48%. We correlate our rotation indicators with the cluster dynamical state, provided either by their Bautz-Morgan type or by their X-ray isophotal shape and find for those clusters showing rotation that the significance and strength of their...

  14. Cluster bomb ocular injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M Mansour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present the visual outcomes and ocular sequelae of victims of cluster bombs. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, multicenter case series of ocular injury due to cluster bombs was conducted for 3 years after the war in South Lebanon (July 2006. Data were gathered from the reports to the Information Management System for Mine Action. Results: There were 308 victims of clusters bombs; 36 individuals were killed, of which 2 received ocular lacerations and; 272 individuals were injured with 18 receiving ocular injury. These 18 surviving individuals were assessed by the authors. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% (20/308 of cluster bomb victims. Trauma to multiple organs occurred in 12 of 18 cases (67% with ocular injury. Ocular findings included corneal or scleral lacerations (16 eyes, corneal foreign bodies (9 eyes, corneal decompensation (2 eyes, ruptured cataract (6 eyes, and intravitreal foreign bodies (10 eyes. The corneas of one patient had extreme attenuation of the endothelium. Conclusions: Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% of cluster bomb victims and 67% of the patients with ocular injury sustained trauma to multiple organs. Visual morbidity in civilians is an additional reason for a global ban on the use of cluster bombs.

  15. Report of a Workshop on Parallelization of Coupled Cluster Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney J. Bartlett Erik Deumens

    2008-05-08

    The benchmark, ab initio quantum mechanical methods for molecular structure and spectra are now recognized to be coupled-cluster theory. To benefit from the transiiton to tera- and petascale computers, such coupled-cluster methods must be created to run in a scalable fashion. This Workshop, held as a aprt of the 48th annual Sanibel meeting, at St. Simns, Island, GA, addressed that issue. Representatives of all the principal scientific groups who are addressing this topic were in attendance, to exchange information about the problem and to identify what needs to be done in the future. This report summarized the conclusions of the workshop.

  16. Efficient storage and retrieval of clustering results using relational database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Shengchun; He Zengyou; Xu Xiaofei; Li Qinzhi

    2005-01-01

    The problem of how to efficiently store and query the clustering results was considered. Three different storage schemas for clustering results using relational database were proposed, namely, full schema (f-schema), partial schema (p-schema) and compressed schema (c-schema). At the same time, a classification for queries issued to the clustering results was also presented. Finally, we empirically studied the performance of proposed queries on different storage schemas. To our knowledge, this is the first work to address the problem.

  17. Cluster fusion algorithm: application to Lennard-Jones clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Greiner, Walter

    2008-01-01

    paths up to the cluster size of 150 atoms. We demonstrate that in this way all known global minima structures of the Lennard-Jones clusters can be found. Our method provides an efficient tool for the calculation and analysis of atomic cluster structure. With its use we justify the magic number sequence......We present a new general theoretical framework for modelling the cluster structure and apply it to description of the Lennard-Jones clusters. Starting from the initial tetrahedral cluster configuration, adding new atoms to the system and absorbing its energy at each step, we find cluster growing...... for the clusters of noble gas atoms and compare it with experimental observations. We report the striking correspondence of the peaks in the dependence of the second derivative of the binding energy per atom on cluster size calculated for the chain of the Lennard-Jones clusters based on the icosahedral symmetry...

  18. Cluster fusion algorithm: application to Lennard-Jones clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Greiner, Walter

    2006-01-01

    paths up to the cluster size of 150 atoms. We demonstrate that in this way all known global minima structures of the Lennard-Jones clusters can be found. Our method provides an efficient tool for the calculation and analysis of atomic cluster structure. With its use we justify the magic number sequence......We present a new general theoretical framework for modelling the cluster structure and apply it to description of the Lennard-Jones clusters. Starting from the initial tetrahedral cluster configuration, adding new atoms to the system and absorbing its energy at each step, we find cluster growing...... for the clusters of noble gas atoms and compare it with experimental observations. We report the striking correspondence of the peaks in the dependence of the second derivative of the binding energy per atom on cluster size calculated for the chain of the Lennard-Jones clusters based on the icosahedral symmetry...

  19. A Task Force to Address Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Ronald; Budin, Wendy C; Allie, Tammy

    2016-02-01

    Bullying in the workplace can create a dysfunctional environment that is associated with serious physical and psychological harm to the person being bullied. Nurses' experience with bullying has gained considerable attention in recent years, and warrants further discussion. Nurse leaders need to develop and implement effective bullying prevention initiatives that will foster the functioning of a professional and productive staff in a healthy work environment. The aim of this article is to review workplace bullying as experienced by nurses, and describe how nurses at a Magnet-designated academic medical center developed and implemented a bullying task force to address the problem.

  20. Panels and Lectures Address China Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Video Resources

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Editors note: Over the past several months, colleagues have brought to our attention three public panel discussions and lectures that address contemporary controversies in Chinese studies. These discussions have been video-recorded and are available to view on the internet. These presentations may be useful either for scholarly pursuits or may be excerpted for classroom viewing. We wish to thank those who contacted us about these resources, and we encourage readers who know of other such video resources to let us know about them so that we can inform our ASIANetwork colleagues of their existence and availability.

  1. A Task Force to Address Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Ronald; Budin, Wendy C; Allie, Tammy

    2016-02-01

    Bullying in the workplace can create a dysfunctional environment that is associated with serious physical and psychological harm to the person being bullied. Nurses' experience with bullying has gained considerable attention in recent years, and warrants further discussion. Nurse leaders need to develop and implement effective bullying prevention initiatives that will foster the functioning of a professional and productive staff in a healthy work environment. The aim of this article is to review workplace bullying as experienced by nurses, and describe how nurses at a Magnet-designated academic medical center developed and implemented a bullying task force to address the problem. PMID:26817556

  2. Grid Added Value to Address Malaria

    CERN Document Server

    Breton, V; Hofmann, M

    2008-01-01

    Through this paper, we call for a distributed, internet-based collaboration to address one of the worst plagues of our present world, malaria. The spirit is a non-proprietary peer-production of information-embedding goods. And we propose to use the grid technology to enable such a world wide "open source" like collaboration. The first step towards this vision has been achieved during the summer on the EGEE grid infrastructure where 46 million ligands were docked for a total amount of 80 CPU years in 6 weeks in the quest for new drugs.

  3. HEP technologies to address medical imaging challenges

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Developments in detector technologies aimed at solving challenges in present and future CERN experiments, particularly at the LHC, have triggered exceptional advances in the performance of medical imaging devices, allowing for a spectacular progress in in-vivo molecular imaging procedures, which are opening the way for tailored therapies of major diseases. This talk will briefly review the recent history of this prime example of technology transfer from HEP experiments to society, will describe the technical challenges being addressed by some ongoing projects, and will present a few new ideas for further developments and their foreseeable impact.

  4. Identifying robust clusters and multi-community nodes by combining top-down and bottom-up approaches to clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Gaiteri, Chris; Szymanski, Boleslaw; Kuzmin, Konstantin; Xie, Jierui; Lee, Changkyu; Blanche, Timothy; Neto, Elias Chaibub; Huang, Su-Chun; Grabowski, Thomas; Madhyastha, Tara; Komashko, Vitalina

    2015-01-01

    Biological functions are often realized by groups of interacting molecules or cells. Membership in these groups may overlap when molecules or cells are reused in multiple functions. Traditional clustering methods assign each component to one group. Noisy measurements are common in high-throughput biological datasets. These two limitations reduce our ability to accurately define clusters in biological datasets and to interpret their biological functions. To address these limitations, we designed an algorithm called SpeakEasy, which detects overlapping or non-overlapping communities in biological networks. Input to SpeakEasy can be physical networks, such as molecular interactions, or inferred networks, such as gene coexpression networks. The networks can be directed or undirected, and may contain negative links. SpeakEasy combines traditional bottom-up and top-down approaches to clustering, by creating competition between clusters. Nodes that oscillate between multiple clusters in this competition are classifi...

  5. Gene ordering in partitive clustering using microarray expressions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shubhra Sankar Ray; Sanghamitra Bandyopadhyay; Sankar K Pal

    2007-08-01

    A central step in the analysis of gene expression data is the identification of groups of genes that exhibit similar expression patterns. Clustering and ordering the genes using gene expression data into homogeneous groups was shown to be useful in functional annotation, tissue classification, regulatory motif identification, and other applications. Although there is a rich literature on gene ordering in hierarchical clustering framework for gene expression analysis, there is no work addressing and evaluating the importance of gene ordering in partitive clustering framework, to the best knowledge of the authors. Outside the framework of hierarchical clustering, different gene ordering algorithms are applied on the whole data set, and the domain of partitive clustering is still unexplored with gene ordering approaches. A new hybrid method is proposed for ordering genes in each of the clusters obtained from partitive clustering solution, using microarray gene expressions. Two existing algorithms for optimally ordering cities in travelling salesman problem (TSP), namely, FRAG_GALK and Concorde, are hybridized individually with self organizing MAP to show the importance of gene ordering in partitive clustering framework. We validated our hybrid approach using yeast and fibroblast data and showed that our approach improves the result quality of partitive clustering solution, by identifying subclusters within big clusters, grouping functionally correlated genes within clusters, minimization of summation of gene expression distances, and the maximization of biological gene ordering using MIPS categorization. Moreover, the new hybrid approach, finds comparable or sometimes superior biological gene order in less computation time than those obtained by optimal leaf ordering in hierarchical clustering solution.

  6. Psychiatric benefits of integrative therapies in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassileth, Barrie R

    2014-02-01

    Integrative oncology uses non-pharmacological adjuncts to mainstream care to manage physical, emotional, and psychological symptoms experienced by cancer survivors. Depression, anxiety, fatigue and pain are among the common, often burdensome symptoms that can occur in clusters, deplete patient morale, interfere with treatment plans, and hamper recovery. Patients already seek various modalities on their own to address a broad range of problems. Legitimate complementary therapies offered at major cancer institutions improve quality of life, speed recovery, and optimize patient support. They also augment the benefits of psychiatric interventions, due to their ability to increase self-awareness and improve physical and psychological conditioning. Further, these integrated therapies provide lifelong tools and develop skills that patients use well after treatment to develop self-care regimens. The active referral of patients to integrative therapies achieves three important objectives: complementary care is received from therapists experienced in working with cancer patients, visits become part of the medical record, allowing treatment teams to guide individuals in maximizing benefit, and patients are diverted from useless or harmful 'alternatives.' We review the reciprocal physical and psychiatric benefits of exercise, mind-body practices, massage, acupuncture, and music therapy for cancer survivors, and suggest how their use can augment mainstream psychiatric interventions. PMID:24716505

  7. Results Analysis of IP Address Auto- Configuration in Wireless Manets

    OpenAIRE

    S.Zahoor Ul Huq; S. Shabana Begum; Dr. K.E.Sreenivasa Murthy; Prof. B. Satyanaryana

    2011-01-01

    The main task of an address allocation protocol is to manage the address allocation to the nodes in the ad hoc MANETs. All routing protocols assume nodes to be configured a priori with a uniqueIP address. Allocating addresses to mobile nodes is a fundamental and difficult problem. A mobile device cannot participate in unicast communications until it is assigned a conflict-free IP address. So addressing in MANETs is of significant importance, and the address configuration process should be fas...

  8. Evaluation of architectural paradigms for addressing theprocessor-memory gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliker, Leonid; Gorden, Grime; Husbands, Parry; Chame, Jacqualine

    2003-07-04

    Many high performance applications run well below the peak arithmetic performance of the underlying machine, with inefficiencies often attributed to poor memory system behavior. In the context of scientific computing we examine three emerging processors designed to address the well-known gap between processor and memory performance through the exploitation of data parallelism. The VIRAM architecture uses novel PIM technology to combine embedded DRAM with a vector co-processor for exploiting its large bandwidth potential. The DIVA architecture incorporates a collection of PIM chips as smart-memory coprocessors to a conventional microprocessor, and relies on superword-level parallelism to make effective use of the available memory bandwidth. The Imagine architecture provides a stream-aware memory hierarchy to support the tremendous processing potential of SIMD controlled VLIW clusters. First we develop a scalable synthetic probe that allows us to parametize key performance attributes of VIRAM, DIVA and Imagine while capturing the performance crossover points of these architectures. Next we present results for scientific kernels with different sets of computational characteristics and memory access patterns. Our experiments allow us to evaluate the strategies employed to exploit data parallelism, isolate the set of application characteristics best suited to each architecture and show a promising direction towards interfacing leading-edge processor technology with high-end scientific computations.

  9. Integrated optical addressing of an ion qubit

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Karan K; McConnell, Robert; Ram, Rajeev J; Sage, Jeremy M; Chiaverini, John

    2015-01-01

    Scalable implementation of the optics required to control trapped atomic ions' quantum states will be required to construct large-scale ion trap quantum information processors. All experiments in ion traps so far have employed approaches cumbersome to scale to even a few tens of qubits, with the majority relying on manipulation of free space beams with bulk optics. Here we demonstrate lithographically defined nanophotonic dielectric waveguides integrated within a linear surface-electrode ion trap chip, and qubit addressing at multiple locations via focusing grating couplers that emit through openings in the trap electrodes to an ion trapped 50 $\\mu$m above the chip. We perform quantum coherent operations using visible light routed in and emitted from silicon nitride waveguides and couplers, on the optical qubit transition in individual $^{88}$Sr$^+$ ions. The addressing beam is focused near the ion position with a 2 $\\mu$m 1/$e^2$-radius along the trap axis, and we measure crosstalk errors between $10^{-2}$ a...

  10. Notation for national and international telephone numbers, e-mail addresses and Web addresses

    CERN Document Server

    International Telecommunication Union. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Recommendation E.123 defines a standard way to write telephone numbers, e-mail addresses, and web addresses. It recommends the following formats (when dialing the area code is optional for local calling): Telephone number: National notation (042) 123 4567 International notation +31 (0)42 123 4567 E-mail address: name@provider.com Internet address / URL: www.company.com It also recommends that a hypen (-), space ( ), or period (.) can be used to visually separate groups of numbers. The parentheses are used to indicate digits that are sometimes not dialed. a slash (/) is used to indicate alternate numbers. This information is important if you want to make sure people know how to dail a phone number in a specific country.

  11. Detection of clustered DNA lesions: Biological and clinical applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexandros; Georgakilas

    2011-01-01

    Humans are daily exposed to background radiation and various sources of oxidative stress. My research has focused in the last 12 years on the effects of ionizing radiation on DNA, which is considered as the key target of radiation in the cell. Ionizing radiation and endogenous cellular oxidative stress can also induce closely spaced oxidatively induced DNA lesions called "clusters" of DNA damage or locally multiply damage sites, as first introduced by John Ward. I am now interested in the repair mechanisms of clustered DNA damage, which is considered as the most difficult for the cell to repair. A main part of my research is devoted to evaluating the role of clustered DNA damage in the promotion of carcinogenesis in vitro and in vivo . Currently in my laboratory, there are two main ongoing projects. (1) Study of the role of BRCA1 and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit repair proteins in the processing of clustered DNA damage in human cancer cells. For this project, we use several tumor cell lines, such as breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and HCC1937 (BRCA1 deficient) and human glioblastoma cells MO59J/K; and (2) Possible use of DNA damage clusters as novel cancer biomarkers for prognostic and therapeutic applications related to modulation of oxidative stress. In this project human tumor and mice tissues are being used.

  12. 基于改进分水岭算法和凹点搜索的乳腺癌粘连细胞分割%Automatic Segmentation of Clustered Breast Cancer Cells Based on Modified Watershed Algorithm and Concavity Points Searching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童振; 蒲立新; 董方杰

    2013-01-01

    As a common malignant tumor,breast cancer has seriously affected women's physical and psychological health even threatened their lives.Breast cancer has even begun to show a gradual trend of high incidence in some places in the world.As a kind of common pathological assist diagnosis technique,immunohistochemical technique plays an important role in the diagnosis of breast cancer.Usually,Pathologists isolate positive cells from the stained specimen which were processed by immunohistochemical technique and calculate the ratio of positive cells which is a core indicator of breast cancer in diagnosis.In this paper,we present a new algorithm which was based on modified watershed algorithm and concavity points searching to identify the positive cells and segment the clustered cells automatically,and then realize automatic counting.By comparison of the results of our experiments with those of other methods,our method can exactly segment the clustered cells without losing any geometrical cell features and give the exact number of separating cells.%乳腺癌作为一种常见的恶性肿瘤,已经严重影响妇女身心健康甚至危及生命,在某些地区还呈现高发趋势.免疫组织化学技术作为一种常用的辅助病理诊断技术,在乳腺癌的诊断上发挥了重要作用,从免疫组化技术处理的标本中,识别阳性细胞,并统计阳性细胞百分率这一个重要的诊断指标.本文提出一种基于改进分水岭算法和凹点搜索的方法,识别阳性细胞并自动分割粘连细胞,最后实现自动计数,试验结果对比显示,本方法能够在不损失细胞几何特性的基础上准确地分离粘连细胞,实现自动计数并辅助完成统计.

  13. The rotation of Galaxy Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Tovmassian, Hrant M.

    2015-01-01

    The method for detection of the galaxy cluster rotation based on the study of distribution of member galaxies with velocities lower and higher of the cluster mean velocity over the cluster image is proposed. The search for rotation is made for flat clusters with $a/b>1.8$ and BMI type clusters which are expected to be rotating. For comparison there were studied also round clusters and clusters of NBMI type, the second by brightness galaxy in which does not differ significantly from the cluste...

  14. Stellar populations in star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chengyuan; Deng, Licai

    2016-01-01

    Stellar populations contain the most important information about star clus- ter formation and evolution. Until several decades ago, star clusters were believed to be ideal laboratories for studies of simple stellar populations (SSPs). However, discoveries of multiple stellar populations in Galactic globular clusters have expanded our view on stellar populations in star clusters. They have simultaneously generated a number of controversies, particularly as to whether young star clusters may have the same origin as old globular clusters. In addition, extensive studies have revealed that the SSP scenario does not seem to hold for some intermediate-age and young star clusters either, thus making the origin of multiple stellar populations in star clusters even more complicated. Stellar population anomalies in numerous star clusters are well-documented, implying that the notion of star clusters as true SSPs faces serious challenges. In this review, we focus on stellar populations in massive clusters with different ...

  15. Comparison of 2D fingerprint types and hierarchy level selection methods for structural grouping using Ward's clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild; Blankley

    2000-01-01

    Four different two-dimensional fingerprint types (MACCS, Unity, BCI, and Daylight) and nine methods of selecting optimal cluster levels from the output of a hierarchical clustering algorithm were evaluated for their ability to select clusters that represent chemical series present in some typical examples of chemical compound data sets. The methods were evaluated using a Ward's clustering algorithm on subsets of the publicly available National Cancer Institute HIV data set, as well as with compounds from our corporate data set. We make a number of observations and recommendations about the choice of fingerprint type and cluster level selection methods for use in this type of clustering

  16. Cluster recent highlights in magnetospheric physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoubet, C. Philippe; Laakso, Harri; Goldstein, Mevlyn; Masson, Arnaud

    2016-07-01

    After more than 15 years in space, the Cluster mission is continuing to deliver groundbreaking results, thanks to its ability to move the four spacecraft with respect to each other, according to the science topic to be studied. The main goal of the Cluster mission, made of four identical spacecraft carrying each 11 complementary instruments, is to study in three dimensions the key plasma processes at work in the main regions of the Earth's environment: solar wind and bow shock, magnetopause, polar cusps, magnetotail, and auroral zone. During the course of the mission, the relative distance between the four spacecraft has been varied more than 55 times from a few km up to 36000 km to address the various scientific objectives. The smallest distance achieved between two Cluster spacecraft was 3.1 km in December 2015, about 50 times smaller than planned at the beginning of the mission. The rate of change of separation distances has accelerated in the last few years with the Guest Investigator programme that allowed scientists in the community to propose special science programmes requiring a new spacecraft constellation. We will present recent science highlights obtained such as solar wind reconnection and bifurcated current sheet development, multi-altitude measurements of field aligned currents, reconnection efficiency in accelerating particles and effect of cold ions, motion of X-lines, speed and direction of tail reconnection events, flux transfer events evolution, new method to find magnetic nulls outside the Cluster tetrahedron, interplanetary shock waves very quick damping and origin of theta auroras. We will also present the distribution of data through the Cluster Science Data System (CSDS), and the Cluster Science Archive (CSA). CSA was implemented to provide, for the first time for a plasma physics mission, a permanent and public archive of all the high-resolution data from all instruments.

  17. Clustering microcalcifications techniques in digital mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Claudia. C.; Bosco, Paolo; Cerello, Piergiorgio

    2008-11-01

    Breast cancer has become a serious public health problem around the world. However, this pathology can be treated if it is detected in early stages. This task is achieved by a radiologist, who should read a large amount of mammograms per day, either for a screening or diagnostic purpose in mammography. However human factors could affect the diagnosis. Computer Aided Detection is an automatic system, which can help to specialists in the detection of possible signs of malignancy in mammograms. Microcalcifications play an important role in early detection, so we focused on their study. The two mammographic features that indicate the microcalcifications could be probably malignant are small size and clustered distribution. We worked with density techniques for automatic clustering, and we applied them on a mammography CAD prototype developed at INFN-Turin, Italy. An improvement of performance is achieved analyzing images from a Perugia-Assisi Hospital, in Italy.

  18. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  19. Clustering by Pattern Similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-xun Wang; Jian Pei

    2008-01-01

    The task of clustering is to identify classes of similar objects among a set of objects. The definition of similarity varies from one clustering model to another. However, in most of these models the concept of similarity is often based on such metrics as Manhattan distance, Euclidean distance or other Lp distances. In other words, similar objects must have close values in at least a set of dimensions. In this paper, we explore a more general type of similarity. Under the pCluster model we proposed, two objects are similar if they exhibit a coherent pattern on a subset of dimensions. The new similarity concept models a wide range of applications. For instance, in DNA microarray analysis, the expression levels of two genes may rise and fall synchronously in response to a set of environmental stimuli. Although the magnitude of their expression levels may not be close, the patterns they exhibit can be very much alike. Discovery of such clusters of genes is essential in revealing significant connections in gene regulatory networks. E-commerce applications, such as collaborative filtering, can also benefit from the new model, because it is able to capture not only the closeness of values of certain leading indicators but also the closeness of (purchasing, browsing, etc.) patterns exhibited by the customers. In addition to the novel similarity model, this paper also introduces an effective and efficient algorithm to detect such clusters, and we perform tests on several real and synthetic data sets to show its performance.

  20. Clustering in bubbly liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Bernardo; Zenit, Roberto

    2004-11-01

    We are conducting experiments to determine the amount of clustering that occurs when small gas bubbles ascend in clean water. In particular, we are interested in flows for which the liquid motion around the bubbles can be described, with a certain degree of accuracy, using potential flow theory. This model is applicable for the case of bubbly liquids in which the Reynolds number is large and the Weber number is small. To clearly observe the formation of bubble clusters we propose the use of a Hele-Shaw-type channel. In this thin channel the bubbles cannot overlap in the depth direction, therefore the identification of bubble clusters cannot be misinterpreted. Direct video image analysis is performed to calculate the velocity and size of the bubbles, as well as the formation of clusters. Although the walls do affect the motion of the bubbles, the clustering phenomena does occur and has the same qualitative behavior as in fully three-dimensional flows. A series of preliminary measurements are presented. A brief discussion of our plans to perform PIV measurements to obtain the liquid velocity fields is also presented.