WorldWideScience

Sample records for addressing cancer clusters

  1. Atomic clusters with addressable complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, David J.

    2017-02-01

    A general formulation for constructing addressable atomic clusters is introduced, based on one or more reference structures. By modifying the well depths in a given interatomic potential in favour of nearest-neighbour interactions that are defined in the reference(s), the potential energy landscape can be biased to make a particular permutational isomer the global minimum. The magnitude of the bias changes the resulting potential energy landscape systematically, providing a framework to produce clusters that should self-organise efficiently into the target structure. These features are illustrated for small systems, where all the relevant local minima and transition states can be identified, and for the low-energy regions of the landscape for larger clusters. For a 55-particle cluster, it is possible to design a target structure from a transition state of the original potential and to retain this structure in a doubly addressable landscape. Disconnectivity graphs based on local minima that have no direct connections to a lower minimum provide a helpful way to visualise the larger databases. These minima correspond to the termini of monotonic sequences, which always proceed downhill in terms of potential energy, and we identify them as a class of biminimum. Multiple copies of the target cluster are treated by adding a repulsive term between particles with the same address to maintain distinguishable targets upon aggregation. By tuning the magnitude of this term, it is possible to create assemblies of the target cluster corresponding to a variety of structures, including rings and chains.

  2. Cancer Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer ... Myths and Misconceptions Diet Hormones Immunosuppression Infectious Agents Obesity Radiation Sunlight Tobacco Genetics NCI Cancer Genetics Services ...

  3. Mutation Clusters from Cancer Exome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakushadze, Zura; Yu, Willie

    2017-08-15

    We apply our statistically deterministic machine learning/clustering algorithm *K-means (recently developed in https://ssrn.com/abstract=2908286) to 10,656 published exome samples for 32 cancer types. A majority of cancer types exhibit a mutation clustering structure. Our results are in-sample stable. They are also out-of-sample stable when applied to 1389 published genome samples across 14 cancer types. In contrast, we find in- and out-of-sample instabilities in cancer signatures extracted from exome samples via nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), a computationally-costly and non-deterministic method. Extracting stable mutation structures from exome data could have important implications for speed and cost, which are critical for early-stage cancer diagnostics, such as novel blood-test methods currently in development.

  4. Testicular cancer: addressing the psychosexual issues.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Annamarie

    2012-01-31

    Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in men aged 15-35 years and predominantly occurs at a time in a man\\'s life when important decisions about marriage, starting a family and a professional career are being made. While treatments for testicular cancer are very successful, they can have a major impact on the person\\'s sexuality and sense of self. The focus of this article is on exploring the impact of cancer treatments for testicular cancer on men\\'s sexuality and how nurses can respond to their concerns in a sensitive and informed manner.

  5. Cluster stability scores for microarray data in cancer studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Debashis

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A potential benefit of profiling of tissue samples using microarrays is the generation of molecular fingerprints that will define subtypes of disease. Hierarchical clustering has been the primary analytical tool used to define disease subtypes from microarray experiments in cancer settings. Assessing cluster reliability poses a major complication in analyzing output from clustering procedures. While most work has focused on estimating the number of clusters in a dataset, the question of stability of individual-level clusters has not been addressed. Results We address this problem by developing cluster stability scores using subsampling techniques. These scores exploit the redundancy in biologically discriminatory information on the chip. Our approach is generic and can be used with any clustering method. We propose procedures for calculating cluster stability scores for situations involving both known and unknown numbers of clusters. We also develop cluster-size adjusted stability scores. The method is illustrated by application to data three cancer studies; one involving childhood cancers, the second involving B-cell lymphoma, and the final is from a malignant melanoma study. Availability Code implementing the proposed analytic method can be obtained at the second author's website.

  6. [Childhood cancer epidemiology and available evidence on case clustering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Milena; Terracini, Benedetto

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a Monograph on childhood cancer clusters addressed to Italian public health workers, paediatricians and paediatric oncologists, and the general public. Two issues have been underlined in most definitions of cancer clusters reported in the literature over the last 30 years. The first is the need for an unbiased methodological approach for the detection and the interpretation of clustering and of individual clusters. The other is the responsibility for scientists and public health workers to unravel suspicious events and to interact with the population in circumstances which may turn out to be false alarms. The relative weight given to epidemiological methods and to risk perception has varied between definitions of clusters given in different periods. In the field of childhood cancer clusters, epidemiological research has produced very little fresh knowledge. However, it is recognized that this is not a sufficient reason for refusing to pay attention to reports of perceived clusters. Models of spatio-temporal interactions according to Birch et al. (2000) are taken in consideration: the literature offers a very limited number of circumstances fitting such models. In Italy, over the years, only two childhood cancer clusters have been reported in the indexed literature, both of them regarded cases of acute lymphatic leukaemia and occurred in Sardinia in the Eighties and in the area of Roma in the Nineties. A possible reason for the paucity of reports (compared, for instance, to the UK scenario) is the limited availability of health statistics.

  7. Space-time clusters of breast cancer using residential histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2014-01-01

    selected from the Civil Registration System. Residential addresses of cases and controls from 1971 to 2003 were collected from the Civil Registration System and geo-coded. Q-statistics were used to identify space-time clusters of breast cancer. All analyses were carried out with both control groups...

  8. Adaptation of a Counseling Intervention to Address Multiple Cancer Risk Factors among Overweight/Obese Latino Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Yessenia; Fernández, Maria E.; Strong, Larkin L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Krasny, Sarah; Hernandez Robles, Eden; Heredia, Natalia; Spears, Claire A.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Eakin, Elizabeth; Resnicow, Ken; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Wetter, David W.

    2015-01-01

    More than 60% of cancer-related deaths in the United States are attributable to tobacco use, poor nutrition, and physical inactivity, and these risk factors tend to cluster together. Thus, strategies for cancer risk reduction would benefit from addressing multiple health risk behaviors. We adapted an evidence-based intervention grounded in social…

  9. Address allocation for MANET merge and partition using cluster based routing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sugandha; Rajpal, Navin; Sharma, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Network merges and partitions occur quite often in MANET wherein address auto-configuration is a critical requirement. There are various approaches for address auto-configuration in MANETs which allocate address to the nodes in a dynamic and distributed manner in which HOST ID and MANET ID are assigned on the basis of their Base value. MANET merges and partitions employing Cluster Based Routing Protocol require a node to be assigned as the Cluster Head (CH). This paper presents the Election Algorithm which assigns a node as the Cluster Head on the basis of its weight. Through simulation using the NS-2, it has been shown that the Election Algorithm improves the packet delivery ratio (PDR) significantly and decreases the packet delay to a great extent in comparison to the existing AODV protocol.

  10. Adoptive T cell therapy: Addressing challenges in cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Cassian

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adoptive T cell therapy involves the ex vivo selection and expansion of effector cells for the treatment of patients with cancer. In this review, the advantages and limitations of using antigen-specific T cells are discussed in counterpoint to vaccine strategies. Although vaccination strategies represent more readily available reagents, adoptive T cell therapy provides highly selected T cells of defined phenotype, specificity and function that may influence their biological behavior in vivo. Adoptive T cell therapy offers not only translational opportunities but also a means to address fundamental issues in the evolving field of cancer immunotherapy.

  11. Knowledge based cluster ensemble for cancer discovery from biomolecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiwen; Wongb, Hau-San; You, Jane; Yang, Qinmin; Liao, Hongying

    2011-06-01

    The adoption of microarray techniques in biological and medical research provides a new way for cancer diagnosis and treatment. In order to perform successful diagnosis and treatment of cancer, discovering and classifying cancer types correctly is essential. Class discovery is one of the most important tasks in cancer classification using biomolecular data. Most of the existing works adopt single clustering algorithms to perform class discovery from biomolecular data. However, single clustering algorithms have limitations, which include a lack of robustness, stability, and accuracy. In this paper, we propose a new cluster ensemble approach called knowledge based cluster ensemble (KCE) which incorporates the prior knowledge of the data sets into the cluster ensemble framework. Specifically, KCE represents the prior knowledge of a data set in the form of pairwise constraints. Then, the spectral clustering algorithm (SC) is adopted to generate a set of clustering solutions. Next, KCE transforms pairwise constraints into confidence factors for these clustering solutions. After that, a consensus matrix is constructed by considering all the clustering solutions and their corresponding confidence factors. The final clustering result is obtained by partitioning the consensus matrix. Comparison with single clustering algorithms and conventional cluster ensemble approaches, knowledge based cluster ensemble approaches are more robust, stable and accurate. The experiments on cancer data sets show that: 1) KCE works well on these data sets; 2) KCE not only outperforms most of the state-of-the-art single clustering algorithms, but also outperforms most of the state-of-the-art cluster ensemble approaches.

  12. Cancer incidence in men: a cluster analysis of spatial patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Alò Daniela

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial clustering of different diseases has received much less attention than single disease mapping. Besides chance or artifact, clustering of different cancers in a given area may depend on exposure to a shared risk factor or to multiple correlated factors (e.g. cigarette smoking and obesity in a deprived area. Models developed so far to investigate co-occurrence of diseases are not well-suited for analyzing many cancers simultaneously. In this paper we propose a simple two-step exploratory method for screening clusters of different cancers in a population. Methods Cancer incidence data were derived from the regional cancer registry of Umbria, Italy. A cluster analysis was performed on smoothed and non-smoothed standardized incidence ratios (SIRs of the 13 most frequent cancers in males. The Besag, York and Mollie model (BYM and Poisson kriging were used to produce smoothed SIRs. Results Cluster analysis on non-smoothed SIRs was poorly informative in terms of clustering of different cancers, as only larynx and oral cavity were grouped, and of characteristic patterns of cancer incidence in specific geographical areas. On the other hand BYM and Poisson kriging gave similar results, showing cancers of the oral cavity, larynx, esophagus, stomach and liver formed a main cluster. Lung and urinary bladder cancers clustered together but not with the cancers mentioned above. Both methods, particularly the BYM model, identified distinct geographic clusters of adjacent areas. Conclusion As in single disease mapping, non-smoothed SIRs do not provide reliable estimates of cancer risks because of small area variability. The BYM model produces smooth risk surfaces which, when entered into a cluster analysis, identify well-defined geographical clusters of adjacent areas. It probably enhances or amplifies the signal arising from exposure of more areas (statistical units to shared risk factors that are associated with different cancers. In

  13. Cluster stability scores for microarray data in cancer studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh Debashis; Smolkin Mark

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background A potential benefit of profiling of tissue samples using microarrays is the generation of molecular fingerprints that will define subtypes of disease. Hierarchical clustering has been the primary analytical tool used to define disease subtypes from microarray experiments in cancer settings. Assessing cluster reliability poses a major complication in analyzing output from clustering procedures. While most work has focused on estimating the number of clusters in a dataset, t...

  14. 基于簇的MANET地址配置方案%Address configuration for MANET based on clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓喃; 钱焕延

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposed a dynamic and hierarchical IPv6 address configuration scheme for a MANET. The scheme established the hierarchical architecture and combines distributed and centralized approaches. In the architecture, it distributed a central node assigns IPv6 addresses for cluster heads around the MANET, and the distributed cluster heads assigned IPv6 addresses for cluster members. Then it proposed generation algorithm of a cluster, and it used the number of potential cluster members as a measurement unit and minimized the number of the cluster heads. Therefore, it reduced the address configuration cost for cluster heads. A central node/cluster head used the unicast communication mode to achieve the real-time address recovery in order to ensure that it had enough address resources for assignment. It also proposed the low-cost MANET merging and partitioning algorithms which guaranteed that no address collision happens during the MANET merging and partitioning process. It analyzed the performance parameters of the proposed scheme, including the address configuration cost, the address configuration delay and the number of MANET merging, etc. The analytical results show that the proposed scheme effectively reduces the address configuration cost, shortens the address configuration delay, and decreases the number of MANET merging.%提出了一种MANET的动态IPv6地址配置方案.此方案采用层次分配体系结构,即中心节点为簇首节点分配地址,簇首节点为簇内节点分配地址.提出了以簇内节点数量为度量单位的簇构建算法,实现了簇首节点最小化,降低了簇首节点地址分配代价.中心节点/簇首节点采用单播通信方式实现了地址实时回收,保证了中心节点/簇首节点有足够的地址进行分配.最后提出了低代价的MANET合并和分裂算法,有效减少了MANET合并次数.对所提方案的地址配置代价、地址配置延迟以及MANET合并次数等性能参数进行了分

  15. Breast cancer: unique communication challenges and strategies to address them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Patricia A; Aaron, Joann; Baile, Walter F

    2009-01-01

    Women with breast cancer have become increasingly more involved on a national and local level in advocating for resources to fight cancer. However, in the context of the relationship with their physicians and other cancer caregivers, much remains to be done in providing them with adequate support. In this paper, we highlight the difficulties in communication related to breast cancer and describe strategies and approaches that may be helpful in improving the communication throughout the cancer trajectory. Specifically, breast cancer patients have high unmet information needs relevant to health information and dissatisfaction with the actual information they receive from their providers. These needs seem even more pronounced when patients are older, of lower socio-economic class and from differing cultural backgrounds which may affect their ability to express their desires for information and desire to be involved in decision-making about their treatment. Other communication challenges can be envisioned as occurring at key points across the cancer trajectory: diagnosis disclosure, treatment failure, transition to palliative care, and end of life discussions. These involve techniques as basic as how to establish trust and rapport and determine a patient's information and decision-making preferences and as complex as giving bad news. These strategies are now viewed as essential skills in that they can affect patient distress and quality of life, satisfaction, and malpractice litigation as well as practitioner stress and burnout.

  16. Tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters in colorectal cancer.

    KAUST Repository

    Cima, Igor

    2016-06-29

    Clusters of tumor cells are often observed in the blood of cancer patients. These structures have been described as malignant entities for more than 50 years, although their comprehensive characterization is lacking. Contrary to current consensus, we demonstrate that a discrete population of circulating cell clusters isolated from the blood of colorectal cancer patients are not cancerous but consist of tumor-derived endothelial cells. These clusters express both epithelial and mesenchymal markers, consistent with previous reports on circulating tumor cell (CTC) phenotyping. However, unlike CTCs, they do not mirror the genetic variations of matched tumors. Transcriptomic analysis of single clusters revealed that these structures exhibit an endothelial phenotype and can be traced back to the tumor endothelium. Further results show that tumor-derived endothelial clusters do not form by coagulation or by outgrowth of single circulating endothelial cells, supporting a direct release of clusters from the tumor vasculature. The isolation and enumeration of these benign clusters distinguished healthy volunteers from treatment-naïve as well as pathological early-stage (≤IIA) colorectal cancer patients with high accuracy, suggesting that tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters could be used as a means of noninvasive screening for colorectal cancer. In contrast to CTCs, tumor-derived endothelial cell clusters may also provide important information about the underlying tumor vasculature at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and throughout the course of the disease.

  17. Improving cancer treatment by addressing legislative and regulatory issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, I

    2011-12-01

    To explore legislative and legal barriers to improving cancer treatment. The advocacy agenda of Cancer Council Australia was examined for key issues, and examples drawn from Australian law were presented at a conference entitled 'Legislate, regulate and litigate: legal perspectives on cancer prevention and treatment' at the University of Sydney. The introduction of electronic medical records and linkage of data sets from registries can produce very useful public health information, but could be a threat to individual privacy. The balance between these must underpin legislation and regulation. The new drug approval process must keep pace with developments such as targeted therapies, where tests to identify the presence of the target must also be approved simultaneously. The regulation of complementary and alternative medicines in cancer is challenging given their widespread use. In cancer research, it is vital that the important ethics and governance review process does not become a barrier to the ability to complete research in a reasonable time frame. A specific issue for future treatments and diagnostic tests that are to be targeted at genes and their products is to clarify gene patenting laws so that invention is rewarded, not mere discovery. The nature of the workforce will need to change to meet the treatment needs of an increasing incidence of cancer in an aging population, but regulation will need to ensure the maintenance of safety and quality standards. The flexibility of legislation and regulation to meet a rapidly changing environment is key to ensuring the timely adoption of new cancer treatments to improve cancer outcomes. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Addressing future challenges for cancer services: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jane; Radford, Gina

    2016-02-01

    Jane Maher & Gina Radford speak to Gemma Westcott, Commissioning Editor Jane Maher has been Macmillan's Chief Medical Officer since 1999 and now shares the role as Joint Chief Medical Officer with general practitioner Rosie Loftus, reflecting the growing need for specialists and generalists to work more effectively together. She has been an National Health Service (NHS) improvement clinical leader for over 10 years and is a Consultant Clinical Oncologist at Mount Vernon Cancer Centre and Hillingdon Hospital where she has worked for more than 20 years, during which she helped develop nonsurgical oncology services in five district general hospitals. She is a senior Clinical Lecturer at University College London and Visiting Professor in Cancer and Supportive Care at the Centre for Complexity Management at the University of Hertfordshire. Jane chaired the Maher Committee for the Department of Health in 1995, led the UK National Audit of Late Effects Pelvic Radiotherapy for the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) in 2000 and, most recently, chaired the National Cancer Survivorship Initiative Consequences of Treatment work stream. She co-founded one of the first Cancer Support and Information services in the UK, winning the Nye Bevan award in 1992 and there are now more than 60 units based on this model. She is a member of the Older People and Cancer Clinical Advisory Group. She has written more than 100 published articles and is a UK representative for cancer survivorship in Europe and advises on cancer survivorship programs in Denmark and Canada. Gina Radford is Deputy Chief Medical Officer for England, a post she took up in January 2015. Prior to that, she has held a number of roles in public health, at local and regional level. Most recently she was Centre Director for Anglia and Essex for Public Health England, and as a part of that role helped lead nationally on the public health response to Ebola. She was until very recently Chair of one of the NICE public health

  19. Designing Technology to Address Parent Uncertainty in Childhood Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Caroline F; Szulczewski, Lauren; Strahlendorf, Laura F; Lane, J Blake; Mullins, Larry L; Pai, Ahna L H

    2016-01-01

    The stress and uncertainty created by a child's cancer diagnosis and treatment can affect parent and child functioning. Health technology provides a potential avenue for intervention delivery. Interviews were conducted with parents of children diagnosed with cancer to discover their needs following diagnosis and design a relevant mobile application. Treatment experience was the overarching theme. Subthemes included the emotional response, use of information, and environmental factors. Technology was used primarily to seek out information and communicate with others. Health technologies are gaining popularity and have the potential to be beneficial for patients and families throughout the treatment experience.

  20. Presidential address: Gastrointestinal cancer. Surgical survey of abdominal tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, I

    1978-01-01

    The experience with gastrointestinal cancer at a single large hospital has been utilized as a "micro-model" of the experience for the country at large, and the reasons why such a comparison might be possible have been presented. The incidence of various lesions has been discussed in terms of sex, age, and race. The changing incidence of various lesions has been pointed out. Survival results have been determined for total series, for various types of operative procedures, and for various extents of disease. The comparability of survival results from this one institution and those collected from the literature have been discussed. The emergence of newer diagnostic and therapeutic measures has been highlighted. The importance of education of both patients and physicians is emphasized repeatedly by the late stage at which so many of the patients with any gastrointestinal cancer present to and are diagnosed by the physician. The educational task for all of medicine is apparent and must be faced in some effective fashion.

  1. Salient concerns in using analgesia for cancer pain among outpatients: A cluster analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghani, Salimah H; Knafl, George J

    2017-02-10

    To identify unique clusters of patients based on their concerns in using analgesia for cancer pain and predictors of the cluster membership. This was a 3-mo prospective observational study (n = 207). Patients were included if they were adults (≥ 18 years), diagnosed with solid tumors or multiple myelomas, and had at least one prescription of around-the-clock pain medication for cancer or cancer-treatment-related pain. Patients were recruited from two outpatient medical oncology clinics within a large health system in Philadelphia. A choice-based conjoint (CBC) analysis experiment was used to elicit analgesic treatment preferences (utilities). Patients employed trade-offs based on five analgesic attributes (percent relief from analgesics, type of analgesic, type of side-effects, severity of side-effects, out of pocket cost). Patients were clustered based on CBC utilities using novel adaptive statistical methods. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify predictors of cluster membership. The analyses found 4 unique clusters: Most patients made trade-offs based on the expectation of pain relief (cluster 1, 41%). For a subset, the main underlying concern was type of analgesic prescribed, i.e., opioid vs non-opioid (cluster 2, 11%) and type of analgesic side effects (cluster 4, 21%), respectively. About one in four made trade-offs based on multiple concerns simultaneously including pain relief, type of side effects, and severity of side effects (cluster 3, 28%). In multivariable analysis, to identify predictors of cluster membership, clinical and socioeconomic factors (education, health literacy, income, social support) rather than analgesic attitudes and beliefs were found important; only the belief, i.e., pain medications can mask changes in health or keep you from knowing what is going on in your body was found significant in predicting two of the four clusters [cluster 1 (-); cluster 4 (+)]. Most patients appear to be driven by a single salient concern in

  2. Coupled Two-Way Clustering Analysis of Breast Cancer and Colon Cancer Gene Expression Data

    CERN Document Server

    Getz, G; Kela, I; Domany, E; Notterman, D A; Getz, Gad; Gal, Hilah; Kela, Itai; Domany, Eytan; Notterman, Dan A.

    2003-01-01

    We present and review Coupled Two Way Clustering, a method designed to mine gene expression data. The method identifies submatrices of the total expression matrix, whose clustering analysis reveals partitions of samples (and genes) into biologically relevant classes. We demonstrate, on data from colon and breast cancer, that we are able to identify partitions that elude standard clustering analysis.

  3. Cancer detection based on Raman spectra super-paramagnetic clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solís, José Luis; Guizar-Ruiz, Juan Ignacio; Martínez-Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Zerega, Brenda Esmeralda; Juárez-López, Héctor Alfonso; Vargas-Rodríguez, Héctor; Gallegos-Infante, Luis Armando; González-Silva, Ricardo Armando; Espinoza-Padilla, Pedro Basilio; Palomares-Anda, Pascual

    2016-08-01

    The clustering of Raman spectra of serum sample is analyzed using the super-paramagnetic clustering technique based in the Potts spin model. We investigated the clustering of biochemical networks by using Raman data that define edge lengths in the network, and where the interactions are functions of the Raman spectra's individual band intensities. For this study, we used two groups of 58 and 102 control Raman spectra and the intensities of 160, 150 and 42 Raman spectra of serum samples from breast and cervical cancer and leukemia patients, respectively. The spectra were collected from patients from different hospitals from Mexico. By using super-paramagnetic clustering technique, we identified the most natural and compact clusters allowing us to discriminate the control and cancer patients. A special interest was the leukemia case where its nearly hierarchical observed structure allowed the identification of the patients's leukemia type. The goal of this study is to apply a model of statistical physics, as the super-paramagnetic, to find these natural clusters that allow us to design a cancer detection method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of preliminary results evaluating the usefulness of super-paramagnetic clustering in the discipline of spectroscopy where it is used for classification of spectra.

  4. Implementing colorectal cancer screening in community health centers: addressing cancer health disparities through a regional cancer collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplin, Stephen H; Haggstrom, David; Jacobs, Tracy; Determan, Ada; Granger, Jennifer; Montalvo, Wanda; Snyder, William M; Lockhart, Susan; Calvo, Ahmed

    2008-09-01

    The population served by Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) has lower levels of cancer screening compared with the general population and suffers a disproportionate cancer burden. To address these disparities, 3 federal agencies and a primary care association established and tested the feasibility of a Regional Cancer Collaborative (RCC) in 2005. RCC faculty implemented a learning model to improve cancer screening across 4 FQHCs that met explicit organizational readiness criteria. Regional faculty trained "care process leaders," who worked with primary care teams to plan and implement practice changes. FQHCs monitored progress across the following measures of screening implementation: self-management goal-setting; number and percent screened for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer; percent timely results notification; and percent abnormal screens evaluated within 90 days. Progress and plans were reviewed in regular teleconferences. FQHCs were encouraged to create local communities of practice (LCOP) involving community resources to support cancer screening and to participate in a monthly teleconference that linked the LCOPs into a regional community of practice. Summary reports and administrative data facilitated a process evaluation of the RCC. chi test and test of trends compared baseline and follow-up screening rates. The RCC taught the collaborative process using process leader training, teleconferences, 2 regional meetings, and local process improvement efforts. All organizations created clinical tracking capabilities and 3 of the 4 established LCOPs, which met monthly in an regional community of practice. Screening documentation increased for all 3 cancers from 2005 to 2007. Colorectal cancer screening increased from 8.6% to 21.2%. A regional plan to enable collaborative learning for cancer screening implementation is feasible, and improvements in screening rates can occur among carefully selected organizations.

  5. Designing a Community-Based Lay Health Advisor Training Curriculum to Address Cancer Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwede, Clement K.; Ashley, Atalie A.; McGinnis, Kara; Montiel-Ishino, F. Alejandro; Standifer, Maisha; Baldwin, Julie; Williams, Coni; Sneed, Kevin B.; Wathington, Deanna; Dash-Pitts, Lolita; Green, B. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Racial and ethnic minorities have disproportionately higher cancer incidence and mortality than their White counterparts. In response to this inequity in cancer prevention and care, community-based lay health advisors (LHAs) may be suited to deliver effective, culturally relevant, quality cancer education, prevention/screening, and early detection services for underserved populations. Approach and Strategies Consistent with key tenets of community-based participatory research (CBPR), this project engaged community partners to develop and implement a unique LHA training curriculum to address cancer health disparities among medically underserved communities in a tricounty area. Seven phases of curriculum development went into designing a final seven-module LHA curriculum. In keeping with principles of CBPR and community engagement, academic–community partners and LHAs themselves were involved at all phases to ensure the needs of academic and community partners were mutually addressed in development and implementation of the LHA program. Discussion and Conclusions Community-based LHA programs for outreach, education, and promotion of cancer screening and early detection, are ideal for addressing cancer health disparities in access and quality care. When community-based LHAs are appropriately recruited, trained, and located in communities, they provide unique opportunities to link, bridge, and facilitate quality cancer education, services, and research. PMID:22982709

  6. The American Cancer Society's Approach to Addressing the Cancer Burden in the LGBT Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Richard; Sharpe, Katherine B; Westmaas, J Lee; Patel, Alpa V

    2015-11-05

    The American Cancer Society (ACS) has embraced the achievement of equity in cancer-related health outcomes as a foundational principle. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals experience health disparities related to certain risk factors for cancer and in certain cancer outcomes. Accordingly, the ACS is defining a new program of work in partnership with the LGBT community to help understand and reduce disparities in cancer risk factors and outcomes. This article describes the cancer control program of the ACS including specific public health and research programs targeted at reducing cancer related health disparities for the LGBT population.

  7. Commentary: Utilizing Community-Engaged Approaches to Investigate and Address Hmong Women’s Cancer Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M.A. Sparks

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a growing concern for women in the Hmong community. Hmong women experience poor health outcomes for both cervical and breast cancer, largely due to low rates of screening and resultant late-stage at diagnosis. Both breast and cervical cancer screening are complicated by a multitude of social, cultural and environmental factors which influence health care decision-making and can otherwise serve to restrict access. We argue that community-engaged research, an orientation which prioritizes collaborative, equitable partnerships and community voice in identifying both problems and solutions, can be a valuable approach to helping address cancer health disparities for Hmong women. Using the Milwaukee-based “Healthy Hmong Women” project as a case example, we detail how the community-engaged approach implemented by the project partners was critical in identifying factors contributing to Hmong cancer disparities and appropriate interventions, as well as the overall acceptance and success of the project. Specifically, we discuss how this approach: (1 promoted community investment and ownership in the project; (2 facilitated the integration of local perspectives and experiences; (3 built capacity to address cancer screening disparities; (4 facilitated the creation of interventions targeting multiple ecological levels; and (5 framed the community as the foundation and driver of positive change.

  8. Exploring online support spaces: using cluster analysis to examine breast cancer, diabetes and fibromyalgia support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Annie T

    2012-05-01

    This study sought to characterize and compare online discussion forums for three conditions: breast cancer, type 1 diabetes and fibromyalgia. Though there has been considerable work examining online support groups, few studies have considered differences in discussion content between health conditions. In addition, in contrast to the extant literature, this study sought to employ a semi-automated approach to examine health-related online communities. Online discussion content for the three conditions was compiled, pre-processed, and clustered at the thread level using the bisecting k-means algorithm. Though the clusters for each condition differed, the clusters fell into a set of common categories: Generic, Support, Patient-Centered, Experiential Knowledge, Treatments/Procedures, Medications, and Condition Management. The cluster analyses facilitate an increased understanding of various aspects of patient experience, including significant emotional and temporal aspects of the illness experience. The clusters highlighted the changing nature of patients' information needs. Information provided to patients should be tailored to address their needs at various points during their illness. In addition, cluster analysis may be integrated into online support groups or other types of online interventions to assist patients in finding information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Providing palliative care to patients with cancer: Addressing the needs in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Malloy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the third highest cause of death in Kenya, preceded by infectious and cardiovascular diseases, and in most cases, diagnosed in later stages. Nurses are the primary caregivers, assessing and managing these patients in the clinic, in inpatient settings, and in rural and remote communities. While cancer rates remain high, the burden to the patient, the caregiver, and society as a whole continues to rise. Kenya's poverty complicates cancer even further. Many Kenyans are unaware of cancer's signs and symptoms, and limited diagnostic and treatment centers are available. Despite these barriers, there is still hope and help for those in Kenya, who suffer from cancer. The World Health Organization has stated that palliative care is a basic human right and nurses providing this care in Kenya are making efforts to support cancer patients' ongoing needs, in order to promote compassionate palliative care and prevent suffering. The purpose of this paper is to address the palliative care needs of patients with cancer in Kenya by providing education to nurses and influencing health-care policy and education at micro and macro levels. A case study weaved throughout will highlight these issues.

  10. Addressing the financial consequences of cancer: qualitative evaluation of a welfare rights advice service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Moffatt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The onset, treatment and trajectory of cancer is associated with financial stress among patients across a range of health and welfare systems and has been identified as a significant unmet need. Welfare rights advice can be delivered effectively in healthcare settings, has the potential to alleviate financial stress, but has not yet been evaluated. We present an evaluation of a welfare rights advice intervention designed to address the financial consequences of cancer. METHODS: Descriptive study of welfare outcomes among 533 male and 641 female cancer patients and carers aged 4-95 (mean 62 years, who accessed the welfare rights advice service in North East England between April 2009 and March 2010; and qualitative interview study of a maximum variation sample of 35 patients and 9 carers. RESULTS: Over two thirds of cancer patients and carers came from areas of high socio-economic deprivation. Welfare benefit claims were successful for 96% of claims made and resulted in a median increase in weekly income of £70.30 ($109.74, €84.44. Thirty-four different types of benefits or grants were awarded. Additional resources were perceived to lessen the impact of lost earnings, help offset costs associated with cancer, reduce stress and anxiety and increase ability to maintain independence and capacity to engage in daily activities, all of which were perceived to impact positively on well-being and quality of life. Key barriers to accessing benefit entitlements were knowledge, system complexity, eligibility concerns and assumptions that health professionals would alert patients to entitlements. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention proved feasible, effectively increased income for cancer patients and was highly valued. Addressing the financial sequelae of cancer can have positive social and psychological consequences that could significantly enhance effective clinical management and suitable services should be routinely available. Further research

  11. Addressing preference heterogeneity in public health policy by combining Cluster Analysis and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis: Proof of Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Turner, Robin; Cunich, Michelle; Salkeld, Glenn; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Dowie, Jack

    2015-01-01

    The use of subgroups based on biological-clinical and socio-demographic variables to deal with population heterogeneity is well-established in public policy. The use of subgroups based on preferences is rare, except when religion based, and controversial. If it were decided to treat subgroup preferences as valid determinants of public policy, a transparent analytical procedure is needed. In this proof of method study we show how public preferences could be incorporated into policy decisions in a way that respects both the multi-criterial nature of those decisions, and the heterogeneity of the population in relation to the importance assigned to relevant criteria. It involves combining Cluster Analysis (CA), to generate the subgroup sets of preferences, with Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), to provide the policy framework into which the clustered preferences are entered. We employ three techniques of CA to demonstrate that not only do different techniques produce different clusters, but that choosing among techniques (as well as developing the MCDA structure) is an important task to be undertaken in implementing the approach outlined in any specific policy context. Data for the illustrative, not substantive, application are from a Randomized Controlled Trial of online decision aids for Australian men aged 40-69 years considering Prostate-specific Antigen testing for prostate cancer. We show that such analyses can provide policy-makers with insights into the criterion-specific needs of different subgroups. Implementing CA and MCDA in combination to assist in the development of policies on important health and community issues such as drug coverage, reimbursement, and screening programs, poses major challenges -conceptual, methodological, ethical-political, and practical - but most are exposed by the techniques, not created by them.

  12. Is it time to address survivorship in advanced breast cancer? A review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lascio, Simona; Pagani, Olivia

    2017-02-01

    The outcome of advanced breast cancer has significantly improved over recent decades. As a consequence, the complex needs of patients living with the disease and their care-givers should be addressed not only in terms of supportive and palliative care but also of "survivorship" requirements. The multidisciplinary approach to advanced breast cancer should encompass - early in the history of the disease - not only physical but also functional, social, psychological and spiritual domains. It is important to clearly define the disease context with patients and families ("chronic" preferred to "incurable"), addressing the concept of uncertainty, and tailoring the treatment strategy according to both disease status and individual priorities. Specific psychosocial needs of young and elderly women and male patients - i.e. social security, job flexibility, rehabilitation (including sexuality), home and child care - should be recognized and supported. This review will address the key questions associated with survivorship in this disease context, recognizing the dearth of specific data and the urgent need for targeted clinical research and tailored interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sociopsychological tailoring to address colorectal cancer screening disparities: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerant, Anthony; Kravitz, Richard L; Sohler, Nancy; Fiscella, Kevin; Romero, Raquel L; Parnes, Bennett; Tancredi, Daniel J; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Slee, Christina; Dvorak, Simon; Turner, Charles; Hudnut, Andrew; Prieto, Francisco; Franks, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Interventions tailored to sociopsychological factors associated with health behaviors have promise for reducing colorectal cancer screening disparities, but limited research has assessed their impact in multiethnic populations. We examined whether an interactive multimedia computer program (IMCP) tailored to expanded health belief model sociopsychological factors could promote colorectal cancer screening in a multiethnic sample. We undertook a randomized controlled trial, comparing an IMCP tailored to colorectal cancer screening self-efficacy, knowledge, barriers, readiness, test preference, and experiences with a nontailored informational program, both delivered before office visits. The primary outcome was record-documented colorectal cancer screening during a 12-month follow-up period. Secondary outcomes included postvisit sociopsychological factor status and discussion, as well as clinician recommendation of screening during office visits. We enrolled 1,164 patients stratified by ethnicity and language (49.3% non-Hispanic, 27.2% Hispanic/English, 23.4% Hispanic/Spanish) from 26 offices around 5 centers (Sacramento, California; Rochester and the Bronx, New York; Denver, Colorado; and San Antonio, Texas). Adjusting for ethnicity/language, study center, and the previsit value of the dependent variable, compared with control patients, the IMCP led to significantly greater colorectal cancer screening knowledge, self-efficacy, readiness, test preference specificity, discussion, and recommendation. During the followup period, 132 (23%) IMCP and 123 (22%) control patients received screening (adjusted difference = 0.5 percentage points, 95% CI -4.3 to 5.3). IMCP effects did not differ significantly by ethnicity/language. Sociopsychological factor tailoring was no more effective than nontailored information in encouraging colorectal cancer screening in a multiethnic sample, despite enhancing sociopsychological factors and visit behaviors associated with screening. The

  14. Use of Evidence-Based Interventions to Address Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Djenaba A; Redwood, Diana; DeGroff, Amy; Butler, Emily L

    2016-02-12

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death among cancers that affect both men and women. Despite strong evidence of their effectiveness, CRC screening tests are underused. Racial/ethnic minority groups, persons without insurance, those with lower educational attainment, and those with lower household income levels have lower rates of CRC screening. Since 2009, CDC's Colorectal Cancer Control Program (CRCCP) has supported state health departments and tribal organizations in implementing evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to increase use of CRC screening tests among their populations. This report highlights the successful implementation of EBIs to address disparities by two CRCCP grantees: the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium (ANTHC) and Washington State's Breast, Cervical, and Colon Health Program (BCCHP). ANTHC partnered with regional tribal health organizations in the Alaska Tribal Health System to implement provider and client reminders and use patient navigators to increase CRC screening rates among Alaska Native populations. BCCHP identified patient care coordinators in each clinic who coordinated staff training on CRC screening and integrated client and provider reminder systems. In both the Alaska and Washington programs, instituting provider reminder systems, client reminder systems, or both was facilitated by use of electronic health record systems. Using multicomponent interventions in a single clinical site or facility can support more organized screening programs and potentially result in greater increases in screening rates than relying on a single strategy. Organized screening systems have an explicit policy for screening, a defined target population, a team responsible for implementation of the screening program, and a quality assurance structure. Although CRC screening rates in the United States have increased steadily over the past decade, this increase has not been seen equally across all populations. Increasing the

  15. Hierarchical clustering of breast cancer methylomes revealed differentially methylated and expressed breast cancer genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available Oncogenic transformation of normal cells often involves epigenetic alterations, including histone modification and DNA methylation. We conducted whole-genome bisulfite sequencing to determine the DNA methylomes of normal breast, fibroadenoma, invasive ductal carcinomas and MCF7. The emergence, disappearance, expansion and contraction of kilobase-sized hypomethylated regions (HMRs and the hypomethylation of the megabase-sized partially methylated domains (PMDs are the major forms of methylation changes observed in breast tumor samples. Hierarchical clustering of HMR revealed tumor-specific hypermethylated clusters and differential methylated enhancers specific to normal or breast cancer cell lines. Joint analysis of gene expression and DNA methylation data of normal breast and breast cancer cells identified differentially methylated and expressed genes associated with breast and/or ovarian cancers in cancer-specific HMR clusters. Furthermore, aberrant patterns of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI was found in breast cancer cell lines as well as breast tumor samples in the TCGA BRCA (breast invasive carcinoma dataset. They were characterized with differentially hypermethylated XIST promoter, reduced expression of XIST, and over-expression of hypomethylated X-linked genes. High expressions of these genes were significantly associated with lower survival rates in breast cancer patients. Comprehensive analysis of the normal and breast tumor methylomes suggests selective targeting of DNA methylation changes during breast cancer progression. The weak causal relationship between DNA methylation and gene expression observed in this study is evident of more complex role of DNA methylation in the regulation of gene expression in human epigenetics that deserves further investigation.

  16. A Multidisciplinary Investigation of a Polycythemia Vera Cancer Cluster of Unknown Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Klotz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cluster investigations rarely receive significant public health resource allocations due to numerous inherent challenges and the limited success of past efforts. In 2008, a cluster of polycythemia vera, a rare blood cancer with unknown etiology, was identified in northeast Pennsylvania. A multidisciplinary group of federal and state agencies, academic institutions, and local healthcare providers subsequently developed a multifaceted research portfolio designed to better understand the cause of the cluster. This research agenda represents a unique and important opportunity to demonstrate that cancer cluster investigations can produce desirable public health and scientific outcomes when necessary resources are available.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Cluster Validity Indices in Identifying Some Possible Genes Mediating Certain Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anupam; Dhara, Bibhas Chandra; De, Rajat K

    2013-04-01

    In this article, we compare the performance of 19 cluster validity indices, in identifying some possible genes mediating certain cancers, based on gene expression data. For the purpose of this comparison, we have developed a method. The proposed method involves cluster generation, selection of the best k-value or c-values, cluster identification, identifying the altered gene cluster, scoring an altered gene cluster and determining the best k-value or c-value exploring through biological repositories. The effectiveness of the method has been demonstrated on three gene expression data sets dealing with human lung cancer, colon cancer, and leukemia. Here, we have used three clustering algorithms, i.e., k-means, PAM and fuzzy c-means. We have used biochemical pathways related to these cancers and p-value statistics for validating the study. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Cluster and SOHO - A joint endeavor by ESA and NASA to address problems in solar, heliospheric, and space plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Rudolf; Domingo, Vicente; Shawhan, Stanley D.; Bohlin, David

    1988-01-01

    The NASA/ESA Solar-Terrestrial Science Program, which consists of the four-spacecraft cluster mission and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), is examined. It is expected that the SOHO spacecraft will be launched in 1995 to study solar interior structure and the physical processes associated with the solar corona. The SOHO design, operation, data, and ground segment are discussed. The Cluster mission is designed to study small-scale structures in the earth's plasma environment. The Soviet Union is expected to contribute two additional spacecraft, which will be similar to Cluster in instrumentation and design. The capabilities, mission strategy, spacecraft design, payload, and ground segment of Cluster are discussed.

  19. Functional impairments as symptoms in the symptom cluster analysis of patients newly diagnosed with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodeh, Samah J; Lazenby, Mark; Bai, Mei; Ercolano, Elizabeth; Murphy, Terrence; McCorkle, Ruth

    2013-10-01

    Symptoms and subsequent functional impairment have been associated with the biological processes of disease, including the interaction between disease and treatment in a measurement model of symptoms. However, hitherto cluster analysis has primarily focused on symptoms. This study among patients within 100 days of diagnosis with advanced cancer explored whether self-reported physical symptoms and functional impairments formed clusters at the time of diagnosis. We applied cluster analysis to self-reported symptoms and activities of daily living of 111 patients newly diagnosed with advanced gastrointestinal (GI), gynecological, head and neck, and lung cancers. Based on content expert evaluations, the best techniques and variables were identified, yielding the best solution. The best cluster solution used a K-means algorithm and cosine similarity and yielded five clusters of physical as well as emotional symptoms and functional impairments. Cancer site formed the predominant organizing principle of composition for each cluster. The top five symptoms and functional impairments in each cluster were Cluster 1 (GI): outlook, insomnia, appearance, concentration, and eating/feeding; Cluster 2 (GI): appetite, bowel, insomnia, eating/feeding, and appearance; Cluster 3 (gynecological): nausea, insomnia, eating/feeding, concentration, and pain; Cluster 4 (head and neck): dressing, eating/feeding, bathing, toileting, and walking; and Cluster 5 (lung): cough, walking, eating/feeding, breathing, and insomnia. Functional impairments in patients newly diagnosed with late-stage cancers behave as symptoms during the diagnostic phase. Health care providers need to expand their assessments to include both symptoms and functional impairments. Early recognition of functional changes may accelerate diagnosis at an earlier cancer stage. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of breast cancer progression using principal component analysis and clustering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Alexe; G S Dalgin; S Ganesan; C DeLisi; G Bhanot

    2007-08-01

    We develop a new technique to analyse microarray data which uses a combination of principal components analysis and consensus ensemble -clustering to find robust clusters and gene markers in the data. We apply our method to a public microarray breast cancer dataset which has expression levels of genes in normal samples as well as in three pathological stages of disease; namely, atypical ductal hyperplasia or ADH, ductal carcinoma in situ or DCIS and invasive ductal carcinoma or IDC. Our method averages over clustering techniques and data perturbation to find stable, robust clusters and gene markers. We identify the clusters and their pathways with distinct subtypes of breast cancer (Luminal, Basal and Her2+). We confirm that the cancer phenotype develops early (in early hyperplasia or ADH stage) and find from our analysis that each subtype progresses from ADH to DCIS to IDC along its own specific pathway, as if each was a distinct disease.

  1. Addressing preference heterogeneity in public health policy by combining Cluster Analysis and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Turner, Robin; Cunich, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    of the population in relation to the importance assigned to relevant criteria. It involves combining Cluster Analysis (CA), to generate the subgroup sets of preferences, with Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), to provide the policy framework into which the clustered preferences are entered. We employ three......The use of subgroups based on biological-clinical and socio-demographic variables to deal with population heterogeneity is well-established in public policy. The use of subgroups based on preferences is rare, except when religion based, and controversial. If it were decided to treat subgroup...... preferences as valid determinants of public policy, a transparent analytical procedure is needed. In this proof of method study we show how public preferences could be incorporated into policy decisions in a way that respects both the multi-criterial nature of those decisions, and the heterogeneity...

  2. An Analysis of Content in Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) Plans that Address Chronic Hepatitis B and C Virus Infections as Major Risk Factors for Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Behnoosh; Richardson, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) infections are among the leading causes of preventable death worldwide. Chronic viral hepatitis is the cause of most primary liver cancer, which is the third leading cause of cancer deaths globally and the ninth leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S. The extent to which Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) programs in states, tribal governments and organizations, territories, and Pacific Island jurisdictions address chronic hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C infections as risk factors for liver cancer or recommend interventions for liver cancer prevention in their CCC plans remains unknown. We searched CCC plans for this information using the search tool at http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/ncccp/ to access the content of plans for this information. A combination of key search terms including “liver cancer,” “hepatitis,” “chronic alcohol,” and “alcohol abuse” were used to identify potential content regarding liver cancer risk factors and prevention. Relevant content was abstracted for further review and classification. Of 66* CCC plans, 27% (n=18) addressed liver cancer using the above-mentioned search terms. In the 23 plans that addressed HBV and/or HCV, there were 25 goals, objectives, strategies, and outcomes aimed at reducing the incidence or prevalence of HBV and/or HCV infection. While nearly a third of CCC programs identify at least one goal, objective, strategy, outcome, or prevention program to reduce cancer burden in their CCC plans, few plans discuss specific actions needed to reduce the burden of liver cancer. PMID:22160788

  3. Investigation of Three Approaches to Address Fear of Recurrence Among Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-16

    Breast Neoplasms; Breast Cancer; Breast Carcinoma; Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Cancer of Breast; Mammary Neoplasm, Human; Human Mammary Carcinoma; Malignant Tumor of Breast; Mammary Cancer; Mammary Carcinoma; Anxiety; Fear; Neoplasm Remission, Spontaneous; Spontaneous Neoplasm Regression; Regression, Spontaneous Neoplasm; Remission, Spontaneous Neoplasm; Spontaneous Neoplasm Remission

  4. Cancer Cluster Investigations: Review of the Past and Proposals for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Goodman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Residential clusters of non-communicable diseases are a source of enduring public concern, and at times, controversy. Many clusters reported to public health agencies by concerned citizens are accompanied by expectations that investigations will uncover a cause of disease. While goals, methods and conclusions of cluster studies are debated in the scientific literature and popular press, investigations of reported residential clusters rarely provide definitive answers about disease etiology. Further, it is inherently difficult to study a cluster for diseases with complex etiology and long latency (e.g., most cancers. Regardless, cluster investigations remain an important function of local, state and federal public health agencies. Challenges limiting the ability of cluster investigations to uncover causes for disease include the need to consider long latency, low statistical power of most analyses, uncertain definitions of cluster boundaries and population of interest, and in- and out-migration. A multi-disciplinary Workshop was held to discuss innovative and/or under-explored approaches to investigate cancer clusters. Several potentially fruitful paths forward are described, including modern methods of reconstructing residential history, improved approaches to analyzing spatial data, improved utilization of electronic data sources, advances using biomarkers of carcinogenesis, novel concepts for grouping cases, investigations of infectious etiology of cancer, and “omics” approaches.

  5. Determining the number of clusters for nuclei segmentation in breast cancer image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatichah, Chastine; Navastara, Dini Adni; Suciati, Nanik; Nuraini, Lubna

    2017-02-01

    Clustering is commonly technique for image segmentation, however determining an appropriate number of clusters is still challenging. Due to nuclei variation of size and shape in breast cancer image, an automatic determining number of clusters for segmenting the nuclei breast cancer is proposed. The phase of nuclei segmentation in breast cancer image are nuclei detection, touched nuclei detection, and touched nuclei separation. We use the Gram-Schmidt for nuclei cell detection, the geometry feature for touched nuclei detection, and combining of watershed and spatial k-Means clustering for separating the touched nuclei in breast cancer image. The spatial k-Means clustering is employed for separating the touched nuclei, however automatically determine the number of clusters is difficult due to the variation of size and shape of single cell breast cancer. To overcome this problem, first we apply watershed algorithm to separate the touched nuclei and then we calculate the distance among centroids in order to solve the over-segmentation. We merge two centroids that have the distance below threshold. And the new of number centroid as input to segment the nuclei cell using spatial k- Means algorithm. Experiment show that, the proposed scheme can improve the accuracy of nuclei cell counting.

  6. Identification of certain cancer-mediating genes using Gaussian fuzzy cluster validity index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anupam Ghosh; Rajat K De

    2015-10-01

    In this article, we have used an index, called Gaussian fuzzy index (GFI), recently developed by the authors, based on the notion of fuzzy set theory, for validating the clusters obtained by a clustering algorithm applied on cancer gene expression data. GFI is then used for the identification of genes that have altered quite significantly from normal state to carcinogenic state with respect to their mRNA expression patterns. The effectiveness of the methodology has been demonstrated on three gene expression cancer datasets dealing with human lung, colon and leukemia. The performance of GFI is compared with 19 exiting cluster validity indices. The results are appropriately validated biologically and statistically. In this context, we have used biochemical pathways, -value statistics of GO attributes, -test and -score for the validation of the results. It has been reported that GFI is capable of identifying high-quality enriched clusters of genes, and thereby is able to select more cancer-mediating genes.

  7. Expert Opinion : Potential opportunities to reduce cervical cancer by addressing risk factors other than HPV

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramaiah Vinay Kumar; ; Suman Bhasker

    2013-01-01

    .... Human papillomavirus along with poverty, illiteracy/lower education level and standards, multi-parity, tobacco, malnutrition and poor genital hygiene may act synergistically to cause cervical cancer...

  8. Potential opportunities to reduce cervical cancer by addressing risk factors other than HPV

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Ramaiah Vinay; Bhasker, Suman

    2013-01-01

    .... Human papillomavirus along with poverty, illiteracy/lower education level and standards, multi-parity, tobacco, malnutrition and poor genital hygiene may act synergistically to cause cervical cancer...

  9. Nationwide registry-based analysis of cancer clustering detects strong familial occurrence of Kaposi sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasinen, Eevi; Aavikko, Mervi; Vahteristo, Pia; Patama, Toni; Li, Yilong; Saarinen, Silva; Kilpivaara, Outi; Pitkänen, Esa; Knekt, Paul; Laaksonen, Maarit; Artama, Miia; Lehtonen, Rainer; Aaltonen, Lauri A; Pukkala, Eero

    2013-01-01

    Many cancer predisposition syndromes are rare or have incomplete penetrance, and traditional epidemiological tools are not well suited for their detection. Here we have used an approach that employs the entire population based data in the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR) for analyzing familial aggregation of all types of cancer, in order to find evidence for previously unrecognized cancer susceptibility conditions. We performed a systematic clustering of 878,593 patients in FCR based on family name at birth, municipality of birth, and tumor type, diagnosed between years 1952 and 2011. We also estimated the familial occurrence of the tumor types using cluster score that reflects the proportion of patients belonging to the most significant clusters compared to all patients in Finland. The clustering effort identified 25,910 birth name-municipality based clusters representing 183 different tumor types characterized by topography and morphology. We produced information about familial occurrence of hundreds of tumor types, and many of the tumor types with high cluster score represented known cancer syndromes. Unexpectedly, Kaposi sarcoma (KS) also produced a very high score (cluster score 1.91, p-value <0.0001). We verified from population records that many of the KS patients forming the clusters were indeed close relatives, and identified one family with five affected individuals in two generations and several families with two first degree relatives. Our approach is unique in enabling systematic examination of a national epidemiological database to derive evidence of aberrant familial aggregation of all tumor types, both common and rare. It allowed effortless identification of families displaying features of both known as well as potentially novel cancer predisposition conditions, including striking familial aggregation of KS. Further work with high-throughput methods should elucidate the molecular basis of the potentially novel predisposition conditions found in this

  10. Nationwide registry-based analysis of cancer clustering detects strong familial occurrence of Kaposi sarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eevi Kaasinen

    Full Text Available Many cancer predisposition syndromes are rare or have incomplete penetrance, and traditional epidemiological tools are not well suited for their detection. Here we have used an approach that employs the entire population based data in the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR for analyzing familial aggregation of all types of cancer, in order to find evidence for previously unrecognized cancer susceptibility conditions. We performed a systematic clustering of 878,593 patients in FCR based on family name at birth, municipality of birth, and tumor type, diagnosed between years 1952 and 2011. We also estimated the familial occurrence of the tumor types using cluster score that reflects the proportion of patients belonging to the most significant clusters compared to all patients in Finland. The clustering effort identified 25,910 birth name-municipality based clusters representing 183 different tumor types characterized by topography and morphology. We produced information about familial occurrence of hundreds of tumor types, and many of the tumor types with high cluster score represented known cancer syndromes. Unexpectedly, Kaposi sarcoma (KS also produced a very high score (cluster score 1.91, p-value <0.0001. We verified from population records that many of the KS patients forming the clusters were indeed close relatives, and identified one family with five affected individuals in two generations and several families with two first degree relatives. Our approach is unique in enabling systematic examination of a national epidemiological database to derive evidence of aberrant familial aggregation of all tumor types, both common and rare. It allowed effortless identification of families displaying features of both known as well as potentially novel cancer predisposition conditions, including striking familial aggregation of KS. Further work with high-throughput methods should elucidate the molecular basis of the potentially novel predisposition conditions

  11. Bayesian hierarchical clustering for studying cancer gene expression data with unknown statistics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korsuk Sirinukunwattana

    Full Text Available Clustering analysis is an important tool in studying gene expression data. The Bayesian hierarchical clustering (BHC algorithm can automatically infer the number of clusters and uses Bayesian model selection to improve clustering quality. In this paper, we present an extension of the BHC algorithm. Our Gaussian BHC (GBHC algorithm represents data as a mixture of Gaussian distributions. It uses normal-gamma distribution as a conjugate prior on the mean and precision of each of the Gaussian components. We tested GBHC over 11 cancer and 3 synthetic datasets. The results on cancer datasets show that in sample clustering, GBHC on average produces a clustering partition that is more concordant with the ground truth than those obtained from other commonly used algorithms. Furthermore, GBHC frequently infers the number of clusters that is often close to the ground truth. In gene clustering, GBHC also produces a clustering partition that is more biologically plausible than several other state-of-the-art methods. This suggests GBHC as an alternative tool for studying gene expression data. The implementation of GBHC is available at https://sites.google.com/site/gaussianbhc/

  12. Increased risk of male cancer and identification of a potential prostate cancer cluster region in BRCA2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed Nielsen, Henriette; Petersen, Janne; Therkildsen, Christina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of cancer in men from BRCA1 and BRCA2 families is relevant to define to motivate genetic testing and optimize recommendations for surveillance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We assessed the risk of cancer in male mutation carriers and their first-degree relatives in 290 BRCA1 and BRCA2...... families with comparison to matched controls with the aim to motivate genetic testing and optimize recommendations for surveillance. RESULTS: Mutation carriers in BRCA1 families were not at increased risk of cancer, whereas mutation carriers in BRCA2 families were at increased risk of male breast cancer...... with mutations outside of this region. CONCLUSIONS: Male mutation carriers and first-degree relatives in BRCA2 families are at an increased risk of breast cancer and prostate cancer with a potential prostate cancer cluster region within exon 11 of BRCA2....

  13. NOVEL CONTEXT-AWARE CLUSTERING WITH HIERARCHICAL ADDRESSING (CCHA) FOR THE INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahalle, Parikshit N.; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    -hoc network, interaction between these nomadic devices to provide seamless service extend the need of new identi-ties to the things, addressing and IdM in the IoT. New identities and identifier format to alleviate the perfor-mance issue is introduced in this paper. This paper pre-sents novel Context....... Furthermore, this paper also presents the framework for IdM in the IoT and mathematical model for queuing analysis.......As computing technology becomes more tightly coupled into dynamic and mobile world of the Internet of Things (IoT), security mechanism becomes more stringent, less flexible and intrusive. Scalability issue in the IoT makes Identity Management (IdM) of ubiquitous things more challenging. Forming ad...

  14. Sociopsychological tailoring to address colorectal cancer screening disparities: a randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jerant, Anthony; Kravitz, Richard L; Sohler, Nancy; Fiscella, Kevin; Romero, Raquel L; Parnes, Bennett; Tancredi, Daniel J; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Slee, Christina; Dvorak, Simon; Turner, Charles; Hudnut, Andrew; Prieto, Francisco; Franks, Peter

    2014-01-01

    ... in multiethnic populations. We examined whether an interactive multimedia computer program (IMCP) tailored to expanded health belief model sociopsychological factors could promote colorectal cancer screening in a multiethnic sample...

  15. Genetically Programmed Clusters of Gold Nanoparticles for Cancer Cell-Targeted Photothermal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Mi Hwa; Yu, Jeong Heon; Kim, Insu; Nam, Yoon Sung

    2015-10-14

    Interpretations of the interactions of nanocarriers with biological cells are often complicated by complex synthesis of materials, broad size distribution, and heterogeneous surface chemistry. Herein, the major capsid proteins of an icosahedral T7 phage (55 nm in diameter) are genetically engineered to display a gold-binding peptide and a prostate cancer cell-binding peptide in a tandem sequence. The genetically modified phage attracts gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to form a cluster of gold nanoparticles (about 70 nanoparticles per phage). The cluster of AuNPs maintains cell-targeting functionality and exhibits excellent dispersion stability in serum. Under a very low light irradiation (60 mW cm(-2)), only targeted AuNP clusters kill the prostate cancer cells in minutes (not in other cell types), whereas neither nontargeted AuNP clusters nor citrate-stabilized AuNPs cause any significant cell death. The result suggests that the prostate cancer cell-targeted clusters of AuNPs are targeted to only prostate cancer cells and, when illuminated, generate local heating to more efficiently and selectively kill the targeted cancer cells. Our strategy can be generalized to target other types of cells and assemble other kinds of nanoparticles for a broad range of applications.

  16. Delphi survey to identify topics to be addressed at the initial follow-up consultation after oesophageal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, M; Henselmans, I; Macefield, R C; Blencowe, N S; Smets, E M A; de Haes, J C J M; Sprangers, M A G; Blazeby, J M; van Berge Henegouwen, M I

    2014-12-01

    There is no consensus among patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs) on the topics that need to be addressed after oesophageal cancer surgery. The aim of this study was to identify these topics, using a two-round Delphi survey. In round 1, patients and HCPs (surgeons, dieticians, nurses) were invited to rate the importance of 49 topics. The proportion of panellists that considered a topic to be of low, moderate or high importance was then calculated for each of these two groups. Based on these proportions and the i.q.r., topics were categorized as: 'consensus to be included', 'consensus to be excluded' and 'no consensus'. Only topics in the first category were included in the second round. In round 2, panellists were provided with individual and group feedback. To be included in the final list, topics had to meet criteria for consensus and stability. There were 108 patients and 77 HCPs in the round 2 analyses. In general, patients and HCPs considered the same topics important. The final list included 23 topics and revealed that it was most important to address: cancer removed/lymph nodes, the new oesophagus, eating and drinking, surgery, alarming new complaints and the recovery period. The study provides surgeons with a list of topics selected by patients and HCPs that may be addressed systematically at the initial follow-up consultation after oesophageal cancer surgery. © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Symptom Clusters and Work Limitations in Employed Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    concentration, attention executive function, psychomotor speed, auditory information procesing , and/or verbal fluency) compared to those without such...distress as part of a wider symptom burden experience (Bower, 2008). 6 Ways of identifying clusters Most studies of symptom clusters have used...was subjective and varied in some part based on the response styles of the individual participants. Some participants may have simply been more

  18. Are We Doing Enough to Address the Cancer Care Needs 
of the LGBT Community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carlton; Mayer, Deborah K

    2015-06-01

    The 2011 film titled Gen Silent (http://gensilent.com) focuses on the needs and issues of six aging lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, at least two of whom had cancer. One of the issues made apparent in the film was the lack of trust in the healthcare system and the discrimination these individuals faced at a time when their needs were growing and they were increasingly vulnerable. It was sad and caused us to reflect on what we, as oncology nurses, are doing to meet the needs of LGBT individuals faced with a cancer diagnosis.
.

  19. Addressing Challenges in Future Surveillance After Surgery for Early-Stage Cervical Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Katrine; Petersen, Lone Kjeld; Blaakaer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examines surveillance after early-stage cervical cancer surgery. Since the 1980s, the value of surveillance has been discussed continuously. The main question explored is whether surveillance serves the purpose of ensuring early diagnosis of recurrence. MATERIALS AND METHODS...

  20. Breast Cancer and Modifiable Lifestyle Factors in Argentinean Women: Addressing Missing Data in a Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquet, Julia Becaria; Tumas, Natalia; Osella, Alberto Ruben; Tanzi, Matteo; Franco, Isabella; Diaz, Maria Del Pilar

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have evidenced the effect of modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet, breastfeeding and nutritional status on breast cancer risk. However, none have addressed the missing data problem in nutritional epidemiologic research in South America. Missing data is a frequent problem in breast cancer studies and epidemiological settings in general. Estimates of effect obtained from these studies may be biased, if no appropriate method for handling missing data is applied. We performed Multiple Imputation for missing values on covariates in a breast cancer case-control study of Córdoba (Argentina) to optimize risk estimates. Data was obtained from a breast cancer case control study from 2008 to 2015 (318 cases, 526 controls). Complete case analysis and multiple imputation using chained equations were the methods applied to estimate the effects of a Traditional dietary pattern and other recognized factors associated with breast cancer. Physical activity and socioeconomic status were imputed. Logistic regression models were performed. When complete case analysis was performed only 31% of women were considered. Although a positive association of Traditional dietary pattern and breast cancer was observed from both approaches (complete case analysis OR=1.3, 95%CI=1.0-1.7; multiple imputation OR=1.4, 95%CI=1.2-1.7), effects of other covariates, like BMI and breastfeeding, were only identified when multiple imputation was considered. A Traditional dietary pattern, BMI and breastfeeding are associated with the occurrence of breast cancer in this Argentinean population when multiple imputation is appropriately performed. Multiple Imputation is suggested in Latin America’s epidemiologic studies to optimize effect estimates in the future. PMID:27892664

  1. Strategies for Integrated Analysis of Genetic, Epigenetic, and Gene Expression Variation in Cancer: Addressing the Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Louise Bruun; Andersen, Lars; Makalic, Enes

    2016-01-01

    The development and progression of cancer, a collection of diseases with complex genetic architectures, is facilitated by the interplay of multiple etiological factors. This complexity challenges the traditional single-platform study design and calls for an integrated approach to data analysis....... However, integration of heterogeneous measurements of biological variation is a non-trivial exercise due to the diversity of the human genome and the variety of output data formats and genome coverage obtained from the commonly used molecular platforms. This review article will provide an introduction...... to integration strategies used for analyzing genetic risk factors for cancer. We critically examine the ability of these strategies to handle the complexity of the human genome and also accommodate information about the biological and functional interactions between the elements that have been measured...

  2. Patnè en Aksyon: Addressing Cancer Disparities in Little Haiti Through Research and Social Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Janelle; Barton, Betsy; Pierre, Laurinus; Diem, Joshua; Auguste, Pascale Denize

    2009-01-01

    Haitian women living in Miami, Florida, experience an increased risk of developing and dying from cervical cancer compared with women in other racial/ethnic minority and immigrant groups in the area. In response to this disparity, academic investigators from a local university-based cancer center and community leaders from Little Haiti, the predominately Haitian neighborhood in Miami, created Patnè en Aksyon (Partners in Action), a campus-community partnership. We describe the partnership's effort to document the prevalence of lifetime and routine Papanicolau test use using community-based participatory research methods. Community health workers indigenous to the area recruited participants from various community venues throughout Little Haiti and administered informal, brief interviews to assess their screening practices. The results indicate that Haitian women are underscreened and underscore the importance of community involvement in study implementation. PMID:19443833

  3. Testing feedback message framing and comparators to address prescribing of high-risk medications in nursing homes: protocol for a pragmatic, factorial, cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Noah M; Desveaux, Laura; Presseau, Justin; Reis, Catherine; Witteman, Holly O; Taljaard, Monica K; McCleary, Nicola; Thavorn, Kednapa; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2017-07-14

    Audit and feedback (AF) interventions that leverage routine administrative data offer a scalable and relatively low-cost method to improve processes of care. AF interventions are usually designed to highlight discrepancies between desired and actual performance and to encourage recipients to act to address such discrepancies. Comparing to a regional average is a common approach, but more recipients would have a discrepancy if compared to a higher-than-average level of performance. In addition, how recipients perceive and respond to discrepancies may depend on how the feedback itself is framed. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of different comparators and framing in feedback on high-risk prescribing in nursing homes. This is a pragmatic, 2 × 2 factorial, cluster-randomized controlled trial testing variations in the comparator and framing on the effectiveness of quarterly AF in changing high-risk prescribing in nursing homes in Ontario, Canada. We grouped homes that share physicians into clusters and randomized these clusters into the four experimental conditions. Outcomes will be assessed after 6 months; all primary analyses will be by intention-to-treat. The primary outcome (monthly number of high-risk medications received by each patient) will be analysed using a general linear mixed effects regression model. We will present both four-arm and factorial analyses. With 160 clusters and an average of 350 beds per cluster, assuming no interaction and similar effects for each intervention, we anticipate 90% power to detect an absolute mean difference of 0.3 high-risk medications prescribed. A mixed-methods process evaluation will explore potential mechanisms underlying the observed effects, exploring targeted constructs including intention, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, descriptive norms, and goal prioritization. An economic analysis will examine cost-effectiveness analysis from the perspective of the publicly funded health care system. This protocol

  4. Microarray analysis of colorectal cancer stromal tissue reveals upregulation of two oncogenic miRNA clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Naohiro; Nagahara, Makoto; Sato, Tetsuya; Mimori, Koshi; Sudo, Tomoya; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Shibata, Kohei; Ishii, Hideshi; Sugihara, Kenichi; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki

    2012-06-01

    Cancer stroma plays an important role in the progression of cancer. Although alterations in miRNA expression have been explored in various kinds of cancers, the expression of miRNAs in cancer stroma has not been explored in detail. Using a laser microdissection technique, we collected RNA samples specific for epithelium or stroma from 13 colorectal cancer tissues and four normal tissues, and miRNA microarray and gene expression microarray were carried out. The expression status of miRNAs was confirmed by reverse transcriptase PCR. Furthermore, we investigated whether miRNA expression status in stromal tissue could influence the clinicopathologic factors. Oncogenic miRNAs, including two miRNA clusters, miR-17-92a and miR-106b-25 cluster, were upregulated in cancer stromal tissues compared with normal stroma. Gene expression profiles from cDNA microarray analyses of the same stromal tissue samples revealed that putative targets of these miRNA clusters, predicted by Target Scan, such as TGFBR2, SMAD2, and BMP family genes, were significantly downregulated in cancer stromal tissue. Downregulated putative targets were also found to be involved in cytokine interaction and cellular adhesion. Importantly, expression of miR-25 and miR-92a in stromal tissues was associated with a variety of clinicopathologic factors. Oncogenic miRNAs were highly expressed in cancer stroma. Although further validation is required, the finding that stromal miRNA expression levels were associated with clinicopathologic factors suggests the possibility that miRNAs in cancer stroma are crucially involved in cancer progression.

  5. Strategies for integrated analysis of genetic, epigenetic and gene expression variation in cancer: addressing the challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Bruun Thingholm

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development and progression of cancer, a collection of diseases with complex genetic architectures, is facilitated by the interplay of multiple etiological factors. This complexity challenges the traditional single-platform study design and calls for an integrated approach to data analysis. However, integration of heterogeneous measurements of biological variation is a non-trivial exercise due to the diversity of the human genome and the variety of output data formats and genome coverage obtained from the commonly used molecular platforms. This review article will provide an introduction to integration strategies used for analyzing genetic risk factors for cancer. We critically examine the ability of these strategies to handle the complexity of the human genome and also accommodate information about the biological and functional interactions between the elements that have been measured – making the assessment of disease risk against a composite genomic factor possible. The focus of this review is to provide an overview and introduction to the main strategies and to discuss where there is a need for further development.

  6. Respiratory-cancer clustering associated with localised industrial air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, O L

    1978-02-11

    Between 1968 and 1974 there was a significantly large number of deaths from respiratory cancer among members of a Scottish community living near and downwind from a steel foundry. The air in that area was polluted by metallic particles from the foundry.

  7. Patterns and predictors of clustered risky health behaviors among adult survivors of childhood cancer: A report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, E Anne; Hijiya, Nobuko; Zhang, Nan; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Leisenring, Wendy M; Nathan, Paul C; Castellino, Sharon M; Devine, Katie A; Dilley, Kimberley; Krull, Kevin R; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Hudson, Melissa M; Armstrong, Gregory T; Robison, Leslie L; Ness, Kirsten K

    2016-09-01

    Health complications related to childhood cancer may be influenced by risky health behaviors (RHBs), particularly when RHBs co-occur. To the authors' knowledge, only limited information is available describing how RHBs cluster among survivors of childhood cancer and their siblings and the risk factors for co-occurring RHBs. Latent class analysis was used to identify RHB clusters using longitudinal survey data regarding smoking, alcohol use, and physical activity from adult survivors (4184 survivors) and siblings (1598 siblings) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Generalized logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between demographic characteristics, treatment exposures, psychological distress, health conditions, and cluster membership. Three RHB clusters were identified: a low-risk cluster, an insufficiently active cluster, and a high-risk cluster (tobacco and risky alcohol use and insufficient activity). Compared with siblings, survivors were more likely to be in the insufficiently active cluster (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj ], 1.17; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.06-1.27) and were less likely to be in the high-risk cluster (ORadj , 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69-0.88). Risk factors for membership in the high-risk cluster included psychological distress (ORadj , 2.76; 95% CI, 1.98-3.86), low educational attainment (ORadj , 7.49; 95% CI, 5.15-10.88), income cancer and their siblings. Economic and educational disadvantages and psychological distress should be considered in screening and interventions to reduce RHBs. Cancer 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society. Cancer 2016;122:2747-2756. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  8. Lung Cancer Signature Biomarkers: tissue specific semantic similarity based clustering of Digital Differential Display (DDD data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Mousami

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tissue-specific Unigene Sets derived from more than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs in the NCBI, GenBank database offers a platform for identifying significantly and differentially expressed tissue-specific genes by in-silico methods. Digital differential display (DDD rapidly creates transcription profiles based on EST comparisons and numerically calculates, as a fraction of the pool of ESTs, the relative sequence abundance of known and novel genes. However, the process of identifying the most likely tissue for a specific disease in which to search for candidate genes from the pool of differentially expressed genes remains difficult. Therefore, we have used ‘Gene Ontology semantic similarity score’ to measure the GO similarity between gene products of lung tissue-specific candidate genes from control (normal and disease (cancer sets. This semantic similarity score matrix based on hierarchical clustering represents in the form of a dendrogram. The dendrogram cluster stability was assessed by multiple bootstrapping. Multiple bootstrapping also computes a p-value for each cluster and corrects the bias of the bootstrap probability. Results Subsequent hierarchical clustering by the multiple bootstrapping method (α = 0.95 identified seven clusters. The comparative, as well as subtractive, approach revealed a set of 38 biomarkers comprising four distinct lung cancer signature biomarker clusters (panel 1–4. Further gene enrichment analysis of the four panels revealed that each panel represents a set of lung cancer linked metastasis diagnostic biomarkers (panel 1, chemotherapy/drug resistance biomarkers (panel 2, hypoxia regulated biomarkers (panel 3 and lung extra cellular matrix biomarkers (panel 4. Conclusions Expression analysis reveals that hypoxia induced lung cancer related biomarkers (panel 3, HIF and its modulating proteins (TGM2, CSNK1A1, CTNNA1, NAMPT/Visfatin, TNFRSF1A, ETS1, SRC-1, FN1, APLP2, DMBT1

  9. Lung cancer signature biomarkers: tissue specific semantic similarity based clustering of digital differential display (DDD) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Mousami; Khurana, Pankaj; Sugadev, Ragumani

    2012-11-02

    The tissue-specific Unigene Sets derived from more than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the NCBI, GenBank database offers a platform for identifying significantly and differentially expressed tissue-specific genes by in-silico methods. Digital differential display (DDD) rapidly creates transcription profiles based on EST comparisons and numerically calculates, as a fraction of the pool of ESTs, the relative sequence abundance of known and novel genes. However, the process of identifying the most likely tissue for a specific disease in which to search for candidate genes from the pool of differentially expressed genes remains difficult. Therefore, we have used 'Gene Ontology semantic similarity score' to measure the GO similarity between gene products of lung tissue-specific candidate genes from control (normal) and disease (cancer) sets. This semantic similarity score matrix based on hierarchical clustering represents in the form of a dendrogram. The dendrogram cluster stability was assessed by multiple bootstrapping. Multiple bootstrapping also computes a p-value for each cluster and corrects the bias of the bootstrap probability. Subsequent hierarchical clustering by the multiple bootstrapping method (α = 0.95) identified seven clusters. The comparative, as well as subtractive, approach revealed a set of 38 biomarkers comprising four distinct lung cancer signature biomarker clusters (panel 1-4). Further gene enrichment analysis of the four panels revealed that each panel represents a set of lung cancer linked metastasis diagnostic biomarkers (panel 1), chemotherapy/drug resistance biomarkers (panel 2), hypoxia regulated biomarkers (panel 3) and lung extra cellular matrix biomarkers (panel 4). Expression analysis reveals that hypoxia induced lung cancer related biomarkers (panel 3), HIF and its modulating proteins (TGM2, CSNK1A1, CTNNA1, NAMPT/Visfatin, TNFRSF1A, ETS1, SRC-1, FN1, APLP2, DMBT1/SAG, AIB1 and AZIN1) are significantly down regulated

  10. Multi-class clustering of cancer subtypes through SVM based ensemble of pareto-optimal solutions for gene marker identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Mukhopadhyay

    Full Text Available With the advancement of microarray technology, it is now possible to study the expression profiles of thousands of genes across different experimental conditions or tissue samples simultaneously. Microarray cancer datasets, organized as samples versus genes fashion, are being used for classification of tissue samples into benign and malignant or their subtypes. They are also useful for identifying potential gene markers for each cancer subtype, which helps in successful diagnosis of particular cancer types. In this article, we have presented an unsupervised cancer classification technique based on multiobjective genetic clustering of the tissue samples. In this regard, a real-coded encoding of the cluster centers is used and cluster compactness and separation are simultaneously optimized. The resultant set of near-Pareto-optimal solutions contains a number of non-dominated solutions. A novel approach to combine the clustering information possessed by the non-dominated solutions through Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier has been proposed. Final clustering is obtained by consensus among the clusterings yielded by different kernel functions. The performance of the proposed multiobjective clustering method has been compared with that of several other microarray clustering algorithms for three publicly available benchmark cancer datasets. Moreover, statistical significance tests have been conducted to establish the statistical superiority of the proposed clustering method. Furthermore, relevant gene markers have been identified using the clustering result produced by the proposed clustering method and demonstrated visually. Biological relationships among the gene markers are also studied based on gene ontology. The results obtained are found to be promising and can possibly have important impact in the area of unsupervised cancer classification as well as gene marker identification for multiple cancer subtypes.

  11. Clustering self-organizing maps (SOM) method for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA as the main cause of cervical cancer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamam, A.; Aldila, D.; Fatimah, Arimbi, M. D.

    2017-07-01

    One of the most widely used clustering method, since it has advantage on its robustness, is Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) method. This paper discusses the application of SOM method on Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA which is the main cause of cervical cancer disease, the most dangerous cancer in developing countries. We use 18 types of HPV DNA-based on the newest complete genome. By using open-source-based program R, clustering process can separate 18 types of HPV into two different clusters. There are two types of HPV in the first cluster while 16 others in the second cluster. The analyzing result of 18 types HPV based on the malignancy of the virus (the difficultness to cure). Two of HPV types the first cluster can be classified as tame HPV, while 16 others in the second cluster are classified as vicious HPV.

  12. Non-negative matrix factorization by maximizing correntropy for cancer clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2013-03-24

    Background: Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) has been shown to be a powerful tool for clustering gene expression data, which are widely used to classify cancers. NMF aims to find two non-negative matrices whose product closely approximates the original matrix. Traditional NMF methods minimize either the l2 norm or the Kullback-Leibler distance between the product of the two matrices and the original matrix. Correntropy was recently shown to be an effective similarity measurement due to its stability to outliers or noise.Results: We propose a maximum correntropy criterion (MCC)-based NMF method (NMF-MCC) for gene expression data-based cancer clustering. Instead of minimizing the l2 norm or the Kullback-Leibler distance, NMF-MCC maximizes the correntropy between the product of the two matrices and the original matrix. The optimization problem can be solved by an expectation conditional maximization algorithm.Conclusions: Extensive experiments on six cancer benchmark sets demonstrate that the proposed method is significantly more accurate than the state-of-the-art methods in cancer clustering. 2013 Wang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  13. Applying of hierarchical clustering to analysis of protein patterns in the human cancer-associated liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A Petushkova

    Full Text Available There are two ways that statistical methods can learn from biomedical data. One way is to learn classifiers to identify diseases and to predict outcomes using the training dataset with established diagnosis for each sample. When the training dataset is not available the task can be to mine for presence of meaningful groups (clusters of samples and to explore underlying data structure (unsupervised learning.We investigated the proteomic profiles of the cytosolic fraction of human liver samples using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE. Samples were resected upon surgical treatment of hepatic metastases in colorectal cancer. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of 2DE gel images (n = 18 revealed a pair of clusters, containing 11 and 7 samples. Previously we used the same specimens to measure biochemical profiles based on cytochrome P450-dependent enzymatic activities and also found that samples were clearly divided into two well-separated groups by cluster analysis. It turned out that groups by enzyme activity almost perfectly match to the groups identified from proteomic data. Of the 271 reproducible spots on our 2DE gels, we selected 15 to distinguish the human liver cytosolic clusters. Using MALDI-TOF peptide mass fingerprinting, we identified 12 proteins for the selected spots, including known cancer-associated species.Our results highlight the importance of hierarchical cluster analysis of proteomic data, and showed concordance between results of biochemical and proteomic approaches. Grouping of the human liver samples and/or patients into differing clusters may provide insights into possible molecular mechanism of drug metabolism and creates a rationale for personalized treatment.

  14. Differential localization of LGR5 and Nanog in clusters of colon cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsterdam, Abraham; Raanan, Calanit; Schreiber, Letizia; Freyhan, Ora; Fabrikant, Yakov; Melzer, Ehud; Givol, David

    2013-05-01

    One paradigm of cancer development claims that cancer emerges at the niche of tissue stem cells and these cells continue to proliferate in the tumor as cancer stem cells. LGR5, a membrane receptor, was recently found to be a marker of normal colon stem cells in colon polyps and is also expressed in colon cancer stem cells. Nanog, an embryonic stem cell nuclear factor, is expressed in several embryonic tissues, but Nanog expression is not well documented in cancerous stem cells. Our aim was to examine whether both LGR5 and Nanog are expressed in the same clusters of colon stem cells or cancer stem cells, using immunocytochemistry with specific antibodies to each antigen. We analyzed this aspect using paraffin embedded tumor tissue sections obtained from 18 polyps and 36 colon cancer specimens at stages I-IV. Antibodies to LGR5 revealed membrane and cytoplasm immunostaining of scattered labeled cells in normal crypts, with no labeling of Nanog. However, in close proximity to the tumors, staining to LGR5 was much more intensive in the crypts, including that of the epithelial cells. In cancer tissue, positive LGR5 clusters of stem cells were observed mainly in poorly differentiated tumors and in only a few scattered cells in the highly differentiated tumors. In contrast, antibodies to Nanog mainly stained the growing edges of carcinoma cells, leaving the poorly differentiated tumor cells unlabeled, including the clustered stem cells that could be detected even by direct morphological examination. In polyp tissues, scattered labeled cells were immunostained with antibodies to Nanog and to a much lesser extent with antibodies to LGR5. We conclude that expression of LGR5 is probably specific to stem cells of poorly differentiated tumors, whereas Nanog is mainly expressed at the edges of highly differentiated tumors. However, some of the cell layers adjacent to the carcinoma cell layers that still remained undifferentiated, expressed mainly Nanog with only a few cells

  15. Addressing Burnout in Oncology: Why Cancer Care Clinicians Are At Risk, What Individuals Can Do, and How Organizations Can Respond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlubocky, Fay J; Back, Anthony L; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2016-01-01

    Despite their benevolent care of others, today, more than ever, the cancer care professional who experiences overwhelming feelings of exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy is in grave jeopardy of developing burnout. Clinicians are repeatedly physically and emotionally exposed to exceedingly long hours in direct care with seriously ill patients/families, limited autonomy over daily responsibilities, endless electronic documentation, and a shifting medical landscape. The physical and emotional well-being of the cancer care clinician is critical to the impact on quality care, patient satisfaction, and overall success of their organizations. The prevention of burnout as well as targeting established burnout need to be proactively addressed at the individual level and organizational level. In fact, confronting burnout and promoting wellness are the shared responsibility of both oncology clinicians and their organizations. From an individual perspective, oncology clinicians must be empowered to play a crucial role in enhancing their own wellness by identification of burnout symptoms in both themselves and their colleagues, learning resilience strategies (e.g., mindful self-compassion), and cultivating positive relationships with fellow clinician colleagues. At the organizational level, leadership must recognize the importance of oncology clinician well-being; engage leaders and physicians in collaborative action planning, improve overall practice environment, and provide institutional wellness resources to physicians. These effective individual and organizational interventions are crucial for the prevention and improvement of overall clinician wellness and must be widely and systematically integrated into oncology care.

  16. Star Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Gieles, M.

    1993-01-01

    Star clusters are observed in almost every galaxy. In this thesis we address several fundamental problems concerning the formation, evolution and disruption of star clusters. From observations of (young) star clusters in the interacting galaxy M51, we found that clusters are formed in complexes of stars and star clusters. These complexes share similar properties with giant molecular clouds, from which they are formed. Many (70%) of the young clusters will not survive the fist 10 Myr, due to t...

  17. Families of microRNAs Expressed in Clusters Regulate Cell Signaling in Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Steven Servín-González

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tumor cells have developed advantages to acquire hallmarks of cancer like apoptosis resistance, increased proliferation, migration, and invasion through cell signaling pathway misregulation. The sequential activation of genes in a pathway is regulated by miRNAs. Loss or gain of miRNA expression could activate or repress a particular cell axis. It is well known that aberrant miRNA expression is well recognized as an important step in the development of cancer. Individual miRNA expression is reported without considering that miRNAs are grouped in clusters and may have similar functions, such as the case of clusters with anti-oncomiRs (23b~27b~24-1, miR-29a~29b-1, miR-29b-2~29c, miR-99a~125b-2, miR-99b~125a, miR-100~125b-1, miR-199a-2~214, and miR-302s or oncomiRs activity (miR-1-1~133a-2, miR-1-2~133a-1, miR-133b~206, miR-17~92, miR-106a~363, miR183~96~182, miR-181a-1~181b-1, and miR-181a-2~181b-2, which regulated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K, NOTCH, proteasome-culling rings, and apoptosis cell signaling. In this work we point out the pathways regulated by families of miRNAs grouped in 20 clusters involved in cervical cancer. Reviewing how miRNA families expressed in cluster-regulated cell path signaling will increase the knowledge of cervical cancer progression, providing important information for therapeutic, diagnostic, and prognostic methodology design.

  18. MicroRNA and target gene expression based clustering of oral cancer, precancer and normal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Roshni; Singh, Richa; Chattopadhyay, Esita; Ray, Anindita; Sarkar, Navonil De; Aich, Ritesh; Paul, Ranjan Rashmi; Pal, Mousumi; Roy, Bidyut

    2016-11-15

    Development of oral cancer is usually preceded by precancerous lesion. Despite histopathological diagnosis, development of disease specific biomarkers continues to be a promising field of study. Expression of miRNAs and their target genes was studied in oral cancer and two types of precancer lesions to look for disease specific gene expression patterns. Expression of miR-26a, miR-29a, miR-34b and miR-423 and their 11 target genes were determined in 20 oral leukoplakia, 20 lichen planus and 20 cancer tissues with respect to 20 normal tissues using qPCR assay. Expression data were, then, used for cluster analysis of normal as well as disease tissues. Expression of miR-26a and miR-29a was significantly down regulated in leukoplakia and cancer tissues but up regulated in lichen planus tissues. Expression of target genes such as, ADAMTS7, ATP1B1, COL4A2, CPEB3, CDK6, DNMT3a and PI3KR1 was significantly down regulated in at least two of three disease types with respect to normal tissues. Negative correlations between expression levels of miRNAs and their targets were observed in normal tissues but not in disease tissues implying altered miRNA-target interaction in disease state. Specific expression profile of miRNAs and target genes formed separate clusters of normal, lichen planus and cancer tissues. Our results suggest that alterations in expression of selected miRNAs and target genes may play important roles in development of precancer to cancer. Expression profiles of miRNA and target genes may be useful to differentiate cancer and lichen planus from normal tissues, thereby bolstering their role in diagnostics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship of Griseofulvin Analogues as Inhibitors of Centrosomal Clustering in Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Mads Holger; Rebacz, Blanka; Markworth, Lene

    2009-01-01

    Griseofulvin was identified as an inhibitor of centrosomal clustering in a recently developed assay. Centrosomal clustering is an important cellular event that enables bipolar mitosis for cancer cell lines harboring supernumerary centrosomes. We report herein the synthesis and SAR of 34...

  20. Geographical clustering of prostate cancer grade and stage at diagnosis, before and after adjustment for risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curriero Frank

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial variation in patterns of disease outcomes is often explored with techniques such as cluster detection analysis. In other types of investigations, geographically varying individual or community level characteristics are often used as independent predictors in statistical models which also attempt to explain variation in disease outcomes. However, there is a lack of research which combines geographically referenced exploratory analysis with multilevel models. We used a spatial scan statistic approach, in combination with predicted block group-level disease patterns from multilevel models, to examine geographic variation in prostate cancer grade and stage at diagnosis. Results We examined data from 20928 Maryland men with incident prostate cancer reported to the Maryland Cancer Registry during 1992–1997. Initial cluster detection analyses, prior to adjustment, indicated that there were four statistically significant clusters of high and low rates of each outcome (later stage at diagnosis and higher histologic grade of tumor for prostate cancer cases in Maryland during 1992–1997. After adjustment for individual case attributes, including age, race, year of diagnosis, patterns of clusters changed for both outcomes. Additional adjustment for Census block group and county-level socioeconomic measures changed the cluster patterns further. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that, in locations where adjustment changed patterns of clusters, the adjustment factors may be contributing causes of the original clusters. In addition, clusters identified after adjusting for individual and area-level predictors indicate area of unexplained variation, and merit further small-area investigations.

  1. Investigation of Spatial Clustering of Biliary Tract Cancer Incidence in Osaka, Japan: Neighborhood Effect of a Printing Factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuri; Nakaya, Tomoki; Ioka, Akiko; Nakayama, Tomio; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Uehara, Shinichiro; Kogawa Sato, Kyoko; Endo, Ginji; Hayashi, Tomoshige

    2016-09-05

    In 2013, an unusually high incidence of biliary tract cancer among current or former workers of the offset color proof printing department of a printing company in Osaka, Japan, was reported. The purpose of this study was to examine whether distance from the printing factory was associated with incidence of biliary tract cancer and whether incident biliary tract cancer cases clustered around the printing factory in Osaka using population-based cancer registry data. We estimated the age-standardized incidence ratio of biliary tract cancer according to distance from this printing factory. We also searched for clusters of biliary tract cancer incidence using spatial scan statistics. We did not observe statistically significantly high or low standardized incidence ratios for residents in each area categorized by distance from the printing factory for the entire sample or for either sex. The scan statistics did not show any statistically significant clustering of biliary tract cancer incidence anywhere in Osaka prefecture in 2004-2007. There was no statistically significant clustering of biliary tract cancer incidence around the printing factory or in any other areas in Osaka, Japan, between 2004 and 2007. To date, even if some substances have diffused outside this source factory, they do not appear to have influenced the incidence of biliary tract cancer in neighboring residents.

  2. Investigation of Spatial Clustering of Biliary Tract Cancer Incidence in Osaka, Japan: Neighborhood Effect of a Printing Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Ito

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2013, an unusually high incidence of biliary tract cancer among current or former workers of the offset color proof printing department of a printing company in Osaka, Japan, was reported. The purpose of this study was to examine whether distance from the printing factory was associated with incidence of biliary tract cancer and whether incident biliary tract cancer cases clustered around the printing factory in Osaka using population-based cancer registry data. Methods: We estimated the age-standardized incidence ratio of biliary tract cancer according to distance from this printing factory. We also searched for clusters of biliary tract cancer incidence using spatial scan statistics. Results: We did not observe statistically significantly high or low standardized incidence ratios for residents in each area categorized by distance from the printing factory for the entire sample or for either sex. The scan statistics did not show any statistically significant clustering of biliary tract cancer incidence anywhere in Osaka prefecture in 2004–2007. Conclusions: There was no statistically significant clustering of biliary tract cancer incidence around the printing factory or in any other areas in Osaka, Japan, between 2004 and 2007. To date, even if some substances have diffused outside this source factory, they do not appear to have influenced the incidence of biliary tract cancer in neighboring residents.

  3. Exploring the individual patterns of spiritual well-being in people newly diagnosed with advanced cancer: a cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mei; Dixon, Jane; Williams, Anna-Leila; Jeon, Sangchoon; Lazenby, Mark; McCorkle, Ruth

    2016-11-01

    Research shows that spiritual well-being correlates positively with quality of life (QOL) for people with cancer, whereas contradictory findings are frequently reported with respect to the differentiated associations between dimensions of spiritual well-being, namely peace, meaning and faith, and QOL. This study aimed to examine individual patterns of spiritual well-being among patients newly diagnosed with advanced cancer. Cluster analysis was based on the twelve items of the 12-item Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale at Time 1. A combination of hierarchical and k-means (non-hierarchical) clustering methods was employed to jointly determine the number of clusters. Self-rated health, depressive symptoms, peace, meaning and faith, and overall QOL were compared at Time 1 and Time 2. Hierarchical and k-means clustering methods both suggested four clusters. Comparison of the four clusters supported statistically significant and clinically meaningful differences in QOL outcomes among clusters while revealing contrasting relations of faith with QOL. Cluster 1, Cluster 3, and Cluster 4 represented high, medium, and low levels of overall QOL, respectively, with correspondingly high, medium, and low levels of peace, meaning, and faith. Cluster 2 was distinguished from other clusters by its medium levels of overall QOL, peace, and meaning and low level of faith. This study provides empirical support for individual difference in response to a newly diagnosed cancer and brings into focus conceptual and methodological challenges associated with the measure of spiritual well-being, which may partly contribute to the attenuated relation between faith and QOL.

  4. Innovative patient-centered skills training addressing challenging issues in cancer communications: Using patient's stories that teach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Thomas W; Gorniewicz, James; Floyd, Michael; Tudiver, Fred; Odom, Amy; Zoppi, Kathy

    2016-05-01

    This workshop demonstrated the utility of a patient-centered web-based/digital Breaking Bad News communication training module designed to educate learners of various levels and disciplines. This training module is designed for independent, self-directed learning as well as group instruction. These interactive educational interventions are based upon video-recorded patient stories. Curriculum development was the result of an interdisciplinary, collaborative effort involving faculty from the East Tennessee State University (ETSU) Graduate Storytelling Program and the departments of Family and Internal Medicine at the James H. Quillen College of Medicine. The specific goals of the BBN training module are to assist learners in: (1) understanding a five-step patient-centered model that is based upon needs, preferences, and expectations of patients with cancer and (2) individualizing communication that is consistent with patient preferences in discussing emotions, informational detail, prognosis and timeline, and whether or not to discuss end-of-life issues. The pedagogical approach to the training module is to cycle through Emotional Engagement, Data, Modeled Practices, Adaptation Opportunities, and Feedback. The communication skills addressed are rooted in concepts found within the Reaching Common Ground communication training. A randomized control study investigating the effectiveness of the Breaking Bad News module found that medical students as well as resident physicians improved their communication skills as measured by an Objective Structured Clinical Examination. Four other similarly designed modules were also created: Living Through Treatment, Transitions: From Curable to Treatable/From Treatable to End-of-Life, Spirituality, and Family.

  5. Cancer-Related NEET Proteins Transfer 2Fe-2S Clusters to Anamorsin, a Protein Required for Cytosolic Iron-Sulfur Cluster Biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipper, Colin H.; Paddock, Mark L.; Onuchic, José N.; Mittler, Ron; Nechushtai, Rachel; Jennings, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis is executed by distinct protein assembly systems. Mammals have two systems, the mitochondrial Fe-S cluster assembly system (ISC) and the cytosolic assembly system (CIA), that are connected by an unknown mechanism. The human members of the NEET family of 2Fe-2S proteins, nutrient-deprivation autophagy factor-1 (NAF-1) and mitoNEET (mNT), are located at the interface between the mitochondria and the cytosol. These proteins have been implicated in cancer cell proliferation, and they can transfer their 2Fe-2S clusters to a standard apo-acceptor protein. Here we report the first physiological 2Fe-2S cluster acceptor for both NEET proteins as human Anamorsin (also known as cytokine induced apoptosis inhibitor-1; CIAPIN-1). Anamorsin is an electron transfer protein containing two iron-sulfur cluster-binding sites that is required for cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly. We show, using UV-Vis spectroscopy, that both NAF-1 and mNT can transfer their 2Fe-2S clusters to apo-Anamorsin with second order rate constants similar to those of other known human 2Fe-2S transfer proteins. A direct protein-protein interaction of the NEET proteins with apo-Anamorsin was detected using biolayer interferometry. Furthermore, electrospray mass spectrometry of holo-Anamorsin prepared by cluster transfer shows that it receives both of its 2Fe-2S clusters from the NEETs. We propose that mNT and NAF-1 can provide parallel routes connecting the mitochondrial ISC system and the CIA. 2Fe-2S clusters assembled in the mitochondria are received by NEET proteins and when needed transferred to Anamorsin, activating the CIA. PMID:26448442

  6. Methylome sequencing in triple-negative breast cancer reveals distinct methylation clusters with prognostic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirzaker, Clare; Zotenko, Elena; Song, Jenny Z; Qu, Wenjia; Nair, Shalima S; Locke, Warwick J; Stone, Andrew; Armstong, Nicola J; Robinson, Mark D; Dobrovic, Alexander; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A; Peters, Kate M; French, Juliet D; Stein, Sandra; Korbie, Darren J; Trau, Matt; Forbes, John F; Scott, Rodney J; Brown, Melissa A; Francis, Glenn D; Clark, Susan J

    2015-02-02

    Epigenetic alterations in the cancer methylome are common in breast cancer and provide novel options for tumour stratification. Here, we perform whole-genome methylation capture sequencing on small amounts of DNA isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and matched normal samples. We identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) enriched with promoters associated with transcription factor binding sites and DNA hypersensitive sites. Importantly, we stratify TNBCs into three distinct methylation clusters associated with better or worse prognosis and identify 17 DMRs that show a strong association with overall survival, including DMRs located in the Wilms tumour 1 (WT1) gene, bi-directional-promoter and antisense WT1-AS. Our data reveal that coordinated hypermethylation can occur in oestrogen receptor-negative disease, and that characterizing the epigenetic framework provides a potential signature to stratify TNBCs. Together, our findings demonstrate the feasibility of profiling the cancer methylome with limited archival tissue to identify regulatory regions associated with cancer.

  7. 1842676957299765Latent class cluster analysis to understand heterogeneity in prostate cancer treatment utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghani Salimah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men with prostate cancer are often challenged to choose between conservative management and a range of available treatment options each carrying varying risks and benefits. The trade-offs are between an improved life-expectancy with treatment accompanied by important risks such as urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Previous studies of preference elicitation for prostate cancer treatment have found considerable heterogeneity in individuals' preferences for health states given similar treatments and clinical risks. Methods Using latent class mixture model (LCA, we first sought to understand if there are unique patterns of heterogeneity or subgroups of individuals based on their prostate cancer treatment utilities (calculated time trade-off utilities for various health states and if such unique subgroups exist, what demographic and urological variables may predict membership in these subgroups. Results The sample (N = 244 included men with prostate cancer (n = 188 and men at-risk for disease (n = 56. The sample was predominantly white (77%, with mean age of 60 years (SD ± 9.5. Most (85.9% were married or living with a significant other. Using LCA, a three class solution yielded the best model evidenced by the smallest Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC, substantial reduction in BIC from a 2-class solution, and Lo-Mendell-Rubin significance of < .001. The three identified clusters were named high-traders (n = 31, low-traders (n = 116, and no-traders (n = 97. High-traders were more likely to trade survival time associated with treatment to avoid potential risks of treatment. Low-traders were less likely to trade survival time and accepted risks of treatment. The no-traders were likely to make no trade-offs in any direction favouring the status quo. There was significant difference among the clusters in the importance of sexual activity (Pearson's χ2 = 16.55, P = 0.002; Goodman and Kruskal tau = 0.039, P < 0.001. In

  8. (18)F-FDG PET radiomics approaches: comparing and clustering features in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, Tetsuya; Rahman, Tasmiah; Yamamoto, Makoto; Yamada, Shizuka; Tsuyoshi, Hideaki; Kiyono, Yasushi; Kimura, Hirohiko; Yoshida, Yoshio; Okazawa, Hidehiko

    2017-08-16

    The aims of our study were to find the textural features on (18)F-FDG PET/CT which reflect the different histological architectures between cervical cancer subtypes and to make a visual assessment of the association between (18)F-FDG PET textural features in cervical cancer. Eighty-three cervical cancer patients [62 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and 21 non-SCCs (NSCCs)] who had undergone pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT were enrolled. A texture analysis was performed on PET/CT images, from which 18 PET radiomics features were extracted including first-order features such as standardized uptake value (SUV), metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), second- and high-order textural features using SUV histogram, normalized gray-level co-occurrence matrix (NGLCM), and neighborhood gray-tone difference matrix, respectively. These features were compared between SCC and NSCC using a Bonferroni adjusted P value threshold of 0.0028 (0.05/18). To assess the association between PET features, a heat map analysis with hierarchical clustering, one of the radiomics approaches, was performed. Among 18 PET features, correlation, a second-order textural feature derived from NGLCM, was a stable parameter and it was the only feature which showed a robust trend toward significant difference between SCC and NSCC. Cervical SCC showed a higher correlation (0.70 ± 0.07) than NSCC (0.64 ± 0.07, P = 0.0030). The other PET features did not show any significant differences between SCC and NSCC. A higher correlation in SCC might reflect higher structural integrity and stronger spatial/linear relationship of cancer cells compared with NSCC. A heat map with a PET feature dendrogram clearly showed 5 distinct clusters, where correlation belonged to a cluster including MTV and TLG. However, the association between correlation and MTV/TLG was not strong. Correlation was a relatively independent PET feature in cervical cancer. (18)F-FDG PET textural features might reflect

  9. Addressing Low Colorectal Cancer Screening in African Americans: Using Focus Groups to Inform the Development of Effective Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Folasade P; Whitman, Cynthia B; Varlyguina, Ksenia; Bromley, Erica G; Spiegel, Brennan M R

    2016-09-01

    African Americans have the highest burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the United States of America (USA) yet lower CRC screening rates than whites. Although poor screening has prompted efforts to increase screening uptake, there is a persistent need to develop public health interventions in partnership with the African American community. The aim of this study was to conduct focus groups with African Americans to determine preferences for the content and mode of dissemination of culturally tailored CRC screening interventions. In June 2013, 45-75-year-old African Americans were recruited through online advertisements and from an urban Veterans Affairs system to create four focus groups. A semi-structured interview script employing open-ended elicitation was used, and transcripts were analyzed using ATLAS.ti software to code and group data into a concept network. A total of 38 participants (mean age = 54) were enrolled, and 59 ATLAS.ti codes were generated. Commonly reported barriers to screening included perceived invasiveness of colonoscopy, fear of pain, and financial concerns. Facilitators included poor diet/health and desire to prevent CRC. Common sources of health information included media and medical providers. CRC screening information was commonly obtained from medical personnel or media. Participants suggested dissemination of CRC screening education through commercials, billboards, influential African American public figures, Internet, and radio. Participants suggested future interventions include culturally specific information, including details about increased risk, accessing care, and dispelling of myths. Public health interventions to improve CRC screening among African Americans should employ media outlets, emphasize increased risk among African Americans, and address race-specific barriers. Specific recommendations are presented for developing future interventions.

  10. Space-Time Analysis of Testicular Cancer Clusters Using Residential Histories: A Case-Control Study in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Chantel D.; Nordsborg, Rikke B.; Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Meliker, Jaymie R.

    2015-01-01

    Though the etiology is largely unknown, testicular cancer incidence has seen recent significant increases in northern Europe and throughout many Western regions. The most common cancer in males under age 40, age period cohort models have posited exposures in the in utero environment or in early childhood as possible causes of increased risk of testicular cancer. Some of these factors may be tied to geography through being associated with behavioral, cultural, sociodemographic or built environment characteristics. If so, this could result in detectable geographic clusters of cases that could lead to hypotheses regarding environmental targets for intervention. Given a latency period between exposure to an environmental carcinogen and testicular cancer diagnosis, mobility histories are beneficial for spatial cluster analyses. Nearest-neighbor based Q-statistics allow for the incorporation of changes in residency in spatial disease cluster detection. Using these methods, a space-time cluster analysis was conducted on a population-wide case-control population selected from the Danish Cancer Registry with mobility histories since 1971 extracted from the Danish Civil Registration System. Cases (N=3297) were diagnosed between 1991 and 2003, and two sets of controls (N=3297 for each set) matched on sex and date of birth were included in the study. We also examined spatial patterns in maternal residential history for those cases and controls born in 1971 or later (N= 589 case-control pairs). Several small clusters were detected when aligning individuals by year prior to diagnosis, age at diagnosis and calendar year of diagnosis. However, the largest of these clusters contained only 2 statistically significant individuals at their center, and were not replicated in SaTScan spatial-only analyses which are less susceptible to multiple testing bias. We found little evidence of local clusters in residential histories of testicular cancer cases in this Danish population. PMID

  11. Welcome Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  12. Cluster detection methods applied to the Upper Cape Cod cancer data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozonoff David

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of statistical methods have been suggested to assess the degree and/or the location of spatial clustering of disease cases. However, there is relatively little in the literature devoted to comparison and critique of different methods. Most of the available comparative studies rely on simulated data rather than real data sets. Methods We have chosen three methods currently used for examining spatial disease patterns: the M-statistic of Bonetti and Pagano; the Generalized Additive Model (GAM method as applied by Webster; and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. We apply these statistics to analyze breast cancer data from the Upper Cape Cancer Incidence Study using three different latency assumptions. Results The three different latency assumptions produced three different spatial patterns of cases and controls. For 20 year latency, all three methods generally concur. However, for 15 year latency and no latency assumptions, the methods produce different results when testing for global clustering. Conclusion The comparative analyses of real data sets by different statistical methods provides insight into directions for further research. We suggest a research program designed around examining real data sets to guide focused investigation of relevant features using simulated data, for the purpose of understanding how to interpret statistical methods applied to epidemiological data with a spatial component.

  13. Redefining the Breast Cancer Exosome Proteome by Tandem Mass Tag Quantitative Proteomics and Multivariate Cluster Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David J; Fondrie, William E; Liao, Zhongping; Hanson, Phyllis I; Fulton, Amy; Mao, Li; Yang, Austin J

    2015-10-20

    Exosomes are microvesicles of endocytic origin constitutively released by multiple cell types into the extracellular environment. With evidence that exosomes can be detected in the blood of patients with various malignancies, the development of a platform that uses exosomes as a diagnostic tool has been proposed. However, it has been difficult to truly define the exosome proteome due to the challenge of discerning contaminant proteins that may be identified via mass spectrometry using various exosome enrichment strategies. To better define the exosome proteome in breast cancer, we incorporated a combination of Tandem-Mass-Tag (TMT) quantitative proteomics approach and Support Vector Machine (SVM) cluster analysis of three conditioned media derived fractions corresponding to a 10 000g cellular debris pellet, a 100 000g crude exosome pellet, and an Optiprep enriched exosome pellet. The quantitative analysis identified 2 179 proteins in all three fractions, with known exosomal cargo proteins displaying at least a 2-fold enrichment in the exosome fraction based on the TMT protein ratios. Employing SVM cluster analysis allowed for the classification 251 proteins as "true" exosomal cargo proteins. This study provides a robust and vigorous framework for the future development of using exosomes as a potential multiprotein marker phenotyping tool that could be useful in breast cancer diagnosis and monitoring disease progression.

  14. Part I: C2sbnd C4 hydrocarbons separation addressed via molecular cluster models carved out from periodic MOF-74-Mg/Zn structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degaga, Gemechis D.; Valenzano, Loredana

    2016-09-01

    Selective sorption of hydrocarbons by tunable sorbents such as metal-organic frameworks is the most promising alternative to traditional cryogenic distillation. Here, density functional theory is used to investigate the selective sorption of C2sbnd C4 hydrocarbons by MOF-74-Mg/Zn via periodic and molecular cluster calculations. Both methods agree in showing significant differences in binding energies between olefins and paraffins at the open metal sites of the MOF. The binding energies found using molecular cluster models, however, are significantly smaller than those obtained from the periodic approach, exemplifying the importance of fully accounting for the chemical environment experienced by the adsorbed hydrocarbons.

  15. Cluster analysis of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI reveals tumor subregions related to locoregional relapse for cervical cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torheim, Turid; Groendahl, Aurora R; Andersen, Erlend K F; Lyng, Heidi; Malinen, Eirik; Kvaal, Knut; Futsaether, Cecilia M

    2016-11-01

    Solid tumors are known to be spatially heterogeneous. Detection of treatment-resistant tumor regions can improve clinical outcome, by enabling implementation of strategies targeting such regions. In this study, K-means clustering was used to group voxels in dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance images (DCE-MRI) of cervical cancers. The aim was to identify clusters reflecting treatment resistance that could be used for targeted radiotherapy with a dose-painting approach. Eighty-one patients with locally advanced cervical cancer underwent DCE-MRI prior to chemoradiotherapy. The resulting image time series were fitted to two pharmacokinetic models, the Tofts model (yielding parameters K(trans) and νe) and the Brix model (ABrix, kep and kel). K-means clustering was used to group similar voxels based on either the pharmacokinetic parameter maps or the relative signal increase (RSI) time series. The associations between voxel clusters and treatment outcome (measured as locoregional control) were evaluated using the volume fraction or the spatial distribution of each cluster. One voxel cluster based on the RSI time series was significantly related to locoregional control (adjusted p-value 0.048). This cluster consisted of low-enhancing voxels. We found that tumors with poor prognosis had this RSI-based cluster gathered into few patches, making this cluster a potential candidate for targeted radiotherapy. None of the voxels clusters based on Tofts or Brix parameter maps were significantly related to treatment outcome. We identified one group of tumor voxels significantly associated with locoregional relapse that could potentially be used for dose painting. This tumor voxel cluster was identified using the raw MRI time series rather than the pharmacokinetic maps.

  16. Addressing multilevel barriers to cervical cancer screening in Korean American women: A randomized trial of a community-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Carolyn Y; Ma, Grace X; Handorf, Elizabeth A; Feng, Ziding; Tan, Yin; Rhee, Joanne; Miller, Suzanne M; Kim, Charles; Koh, Han Seung

    2017-05-15

    Korean American women have among the lowest rates of cervical cancer screening in the United States. The authors evaluated a multicomponent intervention combining community education with navigation services to reduce access barriers and increase screening rates in this underserved population. It was hypothesized that cervical cancer screening rates would be higher among women who received the intervention program compared with those in the control program. Korean American women (N = 705) were recruited from 22 churches. In this matched-pair, group-randomized design, 347 women received the intervention, which consisted of a culturally relevant cancer education program combined with provision of navigation services. The control group (N = 358) received general health education, including information about cervical cancer risk and screening and where to obtain low-cost or no-cost screening. Screening behavior was assessed 12 months after the program. Screening behavior data were obtained from 588 women 12 months after the program. In both site-level and participant-level analyses, the intervention program contributed to significantly higher screening rates compared with the control program (odds ratio [OR], 25.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.1-66.1; P cancer education with navigation services yielded significant increases in cervical cancer screening rates among underscreened Korean American women. Community-accessible programs that incorporate cancer education with the delivery of key navigation services can be highly effective in increasing cervical cancer screening rates in this underserved population. Cancer 2017;123:1018-26. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  17. The Activities and Impact of State Programs to Address Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer, 2011–2014

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    Katrina F. Trivers

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC, at the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, released a three-year funding opportunity announcement (FOA for a competitive, non-research cooperative agreement. The agreement enhanced the capacities of state health departments to promote the application of best practices for evidence-based breast cancer genomics through education, surveillance, and policy activities. The FOA required that applicants focus on activities related to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC. The DCPC funded three states: Georgia, Michigan, and Oregon. Georgia was a first-time recipient of cancer genomics funding, whereas Michigan and Oregon had long standing activities in cancer genomics and had received CDC funding in the past. By the end of the funding period, each state had well-functioning and impactful state-based programs in breast cancer genomics. This article highlights the impact of a few key state activities by using CDC’s Science Impact Framework. There were challenges to implementing public health genomics programs, including the need to develop relevant partnerships, the highly technical nature of the subject matter, a lack of genetic services in certain areas, and the difficulty in funding genetic services. Georgia, Michigan, and Oregon have served as models for others interested in initiating or expanding cancer genomics programs, and they helped to determine what works well for promoting and integrating public health genomics into existing systems.

  18. Relationship between the magnitude of symptoms and the quality of life: a cluster analysis of lung cancer patients in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Juliana; Jardim, José Roberto; Fernandes, Ana Luisa Godoy; Jamnik, Sérgio; Santoro, Ilka Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer patients often experience profound physical and psychosocial changes as a result of disease progression or treatment side effects. Fatigue, pain, dyspnea, depression, and sleep disturbances appear to be the most common symptoms in such patients. The objective of the present study was to examine the prevalence of symptoms in lung cancer patients in order to identify subgroups (clusters) of patients, grouped according to the magnitude of the symptoms, as well as to compare the quality of life among the identified subgroups. A cross-sectional study involving agglomerative hierarchical clustering. A total of 50 lung cancer patients were evaluated in terms of their demographic characteristics and their scores on three quality of life questionnaires, namely the 30-item European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung, and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-form Survey. The cluster analysis took into account the magnitude of the most prevalent symptoms as assessed by the EORTC QLQ-C30 symptom scale scores; those symptoms were fatigue, pain, dyspnea, and insomnia. Three clusters (subgroups)_of patients were identified on the basis of the magnitude of the four most prevalent symptoms. The three subgroups of patients were as follows: patients with mild symptoms (n = 30; 60%); patients with moderate symptoms (n = 14; 28%); and patients with severe symptoms (n = 6; 12%). The subgroup of patients with severe symptoms had the worst quality of life, as assessed by the total scores and by the integrated domains of all three instruments. This study highlights the importance of symptom cluster assessment as an important tool to assess the quality of life of patients with chronic diseases, such as lung cancer.

  19. Lay health educators increase colorectal cancer screening among Hmong Americans: A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Elisa K; Nguyen, Tung T; Lo, Penny; Stewart, Susan L; Gildengorin, Ginny L; Tsoh, Janice Y; Jo, Angela M; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie L; Sy, Angela U; Cuaresma, Charlene; Lam, Hy T; Wong, Ching; Tran, Mi T; Chen, Moon S

    2017-01-01

    Asian Americans have lower colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates than non-Hispanic white individuals. Hmong Americans have limited socioeconomic resources and literacy. The current randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine whether bilingual/bicultural lay health educator (LHE) education could increase CRC screening among Hmong Americans. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among Hmong Americans in Sacramento, California. LHEs and recruited participants were randomized to intervention or control groups. The intervention group received CRC education over 3 months delivered by an LHE. The control group received education regarding nutrition and physical activity delivered by a health educator. The outcomes were changes in self-reported ever-screening and up-to-date CRC screening after 6 months. All 329 participants were foreign-born with mostly no formal education, limited English proficiency, and no employment. The majority of the participants were insured and had a regular source of health care. The intervention group experienced greater changes after the intervention than the control group for ever-screening (P = .068) and being up-to-date with screening (Pscreening (adjusted odds ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.79) and being up-to-date with screening (adjusted odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-2.32). Individuals who had health insurance were found to have >4 times the odds of receiving screening, both ever-screening and up-to-date screening. A higher CRC knowledge score mediated the intervention effect for both screening outcomes. A culturally and linguistically appropriate educational intervention delivered by trained LHEs was found to increase CRC screening in an immigrant population with low levels of education, employment, English proficiency, and literacy. Cancer 2017;98-106. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  20. Comparison of methods for estimating the intraclass correlation coefficient for binary responses in cancer prevention cluster randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng; Crespi, Catherine M; Wong, Weng Kee

    2012-09-01

    The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) is a fundamental parameter of interest in cluster randomized trials as it can greatly affect statistical power. We compare common methods of estimating the ICC in cluster randomized trials with binary outcomes, with a specific focus on their application to community-based cancer prevention trials with primary outcome of self-reported cancer screening. Using three real data sets from cancer screening intervention trials with different numbers and types of clusters and cluster sizes, we obtained point estimates and 95% confidence intervals for the ICC using five methods: the analysis of variance estimator, the Fleiss-Cuzick estimator, the Pearson estimator, an estimator based on generalized estimating equations and an estimator from a random intercept logistic regression model. We compared estimates of the ICC for the overall sample and by study condition. Our results show that ICC estimates from different methods can be quite different, although confidence intervals generally overlap. The ICC varied substantially by study condition in two studies, suggesting that the common practice of assuming a common ICC across all clusters in the trial is questionable. A simulation study confirmed pitfalls of erroneously assuming a common ICC. Investigators should consider using sample size and analysis methods that allow the ICC to vary by study condition.

  1. A Gene Selection Approach based on Clustering for Classification Tasks in Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio CASTELLANOS GARZÓN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene selection (GS is an important research area in the analysis of DNA-microarray data, since it involves gene discovery meaningful for a particular target annotation or able to discriminate expression profiles of samples coming from different populations. In this context, a wide number of filter methods have been proposed in the literature to identify subsets of relevant genes in accordance with prefixed targets. Despite the fact that there is a wide number of proposals, the complexity imposed by this problem (GS remains a challenge. Hence, this paper proposes a novel approach for gene selection by using cluster techniques and filter methods on the found groupings to achieve informative gene subsets. As a result of applying our methodology to Colon cancer data, we have identified the best informative gene subset between several one subsets. According to the above, the reached results have proven the reliability of the approach given in this paper.

  2. Efficacy of communication skills training on colorectal cancer screening by GPs: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin-Auger, I; Laouénan, C; Le Bel, J; Mercier, A; Baruch, D; Lebeau, J P; Youssefian, A; Le Trung, T; Peremans, L; Van Royen, P

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) mass screening has been implemented in France since 2008. Participation rates remain too low. The objective of this study was to test if the implementation of a training course focused on communication skills among general practitioners (GP) would increase the delivery of gaiac faecal occult blood test and CRC screening participation among the target population of each participating GP. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted with GP's practice as a cluster unit. GPs from practices in the control group were asked to continue their usual care. GPs of the intervention group received a 4-h educational training, built with previous qualitative data on CRC screening focusing on doctor-patient communication with a follow-up of 7 months for both groups. The primary outcome measure was the patients' participation rate in the target population for each GP. Seventeen GPs (16 practices) in intervention group and 28 GPs (19 practices) in control group participated. The patients' participation rate in the intervention group were 36.7% vs. 24.5% in the control group (P = 0.03). Doctor-patient communication should be developed and appear to be one of the possible targets of improvement patients adherence and participation rate in the target population for CRC mass screening.

  3. Addressing the unique psychosocial barriers to breast cancer treatment experienced by African-American women through integrative navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatman, Michelle C; Green, Rodney D

    2011-12-01

    African-American women face a disproportionally high breast cancer mortality rate and a significantly low five-year survival rate after breast cancer treatment. This study investigated, through a series of focus groups, how 32 African-American women (N = 32) breast cancer patients and survivors managed their cancer-related health needs. Participants also reported important barriers to care including problematic interactions with medical professionals, challenges in intimate relations, difficulties in handling the stigma and myths about breast cancer, and the psychological challenges that they faced. A patient navigation model was implemented at an eastern urban hospital that emphasized integrative therapies such as meditation, nutritional instruction, and yoga. Follow-up telephone interviews with 37 additional African-American participants (N = 37) indicated the rating of effectiveness to be at 3.8 to 3.9 out of 4 for the integrative patient navigation program. Over half of the survivors reported using some complementary techniques after treatment was completed, thus suggesting a long-term improvement in their quality of life as a result of the integrative techniques.

  4. The causality between smoking and lung cancer among groups and individuals: addressing issues in tobacco litigation in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, Young-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses issues on the causality between smoking and lung cancer, which have been raised during the tobacco litigation in South Korea. It should be recognized that the explanatory ability of risk factor(s) for inter-individual variations in disease occurrence is different from the causal contribution of the risk factor(s) to disease occurrence. The affected subjects of the tobacco litigation in South Korea are lung cancer patients with a history of cigarette smoking. Thus, the attributable fraction of the exposed rather than the population attributable fraction should be used in the tobacco litigation regarding the causal contribution of smoking to lung cancer. Scientific evidence for the causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer is based on studies of individuals and groups, studies in animals and humans, studies that are observational or experimental, studies in laboratories and communities, and studies in both underdeveloped and developed countries. The scientific evidence collected is applicable to both groups and individuals. The probability of causation, which is calculated based on the attributable fraction for the association between smoking and lung cancer, could be utilized as evidence to prove causality in individuals. PMID:26137845

  5. Association of inflammatory cytokines with the symptom cluster of pain, fatigue, depression, and sleep disturbance in Chinese patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yan-Bo; Bo, Chun-Lu; Xue, Xiu-Juan; Weng, En-Ming; Gao, Guang-Chao; Dai, Bei-Bei; Ding, Kai-Wen; Xu, Cui-Ping

    2017-08-07

    Pain, fatigue, depression, and sleep disturbance are common in patients with cancer and usually co-occur as a symptom cluster. However, the mechanism underlying this symptom cluster is unclear. This study aimed to identify subgroups of cluster symptoms, compare demographic and clinical characteristics between subgroups, and examine the associations between inflammatory cytokines and cluster symptoms. Participants were 170 Chinese inpatients with cancer from two tertiary hospitals. Inflammatory markers including interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were measured. Inter-group differences and associations of inflammatory cytokines with the cluster symptoms were examined with one-way analyses of variance and logistic regression. Based on cluster analysis, participants were categorized into subgroup 1 (all low symptoms), subgroup 2 (low pain and moderate fatigue) or subgroup 3 (moderate-to-high on all symptoms). The 3 subgroups differed significantly in ECOG performance status, sex, residence, current treatment, education, economic status, and inflammatory cytokines levels (all P Compared to Subgroup 1, Subgroup 3 had a significantly poorer ECOG physical performance status and higher IL-6 levels, were more often treated with combined chemoradiotherapy, and were more likely to be rural residents. IL-6 and ECOG physical performance status were significantly associated with 1.246-fold (95% confidence intervals: 1.114-1.396) and 31.831-fold (95%CI; 6.017-168.385) increased risk of subgroup 3. Our findings suggest that IL-6 levels are associated with cluster symptoms in cancer patients. Clinicians should identify patients at risk for more severe symptoms and formulate novel target interventions to improve symptom management. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Global surgical oncology disease burden: addressing disparities via global surgery initiatives: the University of Michigan International Breast Cancer Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiagge, Evelyn; Bensenhaver, Jessica M; Oppong, Joseph K; Awuah, Baffour; Newman, Lisa A

    2015-03-01

    Disparities in breast cancer incidence and outcome between African American and white American women are multifactorial in etiology. The increased frequency of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) in African American patients suggests the possible contribution of hereditary factors related to African ancestry. The University of Michigan (UM)-Komfo Anoyke Teaching Hospital (KATH) Breast Cancer Research Collaborative and International Breast Registry was established in 2004. It features epidemiologic information, tumor tissue, and germline DNA specimens from African American, white American, and Ghanaian women. This research collaborative has generated valuable findings regarding the pathogenesis and patterns of TNBC while concomitantly improving the standard of breast oncology care in Ghana. This partnership has also yielded important opportunities for academic and educational exchange. It has expanded to involve other sites in Africa and Haiti. The UM-KATH collaborative is a model for demonstrating the research and academic exchange value of international partnerships.

  7. Global methylation silencing of clustered proto-cadherin genes in cervical cancer: serving as diagnostic markers comparable to HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Hung; Lin, Cuei-Jyuan; Liu, Chou-Jen; Liu, Dai-Wei; Huang, Rui-Lan; Ding, Dah-Ching; Weng, Ching-Feng; Chu, Tang-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic remodeling of cell adhesion genes is a common phenomenon in cancer invasion. This study aims to investigate global methylation of cell adhesion genes in cervical carcinogenesis and to apply them in early detection of cancer from cervical scraping. Genome-wide methylation array was performed on an investigation cohort, including 16 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN3) and 20 cervical cancers (CA) versus 12 each of normal, inflammation and CIN1 as controls. Twelve members of clustered proto-cadherin (PCDH) genes were collectively methylated and silenced, which were validated in cancer cells of the cervix, endometrium, liver, head and neck, breast, and lung. In an independent cohort including 107 controls, 66 CIN1, 85 CIN2/3, and 38 CA, methylated PCDHA4 and PCDHA13 were detected in 2.8%, 24.2%, 52.9%, and 84.2% (P diagnostic markers for cervical cancer noninferior to HPV.

  8. Addressing the disconnect between public health science and personalised health care: the potential role of cluster analysis in combination with multi-criteria decision analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Dowie, Jack; Turner, Robin

    2013-01-01

    is to arrive at the necessary compromise between an individualised public policy (using each individual's preferences) and a deindividualised policy (using mean population preferences) in a more rigorous and transparent way. We show how cluster analysis can be combined with multi-criteria decision analysis...... rather than the entire population. The characteristics can be objective health indicators or, as in our case, individual's preferences, expressed as importance weights for criteria. The techniques vary in their assumptions and procedures, and typically produce different results, although their common aim...... their mean importance weights with the performance ratings in the evidence base showed that no PSA screening emerged as optimum for all subgroups (results shown only for the Ward's method). By following the link in the appendix, the reader can interact with the underlying online program and establish...

  9. Cluster-cluster clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J.; Dekel, A.; Efstathiou, G.; Frenk, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    The cluster correlation function xi sub c(r) is compared with the particle correlation function, xi(r) in cosmological N-body simulations with a wide range of initial conditions. The experiments include scale-free initial conditions, pancake models with a coherence length in the initial density field, and hybrid models. Three N-body techniques and two cluster-finding algorithms are used. In scale-free models with white noise initial conditions, xi sub c and xi are essentially identical. In scale-free models with more power on large scales, it is found that the amplitude of xi sub c increases with cluster richness; in this case the clusters give a biased estimate of the particle correlations. In the pancake and hybrid models (with n = 0 or 1), xi sub c is steeper than xi, but the cluster correlation length exceeds that of the points by less than a factor of 2, independent of cluster richness. Thus the high amplitude of xi sub c found in studies of rich clusters of galaxies is inconsistent with white noise and pancake models and may indicate a primordial fluctuation spectrum with substantial power on large scales.

  10. Cluster-cluster clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, J.; Dekel, A.; Efstathiou, G.; Frenk, C.S.

    1985-08-01

    The cluster correlation function xi sub c(r) is compared with the particle correlation function, xi(r) in cosmological N-body simulations with a wide range of initial conditions. The experiments include scale-free initial conditions, pancake models with a coherence length in the initial density field, and hybrid models. Three N-body techniques and two cluster-finding algorithms are used. In scale-free models with white noise initial conditions, xi sub c and xi are essentially identical. In scale-free models with more power on large scales, it is found that the amplitude of xi sub c increases with cluster richness; in this case the clusters give a biased estimate of the particle correlations. In the pancake and hybrid models (with n = 0 or 1), xi sub c is steeper than xi, but the cluster correlation length exceeds that of the points by less than a factor of 2, independent of cluster richness. Thus the high amplitude of xi sub c found in studies of rich clusters of galaxies is inconsistent with white noise and pancake models and may indicate a primordial fluctuation spectrum with substantial power on large scales. 30 references.

  11. Molecular-receptor-specific, non-toxic, near-infrared-emitting Au cluster-protein nanoconjugates for targeted cancer imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retnakumari, Archana; Setua, Sonali; Menon, Deepthy; Ravindran, Prasanth; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor [Amrita Centre for Nanoscience and Molecular Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Science, Cochin, 682 041 (India); Muhammed, Habeeb; Pradeep, Thalappil, E-mail: manzoor_nanomed@yahoo.com [Indian Institute of Technology, DST unit on Nanoscience, Chennai, 600 036 (India)

    2010-02-05

    Molecular-receptor-targeted imaging of folate receptor positive oral carcinoma cells using folic-acid-conjugated fluorescent Au{sub 25} nanoclusters (Au NCs) is reported. Highly fluorescent Au{sub 25} clusters were synthesized by controlled reduction of Au{sup +} ions, stabilized in bovine serum albumin (BSA), using a green-chemical reducing agent, ascorbic acid (vitamin-C). For targeted-imaging-based detection of cancer cells, the clusters were conjugated with folic acid (FA) through amide linkage with the BSA shell. The bioconjugated clusters show excellent stability over a wide range of pH from 4 to 14 and fluorescence efficiency of {approx}5.7% at pH 7.4 in phosphate buffer saline (PBS), indicating effective protection of nanoclusters by serum albumin during the bioconjugation reaction and cell-cluster interaction. The nanoclusters were characterized for their physico-chemical properties, toxicity and cancer targeting efficacy in vitro. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests binding energies correlating to metal Au 4f{sub 7/2{approx}}83.97 eV and Au 4f{sub 5/2{approx}}87.768 eV. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed the formation of individual nanoclusters of size {approx}1 nm and protein cluster aggregates of size {approx}8 nm. Photoluminescence studies show bright fluorescence with peak maximum at {approx}674 nm with the spectral profile covering the near-infrared (NIR) region, making it possible to image clusters at the 700-800 nm emission window where the tissue absorption of light is minimum. The cell viability and reactive oxygen toxicity studies indicate the non-toxic nature of the Au clusters up to relatively higher concentrations of 500 {mu}g ml{sup -1}. Receptor-targeted cancer detection using Au clusters is demonstrated on FR{sup +ve} oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB) and breast adenocarcinoma cell MCF-7, where the FA-conjugated Au{sub 25} clusters were found internalized in significantly higher concentrations

  12. Molecular-receptor-specific, non-toxic, near-infrared-emitting Au cluster-protein nanoconjugates for targeted cancer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnakumari, Archana; Setua, Sonali; Menon, Deepthy; Ravindran, Prasanth; Muhammed, Habeeb; Pradeep, Thalappil; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2010-02-01

    Molecular-receptor-targeted imaging of folate receptor positive oral carcinoma cells using folic-acid-conjugated fluorescent Au25 nanoclusters (Au NCs) is reported. Highly fluorescent Au25 clusters were synthesized by controlled reduction of Au+ ions, stabilized in bovine serum albumin (BSA), using a green-chemical reducing agent, ascorbic acid (vitamin-C). For targeted-imaging-based detection of cancer cells, the clusters were conjugated with folic acid (FA) through amide linkage with the BSA shell. The bioconjugated clusters show excellent stability over a wide range of pH from 4 to 14 and fluorescence efficiency of ~5.7% at pH 7.4 in phosphate buffer saline (PBS), indicating effective protection of nanoclusters by serum albumin during the bioconjugation reaction and cell-cluster interaction. The nanoclusters were characterized for their physico-chemical properties, toxicity and cancer targeting efficacy in vitro. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests binding energies correlating to metal Au 4f7/2~83.97 eV and Au 4f5/2~87.768 eV. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed the formation of individual nanoclusters of size ~1 nm and protein cluster aggregates of size ~8 nm. Photoluminescence studies show bright fluorescence with peak maximum at ~674 nm with the spectral profile covering the near-infrared (NIR) region, making it possible to image clusters at the 700-800 nm emission window where the tissue absorption of light is minimum. The cell viability and reactive oxygen toxicity studies indicate the non-toxic nature of the Au clusters up to relatively higher concentrations of 500 µg ml-1. Receptor-targeted cancer detection using Au clusters is demonstrated on FR+ve oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB) and breast adenocarcinoma cell MCF-7, where the FA-conjugated Au25 clusters were found internalized in significantly higher concentrations compared to the negative control cell lines. This study demonstrates the potential of using

  13. Welcome Address

    OpenAIRE

    Shantanu Sengupta

    1983-01-01

    This article is part of the NEDA-PIDS Seminar-Workshop on the Philippine System of National Accounts. It outlines the seminar’s major objectives and the problems and issues that need to be addressed. It argues that coordination among institutions can lead to effective resolution to sensitive issues.

  14. Addressing the Growing Cancer Burden in the Wake of the AIDS Epidemic in Botswana: The BOTSOGO Collaborative Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efstathiou, Jason A., E-mail: jefstathiou@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bvochora-Nsingo, Memory [Gaborone Private Hospital, Gaborone (Botswana); Gierga, David P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Alphonse Kayembe, Mukendi K. [Department of Anatomical Pathology, National Health Laboratory, Gaborone (Botswana); Department of Pathology, University of Botswana School of Medicine, Gaborone (Botswana); Mmalane, Mompati [Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute, Gaborone (Botswana); Russell, Anthony H.; Paly, Jonathan J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brown, Carolyn [Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute, Gaborone (Botswana); Musimar, Zola [Princess Marina Hospital, Gaborone (Botswana); Abramson, Jeremy S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bruce, Kathy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Karumekayi, Talkmore [Gaborone Private Hospital, Gaborone (Botswana); Clayman, Rebecca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hodgeman, Ryan [Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute, Gaborone (Botswana); Kasese, Joseph [Bokamoso Private Hospital, Gaborone (Botswana); Makufa, Remigio [Gaborone Private Hospital, Gaborone (Botswana); Bigger, Elizabeth [Princess Marina Hospital, Gaborone (Botswana); Department of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Suneja, Gita [Department of Radiation Oncology and Leonard David Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Busse, Paul M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); and others

    2014-07-01

    Botswana has experienced a dramatic increase in HIV-related malignancies over the past decade. The BOTSOGO collaboration sought to establish a sustainable partnership with the Botswana oncology community to improve cancer care. This collaboration is anchored by regular tumor boards and on-site visits that have resulted in the introduction of new approaches to treatment and perceived improvements in care, providing a model for partnership between academic oncology centers and high-burden countries with limited resources.

  15. Genetic variation in the toll-like receptor gene cluster (TLR10-TLR1-TLR6) and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Victoria L; Hsing, Ann W; Talbot, Jeffrey T; Zheng, Siqun Lilly; Sun, Jielin; Chen, Jinbo; Thun, Michael J; Xu, Jianfeng; Calle, Eugenia E; Rodriguez, Carmen

    2008-12-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key players in the innate immune system and initiate the inflammatory response to foreign pathogens such as bacteria, fungi and viruses. The proposed role of chronic inflammation in prostate carcinogenesis has prompted investigation into the association of common genetic variation in TLRs with the risk of this cancer. We investigated the role of common SNPs in a gene cluster encoding the TLR10, TLR6 and TLR1 proteins in prostate cancer etiology among 1,414 cancer cases and 1,414 matched controls from the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Twenty-eight SNPs, which included the majority of the common nonsynonymous SNPs in the 54-kb gene region and haplotype-tagging SNPs that defined 5 specific haplotype blocks, were genotyped and their association with prostate cancer risk determined. Two SNPs in TLR10 [I369L (rs11096955) and N241H (rs11096957)] and 4 SNPs in TLR1 [N248S (rs4833095), S26L (rs5743596), rs5743595 and rs5743551] were associated with a statistically significant reduced risk of prostate cancer of 29-38% (for the homozygous variant genotype). The association of these SNPs was similar when the analysis was limited to cases with advanced prostate cancer. Haplotype analysis and linkage disequilibrium findings revealed that the 6 associated SNPs were not independent and represent a single association with reduced prostate cancer risk (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.90). Our study suggest that a common haplotype in the TLR10-TLR1-TLR6 gene cluster influences prostate cancer risk and clearly supports the need for further investigation of TLR genes in other populations.

  16. Bayesian versus frequentist statistical inference for investigating a one-off cancer cluster reported to a health department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wills Rachael A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The problem of silent multiple comparisons is one of the most difficult statistical problems faced by scientists. It is a particular problem for investigating a one-off cancer cluster reported to a health department because any one of hundreds, or possibly thousands, of neighbourhoods, schools, or workplaces could have reported a cluster, which could have been for any one of several types of cancer or any one of several time periods. Methods This paper contrasts the frequentist approach with a Bayesian approach for dealing with silent multiple comparisons in the context of a one-off cluster reported to a health department. Two published cluster investigations were re-analysed using the Dunn-Sidak method to adjust frequentist p-values and confidence intervals for silent multiple comparisons. Bayesian methods were based on the Gamma distribution. Results Bayesian analysis with non-informative priors produced results similar to the frequentist analysis, and suggested that both clusters represented a statistical excess. In the frequentist framework, the statistical significance of both clusters was extremely sensitive to the number of silent multiple comparisons, which can only ever be a subjective "guesstimate". The Bayesian approach is also subjective: whether there is an apparent statistical excess depends on the specified prior. Conclusion In cluster investigations, the frequentist approach is just as subjective as the Bayesian approach, but the Bayesian approach is less ambitious in that it treats the analysis as a synthesis of data and personal judgements (possibly poor ones, rather than objective reality. Bayesian analysis is (arguably a useful tool to support complicated decision-making, because it makes the uncertainty associated with silent multiple comparisons explicit.

  17. Implementation of a Theory-based, Non-clinical Patient Navigator Program to Address Barriers in an Urban Cancer Center Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, Linda; Miller, Suzanne M; Crookes, Danielle; Kandadai, Venk; Wen, Kuang Yi; Slamon, Rachel E; Chaivous, Jeanne

    2012-06-01

    Cancer patients face a myriad of psychosocial and practical issues. Especially challenging is the time from an initial diagnosis to the onset of treatment and patient navigation services are important to guide patients, especially underserved populations, through this maze of uncertainty. Here we report on the Pennsylvania Patient Navigator Demonstration Project (PaPND) designed to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and impact of a culturally and linguistically appropriate non-clinical navigator program. The development of the project, based on behavioral theory and community-based participatory research principles, is described. Forty-four cancer patients from diverse backgrounds participated, which included a baseline assessment, navigation services, and a four week and twelve week follow-up assessment. On average, participants experienced 1.8 barriers with transportation and insurance issues the most common barriers. The majority (56%) of the barriers required more than an hour of the navigator's time to address, with insurance, transportation and caregiver/support issues requiring the most time. Overall patients were fairly satisfied with the navigation services. The findings showed improvement patient's stress-related thoughts, cognition (understanding of their disease), expectancies and beliefs or values/goals, as well as self-efficacy of managing cancer related issues from the baseline to follow-up assessments. The evaluation results suggest that providing and connecting cancer patients to appropriate information to improve their understanding of their diagnosis and recommended treatments needs to be addressed, and where the integration of non-clinical and clinical navigation is essential. In addition, more attention to the assessment of psychosocial issues, such as the patients' emotional worries, and more comprehensive training in these areas would enhance navigation programs.

  18. A pilot study addressing the impact of religious practice on quality of life of breast cancer patients during chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro; de Castro, Rafael Amaral; Souza, Cristiano de Pádua; de Paiva Maia, Yara Cristina; Ayres, Jairo Aparecido; Michelin, Odair Carlito

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate whether religious practice can modify quality of life (QoL) in BC patients during chemotherapy. QoL and religion practice questionnaire (RPQ) scores were evaluated in a sample of BC patients in different moments. Before chemotherapy initiation, women with lower physical and social functional scores displayed higher RPQ scores. On the other hand, low RPQ patients worsened some QoL scores over time. Body image acceptance was positively correlated with religious practice and specifically praying activity. This preliminary study suggests the importance of religion in coping with cancer chemotherapy.

  19. Transitions at CpG dinucleotides, geographic clustering of TP53 mutations and food availability patterns in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Verginelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is mainly attributed to diet, but the role exerted by foods remains unclear because involved factors are extremely complex. Geography substantially impacts on foods. Correlations between international variation in colorectal cancer-associated mutation patterns and food availabilities could highlight the influence of foods on colorectal mutagenesis. METHODOLOGY: To test such hypothesis, we applied techniques based on hierarchical clustering, feature extraction and selection, and statistical pattern recognition to the analysis of 2,572 colorectal cancer-associated TP53 mutations from 12 countries/geographic areas. For food availabilities, we relied on data extracted from the Food Balance Sheets of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Dendrograms for mutation sites, mutation types and food patterns were constructed through Ward's hierarchical clustering algorithm and their stability was assessed evaluating silhouette values. Feature selection used entropy-based measures for similarity between clusterings, combined with principal component analysis by exhaustive and heuristic approaches. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Mutations clustered in two major geographic groups, one including only Western countries, the other Asia and parts of Europe. This was determined by variation in the frequency of transitions at CpGs, the most common mutation type. Higher frequencies of transitions at CpGs in the cluster that included only Western countries mainly reflected higher frequencies of mutations at CpG codons 175, 248 and 273, the three major TP53 hotspots. Pearson's correlation scores, computed between the principal components of the datamatrices for mutation types, food availability and mutation sites, demonstrated statistically significant correlations between transitions at CpGs and both mutation sites and availabilities of meat, milk, sweeteners and animal fats, the energy-dense foods at the basis of

  20. Effects of a parenting intervention to address maternal psychological wellbeing and child development and growth in rural Uganda: a community-based, cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Daisy R; Kumbakumba, Elias; Aboud, Frances E

    2015-08-01

    Parenting interventions have been implemented to improve the compromised developmental potential among 39% of children younger than 5 years living in low-income and middle-income countries. Maternal wellbeing is important for child development, especially in children younger than 3 years who are vulnerable and dependent on their mothers for nutrition and stimulation. We assessed an integrated, community-based parenting intervention that targeted both child development and maternal wellbeing in rural Uganda. In this community-based, cluster randomised trial, we assessed the effectiveness of a manualised, parenting intervention in Lira, Uganda. We selected and randomly assigned 12 parishes (1:1) to either parenting intervention or control (inclusion on a waitlist with a brief message on nutrition) groups using a computer-generated list of random numbers. Within each parish, we selected two to three eligible communities that had a parish office or a primary school in which a preschool could be established, more than 75 households with children younger than 6 years, and at least 15 socially disadvantaged families (ie, maternal education of primary school level or lower) with at least one child younger than 36 months. Participants within communities were mother-child dyads, where the child was 12-36 months of age at enrollment, and the mother had low maternal education. In the parenting intervention group, participants attended 12 fortnightly peer-led group sessions focusing on child care and maternal wellbeing. The primary outcomes were cognitive and receptive language development, as measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd edn. Secondary outcomes included self-reported maternal depressive symptoms, using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and child growth. Theoretically-relevant parenting practices, including the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment inventory, and mother-care variables, such as perceived spousal

  1. Cluster Lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Kneib, Jean-Paul; 10.1007/s00159-011-0047-3

    2012-01-01

    Clusters of galaxies are the most recently assembled, massive, bound structures in the Universe. As predicted by General Relativity, given their masses, clusters strongly deform space-time in their vicinity. Clusters act as some of the most powerful gravitational lenses in the Universe. Light rays traversing through clusters from distant sources are hence deflected, and the resulting images of these distant objects therefore appear distorted and magnified. Lensing by clusters occurs in two regimes, each with unique observational signatures. The strong lensing regime is characterized by effects readily seen by eye, namely, the production of giant arcs, multiple-images, and arclets. The weak lensing regime is characterized by small deformations in the shapes of background galaxies only detectable statistically. Cluster lenses have been exploited successfully to address several important current questions in cosmology: (i) the study of the lens(es) - understanding cluster mass distributions and issues pertaining...

  2. Welcome Address

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@  On behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute, I welcome you to Beijing and to the Third Asian Conference on Food Safety and Nutrition. Many of you will remember the first Asian conference on Food Safety held in Kuala Lumpur in 1990 and the second held in Bangkok in 1994. These meetings have been so successful that ILSI made the commitment to host such a conference periodically in order to provide a forum to share the latest information and to set new goals and priorities.   This year, we have broadened the scope of the agenda to include issues on nutrition. I want to thank all of our co-sponsors and members of the Planning Committee for preparing such a comprehensive and timely program. Some of the issues and challenges facing Asia that will be addressed at this meeting are:

  3. Geographical clustering of lung cancer in the province of Lecce, Italy: 1992-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilancia, Massimo; Fedespina, Alessandro

    2009-07-01

    The triennial mortality rates for lung cancer in the two decades 1981-2001 in the province of Lecce, Italy, are significantly higher than those for the entire region of Apulia (to which the Province of Lecce belongs) and the national reference rates. Moreover, analyzing the rates in the three-year periods 1993-95, 1996-98 and 1999-01, there is a dramatic increase in mortality for both males and females, which still remains essentially unexplained: to understand the extent of this phenomenon, it is worth noting that the standardized mortality rate for males in 1999-01 is equal to 13.92 per 10000 person-years, compared to a value of 6.96 for Italy in the 2000-2002 period.These data have generated a considerable concern in the press and public opinion, which with little scientific reasoning have sometimes identified suspected culprits of the risk excess (for example, the emission caused by a number of large industrial sites located in the provinces of Brindisi and Taranto, bordering the Province of Lecce). The objective of this paper is to study on a scientifically sound basis the spatial distribution of risk for lung cancer mortality in the province of Lecce. Our goal is to demonstrate that most of the previous explanations are not supported by data: to this end, we will follow a hybrid approach that combines both frequentist and Bayesian disease mapping methods. Furthermore, we define a new sequential algorithm based on a modified version of the Besag-York-Mollié (BYM) model, suitably modified to detect geographical clusters of disease. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for lung cancer in the province of Lecce: For males, the relative risk (measured by means of SMR, i.e. the ratio between observed and expected cases in each area under internal standardization) was judged to be significantly greater than 1 in many municipal areas, the significance being evaluated under the null hypothesis of neutral risk on the ground of area-specific p-values (denoted by rhoi

  4. Geographical clustering of lung cancer in the province of Lecce, Italy: 1992–2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilancia, Massimo; Fedespina, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Background The triennial mortality rates for lung cancer in the two decades 1981–2001 in the province of Lecce, Italy, are significantly higher than those for the entire region of Apulia (to which the Province of Lecce belongs) and the national reference rates. Moreover, analyzing the rates in the three-year periods 1993–95, 1996–98 and 1999–01, there is a dramatic increase in mortality for both males and females, which still remains essentially unexplained: to understand the extent of this phenomenon, it is worth noting that the standardized mortality rate for males in 1999–01 is equal to 13.92 per 10000 person-years, compared to a value of 6.96 for Italy in the 2000–2002 period. These data have generated a considerable concern in the press and public opinion, which with little scientific reasoning have sometimes identified suspected culprits of the risk excess (for example, the emission caused by a number of large industrial sites located in the provinces of Brindisi and Taranto, bordering the Province of Lecce). The objective of this paper is to study on a scientifically sound basis the spatial distribution of risk for lung cancer mortality in the province of Lecce. Our goal is to demonstrate that most of the previous explanations are not supported by data: to this end, we will follow a hybrid approach that combines both frequentist and Bayesian disease mapping methods. Furthermore, we define a new sequential algorithm based on a modified version of the Besag-York-Mollié (BYM) model, suitably modified to detect geographical clusters of disease. Results Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for lung cancer in the province of Lecce: For males, the relative risk (measured by means of SMR, i.e. the ratio between observed and expected cases in each area under internal standardization) was judged to be significantly greater than 1 in many municipal areas, the significance being evaluated under the null hypothesis of neutral risk on the ground of area

  5. Geographical clustering of lung cancer in the province of Lecce, Italy: 1992–2001

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    Fedespina Alessandro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The triennial mortality rates for lung cancer in the two decades 1981–2001 in the province of Lecce, Italy, are significantly higher than those for the entire region of Apulia (to which the Province of Lecce belongs and the national reference rates. Moreover, analyzing the rates in the three-year periods 1993–95, 1996–98 and 1999–01, there is a dramatic increase in mortality for both males and females, which still remains essentially unexplained: to understand the extent of this phenomenon, it is worth noting that the standardized mortality rate for males in 1999–01 is equal to 13.92 per 10000 person-years, compared to a value of 6.96 for Italy in the 2000–2002 period. These data have generated a considerable concern in the press and public opinion, which with little scientific reasoning have sometimes identified suspected culprits of the risk excess (for example, the emission caused by a number of large industrial sites located in the provinces of Brindisi and Taranto, bordering the Province of Lecce. The objective of this paper is to study on a scientifically sound basis the spatial distribution of risk for lung cancer mortality in the province of Lecce. Our goal is to demonstrate that most of the previous explanations are not supported by data: to this end, we will follow a hybrid approach that combines both frequentist and Bayesian disease mapping methods. Furthermore, we define a new sequential algorithm based on a modified version of the Besag-York-Mollié (BYM model, suitably modified to detect geographical clusters of disease. Results Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs for lung cancer in the province of Lecce: For males, the relative risk (measured by means of SMR, i.e. the ratio between observed and expected cases in each area under internal standardization was judged to be significantly greater than 1 in many municipal areas, the significance being evaluated under the null hypothesis of neutral risk on

  6. Prognostic values of the miR-17-92 cluster and its paralogs in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ge; Tang, Jian-Qiang; Tian, Mao-Lin; Li, Hui; Wang, Xin; Wu, Tao; Zhu, Jing; Huang, Shan-Jun; Wan, Yuan-Lian

    2012-09-01

    MicroRNAs have been shown to offer great potential in both the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. Despite the well-established role of the miR-17-92 in cancer formation and progression, the contribution of each individual miRNA remains to be characterized. Thus, we investigated whether deregulation of the miR-17-92 associated with colon cancer prognosis. Expression levels of the miR-17-92 cluster and its paralogs were determined in 48 colon tumor and 48 paired normal tissues by real-time qRT-PCR. Associations with miRNA expression, age, sex, TNM staging, and survival prognosis were evaluated. MiR-17-92 cluster and its paralogs were significantly overexpressed in colon tumor. No significant associations were found between the deregulation of certain miRNAs and the clinical and pathologic characteristics observed in patients. Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated significantly reduced overall survival in patients expressing high levels of miR-17. In multivariate Cox models, miR-17 overexpression (HR 2.67; P = 0.007) and TNM staging (HR 8.87; P = 0.002) were significantly associated with a risk of death. The miR-17-92 cluster and its paralogs were significantly elevated in patients with colon cancer, and heightened expression of miR-17 was associated with poor survival. Moreover, miR-17 and TNM staging were both identified as significant, but independent, prognostic biomarkers in colon cancer. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Inaugural address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  8. Impact of a cancer clinical trials web site on discussions about trial participation: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear, R F; Barratt, A L; Askie, L M; Butow, P N; McGeechan, K; Crossing, S; Currow, D C; Tattersall, M H N

    2012-07-01

    Cancer patients want access to reliable information about currently recruiting clinical trials. Oncologists and their patients were randomly assigned to access a consumer-friendly cancer clinical trials web site [Australian Cancer Trials (ACT), www.australiancancertrials.gov.au] or to usual care in a cluster randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome, measured from audio recordings of oncologist-patient consultations, was the proportion of patients with whom participation in any clinical trial was discussed. Analysis was by intention-to-treat accounting for clustering and stratification. Thirty medical oncologists and 493 patients were recruited. Overall, 46% of consultations in the intervention group compared with 34% in the control group contained a discussion about clinical trials (P=0.08). The mean consultation length in both groups was 29 min (P=0.69). The proportion consenting to a trial was 10% in both groups (P=0.65). Patients' knowledge about randomized trials was lower in the intervention than the control group (mean score 3.0 versus 3.3, P=0.03) but decisional conflict scores were similar (mean score 42 versus 43, P=0.83). Good communication between patients and physicians is essential. Within this context, a web site such as Australian Cancer Trials may be an important tool to encourage discussion about clinical trial participation.

  9. Presidential address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  10. Addressing the Palliative Setting in Advanced Lung Cancer Should Not Remain a Barrier: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Annelies; Derijcke, Sofie; Lefebure, Anneke; Vandenbroucke, Elke; Surmont, Veerle; Coeman, Dieter; Galdermans, Daniëlle; Morel, Ann-Marie; Hiddinga, Birgitta I; van Meerbeeck, Jan P

    2017-07-01

    Implementation of early palliative care (EPC) into daily oncology practice remains difficult. One of the barriers preventing oncologists from starting EPC is open communication about the palliative setting. The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of this communication barrier. In this cross-sectional multicenter study, 106 patients with advanced thoracic cancer were issued a questionnaire to survey 3 dimensions of interest: illness understanding, observation of conversation regarding prognosis and end-of-life (EoL) care, and information preferences of the patients. Only 45% of subjects were aware that their treatment was not curative. When comparing presumed treatment goals between patients who were aware that their treatment could not cure them and patients likely to think that their treatment could cure them, 39% of the former chose quality of life versus 9% of the latter, whereas 36% of the former chose cure versus 13% of the latter (χ(2) = 17.7, P = .001). Seventy-five percent never had a conversation about EoL care. More than 50% found a discussion about prognosis and EoL care to be very important. This study reveals the existence of a communication barrier and underlines the importance of sustained emphasis with regard to the palliative intent of the treatment. Patients who are aware that they could not be cured were more aware of the primary goal of their treatment, namely quality of life. Most patients did not discuss prognosis and EoL care despite their wish for such a communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of DNA methylation in miR-200c/141 cluster silencing in invasive breast cancer cells

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    Wernet Peter

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The miR-200c/141 cluster has recently been implicated in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT process. The expression of these two miRNAs is inversely correlated with tumorigenicity and invasiveness in several human cancers. The role of these miRNAs in cancer progression is based in part on their capacity to target the EMT activators ZEB1 and ZEB2, two transcription factors, which in turn repress expression of E-cadherin. Little is known about the regulation of the mir200c/141 cluster, whose targeting has been proposed as a promising new therapy for the most aggressive tumors. Findings We show that the miR-200c/141 cluster is repressed by DNA methylation of a CpG island located in the promoter region of these miRNAs. Whereas in vitro methylation of the miR-200c/141 promoter led to shutdown of promoter activity, treatment with a demethylating agent caused transcriptional reactivation in breast cancer cells formerly lacking expression of miR-200c and miR-141. More importantly, we observed that DNA methylation of the identified miR-200c/141 promoter was tightly correlated with phenotype and the invasive capacity in a panel of 8 human breast cancer cell lines. In line with this, in vitro induction of EMT by ectopic expression of the EMT transcription factor Twist in human immortalized mammary epithelial cells (HMLE was accompanied by increased DNA methylation and concomitant repression of the miR-200c/141 locus. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that expression of the miR-200c/141 cluster is regulated by DNA methylation, suggesting epigenetic regulation of this miRNA locus in aggressive breast cancer cell lines as well as untransformed mammary epithelial cells. This epigenetic silencing mechanism might represent a novel component of the regulatory circuit for the maintenance of EMT programs in cancer and normal cells.

  12. Clustering of sebaceous gland carcinoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma and breast cancer in a woman as a new cancer susceptibility disorder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newman Brian D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Multiple distinct tumors arising in a single individual or within members of a family raise the suspicion of a genetic susceptibility disorder. Case presentation We present the case of a 52-year-old Caucasian woman diagnosed with sebaceous gland carcinoma of the eyelid, followed several years later with subsequent diagnoses of breast cancer and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Although the patient was also exposed to radiation from a pipe used in the oil field industry, the constellation of neoplasms in this patient suggests the manifestation of a known hereditary susceptibility cancer syndrome. However, testing for the most likely candidates such as Muir-Torre and Cowden syndrome proved negative. Conclusion We propose that our patient's clustering of neoplasms either represents a novel cancer susceptibility disorder, of which sebaceous gland carcinoma is a characteristic feature, or is a variant of the Muir-Torre syndrome.

  13. Geocoding Patient Addresses for Biosurveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Karen L; Kenneth D Mandl

    2002-01-01

    New biosurveillance information systems are being developed to detect clusters of disease using temporal and spatial characteristics. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can use patient addresses stored in hospital information systems to assign latitude and longitude coordinates, enabling the detection of spatial clusters. However, inaccuracy can be introduced during the geocoding process and this could have a profound adverse effect on detection sensitivity. In an analysis of three years ...

  14. Development and initial evaluation of a telephone-delivered, behavioral activation, and problem-solving treatment program to address functional goals of breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kathleen D; Hull, Jay G; Kaufman, Peter A; Li, Zhongze; Seville, Janette L; Ahles, Tim A; Kornblith, Alice B; Hegel, Mark T

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and pilot test an intervention to optimize functional recovery for breast cancer survivors. Over two studies, 31 women enrolled in a goal-setting program via telephone. All eligible women enrolled (37% of those screened) and 66% completed all study activities. Completers were highly satisfied with the intervention, using it to address, on average, four different challenging activities. The longitudinal analysis showed a main effect of time for overall quality of life (F(5, 43.1) = 5.1, p = 0.001) and improvements in active coping (F (3, 31.7) = 4.9, p = 0.007), planning (F (3, 36.0) = 4.1, p = 0.01), reframing (F (3, 29.3) = 8.5, p < 0.001), and decreases in self-blame (F (3,31.6) = 4.3, p = 0.01). The intervention is feasible and warrants further study to determine its efficacy in fostering recovery and maximizing activity engagement after cancer treatment.

  15. Cancer cluster among young Indian adults living near power transmission lines in Bom Jesus do Tocantins, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Koifman

    Full Text Available A case study was carried out to explore the occurrence of a cancer cluster in 1992 among young indian adults living in an Amazonian village near two 500 kV power transmission lines that began operating a decade ago. Current blood levels of DDT and organophosphorus pesticides and metal levels in hair samples were measured. Extremely low magnetic field exposure was determined during current daily activities carried out by the Indian villagers. Taking into account the cancer incidence rates in different Brazilian cities, the probability of the occurrence of this cluster by chance was considered remote (p< 0.003, Poisson distribution. High blood levels of p,p'-DDT (median levels ranging from 26 to 58 ppb were observed. As a whole, this community showed a pattern of low exposure to organophosphorus pesticides, and high recent exposure was only observed in a few blood samples. Continuous exposure to extremely low electromagnetic fields originated in the power transmission lines (which reached 95.0 mG under the lines was observed on several opportunities during daily activities carried out by Indian villagers. Further observational studies should evaluate the interaction between exposure to extremely low electromagnetic fields and prior exposure to tumor initiators in cancer development.

  16. Cancer cluster among young Indian adults living near power transmission lines in Bom Jesus do Tocantins, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koifman Sergio

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study was carried out to explore the occurrence of a cancer cluster in 1992 among young indian adults living in an Amazonian village near two 500 kV power transmission lines that began operating a decade ago. Current blood levels of DDT and organophosphorus pesticides and metal levels in hair samples were measured. Extremely low magnetic field exposure was determined during current daily activities carried out by the Indian villagers. Taking into account the cancer incidence rates in different Brazilian cities, the probability of the occurrence of this cluster by chance was considered remote (p< 0.003, Poisson distribution. High blood levels of p,p'-DDT (median levels ranging from 26 to 58 ppb were observed. As a whole, this community showed a pattern of low exposure to organophosphorus pesticides, and high recent exposure was only observed in a few blood samples. Continuous exposure to extremely low electromagnetic fields originated in the power transmission lines (which reached 95.0 mG under the lines was observed on several opportunities during daily activities carried out by Indian villagers. Further observational studies should evaluate the interaction between exposure to extremely low electromagnetic fields and prior exposure to tumor initiators in cancer development.

  17. Doxorubicin-loaded magnetic nanoparticle clusters for chemo-photothermal treatment of the prostate cancer cell line PC3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weibing; Zheng, Xinmin [Department of Urology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Shen, Shun [School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, No. 826 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai, 201203 (China); Wang, Xinghuan, E-mail: xinghuanwang9@gmail.com [Department of Urology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China)

    2015-10-16

    In addition to the conventional cancer treatment such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgical management, nanomedicine-based approaches have attracted widespread attention in recent years. In this paper, a promising nanocarrier, magnetic nanoparticle clusters (MNCs) as porous materials which provided enough room on the surface, was developed for loading chemotherapeutic agent of doxorubicin (DOX). Moreover, MNCs are a good near-infrared (NIR) photothermal mediator. Thus, MNCs have great potential both in photothermal therapy (PTT) and drug delivery for chemo-photothermal therapy of cancer. We firstly explored the destruction of prostate cancer in vitro by the combination of PTT and chemotherapy using DOX@MNCs. Upon NIR irradiation at 808 nm, more cancer cells were killed when PC3 cells incubated with DOX@MNCs, owing to both MNCs-mediated photothermal ablation and cytotoxicity of light-triggered DOX release. Compared with PTT or chemotherapy alone, the chemo-photothermal therapy by DOX@MNCs showed a synergistically higher therapeutic efficacy. - Highlights: • MNCs have great potential both in photothermal therapy and drug delivery. • DOX@MNCs were used for chemo-photothermal therapy of prostate cancer cells. • DOX@MNCs showed a synergistically higher therapeutic efficacy.

  18. The Quality Initiative in Rectal Cancer (QIRC trial: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial in surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabane Lehana

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two unfortunate outcomes for patients treated surgically for rectal cancer are placement of a permanent colostomy and local tumor recurrence. Total mesorectal excision is a new technique for rectal cancer surgery that can lead to improved patient outcomes. We describe a cluster randomized controlled trial that is testing if the above patient outcomes can be improved through a knowledge translation strategy called the Quality Initiative in Rectal Cancer (QIRC strategy. The strategy is designed to optimize the use of total mesorectal excision techniques. Methods and Design Hospitals were randomized to the QIRC strategy (experimental group versus normal practice environment (control group. Participating hospitals, and the respective surgeon group operating in them, are from Ontario, Canada and have an annual procedure volume for major rectal cancer resections of 15 or greater. Patients were eligible if they underwent major rectal surgery for a diagnosis of primary rectal cancer. The surgeon-directed QIRC interventions included a workshop, use of opinion leaders, operative demonstrations, a post-operative questionnaire, and, audit and feedback. For an operative demonstration participating surgeons invited a study team surgeon to assist them with a case of rectal cancer surgery. The intent was to demonstrate total mesorectal excision techniques. Control arm surgeons received no intervention. Sample size calculations were two-sided, considered the clustering of data at the hospital level, and were driven by requirements for the outcome local recurrence. To detect an improvement in local recurrence from 20% to 8% with confidence we required 16 hospitals and 672 patients – 8 hospitals and 336 patients in each arm. Outcomes data are collected via chart review for at least 30 months after surgery. Analyses will use an intention-to-treat principle and will consider the clustering of data. Data collection will be complete by the end of

  19. A Typology of Cancer Information Seeking, Scanning and Avoiding: Results from an Exploratory Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Sara; Van den Bulck, Jan; Beullens, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to (a) construct a typology of how individuals acquire cancer information, and (b) examine whether these types differ regarding socio-demographics and cancer-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. Method: A standardized, cross-sectional survey among cancer diagnosed and non-diagnosed individuals in Flanders,…

  20. [Prognostic differences of phenotypes in pT1-2N0 invasive breast cancer: a large cohort study with cluster analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Wang, W H; Wang, S L; Jin, J; Song, Y W; Liu, Y P; Ren, H; Fang, H; Tang, Y; Chen, B; Qi, S N; Lu, N N; Li, N; Tang, Y; Liu, X F; Yu, Z H; Li, Y X

    2016-06-23

    To find phenotypic subgroups of patients with pT1-2N0 invasive breast cancer by means of cluster analysis and estimate the prognosis and clinicopathological features of these subgroups. From 1999 to 2013, 4979 patients with pT1-2N0 invasive breast cancer were recruited for hierarchical clustering analysis. Age (≤40, 41-70, 70+ years), size of primary tumor, pathological type, grade of differentiation, microvascular invasion, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) were chosen as distance metric between patients. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using Ward's method. Cophenetic correlation coefficient (CPCC) and Spearman correlation coefficient were used to validate clustering structures. The CPCC was 0.603. The Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.617 (Pcluster model seemed to best illustrate our patient cohort. Patients in cluster 5, 9 and 12 had best prognosis and were characterized by age >40 years, smaller primary tumor, lower histologic grade, positive ER and PR status, and mainly negative HER-2. Patients in the cluster 1 and 11 had the worst prognosis, The cluster 1 was characterized by a larger tumor, higher grade and negative ER and PR status, while the cluster 11 was characterized by positive microvascular invasion. Patients in other 7 clusters had a moderate prognosis, and patients in each cluster had distinctive clinicopathological features and recurrent patterns. This study identified distinctive clinicopathologic phenotypes in a large cohort of patients with pT1-2N0 breast cancer through hierarchical clustering and revealed different prognosis. This integrative model may help physicians to make more personalized decisions regarding adjuvant therapy.

  1. Myeloid clusters are associated with a pro-metastatic environment and poor prognosis in smoking-related early stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to understand the role of myeloid cell clusters in uninvolved regional lymph nodes from early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients. METHODS: Uninvolved regional lymph node sections from 67 patients with stage I-III resected non-small cell lung cancer were immunostained to detect myeloid clusters, STAT3 activity and occult metastasis. Anthracosis intensity, myeloid cluster infiltration associated with anthracosis and pSTAT3 level were scored and correlated with patient survival. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed with prognostic variables. Human macrophages were used for in vitro nicotine treatment. RESULTS: CD68+ myeloid clusters associated with anthracosis and with an immunosuppressive and metastasis-promoting phenotype and elevated overall STAT3 activity were observed in uninvolved lymph nodes. In patients with a smoking history, myeloid cluster score significantly correlated with anthracosis intensity and pSTAT3 level (P<0.01. Nicotine activated STAT3 in macrophages in long-term culture. CD68+ myeloid clusters correlated and colocalized with occult metastasis. Myeloid cluster score was an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.049 and was associated with survival by Kaplan-Maier estimate in patients with a history of smoking (P = 0.055. The combination of myeloid cluster score with either lymph node stage or pSTAT3 level defined two populations with a significant difference in survival (P = 0.024 and P = 0.004, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Myeloid clusters facilitate a pro-metastatic microenvironment in uninvolved regional lymph nodes and associate with occult metastasis in early stage non-small cell lung cancer. Myeloid cluster score is an independent prognostic factor for survival in patients with a history of smoking, and may present a novel method to inform therapy choices in the adjuvant setting. Further validation studies are warranted.

  2. Doxorubicin-loaded magnetic nanoparticle clusters for chemo-photothermal treatment of the prostate cancer cell line PC3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weibing; Zheng, Xinmin; Shen, Shun; Wang, Xinghuan

    2015-10-16

    In addition to the conventional cancer treatment such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgical management, nanomedicine-based approaches have attracted widespread attention in recent years. In this paper, a promising nanocarrier, magnetic nanoparticle clusters (MNCs) as porous materials which provided enough room on the surface, was developed for loading chemotherapeutic agent of doxorubicin (DOX). Moreover, MNCs are a good near-infrared (NIR) photothermal mediator. Thus, MNCs have great potential both in photothermal therapy (PTT) and drug delivery for chemo-photothermal therapy of cancer. We firstly explored the destruction of prostate cancer in vitro by the combination of PTT and chemotherapy using DOX@MNCs. Upon NIR irradiation at 808 nm, more cancer cells were killed when PC3 cells incubated with DOX@MNCs, owing to both MNCs-mediated photothermal ablation and cytotoxicity of light-triggered DOX release. Compared with PTT or chemotherapy alone, the chemo-photothermal therapy by DOX@MNCs showed a synergistically higher therapeutic efficacy.

  3. Interleukin-1 Gene Cluster Polymorphisms and its Haplotypes may Predict the Risk to Develop Cervical Cancer in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidi, Sabrina; Sghaier, Ikram; Zouidi, Ferjeni; Benahmed, Amira; Stayoussef, Mouna; Kochkar, Radhia; Gazouani, Ezzedine; Mezlini, Amel; Yacoubi-Loueslati, Besma

    2015-09-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate the association between IL-1α (4845 G/T), IL-1β (-511C/T) and IL-1RN (VNTR) polymorphisms and risk of cervical cancer. This case-control study investigates three polymorphisms in 130 patients and 260 controls by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The IL-1RN (VNTR) A1/A3 genotype appear as a cervical cancer risk factor (p = 0.048; OR = 2.92; 95 % CI = 1.00-8.74), moreover, the L/2* decreased the risk (p = 0.011; OR = 0.47; 95 % CI = 0.25-0.88) and may be a protective factor against this pathology. Stratified analysis according to the FIGO stage subgroup revealed that the IL-1β-511 T/T genotype and T allele may be a protective factors against cervical cancer development for patients with early stage (p = 0.030; OR = 0.46; 95 % CI = 0.22-0.96) (p = 0.020; OR = 0.68; 95 % CI = 0.48-0.97). However, for the patients with advanced FIGO stage, IL-1RN-VNTR L/2* genotype appear as a protective factor for this pathology (p = 0.023; OR = 0.29; 95 % CI = 0.08-0.99). The (G-T-L) haplotype showed a significant decreased frequency in cervical cancer patients as compared to controls (p = 0.032; OR = 0.53; 95 % CI = 0.29-0.95). In contrast, the (T-T-2*) combination appear a risk factor for the development of cervical cancer (p = 0.018; OR = 1.57; 95 % CI = 1.07-2.30). Our study suggested that IL1 cluster polymorphisms and haplotypes may be a genetic risk factor for cervical cancer.

  4. The role of poverty rate and racial distribution in the geographic clustering of breast cancer survival among older women: a geographic and multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schootman, Mario; Jeffe, Donna B; Lian, Min; Gillanders, William E; Aft, Rebecca

    2009-03-01

    The authors examined disparities in survival among women aged 66 years or older in association with census-tract-level poverty rate, racial distribution, and individual-level factors, including patient-, treatment-, and tumor-related factors, utilization of medical care, and mammography use. They used linked data from the 1992-1999 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) programs, 1991-1999 Medicare claims, and the 1990 US Census. A geographic information system and advanced statistics identified areas of increased or reduced breast cancer survival and possible reasons for geographic variation in survival in 2 of the 5 SEER areas studied. In the Detroit, Michigan, area, one geographic cluster of shorter-than-expected breast cancer survival was identified (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.60). An additional area where survival was longer than expected approached statistical significance (HR = 0.4; P = 0.056). In the Atlanta, Georgia, area, one cluster of shorter- (HR = 1.81) and one cluster of longer-than-expected (HR = 0.72) breast cancer survival were identified. Stage at diagnosis and census-tract poverty (and patient's race in Atlanta) explained the geographic variation in breast cancer survival. No geographic clusters were identified in the 3 other SEER programs. Interventions to reduce late-stage breast cancer, focusing on areas of high poverty and targeting African Americans, may reduce disparities in breast cancer survival in the Detroit and Atlanta areas.

  5. Simulation-extrapolation method to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates, 1950-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allodji, Rodrigue S; Schwartz, Boris; Diallo, Ibrahima; Agbovon, Césaire; Laurier, Dominique; de Vathaire, Florent

    2015-08-01

    Analyses of the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bombing survivors have routinely incorporated corrections for additive classical measurement errors using regression calibration. Recently, several studies reported that the efficiency of the simulation-extrapolation method (SIMEX) is slightly more accurate than the simple regression calibration method (RCAL). In the present paper, the SIMEX and RCAL methods have been used to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates. For instance, it is shown that using the SIMEX method, the ERR/Gy is increased by an amount of about 29 % for all solid cancer deaths using a linear model compared to the RCAL method, and the corrected EAR 10(-4) person-years at 1 Gy (the linear terms) is decreased by about 8 %, while the corrected quadratic term (EAR 10(-4) person-years/Gy(2)) is increased by about 65 % for leukaemia deaths based on a linear-quadratic model. The results with SIMEX method are slightly higher than published values. The observed differences were probably due to the fact that with the RCAL method the dosimetric data were partially corrected, while all doses were considered with the SIMEX method. Therefore, one should be careful when comparing the estimated risks and it may be useful to use several correction techniques in order to obtain a range of corrected estimates, rather than to rely on a single technique. This work will enable to improve the risk estimates derived from LSS data, and help to make more reliable the development of radiation protection standards.

  6. Relative Expression of Vitamin D Hydroxylases, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1, and of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Heterogeneity of Human Colorectal Cancer in Relation to Age, Gender, Tumor Location, and Malignancy: Results from Factor and Cluster Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozek, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.brozek@gmx.at; Manhardt, Teresa; Kállay, Enikö; Peterlik, Meinrad; Cross, Heide S. [Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-07-26

    Previous studies on the significance of vitamin D insufficiency and chronic inflammation in colorectal cancer development clearly indicated that maintenance of cellular homeostasis in the large intestinal epithelium requires balanced interaction of 1,25-(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} and prostaglandin cellular signaling networks. The present study addresses the question how colorectal cancer pathogenesis depends on alterations of activities of vitamin D hydroxylases, i.e., CYP27B1-encoded 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase and CYP24A1-encoded 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase, and inflammation-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Data from 105 cancer patients on CYP27B1, VDR, CYP24A1, and COX-2 mRNA expression in relation to tumor grade, anatomical location, gender and age were fit into a multivariate model of exploratory factor analysis. Nearly identical results were obtained by the principal factor and the maximum likelihood method, and these were confirmed by hierarchical cluster analysis: Within the eight mutually dependent variables studied four independent constellations were found that identify different features of colorectal cancer pathogenesis: (i) Escape of COX-2 activity from restraints by the CYP27B1/VDR system can initiate cancer growth anywhere in the colorectum regardless of age and gender; (ii) variations in COX-2 expression are mainly responsible for differences in cancer incidence in relation to tumor location; (iii) advancing age has a strong gender-specific influence on cancer incidence; (iv) progression from well differentiated to undifferentiated cancer is solely associated with a rise in CYP24A1 expression.

  7. Tumor-Promoting Circuits That Regulate a Cancer-Related Chemokine Cluster: Dominance of Inflammatory Mediators Over Oncogenic Alterations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibovich-Rivkin, Tal [Department of Cell Research and Immunology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Buganim, Yosef; Solomon, Hilla [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Meshel, Tsipi [Department of Cell Research and Immunology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Rotter, Varda [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Ben-Baruch, Adit, E-mail: aditbb@tauex.tau.ac.il [Department of Cell Research and Immunology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2012-01-20

    Here, we investigated the relative contribution of genetic/signaling components versus microenvironmental factors to the malignancy phenotype. In this system, we took advantage of non-transformed fibroblasts that carried defined oncogenic modifications in Ras and/or p53. These cells were exposed to microenvironmental pressures, and the expression of a cancer-related chemokine cluster was used as readout for the malignancy potential (CCL2, CCL5, CXCL8, CXCL10). In cells kept in-culture, synergism between Ras hyper-activation and p53 dysfunction was required to up-regulate the expression of the chemokine cluster. The in vivo passage of Ras{sup High}/p53{sup Low}-modified cells has led to tumor formation, accompanied by potentiation of chemokine release, implicating a powerful role for the tumor microenvironment in up-regulating the chemokine cluster. Indeed, we found that inflammatory mediators which are prevalent in tumor sites, such as TNFα and IL-1β, had a predominant impact on the release of the chemokines, which was substantially higher than that obtained by the oncogenic modifications alone, possibly acting through the transcription factors AP-1 and NF-κB. Together, our results propose that in the unbiased model system that we were using, inflammatory mediators of the tumor milieu have dominating roles over oncogenic modifications in dictating the expression of a pro-malignancy chemokine readout.

  8. Evaluation of a Bladder Cancer Cluster in a Population of Criminal Investigators with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives—Part 1: The Cancer Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Susan R.; Tao, Xuguang; Bernacki, Edward J.; Alfriend, Amy S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated a bladder cancer cluster in a cohort of employees, predominately criminal investigators, participating in a medical surveillance program with the United States Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) between 1995 and 2007. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to compare cancer incidences in the ATF population and the US reference population. Seven cases of bladder cancer (five cases verified by pathology report at time of analysis) were identified among a total employee population of 3,768 individuals. All cases were white males and criminal investigators. Six of seven cases were in the 30 to 49 age range at the time of diagnosis. The SIRs for white male criminal investigators undergoing examinations were 7.63 (95% confidence interval = 3.70–15.75) for reported cases and 5.45 (2.33–12.76) for verified cases. White male criminal investigators in the ATF population are at statistically significant increased risk for bladder cancer. PMID:23304175

  9. Evaluation of a Bladder Cancer Cluster in a Population of Criminal Investigators with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives—Part 1: The Cancer Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan R. Davis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated a bladder cancer cluster in a cohort of employees, predominately criminal investigators, participating in a medical surveillance program with the United States Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF between 1995 and 2007. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs were used to compare cancer incidences in the ATF population and the US reference population. Seven cases of bladder cancer (five cases verified by pathology report at time of analysis were identified among a total employee population of 3,768 individuals. All cases were white males and criminal investigators. Six of seven cases were in the 30 to 49 age range at the time of diagnosis. The SIRs for white male criminal investigators undergoing examinations were 7.63 (95% confidence interval = 3.70–15.75 for reported cases and 5.45 (2.33–12.76 for verified cases. White male criminal investigators in the ATF population are at statistically significant increased risk for bladder cancer.

  10. Clinical findings with implications for genetic testing in families with clustering of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, JT; Vasen, HFA; Khan, PM; Zwinderman, AH; van der Klift, H; Mulder, A; Tops, C; Moller, P; Fodde, R; Menko, F; Taal, B; Nagengast, F; Brunner, H; Kleibeuker, J; Sijmons, R; Griffioen, G; Brocker-Vriends, A; Bakker, E; van Leeuwen-Cornelisse, [No Value; Meijers-Heijboer, A; Lindhout, D; Breuning, M; Post, J; Schaap, C; Apold, J; Heimdal, K; Bertario, L; Bisgaard, ML; Goetz, P

    1998-01-01

    Background Germ-line mutations in DNA mismatch-repair genes (MSH2, MLH1, PIMS1, PMS2, and MSH6) cause susceptibility to hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. We assessed the prevalence of MSH2 and MLH1 mutations in families suspected of having hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer and

  11. Clinical findings with implications for genetic testing in families with clustering of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, JT; Vasen, HFA; Khan, PM; Zwinderman, AH; van der Klift, H; Mulder, A; Tops, C; Moller, P; Fodde, R; Menko, F; Taal, B; Nagengast, F; Brunner, H; Kleibeuker, J; Sijmons, R; Griffioen, G; Brocker-Vriends, A; Bakker, E; van Leeuwen-Cornelisse, [No Value; Meijers-Heijboer, A; Lindhout, D; Breuning, M; Post, J; Schaap, C; Apold, J; Heimdal, K; Bertario, L; Bisgaard, ML; Goetz, P

    1998-01-01

    Background Germ-line mutations in DNA mismatch-repair genes (MSH2, MLH1, PIMS1, PMS2, and MSH6) cause susceptibility to hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. We assessed the prevalence of MSH2 and MLH1 mutations in families suspected of having hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer and evalu

  12. GRISEOFULVIN ANALOGUES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CANCER BY INHIBITION OF CENTROSOMAL CLUSTERING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to compounds of the formula (I), where the symbols have the meaning given in the specification, for use in a method for treating cancer, to use of these compounds for the manufacture of a pharmaceutical composition for the treatment of cancer, and to methods of treatment...... for said diseases employing a compound of formula (I)....

  13. Geographic clustering of testicular cancer incidence in the northern part of The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, DJA; Schaapveld, M; Sleijfer, DT; Meerman, GJT; van der Graaf, WTA; Sijmons, RH; Hoekstra, HJ; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    1999-01-01

    Geographic variations in testicular cancer incidence may be caused by differences in environmental factors, genetic factors, or both. In the present study, geographic patterns of age-adjusted testicular cancer incidence rates (IRs) in 12 provinces in The Netherlands in the period 1989-1995 were anal

  14. Geographic clustering of testicular cancer incidence in the northern part of The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, DJA; Schaapveld, M; Sleijfer, DT; Meerman, GJT; van der Graaf, WTA; Sijmons, RH; Hoekstra, HJ; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    1999-01-01

    Geographic variations in testicular cancer incidence may be caused by differences in environmental factors, genetic factors, or both. In the present study, geographic patterns of age-adjusted testicular cancer incidence rates (IRs) in 12 provinces in The Netherlands in the period 1989-1995 were anal

  15. Creating a cadre of junior investigators to address the challenges of cancer-related health disparities: lessons learned from the community networks program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Tisha M; Brandt, Heather M; Armstead, Cheryl A; Cavicchia, Philip P; Braun, Kathryn L; Adams, Swann A; Friedman, Daniela B; Tanjasiri, Sora; Steck, Susan E; Smith, Emily R; Daguisé, Virginie G; Hébert, James R

    2012-06-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) initiatives such as the National Cancer Institute's Community Networks Program (CNP) (2005-2010) often emphasize training of junior investigators from underrepresented backgrounds to address health disparities. From July to October 2010, a convenience sample of 80 participants from the 25 CNP national sites completed our 45-item, web-based survey on the training and mentoring of junior investigators. This study assessed the academic productivity and CBPR-related experiences of the CNP junior investigators (n=37). Those from underrepresented backgrounds reported giving more presentations in non-academic settings (nine vs. four in the last 5 years, p=0.01), having more co-authored publications (eight vs. three in the last 5 years, p=0.01), and spending more time on CBPR-related activities than their non-underrepresented counterparts. Regardless of background, junior investigators shared similar levels of satisfaction with their mentors and CBPR experiences. This study provides support for the success of the CNP's training program, especially effort directed at underrepresented investigators.

  16. Comparison of Address-based Sampling and Random-digit Dialing Methods for Recruiting Young Men as Controls in a Case-Control Study of Testicular Cancer Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clagett, Bartholt; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Ciosek, Stephanie L.; McDermoth, Monique; Vaughn, David J.; Mitra, Nandita; Weiss, Andrew; Martonik, Rachel; Kanetsky, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Random-digit dialing (RDD) using landline telephone numbers is the historical gold standard for control recruitment in population-based epidemiologic research. However, increasing cell-phone usage and diminishing response rates suggest that the effectiveness of RDD in recruiting a random sample of the general population, particularly for younger target populations, is decreasing. In this study, we compared landline RDD with alternative methods of control recruitment, including RDD using cell-phone numbers and address-based sampling (ABS), to recruit primarily white men aged 18–55 years into a study of testicular cancer susceptibility conducted in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, metropolitan area between 2009 and 2012. With few exceptions, eligible and enrolled controls recruited by means of RDD and ABS were similar with regard to characteristics for which data were collected on the screening survey. While we find ABS to be a comparably effective method of recruiting young males compared with landline RDD, we acknowledge the potential impact that selection bias may have had on our results because of poor overall response rates, which ranged from 11.4% for landline RDD to 1.7% for ABS. PMID:24008901

  17. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ovarian cancer Pancreatic cancer Testicular cancer Thyroid cancer Uterine cancer Symptoms Symptoms of cancer ... tumor Obesity Pancreatic cancer Prostate cancer Stomach cancer Testicular cancer Throat or larynx cancer Thyroid cancer Patient Instructions ...

  18. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRi) plasmids | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    CTD2 researchers at the University of California in San Francisco developed a modified Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) CRISPR/dCas9 system. Catalytically inactive dCas9 enables modular and programmable RNA-guided genome regulation in eukaryotes.

  19. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRi) plasmids | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    CTD2 researchers at the University of California in San Francisco developed a modified Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) CRISPR/dCas9 system. Catalytically inactive dCas9 enables modular and programmable RNA-guided genome regulation in eukaryotes.

  20. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRi) plasmids | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    CTD2 researchers at the University of California in San Francisco developed a modified Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) CRISPR/dCas9 system. Catalytically inactive dCas9 enables modular and programmable RNA-guided genome regulation in eukaryotes.

  1. GRISEOFULVIN ANALOGUES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CANCER BY INHIBITION OF CENTROSOMAL CLUSTERING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to uses of compounds having a structure as shown by formula (I) for the manufacture of a pharmaceutical composition for the treatment of cancer. Moreover, the present invention encompasses methods of treatment for said diseases.......The present invention relates to uses of compounds having a structure as shown by formula (I) for the manufacture of a pharmaceutical composition for the treatment of cancer. Moreover, the present invention encompasses methods of treatment for said diseases....

  2. HURP permits MTOC sorting for robust meiotic spindle bipolarity, similar to extra centrosome clustering in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Manuel; Kolano, Agnieszka; Kwon, Mijung; Li, Chao-Chin; Tsai, Ting-Fen; Pellman, David; Brunet, Stéphane; Verlhac, Marie-Hélène

    2010-12-27

    In contrast to somatic cells, formation of acentriolar meiotic spindles relies on the organization of microtubules (MTs) and MT-organizing centers (MTOCs) into a stable bipolar structure. The underlying mechanisms are still unknown. We show that this process is impaired in hepatoma up-regulated protein (Hurp) knockout mice, which are viable but female sterile, showing defective oocyte divisions. HURP accumulates on interpolar MTs in the vicinity of chromosomes via Kinesin-5 activity. By promoting MT stability in the spindle central domain, HURP allows efficient MTOC sorting into distinct poles, providing bipolarity establishment and maintenance. Our results support a new model for meiotic spindle assembly in which HURP ensures assembly of a central MT array, which serves as a scaffold for the genesis of a robust bipolar structure supporting efficient chromosome congression. Furthermore, HURP is also required for the clustering of extra centrosomes before division, arguing for a shared molecular requirement of MTOC sorting in mammalian meiosis and cancer cell division.

  3. Discovering biomarkers from gene expression data for predicting cancer subgroups using neural networks and relational fuzzy clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Animesh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The four heterogeneous childhood cancers, neuroblastoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma present a similar histology of small round blue cell tumor (SRBCT and thus often leads to misdiagnosis. Identification of biomarkers for distinguishing these cancers is a well studied problem. Existing methods typically evaluate each gene separately and do not take into account the nonlinear interaction between genes and the tools that are used to design the diagnostic prediction system. Consequently, more genes are usually identified as necessary for prediction. We propose a general scheme for finding a small set of biomarkers to design a diagnostic system for accurate classification of the cancer subgroups. We use multilayer networks with online gene selection ability and relational fuzzy clustering to identify a small set of biomarkers for accurate classification of the training and blind test cases of a well studied data set. Results Our method discerned just seven biomarkers that precisely categorized the four subgroups of cancer both in training and blind samples. For the same problem, others suggested 19–94 genes. These seven biomarkers include three novel genes (NAB2, LSP1 and EHD1 – not identified by others with distinct class-specific signatures and important role in cancer biology, including cellular proliferation, transendothelial migration and trafficking of MHC class antigens. Interestingly, NAB2 is downregulated in other tumors including Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Neuroblastoma but we observed moderate to high upregulation in a few cases of Ewing sarcoma and Rabhdomyosarcoma, suggesting that NAB2 might be mutated in these tumors. These genes can discover the subgroups correctly with unsupervised learning, can differentiate non-SRBCT samples and they perform equally well with other machine learning tools including support vector machines. These biomarkers lead to four simple human interpretable

  4. Public meetings about suspected cancer clusters: the impact of voice, interactional justice, and risk perception on attendees' attitudes in six communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Katherine A; Trumbo, Craig W; Besley, John C

    2007-09-01

    Holding a public meeting is a frequent method of communicating with community residents during official investigations into possible cancer clusters; however, there has been little formal research into the effectiveness of this method of health communication. This article presents research examining the influence of public meetings held during ongoing cancer cluster investigations in six U.S. communities. Drawing on social psychological theories of organizational justice, it examines the degree to which three specific elements of justice, including having a voice in the process, receiving fair interactional treatment, and facing equal risk of loss (i.e., cancer), influenced five outcome variables: meeting satisfaction, community connectedness, willingness to accept meeting outcomes or recommendations, willingness to attend future public meetings, and concern about the potential cancer cluster. The analysis of data collected from meeting attendees who responded to the mailed survey (N = 165) confirms a strong role for justice concerns in public meeting evaluations. In particular, perceptions of voice and interactional treatment had consistently large effects on the outcome variables, suggesting that managing a fair public engagement process can contribute to positive civic outcomes even during periods of heightened community concern about area cancer rates.

  5. Near-infrared-absorbing gold nanopopcorns with iron oxide cluster core for magnetically amplified photothermal and photodynamic cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Saheel; Lin, Gan; Wang, Lijia; Starring, Hunter; Mishra, Sanjay R; Liu, Gang; Huang, Xiaohua

    2015-06-03

    We present the synthesis and application of a new type of dual magnetic and plasmonic nanostructures for magnetic-field-guided drug delivery and combined photothermal and photodynamic cancer therapy. Near-infrared-absorbing gold nanopopcorns containing a self-assembled iron oxide cluster core were prepared via a seed-mediated growth method. The hybrid nanostructures are superparamagnetic and show great photothermal conversion efficiency (η=61%) under near-infrared irradiation. Compact and stable nanocomplexes for photothermal-photodynamic therapy were formed by coating the nanoparticles with near-infrared-absorbing photosensitizer silicon 2,3-naphthalocyannie dihydroxide and stabilization with poly(ethylene glycol) linked with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid. The nanocomplex showed enhanced release and cellular uptake of the photosensitizer with the use of a gradient magnetic field. In vitro studies using two different cell lines showed that the dual mode photothermal and photodynamic therapy with the assistance of magnetic-field-guided drug delivery dramatically improved the therapeutic efficacy of cancer cells as compared to the combination treatment without using a magnetic field and the two treatments alone. The "three-in-one" nanocomplex has the potential to carry therapeutic agents deep into a tumor through magnetic manipulation and to completely eradicate tumors by subsequent photothermal and photodynamic therapies without systemic toxicity.

  6. Identification of new candidate drugs for lung cancer using chemical-chemical interactions, chemical-protein interactions and a K-means clustering algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Chen, Lei; Yin, Jun; Huang, Tao; Bi, Yi; Kong, Xiangyin; Zheng, Mingyue; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer, characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in the lung tissue, is the leading cause of global cancer deaths. Until now, effective treatment of this disease is limited. Many synthetic compounds have emerged with the advancement of combinatorial chemistry. Identification of effective lung cancer candidate drug compounds among them is a great challenge. Thus, it is necessary to build effective computational methods that can assist us in selecting for potential lung cancer drug compounds. In this study, a computational method was proposed to tackle this problem. The chemical-chemical interactions and chemical-protein interactions were utilized to select candidate drug compounds that have close associations with approved lung cancer drugs and lung cancer-related genes. A permutation test and K-means clustering algorithm were employed to exclude candidate drugs with low possibilities to treat lung cancer. The final analysis suggests that the remaining drug compounds have potential anti-lung cancer activities and most of them have structural dissimilarity with approved drugs for lung cancer.

  7. A Critical Assessment of Geographic Clusters of Breast and Lung Cancer Incidences among Residents Living near the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers, Michigan, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Guajardo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess previously determined geographic clusters of breast and lung cancer incidences among residents living near the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers, Michigan, using a new set of environmental factors. Materials and Methods. Breast and lung cancer data were acquired from the Michigan Department of Community Health, along with point source pollution data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The datasets were used to determine whether there is a spatial association between disease risk and environmental contamination. GIS and spatial techniques were combined with statistical analysis to investigate local risk of breast and lung cancer. Results and Conclusion. The study suggests that neighborhoods in close proximity to the river were associated with a high risk of breast cancer, while increased risk of lung cancer was detected among neighborhoods in close proximity to point source pollution and major highways. Statistically significant (P≤.001 clusters of cancer incidences were observed among residents living near the rivers. These findings are useful to researchers and governmental agencies for risk assessment, regulation, and control of environmental contamination in the floodplains.

  8. Comparing 3 dietary pattern methods--cluster analysis, factor analysis, and index analysis--With colorectal cancer risk: The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Jill; Wirfält, Elisabet; Flood, Andrew; Mitrou, Panagiota N; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Kipnis, Victor; Midthune, Douglas; Leitzmann, Michael; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur; Subar, Amy F

    2010-02-15

    The authors compared dietary pattern methods-cluster analysis, factor analysis, and index analysis-with colorectal cancer risk in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study (n = 492,306). Data from a 124-item food frequency questionnaire (1995-1996) were used to identify 4 clusters for men (3 clusters for women), 3 factors, and 4 indexes. Comparisons were made with adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals, distributions of individuals in clusters by quintile of factor and index scores, and health behavior characteristics. During 5 years of follow-up through 2000, 3,110 colorectal cancer cases were ascertained. In men, the vegetables and fruits cluster, the fruits and vegetables factor, the fat-reduced/diet foods factor, and all indexes were associated with reduced risk; the meat and potatoes factor was associated with increased risk. In women, reduced risk was found with the Healthy Eating Index-2005 and increased risk with the meat and potatoes factor. For men, beneficial health characteristics were seen with all fruit/vegetable patterns, diet foods patterns, and indexes, while poorer health characteristics were found with meat patterns. For women, findings were similar except that poorer health characteristics were seen with diet foods patterns. Similarities were found across methods, suggesting basic qualities of healthy diets. Nonetheless, findings vary because each method answers a different question.

  9. Statistical inference is overemphasized in cluster investigations: the case of the cluster of breast cancers at the Australian Broadcasting Corporation studios in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coory, M

    2008-04-01

    The aim of statistical analyses in cluster investigations is to estimate the probability that the aggregation of cases could be due to chance. As a result of several statistical problems - including the post-hoc nature of the analysis and the subjective nature of implied multiple comparisons - this cannot be carried out with any certainty. In cluster investigations, expert opinion should carry much more weight than P-values, which are exceedingly difficult to interpret.

  10. Physical activity levels and supportive care needs for physical activity among breast cancer survivors with different psychosocial profiles: a cluster-analytical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, C; Pauwels, E; Lechner, L; Spittaels, H; Bourgois, J; DE Bourdeaudhuij, I; VAN Hoof, E

    2012-11-01

    The transition from breast cancer patient to survivor is associated with many treatment-related and psychosocial factors, which can influence health behaviour and associated needs. First, this study aimed to identify clusters of treatment-related and psychosocial factors among breast cancer survivors. Second, clusters' physical activity levels and care needs for physical activity were evaluated. Breast cancer survivors (n= 440; 52 ± 8 years) (3 weeks to 6 months post treatment) completed self-reports on physical and psychological symptoms; illness representations; social support and coping; physical activity and care needs for physical activity. Analyses identified four clusters: (1) a low distress-active approach group; (2) a low distress-resigned approach group; (3) a high distress-active approach group; and (4) a high distress-emotional approach group. Physical activity levels were higher in the low distress groups than in the high distress-emotional approach group. However, women with low distress and an active approach reported equal care needs for physical activity than women with high distress and an emotional approach. These findings suggest that care needs for physical activity are unrelated to distress and actual physical activity levels. The results emphasise the importance of screening for needs and provide a framework supporting the referral of breast cancer survivors to tailored interventions.

  11. One-pot one-cluster synthesis of fluorescent and bio-compatible Ag14 nanoclusters for cancer cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Xia, Nan; Wang, Xinan; Liu, Xianhu; Xu, An; Wu, Zhikun; Luo, Zhixun

    2015-11-01

    Small-molecule-protected silver nanoclusters have smaller hydrodynamic diameter, and thus may hold greater potential in biomedicine application compared with the same core-sized, macromolecule (i.e. DNA)-protected silver nanoclusters. However, the live cell imaging labeled by small-molecule-protected silver nanoclusters has not been reported until now, and the synthesis and atom-precise characterization of silver nanoclusters have been challenging for a long time. We develop a one-pot one-cluster synthesis method to prepare silver nanoclusters capped with GSH which is bio-compatible. The as-prepared silver nanoclusters are identified to be Ag14(SG)11 (abbreviated as Ag14, SG: glutathione) by isotope-resolvable ESI-MS. The structure is probed by 1D NMR spectroscopy together with 2D COSY and HSQC. This cluster species is fluorescent and the fluorescence quantum yield is solvent-dependent. Very importantly, Ag14 was successfully applied to label lung cancer cells (A549) for imaging, and this work represents the first attempt to image live cells with small-molecule-protected silver nanoclusters. Furthermore, it is revealed that the Ag14 nanoclusters exhibit lower cytotoxicity compared with some other silver species (including silver salt, silver complex and large silver nanoparticles), and the explanation is also provided. The comparison of silver nanoclusters to state-of-the-art labeling materials in terms of cytotoxicity and photobleaching lifetime is also conducted.Small-molecule-protected silver nanoclusters have smaller hydrodynamic diameter, and thus may hold greater potential in biomedicine application compared with the same core-sized, macromolecule (i.e. DNA)-protected silver nanoclusters. However, the live cell imaging labeled by small-molecule-protected silver nanoclusters has not been reported until now, and the synthesis and atom-precise characterization of silver nanoclusters have been challenging for a long time. We develop a one-pot one-cluster

  12. Glutathione depletion and carbon ion radiation potentiate clustered DNA lesions, cell death and prevent chromosomal changes in cancer cells progeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maïté Hanot

    Full Text Available Poor local control and tumor escape are of major concern in head-and-neck cancers treated by conventional radiotherapy or hadrontherapy. Reduced glutathione (GSH is suspected of playing an important role in mechanisms leading to radioresistance, and its depletion should enable oxidative stress insult, thereby modifying the nature of DNA lesions and the subsequent chromosomal changes that potentially lead to tumor escape.This study aimed to highlight the impact of a GSH-depletion strategy (dimethylfumarate, and L-buthionine sulfoximine association combined with carbon ion or X-ray irradiation on types of DNA lesions (sparse or clustered and the subsequent transmission of chromosomal changes to the progeny in a radioresistant cell line (SQ20B expressing a high endogenous GSH content. Results are compared with those of a radiosensitive cell line (SCC61 displaying a low endogenous GSH level. DNA damage measurements (γH2AX/comet assay demonstrated that a transient GSH depletion in resistant SQ20B cells potentiated the effects of irradiation by initially increasing sparse DNA breaks and oxidative lesions after X-ray irradiation, while carbon ion irradiation enhanced the complexity of clustered oxidative damage. Moreover, residual DNA double-strand breaks were measured whatever the radiation qualities. The nature of the initial DNA lesions and amount of residual DNA damage were similar to those observed in sensitive SCC61 cells after both types of irradiation. Misrepaired or unrepaired lesions may lead to chromosomal changes, estimated in cell progeny by the cytome assay. Both types of irradiation induced aberrations in nondepleted resistant SQ20B and sensitive SCC61 cells. The GSH-depletion strategy prevented the transmission of aberrations (complex rearrangements and chromosome break or loss in radioresistant SQ20B only when associated with carbon ion irradiation. A GSH-depleting strategy combined with hadrontherapy may thus have considerable

  13. Glutathione depletion and carbon ion radiation potentiate clustered DNA lesions, cell death and prevent chromosomal changes in cancer cells progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanot, Maïté; Boivin, Anthony; Malésys, Céline; Beuve, Michaël; Colliaux, Anthony; Foray, Nicolas; Douki, Thierry; Ardail, Dominique; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Poor local control and tumor escape are of major concern in head-and-neck cancers treated by conventional radiotherapy or hadrontherapy. Reduced glutathione (GSH) is suspected of playing an important role in mechanisms leading to radioresistance, and its depletion should enable oxidative stress insult, thereby modifying the nature of DNA lesions and the subsequent chromosomal changes that potentially lead to tumor escape.This study aimed to highlight the impact of a GSH-depletion strategy (dimethylfumarate, and L-buthionine sulfoximine association) combined with carbon ion or X-ray irradiation on types of DNA lesions (sparse or clustered) and the subsequent transmission of chromosomal changes to the progeny in a radioresistant cell line (SQ20B) expressing a high endogenous GSH content. Results are compared with those of a radiosensitive cell line (SCC61) displaying a low endogenous GSH level. DNA damage measurements (γH2AX/comet assay) demonstrated that a transient GSH depletion in resistant SQ20B cells potentiated the effects of irradiation by initially increasing sparse DNA breaks and oxidative lesions after X-ray irradiation, while carbon ion irradiation enhanced the complexity of clustered oxidative damage. Moreover, residual DNA double-strand breaks were measured whatever the radiation qualities. The nature of the initial DNA lesions and amount of residual DNA damage were similar to those observed in sensitive SCC61 cells after both types of irradiation. Misrepaired or unrepaired lesions may lead to chromosomal changes, estimated in cell progeny by the cytome assay. Both types of irradiation induced aberrations in nondepleted resistant SQ20B and sensitive SCC61 cells. The GSH-depletion strategy prevented the transmission of aberrations (complex rearrangements and chromosome break or loss) in radioresistant SQ20B only when associated with carbon ion irradiation. A GSH-depleting strategy combined with hadrontherapy may thus have considerable advantage in the

  14. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  15. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  16. Gold conjugate-based liposomes with hybrid cluster bomb structure for liver cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Chen, Huan; Liu, Ai-Yun; Shen, Jia-Jia; Shah, Vishva; Zhang, Can; Hong, Jin; Ding, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid drug delivery system containing both organic and inorganic nanocarriers is expected to achieve its complementary advantages for the aim of improving the performance of antineoplastic drugs in tumor therapy. Here we report the use of liposomes and gold nanoparticles to construct a liposome with a hybrid Cluster Bomb structure and discuss its unique multi-order drug release property for liver tumor treatment. A very simple method is used for the hybrid liposome preparation and involves mixing two solutions containing liposomes loaded with either non-covalent or covalent Paclitaxel (PTX, namely free PTX or PTX-conjugated GNPs, respectively) by different ratio of volume (25:75, 50:50, 25:75, v/v). Various mixed liposomes were tested to determine the optimal conditions for maximum drug delivery. The optimized liposome was then tested using xenograft Heps tumor-bearing mice and showed the best efficacy for chemotherapeutic inhibition of tumor at PTX liposome: PTX-conjugated GNP liposome of 25:75 ratio (v/v). This system allows for simple and easy preparation while providing a more accurate site- and time-release mode for tumor treatment using antitumor drugs.

  17. An integrative analysis of cellular contexts, miRNAs and mRNAs reveals network clusters associated with antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Seungyoon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major goal of the field of systems biology is to translate genome-wide profiling data (e.g., mRNAs, miRNAs into interpretable functional networks. However, employing a systems biology approach to better understand the complexities underlying drug resistance phenotypes in cancer continues to represent a significant challenge to the field. Previously, we derived two drug-resistant breast cancer sublines (tamoxifen- and fulvestrant-resistant cell lines from the MCF7 breast cancer cell line and performed genome-wide mRNA and microRNA profiling to identify differential molecular pathways underlying acquired resistance to these important antiestrogens. In the current study, to further define molecular characteristics of acquired antiestrogen resistance we constructed an “integrative network”. We combined joint miRNA-mRNA expression profiles, cancer contexts, miRNA-target mRNA relationships, and miRNA upstream regulators. In particular, to reduce the probability of false positive connections in the network, experimentally validated, rather than prediction-oriented, databases were utilized to obtain connectivity. Also, to improve biological interpretation, cancer contexts were incorporated into the network connectivity. Results Based on the integrative network, we extracted “substructures” (network clusters representing the drug resistant states (tamoxifen- or fulvestrant-resistance cells compared to drug sensitive state (parental MCF7 cells. We identified un-described network clusters that contribute to antiestrogen resistance consisting of miR-146a, -27a, -145, -21, -155, -15a, -125b, and let-7s, in addition to the previously described miR-221/222. Conclusions By integrating miRNA-related network, gene/miRNA expression and text-mining, the current study provides a computational-based systems biology approach for further investigating the molecular mechanism underlying antiestrogen resistance in breast cancer cells. In

  18. [Childhood leukaemia in a residential area with a high-voltage power line: approach according to the Dutch Community Health Services' guideline 'Cancer Clusters'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegger, Carola; Reedijk, Ardine M J

    2013-01-01

    The new Dutch Community Health Services' (GGD) guideline titled 'Cancer Clusters' describes a phased plan for investigating reported cancer clusters. In each phase, attention is paid to both health and environmental issues and their possible links to one another. Throughout the entire cluster investigation, good risk communication is essential. In accordance with the new guideline, the Rotterdam-Rijnmond Public Health Services investigated the incidence of childhood leukaemia in a residential area as well as the data available on the high-voltage power line located there. More children in this residential area had been diagnosed with leukaemia than expected. However, the children had not been subjected to prolonged exposure to strong magnetic fields emitted from the high-voltage power line. With this type of cluster investigation, it is not possible to establish a causal relationship between childhood leukaemia and high-voltage power lines. However, the research did provide stakeholders insight into the health-and-environment situation and thereby, the opportunity to assess the situation appropriately and to act accordingly, if desired.

  19. Evaluation of secular trend and the existence of cases of clusters of bladder cancer in Goiania: descriptive study population-based; Avaliacao da tendencia temporal e da existencia de casos de clusters de cancer de bexiga em Goiania: estudo descritivo de base populacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Gisele Guimaraes Daflon

    2008-07-01

    More than 20 years after the radiological accident with cesium-137 in the city of Goiania, there is still a feeling in local population that the number of cases of cancer in the city is growing up due to the past radiation exposure and that the number of people contaminated or exposed was higher than the number reported. The present study aims to evaluate the temporal trend and the space-time distribution of bladder cancer cases in Goiania from 1988 and 2003, taking into account that bladder cancer presents the highest risk coefficients per unit of radiation dose among solid cancers. The study population was composed of all incident cases of bladder cancer registered in the Population-Based Cancer Registry of Goiania, between 1988 and 2003.Temporal trend of bladder cancer incidence was analyzed by sex and age groups ( < 60 and {>=} 60 years of age) through polynomial regression using age standardized incidence rates of bladder cancer (world population). SaTscan was used to determine whether statistical significant geographic clusters of high incidence of bladder cancer cases can be located in the city. The results showed a significant increase of bladder cancer incidence rates in males of all ages (p= 0.025) and for age group higher or equal to 60 years old (p=O.022), and a stability in trends for female sex. In the space-time analysis, a cluster was identified, however without statistical significance (p=0.278) and its location has no relationship with the main focuses of contamination of the radiological accident in 1987. We concluded that, despite of the increase of incidence rates in males, this can be explained by the improvement in diagnostic procedures throughout time, being this increase still not perceived in females considering the small number of cases. As chance can not be ruled out as the explanation of the identified cluster, we do not suggest any further detailed investigation in this cluster, as the occurrence of cluster diseases in space can occur

  20. Toponome imaging system: in situ protein network mapping in normal and cancerous colon from the same patient reveals more than five-thousand cancer specific protein clusters and their subcellular annotation by using a three symbol code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sayantan; Mathew, George; Ruban, Ernie; Epstein, David B A; Krusche, Andreas; Hillert, Reyk; Schubert, Walter; Khan, Michael

    2010-12-03

    In a proof of principle study, we have applied an automated fluorescence toponome imaging system (TIS) to examine whether TIS can find protein network structures, distinguishing cancerous from normal colon tissue present in a surgical sample from the same patient. By using a three symbol code and a power of combinatorial molecular discrimination (PCMD) of 2(21) per subcellular data point in one single tissue section, we demonstrate an in situ protein network structure, visualized as a mosaic of 6813 protein clusters (combinatorial molecular phenotype or CMPs), in the cancerous part of the colon. By contrast, in the histologically normal colon, TIS identifies nearly 5 times the number of protein clusters as compared to the cancerous part (32 009). By subcellular visualization procedures, we found that many cell surface membrane molecules were closely associated with the cell cytoskeleton as unique CMPs in the normal part of the colon, while the same molecules were disassembled in the cancerous part, suggesting the presence of dysfunctional cytoskeleton-membrane complexes. As expected, glandular and stromal cell signatures were found, but interestingly also found were potentially TIS signatures identifying a very restricted subset of cells expressing several putative stem cell markers, all restricted to the cancerous tissue. The detection of these signatures is based on the extreme searching depth, high degree of dimensionality, and subcellular resolution capacity of TIS. These findings provide the technological rationale for the feasibility of a complete colon cancer toponome to be established by massive parallel high throughput/high content TIS mapping.

  1. MicroRNA-210 regulates mitochondrial free radical response to hypoxia and krebs cycle in cancer cells by targeting iron sulfur cluster protein ISCU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Elena; Ramachandran, Anassuya; McCormick, Robert; Gee, Harriet; Blancher, Christine; Crosby, Meredith; Devlin, Cecilia; Blick, Christopher; Buffa, Francesca; Li, Ji-Liang; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Pires das Neves, Ricardo; Glazer, Peter; Iborra, Francisco; Ivan, Mircea; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Harris, Adrian L

    2010-04-26

    Hypoxia in cancers results in the upregulation of hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and a microRNA, hsa-miR-210 (miR-210) which is associated with a poor prognosis. In human cancer cell lines and tumours, we found that miR-210 targets the mitochondrial iron sulfur scaffold protein ISCU, required for assembly of iron-sulfur clusters, cofactors for key enzymes involved in the Krebs cycle, electron transport, and iron metabolism. Down regulation of ISCU was the major cause of induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hypoxia. ISCU suppression reduced mitochondrial complex 1 activity and aconitase activity, caused a shift to glycolysis in normoxia and enhanced cell survival. Cancers with low ISCU had a worse prognosis. Induction of these major hallmarks of cancer show that a single microRNA, miR-210, mediates a new mechanism of adaptation to hypoxia, by regulating mitochondrial function via iron-sulfur cluster metabolism and free radical generation.

  2. MicroRNA-210 regulates mitochondrial free radical response to hypoxia and krebs cycle in cancer cells by targeting iron sulfur cluster protein ISCU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Favaro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypoxia in cancers results in the upregulation of hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1 and a microRNA, hsa-miR-210 (miR-210 which is associated with a poor prognosis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In human cancer cell lines and tumours, we found that miR-210 targets the mitochondrial iron sulfur scaffold protein ISCU, required for assembly of iron-sulfur clusters, cofactors for key enzymes involved in the Krebs cycle, electron transport, and iron metabolism. Down regulation of ISCU was the major cause of induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS in hypoxia. ISCU suppression reduced mitochondrial complex 1 activity and aconitase activity, caused a shift to glycolysis in normoxia and enhanced cell survival. Cancers with low ISCU had a worse prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Induction of these major hallmarks of cancer show that a single microRNA, miR-210, mediates a new mechanism of adaptation to hypoxia, by regulating mitochondrial function via iron-sulfur cluster metabolism and free radical generation.

  3. How Clusters Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology innovation clusters are geographic concentrations of interconnected companies, universities, and other organizations with a focus on environmental technology. They play a key role in addressing the nation’s pressing environmental problems.

  4. Spatial analyses identify the geographic source of patients at a National Cancer Institute Comprehensive Cancer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shu-Chih; Kanarek, Norma; Fox, Michael G; Guseynova, Alla; Crow, Shirley; Piantadosi, Steven

    2010-02-01

    We examined the geographic distribution of patients to better understand the service area of the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, a designated National Cancer Institute (NCI) comprehensive cancer center located in an urban center. Like most NCI cancer centers, the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center serves a population beyond city limits. Urban cancer centers are expected to serve their immediate neighborhoods and to address disparities in access to specialty care. Our purpose was to learn the extent and nature of the cancer center service area. Statistical clustering of patient residence in the continental United States was assessed for all patients and by gender, cancer site, and race using SaTScan. Primary clusters detected for all cases and demographically and tumor-defined subpopulations were centered at Baltimore City and consisted of adjacent counties in Delaware, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, New Jersey and New York, and the District of Columbia. Primary clusters varied in size by race, gender, and cancer site. Spatial analysis can provide insights into the populations served by urban cancer centers, assess centers' performance relative to their communities, and aid in developing a cancer center business plan that recognizes strengths, regional utility, and referral patterns. Today, 62 NCI cancer centers serve a quarter of the U.S. population in their immediate communities. From the Baltimore experience, we might project that the population served by these centers is actually more extensive and varies by patient characteristics, cancer site, and probably cancer center services offered.

  5. SEARCHBreast: a new resource to locate and share surplus archival material from breast cancer animal models to help address the 3Rs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Karen; Carter, Phil; Morrissey, Bethny; Chelala, Claude; Jones, Louise; Holen, Ingunn; Speirs, Valerie

    2016-04-01

    Animal models have contributed to our understanding of breast cancer, with publication of results in high-impact journals almost invariably requiring extensive in vivo experimentation. As such, many laboratories hold large collections of surplus animal material, with only a fraction being used in publications relating to the original projects. Despite being developed at considerable cost, this material is an invisible and hence an underutilised resource, which often ends up being discarded. Within the breast cancer research community there is both a need and desire to make this valuable material available for researchers. Lack of a coordinated system for visualisation and localisation of this has prevented progress. To fulfil this unmet need, we have developed a novel initiative called Sharing Experimental Animal Resources: Coordinating Holdings-Breast (SEARCHBreast) which facilitates sharing of archival tissue between researchers on a collaborative basis and, de facto will reduce overall usage of animal models in breast cancer research. A secure searchable database has been developed where researchers can find, share, or upload materials related to animal models of breast cancer, including genetic and transplant models. SEARCHBreast is a virtual compendium where the physical material remains with the original laboratory. A bioanalysis pipeline is being developed for the analysis of transcriptomics data associated with mouse models, allowing comparative study with human and cell line data. Additionally, SEARCHBreast is committed to promoting the use of humanised breast tissue models as replacement alternatives to animals. Access to this unique resource is freely available to all academic researchers following registration at https://searchbreast.org.

  6. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  7. License Address List

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Address list generated from National Saltwater Angler Registry. Used in conjunction with an address-based sample as per survey design.

  8. Promoting Chinese-speaking primary care physicians' communication with immigrant patients about colorectal cancer screening: a cluster randomized trial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Judy Huei-yu; Liang, Wenchi; Ma, Grace X; Gehan, Edmund; Wang, Haoying Echo; Ji, Cheng-Shuang; Tu, Shin-Ping; Vernon, Sally W; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S

    2014-08-01

    Chinese Americans underutilize colorectal cancer screening. This study evaluated a physician-based intervention guided by social cognitive theory (SCT) to inform future research involving minority physicians and patients. Twenty-five Chinese-speaking primary care physicians were randomized into intervention or usual care arms. The intervention included two 45-minute in-office training sessions paired with a dual-language communication guide detailing strategies in addressing Chinese patients' screening barriers. Physicians' feedback on the intervention, their performance data during training, and pre-post intervention survey data were collected and analyzed. Most physicians (~85%) liked the intervention materials but ~84% spent less than 20 minutes reading the guide and only 46% found the length of time for in-office training acceptable. Despite this, the intervention increased physicians' perceived communication self-efficacy with patients (p<.01). This study demonstrated the feasibility of enrolling and intervening with minority physicians. Time constraints in primary care practice should be considered in the design and implementation of interventions.

  9. Clustering asian and north african countries according to trend of colon and rectum cancer mortality rates: an application of growth mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayeri, Farid; Sheidaei, Ali; Mansouri, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death with half a million deaths per year. Incidence and mortality rates have demonstrated notable changes in Asian and African countries during the last few decades. In this study, we first aimed to determine the trend of colorectal cancer mortality rate in each Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) region, and then re-classify them to find more homogenous classes. Our study population consisted of 52 countries of Asia and North Africa in six IHME pre-defined regions for both genders and age-standardized groups from 1990 to 2010.We first applied simple growth models for pre-defined IHME regions to estimate the intercepts and slopes of mortality rate trends. Then, we clustered the 52 described countries using the latent growth mixture modeling approach for classifying them based on their colorectal mortality rates over time. Statistical analysis revealed that males and people in high income Asia pacific and East Asia countries were at greater risk of death from colon and rectum cancer. In addition, South Asia region had the lowest rates of mortality due to this cancer. Simple growth modeling showed that majority of IHME regions had decreasing trend in mortality rate of colorectal cancer. However, re-classification these countries based on their mortality trend using the latent growth mixture model resulted in more homogeneous classes according to colorectal mortality trend. In general, our statistical analyses showed that most Asian and North African countries had upward trend in their colorectal cancer mortality. We therefore urge the health policy makers in these countries to evaluate the causes of growing mortality and study the interventional programs of successful countries in managing the consequences of this cancer.

  10. Addressing the expected survival benefit for clinical trial design in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: Sensitivity analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, Francesco; Modena, Alessandra; Ciccarese, Chiara; Pilotto, Sara; Maines, Francesca; Bracarda, Sergio; Sperduti, Isabella; Giannarelli, Diana; Carlini, Paolo; Santini, Daniele; Tortora, Giampaolo; Porta, Camillo; Bria, Emilio

    2016-02-01

    We performed a sensitivity analysis, cumulating all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in which patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) received systemic therapy, to evaluate if the comparison of RCTs may drive to biased survival estimations. An overall survival (OS) significant difference according to therapeutic strategy was more likely be determined in RCTs evaluating hormonal drugs versus those studies testing immunotherapy, chemotherapy or other strategies. With regard to control arm, an OS significant effect was found for placebo-controlled trials versus studies comparing experimental treatment with active therapies. Finally, regarding to docetaxel (DOC) timing, the OS benefit was more likely to be proved in Post-DOC setting in comparison with DOC and Pre-DOC. These data suggest that clinical trial design should take into account new benchmarks such as the type of treatment strategy, the choice of the comparator and the phase of the disease in relation to the administration of standard chemotherapy.

  11. Comprehensive cluster analysis with Transitivity Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkop, Tobias; Emig, Dorothea; Truss, Anke; Albrecht, Mario; Böcker, Sebastian; Baumbach, Jan

    2011-03-01

    Transitivity Clustering is a method for the partitioning of biological data into groups of similar objects, such as genes, for instance. It provides integrated access to various functions addressing each step of a typical cluster analysis. To facilitate this, Transitivity Clustering is accessible online and offers three user-friendly interfaces: a powerful stand-alone version, a web interface, and a collection of Cytoscape plug-ins. In this paper, we describe three major workflows: (i) protein (super)family detection with Cytoscape, (ii) protein homology detection with incomplete gold standards and (iii) clustering of gene expression data. This protocol guides the user through the most important features of Transitivity Clustering and takes ∼1 h to complete.

  12. 癌症患者症状群发生状况的调查研究与管理对策%Research on symptom clusters in cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄娟; 曹洁; 薛美琴; 郝建玲; 张玲娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and analysis symptom incidence, severity and symptom clusters among Chinese cancer patients. Methods: A total of 973 Chinese cancer patients were investigated by the Chinese version Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS-Ch). Results: Five symptom clusters were identified in cancer patients and can explain 60.12% of the variance. These five symptom clusters were named fatigue-lack of appetite-gastrointestinal symptom cluster, illness behavior symptom cluster, psychic symptom cluster, weight loss-constipation symptom cluster, and treatment-related symptom cluster, respectively. Conclusion: This study identified five different symptom clusters among cancer patients. It helps healthcare professionals develop optimized therapies to manage multiple symptoms.%目的:调查并分析癌症患者症状的发生率、严重程度和症状群.方法:采用中文版记忆症状评估量表(MSAS-Ch)对973名癌症患者进行问卷调查.结果:癌症患者存在5个症状群,共能解释总变异的60.12%,分别为乏力 厌食-胃肠道症状群、病态行为症状群、心理症状群、体重下降 便秘症状群和治疗相关的症状群.结论:癌症患者存在不同的症状群,了解症状群有助于临床医务人员制定出有针对性的干预措施,以减轻患者的症状.

  13. The effectiveness of the quality program Pac-IficO to improve pain management in hospitalized cancer patients: a before-after cluster phase II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Carla Ida; Prandi, Cesarina; Costantini, Massimo; Perfetti, Elisa; Pellegrini, Fabio; Visentin, Marco; Garrino, Lorenza; De Luca, Anna; Pessi, Maria Adelaide; Peruselli, Carlo

    2014-03-29

    Cancer-related pain continues to be a major healthcare issue worldwide. Despite the availability of effective analgesic drugs, published guidelines and educational programs for Health Care Professionals (HCPs) the symptom is still under-diagnosed and its treatment is not appropriate in many patients. The objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of the Pac-IFicO programme in improving the quality of pain management in hospitalised cancer patients. This is a before-after cluster phase II study. After the before assessment, the experimental intervention - the Pac-IFicO programme - will be implemented in ten medicine, oncology and respiratory disease hospital wards. The same assessment will be repeated after the completion of the intervention. The Pac-IFicO programme is a complex intervention with multiple components. It includes focus group with ward professionals for identifying possible local obstacles to optimal pain control, informative material for the patients, an educational program performed through guides from the wards, and an organisational intervention to the ward. The primary end-point of the study is the proportion of cancer patients with severe pain. Secondary end-points include opioids administered in the wards, knowledge in pain management, and quality of pain management. We plan to recruit about 500 cancer patients. This sample size should be sufficient, after appropriate statistical adjustments for clustering, to detect an absolute decrease in the primary end-point from 20% to 9%. This trial is aimed at exploring with an experimental approach the efficacy of a new quality improvement educational intervention. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02035098.

  14. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  15. Genetic association of gastric cancer with miRNA clusters including the cancer-related genes MIR29, MIR25, MIR93 and MIR106: results from the EPIC-EURGAST study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Parrilla, Yolanda; Muñoz, Xavier; Bonet, Catalina; Garcia, Nadia; Venceslá, Adoración; Yiannakouris, Nikos; Naccarati, Alessio; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Huerta, José M; Barricarte, Aurelio; Menéndez, Virginia; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Brennan, Paul; Duarte-Salles, Talita; B As Bueno-de-Mesquita, H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Numans, Mattijs E; Tumino, Rosario; Canzian, Federico; Campa, Daniele; Sund, Malin; Johansson, Mattias; Ohlsson, Bodil; Lindkvist, Björn; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Palli, Domenico; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Boeing, Heiner; Nesi, Gabriella; Riboli, Elio; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Sala, Núria

    2014-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional gene regulators involved in a wide range of biological processes including tumorigenesis. Deregulation of miRNA pathways has been associated with cancer but the contribution of their genetic variability to this disorder is poorly known. We analyzed the genetic association of gastric cancer (GC) and its anatomical and histological subtypes, with 133 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging 15 isolated miRNAs and 24 miRNA clusters potentially involved in cancer, in 365 GC cases and 1,284 matched controls within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Various SNPs were associated with GC under the log-additive model. Furthermore, several of these miRNAs passed the gene-based permutation test when analyzed according to GC subtypes: three tagSNPs of the miR-29a/miR-29b-1 cluster were associated with diffuse subtype (minimum p-value = 1.7 × 10(-4) ; odds ratio, OR = 1.72; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.30-2.28), two tagSNPs of the miR-25/miR-93/miR-106b cluster were associated with cardia GC (minimum p-value = 5.38 × 10(-3) ; OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.37-0.86) and one tagSNP of the miR-363/miR-92a-2/miR-19b-2/miR-20b/miR-18b/miR-106a cluster was associated with noncardia GC (minimum p-value = 5.40 × 10(-3) ; OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.12-1.78). Some functionally validated target genes of these miRNAs are implicated in cancer-related processes such as methylation (DNMT3A, DNMT3B), cell cycle (E2F1, CDKN1A, CDKN1C), apoptosis (BCL2L11, MCL1), angiogenesis (VEGFA) and progression (PIK3R1, MYCN). Furthermore, we identified genetic interactions between variants tagging these miRNAs and variants in their validated target genes. Deregulation of the expression of these miRNAs in GC also supports our findings, altogether suggesting for the fist time that genetic variation in MIR29, MIR25, MIR93 and MIR106b may have a critical role in genetic susceptibility to GC and

  16. Data clustering algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2013-01-01

    Research on the problem of clustering tends to be fragmented across the pattern recognition, database, data mining, and machine learning communities. Addressing this problem in a unified way, Data Clustering: Algorithms and Applications provides complete coverage of the entire area of clustering, from basic methods to more refined and complex data clustering approaches. It pays special attention to recent issues in graphs, social networks, and other domains.The book focuses on three primary aspects of data clustering: Methods, describing key techniques commonly used for clustering, such as fea

  17. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  18. Covariate adjusted weighted normal spatial scan statistics with applications to study geographic clustering of obesity and lung cancer mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lan; Tiwari, Ram C; Pickle, Linda W; Zou, Zhaohui

    2010-10-15

    In the field of cluster detection, a weighted normal model-based scan statistic was recently developed to analyze regional continuous data and to evaluate the clustering pattern of pre-defined cells (such as state, county, tract, school, hospital) that include many individuals. The continuous measures of interest are, for example, the survival rate, mortality rate, length of physical activity, or the obesity measure, namely, body mass index, at the cell level with an uncertainty measure for each cell. In this paper, we extend the method to search for clusters of the cells after adjusting for single/multiple categorical/continuous covariates. We apply the proposed method to 1999-2003 obesity data in the United States (US) collected by CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System with adjustment for age and race, and to 1999-2003 lung cancer age-adjusted mortality data by gender in the United States from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER Program) with adjustment for smoking and income.

  19. A joint model for the dependence between clustered times to tumour progression and deaths: A meta-analysis of chemotherapy in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau, Virginie; Pignon, Jean-Pierre; Michiels, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    The observation of time to tumour progression (TTP) or progression-free survival (PFS) may be terminated by a terminal event. In this context, deaths may be due to tumour progression, and the time to the major failure event (death) may be correlated with the TTP. The usual assumption of independence between the TTP process and death, required by many commonly used statistical methods, can be violated. Furthermore, although the relationship between TTP and time to death is most relevant to the anti-cancer drug development or to evaluation of TTP as a surrogate endpoint, statistical models that try to describe the dependence structure between these two characteristics are not frequently used. We propose a joint frailty model for the analysis of two survival endpoints, TTP and time to death, or PFS and time to death, in the context of data clustering (e.g. at the centre or trial level). This approach allows us to simultaneously evaluate the prognostic effects of covariates on the two survival endpoints, while accounting both for the relationship between the outcomes and for data clustering. We show how a maximum penalized likelihood estimation can be applied to a nonparametric estimation of the continuous hazard functions in a general joint frailty model with right censoring and delayed entry. The model was motivated by a large meta-analysis of randomized trials for head and neck cancers (Meta-Analysis of Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancers), in which the efficacy of chemotherapy on TTP or PFS and overall survival was investigated, as adjunct to surgery or radiotherapy or both.

  20. Cluster headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histamine headache; Headache - histamine; Migrainous neuralgia; Headache - cluster; Horton's headache; Vascular headache - cluster ... A cluster headache begins as a severe, sudden headache. The headache commonly strikes 2 to 3 hours after you fall ...

  1. Cluster Forests

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Donghui; Jordan, Michael I

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by Random Forests (RF) in the context of classification, we propose a new clustering ensemble method---Cluster Forests (CF). Geometrically, CF randomly probes a high-dimensional data cloud to obtain "good local clusterings" and then aggregates via spectral clustering to obtain cluster assignments for the whole dataset. The search for good local clusterings is guided by a cluster quality measure $\\kappa$. CF progressively improves each local clustering in a fashion that resembles the tree growth in RF. Empirical studies on several real-world datasets under two different performance metrics show that CF compares favorably to its competitors. Theoretical analysis shows that the $\\kappa$ criterion is shown to grow each local clustering in a desirable way---it is "noise-resistant." A closed-form expression is obtained for the mis-clustering rate of spectral clustering under a perturbation model, which yields new insights into some aspects of spectral clustering.

  2. Disruption of human papillomavirus 16 E6 gene by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas system in human cervical cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu L

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lan Yu, Xiaoli Wang, Da Zhu, Wencheng Ding, Liming Wang, Changlin Zhang, Xiaohui Jiang, Hui Shen, Shujie Liao, Ding Ma, Zheng Hu, Hui Wang Cancer Biology Research Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China Abstract: High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV, especially HPV16, is considered a main causative agent of cervical cancer. Upon HPV infection, the viral oncoprotein E6 disrupts the host tumor-suppressor protein p53, thus promoting malignant transformation of normal cervical cells. Here, we used the newly developed programmable ribonucleic acid-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas system to disrupt the HPV16 E6 gene. We showed that HPV16 E6 deoxyribonucleic acid was cleaved at specific sites, leading to apoptosis and growth inhibition of HPV16-positive SiHa and CaSki cells, but not HPV-negative C33A or human embryonic kidney 293 cells. We also observed downregulation of the E6 protein and restoration of the p53 protein. These data proved that the HPV16 E6 ribonucleic acid-guided CRISPR/Cas system might be an effective therapeutic agent in treating HPV infection-related cervical malignancy. Keywords: CRISPR/Cas system, E6, p53, SiHa, CaSki, cervical cancer

  3. Breast Cancer Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Table of Contents National Cancer Institute ... Addressing Breast Cancer's Unequal Burden / Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Issue: Volume 11 Number 4 Page ...

  4. Classification of cancer cell lines using an automated two-dimensional liquid mapping method with hierarchical clustering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfei; Wu, Rong; Cho, Kathleen R; Shedden, Kerby A; Barder, Timothy J; Lubman, David M

    2006-01-01

    A two-dimensional liquid mapping method was used to map the protein expression of eight ovarian serous carcinoma cell lines and three immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cell lines. Maps were produced using pI as the separation parameter in the first dimension and hydrophobicity based upon reversed-phase HPLC separation in the second dimension. The method can be reproducibly used to produce protein expression maps over a pH range from 4.0 to 8.5. A dynamic programming method was used to correct for minor shifts in peaks during the HPLC gradient between sample runs. The resulting corrected maps can then be compared using hierarchical clustering to produce dendrograms indicating the relationship between different cell lines. It was found that several of the ovarian surface epithelial cell lines clustered together, whereas specific groups of serous carcinoma cell lines clustered with each other. Although there is limited information on the current biology of these cell lines, it was shown that the protein expression of certain cell lines is closely related to each other. Other cell lines, including one ovarian clear cell carcinoma cell line, two endometrioid carcinoma cell lines, and three breast epithelial cell lines, were also mapped for comparison to show that their protein profiles cluster differently than the serous samples and to study how they cluster relative to each other. In addition, comparisons can be made between proteins differentially expressed between cell lines that may serve as markers of ovarian serous carcinomas. The automation of the method allows reproducible comparison of many samples, and the use of differential analysis limits the number of proteins that might require further analysis by mass spectrometry techniques.

  5. ER stress negatively modulates the expression of the miR-199a/214 cluster to regulates tumor survival and progression in human hepatocellular cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanlu Duan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have emphasized causative links between microRNAs (miRNAs deregulation and tumor development. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, more and more miRNAs were identified as diagnostic and prognostic cancer biomarkers, as well as additional therapeutic tools. This study aimed to investigate the functional significance and regulatory mechanism of the miR-199a2/214 cluster in HCC progression. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study, we showed that miR-214, as well as miR-199a-3p and miR-199a-5p levels were significantly reduced in the majority of examined 23 HCC tissues and HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cell lines, compared with their nontumor counterparts. To further explore the role of miR-214 in hepatocarcinogenesis, we disclosed that the ER stress-induced pro-survival factor XBP-1 is a target of miR-214 by using western blot assay and luciferase reporter assay. Re-expression of miR-214 in HCC cell lines (HepG2 and SMMC-7721 inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, ectopic expression of miR-214 dramatically suppressed the ability of HCC cells to form colonies in vitro and to develop tumors in a subcutaneous xenotransplantation model of the BALB/c athymic nude mice. Moreover, reintroduction of XBP-1s attenuated miR-214-mediated suppression of HCC cells proliferation, colony and tumor formation. To further understand the mechanism of the miR-199a/214 cluster down-expression in HCC, we found that thapsigargin (TG and tunicamycin (TM or hypoxia-induced unfolded protein response (UPR suppresses the expression of the miR-199a/214 cluster in HCC cells. By promoter analysis of the miR-199a2/214 gene, we conjectured NFκB as a potential negative regulator. We further found that UPR and LPS-induced NFκB activation suppressed miR-199a2/214 transcription, and this suppression was reversed by NFκB inhibition in HCC cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggest that modulation of miR-214 levels may provide a new therapeutic approach for

  6. Efficacy of a referral and physical activity program for survivors of prostate cancer [ENGAGE]: Rationale and design for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botti Mari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite evidence that physical activity improves the health and well-being of prostate cancer survivors, many men do not engage in sufficient levels of activity. The primary aim of this study (ENGAGE is to determine the efficacy of a referral and physical activity program among survivors of prostate cancer, in terms of increasing participation in physical activity. Secondary aims are to determine the effects of the physical activity program on psychological well-being, quality of life and objective physical functioning. The influence of individual and environmental mediators on participation in physical activity will also be determined. Methods/Design This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial. Clinicians of prostate cancer survivors will be randomised into either the intervention or control condition. Clinicians in the intervention condition will refer eligible patients (n = 110 to participate in an exercise program, comprising 12 weeks of supervised exercise sessions and unsupervised physical activity. Clinicians allocated to the control condition will provide usual care to eligible patients (n = 110, which does not involve the recommendation of the physical activity program. Participants will be assessed at baseline, 12 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months on physical activity, quality of life, anxiety, depression, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, goals, and socio-structural factors. Discussion The findings of this study have implications for clinicians and patients with different cancer types or other chronic health conditions. It will contribute to our understanding on the potential impact of clinicians promoting physical activity to patients and the long term health benefits of participating in physical activity programs. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12610000609055 Deakin University Human Research Ethics Approval 2011-085

  7. Clustering Techniques in Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Masood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with data means to group information into a set of categories either in order to learn new artifacts or understand new domains. For this purpose researchers have always looked for the hidden patterns in data that can be defined and compared with other known notions based on the similarity or dissimilarity of their attributes according to well-defined rules. Data mining, having the tools of data classification and data clustering, is one of the most powerful techniques to deal with data in such a manner that it can help researchers identify the required information. As a step forward to address this challenge, experts have utilized clustering techniques as a mean of exploring hidden structure and patterns in underlying data. Improved stability, robustness and accuracy of unsupervised data classification in many fields including pattern recognition, machine learning, information retrieval, image analysis and bioinformatics, clustering has proven itself as a reliable tool. To identify the clusters in datasets algorithm are utilized to partition data set into several groups based on the similarity within a group. There is no specific clustering algorithm, but various algorithms are utilized based on domain of data that constitutes a cluster and the level of efficiency required. Clustering techniques are categorized based upon different approaches. This paper is a survey of few clustering techniques out of many in data mining. For the purpose five of the most common clustering techniques out of many have been discussed. The clustering techniques which have been surveyed are: K-medoids, K-means, Fuzzy C-means, Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN and Self-Organizing Map (SOM clustering.

  8. Addressing mathematics & statistics anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Kotecha, Meena

    2015-01-01

    This paper should be of interest to mathematics and statistics educators ranging from pre-university to university education sectors. It will discuss some features of the author’s teaching model developed over her longitudinal study conducted to understand and address mathematics and statistics anxiety, which is one of the main barriers to engaging with these subjects especially in non-specialist undergraduates. It will demonstrate how a range of formative assessments are used to kindle, as w...

  9. Autocrine/Paracrine Human Growth Hormone-stimulated MicroRNA 96-182-183 Cluster Promotes Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Invasion in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weijie; Qian, Pengxu; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Min; Wang, Hong; Wu, Mingming; Kong, Xiangjun; Tan, Sheng; Ding, Keshuo; Perry, Jo K; Wu, Zhengsheng; Cao, Yuan; Lobie, Peter E; Zhu, Tao

    2015-05-29

    Human growth hormone (hGH) plays critical roles in pubertal mammary gland growth, development, and sexual maturation. Accumulated studies have reported that autocrine/paracrine hGH is an orthotopically expressed oncoprotein that promotes normal mammary epithelial cell oncogenic transformation. Autocrine/paracrine hGH has also been reported to promote mammary epithelial cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely obscure. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are reported to be involved in regulation of multiple cellular functions of cancer. To determine whether autocrine/paracrine hGH promotes EMT and invasion through modulation of miRNA expression, we performed microarray profiling using MCF-7 cells stably expressing wild type or a translation-deficient hGH gene and identified miR-96-182-183 as an autocrine/paracrine hGH-regulated miRNA cluster. Forced expression of miR-96-182-183 conferred on epithelioid MCF-7 cells a mesenchymal phenotype and promoted invasive behavior in vitro and dissemination in vivo. Moreover, we observed that miR-96-182-183 promoted EMT and invasion by directly and simultaneously suppressing BRMS1L (breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1-like) gene expression. miR-96 and miR-182 also targeted GHR, providing a potential negative feedback loop in the hGH-GHR signaling pathway. We further demonstrated that autocrine/paracrine hGH stimulated miR-96-182-183 expression and facilitated EMT and invasion via STAT3 and STAT5 signaling. Consistent with elevated expression of autocrine/paracrine hGH in metastatic breast cancer tissue, miR-96-182-183 expression was also remarkably enhanced. Hence, we delineate the roles of the miRNA-96-182-183 cluster and elucidate a novel hGH-GHR-STAT3/STAT5-miR-96-182-183-BRMS1L-ZEB1/E47-EMT/invasion axis, which provides further understanding of the mechanism of autocrine/paracrine hGH-stimulated EMT and invasion in breast cancer.

  10. Anti-human CD73 monoclonal antibody inhibits metastasis formation in human breast cancer by inducing clustering and internalization of CD73 expressed on the surface of cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terp, Mikkel G; Olesen, Kristina A; Christensen, Eva Arnspang

    2013-01-01

    -linking of CD73, because both whole IgG anti-CD73 AD2 mAb and Fab' fragments thereof exhibited this effect. Ex vivo treatment of different breast cancer cell lines with anti-CD73 AD2 mAb before i.v. injection into mice inhibited extravasation/colonization of circulating tumor cells and significantly reduced...... internalization and metastasis inhibition. Furthermore, anti-CD73 AD2 mAb inhibited development of metastasis in a spontaneous animal model of human metastatic breast cancer. Our study shows that some anti-CD73 mAbs cause cell-surface clustering of CD73 followed by internalization, thus inhibiting the ability...... another anticancer mechanism of anti-CD73 Abs and show that an anti-CD73 mAb (AD2) inhibits metastasis formation by a mechanism independent of CD73 catalytic activity and inhibition of primary tumor growth. This mechanism involves clustering and internalization of CD73, but does not require cross...

  11. End of Life Experience of Symptom Cluster and Their Management in Hong Kong Chinese Patients with Lung Cancer Who Receive Palliative Radiotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carmen W.H.CHAN; S.Y.CHAIR; YX.CHUI

    2009-01-01

    Breathlessness,fatigue,and anxiety are distressing symptoms for patients with advanced lung cancer,however,they are not relieved by palliative RT and are often viewed as neglected areas of clinical practice.This paper aims to review definitions of,and explore patients' experiences of,breathlessness,fatigue,and anxiety.Further,it will outline existing approaches,both pharmacological and non-pharmacological,to treat them.Current treatments and perceptions of these symptoms will be discussed in the context of Hong Kong health care service.The review of literature also shows that breathlessness,fatigue and anxiety appears to have similar emotional origins.A contemporary approach of using a common pyschoeducational intervention to treat these symptoms together as a cluster in end of life care will be discussed.

  12. Design and methods for a cluster randomized trial of the Sunless Study: A skin cancer prevention intervention promoting sunless tanning among beach visitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merriam Philip

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin cancer is the most prevalent yet most preventable cancer in the US. While protecting oneself from ultraviolet radiation (UVR can largely reduce risk, rates of unprotected sun exposure remain high. Because the desire to be tan often outweighs health concerns among sunbathers, very few interventions have been successful at reducing sunbathing behavior. Sunless tanning (self-tanners and spray tans, a method of achieving the suntanned look without UVR exposure, might be an effective supplement to prevention interventions. Methods and Design This cluster randomized trial will examine whether a beach-based intervention that promotes sunless tanning as a substitute for sunbathing and includes sun damage imaging and sun safety recommendations is superior to a questionnaire only control group in reducing sunbathing frequency. Female beach visitors (N = 250 will be recruited from 2 public beaches in eastern Massachusetts. Beach site will be the unit of randomization. Follow-up assessment will occur at the end of the summer (1-month following intervention and 1 year later. The primary outcome is average sunbathing time per week. The study was designed to provide 90% power for detecting a difference of .70 hours between conditions (standard deviation of 2.0 at 1-year with an intra-cluster correlation coefficient of 0.01 and assuming a 25% rate of loss to follow-up. Secondary outcomes include frequency of sunburns, use of sunless tanning products, and sun protection behavior. Discussion Interventions might be improved by promoting behavioral substitutes for sun exposure, such as sunless tanners, that create a tanned look without exposure to UVR. Trial registration NCT00403377

  13. The effectiveness of the Screening Inventory of Psychosocial Problems (SIPP in cancer patients treated with radiotherapy: design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eekers Daniëlle

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Screening Inventory of Psychosocial Problems (SIPP is a short, validated self-reported questionnaire to identify psychosocial problems in Dutch cancer patients. The one-page 24-item questionnaire assesses physical complaints, psychological complaints and social and sexual problems. Very little is known about the effects of using the SIPP in consultation settings. Our study aims are to test the hypotheses that using the SIPP (a may contribute to adequate referral to relevant psychosocial caregivers, (b should facilitate communication between radiotherapists and cancer patients about psychosocial distress and (c may prevent underdiagnosis of early symptoms reflecting psychosocial problems. This paper presents the design of a cluster randomised controlled trial (CRCT evaluating the effectiveness of using the SIPP in cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Methods/Design A CRCT is developed using a Solomon four-group design (two intervention and two control groups to evaluate the effects of using the SIPP. Radiotherapists, instead of cancer patients, are randomly allocated to the experimental or control groups. Within these groups, all included cancer patients are randomised into two subgroups: with and without pre-measurement. Self-reported assessments are conducted at four times: a pre-test at baseline before the first consultation and a post-test directly following the first consultation, and three and 12 months after baseline measurement. The primary outcome measures are the number and types of referrals of cancer patients with psychosocial problems to relevant (psychosocial caregivers. The secondary outcome measures are patients' satisfaction with the radiotherapist-patient communication, psychosocial distress and quality of life. Furthermore, a process evaluation will be carried out. Data of the effect-evaluation will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle and data regarding the types of referrals

  14. The spatial evaluation of neighborhood clusters of birth defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, J.D.

    1990-04-16

    Spatial statistics have recently been applied in epidemiology to evaluate clusters of cancer and birth defects. Their use requires a comparison population, drawn from the population at risk for disease, that may not always be readily available. In this dissertation the plausibility of using data on all birth defects, available from birth defects registries, as a surrogate for the spatial distribution of all live births in the analysis of clusters is assessed. Three spatial statistics that have been applied in epidemiologic investigations of clusters, nearest neighbor distance, average interpoint distance, and average distance to a fixed point, were evaluated by computer simulation for their properties in a unit square, and in a zip code region. Comparison of spatial distributions of live births and birth defects was performed by drawing samples of live births and birth defects from Santa Clara County, determining the street address at birth, geocoding this address and evaluating the resultant maps using various statistical techniques. The proposed method was then demonstrated on a previously confirmed cluster of oral cleft cases. All live births for the neighborhood were geocoded, as were all birth defects. Evaluation of this cluster using the nearest neighbor and average interpoint distance statistics was performed using randomization techniques with both the live births population and the birth defect population as comparison groups. 113 refs., 36 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both...... the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  16. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  17. Identification of miRNA-mRNA Modules in Colorectal Cancer Using Rough Hypercuboid Based Supervised Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sushmita; Lakatos, Petra; Hartmann, Arndt; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Vera, Julio

    2017-02-21

    Differences in the expression profiles of miRNAs and mRNAs have been reported in colorectal cancer. Nevertheless, information on important miRNA-mRNA regulatory modules in colorectal cancer is still lacking. In this regard, this study presents an application of the RH-SAC algorithm on miRNA and mRNA expression data for identification of potential miRNA-mRNA modules. First, a set of miRNA rules was generated using the RH-SAC algorithm. The mRNA targets of the selected miRNAs were identified using the miRTarBase database. Next, the expression values of target mRNAs were used to generate mRNA rules using the RH-SAC. Then all miRNA-mRNA rules have been integrated for generating networks. The RH-SAC algorithm unlike other existing methods selects a group of co-expressed miRNAs and mRNAs that are also differentially expressed. In total 17 miRNAs and 141 mRNAs were selected. The enrichment analysis of selected mRNAs revealed that our method selected mRNAs that are significantly associated with colorectal cancer. We identified novel miRNA/mRNA interactions in colorectal cancer. Through experiment, we could confirm that one of our discovered miRNAs, hsa-miR-93-5p, was significantly up-regulated in 75.8% CRC in comparison to their corresponding non-tumor samples. It could have the potential to examine colorectal cancer subtype specific unique miRNA/mRNA interactions.

  18. Identification of miRNA-mRNA Modules in Colorectal Cancer Using Rough Hypercuboid Based Supervised Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sushmita; Lakatos, Petra; Hartmann, Arndt; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Vera, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Differences in the expression profiles of miRNAs and mRNAs have been reported in colorectal cancer. Nevertheless, information on important miRNA-mRNA regulatory modules in colorectal cancer is still lacking. In this regard, this study presents an application of the RH-SAC algorithm on miRNA and mRNA expression data for identification of potential miRNA-mRNA modules. First, a set of miRNA rules was generated using the RH-SAC algorithm. The mRNA targets of the selected miRNAs were identified using the miRTarBase database. Next, the expression values of target mRNAs were used to generate mRNA rules using the RH-SAC. Then all miRNA-mRNA rules have been integrated for generating networks. The RH-SAC algorithm unlike other existing methods selects a group of co-expressed miRNAs and mRNAs that are also differentially expressed. In total 17 miRNAs and 141 mRNAs were selected. The enrichment analysis of selected mRNAs revealed that our method selected mRNAs that are significantly associated with colorectal cancer. We identified novel miRNA/mRNA interactions in colorectal cancer. Through experiment, we could confirm that one of our discovered miRNAs, hsa-miR-93-5p, was significantly up-regulated in 75.8% CRC in comparison to their corresponding non-tumor samples. It could have the potential to examine colorectal cancer subtype specific unique miRNA/mRNA interactions. PMID:28220871

  19. Robustness and backbone motif of a cancer network regulated by miR-17-92 cluster during the G1/S transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijian Yang

    Full Text Available Based on interactions among transcription factors, oncogenes, tumor suppressors and microRNAs, a Boolean model of cancer network regulated by miR-17-92 cluster is constructed, and the network is associated with the control of G1/S transition in the mammalian cell cycle. The robustness properties of this regulatory network are investigated by virtue of the Boolean network theory. It is found that, during G1/S transition in the cell cycle process, the regulatory networks are robustly constructed, and the robustness property is largely preserved with respect to small perturbations to the network. By using the unique process-based approach, the structure of this network is analyzed. It is shown that the network can be decomposed into a backbone motif which provides the main biological functions, and a remaining motif which makes the regulatory system more stable. The critical role of miR-17-92 in suppressing the G1/S cell cycle checkpoint and increasing the uncontrolled proliferation of the cancer cells by targeting a genetic network of interacting proteins is displayed with our model.

  20. Transcatheter intra-arterial infusion of doxorubicin loaded porous magnetic nano-clusters with iodinated oil for the treatment of liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Min Jeong; Gordon, Andrew C; Larson, Andrew C; Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    A promising strategy for liver cancer treatment is to deliver chemotherapeutic agents with multifunctional carriers into the tumor tissue via intra-arterial (IA) transcatheter infusion. These carriers should release drugs within the target tissue for prolonged periods and permit intra-procedural multi-modal imaging of selective tumor delivery. This targeted transcatheter delivery approach is enabled via the arterial blood supply to liver tumors and utilized in current clinical practice which is called chemoembolization or radioembolization. During our study, we developed Doxorubicin (Dox) loaded porous magnetic nano-clusters (Dox-pMNCs). The porous structure and carboxylic groups on the MNCs achieved high-drug loading efficiency and sustained drug release, along with magnetic properties resulting in high MRI T2-weighted image contrast. Dox-pMNC within iodinated oil, Dox-pMNCs, and Dox within iodinated oil were infused via hepatic arteries to target liver tumors in a rabbit model. MRI and histological evaluations revealed that the long-term drug release and retention of Dox-pMNCs within iodinated oil induced significantly enhanced liver cancer cell death.

  1. MRI screening for breast cancer in women at high risk; is the Australian breast MRI screening access program addressing the needs of women at high risk of breast cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenberg, Tess [Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Familial Cancer Centre, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Mitchell, Gillian [Familial Cancer Centre, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Taylor, Donna [School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Department of Radiology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); BreastScreen Western Australia, Adelaide Terrace, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Saunders, Christobel [School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Department of General Surgery, St John of God Hospital, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening of women under 50 years old at high familial risk of breast cancer was given interim funding by Medicare in 2009 on the basis that a review would be undertaken. An updated literature review has been undertaken by the Medical Services Advisory Committee but there has been no assessment of the quality of the screening or other screening outcomes. This review examines the evidence basis of breast MRI screening and how this fits within an Australian context with the purpose of informing future modifications to the provision of Medicare-funded breast MRI screening in Australia. Issues discussed will include selection of high-risk women, the options for MRI screening frequency and measuring the outcomes of screening.

  2. Patient navigation and time to diagnostic resolution: results for a cluster randomized trial evaluating the efficacy of patient navigation among patients with breast cancer screening abnormalities, Tampa, FL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hyun Lee

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate a patient navigation (PN program that attempts to reduce the time between a breast cancer screening abnormality and definitive diagnosis among medically underserved populations of Tampa Bay, Florida.The Moffitt Patient Navigation Research Program conducted a cluster randomized design with 10 primary care clinics. Patients were navigated from time of a breast screening abnormality to diagnostic resolution. This paper examined the length of time between breast abnormality and definitive diagnosis, using a shared frailty Cox proportional hazard model to assess PN program effect.1,039 patients were eligible for the study because of an abnormal breast cancer screening/clinical abnormality (494 navigated; 545 control. Analysis of PN effect by two time periods of resolution (0-3 months and > 3 months showed a lagged effect of PN. For patients resolving in the first three months, the adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR was 0.85 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.64-1.13 suggesting that PN had no effect on resolution time during this period. Beyond three months, however, navigated patients resolved more quickly to diagnostic resolution compared with the control group (aHR 2.8, 95%CI: 1.30-6.13. The predicted aHR at 3 months was 1.2, which was not statistically significant, while PN had a significant positive effect beyond 4.7 months.PN programs may increase the timeliness of diagnostic resolution for patients with a breast cancer-related abnormality. PN did not speed diagnostic resolution during the initial three months of follow up but started to reduce time to diagnostic resolution after three months and showed a significant effect after 4.7 months.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00375024.

  3. The effectiveness of the Liverpool care pathway in improving end of life care for dying cancer patients in hospital. A cluster randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellegrini Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cancer patients still die in hospital, mainly in medical wards. Many studies in different countries have shown the poor quality of end-of-life care delivery in hospitals. The Program "Liverpool Care Pathway for the dying patient" (LCP, developed in the UK to transfer the hospice model of care into hospitals and other care settings, is a complex intervention to improve the quality of end-of-life care. The results from qualitative and quantitative studies suggest that the LCP Program can improve significantly the quality of end-of-life care delivery in hospitals, but no randomised trial has been conducted till now. Methods and design This is a randomized cluster trial, stratified by regions and matched for assessment period. Pairs of eligible medical wards from different hospitals will be randomized to receive the LCP-I Program or no intervention until the end of the trial. The LCP-I Program will be implemented by a Palliative Care Unit. The assessment of the end-points will be performed for all cancer deaths occurred in the six months after the end of the LCP-I implementation in the experimental wards and, in the same period of time, in the matched control wards. The primary end-point is the overall quality of end-of-life care provided on the ward to dying cancer patients and their families, assessed using the Global Scale of the Italian version of the Toolkit "After-death Bereaved Family Member Interview". Discussion This study can be interpreted as a Phase III trial according to the Medical Research Council Framework. In this study, the effectiveness of a fully defined intervention is assessed by comparing the distribution of the endpoints in the experimental and in the control arm. Research ID RFPS-2006-6-341619 Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01081899

  4. Case-control geographic clustering for residential histories accounting for risk factors and covariates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goovaerts Pierre

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methods for analyzing space-time variation in risk in case-control studies typically ignore residential mobility. We develop an approach for analyzing case-control data for mobile individuals and apply it to study bladder cancer in 11 counties in southeastern Michigan. At this time data collection is incomplete and no inferences should be drawn – we analyze these data to demonstrate the novel methods. Global, local and focused clustering of residential histories for 219 cases and 437 controls is quantified using time-dependent nearest neighbor relationships. Business address histories for 268 industries that release known or suspected bladder cancer carcinogens are analyzed. A logistic model accounting for smoking, gender, age, race and education specifies the probability of being a case, and is incorporated into the cluster randomization procedures. Sensitivity of clustering to definition of the proximity metric is assessed for 1 to 75 k nearest neighbors. Results Global clustering is partly explained by the covariates but remains statistically significant at 12 of the 14 levels of k considered. After accounting for the covariates 26 Local clusters are found in Lapeer, Ingham, Oakland and Jackson counties, with the clusters in Ingham and Oakland counties appearing in 1950 and persisting to the present. Statistically significant focused clusters are found about the business address histories of 22 industries located in Oakland (19 clusters, Ingham (2 and Jackson (1 counties. Clusters in central and southeastern Oakland County appear in the 1930's and persist to the present day. Conclusion These methods provide a systematic approach for evaluating a series of increasingly realistic alternative hypotheses regarding the sources of excess risk. So long as selection of cases and controls is population-based and not geographically biased, these tools can provide insights into geographic risk factors that were not specifically

  5. The implementation of hybrid clustering using fuzzy c-means and divisive algorithm for analyzing DNA human Papillomavirus cause of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andryani, Diyah Septi; Bustamam, Alhadi; Lestari, Dian

    2017-03-01

    Clustering aims to classify the different patterns into groups called clusters. In this clustering method, we use n-mers frequency to calculate the distance matrix which is considered more accurate than using the DNA alignment. The clustering results could be used to discover biologically important sub-sections and groups of genes. Many clustering methods have been developed, while hard clustering methods considered less accurate than fuzzy clustering methods, especially if it is used for outliers data. Among fuzzy clustering methods, fuzzy c-means is one the best known for its accuracy and simplicity. Fuzzy c-means clustering uses membership function variable, which refers to how likely the data could be members into a cluster. Fuzzy c-means clustering works using the principle of minimizing the objective function. Parameters of membership function in fuzzy are used as a weighting factor which is also called the fuzzier. In this study we implement hybrid clustering using fuzzy c-means and divisive algorithm which could improve the accuracy of cluster membership compare to traditional partitional approach only. In this study fuzzy c-means is used in the first step to find partition results. Furthermore divisive algorithms will run on the second step to find sub-clusters and dendogram of phylogenetic tree. To find the best number of clusters is determined using the minimum value of Davies Bouldin Index (DBI) of the cluster results. In this research, the results show that the methods introduced in this paper is better than other partitioning methods. Finally, we found 3 clusters with DBI value of 1.126628 at first step of clustering. Moreover, DBI values after implementing the second step of clustering are always producing smaller IDB values compare to the results of using first step clustering only. This condition indicates that the hybrid approach in this study produce better performance of the cluster results, in term its DBI values.

  6. Meaningful Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Crow, Vernon L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2004-05-26

    We present an approach to the disambiguation of cluster labels that capitalizes on the notion of semantic similarity to assign WordNet senses to cluster labels. The approach provides interesting insights on how document clustering can provide the basis for developing a novel approach to word sense disambiguation.

  7. Software-Defined Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂华; 杨晓君; 刘淘英

    2015-01-01

    The cluster architecture has played an important role in high-end computing for the past 20 years. With the advent of Internet services, big data, and cloud computing, traditional clusters face three challenges: 1) providing flexible system balance among computing, memory, and I/O capabilities;2) reducing resource pooling overheads;and 3) addressing low performance-power efficiency. This position paper proposes a software-defined cluster (SDC) architecture to deal with these challenges. The SDC architecture inherits two features of traditional cluster: its architecture is multicomputer and it has loosely-coupled interconnect. SDC provides two new mechanisms: global I/O space (GIO) and hardware-supported native access (HNA) to remote devices. Application software can define a virtual cluster best suited to its needs from resources pools provided by a physical cluster, and traditional cluster ecosystems need no modification. We also discuss a prototype design and implementation of a 32-processor cloud server utilizing the SDC architecture.

  8. Clusters galore: insights about environmental clusters from probability theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutra, R; Swan, S; Mack, T

    1992-12-15

    The posterior probability of a causal explanation given that an environmental cancer cluster is statistically significant depends on the prior probability of an environmentally caused cluster, the sensitivity of the statistical test and its specificity. The prior probability is low, because it is rare to have enough carcinogen in the general environment to cause a relative risk of cancer high enough to achieve statistical significance in a small geographic area. The sensitivity and specificity are not great. The likelihood that a census tract escapes statistically significant elevations in all 80 types of cancer can be calculated. Many of the thousands of census tracts will, by chance alone, have at least one type of cancer whose elevation is statistically significant. Actual observation from a large cancer registry confirms this probabilistic prediction. Applying the principles of Bayes' Theorem would suggest that most statistically significant environmental cancer clusters are not due to environmental carcinogens. One would have to investigate hundreds of environmental cancer clusters to find one with a true environmental cause.

  9. Addressing psychiatric comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, G E; McLellan, A T; O'Brien, C P; Luborsky, L

    1991-01-01

    Research studies indicate that addressing psychiatric comorbidity can improve treatment for selected groups of substance-abusing patients. However, the chances for implementing the necessary techniques on a large scale are compromised by the absence of professional input and guidance within programs. This is especially true in public programs, which treat some of the most disadvantaged, disturbed, and socially destructive individuals in the entire mental health system. One starting point for upgrading the level of knowledge and training of staff members who work in this large treatment system could be to develop a better and more authoritative information dissemination network. Such a system exists in medicine; physicians are expected to read appropriate journals and to guide their treatment decisions using the data contained in the journals. Standards of practice and methods for modifying current practice are within the tradition of reading new facts, studying old ones, and comparing treatment outcome under different conditions with what is actually being done. No such general system of information-gathering or -sharing exists, particularly in public treatment programs. One of the most flagrant examples of this "educational shortfall" can be found among those methadone programs that adamantly insist on prescribing no more than 30 to 35 mg/day for all patients, in spite of the overwhelming evidence that these dose levels generally are inadequate. In some cases, program directors are unaware of studies that have shown the relationship between dose and outcome. In other cases, they are aware of the studies but do not modify their practices accordingly. This example of inadequate dosing is offered as an example of one situation that could be improved by adherence to a system of authoritative and systematic information dissemination. Many issues in substance abuse treatment do not lend themselves to information dissemination as readily as that of methadone dosing

  10. Address Points, Addressing, Published in 2008, Taylor County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as 'Addressing'. Data by this publisher are often...

  11. Reducing the Social Gradient in Uptake of the NHS Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme Using a Narrative-Based Information Leaflet: A Cluster-Randomised Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley M. McGregor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To test the effectiveness of adding a narrative leaflet to the current information material delivered by the NHS English colorectal cancer (CRC screening programme on reducing socioeconomic inequalities in uptake. Participants. 150,417 adults (59–74 years routinely invited to complete the guaiac Faecal Occult Blood test (gFOBt in March 2013. Design. A cluster randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN74121020 to compare uptake between two arms. The control arm received the standard NHS CRC screening information material (SI and the intervention arm received the standard information plus a supplementary narrative leaflet, which had previously been shown to increase screening intentions (SI + N. Between group comparisons were made for uptake overall and across socioeconomic status (SES. Results. Uptake was 57.7% and did not differ significantly between the two trial arms (SI: 58.5%; SI + N: 56.7%; odds ratio = 0.93; 95% confidence interval: 0.81–1.06; p=0.27. There was no interaction between group and SES quintile (p=0.44. Conclusions. Adding a narrative leaflet to existing information materials does not reduce the SES gradient in uptake. Despite the benefits of using a pragmatic trial design, the need to add to, rather than replace, existing information may have limited the true value of an evidence-based intervention on behaviour.

  12. Reducing the Social Gradient in Uptake of the NHS Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme Using a Narrative-Based Information Leaflet: A Cluster-Randomised Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Lesley M; von Wagner, Christian; Atkin, Wendy; Kralj-Hans, Ines; Halloran, Stephen P; Handley, Graham; Logan, Richard F; Rainbow, Sandra; Smith, Steve; Snowball, Julia; Thomas, Mary C; Smith, Samuel G; Vart, Gemma; Howe, Rosemary; Counsell, Nicholas; Hackshaw, Allan; Morris, Stephen; Duffy, Stephen W; Raine, Rosalind; Wardle, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To test the effectiveness of adding a narrative leaflet to the current information material delivered by the NHS English colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programme on reducing socioeconomic inequalities in uptake. Participants. 150,417 adults (59-74 years) routinely invited to complete the guaiac Faecal Occult Blood test (gFOBt) in March 2013. Design. A cluster randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN74121020) to compare uptake between two arms. The control arm received the standard NHS CRC screening information material (SI) and the intervention arm received the standard information plus a supplementary narrative leaflet, which had previously been shown to increase screening intentions (SI + N). Between group comparisons were made for uptake overall and across socioeconomic status (SES). Results. Uptake was 57.7% and did not differ significantly between the two trial arms (SI: 58.5%; SI + N: 56.7%; odds ratio = 0.93; 95% confidence interval: 0.81-1.06; p = 0.27). There was no interaction between group and SES quintile (p = 0.44). Conclusions. Adding a narrative leaflet to existing information materials does not reduce the SES gradient in uptake. Despite the benefits of using a pragmatic trial design, the need to add to, rather than replace, existing information may have limited the true value of an evidence-based intervention on behaviour.

  13. Data Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2012-03-01

    On obtaining a new data set, the researcher is immediately faced with the challenge of obtaining a high-level understanding from the observations. What does a typical item look like? What are the dominant trends? How many distinct groups are included in the data set, and how is each one characterized? Which observable values are common, and which rarely occur? Which items stand out as anomalies or outliers from the rest of the data? This challenge is exacerbated by the steady growth in data set size [11] as new instruments push into new frontiers of parameter space, via improvements in temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution, or by the desire to "fuse" observations from different modalities and instruments into a larger-picture understanding of the same underlying phenomenon. Data clustering algorithms provide a variety of solutions for this task. They can generate summaries, locate outliers, compress data, identify dense or sparse regions of feature space, and build data models. It is useful to note up front that "clusters" in this context refer to groups of items within some descriptive feature space, not (necessarily) to "galaxy clusters" which are dense regions in physical space. The goal of this chapter is to survey a variety of data clustering methods, with an eye toward their applicability to astronomical data analysis. In addition to improving the individual researcher’s understanding of a given data set, clustering has led directly to scientific advances, such as the discovery of new subclasses of stars [14] and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) [38]. All clustering algorithms seek to identify groups within a data set that reflect some observed, quantifiable structure. Clustering is traditionally an unsupervised approach to data analysis, in the sense that it operates without any direct guidance about which items should be assigned to which clusters. There has been a recent trend in the clustering literature toward supporting semisupervised or constrained

  14. Cluster functional renormalization group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuther, Johannes; Thomale, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    Functional renormalization group (FRG) has become a diverse and powerful tool to derive effective low-energy scattering vertices of interacting many-body systems. Starting from a free expansion point of the action, the flow of the RG parameter Λ allows us to trace the evolution of the effective one- and two-particle vertices towards low energies by taking into account the vertex corrections between all parquet channels in an unbiased fashion. In this work, we generalize the expansion point at which the diagrammatic resummation procedure is initiated from a free UV limit to a cluster product state. We formulate a cluster FRG scheme where the noninteracting building blocks (i.e., decoupled spin clusters) are treated exactly, and the intercluster couplings are addressed via RG. As a benchmark study, we apply our cluster FRG scheme to the spin-1/2 bilayer Heisenberg model (BHM) on a square lattice where the neighboring sites in the two layers form the individual two-site clusters. Comparing with existing numerical evidence for the BHM, we obtain reasonable findings for the spin susceptibility, the spin-triplet excitation energy, and quasiparticle weight even in coupling regimes close to antiferromagnetic order. The concept of cluster FRG promises applications to a large class of interacting electron systems.

  15. Active matter clusters at interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Copenhagen, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Collective and directed motility or swarming is an emergent phenomenon displayed by many self-organized assemblies of active biological matter such as clusters of embryonic cells during tissue development, cancerous cells during tumor formation and metastasis, colonies of bacteria in a biofilm, or even flocks of birds and schools of fish at the macro-scale. Such clusters typically encounter very heterogeneous environments. What happens when a cluster encounters an interface between two different environments has implications for its function and fate. Here we study this problem by using a mathematical model of a cluster that treats it as a single cohesive unit that moves in two dimensions by exerting a force/torque per unit area whose magnitude depends on the nature of the local environment. We find that low speed (overdamped) clusters encountering an interface with a moderate difference in properties can lead to refraction or even total internal reflection of the cluster. For large speeds (underdamped), wher...

  16. Cluster Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Cansisting of eight scientists from the State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Xiamen University, this creative research group is devoted to the research of cluster chemistry and creation of nanomaterials.After three-year hard work, the group scored a series of encouraging progresses in synthesis of clusters with special structures, including novel fullerenes, fullerene-like metal cluster compounds as well as other related nanomaterials, and their properties study.

  17. MicroRNA-106b-25 cluster targets β-TRCP2, increases the expression of Snail and enhances cell migration and invasion in H1299 (non small cell lung cancer) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savita, Udainiya; Karunagaran, Devarajan, E-mail: karuna@iitm.ac.in

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •miR-106b-25 cluster directly targets the 3′UTR of the β-TRCP2 transcript. •β-TRCP2 mRNA was lower in H1299 cells stably expressing miR-106b-25 cluster. •miR-106b-25 cluster increased the expression of Snail. •miR-106b-25 cluster promoted the migration, colony formation and invasion. •miR-106b-25 cluster enhanced endothelial tube formation. -- Abstract: Lung cancer causes high mortality without a declining trend and non small cell lung cancer represents 85% of all pulmonary carcinomas. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) serve as fine regulators of proliferation, migration, invasion/metastasis and angiogenesis of normal and cancer cells. Using TargetScan6.2, we predicted that the ubiquitin ligase, β-TRCP2, could be a target for two of the constituent miRNAs of the miR-106b-25 cluster (miR-106b and miR-93). We generated a stable clone of miR-106b-25 cluster (CL) or the empty vector (EV) in H1299 (non small cell lung cancer) cells. The expression of β-TRCP2 mRNA was significantly lower in CL than that in EV cells. Transient expression of miR-93 but not antimiR-93 decreased the expression of β-TRCP2 mRNA in H1299 cells. β-TRCP2-3′UTR reporter assay revealed that its activity in CL cells was only 60% of that in EV cells. Snail protein expression was higher in CL than that in EV cells and H1299 cells exhibited an increase in the expression of Snail upon transient transfection with miR-93. miR-106b-25 cluster-induced migration of CL measured by scratch assay was more than that in EV cells and no significant difference in migration was observed between antimiR-93-transfected H1299 cells and the corresponding control-oligo-transfected cells. miR-106b-25 cluster-induced migration of CL cells was again confirmed in a Boyden chamber assay without the matrigel. CL cells were more invasive than EV cells when assessed using Boyden chambers with matrigel but there were no significant changes in the cell viabilities between EV and CL cells. Colony formation assay

  18. caBIG™ VISDA: Modeling, visualization, and discovery for cluster analysis of genomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Jianhua

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main limitations of most existing clustering methods used in genomic data analysis include heuristic or random algorithm initialization, the potential of finding poor local optima, the lack of cluster number detection, an inability to incorporate prior/expert knowledge, black-box and non-adaptive designs, in addition to the curse of dimensionality and the discernment of uninformative, uninteresting cluster structure associated with confounding variables. Results In an effort to partially address these limitations, we develop the VIsual Statistical Data Analyzer (VISDA for cluster modeling, visualization, and discovery in genomic data. VISDA performs progressive, coarse-to-fine (divisive hierarchical clustering and visualization, supported by hierarchical mixture modeling, supervised/unsupervised informative gene selection, supervised/unsupervised data visualization, and user/prior knowledge guidance, to discover hidden clusters within complex, high-dimensional genomic data. The hierarchical visualization and clustering scheme of VISDA uses multiple local visualization subspaces (one at each node of the hierarchy and consequent subspace data modeling to reveal both global and local cluster structures in a "divide and conquer" scenario. Multiple projection methods, each sensitive to a distinct type of clustering tendency, are used for data visualization, which increases the likelihood that cluster structures of interest are revealed. Initialization of the full dimensional model is based on first learning models with user/prior knowledge guidance on data projected into the low-dimensional visualization spaces. Model order selection for the high dimensional data is accomplished by Bayesian theoretic criteria and user justification applied via the hierarchy of low-dimensional visualization subspaces. Based on its complementary building blocks and flexible functionality, VISDA is generally applicable for gene clustering, sample

  19. caBIG VISDA: modeling, visualization, and discovery for cluster analysis of genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yitan; Li, Huai; Miller, David J; Wang, Zuyi; Xuan, Jianhua; Clarke, Robert; Hoffman, Eric P; Wang, Yue

    2008-09-18

    The main limitations of most existing clustering methods used in genomic data analysis include heuristic or random algorithm initialization, the potential of finding poor local optima, the lack of cluster number detection, an inability to incorporate prior/expert knowledge, black-box and non-adaptive designs, in addition to the curse of dimensionality and the discernment of uninformative, uninteresting cluster structure associated with confounding variables. In an effort to partially address these limitations, we develop the VIsual Statistical Data Analyzer (VISDA) for cluster modeling, visualization, and discovery in genomic data. VISDA performs progressive, coarse-to-fine (divisive) hierarchical clustering and visualization, supported by hierarchical mixture modeling, supervised/unsupervised informative gene selection, supervised/unsupervised data visualization, and user/prior knowledge guidance, to discover hidden clusters within complex, high-dimensional genomic data. The hierarchical visualization and clustering scheme of VISDA uses multiple local visualization subspaces (one at each node of the hierarchy) and consequent subspace data modeling to reveal both global and local cluster structures in a "divide and conquer" scenario. Multiple projection methods, each sensitive to a distinct type of clustering tendency, are used for data visualization, which increases the likelihood that cluster structures of interest are revealed. Initialization of the full dimensional model is based on first learning models with user/prior knowledge guidance on data projected into the low-dimensional visualization spaces. Model order selection for the high dimensional data is accomplished by Bayesian theoretic criteria and user justification applied via the hierarchy of low-dimensional visualization subspaces. Based on its complementary building blocks and flexible functionality, VISDA is generally applicable for gene clustering, sample clustering, and phenotype clustering

  20. Magnetic cluster excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrer, Albert; Waldmann, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic clusters, i.e., assemblies of a finite number (between two or three and several hundred) of interacting spin centers which are magnetically decoupled from their environment, can be found in many materials ranging from inorganic compounds and magnetic molecules to artificial metal structures formed on surfaces and metalloproteins. Their magnetic excitation spectra are determined by the nature of the spin centers and of the magnetic interactions, and the particular arrangement of the mutual interaction paths between the spin centers. Small clusters of up to four magnetic ions are ideal model systems in which to examine the fundamental magnetic interactions, which are usually dominated by Heisenberg exchange, but often complemented by anisotropic and/or higher-order interactions. In large magnetic clusters, which may potentially deal with a dozen or more spin centers, there is the possibility of novel many-body quantum states and quantum phenomena. In this review the necessary theoretical concepts and experimental techniques to study the magnetic cluster excitations and the resulting characteristic magnetic properties are introduced, followed by examples of small clusters, demonstrating the enormous amount of detailed physical information that can be retrieved. The current understanding of the excitations and their physical interpretation in the molecular nanomagnets which represent large magnetic clusters is then presented, with a section devoted to the subclass of single-molecule magnets, distinguished by displaying quantum tunneling of the magnetization. Finally, there is a summary of some quantum many-body states which evolve in magnetic insulators characterized by built-in or field-induced magnetic clusters. The review concludes by addressing future perspectives in the field of magnetic cluster excitations.

  1. Clustered regression with unknown clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Barman, Kishor

    2011-01-01

    We consider a collection of prediction experiments, which are clustered in the sense that groups of experiments ex- hibit similar relationship between the predictor and response variables. The experiment clusters as well as the regres- sion relationships are unknown. The regression relation- ships define the experiment clusters, and in general, the predictor and response variables may not exhibit any clus- tering. We call this prediction problem clustered regres- sion with unknown clusters (CRUC) and in this paper we focus on linear regression. We study and compare several methods for CRUC, demonstrate their applicability to the Yahoo Learning-to-rank Challenge (YLRC) dataset, and in- vestigate an associated mathematical model. CRUC is at the crossroads of many prior works and we study several prediction algorithms with diverse origins: an adaptation of the expectation-maximization algorithm, an approach in- spired by K-means clustering, the singular value threshold- ing approach to matrix rank minimization u...

  2. Clustering Game Behavior Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders; Sifa, Rafet

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen a deluge of behavioral data from players hitting the game industry. Reasons for this data surge are many and include the introduction of new business models, technical innovations, the popularity of online games, and the increasing persistence of games. Irrespective...... of the causes, the proliferation of behavioral data poses the problem of how to derive insights therefrom. Behavioral data sets can be large, time-dependent and high-dimensional. Clustering offers a way to explore such data and to discover patterns that can reduce the overall complexity of the data. Clustering...... and other techniques for player profiling and play style analysis have, therefore, become popular in the nascent field of game analytics. However, the proper use of clustering techniques requires expertise and an understanding of games is essential to evaluate results. With this paper, we address game data...

  3. Subspace clustering through attribute clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun NIU; Shubo ZHANG; Junliang CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Many recently proposed subspace clustering methods suffer from two severe problems. First, the algorithms typically scale exponentially with the data dimensionality or the subspace dimensionality of clusters. Second, the clustering results are often sensitive to input parameters. In this paper, a fast algorithm of subspace clustering using attribute clustering is proposed to over-come these limitations. This algorithm first filters out redundant attributes by computing the Gini coefficient. To evaluate the correlation of every two non-redundant attributes, the relation matrix of non-redundant attributes is constructed based on the relation function of two dimensional united Gini coefficients. After applying an overlapping clustering algorithm on the relation matrix, the candidate of all interesting subspaces is achieved. Finally, all subspace clusters can be derived by clustering on interesting subspaces. Experiments on both synthesis and real datasets show that the new algorithm not only achieves a significant gain of runtime and quality to find subspace clusters, but also is insensitive to input parameters.

  4. Convex Clustering: An Attractive Alternative to Hierarchical Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gary K.; Chi, Eric C.; Ranola, John Michael O.; Lange, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal in cluster analysis is to discover natural groupings of objects. The field of cluster analysis is crowded with diverse methods that make special assumptions about data and address different scientific aims. Despite its shortcomings in accuracy, hierarchical clustering is the dominant clustering method in bioinformatics. Biologists find the trees constructed by hierarchical clustering visually appealing and in tune with their evolutionary perspective. Hierarchical clustering operates on multiple scales simultaneously. This is essential, for instance, in transcriptome data, where one may be interested in making qualitative inferences about how lower-order relationships like gene modules lead to higher-order relationships like pathways or biological processes. The recently developed method of convex clustering preserves the visual appeal of hierarchical clustering while ameliorating its propensity to make false inferences in the presence of outliers and noise. The solution paths generated by convex clustering reveal relationships between clusters that are hidden by static methods such as k-means clustering. The current paper derives and tests a novel proximal distance algorithm for minimizing the objective function of convex clustering. The algorithm separates parameters, accommodates missing data, and supports prior information on relationships. Our program CONVEXCLUSTER incorporating the algorithm is implemented on ATI and nVidia graphics processing units (GPUs) for maximal speed. Several biological examples illustrate the strengths of convex clustering and the ability of the proximal distance algorithm to handle high-dimensional problems. CONVEXCLUSTER can be freely downloaded from the UCLA Human Genetics web site at http://www.genetics.ucla.edu/software/ PMID:25965340

  5. Anonymous-address-resolution model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-jia SONG; Zhen-zhou JI

    2016-01-01

    Address-resolution protocol (ARP) is an important protocol of data link layers that aims to obtain the corresponding relationship between Internet Protocol (IP) and Media Access Control (MAC) addresses. Traditional ARPs (address-resolution and neighbor-discovery protocols) do not consider the existence of malicious nodes, which reveals destination addresses in the resolution process. Thus, these traditional protocols allow malicious nodes to easily carry out attacks, such as man-in-the-middle attack and denial-of-service attack. To overcome these weaknesses, we propose an anonymous-address-resolution (AS-AR) protocol. AS-AR does not publicize the destination address in the address-resolution process and hides the IP and MAC addresses of the source node. The malicious node cannot obtain the addresses of the destination and the node which initiates the address resolution; thus, it cannot attack. Analyses and experiments show that AS-AR has a higher security level than existing security methods, such as secure-neighbor discovery.

  6. Clustering the Results of Brainstorm Sessions: Applying Word Similarity Techniques to Cluster Dutch Nouns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amrit, Chintan Amrit; Hek, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    This research addresses the problem of clustering the results of brainstorm sessions. Going through all ideas and clustering them can be a time consuming task. In this research we design a computer-aided approach that can help with clustering of these results. We have limited ourselves to looking at

  7. Clustering the Results of Brainstorm Sessions: Applying Word Similarity Techniques to Cluster Dutch Nouns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amrit, Chintan; Hek, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    This research addresses the problem of clustering the results of brainstorm sessions. Going through all ideas and clustering them can be a time consuming task. In this research we design a computer-aided approach that can help with clustering of these results. We have limited ourselves to looking at

  8. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  9. Cluster editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böcker, S.; Baumbach, Jan

    2013-01-01

    . The problem has been the inspiration for numerous algorithms in bioinformatics, aiming at clustering entities such as genes, proteins, phenotypes, or patients. In this paper, we review exact and heuristic methods that have been proposed for the Cluster Editing problem, and also applications......The Cluster Editing problem asks to transform a graph into a disjoint union of cliques using a minimum number of edge modifications. Although the problem has been proven NP-complete several times, it has nevertheless attracted much research both from the theoretical and the applied side...

  10. Weighted Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerman, Margareta; Branzei, Simina; Loker, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate clustering in the weighted setting, in which every data point is assigned a real valued weight. We conduct a theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in each of the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterising the precise conditions under which such algorithms react to weights, and classifying clustering methods into three broad categories: weight-responsive, weight-considering, and weight-robust. Our analysis raises several interesting questions and can be directly mapped to the classical unweighted setting.

  11. Cluster analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, Brian S; Leese, Morven; Stahl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis comprises a range of methods for classifying multivariate data into subgroups. By organizing multivariate data into such subgroups, clustering can help reveal the characteristics of any structure or patterns present. These techniques have proven useful in a wide range of areas such as medicine, psychology, market research and bioinformatics.This fifth edition of the highly successful Cluster Analysis includes coverage of the latest developments in the field and a new chapter dealing with finite mixture models for structured data.Real life examples are used throughout to demons

  12. CONTENT-ADDRESSABLE MEMORY SYSTEMS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utility of content -addressable memories (CAM’s) within a general purpose computing system is investigated. Word cells within CAM may be...addressed by the character of all or a part of cell contents . Multimembered sets of word cells may be addressed simultaneously. The distributed logical...capabilities of CAM are extended to allow simultaneous transformation of multimembered sets and to allow communication between neighboring word cells. A

  13. Reclaiming unused IPv4 addresses

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information).   Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...

  14. 2015 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  15. Active matter clusters at interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eCopenhagen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Collective and directed motility or swarming is an emergent phenomenon displayed by many self-organized assemblies of active biological matter such as clusters of embryonic cells during tissue development, cancerous cells during tumor formation and metastasis, colonies of bacteria in a biofilm, or even flocks of birds and schools of fish at the macro-scale. Such clusters typically encounter very heterogeneous environments. What happens when a cluster encounters an interface between two different environments has implications for its function and fate. Here we study this problem by using a mathematical model of a cluster that treats it as a single cohesive unit that moves in two dimensions by exerting a force/torque per unit area whose magnitude depends on the nature of the local environment. We find that low speed (overdamped clusters encountering an interface with a moderate difference in properties can lead to refraction or even total internal reflection of the cluster. For large speeds (underdamped, where inertia dominates, the clusters show more complex behaviors crossing the interface multiple times and deviating from the predictable refraction and reflection for the low velocity clusters. We then present an extreme limit of the model in the absence of rotational damping where clusters can become stuck spiraling along the interface or move in large circular trajectories after leaving the interface. Our results show a wide range of behaviors that occur when collectively moving active biological matter moves across interfaces and these insights can be used to control motion by patterning environments.

  16. Active matter clusters at interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copenhagen, Katherine; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2016-03-01

    Collective and directed motility or swarming is an emergent phenomenon displayed by many self-organized assemblies of active biological matter such as clusters of embryonic cells during tissue development, cancerous cells during tumor formation and metastasis, colonies of bacteria in a biofilm, or even flocks of birds and schools of fish at the macro-scale. Such clusters typically encounter very heterogeneous environments. What happens when a cluster encounters an interface between two different environments has implications for its function and fate. Here we study this problem by using a mathematical model of a cluster that treats it as a single cohesive unit that moves in two dimensions by exerting a force/torque per unit area whose magnitude depends on the nature of the local environment. We find that low speed (overdamped) clusters encountering an interface with a moderate difference in properties can lead to refraction or even total internal reflection of the cluster. For large speeds (underdamped), where inertia dominates, the clusters show more complex behaviors crossing the interface multiple times and deviating from the predictable refraction and reflection for the low velocity clusters. We then present an extreme limit of the model in the absence of rotational damping where clusters can become stuck spiraling along the interface or move in large circular trajectories after leaving the interface. Our results show a wide range of behaviors that occur when collectively moving active biological matter moves across interfaces and these insights can be used to control motion by patterning environments.

  17. Fuzzy Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berks, G.; Keyserlingk, Diedrich Graf von; Jantzen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    A symptom is a condition indicating the presence of a disease, especially, when regarded as an aid in diagnosis.Symptoms are the smallest units indicating the existence of a disease. A syndrome on the other hand is an aggregate, set or cluster of concurrent symptoms which together indicate...... and clustering are the basic concerns in medicine. Classification depends on definitions of the classes and their required degree of participant of the elements in the cases' symptoms. In medicine imprecise conditions are the rule and therefore fuzzy methods are much more suitable than crisp ones. Fuzzy c......-mean clustering is an easy and well improved tool, which has been applied in many medical fields. We used c-mean fuzzy clustering after feature extraction from an aphasia database. Factor analysis was applied on a correlation matrix of 26 symptoms of language disorders and led to five factors. The factors...

  18. Functional Principal Component Analysis and Randomized Sparse Clustering Algorithm for Medical Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Jiang, Junhai; Guo, Shicheng; Xiong, Momiao

    2015-01-01

    Due to the advancement in sensor technology, the growing large medical image data have the ability to visualize the anatomical changes in biological tissues. As a consequence, the medical images have the potential to enhance the diagnosis of disease, the prediction of clinical outcomes and the characterization of disease progression. But in the meantime, the growing data dimensions pose great methodological and computational challenges for the representation and selection of features in image cluster analysis. To address these challenges, we first extend the functional principal component analysis (FPCA) from one dimension to two dimensions to fully capture the space variation of image the signals. The image signals contain a large number of redundant features which provide no additional information for clustering analysis. The widely used methods for removing the irrelevant features are sparse clustering algorithms using a lasso-type penalty to select the features. However, the accuracy of clustering using a lasso-type penalty depends on the selection of the penalty parameters and the threshold value. In practice, they are difficult to determine. Recently, randomized algorithms have received a great deal of attentions in big data analysis. This paper presents a randomized algorithm for accurate feature selection in image clustering analysis. The proposed method is applied to both the liver and kidney cancer histology image data from the TCGA database. The results demonstrate that the randomized feature selection method coupled with functional principal component analysis substantially outperforms the current sparse clustering algorithms in image cluster analysis. PMID:26196383

  19. Functional Principal Component Analysis and Randomized Sparse Clustering Algorithm for Medical Image Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lin

    Full Text Available Due to the advancement in sensor technology, the growing large medical image data have the ability to visualize the anatomical changes in biological tissues. As a consequence, the medical images have the potential to enhance the diagnosis of disease, the prediction of clinical outcomes and the characterization of disease progression. But in the meantime, the growing data dimensions pose great methodological and computational challenges for the representation and selection of features in image cluster analysis. To address these challenges, we first extend the functional principal component analysis (FPCA from one dimension to two dimensions to fully capture the space variation of image the signals. The image signals contain a large number of redundant features which provide no additional information for clustering analysis. The widely used methods for removing the irrelevant features are sparse clustering algorithms using a lasso-type penalty to select the features. However, the accuracy of clustering using a lasso-type penalty depends on the selection of the penalty parameters and the threshold value. In practice, they are difficult to determine. Recently, randomized algorithms have received a great deal of attentions in big data analysis. This paper presents a randomized algorithm for accurate feature selection in image clustering analysis. The proposed method is applied to both the liver and kidney cancer histology image data from the TCGA database. The results demonstrate that the randomized feature selection method coupled with functional principal component analysis substantially outperforms the current sparse clustering algorithms in image cluster analysis.

  20. Application of cluster nursing in family nursing of four kinds of patients with advanced cancer%集束化护理在4种晚期癌症病人家庭护理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 黄登荣

    2016-01-01

    [目的]探讨集束化护理在肺癌、肝癌、乳腺癌、宫颈癌4种晚期癌症病人家庭护理中的应用效果。[方法]选择经过放疗和化疗后转为家庭护理的肺癌、肝癌、乳腺癌、宫颈癌病人,随机分为家庭集束化护理组(C 组)和家庭常规护理组(R 组)。R 组病人由家庭人员自行护理,C 组病人由经过培训的家庭护理人员进行家庭集束化护理,于病人出院时和出院1周、5周、10周、15周比较两组病人的自我效能感、新增加并发症发生率、健康状况、焦虑和抑郁指数。[结果]出院 15周后,C 组病人低等自我效能感、新增加并发症发生率、焦虑和抑郁指数低于 R 组,高等自我效能感、日常生活和社会活动能力高于 R 组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。[结论]家庭集束化护理能有效提高4种晚期癌症病人自我效能感和健康状况,降低焦虑和抑郁程度,减少新增加并发症的发生。%Objective:To explore application effect of cluster nursing in family nursing of four kinds of patients with advanced cancer,lung cancer,liver cancer,breast cancer and cervical cancer.Methods:Patients with lung cancer,liver cancer,breast cancer and cervical cancer who were treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy were transferred to home care ward,were randomly divided into the family cluster nursing group (group C)and the routine nursing group (group R).Patients of group C were carried out family cluster nursing by trained home care staff,Patients of group R received nursing care of their family members.On discharge and 1 weeks, 5 weeks,10 weeks and 15 weeks,the self efficacy,new increase in the incidence of complications,health status, anxiety and depression of two groups of patients were compared.Results:On discharged 15 weeks,low self ef-ficacy sense,incidence of complications,degree of anxiety and depression of patients in group C were lower than that in group R.And higher self efficacy sense,daily life

  1. Clustering Millions of Faces by Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Charles; Wang, Dayong; Jain, Anil

    2017-03-07

    Given a large collection of unlabeled face images, we address the problem of clustering faces into an unknown number of identities. This problem is of interest in social media, law enforcement, and other applications, where the number of faces can be of the order of hundreds of million, while the number of identities (clusters) can range from a few thousand to millions. To address the challenges of run-time complexity and cluster quality, we present an approximate Rank-Order clustering algorithm that performs better than popular clustering algorithms (k-Means and Spectral). Our experiments include clustering up to 123 million face images into over 10 million clusters. Clustering results are analyzed in terms of external (known face labels) and internal (unknown face labels) quality measures, and run-time. Our algorithm achieves an F-measure of 0:87 on the LFW benchmark (13K faces of 5; 749 individuals), which drops to 0:27 on the largest dataset considered (13K faces in LFW + 123M distractor images). Additionally, we show that frames in the YouTube benchmark can be clustered with an F-measure of 0:71. An internal per-cluster quality measure is developed to rank individual clusters for manual exploration of high quality clusters that are compact and isolated.

  2. Synchronization in complex clustered networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Liang; LAI Ying-Cheng; Kwangho PARK; WANG Xingang; LAI Choy Heng; Robert A. GATENBY

    2007-01-01

    Synchronization in complex networks has been an active area of research in recent years. While much effort has been devoted to networks with the small-world and scale-free topology, structurally they are often assumed to have a single, densely connected component. Recently it has also become apparent that many networks in social, biological, and tech-nological systems are clustered, as characterized by a number (or a hierarchy) of sparsely linked clusters, each with dense and complex internal connections. Synchronization is funda-mental to the dynamics and functions of complex clustered networks, but this problem has just begun to be addressed. This paper reviews some progress in this direction by focus-ing on the interplay between the clustered topology and net-work synchronizability. In particular, there are two parame-ters characterizing a clustered network: the intra-cluster and the inter-cluster link density. Our goal is to clarify the roles of these parameters in shaping network synchronizability. By using theoretical analysis and direct numerical simulations of oscillator networks, it is demonstrated that clustered net-works with random inter-cluster links are more synchroniz-able, and synchronization can be optimized when inter-cluster and intra-cluster links match. The latter result has one coun-terintuitive implication: more links, if placed improperly, can actually lead to destruction of synchronization, even though such links tend to decrease the average network distance. It is hoped that this review will help attract attention to the fun-damental problem of clustered structures/synchronization in network science.

  3. Astrophysics of galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettori, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    As the nodes of the cosmic web, clusters of galaxies trace the large-scale distribution of matter in the Universe. They are thus privileged sites in which to investigate the complex physics of structure formation. However, the complete story of how these structures grow, and how they dissipate the gravitational and non-thermal components of their energy budget over cosmic time, is still beyond our grasp. Most of the baryons gravitationally bound to the cluster's halo is in the form of a diffuse, hot, metal-enriched plasma that radiates primarily in the X-ray band. X-ray observations of the evolving cluster population provide a unique opportunity to address such fundamental open questions as: How do hot diffuse baryons accrete and dynamically evolve in dark matter potentials? How and when was the energy that we observe in the ICM generated and distributed? Where and when are heavy elements produced and how are they circulated? We will present the ongoing activities to define the strategy on how an X-ray observatory with large collecting area and an unprecedented combination of high spectral and angular resolution, such as Athena, can address these questions.

  4. Spatial clustering with Density-Ordered tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qing; Lu, Xin; Liu, Zhong; Huang, Jincai; Cheng, Guangquan

    2016-10-01

    Clustering has emerged as an active research direction for knowledge discovery in spatial databases. Most spatial clustering methods become ineffective when inappropriate parameters are given or when datasets of diverse shapes and densities are provided. To address this issue, we propose a novel clustering method, called SCDOT (Spatial Clustering with Density-Ordered Tree). By projecting a dataset to a Density-Ordered Tree, SCDOT partitions the data into several relatively small sub-clusters with a box-plot method. A heuristic method is proposed to find the genuine clusters by repeatedly merging sub-clusters and an iteration strategy is utilized to automatically determine input parameters. Moreover, we also provide an innovative way to identify cluster center and noise. Extensive experiments on both synthetic and real-world datasets demonstrate the superior performance of SCDOT over the baseline methods.

  5. Clustering of mandibular organ-inhibiting hormone and moult-inhibiting hormone genes in the crab, Cancer pagurus, and implications for regulation of expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W; Wainwright, G; Webster, S G; Rees, H H; Turner, P C

    2000-08-08

    Development and reproduction of crustaceans is regulated by a combination of neuropeptide hormones, ecdysteroids (moulting hormones) and the isoprenoid, methyl farnesoate (MF), the unepoxidised analogue of insect juvenile hormone-III (JH-III). MF and the ecdysteroids are respectively synthesised under the negative control of the sinus gland-derived mandibular organ-inhibiting hormones (MO-IHs) and moult-inhibiting hormone (MIH) that are produced in eyestalk neural ganglia. Previous work has demonstrated the existence of two isoforms of MO-IH, called MO-IH-1 and -2, that differ by a single amino acid in the mature peptide and one in the putative signal peptide. To study the structural organisation of the crab MIH and MO-IH genes, a genomic DNA library was constructed from DNA of an individual female crab and screened with both MO-IH and MIH probes. The results from genomic Southern blot analysis and library screening indicated that the Cancer pagurus genome contains at least two copies of the MIH gene and three copies of the MO-IH genes. Upon screening, two types of overlapping genomic clone were isolated. Each member of one type of genomic clone contains a single copy of each of the convergently transcribed MO-IH-1 and MIH genes clustered within 6.5kb. The other type contains only the MO-IH-2 gene, which is not closely linked to an MIH gene. There are three exons and two introns in all MIH and MO-IH genes analysed. The exon-intron boundary of the crab MIH and MO-IH genes follows Chambon's rule (GT-AG) for the splice donor and acceptor sites. The first intron occurs within the signal peptide region and the second intron occurs in the coding region of the mature peptide. Sequence analysis of upstream regions of MO-IH and MIH genes showed that they contained promoter elements with characteristics similar to other eukaryotic genes. These included sequences with high degrees of similarity to the arthropod initiator, TATA box and cAMP response element binding protein

  6. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    .g. sustainability or quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore how and to what extent public sector interventions that aim at forcing cluster development in industries can support sustainable development as defined in the Brundtland tradition and more recently elaborated in such concepts as eco......, Portugal and New Zealand have adopted the concept. Public sector interventions that aim to support cluster development in industries most often focus upon economic policy goals such as enhanced employment and improved productivity, but rarely emphasise broader societal policy goals relating to e...... to the automotive sector in Wales. Specifically, the paper evaluates the "Accelerates" programme initiated by the Welsh Development Agency and elaborates on how and to what extent the Accelerate programme supports the development of a sustainable automotive industry cluster. The Accelerate programme was set up...

  7. 多中心动态聚类算法及对癌症与非癌症彩色手掌图像的分类%Multi-central Dynamic Clustering Algorithm Classifying Color Palm Images for Cancer Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宽全; 刘莉; 邬向前; 张大鹏

    2003-01-01

    Observing palm is one of diagnosis methods in Traditional Chinese Medicine and HolographicMedicine. Generally, the shape, color, ridge and line features of palm are all important for palm diagnosis. As thefirst attempt for automated palm diagnosis, the color is used and a new statistical feature of color, moment feature, isdefined in this paper. Multi-central dynamic clustering algorithm based on our new feature is proposed to recognizecancerous palm images. Applying our approach to the images in the palm database including all kinds of pathologicaland healthy palm images, the experimental results indicate that it is effective to recognize cancerous palm images andsuperior over the K-mean algorithm.

  8. A Pedagogy to Address Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Elaine E.

    1993-01-01

    Presents strategies and methods by which writing teachers can openly address the potential problem of plagiarism. Details specific methods used by one teacher to train students how to quote and cite materials without plagiarizing. (HB)

  9. Image Coding Based on Address Vector Quantization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yushu

    Image coding is finding increased application in teleconferencing, archiving, and remote sensing. This thesis investigates the potential of Vector Quantization (VQ), a relatively new source coding technique, for compression of monochromatic and color images. Extensions of the Vector Quantization technique to the Address Vector Quantization method have been investigated. In Vector Quantization, the image data to be encoded are first processed to yield a set of vectors. A codeword from the codebook which best matches the input image vector is then selected. Compression is achieved by replacing the image vector with the index of the code-word which produced the best match, the index is sent to the channel. Reconstruction of the image is done by using a table lookup technique, where the label is simply used as an address for a table containing the representative vectors. A code-book of representative vectors (codewords) is generated using an iterative clustering algorithm such as K-means, or the generalized Lloyd algorithm. A review of different Vector Quantization techniques are given in chapter 1. Chapter 2 gives an overview of codebook design methods including the Kohonen neural network to design codebook. During the encoding process, the correlation of the address is considered and Address Vector Quantization is developed for color image and monochrome image coding. Address VQ which includes static and dynamic processes is introduced in chapter 3. In order to overcome the problems in Hierarchical VQ, Multi-layer Address Vector Quantization is proposed in chapter 4. This approach gives the same performance as that of the normal VQ scheme but the bit rate is about 1/2 to 1/3 as that of the normal VQ method. In chapter 5, a Dynamic Finite State VQ based on a probability transition matrix to select the best subcodebook to encode the image is developed. In chapter 6, a new adaptive vector quantization scheme, suitable for color video coding, called "A Self -Organizing

  10. The SMART CLUSTER METHOD - adaptive earthquake cluster analysis and declustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-04-01

    Earthquake declustering is an essential part of almost any statistical analysis of spatial and temporal properties of seismic activity with usual applications comprising of probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs) and earthquake prediction methods. The nature of earthquake clusters and subsequent declustering of earthquake catalogues plays a crucial role in determining the magnitude-dependent earthquake return period and its respective spatial variation. Various methods have been developed to address this issue from other researchers. These have differing ranges of complexity ranging from rather simple statistical window methods to complex epidemic models. This study introduces the smart cluster method (SCM), a new methodology to identify earthquake clusters, which uses an adaptive point process for spatio-temporal identification. Hereby, an adaptive search algorithm for data point clusters is adopted. It uses the earthquake density in the spatio-temporal neighbourhood of each event to adjust the search properties. The identified clusters are subsequently analysed to determine directional anisotropy, focussing on a strong correlation along the rupture plane and adjusts its search space with respect to directional properties. In the case of rapid subsequent ruptures like the 1992 Landers sequence or the 2010/2011 Darfield-Christchurch events, an adaptive classification procedure is applied to disassemble subsequent ruptures which may have been grouped into an individual cluster using near-field searches, support vector machines and temporal splitting. The steering parameters of the search behaviour are linked to local earthquake properties like magnitude of completeness, earthquake density and Gutenberg-Richter parameters. The method is capable of identifying and classifying earthquake clusters in space and time. It is tested and validated using earthquake data from California and New Zealand. As a result of the cluster identification process, each event in

  11. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    The cluster theory attributed to Michael Porter has significantly influenced industrial policies in countries across Europe and North America since the beginning of the 1990s. Institutions such as the EU, OECD and the World Bank and governments in countries such as the UK, France, The Netherlands...

  12. Fuzzy Clustering of Multiple Instance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-30

    NO. 0704-0188 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) - UU UU UU UU 10-03-2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Fuzzy Clustering of...RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. University of Louisville 2301 S. Third Street Jouett Hall Louisville, KY 40208 -1838 ABSTRACT Fuzzy Clustering ...and identify K target concepts simultaneously. The proposed algorithm, called Fuzzy Clustering of Multiple Instance data (FCMI), is tested and

  13. Vacancy-indium clusters in implanted germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander I.

    2010-04-01

    Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements of heavily indium doped germanium samples revealed that a significant proportion of the indium dose is immobile. Using electronic structure calculations we address the possibility of indium clustering with point defects by predicting the stability of indium-vacancy clusters, InnVm. We find that the formation of large clusters is energetically favorable, which can explain the immobility of the indium ions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Improving the well-being of men by Evaluating and Addressing the Gastrointestinal Late Effects (EAGLE) of radical treatment for prostate cancer: study protocol for a mixed-method implementation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sophia; Demeyin, Weyinmi; Muls, Ann; Ferguson, Catherine; Farnell, Damian J J; Cohen, David; Andreyev, Jervoise; Green, John; Smith, Lesley; Ahmedzai, Sam; Pickett, Sara; Nelson, Annmarie; Staffurth, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Radiotherapy treatment for prostate cancer can cause bowel problems, which may lead to severe difficulties for cancer survivors including limiting travel, work or socialising. These symptoms can appear at any time following radiotherapy. This study focuses on the early identification and protocol-based management of effects known to cause long-term, or even permanent, changes to the well-being of prostate cancer survivors. The rationale of this study is to improve the care offered to men and their families following pelvic radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Method and analysis Implementation research methodology will be used to adopt a multicomponent intervention at three UK centres. The intervention package comprises a standardised clinical assessment of relevant symptoms in oncology outpatient clinics and rapid referral to an enhanced gastroenterological service for patients identified with bowel problems. Gastroenterology staff will be trained to use an expert-practice algorithm of targeted gastroenterology investigations and treatments. The evaluation of the intervention and its embedding within local practices will be conducted using a mixed-methods design. The effect of the new service will be measured in terms of the following outcomes: acceptability to staff and patients; quality of life; symptom control and cost-effectiveness. Data collection will take place at baseline, 6 months (±2 months), and 12 months (±2 months) after entry into the study. Ethics and dissemination The study has ethical approval from the North West-Liverpool East Research Ethics Committee and the appropriate NHS governance clearance. All participants provide written informed consent. The study team aim to publish the results of the study in peer-reviewed journals as well as at national and international conferences. Trial registration number UKCRN16974 PMID:27697869

  15. Quotients of cluster categories

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Higher cluster categories were recently introduced as a generalization of cluster categories. This paper shows that in Dynkin types A and D, half of all higher cluster categories are actually just quotients of cluster categories. The other half can be obtained as quotients of 2-cluster categories, the "lowest" type of higher cluster categories. Hence, in Dynkin types A and D, all higher cluster phenomena are implicit in cluster categories and 2-cluster categories. In contrast, the same is not...

  16. Accounting for regional background and population size in the detection of spatial clusters and outliers using geostatistical filtering and spatial neutral models: the case of lung cancer in Long Island, New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goovaerts Pierre

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete Spatial Randomness (CSR is the null hypothesis employed by many statistical tests for spatial pattern, such as local cluster or boundary analysis. CSR is however not a relevant null hypothesis for highly complex and organized systems such as those encountered in the environmental and health sciences in which underlying spatial pattern is present. This paper presents a geostatistical approach to filter the noise caused by spatially varying population size and to generate spatially correlated neutral models that account for regional background obtained by geostatistical smoothing of observed mortality rates. These neutral models were used in conjunction with the local Moran statistics to identify spatial clusters and outliers in the geographical distribution of male and female lung cancer in Nassau, Queens, and Suffolk counties, New York, USA. Results We developed a typology of neutral models that progressively relaxes the assumptions of null hypotheses, allowing for the presence of spatial autocorrelation, non-uniform risk, and incorporation of spatially heterogeneous population sizes. Incorporation of spatial autocorrelation led to fewer significant ZIP codes than found in previous studies, confirming earlier claims that CSR can lead to over-identification of the number of significant spatial clusters or outliers. Accounting for population size through geostatistical filtering increased the size of clusters while removing most of the spatial outliers. Integration of regional background into the neutral models yielded substantially different spatial clusters and outliers, leading to the identification of ZIP codes where SMR values significantly depart from their regional background. Conclusion The approach presented in this paper enables researchers to assess geographic relationships using appropriate null hypotheses that account for the background variation extant in real-world systems. In particular, this new

  17. Regional Innovation Clusters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — The Regional Innovation Clusters serve a diverse group of sectors and geographies. Three of the initial pilot clusters, termed Advanced Defense Technology clusters,...

  18. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses a surgical tool to remove the tumor.Mohs' surgery. Layers of cancer cells are removed one ... usually have not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The medicine may have ...

  19. NCCN guidelines for survivorship expanded to address two common conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvale, Elizabeth; Urba, Susan G

    2014-05-01

    The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Survivorship include a new section on cancer-associated cognitive impairment and an expanded section on adult cancer pain that more completely addresses chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. These additions to the guidelines are the result of increasing awareness that long-term cancer survivors struggle with many late effects. Both the assessment and the management of cognitive impairment still lack a strong evidence-based foundation. The management of peripheral neuropathy, including the use of anti-depressants and opioids, often in combination, is backed by data primarily derived from clinical trials performed for various types of peripheral neuropathy.

  20. Introduction to IP address management

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Tim

    2010-01-01

    "The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--

  1. Gene Expression Data Knowledge Discovery using Global and Local Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    H, Swathi

    2010-01-01

    To understand complex biological systems, the research community has produced huge corpus of gene expression data. A large number of clustering approaches have been proposed for the analysis of gene expression data. However, extracting important biological knowledge is still harder. To address this task, clustering techniques are used. In this paper, hybrid Hierarchical k-Means algorithm is used for clustering and biclustering gene expression data is used. To discover both local and global clustering structure biclustering and clustering algorithms are utilized. A validation technique, Figure of Merit is used to determine the quality of clustering results. Appropriate knowledge is mined from the clusters by embedding a BLAST similarity search program into the clustering and biclustering process. To discover both local and global clustering structure biclustering and clustering algorithms are utilized. To determine the quality of clustering results, a validation technique, Figure of Merit is used. Appropriate ...

  2. Cluster Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poenaru, Dorin N.; Greiner, Walter

    One of the rare examples of phenomena predicted before experimental discovery, offers the opportunity to introduce fission theory based on the asymmetric two center shell model. The valleys within the potential energy surfaces are due to the shell effects and are clearly showing why cluster radioactivity was mostly detected in parent nuclei leading to a doubly magic lead daughter. Saddle point shapes can be determined by solving an integro-differential equation. Nuclear dynamics allows us to calculate the half-lives. The following cluster decay modes (or heavy particle radioactivities) have been experimentally confirmed: 14C, 20O, 23F, 22,24-26Ne, 28,30Mg, 32,34Si with half-lives in good agreement with predicted values within our analytical superasymmetric fission model. The preformation probability is calculated as the internal barrier penetrability. An universal curve is described and used as an alternative for the estimation of the half-lives. The macroscopic-microscopic method was extended to investigate two-alpha accompanied fission and true ternary fission. The methods developed in nuclear physics are also adapted to study the stability of deposited atomic clusters on the planar surfaces.

  3. Empirical power and sample size calculations for cluster-randomized and cluster-randomized crossover studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Nicholas G; Myers, Jessica A; Obeng, Daniel; Milstone, Aaron M; Perl, Trish M

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the number of studies using a cluster-randomized design has grown dramatically. In addition, the cluster-randomized crossover design has been touted as a methodological advance that can increase efficiency of cluster-randomized studies in certain situations. While the cluster-randomized crossover trial has become a popular tool, standards of design, analysis, reporting and implementation have not been established for this emergent design. We address one particular aspect of cluster-randomized and cluster-randomized crossover trial design: estimating statistical power. We present a general framework for estimating power via simulation in cluster-randomized studies with or without one or more crossover periods. We have implemented this framework in the clusterPower software package for R, freely available online from the Comprehensive R Archive Network. Our simulation framework is easy to implement and users may customize the methods used for data analysis. We give four examples of using the software in practice. The clusterPower package could play an important role in the design of future cluster-randomized and cluster-randomized crossover studies. This work is the first to establish a universal method for calculating power for both cluster-randomized and cluster-randomized clinical trials. More research is needed to develop standardized and recommended methodology for cluster-randomized crossover studies.

  4. Rationale, design, and implementation protocol of the Dutch clinical practice guideline Pain in patients with cancer: a cluster randomised controlled trial with short message service (SMS and interactive voice response (IVR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    te Boveldt Nienke

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One-half of patients with cancer have pain. In nearly one out of two cancer patients with pain, this was undertreated. Inadequate pain control still remains an important problem in this group of patients. Therefore, in 2008 a national, evidence-based multidisciplinary clinical practice guideline 'pain in patients with cancer' has been developed. Yet, publishing a guideline is not enough. Implementation is needed to improve pain management. An innovative implementation strategy, Short Message Service with Interactive Voice Response (SVS-IVR, has been developed and pilot tested. This study aims to evaluate on effectiveness of this strategy to improve pain reporting, pain measurement and adequate pain therapy. In addition, whether the active role of the patient and involvement of caregivers in pain management may change. Methods/design A cluster randomised controlled trial with two arms will be performed in six oncology outpatient clinics of hospitals in the Southeastern region of the Netherlands, with three hospitals in the intervention and three in the control condition. Follow-up measurements will be conducted in all hospitals to study the long-term effect of the intervention. The intervention includes training of professionals (medical oncologists, nurses, and general practitioners and SMS-IVR to report pain in patients with cancer to improve pain reporting by patients, pain management by medical oncologists, nurses, and general practitioners, and decrease pain intensity. Discussion This innovative implementation strategy with technical tools and the involvement of patients, may enhance the use of the guideline 'pain in patients with cancer' for pain management. Short Message Service alerts may serve as a tool to support self-management of patients. Therefore, the SMS-IVR intervention may increase the feeling of having control over one's life. Trail registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR: NTR2739

  5. Clustering of Sun Exposure Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2002-01-01

    In a medically motivated Sun-exposure study, questionnaires concerning Sun-habits were collected from a number of subjects together with UV radiation measurements. This paper focuses on identifying clusters in the heterogeneous set of data for the purpose of understanding possible relations between...... Sun-habits exposure and eventually assessing the risk of skin cancer. A general probabilistic framework originally developed for text and Web mining is demonstrated to be useful for clustering of behavioral data. The framework combines principal component subspace projection with probabilistic...

  6. Rotation and flattening of globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, S. M.; Frenk, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    Methods for measuring globular cluster ellipticities and the results of such measurements are reviewed, and the processes that determine the shapes of globular clusters and the ways in which they change with time are discussed. The use of the virial tensor theorem to study the connection between the global rotation, velocity anisotropy, and the shape of a self-gravitating system is addressed, and the employment of N-body models to simulate the evolution of globular clusters with initially anisotropic velocity distributions is examined. The application of a simple evaporation model and Fokker-Planck integrations to study the two-body diffusion in globular clusters is reviewed.

  7. Residential Mobility and Breast Cancer in Marin County, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey M. Jacquez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marin County (California, USA has among the highest incidences of breast cancer in the U.S. A previously conducted case-control study found eight significant risk factors in participants enrolled from 1997–1999. These included being premenopausal, never using birth control pills, lower highest lifetime body mass index, having four or more mammograms from 1990–1994, beginning drinking alcohol after age 21, drinking an average two or more alcoholic drinks per day, being in the highest quartile of pack-years of cigarette smoking, and being raised in an organized religion. Previously conducted surveys provided residential histories; while  statistic accounted for participants’ residential mobility, and assessed clustering of breast cancer cases relative to controls based on the known risk factors. These identified specific cases, places, and times of excess breast cancer risk. Analysis found significant global clustering of cases localized to specific residential histories and times. Much of the observed clustering occurred among participants who immigrated to Marin County. However, persistent case-clustering of greater than fifteen years duration was also detected. Significant case-clustering among long-term residents may indicate geographically localized risk factors not accounted for in the study design, as well as uncertainty and incompleteness in the acquired addresses. Other plausible explanations include environmental risk factors and cases tending to settle in specific areas. A biologically plausible exposure or risk factor has yet to be identified.

  8. An Automatic Clustering Technique for Optimal Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Pavan, K Karteeka; Rao, A V Dattatreya; 10.5121/ijcsea.2011.1412

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a simple, automatic and efficient clustering algorithm, namely, Automatic Merging for Optimal Clusters (AMOC) which aims to generate nearly optimal clusters for the given datasets automatically. The AMOC is an extension to standard k-means with a two phase iterative procedure combining certain validation techniques in order to find optimal clusters with automation of merging of clusters. Experiments on both synthetic and real data have proved that the proposed algorithm finds nearly optimal clustering structures in terms of number of clusters, compactness and separation.

  9. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  10. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating.

  11. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  12. Irradiation and various cytotoxic drugs enhance tyrosine phosphorylation and {beta}{sub 1}-integrin clustering in human A549 lung cancer cells in a substratum-dependent manner in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, N.; Beinke, C.; Beuningen, D. van [Inst. of Radiobiology, German Armed Forces, Munich (Germany); Plasswilm, L. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Hospital Basel (Swaziland)

    2004-03-01

    Background and purpose: interactions of cells with a substratum, especially extracellular matrix proteins, initiate clustering of integrin receptors in the cell membrane. This process represents the initial step for the activation of signaling pathways regulating survival, proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration, and could, furthermore, be important for cellular resistance-mediating mechanisms against radiation or cytotoxic drugs. The lack of data elucidating the impact of irradiation or cytotoxic drugs on this important phenomenon led to this study on human A549 lung cancer cells in vitro. Material and methods: the human lung carcinoma cell line A549 grown on polystyrene or fibronectin (FN) was irradiated with 0-8 Gy or treated with cisplatin (0.1-50 {mu}M), paclitaxel (0.1-50 nM), or mitomycin (0.1-50 {mu}M). Colony formation assays, immunofluorescence staining in combination with activation of integrin clustering using anti-{beta}{sub 1}-integrin antibodies (K20), and Western blotting for tyrosine phosphorylation under treatment of cells with the IC{sub 50} for irradiation (2 Gy; IC{sub 50} = 2.2 Gy), cisplatin (2 {mu}M), paclitaxel (5 nM), or mitomycin (7 {mu}M) were performed. Results: attachment of cells to FN resulted in a significantly reduced radio- and chemosensitivity compared to polystyrene. The clustering of {beta}{sub 1}-integrins examined by immunofluorescence staining was only stimulated by irradiation, cisplatin, paclitaxel, or mitomycin in case of cell attachment to FN. By contrast, tyrosine phosphorylation, as one of the major events following {beta}{sub 1}-integrin clustering, showed a 3.7-fold, FN-related enhancement, and treatment of cells with the IC{sub 50} of radiation, cisplatin, paclitaxel, or mitomycin showed a substratum-dependent induction. Conclusion: for the first time, a strong influence of irradiation and a variety of cytotoxic drugs on the clustering of {beta}{sub 1}-integrins could be shown. This event is a

  13. Study for the effects of acupressure on symptom clusters for patients with advanced cancer%穴位按摩在晚期癌症患者症状群中的应用效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦杰; 罗志芹; 强万敏

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the applied effect of acupressure on symptom clusters for patients with advanced cancer .Method 100 advanced cancer patients selected from the department of integrated Chinese and Western medi-cine from December 2013 to July 2014 were randomly divided into control group and experimental group based on the random number table ,with 50 patients in each group .The patients in control group were given routine nursing inter-ventions ,while the patients in the experimental group was received acupressure besides routine nursing interven-tions .The interventions was lasted for one months .The symptom clusters were compared and the results were ana-lyzed before and after the intervention .Result Before the intervention ,there was no significant difference in the se-verity of the symptom clusters between the two groups (P> 0 .05) .After the intervention ,there was significant difference in the scores of symptom clusters group 1(pain-fatigue-short of breath-sleepiness)and symptom clusters group 2(nausea-poor appetite-dry mouth-vomiting)between the two groups (P0 .05) .Conclusion Besides routine nursing interventions , the acupressure could alleviate some symptoms for patients with advanced cancer .It was worthy for clinical popular-ization and application .%目的 探讨穴位按摩在晚期癌症患者症状群中的应用效果.方法 选取2013年12月-2014年7月于天津市肿瘤医院中医科住院的100例晚期癌症患者为研究对象 ,根据随机数字表法分为对照组和观察组 ,各50例 ;对照组给予常规护理 ,观察组在常规护理的基础上进行为期1个月的穴位按摩 ;在干预前后对两组患者的症状群进行比较 ,分析穴位按摩的效果.结果 干预前两组患者的症状群得分差异无统计学意义(P>0 .05).干预后两组患者间的症状群1(疼痛-乏力-气短-嗜睡)和症状群2(恶心-胃口差-口干 -呕吐)得分差异有统计学意义(P0 .05).结论 在常规护理的基础上 ,加

  14. Quantum information processing with noisy cluster states

    CERN Document Server

    Tame, M S; Kim, M S; Vedral, V

    2005-01-01

    We provide an analysis of basic quantum information processing protocols under the effect of intrinsic non-idealities in cluster states. These non-idealities are based on the introduction of randomness in the entangling steps that create the cluster state and are motivated by the unavoidable imperfections faced in creating entanglement using condensed-matter systems. Aided by the use of an alternative and very efficient method to construct cluster state configurations, which relies on the concatenation of fundamental cluster structures, we address quantum state transfer and various fundamental gate simulations through noisy cluster states. We find that a winning strategy to limit the effects of noise, is the management of small clusters processed via just a few measurements. Our study also reinforces recent ideas related to the optical implementation of a one-way quantum computer.

  15. Relativistic Particles in Clusters of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ensslin, T A

    2002-01-01

    A brief overview on the theory and observations of relativistic particle populations in clusters of galaxies is given. The following topics are addressed: (i) the diffuse relativistic electron population within the intra-cluster medium (ICM) as seen in the cluster wide radio halos and possibly also seen in the high energy X-ray and extreme ultraviolet excess emissions of some clusters, (ii) the observed confined relativistic electrons within fresh and old radio plasma and their connection to cluster radio relics at cluster merger shock waves, (iii) the relativistic proton population within the ICM, and its observable consequences (if it exists), and (iv) the confined relativistic proton population (if it exists) within radio plasma. The importance of upcoming, sensitive gamma-ray telescopes for this research area is highlighted.

  16. Gain of a 500-fold sensitivity on an intravital MR Contrast Agent based on an endohedral Gadolinium-Cluster-Fullerene-Conjugate: A new chance in cancer diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Braun, Lothar Dunsch, Ruediger Pipkorn, Michael Bock, Tobias Baeuerle, Shangfeng Yang, Waldemar Waldeck, Manfred Wiessler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the applications of fullerene technology in health sciences the expanding field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of molecular processes is most challenging. Here we present the synthesis and application of a GdxSc3-xN@C80-BioShuttle-conjugate referred to as Gd-cluster@-BioShuttle, which features high proton relaxation and, in comparison to the commonly used contrast agents, high signal enhancement at very low Gd concentrations. This modularly designed contrast agent represents a new tool for improved monitoring and evaluation of interventions at the gene transcription level. Also, a widespread monitoring to track individual cells is possible, as well as sensing of microenvironments. Furthermore, BioShuttle can also deliver constructs for transfection or active pharmaceutical ingredients, and scaffolding for incorporation with the host's body. Using the Gd-cluster@-BioShuttle as MRI contrast agent allows an improved evaluation of radio- or chemotherapy treated tissues.

  17. Morphology of Open Clusters NGC 1857 and Czernik 20 using Clustering Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Souradeep; Pandaokar, Samay; Singh, Parikshit Kishor

    2016-01-01

    The morphology and cluster membership of the Galactic open clusters - Czernik 20 and NGC 1857 were analyzed using two different clustering algorithms. We present the maiden use of density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) to determine open cluster morphology from spatial distribution. The region of analysis has also been spatially classified using a statistical membership determination algorithm. We utilized near infrared (NIR) data for a suitably large region around the clusters from the United Kingdom Infrared Deep Sky Survey Galactic Plane Survey star catalogue database, and also from the Two Micron All Sky Survey star catalogue database. The densest regions of the cluster morphologies (1 for Czernik 20 and 2 for NGC 1857) thus identified were analyzed with a K-band extinction map and color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). To address significant discrepancy in known distance and reddening parameters, we carried out field decontamination of these CMDs and subsequent isochrone fitting of...

  18. Korean women: breast cancer knowledge, attitudes and behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryujin Lisa T

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Clustered within the nomenclature of Asian American are numerous subgroups, each with their own ethnic heritage, cultural, and linguistic characteristics. An understanding of the prevailing health knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors of these subgroups is essential for creating population-specific health promotion programs. Methods Korean American women (123 completed baseline surveys of breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors as part of an Asian grocery store-based breast cancer education program evaluation. Follow-up telephone surveys, initiated two weeks later, were completed by 93 women. Results Low adherence to the American Cancer Society's breast cancer screening guidelines and insufficient breast cancer knowledge were reported. Participants' receptiveness to the grocery store-based breast cancer education program underscores the importance of finding ways to reach Korean women with breast cancer early detection information and repeated cues for screening. The data also suggest that the Asian grocery store-based cancer education program being tested may have been effective in motivating a proportion of the women to schedule a breast cancer screening between the baseline and follow-up surveys. Conclusion The program offers a viable strategy to reach Korean women that addresses the language, cultural, transportation, and time barriers they face in accessing breast cancer early detection information.

  19. CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kavoussi

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many carcinogenetic elements in industry and it is for this reason that study and research concerning the effect of these materials is carried out on a national and international level. The establishment and growth of cancer are affected by different factors in two main areas:-1 The nature of the human or animal including sex, age, point and method of entry, fat metabolism, place of agglomeration of carcinogenetic material, amount of material absorbed by the body and the immunity of the body.2 The different nature of the carcinogenetic material e.g. physical, chemical quality, degree of solvency in fat and purity of impurity of the element. As the development of cancer is dependent upon so many factors, it is extremely difficult to determine whether a causative element is principle or contributory. Some materials are not carcinogenetic when they are pure but become so when they combine with other elements. All of this creates an industrial health problem in that it is almost impossible to plan an adequate prevention and safety program. The body through its system of immunity protects itself against small amounts of carcinogens but when this amount increases and reaches a certain level the body is not longer able to defend itself. ILO advises an effective protection campaign against cancer based on the Well –equipped laboratories, Well-educated personnel, the establishment of industrial hygiene within factories, the regular control of safety systems, and the implementation of industrial health principles and research programs.

  20. Clustered impacts - Experiments and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.; Gault, D. E.

    1985-04-01

    The characteristics of impact by clusters of projectiles are experimentally studied by launching grouped projectiles of aluminum shot, steel shot, iron filings, and sand. Cratering efficiency is considered as a function of a dimensionless parameter related to projectile size and impact velocity. The effects of different target and projectile densities on cratering efficiency are examined. Crater morphology is addressed by considering a typical example, reviewing the systematics between cluster dispersion and crater morphology for vertical impacts, and examining oblique angle impacts which have relevance for planetary secondary cratering processes. These results are compared with impacts by single bodies with different strengths. The evolution of the ejecta plume for clustered impacts is compared to that for single-body impacts for vertical and oblique impacts from 1.3 to 1.8 km/s. The experimental results are discussed in the context of planetary surface processes, emphasizing processes in an atmosphere-free environment and secondary impact cratering.

  1. Spherical k-Means Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Hornik

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clustering text documents is a fundamental task in modern data analysis, requiring approaches which perform well both in terms of solution quality and computational efficiency. Spherical k-means clustering is one approach to address both issues, employing cosine dissimilarities to perform prototype-based partitioning of term weight representations of the documents.This paper presents the theory underlying the standard spherical k-means problem and suitable extensions, and introduces the R extension package skmeans which provides a computational environment for spherical k-means clustering featuring several solvers: a fixed-point and genetic algorithm, and interfaces to two external solvers (CLUTO and Gmeans. Performance of these solvers is investigated by means of a large scale benchmark experiment.

  2. Seismic constraints on open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Piau, L; Turck-Chièze, S

    2005-01-01

    We derive knowledge on the global and structural parameters of low-mass stars using asteroseismology and taking advantage of the stellar collective behavior within open clusters. We build stellar models and compute the seismic signal expected from main sequence objects in the 0.8-1.6 Msun range. We first evaluate apparent magnitudes and oscillations-induced luminosity fluctuations expected in the Hyades, the Pleiades and the alpha Persei clusters. The closest cluster presents a feasible challenge to observational asteroseismology in the present and near future. We combine seismological and classical computations to address three questions: what can be inferred about 1) mass, 2) composition and 3) extension of outer convection zones of solar analogs in the Hyades. The first issue relies on the strong sensitivity of the large separation to mass. Then large separations and second differences are used to respectively constrain metal and helium fractions in the Hyades.When plotted for several masses, the relation ...

  3. Heavy hitters via cluster-preserving clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nelson, Jelani; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2016-01-01

    , providing correctness whp. In fact, a simpler version of our algorithm for p = 1 in the strict turnstile model answers queries even faster than the "dyadic trick" by roughly a log n factor, dominating it in all regards. Our main innovation is an efficient reduction from the heavy hitters to a clustering...... problem in which each heavy hitter is encoded as some form of noisy spectral cluster in a much bigger graph, and the goal is to identify every cluster. Since every heavy hitter must be found, correctness requires that every cluster be found. We thus need a "cluster-preserving clustering" algorithm......, that partitions the graph into clusters with the promise of not destroying any original cluster. To do this we first apply standard spectral graph partitioning, and then we use some novel combinatorial techniques to modify the cuts obtained so as to make sure that the original clusters are sufficiently preserved...

  4. Building Footprints - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Structures/Addresses Framework is a statewide spatial database of structure and address points in the State of Montana. The Montana Structures/Addresses...

  5. The effectiveness of the quality program Pac-IficO to improve pain management in hospitalized cancer patients: a before-after cluster phase II trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ripamonti, Carla Ida; Prandi, Cesarina; Costantini, Massimo; Perfetti, Elisa; Pellegrini, Fabio; Visentin, Marco; Garrino, Lorenza; De Luca, Anna; Pessi, Maria Adelaide; Peruselli, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    ...) the symptom is still under-diagnosed and its treatment is not appropriate in many patients. The objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of the Pac-IFicO programme in improving the quality of pain management in hospitalised cancer patients...

  6. Cluster headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducros Anne

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cluster headache (CH is a primary headache disease characterized by recurrent short-lasting attacks (15 to 180 minutes of excruciating unilateral periorbital pain accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic signs (lacrimation, nasal congestion, ptosis, miosis, lid edema, redness of the eye. It affects young adults, predominantly males. Prevalence is estimated at 0.5–1.0/1,000. CH has a circannual and circadian periodicity, attacks being clustered (hence the name in bouts that can occur during specific months of the year. Alcohol is the only dietary trigger of CH, strong odors (mainly solvents and cigarette smoke and napping may also trigger CH attacks. During bouts, attacks may happen at precise hours, especially during the night. During the attacks, patients tend to be restless. CH may be episodic or chronic, depending on the presence of remission periods. CH is associated with trigeminovascular activation and neuroendocrine and vegetative disturbances, however, the precise cautive mechanisms remain unknown. Involvement of the hypothalamus (a structure regulating endocrine function and sleep-wake rhythms has been confirmed, explaining, at least in part, the cyclic aspects of CH. The disease is familial in about 10% of cases. Genetic factors play a role in CH susceptibility, and a causative role has been suggested for the hypocretin receptor gene. Diagnosis is clinical. Differential diagnoses include other primary headache diseases such as migraine, paroxysmal hemicrania and SUNCT syndrome. At present, there is no curative treatment. There are efficient treatments to shorten the painful attacks (acute treatments and to reduce the number of daily attacks (prophylactic treatments. Acute treatment is based on subcutaneous administration of sumatriptan and high-flow oxygen. Verapamil, lithium, methysergide, prednisone, greater occipital nerve blocks and topiramate may be used for prophylaxis. In refractory cases, deep-brain stimulation of the

  7. Scientific Cluster Deployment and Recovery - Using puppet to simplify cluster management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Val; Benjamin, Doug; Yao, Yushu

    2012-12-01

    Deployment, maintenance and recovery of a scientific cluster, which has complex, specialized services, can be a time consuming task requiring the assistance of Linux system administrators, network engineers as well as domain experts. Universities and small institutions that have a part-time FTE with limited time for and knowledge of the administration of such clusters can be strained by such maintenance tasks. This current work is the result of an effort to maintain a data analysis cluster (DAC) with minimal effort by a local system administrator. The realized benefit is the scientist, who is the local system administrator, is able to focus on the data analysis instead of the intricacies of managing a cluster. Our work provides a cluster deployment and recovery process (CDRP) based on the puppet configuration engine allowing a part-time FTE to easily deploy and recover entire clusters with minimal effort. Puppet is a configuration management system (CMS) used widely in computing centers for the automatic management of resources. Domain experts use Puppet's declarative language to define reusable modules for service configuration and deployment. Our CDRP has three actors: domain experts, a cluster designer and a cluster manager. The domain experts first write the puppet modules for the cluster services. A cluster designer would then define a cluster. This includes the creation of cluster roles, mapping the services to those roles and determining the relationships between the services. Finally, a cluster manager would acquire the resources (machines, networking), enter the cluster input parameters (hostnames, IP addresses) and automatically generate deployment scripts used by puppet to configure it to act as a designated role. In the event of a machine failure, the originally generated deployment scripts along with puppet can be used to easily reconfigure a new machine. The cluster definition produced in our CDRP is an integral part of automating cluster deployment

  8. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications.

  9. cluML: A markup language for clustering and cluster validity assessment of microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolshakova, Nadia; Cunningham, Pádraig

    2005-01-01

    cluML is a new markup language for microarray data clustering and cluster validity assessment. The XML-based format has been designed to address some of the limitations observed in traditional formats, such as inability to store multiple clustering (including biclustering) and validation results within a dataset. cluML is an effective tool to support biomedical knowledge representation in gene expression data analysis. Although cluML was developed for DNA microarray analysis applications, it can be effectively used for the representation of clustering and for the validation of other biomedical and physical data that has no limitations.

  10. Using an innovative multiple regression procedure in a cancer population (Part II: fever, depressive affect, and mobility problems clarify an influential symptom pair (pain–fatigue/weakness and cluster (pain–fatigue/weakness–sleep problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francoeur RB

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Richard B Francoeur1,2 1School of Social Work and the Center for Health Innovation, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA; 2Center for the Psychosocial Study of Health and Illness, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA Background: Most patients with advanced cancer experience symptom pairs or clusters among pain, fatigue, and insomnia. However, only combinations where symptoms are mutually influential hold potential for identifying patient subgroups at greater risk, and in some contexts, interventions with "cross-over" (multisymptom effects. Improved methods to detect and interpret interactions among symptoms, signs, or biomarkers are needed to reveal these influential pairs and clusters. I recently created sequential residual centering (SRC to reduce multicollinearity in moderated regression, which enhances sensitivity to detect these interactions. Methods: I applied SRC to moderated regressions of single-item symptoms that interact to predict outcomes from 268 palliative radiation outpatients. I investigated: 1 the hypothesis that the interaction, pain × fatigue/weakness × sleep problems, predicts depressive affect only when fever presents, and 2 an exploratory analysis, when fever is absent, that the interaction, pain × fatigue/weakness × sleep problems × depressive affect, predicts mobility problems. In the fever context, three-way interactions (and derivative terms of the four symptoms (pain, fatigue/weakness, fever, sleep problems are tested individually and simultaneously; in the non-fever context, a single four-way interaction (and derivative terms is tested. Results: Fever interacts separately with fatigue/weakness and sleep problems; these comoderators each magnify the pain–depressive affect relationship along the upper or full range of pain values. In non-fever contexts, fatigue/weakness, sleep problems, and depressive affect comagnify the relationship between pain and mobility problems. Conclusion: Different mechanisms

  11. Partitional clustering algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book summarizes the state-of-the-art in partitional clustering. Clustering, the unsupervised classification of patterns into groups, is one of the most important tasks in exploratory data analysis. Primary goals of clustering include gaining insight into, classifying, and compressing data. Clustering has a long and rich history that spans a variety of scientific disciplines including anthropology, biology, medicine, psychology, statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. As a result, numerous clustering algorithms have been proposed since the early 1950s. Among these algorithms, partitional (nonhierarchical) ones have found many applications, especially in engineering and computer science. This book provides coverage of consensus clustering, constrained clustering, large scale and/or high dimensional clustering, cluster validity, cluster visualization, and applications of clustering. Examines clustering as it applies to large and/or high-dimensional data sets commonly encountered in reali...

  12. Large scale cluster computing workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dane Skow; Alan Silverman

    2002-12-23

    Recent revolutions in computer hardware and software technologies have paved the way for the large-scale deployment of clusters of commodity computers to address problems heretofore the domain of tightly coupled SMP processors. Near term projects within High Energy Physics and other computing communities will deploy clusters of scale 1000s of processors and be used by 100s to 1000s of independent users. This will expand the reach in both dimensions by an order of magnitude from the current successful production facilities. The goals of this workshop were: (1) to determine what tools exist which can scale up to the cluster sizes foreseen for the next generation of HENP experiments (several thousand nodes) and by implication to identify areas where some investment of money or effort is likely to be needed. (2) To compare and record experimences gained with such tools. (3) To produce a practical guide to all stages of planning, installing, building and operating a large computing cluster in HENP. (4) To identify and connect groups with similar interest within HENP and the larger clustering community.

  13. Clustering and Community Detection with Imbalanced Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoylar, Cem; Qian, Jing; Saligrama, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Spectral clustering methods which are frequently used in clustering and community detection applications are sensitive to the specific graph constructions particularly when imbalanced clusters are present. We show that ratio cut (RCut) or normalized cut (NCut) objectives are not tailored to imbalanced cluster sizes since they tend to emphasize cut sizes over cut values. We propose a graph partitioning problem that seeks minimum cut partitions under minimum size constraints on partitions to de...

  14. A cluster-randomised, parallel group, controlled intervention study of genetic prostate cancer risk assessment and use of PSA tests in general practice--the ProCaRis study: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkegaard, Pia; Vedsted, Peter; Edwards, Adrian; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Bro, Flemming

    2013-03-01

    Unsystematic screening for prostate cancer (PCa) is common, causing a high number of false-positive results. Valid instruments for assessment of individual risk of PCa have been called for. A DNA-based genetic test has been tested retrospectively. The clinical use of this test needs further investigation. The primary objective is to evaluate the impact on the use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests of introducing genetic PCa risk assessment in general practice. The secondary objectives are to evaluate PCa-related patient experiences, and to explore sociocultural aspects of genetic risk assessment in patients at high PCa risk. The study is a cluster-randomised, controlled intervention study with practice as the unit of randomisation. We expect 140 practices to accept participation and include a total of 1244 patients in 4 months. Patients requesting a PSA test in the intervention group practices will be offered a genetic PCa risk assessment. Patients requesting a PSA test in the control group practices will be handled according to current guidelines. Data will be collected from registers, patient questionnaires and interviews. Quantitative data will be analysed according to intention-to-treat principles. Baseline characteristics will be compared between groups. Longitudinal analyses will include time in risk, and multivariable analysis will be conducted to evaluate the influence of general practitioner and patient-specific variables on future PSA testing. Interview data will be transcribed verbatim and analysed from a social-constructivist perspective. Consent will be obtained from patients who can withdraw from the study at any time. The study provides data to the ongoing conceptual and ethical discussions about genetic risk assessment and classification of low-risk and high-risk individuals. The intervention model might be applicable to other screening areas regarding risk of cancer with identified genetic components, for example, colon cancer. The study is

  15. A cluster-randomised, parallel group, controlled intervention study of genetic prostate cancer risk assessment and use of PSA tests in general practice—the ProCaRis study: study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkegaard, Pia; Vedsted, Peter; Edwards, Adrian; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Bro, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Unsystematic screening for prostate cancer (PCa) is common, causing a high number of false-positive results. Valid instruments for assessment of individual risk of PCa have been called for. A DNA-based genetic test has been tested retrospectively. The clinical use of this test needs further investigation. The primary objective is to evaluate the impact on the use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests of introducing genetic PCa risk assessment in general practice. The secondary objectives are to evaluate PCa-related patient experiences, and to explore sociocultural aspects of genetic risk assessment in patients at high PCa risk. Methods and analysis The study is a cluster-randomised, controlled intervention study with practice as the unit of randomisation. We expect 140 practices to accept participation and include a total of 1244 patients in 4 months. Patients requesting a PSA test in the intervention group practices will be offered a genetic PCa risk assessment. Patients requesting a PSA test in the control group practices will be handled according to current guidelines. Data will be collected from registers, patient questionnaires and interviews. Quantitative data will be analysed according to intention-to-treat principles. Baseline characteristics will be compared between groups. Longitudinal analyses will include time in risk, and multivariable analysis will be conducted to evaluate the influence of general practitioner and patient-specific variables on future PSA testing. Interview data will be transcribed verbatim and analysed from a social-constructivist perspective. Ethics and dissemination Consent will be obtained from patients who can withdraw from the study at any time. The study provides data to the ongoing conceptual and ethical discussions about genetic risk assessment and classification of low-risk and high-risk individuals. The intervention model might be applicable to other screening areas regarding risk of cancer with identified

  16. Evaluation of a Bladder Cancer Cluster in a Population of Criminal Investigators with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives—Part 2: The Association of Cancer Risk and Fire Scene Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan R. Davis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the association of bladder cancer risk and fire scene investigation within a cohort of white male criminal investigators with the United States Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives that was found to be at increased risk for bladder cancer. Medical surveillance data were used in a nested case-control study to determine odds ratios (ORs estimating the relative risk of the cancer associated with post-fire investigation. The study comprised seven bladder cancer cases and 1525 controls. Six of the cases reported holding assignments associated with post-fire investigation. The OR for bladder cancer was 19.01 (95% confidence interval = 1.94–186.39 for those holding any one or more of these assignments for one to four years versus zero years and 12.56 (1.14–138.58 for those holding any one or more of these assignments for five or more years versus zero years. The risk for bladder cancer is significantly elevated for those holding post-fire investigation assignments compared to those not holding these assignments.

  17. Evaluation of a bladder cancer cluster in a population of criminal investigators with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives--part 2: the association of cancer risk and fire scene investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Susan R; Tao, Xuguang; Bernacki, Edward J; Alfriend, Amy S; Delowery, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the association of bladder cancer risk and fire scene investigation within a cohort of white male criminal investigators with the United States Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives that was found to be at increased risk for bladder cancer. Medical surveillance data were used in a nested case-control study to determine odds ratios (ORs) estimating the relative risk of the cancer associated with post-fire investigation. The study comprised seven bladder cancer cases and 1525 controls. Six of the cases reported holding assignments associated with post-fire investigation. The OR for bladder cancer was 19.01 (95% confidence interval = 1.94-186.39) for those holding any one or more of these assignments for one to four years versus zero years and 12.56 (1.14-138.58) for those holding any one or more of these assignments for five or more years versus zero years. The risk for bladder cancer is significantly elevated for those holding post-fire investigation assignments compared to those not holding these assignments.

  18. Accelerating semantic graph databases on commodity clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morari, Alessandro; Castellana, Vito G.; Haglin, David J.; Feo, John T.; Weaver, Jesse R.; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste

    2013-10-06

    We are developing a full software system for accelerating semantic graph databases on commodity cluster that scales to hundreds of nodes while maintaining constant query throughput. Our framework comprises a SPARQL to C++ compiler, a library of parallel graph methods and a custom multithreaded runtime layer, which provides a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model with fork/join parallelism and automatic load balancing over a commodity clusters. We present preliminary results for the compiler and for the runtime.

  19. Cluster headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, R E; Ryan, R E

    1989-12-01

    The patient with cluster headaches will be afflicted with the most severe type of pain that one will encounter. If the physician can do something to help this patient either by symptomatic or, more importantly, prophylactic treatment, he or she will have a most thankful patient. This type of headache is seen most frequently in men, and occurs in a cyclic manner. During an acute cycle, the patient will experience a daily type of pain that may occur many times per day. The pain is usually unilateral and may be accompanied by unilateral lacrimation, conjunctivitis, and clear rhinorrhea. Prednisone is the first treatment we employ. Patients are seen for follow-up approximately twice a week, and their medication is lowered in an appropriate manner, depending on their response to the treatment. Regulation of dosage has to be individualized, and when one reaches the lower dose such as 5 to 10 mg per day, the drug may have to be tapered more slowly, or even maintained at that level for a period of time to prevent further recurrence of symptoms. We frequently will use an intravenous histamine desensitization technique to prevent further attacks. We will give the patient an ergotamine preparation to use for symptomatic relief. As these patients often have headaches during the middle of the night, we will place the patient on a 2-mg ergotamine preparation to take prior to going to bed in the evening. This often works in a prophylactic nature, and prevents the nighttime occurrence of a headache. We believe that following these principles to make the accurate diagnosis and institute the proper therapy will help the practicing otolaryngologist recognize and treat patients suffering from this severe pain.

  20. 基于标本兼治的胃癌前病变临床疗效评价方法探讨%Study on Method for Clinical Effectiveness Evaluation of Precancerous Lesion of Gastric Cancer Treated with Addressing Both the Symptoms and Root Causes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈舒文; 宇文亚; 李周利; 黄毓娟; 洪亚庆

    2011-01-01

    Addressing both the symptoms and root causes means regulating structure of sufficient-syndrome and deficiency-syndrome on the basis of differential treatment, which is the therapeutic advantage of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in treating precancerous lesion of gastric cancer. However, up to now ,the scientific method of clinical effectiveness evaluation for addressing both symptoms and root causes is absent. In this paper, we explored the method by modern mathematics,statistics methods and techniques, combined with its own characteristics of TCM.%标本兼治是辨证论治层位上的虚实证候结构调治,也正是中医治疗胃癌前病变的疗效优势所在,但对其疗效评价尚缺乏科学的方法.充分利用现代数学、统计学方法与技术,结合中医药自身的特点,探索基于标本兼治的胃癌前病变临床疗效评价方法.

  1. Butyrate inhibits pro-proliferative miR-92a by diminishing c-Myc-induced miR-17-92a cluster transcription in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shien; Liu, Lan; Chang, Eugene B; Wang, Jian-Ying; Raufman, Jean-Pierre

    2015-10-13

    Compromised colonic butyrate production resulting from low dietary fiber or altered gut microbiota may promote colon neoplasia. Previous reports indicate these actions are mediated in part by altered levels of miRNAs, including suppressed expression of the oncogenic miR-17-92a cluster. Here, we sought to identify the mechanisms underlying these effects of butyrate in colon cancer. miR-92a levels were measured in archived human colon cancer and adjacent normal colon specimens by microarray and quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR). The effects of butyrate and other histone deacetylase inhibitors (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and valproic acid) on primary (pri-miR17-92a), precursor and mature miR-92a were analyzed in HCT-116 and HT-29 human colon cancer cells using qPCR. The effects of butyrate, SAHA and valproic acid on protein levels of c-Myc, Drosha and p57 were measured in HCT-116 cells using immunoblotting. Regulation of C13orf25 promoter activity by butyrate was analyzed by luciferase reporter assay using modified pGL3 constructs containing a wild-type or mutated c-Myc binding site. Expression of c-Myc was modulated using siRNA or adenovirus vectors. p57 mRNA and protein were measured before and after transfection with miR-92a-mimic molecules. Following butyrate treatment and miR-92a-mimic transfection, apoptosis was analyzed by TUNEL staining and caspase-3 immunoblotting. Microarray, confirmed by qPCR, revealed a seven-fold increase in miR-92a levels in sporadic human colon cancer tissue compared to adjacent normal colon. Treating human colon cancer cells with butyrate reduced the levels of pri-miR17-92a, precursor and mature miR-92a, as well as c-Myc. SAHA and valproic acid had similar effects. Mutation of the c-Myc binding site diminished butyrate's inhibitory effects on C13orf25 promoter activity. Silencing c-Myc expression reduced miR-92a levels. c-Myc over-expression neutralized butyrate-induced attenuation of pri-miR17-92a. Exogenous miR-92a inhibited

  2. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  3. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Proteomics in Patients with Suspected Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Cuco, Célia Marina; Lavareda, Carla; Miguel, Francisco; Ventura, Mafalda; Almeida, Sónia; Pinto, Paula; de Abreu, Tiago Tavares; Rodrigues, Luís Vaz; Seixas, Susana; Bárbara, Cristina; Azkargorta, Mikel; Elortza, Felix; Semedo, Júlio; Field, John K.; Mota, Leonor; Matthiesen, Rune

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer configures as one of the deadliest types of cancer. The future implementation of early screening methods such as exhaled breath condensate analysis and low dose computed tomography (CT) as an alternative to current chest imaging based screening will lead to an increased burden on bronchoscopy units. New approaches for improvement of diagnosis in bronchoscopy units, regarding patient management, are likely to have clinical impact in the future. Diagnostic approaches to address mortality of lung cancer include improved early detection and stratification of the cancers according to its prognosis and further response to drug treatment. In this study, we performed a detailed mass spectrometry based proteome analysis of acellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples on an observational prospective cohort consisting of 90 suspected lung cancer cases which were followed during two years. The thirteen new lung cancer cases diagnosed during the follow up time period clustered, based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data, with lung cancer cases at the time of BAL collection. Hundred and thirty-tree potential biomarkers were identified showing significantly differential expression when comparing lung cancer versus non-lung cancer. The regulated biomarkers showed a large overlap with biomarkers detected in tissue samples. PMID:28169345

  4. Virial masses of galaxy clusters in the post-Newtonian limit

    CERN Document Server

    Roshan, Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    We estimate virial masses of galaxy clusters using the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) virial theorem. Also, we show explicitly that post-Newtonian corrections can not address the mass discrepancy in the galaxy clusters.

  5. Factorial PD-Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Tortora, Cristina; Summa, Mireille Gettler

    2011-01-01

    Factorial clustering methods have been developed in recent years thanks to the improving of computational power. These methods perform a linear transformation of data and a clustering on transformed data optimizing a common criterion. Factorial PD-clustering is based on Probabilistic Distance clustering (PD-clustering). PD-clustering is an iterative, distribution free, probabilistic, clustering method. Factorial PD-clustering make a linear transformation of original variables into a reduced number of orthogonal ones using a common criterion with PD-Clustering. It is demonstrated that Tucker 3 decomposition allows to obtain this transformation. Factorial PD-clustering makes alternatively a Tucker 3 decomposition and a PD-clustering on transformed data until convergence. This method could significantly improve the algorithm performance and allows to work with large dataset, to improve the stability and the robustness of the method.

  6. Singular electrostatic energy of nanoparticle clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian; Krapf, Nathan W.; Witten, Thomas A.

    2016-02-01

    The binding of clusters of metal nanoparticles is partly electrostatic. We address difficulties in calculating the electrostatic energy when high charging energies limit the total charge to a single quantum, entailing unequal potentials on the particles. We show that the energy at small separation h has a singular logarithmic dependence on h . We derive a general form for this energy in terms of the singular capacitance of two spheres in near contact c (h ) , together with nonsingular geometric features of the cluster. Using this form, we determine the energies of various clusters, finding that more compact clusters are more stable. These energies are proposed to be significant for metal-semiconductor binary nanoparticle lattices found experimentally. We sketch how these effects should dictate the relative abundances of metal nanoparticle clusters in nonpolar solvents.

  7. Sum-of-squares clustering on networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrizosa Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Finding p prototypes by minimizing the sum of the squared distances from a set of points to its closest prototype is a well-studied problem in clustering, data analysis and continuous location. In this note, this very same problem is addressed assuming, for the first time, that the space of possible prototype locations is a network. We develop some interesting properties of such clustering problem. We also show that optimal cluster prototypes are not necessary located at vertices of the network.

  8. Possibilistic Exponential Fuzzy Clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiatichai Treerattanapitak; Chuleerat Jaruskulchai

    2013-01-01

    Generally,abnormal points (noise and outliers) cause cluster analysis to produce low accuracy especially in fuzzy clustering.These data not only stay in clusters but also deviate the centroids from their true positions.Traditional fuzzy clustering like Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) always assigns data to all clusters which is not reasonable in some circumstances.By reformulating objective function in exponential equation,the algorithm aggressively selects data into the clusters.However noisy data and outliers cannot be properly handled by clustering process therefore they are forced to be included in a cluster because of a general probabilistic constraint that the sum of the membership degrees across all clusters is one.In order to improve this weakness,possibilistic approach relaxes this condition to improve membership assignment.Nevertheless,possibilistic clustering algorithms generally suffer from coincident clusters because their membership equations ignore the distance to other clusters.Although there are some possibilistic clustering approaches that do not generate coincident clusters,most of them require the right combination of multiple parameters for the algorithms to work.In this paper,we theoretically study Possibilistic Exponential Fuzzy Clustering (PXFCM) that integrates possibilistic approach with exponential fuzzy clustering.PXFCM has only one parameter and not only partitions the data but also filters noisy data or detects them as outliers.The comprehensive experiments show that PXFCM produces high accuracy in both clustering results and outlier detection without generating coincident problems.

  9. 集束护理干预策略对乳腺癌保乳术后放化疗患者的影响%Influence of Cluster Nursing Intervention on Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiochemotherapy after Conservative Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽芬

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨集束护理干预策略对乳腺癌保乳术后放化疗患者的影响。方法:将进行保乳术且术后同期接受放化疗的乳腺癌患者随机分为观察组和对照组,每组60例。对照组给予常规护理(放疗护理常规、化疗护理常规、专科护理常规),观察组在此基础上给予集束护理干预。观察2组患者心理状态、营养状态及生活质量。结果:自评抑郁量表(SDS)、焦虑自评量表(SAS)评分干预后观察组低于对照组(P<0.05)。MNA评分观察组护理干预后在不同时段MNA评分均优于对照组(P<0.05)。各项生活评分护理干预后在不同时段观察组均优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:集束护理干预策略对乳腺癌患者保乳治疗术后同期放化疗所出现的不良情绪具有缓解作用,并可提高患者的生活质量,改善近、远期营养状况。%To explore the influence of cluster nursing intervention on breast cancer patients with conservative surgery undergoing radiochemotherapy. Methods: The breast cancer patients accepting current ra-diochemotherapy after conservative surgery were randomly divided into the observation group and the control groups with 60 cases in each. Patients in the control group were given routine nursing care (routine radiotherapy care, routine chemotherapy care, routine nursing care), while the observation group was given cluster nursing inter-vention on the basis of routine nursing. Psychological state, nutritional status and life quality of patients in two groups were analyzed. Results: The SDS and SAS scores in the observation group were lower than that in the control group (P<0.05).The MNA scores in the observation group were better than that in the control group in different pe-riod (P<0.05). All life scores of the observation group in different period were better than that in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Cluster nursing intervention can effectively relieve the negative emotions

  10. What is an address in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available numbers inside the security estate and therefore these addresses are not necessarily part of the municipal address database. If a person inside such a security estate wants to open a financial account, how can one verify that their address is valid? A... African addresses’, subsequently given the designation SANS 1883. The aim of the standard is not to devise a new system of addressing or to build a national address database, but rather to enable interoperability in address data sets and geographical...

  11. Spatial analysis of lung, colorectal, and breast cancer on Cape Cod: An application of generalized additive models to case-control data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschengrau Ann

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of geographic information from cancer and birth defect registries has increased public demands for investigation of perceived disease clusters. Many neighborhood-level cluster investigations are methodologically problematic, while maps made from registry data often ignore latency and many known risk factors. Population-based case-control and cohort studies provide a stronger foundation for spatial epidemiology because potential confounders and disease latency can be addressed. Methods We investigated the association between residence and colorectal, lung, and breast cancer on upper Cape Cod, Massachusetts (USA using extensive data on covariates and residential history from two case-control studies for 1983–1993. We generated maps using generalized additive models, smoothing on longitude and latitude while adjusting for covariates. The resulting continuous surface estimates disease rates relative to the whole study area. We used permutation tests to examine the overall importance of location in the model and identify areas of increased and decreased risk. Results Maps of colorectal cancer were relatively flat. Assuming 15 years of latency, lung cancer was significantly elevated just northeast of the Massachusetts Military Reservation, although the result did not hold when we restricted to residences of longest duration. Earlier non-spatial epidemiology had found a weak association between lung cancer and proximity to gun and mortar positions on the reservation. Breast cancer hot spots tended to increase in magnitude as we increased latency and adjusted for covariates, indicating that confounders were partly hiding these areas. Significant breast cancer hot spots were located near known groundwater plumes and the Massachusetts Military Reservation. Discussion Spatial epidemiology of population-based case-control studies addresses many methodological criticisms of cluster studies and generates new exposure

  12. Structures of Mn clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tina M Briere; Marcel H F Sluiter; Vijay Kumar; Yoshiyuki Kawazoe

    2003-01-01

    The geometries of several Mn clusters in the size range Mn13–Mn23 are studied via the generalized gradient approximation to density functional theory. For the 13- and 19-atom clusters, the icosahedral structures are found to be most stable, while for the 15-atom cluster, the bcc structure is more favoured. The clusters show ferrimagnetic spin configurations.

  13. Dissolution of Globular Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgardt, Holger

    2006-01-01

    Globular clusters are among the oldest objects in galaxies, and understanding the details of their formation and evolution can bring valuable insight into the early history of galaxies. This review summarises the current knowledge about the dissolution of star clusters and discusses the implications of star cluster dissolution for the evolution of the mass function of star cluster systems in galaxies.

  14. Clustering of correlated networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dorogovtsev, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    We obtain the clustering coefficient, the degree-dependent local clustering, and the mean clustering of networks with arbitrary correlations between the degrees of the nearest-neighbor vertices. The resulting formulas allow one to determine the nature of the clustering of a network.

  15. Contextualizing the Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacomin, Valeria

    This dissertation examines the case of the palm oil cluster in Malaysia and Indonesia, today one of the largest agricultural clusters in the world. My analysis focuses on the evolution of the cluster from the 1880s to the 1970s in order to understand how it helped these two countries to integrate......-researched topic in the cluster literature – the emergence of clusters, their governance and institutional change, and competition between rival cluster locations – through the case of the Southeast Asian palm oil cluster....

  16. Contextualizing the Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacomin, Valeria

    This dissertation examines the case of the palm oil cluster in Malaysia and Indonesia, today one of the largest agricultural clusters in the world. My analysis focuses on the evolution of the cluster from the 1880s to the 1970s in order to understand how it helped these two countries to integrate......-researched topic in the cluster literature – the emergence of clusters, their governance and institutional change, and competition between rival cluster locations – through the case of the Southeast Asian palm oil cluster....

  17. Clustering in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drab, Klaudia; Daszykowski, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Data clustering plays an important role in the exploratory analysis of analytical data, and the use of clustering methods has been acknowledged in different fields of science. In this paper, principles of data clustering are presented with a direct focus on clustering of analytical data. The role of the clustering process in the analytical workflow is underlined, and its potential impact on the analytical workflow is emphasized.

  18. Hybrid fuzzy cluster ensemble framework for tumor clustering from biomolecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiwen; Chen, Hantao; You, Jane; Han, Guoqiang; Li, Le

    2013-01-01

    Cancer class discovery using biomolecular data is one of the most important tasks for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Tumor clustering from gene expression data provides a new way to perform cancer class discovery. Most of the existing research works adopt single-clustering algorithms to perform tumor clustering is from biomolecular data that lack robustness, stability, and accuracy. To further improve the performance of tumor clustering from biomolecular data, we introduce the fuzzy theory into the cluster ensemble framework for tumor clustering from biomolecular data, and propose four kinds of hybrid fuzzy cluster ensemble frameworks (HFCEF), named as HFCEF-I, HFCEF-II, HFCEF-III, and HFCEF-IV, respectively, to identify samples that belong to different types of cancers. The difference between HFCEF-I and HFCEF-II is that they adopt different ensemble generator approaches to generate a set of fuzzy matrices in the ensemble. Specifically, HFCEF-I applies the affinity propagation algorithm (AP) to perform clustering on the sample dimension and generates a set of fuzzy matrices in the ensemble based on the fuzzy membership function and base samples selected by AP. HFCEF-II adopts AP to perform clustering on the attribute dimension, generates a set of subspaces, and obtains a set of fuzzy matrices in the ensemble by performing fuzzy c-means on subspaces. Compared with HFCEF-I and HFCEF-II, HFCEF-III and HFCEF-IV consider the characteristics of HFCEF-I and HFCEF-II. HFCEF-III combines HFCEF-I and HFCEF-II in a serial way, while HFCEF-IV integrates HFCEF-I and HFCEF-II in a concurrent way. HFCEFs adopt suitable consensus functions, such as the fuzzy c-means algorithm or the normalized cut algorithm (Ncut), to summarize generated fuzzy matrices, and obtain the final results. The experiments on real data sets from UCI machine learning repository and cancer gene expression profiles illustrate that 1) the proposed hybrid fuzzy cluster ensemble frameworks work well on real

  19. Expression profile of skin papillomas with high cancer risk displays a unique genetic signature that clusters with squamous cell carcinomas and predicts risk for malignant conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwiche, N; Ryscavage, A; Perez-Lorenzo, R; Wright, L; Bae, D-S; Hennings, H; Yuspa, S H; Glick, A B

    2007-10-18

    Chemical induction of squamous tumors in the mouse skin induces multiple benign papillomas: high-frequency terminally benign low-risk papillomas and low-frequency high-risk papillomas, the putative precursor lesions to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We have compared the gene expression profile of twenty different early low- and high-risk papillomas with normal skin and SCC. Unsupervised clustering of 514 differentially expressed genes (Pclassifier algorithms generated a gene list that correctly classified unknown benign tumors as low- or high-risk concordant with promotion protocol and keratin profiling. Reduced expression of immune function genes characterized the high-risk papillomas and SCC. Immunohistochemistry confirmed reduced T-cell number in high-risk papillomas, suggesting that reduced adaptive immunity defines papillomas that progress to SCC. These results demonstrate that murine premalignant lesions can be segregated into subgroups by gene expression patterns that correlate with risk for malignant conversion, and suggest a paradigm for generating diagnostic biomarkers for human premalignant lesions with unknown individual risk for malignant conversion.

  20. 77 FR 48429 - Commission Address Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION 29 CFR Parts 2700, 2701, 2702, 2704, 2705, 2706 Commission Address Change AGENCY... to inform the public of the address change. DATES: This final rule will take effect on August 27... because the amendments are of a minor and administrative nature dealing with only a change in address....

  1. Tumour-associated and non-tumour-associated microbiota in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemer, Burkhardt; Lynch, Denise B; Brown, Jillian M R; Jeffery, Ian B; Ryan, Feargal J; Claesson, Marcus J; O'Riordain, Micheal; Shanahan, Fergus; O'Toole, Paul W

    2017-01-01

    Objective A signature that unifies the colorectal cancer (CRC) microbiota across multiple studies has not been identified. In addition to methodological variance, heterogeneity may be caused by both microbial and host response differences, which was addressed in this study. Design We prospectively studied the colonic microbiota and the expression of specific host response genes using faecal and mucosal samples (‘ON’ and ‘OFF’ the tumour, proximal and distal) from 59 patients undergoing surgery for CRC, 21 individuals with polyps and 56 healthy controls. Microbiota composition was determined by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing; expression of host genes involved in CRC progression and immune response was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. Results The microbiota of patients with CRC differed from that of controls, but alterations were not restricted to the cancerous tissue. Differences between distal and proximal cancers were detected and faecal microbiota only partially reflected mucosal microbiota in CRC. Patients with CRC can be stratified based on higher level structures of mucosal-associated bacterial co-abundance groups (CAGs) that resemble the previously formulated concept of enterotypes. Of these, Bacteroidetes Cluster 1 and Firmicutes Cluster 1 were in decreased abundance in CRC mucosa, whereas Bacteroidetes Cluster 2, Firmicutes Cluster 2, Pathogen Cluster and Prevotella Cluster showed increased abundance in CRC mucosa. CRC-associated CAGs were differentially correlated with the expression of host immunoinflammatory response genes. Conclusions CRC-associated microbiota profiles differ from those in healthy subjects and are linked with distinct mucosal gene-expression profiles. Compositional alterations in the microbiota are not restricted to cancerous tissue and differ between distal and proximal cancers. PMID:26992426

  2. Tuning Properties in Silver Clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Joshi, Chakra Prasad

    2015-07-09

    The properties of Ag nanoclusters are not as well understood as those of their more precious Au cousins. However, a recent surge in the exploration of strategies to tune the physicochemical characteristics of Ag clusters addresses this imbalance, leading to new insights into their optical, luminescence, crystal habit, metal-core, ligand-shell and environmental properties. In this Perspective, we provide an overview of the latest strategies along with a brief introduction of the theoretical framework necessary to understand the properties of silver nanoclusters and the basis for their tuning. The advances in cluster research and the future prospects presented in this Perspective will eventually guide the next large systematic study of nanoclusters, resulting in a single collection of data similar to the periodic table of elements.

  3. A comparison of spatial clustering and cluster detection techniques for childhood leukemia incidence in Ohio, 1996 – 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wheeler David C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial cluster detection is an important tool in cancer surveillance to identify areas of elevated risk and to generate hypotheses about cancer etiology. There are many cluster detection methods used in spatial epidemiology to investigate suspicious groupings of cancer occurrences in regional count data and case-control data, where controls are sampled from the at-risk population. Numerous studies in the literature have focused on childhood leukemia because of its relatively large incidence among children compared with other malignant diseases and substantial public concern over elevated leukemia incidence. The main focus of this paper is an analysis of the spatial distribution of leukemia incidence among children from 0 to 14 years of age in Ohio from 1996–2003 using individual case data from the Ohio Cancer Incidence Surveillance System (OCISS. Specifically, we explore whether there is statistically significant global clustering and if there are statistically significant local clusters of individual leukemia cases in Ohio using numerous published methods of spatial cluster detection, including spatial point process summary methods, a nearest neighbor method, and a local rate scanning method. We use the K function, Cuzick and Edward's method, and the kernel intensity function to test for significant global clustering and the kernel intensity function and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic in SaTScan to test for significant local clusters. Results We found some evidence, although inconclusive, of significant local clusters in childhood leukemia in Ohio, but no significant overall clustering. The findings from the local cluster detection analyses are not consistent for the different cluster detection techniques, where the spatial scan method in SaTScan does not find statistically significant local clusters, while the kernel intensity function method suggests statistically significant clusters in areas of central, southern

  4. Local cluster of germ cell cancer in a cohort of male automotive workers in Germany not explained by previous or concurrent activities and exposures in farming and forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeisser, N; Behrens, T; Mester, B; Gottlieb, A; Langner, I; Ahrens, W

    2011-02-01

    To examine whether exposures or activities in farming, forestry and related occupations explain the excess incidence of germ cell cancer (GCC) observed among male employees in one of the six car-manufacturing plants that is located in a geographic area where farming is frequent. A cohort based case-control study was conducted among workers in six car-manufacturing plants located in areas with different industrial structure. The study involved 188 cases of germ cell cancer identified through active retrieval in 38 hospitals and 1000 controls, drawn from administrative accounting files, individually matched by year of birth (± 2 years). Information regarding tasks and exposures and potential confounding variables were obtained by face-to-face or telephone interviews. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using a conditional logistic regression model adjusted for cryptorchidism and other potential confounders. In this case-control study 5.3% of cases and 6.3% of controls ever worked in agriculture or livestock farming. No increased risks were observed for working in agriculture (OR=0.8 95% CI: 0.4-1.6), livestock farming (OR=0.8 95% CI: 0.4-1.6) or for exposure to pesticides (OR=0.7 95% CI: 0.3-1.7), for exposure to fertilizers (OR=0.8 95% CI: 0.4-1.8) and disinfectants (OR=1.0 95% CI: 0.3-2.8). There were no statistically significant increases in risk associated with ever exposure to salt based wood protection agents (OR=2.3 95% CI: 0.6-9.1), working with plywood (OR=1.4 95% CI: 0.6-3.2), coated wood (OR=1.4 95% CI: 0.5-3.9) or working in forestry (OR=1.7 95% CI: 0.5-6.4). Lagging of exposures did not alter the results. The observed excess incidence in the cohort of automotive workers can be hardly explained by previous or concurrent work in farming or forestry. Because of the small numbers of subjects ever employed in farming the statistical power in assessing associations between agricultural work and agricultural exposures was limited

  5. Update Legal Documents Using Hierarchical Ranking Models and Word Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Minh Quang Nhat; Nguyen, Minh Le; Shimazu, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Our research addresses the task of updating legal documents when newinformation emerges. In this paper, we employ a hierarchical ranking model tothe task of updating legal documents. Word clustering features are incorporatedto the ranking models to exploit semantic relations between words. Experimentalresults on legal data built from the United States Code show that the hierarchicalranking model with word clustering outperforms baseline methods using VectorSpace Model, and word cluster-based ...

  6. What Makes Clusters Decline?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark....... The longitudinal study on the high-tech cluster reveals that technological lock-in and exit of key firms have contributed to decline. Entrepreneurship has a positive effect on the cluster’s adaptive capabilities, while multinational companies have contradicting effects by bringing in new resources to the cluster...

  7. Cluster identification based on correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, L S

    2012-04-01

    The problem addressed is the identification of cooperating agents based on correlations created as a result of the joint action of these and other agents. A systematic method for using correlations beyond second moments is developed. The technique is applied to a didactic example, the identification of alphabet letters based on correlations among the pixels used in an image of the letter. As in this example, agents can belong to more than one cluster. Moreover, the identification scheme does not require that the patterns be known ahead of time.

  8. Morphology of open clusters NGC 1857 and Czernik 20 using clustering algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Mahulkar, V.; Pandaokar, S.; Singh, P. K.

    2017-01-01

    The morphology and cluster membership of the Galactic open clusters-Czernik 20 and NGC 1857 were analyzed using two different clustering algorithms. We present the maiden use of density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) to determine open cluster morphology from spatial distribution. The region of analysis has also been spatially classified using a statistical membership determination algorithm. We utilized near infrared (NIR) data for a suitably large region around the clusters from the United Kingdom Infrared Deep Sky Survey Galactic Plane Survey star catalogue database, and also from the Two Micron All Sky Survey star catalogue database. The densest regions of the cluster morphologies (1 for Czernik 20 and 2 for NGC 1857) thus identified were analyzed with a K-band extinction map and color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). To address significant discrepancy in known distance and reddening parameters, we carried out field decontamination of these CMDs and subsequent isochrone fitting of the cleaned CMDs to obtain reliable distance and reddening parameters for the clusters (Czernik 20: D = 2900 pc; E(J- K) = 0 . 33; NGC 1857: D = 2400 pc; E(J- K) =0.18-0.19). The isochrones were also used to convert the luminosity functions for the densest regions of Czernik 20 and NGC 1857 into mass function, to derive their slopes. Additionally, a previously unknown over-density consistent with that of a star cluster is identified in the region of analysis.

  9. The Cluster Substructure - Alignment Connection

    OpenAIRE

    Plionis, Manolis

    2001-01-01

    Using the APM cluster data we investigate whether the dynamical status of clusters is related to the large-scale structure of the Universe. We find that cluster substructure is strongly correlated with the tendency of clusters to be aligned with their nearest neighbour and in general with the nearby clusters that belong to the same supercluster. Furthermore, dynamically young clusters are more clustered than the overall cluster population. These are strong indications that cluster develop in ...

  10. Nuclear Clusters in Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubono, S.; Binh, Dam N.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, H.; Kahl, D.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H. [Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), University of Tokyo, Wako Branch at RIKEN 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Teranishi, T. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 812-8581 (Japan); Iwasa, N. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8578 (Japan); Komatsubara, T. [Department of Physics, Tsukuba University, Ibaraki, 305-8571 (Japan); Kato, S. [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, Yamagata, 990-8560 (Japan); Khiem, Le H. [Institute of Physics, Vietnam Academy for Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2010-03-01

    The role of nuclear clustering is discussed for nucleosynthesis in stellar evolution with Cluster Nucleosynthesis Diagram (CND) proposed before. Special emphasis is placed on alpha-induced stellar reactions together with molecular states for O and C burning.

  11. [Pathophysiology of cluster headache].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnet, Anne

    2015-11-01

    The aetiology of cluster headache is partially unknown. Three areas are involved in the pathogenesis of cluster headache: the trigeminal nociceptive pathways, the autonomic system and the hypothalamus. The cluster headache attack involves activation of the trigeminal autonomic reflex. A dysfunction located in posterior hypothalamic gray matter is probably pivotal in the process. There is a probable association between smoke exposure, a possible genetic predisposition and the development of cluster headache.

  12. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution.

  13. IP Address Management Principles and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    This book will be the first covering the subject of IP address management (IPAM). The practice of IPAM includes the application of network management disciplines to IP address space and associated network services, namely DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) and DNS (Domain Name System). The consequence of inaccurately configuring DHCP is that end users may not be able to obtain IP addresses to access the network. Without proper DNS configuration, usability of the network will greatly suffer as the name-to-address lookup process may fail. Imagine having to navigate to a website or send a

  14. SUCCESSFUL INNOVATIVE CLUSTERS IN ROMANIA – A POSSIBLE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana SCUTARU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes the construction of a successful innovative cluster model which will help creating strategies and policies to support the Romanian economic growth and development in the medium and long term. One such architecture designed for supporting innovative clusters, including by attracting foreign capital within clusters order to increase their competitiveness, addresses some concrete measures both in terms of organizational system and management strategy as well as the funding system of clusters. The paper is also emphasizing the multiplicity of factors that are contributing to the creation, to the progressive development and to the success of clusters, the activities developed and the relationships established internationally, so as to ensure that the clusters remain on the market and have a good visibility at national and international levels, essentially contributing to the success of cluster.

  15. Cluster Physics with Merging Galaxy Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor M. Molnar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Collisions between galaxy clusters provide a unique opportunity to study matter in a parameter space which cannot be explored in our laboratories on Earth. In the standard LCDM model, where the total density is dominated by the cosmological constant ($Lambda$ and the matter density by cold dark matter (CDM, structure formation is hierarchical, and clusters grow mostly by merging.Mergers of two massive clusters are the most energetic events in the universe after the Big Bang,hence they provide a unique laboratory to study cluster physics.The two main mass components in clusters behave differently during collisions:the dark matter is nearly collisionless, responding only to gravity, while the gas is subject to pressure forces and dissipation, and shocks and turbulenceare developed during collisions. In the present contribution we review the different methods used to derive the physical properties of merging clusters. Different physical processes leave their signatures on different wavelengths, thusour review is based on a multifrequency analysis. In principle, the best way to analyze multifrequency observations of merging clustersis to model them using N-body/HYDRO numerical simulations. We discuss the results of such detailed analyses.New high spatial and spectral resolution ground and space based telescopeswill come online in the near future. Motivated by these new opportunities,we briefly discuss methods which will be feasible in the near future in studying merging clusters.

  16. The Durban Auto Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jochen; Robbins, Glen; Barnes, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the formation of the Durban Auto Cluster in the context of trade liberalization. It argues that the improvement of operational competitiveness of firms in the cluster is prominently due to joint action. It tests this proposition by comparing the gains from cluster activities i...

  17. The Durban Auto Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jochen; Robbins, Glen; Barnes, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the formation of the Durban Auto Cluster in the context of trade liberalization. It argues that the improvement of operational competitiveness of firms in the cluster is prominently due to joint action. It tests this proposition by comparing the gains from cluster activities i...

  18. Marketing research cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Nebojša

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One area of applications of cluster analysis in marketing is identification of groups of cities and towns with similar demographic profiles. This paper considers main aspects of cluster analysis by an example of clustering 12 cities with the use of Minitab software.

  19. Cluster Correspondence Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van de Velden (Michel); A. Iodice D' Enza; F. Palumbo

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ A new method is proposed that combines dimension reduction and cluster analysis for categorical data. A least-squares objective function is formulated that approximates the cluster by variables cross-tabulation. Individual observations are assigned to clusters

  20. Formation and Assembly of Massive Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Stephen

    The formation of stars and star clusters is a major unresolved problem in astrophysics. It is central to modeling stellar populations and understanding galaxy luminosity distributions in cosmological models. Young massive clusters are major components of starburst galaxies, while globular clusters are cornerstones of the cosmic distance scale and represent vital laboratories for studies of stellar dynamics and stellar evolution. Yet how these clusters form and how rapidly and efficiently they expel their natal gas remain unclear, as do the consequences of this gas expulsion for cluster structure and survival. Also unclear is how the properties of low-mass clusters, which form from small-scale instabilities in galactic disks and inform much of our understanding of cluster formation and star-formation efficiency, differ from those of more massive clusters, which probably formed in starburst events driven by fast accretion at high redshift, or colliding gas flows in merging galaxies. Modeling cluster formation requires simulating many simultaneous physical processes, placing stringent demands on both software and hardware. Simulations of galaxies evolving in cosmological contexts usually lack the numerical resolution to simulate star formation in detail. They do not include detailed treatments of important physical effects such as magnetic fields, radiation pressure, ionization, and supernova feedback. Simulations of smaller clusters include these effects, but fall far short of the mass of even single young globular clusters. With major advances in computing power and software, we can now directly address this problem. We propose to model the formation of massive star clusters by integrating the FLASH adaptive mesh refinement magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code into the Astrophysical Multi-purpose Software Environment (AMUSE) framework, to work with existing stellar-dynamical and stellar evolution modules in AMUSE. All software will be freely distributed on-line, allowing

  1. Reliably Addressing "What Matters" Through a Quality Improvement Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Patricia A

    2016-02-01

    Oncology nurses have a critical role in mitigating the intense vulnerability, loss of control, and fear of the unknown that characterizes the experiences of patients with cancer and their family members. Reliably inquiring about the issues that are at the forefront for patients and their loved ones can encourage a deeper dialogue-where nurses can understand and address the issues that are most important to them. A practical quality improvement approach can help to ensure that processes are in place to assist nurses in devoting time to reliably inquire about "what matters" to each patient at every encounter.

  2. A New Method of Chinese Address Extraction Based on Address Tree Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANG Mengjun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Address is a spatial location encoding method of individual geographical area. In China, address planning is relatively backward due to the rapid development of the city, resulting in the presence of large number of non-standard address. The space constrain relationship of standard address model is analyzed in this paper and a new method of standard address extraction based on the tree model is proposed, which regards topological relationship as consistent criteria of space constraints. With this method, standard address can be extracted and errors can be excluded from non-standard address. Results indicate that higher math rate can be obtained with this method.

  3. Cluster Dynamics: Laying the Foundation for Tailoring the Design of Cluster ASSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-25

    UNIVERSITY 201 OLD MAIN UNIVERSITY PARK , PA 16802-1505 02/25/2016 Final Report DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. Air Force...5f.  WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY 201 OLD MAIN UNIVERSITY PARK , PA 16802-1505 US 8...interrelated themes : the first comprises the investigation of fundamental physical and chemical properties of cluster building blocks in isolation, while

  4. Cluster analysis for applications

    CERN Document Server

    Anderberg, Michael R

    1973-01-01

    Cluster Analysis for Applications deals with methods and various applications of cluster analysis. Topics covered range from variables and scales to measures of association among variables and among data units. Conceptual problems in cluster analysis are discussed, along with hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering methods. The necessary elements of data analysis, statistics, cluster analysis, and computer implementation are integrated vertically to cover the complete path from raw data to a finished analysis.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the subject o

  5. Range-Clustering Queries

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsen, Mikkel; de Berg, Mark; Buchin, Kevin; Mehr, Mehran; Mehrabi, Ali D.

    2017-01-01

    In a geometric $k$-clustering problem the goal is to partition a set of points in $\\mathbb{R}^d$ into $k$ subsets such that a certain cost function of the clustering is minimized. We present data structures for orthogonal range-clustering queries on a point set $S$: given a query box $Q$ and an integer $k>2$, compute an optimal $k$-clustering for $S\\setminus Q$. We obtain the following results. We present a general method to compute a $(1+\\epsilon)$-approximation to a range-clustering query, ...

  6. Cluster Decline and Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    -2011. Our longitudinal study reveals that technological lock-in and exit of key firms have contributed to impairment of the cluster’s resilience in adapting to disruptions. Entrepreneurship has a positive effect on cluster resilience, while multinational companies have contradicting effects by bringing......Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark, 1963...

  7. Management of cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer C; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2012-01-01

    and agitation. Patients may have up to eight attacks per day. Episodic cluster headache (ECH) occurs in clusters of weeks to months duration, whereas chronic cluster headache (CCH) attacks occur for more than 1 year without remissions. Management of cluster headache is divided into acute attack treatment....... In drug-resistant CCH, neuromodulation with either occipital nerve stimulation or deep brain stimulation of the hypothalamus is an alternative treatment strategy. For most cluster headache patients there are fairly good treatment options both for acute attacks and for prophylaxis. The big problem...

  8. Image compression using address-vector quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu

    1990-12-01

    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  9. A Novel Approach for TNA Address Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Wang; Yaohui Jin; Weishen Hu; Shenli Zhu

    2003-01-01

    We present a new scheme to allocate/de- allocate Transport Network Assigned (TNA) address using Link ManagementProtocol (LMP) and to register/resolution these addresses using Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) forAutomatically Switched Optical Network (ASON).

  10. State of industry, environment, human resources addressed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yergin, D.; Brookes, W.; DeArment, R.

    1991-07-01

    The article is based on three addresses to the AMC Coal Convention '91. Yergin examines the impact of the Gulf crisis on the world energy market. Brookes is sceptical about the 'green industry' and calls for better scientific evidence. DeArment addresses the MSAA's Job Safety Analysis program and other health and safety matters.

  11. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding…

  12. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  13. Spatial analysis of childhood cancer: a case/control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Ramis

    Full Text Available Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, NHL. Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors.The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of the three main childhood cancer causes, looking to increase etiological knowledge.We ran a case-control study. The cases were children aged 0 to 14 diagnosed with leukemia, lymphomas (HL and NHL or CNS neoplasm in five Spanish regions for the period 1996-2011. As a control group, we used a sample from the Birth Registry matching every case by year of birth, autonomous region of residence and sex with six controls. We geocoded and validated the address of the cases and controls. For our two objectives we used two different methodologies. For the first, for overall spatial clustering detection, we used the differences of K functions from the spatial point patterns perspective proposed by Diggle and Chetwynd and the second, for cluster detection, we used the spatial scan statistic proposed by Kulldorff with a level for statistical significance of 0.05.We had 1062 cases of leukemia, 714 cases of CNS, 92 of HL and 246 of NHL. Accordingly we had 6 times the number of controls, 6372 controls for leukemia, 4284 controls for CNS, 552 controls for HL and 1476 controls for NHL. We found variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers, including some overall spatial clustering for specific regions and distances. We did not find statistically significant clusters.The variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers could be partially explained by the differences in the spatial distribution of the population; however, according to the

  14. Breast Cancer Center Support Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    also occur with increased frequency in gene carriers, such prostate cancer. First-degree relatives of individuals with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation have...Tumor M 36 Asian Prostate Cancer M 52 Caucasian Ovarian Cancer F 56 Caucasian Cervical Cancer F 43 Caucasian Breast Cancer F 45 Caucasian Cancer of...address transportation barriers, alternate mechanisms were put in place for provision of parking and taxi vouchers. It was expected that many of the women

  15. Biology of cancer and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, F F; Wilson, J; Blesch, K S; Kaesberg, P R; Miller, R; Sprott, R

    1991-12-01

    The greatest risk factor for cancer is aging. Human cancer incidence increases exponentially with advancing age. Cancer growth rate and potential for metastatic spread may be influenced by age-specific change in host response. Because cancer and aging are, thus, inextricably linked, the American Cancer Society should encourage submission of research proposals that address the mechanisms of aging and how aging alters cancer development.

  16. Opportunities for targeting the fatigue-anorexia-cachexia symptom cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesi, Erin R; del Fabbro, Egidio

    2014-01-01

    Cancer patients experience multiple symptoms throughout their illness trajectory. Symptoms consistently occurring together, known as symptom clusters, share common pathophysiologic mechanisms. Understanding and targeting such symptom clusters may allow for more effective and efficient use of treatments for a variety of symptoms. Fatigue-anorexia-cachexia is one of the most prevalent symptom clusters and significantly impairs quality of life. In this review, we explore the fatigue-anorexia-cachexia symptom cluster and focus on current and emerging therapies with an emphasis on pharmacologic management.

  17. Spectral clustering for TRUS images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salama Magdy MA

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying the location and the volume of the prostate is important for ultrasound-guided prostate brachytherapy. Prostate volume is also important for prostate cancer diagnosis. Manual outlining of the prostate border is able to determine the prostate volume accurately, however, it is time consuming and tedious. Therefore, a number of investigations have been devoted to designing algorithms that are suitable for segmenting the prostate boundary in ultrasound images. The most popular method is the deformable model (snakes, a method that involves designing an energy function and then optimizing this function. The snakes algorithm usually requires either an initial contour or some points on the prostate boundary to be estimated close enough to the original boundary which is considered a drawback to this powerful method. Methods The proposed spectral clustering segmentation algorithm is built on a totally different foundation that doesn't involve any function design or optimization. It also doesn't need any contour or any points on the boundary to be estimated. The proposed algorithm depends mainly on graph theory techniques. Results Spectral clustering is used in this paper for both prostate gland segmentation from the background and internal gland segmentation. The obtained segmented images were compared to the expert radiologist segmented images. The proposed algorithm obtained excellent gland segmentation results with 93% average overlap areas. It is also able to internally segment the gland where the segmentation showed consistency with the cancerous regions identified by the expert radiologist. Conclusion The proposed spectral clustering segmentation algorithm obtained fast excellent estimates that can give rough prostate volume and location as well as internal gland segmentation without any user interaction.

  18. Clusters in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Following the pioneering discovery of alpha clustering and of molecular resonances, the field of nuclear clustering is today one of those domains of heavy-ion nuclear physics that faces the greatest challenges, yet also contains the greatest opportunities. After many summer schools and workshops, in particular over the last decade, the community of nuclear molecular physicists has decided to collaborate in producing a comprehensive collection of lectures and tutorial reviews covering the field. This third volume follows the successful Lect. Notes Phys. 818 (Vol. 1) and 848 (Vol. 2), and comprises six extensive lectures covering the following topics:  - Gamma Rays and Molecular Structure - Faddeev Equation Approach for Three Cluster Nuclear Reactions - Tomography of the Cluster Structure of Light Nuclei Via Relativistic Dissociation - Clustering Effects Within the Dinuclear Model : From Light to Hyper-heavy Molecules in Dynamical Mean-field Approach - Clusterization in Ternary Fission - Clusters in Light N...

  19. Spatial cluster modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, Andrew B

    2002-01-01

    Research has generated a number of advances in methods for spatial cluster modelling in recent years, particularly in the area of Bayesian cluster modelling. Along with these advances has come an explosion of interest in the potential applications of this work, especially in epidemiology and genome research. In one integrated volume, this book reviews the state-of-the-art in spatial clustering and spatial cluster modelling, bringing together research and applications previously scattered throughout the literature. It begins with an overview of the field, then presents a series of chapters that illuminate the nature and purpose of cluster modelling within different application areas, including astrophysics, epidemiology, ecology, and imaging. The focus then shifts to methods, with discussions on point and object process modelling, perfect sampling of cluster processes, partitioning in space and space-time, spatial and spatio-temporal process modelling, nonparametric methods for clustering, and spatio-temporal ...

  20. Unconventional methods for clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyrba, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Cluster analysis or clustering is a task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more similar (in some sense or another) to each other than to those in other groups (clusters). It is the main task of exploratory data mining and a common technique for statistical data analysis used in many fields, including machine learning, pattern recognition, image analysis, information retrieval, and bioinformatics. The topic of this paper is one of the modern methods of clustering namely SOM (Self Organising Map). The paper describes the theory needed to understand the principle of clustering and descriptions of algorithm used with clustering in our experiments.

  1. Clusters of suicides and suicide attempts: detection, proximity and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Too, L S; Pirkis, J; Milner, A; Spittal, M J

    2017-10-01

    A suicide cluster is defined as a higher number of observed cases occurring in space and/or time than would typically be expected. Previous research has largely focused on identifying clusters of suicides, while there has been comparatively limited research on clusters of suicide attempts. We sought to identify clusters of both types of behaviour, and having done that, identify the factors that distinguish suicide attempts inside a cluster from those that were outside a cluster. We used data from Western Australia from 2000 to 2011. We defined suicide attempts as admissions to hospital for deliberate self-harm and suicides as deaths due to deliberate self-harm. Using an analytic strategy that accounted for the repetition of attempted suicide within a cluster, we performed spatial-temporal analysis using Poisson discrete scan statistics to detect clusters of suicide attempts and clusters of suicides. Logistic regression was then used to compare clustered attempts with non-clustered attempts to identify risk factors for an attempt being in a cluster. We detected 350 (1%) suicide attempts occurring within seven spatial-temporal clusters and 12 (0.6%) suicides occurring within two spatial-temporal clusters. Both of the suicide clusters were located within a larger but later suicide attempt cluster. In multivariate analysis, suicide attempts by individuals who lived in areas of low socioeconomic status had higher odds of being in a cluster than those living in areas of high socioeconomic status [odds ratio (OR) = 29.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 6.3-135.5]. A one percentage-point increase in the proportion of people who had changed address in the last year was associated with a 60% increase in the odds of the attempt being within a cluster (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.29-1.98) and a one percentage-point increase in the proportion of Indigenous people in the area was associated with a 7% increase in the suicide being within a cluster (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.00-1.13). Age

  2. CLEAN: CLustering Enrichment ANalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medvedovic Mario

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integration of biological knowledge encoded in various lists of functionally related genes has become one of the most important aspects of analyzing genome-wide functional genomics data. In the context of cluster analysis, functional coherence of clusters established through such analyses have been used to identify biologically meaningful clusters, compare clustering algorithms and identify biological pathways associated with the biological process under investigation. Results We developed a computational framework for analytically and visually integrating knowledge-based functional categories with the cluster analysis of genomics data. The framework is based on the simple, conceptually appealing, and biologically interpretable gene-specific functional coherence score (CLEAN score. The score is derived by correlating the clustering structure as a whole with functional categories of interest. We directly demonstrate that integrating biological knowledge in this way improves the reproducibility of conclusions derived from cluster analysis. The CLEAN score differentiates between the levels of functional coherence for genes within the same cluster based on their membership in enriched functional categories. We show that this aspect results in higher reproducibility across independent datasets and produces more informative genes for distinguishing different sample types than the scores based on the traditional cluster-wide analysis. We also demonstrate the utility of the CLEAN framework in comparing clusterings produced by different algorithms. CLEAN was implemented as an add-on R package and can be downloaded at http://Clusteranalysis.org. The package integrates routines for calculating gene specific functional coherence scores and the open source interactive Java-based viewer Functional TreeView (FTreeView. Conclusion Our results indicate that using the gene-specific functional coherence score improves the reproducibility of the

  3. Survey on Text Document Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    M.Thangamani; Dr.P.Thangaraj

    2010-01-01

    Document clustering is also referred as text clustering, and its concept is merely equal to data clustering. It is hardly difficult to find the selective information from an ‘N’number of series information, so that document clustering came into picture. Basically cluster means a group of similar data, document clustering means segregating the data into different groups of similar data. Clustering can be of mathematical, statistical or numerical domain. Clustering is a fundamental data analysi...

  4. APPECT: An Approximate Backbone-Based Clustering Algorithm for Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yu; Xu, Guandong; Jin, Pin

    2011-01-01

    algorithm for Tags (APPECT). The main steps of APPECT are: (1) we execute the K-means algorithm on a tag similarity matrix for M times and collect a set of tag clustering results Z={C1,C2,…,Cm}; (2) we form the approximate backbone of Z by executing a greedy search; (3) we fix the approximate backbone...... resulting from the severe difficulty of ambiguity, redundancy and less semantic nature of tags. Clustering method is a useful tool to address the aforementioned difficulties. Most of the researches on tag clustering are directly using traditional clustering algorithms such as K-means or Hierarchical...

  5. Significance analysis and statistical mechanics: an application to clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuksza, Marta; Lässig, Michael; Berg, Johannes

    2010-11-26

    This Letter addresses the statistical significance of structures in random data: given a set of vectors and a measure of mutual similarity, how likely is it that a subset of these vectors forms a cluster with enhanced similarity among its elements? The computation of this cluster p value for randomly distributed vectors is mapped onto a well-defined problem of statistical mechanics. We solve this problem analytically, establishing a connection between the physics of quenched disorder and multiple-testing statistics in clustering and related problems. In an application to gene expression data, we find a remarkable link between the statistical significance of a cluster and the functional relationships between its genes.

  6. APPECT: An Approximate Backbone-Based Clustering Algorithm for Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yu; Xu, Guandong; Jin, Pin

    2011-01-01

    algorithm for Tags (APPECT). The main steps of APPECT are: (1) we execute the K-means algorithm on a tag similarity matrix for M times and collect a set of tag clustering results Z={C1,C2,…,Cm}; (2) we form the approximate backbone of Z by executing a greedy search; (3) we fix the approximate backbone...... resulting from the severe difficulty of ambiguity, redundancy and less semantic nature of tags. Clustering method is a useful tool to address the aforementioned difficulties. Most of the researches on tag clustering are directly using traditional clustering algorithms such as K-means or Hierarchical...

  7. Enhanced peptide quantification using spectral count clustering and cluster abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Seungmook

    2011-10-01

    , and 2,323 clusters both in the HCC and normal tissue samples. While it will be interesting to investigate peptide clusters only found from one sample, further examined spectral clusters identified both in the HCC and normal samples since our goal is to identify and assess differentially expressed peptides quantitatively. The next step was to perform a beta-binomial test to isolate differentially expressed peptides between the HCC and normal tissue samples. This test resulted in 84 peptides with significantly differential spectral counts between the HCC and normal tissue samples. We independently identified 50 and 95 peptides by SEQUEST, of which 24 and 56 peptides, respectively, were found to be known biomarkers for the human liver cancer. Comparing Q-FISH and SEQUEST results, we found 22 of the differentially expressed 84 peptides by Q-FISH were also identified by SEQUEST. Remarkably, of these 22 peptides discovered both by Q-FISH and SEQUEST, 13 peptides are known for human liver cancer and the remaining 9 peptides are known to be associated with other cancers. Conclusions We proposed a novel statistical method, Q-FISH, for accurately identifying protein species and simultaneously quantifying the expression levels of identified peptides from mass spectrometry data. Q-FISH analysis on human HCC and liver tissue samples identified many protein biomarkers that are highly relevant to HCC. Q-FISH can be a useful tool both for peptide identification and quantification on mass spectrometry data analysis. It may also prove to be more effective in discovering novel protein biomarkers than SEQUEST and other standard methods.

  8. Address forms in Chinese audit opinions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziye; Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Although forms of address are widely used in textual and other types of disclosure,empirical evidence of their effects is rare.China provides a unique setting in which to test the economic consequences of the forms of address used in audit reports.From 2003 to 2011,about 60%of auditors surveyed addressed their clients by their real names in audit opinions,while the others used honorifics.Based on a sample of Chinese audit opinions,I report the following findings.First,the announcement of an audit opinion that uses the client’s real name elicits a greater market response than the announcement of an opinion featuring an honorific form of address.Second,the effects of real-name forms of address are stronger in firms with weak board governance.Third,the association between audit fees and audit risk factors,such as loss-making,is stronger in firms that are addressed by their real names in audit reports.I conclude from these findings that the forms of address used in audit opinions may reveal private information on audit quality.The results of this study are consistent with the power-solidarity effect described by sociolinguists.

  9. Agricultural Clusters in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, M.A.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Michael Porter was the first to use the term cluster in an economic context. He introduced the term in The Competitive Advantage of Nations (1990). The term cluster is also known as business cluster, industry cluster, competitive cluster or Porterian cluster. This article aims at determining and

  10. Agricultural Clusters in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, M.A.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Michael Porter was the first to use the term cluster in an economic context. He introduced the term in The Competitive Advantage of Nations (1990). The term cluster is also known as business cluster, industry cluster, competitive cluster or Porterian cluster. This article aims at determining and mea

  11. Agricultural Clusters in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, M.A.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Michael Porter was the first to use the term cluster in an economic context. He introduced the term in The Competitive Advantage of Nations (1990). The term cluster is also known as business cluster, industry cluster, competitive cluster or Porterian cluster. This article aims at determining and mea

  12. Fuzzy sets, rough sets, multisets and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlbom, Anders; Narukawa, Yasuo

    2017-01-01

    This book is dedicated to Prof. Sadaaki Miyamoto and presents cutting-edge papers in some of the areas in which he contributed. Bringing together contributions by leading researchers in the field, it concretely addresses clustering, multisets, rough sets and fuzzy sets, as well as their applications in areas such as decision-making. The book is divided in four parts, the first of which focuses on clustering and classification. The second part puts the spotlight on multisets, bags, fuzzy bags and other fuzzy extensions, while the third deals with rough sets. Rounding out the coverage, the last part explores fuzzy sets and decision-making.

  13. Local address and emergency contact details

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The HR Department would like to remind members of the personnel that they are responsible for ensuring that their personal data concerning local address and preferred emergency contact details remains valid and up-to-date.   Both are easily accessible via the links below: Local address: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/LocalAddressChange   Emergency contacts: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/EC   Please take a few minutes to check your details and modify if necessary. Thank you in advance. HR Department Head Office

  14. 2009 Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures GRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai-Sheng Wang

    2009-07-19

    For over thirty years, this Gordon Conference has been the premiere meeting for the field of cluster science, which studies the phenomena that arise when matter becomes small. During its history, participants have witnessed the discovery and development of many novel materials, including C60, carbon nanotubes, semiconductor and metal nanocrystals, and nanowires. In addition to addressing fundamental scientific questions related to these materials, the meeting has always included a discussion of their potential applications. Consequently, this conference has played a critical role in the birth and growth of nanoscience and engineering. The goal of the 2009 Gordon Conference is to continue the forward-looking tradition of this meeting and discuss the most recent advances in the field of clusters, nanocrystals, and nanostructures. As in past meetings, this will include new topics that broaden the field. In particular, a special emphasis will be placed on nanomaterials related to the efficient use, generation, or conversion of energy. For example, we anticipate presentations related to batteries, catalysts, photovoltaics, and thermoelectrics. In addition, we expect to address the controversy surrounding carrier multiplication with a session in which recent results addressing this phenomenon will be discussed and debated. The atmosphere of the conference, which emphasizes the presentation of unpublished results and lengthy discussion periods, ensures that attendees will enjoy a valuable and stimulating experience. Because only a limited number of participants are allowed to attend this conference, and oversubscription is anticipated, we encourage all interested researchers from academia, industry, and government institutions to apply as early as possible. An invitation is not required. We also encourage all attendees to submit their latest results for presentation at the poster sessions. We anticipate that several posters will be selected for 'hot topic' oral

  15. Circulating tumor cell clusters: What we know and what we expect (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yupeng; Fang, Francia; Zhang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The major cause of cancer-associated mortality is tumor metastasis, a disease that is far from understood. Many studies have observed circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in patients' circulation systems, and a few latest investigations showed that CTC clusters have a potentially high capacity of metastasis. The capture and analysis of CTC clusters offer new insights into tumor metastasis and can facilitate the development of cancer treatments. We reviewed the research history of the CTC clusters, as well as the technologies used for detecting and isolating CTC clusters. In addition, we discuss the characteristics of CTC clusters and their roles in tumor dissemination. Clinical relevance of CTC clusters was also implicated in currently limited data. Moving forward, the next frontier in this field is to develop more efficient capture methods and decipher conundrums of characterization of CTC clusters. This will ultimately identify the clinical value of CTC clusters as a biomarker and therapeutic target. PMID:27779656

  16. VT E911 road address range geocoder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VT E911 road address range geocoder. VCGI, in collaboration with the VT E911 Board, has created a suite of geocoding services that can be used to batch geocode...

  17. Address Points, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Geographic coordinate system; in a Not Sure projection; The extent of these...

  18. Addressing Transition Issues in Languages Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigler-Peters, Susi; Moran, Wendy; Piccioli, Maria Teresa; Chesterton, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on what has been learned from the implementation and evaluation of the Australian Language and Continuity Initiative (LCI) in relation to addressing transition issues in language education. (Author/VWL)

  19. An Efficient Reconfigurable Content Addressable Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswathy Sekharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an efficient reconfigurable Content Addressable memory (CAMs which is a hardware search engine that are much faster than other algorithmic approaches for search intensive applications. Content Addressable Memories are composed of conventional semiconductor memory (usually SRAM with added comparison circuitry that enables a search operation to complete in a single clock cycle. To understand more about Content Addressable Memory, it helps to contrast it with RAM. A RAM is an integrated circuit that stores data temporarily. In CAM, the user supplies the data and gets back the address.In this paper we introduce a temporary memory called Cache. The cache-CAM (C-CAM saves 80% power over a conventional CAM. Compared with existing software search engines proposed hardware search engine can do multiple searches at a time with more flexibility.

  20. VT E911 ESITE geocoder - address points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VT E911 ESITE geocoder - address points. VCGI, in collaboration with the VT E911 Board, has created a suite of geocoding services that can be used to batch geocode...

  1. Chemical Address Tags of Fluorescent Bioimaging Probes

    OpenAIRE

    Shedden, Kerby; Rosania, Gus R.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical address tags can be defined as specific structural features shared by a set of bioimaging probes having a predictable influence on cell-associated visual signals obtained from these probes. Here, using a large image dataset acquired with a high content screening instrument, machine vision and cheminformatics analysis have been applied to reveal chemical address tags. With a combinatorial library of fluorescent molecules, fluorescence signal intensity, spectral, and spatial features c...

  2. Combined Mapping of Multiple clUsteriNg ALgorithms (COMMUNAL): A Robust Method for Selection of Cluster Number, K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Timothy E; Chen, Albert C; Gevaert, Olivier

    2015-11-19

    In order to discover new subsets (clusters) of a data set, researchers often use algorithms that perform unsupervised clustering, namely, the algorithmic separation of a dataset into some number of distinct clusters. Deciding whether a particular separation (or number of clusters, K) is correct is a sort of 'dark art', with multiple techniques available for assessing the validity of unsupervised clustering algorithms. Here, we present a new technique for unsupervised clustering that uses multiple clustering algorithms, multiple validity metrics, and progressively bigger subsets of the data to produce an intuitive 3D map of cluster stability that can help determine the optimal number of clusters in a data set, a technique we call COmbined Mapping of Multiple clUsteriNg ALgorithms (COMMUNAL). COMMUNAL locally optimizes algorithms and validity measures for the data being used. We show its application to simulated data with a known K, and then apply this technique to several well-known cancer gene expression datasets, showing that COMMUNAL provides new insights into clustering behavior and stability in all tested cases. COMMUNAL is shown to be a useful tool for determining K in complex biological datasets, and is freely available as a package for R.

  3. CSR in Industrial Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Pillay, Renginee G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The paper seeks to review the literature on CSR in industrial clusters in developing countries, identifying the main strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in this literature, pointing to future research directions and policy implications in the area of CSR and industrial cluster development...... in this field and their comments incorporated in the final version submitted to Corporate Governance. Findings – The article traces the origins of the debate on industrial clusters and CSR in developing countries back to the early 1990s when clusters began to be seen as an important vehicle for local economic...... development in the South. At the turn of the millennium the industrial cluster debate expanded as clusters were perceived as a potential source of poverty reduction, while their role in promoting CSR among small and medium-sized enterprises began to take shape from 2006 onwards. At present, there is still...

  4. Cosmology with cluster surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subhabrata Majumdar

    2004-10-01

    Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the density and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state parameter . Upcoming Sunyaev–Zel'dovich (SZ) surveys would provide us large yields of clusters to very high red-shifts. Self-calibration of cluster scaling relations, possible for such a huge sample, would be able to constrain systematic biases on mass estimators. Combining cluster red-shift abundance with limited mass follow-up and cluster mass power spectrum can then give constraints on , as well as on 8 and to a few per cents.

  5. Disentangling Porterian Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagtfelt, Tue

    This dissertation investigates the contemporary phenomenon of industrial clusters based on the work of Michael E. Porter, the central progenitor and promoter of the cluster notion. The dissertation pursues two central questions: 1) What is a cluster? and 2) How could Porter’s seemingly fuzzy......, contested theory become so widely disseminated and applied as a normative and prescriptive strategy for economic development? The dissertation traces the introduction of the cluster notion into the EU’s Lisbon Strategy and demonstrates how its inclusion originates from Porter’s colleagues: Professor Örjan...... Sölvell, Dr. Christian Ketels and Dr. Göran Lindqvist. Taking departure in Porter’s works and the cluster literature, the dissertations shows a considerable paradigmatic shift has occurred from the first edition of Nations to the present state of cluster cooperation. To elaborate on this change...

  6. Melting of sodium clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes-Nava, J A; Beltran, M R; Michaelian, K

    2002-01-01

    Thermal stability properties and the melting-like transition of Na_n, n=13-147, clusters are studied through microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations. The metallic bonding in the sodium clusters is mimicked by a many-body Gupta potential based on the second moment approximation of a tight-binding Hamiltonian. The characteristics of the solid-to-liquid transition in the sodium clusters are analyzed by calculating physical quantities like caloric curves, heat capacities, and root-mean-square bond length fluctuations using simulation times of several nanoseconds. Distinct melting mechanisms are obtained for the sodium clusters in the size range investigated. The calculated melting temperatures show an irregular variation with the cluster size, in qualitative agreement with recent experimental results. However, the calculated melting point for the Na_55 cluster is about 40 % lower than the experimental value.

  7. Online Correlation Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Claire; Schudy, Warren

    2010-01-01

    We study the online clustering problem where data items arrive in an online fashion. The algorithm maintains a clustering of data items into similarity classes. Upon arrival of v, the relation between v and previously arrived items is revealed, so that for each u we are told whether v is similar to u. The algorithm can create a new cluster for v and merge existing clusters. When the objective is to minimize disagreements between the clustering and the input, we prove that a natural greedy algorithm is O(n)-competitive, and this is optimal. When the objective is to maximize agreements between the clustering and the input, we prove that the greedy algorithm is .5-competitive; that no online algorithm can be better than .834-competitive; we prove that it is possible to get better than 1/2, by exhibiting a randomized algorithm with competitive ratio .5+c for a small positive fixed constant c.

  8. Cluster Management Institutionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normann, Leo; Agger Nielsen, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    This article explores a new management form – cluster management – in Danish public sector day care. Although cluster management has been widely adopted in Danish day care at the municipality level, it has attracted only sparse research attention. We use theoretical insights from Scandinavian...... institutionalism together with a longitudinal case-based inquiry into how cluster management has entered and penetrated the management practices of day care in Denmark. We demonstrate how cluster management became widely adopted in the day care field not only because of its intrinsic properties but also because...... of how it was legitimized as a “ready-to-use” management model. Further, our account reveals how cluster management translated into considerably different local variants as it travelled into specific organizations. However, these processes have not occurred sequentially with cluster management first...

  9. Cluster Correspondence Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Velden, M; D'Enza, A Iodice; Palumbo, F

    2017-03-01

    A method is proposed that combines dimension reduction and cluster analysis for categorical data by simultaneously assigning individuals to clusters and optimal scaling values to categories in such a way that a single between variance maximization objective is achieved. In a unified framework, a brief review of alternative methods is provided and we show that the proposed method is equivalent to GROUPALS applied to categorical data. Performance of the methods is appraised by means of a simulation study. The results of the joint dimension reduction and clustering methods are compared with the so-called tandem approach, a sequential analysis of dimension reduction followed by cluster analysis. The tandem approach is conjectured to perform worse when variables are added that are unrelated to the cluster structure. Our simulation study confirms this conjecture. Moreover, the results of the simulation study indicate that the proposed method also consistently outperforms alternative joint dimension reduction and clustering methods.

  10. Cluster Management Institutionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normann, Leo; Agger Nielsen, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    of how it was legitimized as a “ready-to-use” management model. Further, our account reveals how cluster management translated into considerably different local variants as it travelled into specific organizations. However, these processes have not occurred sequentially with cluster management first......This article explores a new management form – cluster management – in Danish public sector day care. Although cluster management has been widely adopted in Danish day care at the municipality level, it has attracted only sparse research attention. We use theoretical insights from Scandinavian...... institutionalism together with a longitudinal case-based inquiry into how cluster management has entered and penetrated the management practices of day care in Denmark. We demonstrate how cluster management became widely adopted in the day care field not only because of its intrinsic properties but also because...

  11. Clustering Categorical Data:A Cluster Ensemble Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Zengyou(何增友); Xu Xiaofei; Deng Shengchun

    2003-01-01

    Clustering categorical data, an integral part of data mining,has attracted much attention recently. In this paper, the authors formally define the categorical data clustering problem as an optimization problem from the viewpoint of cluster ensemble, and apply cluster ensemble approach for clustering categorical data. Experimental results on real datasets show that better clustering accuracy can be obtained by comparing with existing categorical data clustering algorithms.

  12. Spatial Scan Statistic: Selecting clusters and generating elliptic clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl

    2004-01-01

    The spatial scan statistic is widely used to search for clusters. This paper shows that the usually applied elimination of overlapping clusters to find secondary clusters is sensitive to smooth changes in the shape of the clusters. We present an algorithm for generation of set of confocal elliptic...... clusters. In addition, we propose a new way to present the information in a given set of clusters based on the significance of the clusters....

  13. South African address standard and initiatives towards an international address standard

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Various countries and international organizations have address standards or are developing them. An address is needed for many more applications than just postal delivery, such as: goods delivery; connecting utilities; opening bank accounts; voting...

  14. South African address standard and initiatives towards an international address standard.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Anthony K

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Various countries and international organizations have address standards or are developing them. An address is needed for many more applications than just postal delivery, such as: goods delivery; connecting utilities; opening bank accounts; voting...

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, rural addressing does collect address points, Published in unknown, Gibson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'rural addressing does collect address points'. The extent of these data is generally Gila...

  16. Address Points, Address points, Published in 2008, Norton County Appraisal Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as 'Address points'. Data by this publisher are...

  17. Clustering of Absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Cristiani, S; D'Odorico, V; Fontana, A; Giallongo, E; Moscardini, L; Savaglio, S

    1997-01-01

    The observed clustering of Lyman-$\\alpha$ lines is reviewed and compared with the clustering of CIV systems. We argue that a continuity of properties exists between Lyman-$\\alpha$ and metal systems and show that the small-scale clustering of the absorbers is consistent with a scenario of gravitationally induced correlations. At large scales statistically significant over and under-densities (including voids) are found on scales of tens of Mpc.

  18. Structures in Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Escalera, E; Girardi, M; Giuricin, G; Mardirossian, F; Mazure, A; Mezzetti, M

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of the presence of substructures in 16 well-sampled clusters of galaxies suggests a stimulating hypothesis: Clusters could be classified as unimodal or bimodal, on the basis of to the sub-clump distribution in the {\\em 3-D} space of positions and velocities. The dynamic study of these clusters shows that their fundamental characteristics, in particular the virial masses, are not severely biased by the presence of subclustering if the system considered is bound.

  19. Using Enrichment Clusters to Address the Needs of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer K.; Robbins, Margaret A.; Payne, Yolanda Denise; Brown, Katherine Backes

    2016-01-01

    Using data from teacher interviews, classroom observations, and a professional development workshop, this article explains how one component of the schoolwide enrichment model (SEM) has been implemented at a culturally diverse elementary school serving primarily Latina/o and African American students. Based on a broadened conception of giftedness,…

  20. CAWR: Two institutions join forces in a cluster by addressing the grand challenges of water research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeckel, Greta; Braeckevelt, Mareike

    2017-04-01

    The Center for Advanced Water Research (CAWR) brings together the water competences of two German research institutions: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ and the Technische Universität Dresden (TUD). Highly qualified scientists are jointly tackling some of the key challenges in the water sector in an outstanding breadth of research topics and at the same time with a profound disciplinary expertise. Our mission is: "Save water for humans and environment", because water in a good quality and adequate quantity is a fundamental basis of life for humankind and the environment. In many global challenges, such as food or energy security, human health and ecosystems, flood defence and droughts or the provision of drinking water and sanitation systems, water is becoming a very critical element for a sustainable society in Germany, in Europe and worldwide. The CAWR focusses its work on the fields of research, education & training as well as transfer. The CAWR was established in 2013. Over 3 years the activities within the three pillars and the six thematic priority research fields ( 1) Understanding processes: water cycle and water quality, 2): Water quantity and scarcity in the regional context, 3): Urban Water Systems, 4): Methods of data collection and information processing, 5): Societal and climate change, 6): Water governance) were presented within: • the scientific community (newsletters, publication highlights, workshops with different new formats, conferences) • to national and international stakeholders from policy, industry and society (workshops, opinion papers) • public media (TV, radio stations, Newspapers, brochures, videoclips via youtube…) This PICO presentation by Greta Jäckel (scientific management of CAWR) should show which tools for the presentation of research results are useful and which influence they have on different target groups. A bunch of examples for effective and also less successful instruments to present important water-related research results within the media should be part of this presentation. Publications: Krueger, E; Jäckel, G., Krebs, P.; Berendonk, T.; Borchardt, D.; Kolditz, O.;Maas, H.-G., Feger, K.-H.; Weitere, M.; Bernhofer, C.; Gawel, E.; Reese, M.; Köck, W.; Klauer, B.; Merz, R.; Dietrich, P.; Müller, R.; Fleckenstein, J.; Bernard, L.; Liedl, R. (2013): „ Integrated Water Ressources Management in the context of Global Change: Center for Advanced Water Research"

  1. Using imputation to provide location information for nongeocoded addresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C Curriero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of geography as a source of variation in health research continues to receive sustained attention in the literature. The inclusion of geographic information in such research often begins by adding data to a map which is predicated by some knowledge of location. A precise level of spatial information is conventionally achieved through geocoding, the geographic information system (GIS process of translating mailing address information to coordinates on a map. The geocoding process is not without its limitations, though, since there is always a percentage of addresses which cannot be converted successfully (nongeocodable. This raises concerns regarding bias since traditionally the practice has been to exclude nongeocoded data records from analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this manuscript we develop and evaluate a set of imputation strategies for dealing with missing spatial information from nongeocoded addresses. The strategies are developed assuming a known zip code with increasing use of collateral information, namely the spatial distribution of the population at risk. Strategies are evaluated using prostate cancer data obtained from the Maryland Cancer Registry. We consider total case enumerations at the Census county, tract, and block group level as the outcome of interest when applying and evaluating the methods. Multiple imputation is used to provide estimated total case counts based on complete data (geocodes plus imputed nongeocodes with a measure of uncertainty. Results indicate that the imputation strategy based on using available population-based age, gender, and race information performed the best overall at the county, tract, and block group levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The procedure allows for the potentially biased and likely under reported outcome, case enumerations based on only the geocoded records, to be presented with a statistically adjusted count (imputed count with a measure of

  2. Starburst clusters in the Galactic center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Maryam

    2014-09-01

    The central region of the Galaxy is the most active site of star formation in the Milky Way, where massive stars have formed very recently and are still forming today. The rich population of massive stars in the Galactic center provide a unique opportunity to study massive stars in their birth environment and probe their initial mass function, which is the spectrum of stellar masses at their birth. The Arches cluster is the youngest among the three massive clusters in the Galactic center, providing a collection of high-mass stars and a very dense core which makes this cluster an excellent site to address questions about massive star formation, the stellar mass function and the dynamical evolution of massive clusters in the Galactic center. In this thesis, I perform an observational study of the Arches cluster using K_{s}-band imaging obtained with NAOS/CONICA at the VLT combined with Subaru/Cisco J-band data to gain a full understanding of the cluster mass distribution out to its tidal radius for the first time. Since the light from the Galactic center reaches us through the Galactic disc, the extinction correction is crucial when studying this region. I use a Bayesian method to construct a realistic extinction map of the cluster. It is shown in this study that the determination of the mass of the most massive star in the Arches cluster, which had been used in previous studies to establish an upper mass limit for the star formation process in the Milky Way, strongly depends on the assumed slope of the extinction law. Assuming the two regimes of widely used infrared extinction laws, I show that the difference can reach up to 30% for individually derived stellar masses and Δ A_{Ks}˜ 1 magnitude in acquired K_{s}-band extinction, while the present-day mass function slope changes by ˜ 0.17 dex. The present-day mass function slope derived assuming the more recent extinction law, which suggests a steeper wavelength dependence for the infrared extinction law, reveals

  3. Sample size for cluster randomized trials: effect of coefficient of variation of cluster size and analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Sandra M; Ashby, Deborah; Kerry, Sally

    2006-10-01

    Cluster randomized trials are increasingly popular. In many of these trials, cluster sizes are unequal. This can affect trial power, but standard sample size formulae for these trials ignore this. Previous studies addressing this issue have mostly focused on continuous outcomes or methods that are sometimes difficult to use in practice. We show how a simple formula can be used to judge the possible effect of unequal cluster sizes for various types of analyses and both continuous and binary outcomes. We explore the practical estimation of the coefficient of variation of cluster size required in this formula and demonstrate the formula's performance for a hypothetical but typical trial randomizing UK general practices. The simple formula provides a good estimate of sample size requirements for trials analysed using cluster-level analyses weighting by cluster size and a conservative estimate for other types of analyses. For trials randomizing UK general practices the coefficient of variation of cluster size depends on variation in practice list size, variation in incidence or prevalence of the medical condition under examination, and practice and patient recruitment strategies, and for many trials is expected to be approximately 0.65. Individual-level analyses can be noticeably more efficient than some cluster-level analyses in this context. When the coefficient of variation is <0.23, the effect of adjustment for variable cluster size on sample size is negligible. Most trials randomizing UK general practices and many other cluster randomized trials should account for variable cluster size in their sample size calculations.

  4. Other cancers in lung cancer families are overwhelmingly smoking-related cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyao Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Familial risks of lung cancer are well-established, but whether lung cancer clusters with other discordant cancers is less certain, particularly beyond smoking-related sites, which may provide evidence on genetic contributions to lung cancer aetiology. We used a novel approach to search for familial associations in the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. This involved assessment of familial relative risk for cancer X in families with increasing numbers of lung cancer patients and, conversely, relative risks for lung cancer in families with increasing numbers of patients with cancers X. However, we lacked information on smoking. The total number of lung cancers in the database was 125 563. We applied stringent statistical criteria and found that seven discordant cancers were associated with lung cancer among family members, and six of these were known to be connected with smoking: oesophageal, upper aerodigestive tract, liver, cervical, kidney and urinary bladder cancers. A further novel finding was that cancer of unknown primary also associated with lung cancer. We also factored in histological evidence and found that anal and connective tissue cancers could be associated with lung cancer for reasons other than smoking. For endometrial and prostate cancers, suggestive negative associations with lung cancer were found. Although we lacked information on smoking it is prudent to conclude that practically all observed discordant associations of lung cancer were with cancers for which smoking is a risk factor.

  5. The Youngest Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Sara

    2014-01-01

    It is likely that all stars are born in clusters, but most clusters are not bound and disperse. None of the many protoclusters in our Galaxy are likely to develop into long-lived bound clusters. The Super Star Clusters (SSCs) seen in starburst galaxies are more massive and compact and have better chances of survival. The birth and early development of SSCs takes place deep in molecular clouds, and during this crucial stage the embedded clusters are invisible to optical or UV observations but are studied via the radio-infared supernebulae (RISN) they excite. We review observations of embedded clusters and identify RISN within 10 Mpc whose exciting clusters have a million solar masses or more in volumes of a few cubic parsecs and which are likely to not only survive as bound clusters, but to evolve into objects as massive and compact as Galactic globulars. These clusters are distinguished by very high star formation efficiency eta, at least a factor of 10 higher than the few percent seen in the Galaxy, probably...

  6. Star Clusters within FIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Adrianna; Moreno, Jorge; Naiman, Jill; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we analyze the environments surrounding star clusters of simulated merging galaxies. Our framework employs Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) model (Hopkins et al., 2014). The FIRE project is a high resolution cosmological simulation that resolves star forming regions and incorporates stellar feedback in a physically realistic way. The project focuses on analyzing the properties of the star clusters formed in merging galaxies. The locations of these star clusters are identified with astrodendro.py, a publicly available dendrogram algorithm. Once star cluster properties are extracted, they will be used to create a sub-grid (smaller than the resolution scale of FIRE) of gas confinement in these clusters. Then, we can examine how the star clusters interact with these available gas reservoirs (either by accreting this mass or blowing it out via feedback), which will determine many properties of the cluster (star formation history, compact object accretion, etc). These simulations will further our understanding of star formation within stellar clusters during galaxy evolution. In the future, we aim to enhance sub-grid prescriptions for feedback specific to processes within star clusters; such as, interaction with stellar winds and gas accretion onto black holes and neutron stars.

  7. Galaxy Clusters with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Forman, W; Markevitch, M L; Vikhlinin, A A; Churazov, E

    2002-01-01

    We discuss Chandra results related to 1) cluster mergers and cold fronts and 2) interactions between relativistic plasma and hot cluster atmospheres. We describe the properties of cold fronts using NGC1404 in the Fornax cluster and A3667 as examples. We discuss multiple surface brightness discontinuities in the cooling flow cluster ZW3146. We review the supersonic merger underway in CL0657. Finally, we summarize the interaction between plasma bubbles produced by AGN and hot gas using M87 and NGC507 as examples.

  8. 15th Cluster workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Laakso, Harri; Escoubet, C. Philippe; The Cluster Active Archive : Studying the Earth’s Space Plasma Environment

    2010-01-01

    Since the year 2000 the ESA Cluster mission has been investigating the small-scale structures and processes of the Earth's plasma environment, such as those involved in the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetospheric plasma, in global magnetotail dynamics, in cross-tail currents, and in the formation and dynamics of the neutral line and of plasmoids. This book contains presentations made at the 15th Cluster workshop held in March 2008. It also presents several articles about the Cluster Active Archive and its datasets, a few overview papers on the Cluster mission, and articles reporting on scientific findings on the solar wind, the magnetosheath, the magnetopause and the magnetotail.

  9. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application for...) Whenever the address of the managing owner changes, the managing owner shall notify the Director, National... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to...

  10. Countdown for the Cluster quartet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Following the successful completion of the Cluster II Flight Readiness Review on 23 June, final launch preparations are progressing smoothly and combined operations with the Soyuz-Fregat launch vehicle are now under way. The dual launches, each involving two Cluster spacecraft built under the prime contractorship of Astrium (former Dornier Satellitensysteme GmbH, Germany), are currently scheduled for 15 July with a launch window opening at 14:40 CEST, 12:40 GMT and lasting 6 minutes, and 9 August from Baikonur Space Centre in Kazakhstan. A number of press events have been organised in various countries to coincide with both launches. The main press centre for the first launch will be located at ESA's European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) at Darmstadt in Germany. Local press centres are also being set up in the other ESA establishments: ESRIN (Italy), ESTEC (The Netherlands), and VILSPA (Spain). See attachment for more detailed information and reply form to register at the various sites. Details of the second launch press event, which will be held in London (UK), will be available at a later date. Cluster II Competition Attracts Record Entries. A highlight of the first launch event at ESOC will be the announcement of the overall winner of ESA's "Name the Cluster quartet" competition and the chosen names of the four Cluster II satellites. Last February, members of the public in all of ESA's 15 member states were asked to suggest the most suitable names for the Cluster II spacecraft. The satellites are currently known as flight models (FM) 5, 6, 7 and 8. Competitors were asked to propose a set of four names (places, people, or things from history, mythology, or fiction, but not living persons) and explain in a few sentences the reasons for their choice. After sifting through more than 5,000 entries from all over Europe and debating at length the merits of the various suggestions, the multinational jury eventually produced a list of 15 national prize winners - one

  11. Statistical properties of convex clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Kean Ming; Witten, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we study the statistical properties of convex clustering. We establish that convex clustering is closely related to single linkage hierarchical clustering and $k$-means clustering. In addition, we derive the range of the tuning parameter for convex clustering that yields a non-trivial solution. We also provide an unbiased estimator of the degrees of freedom, and provide a finite sample bound for the prediction error for convex clustering. We compare convex clustering to so...

  12. Swarm: robust and fast clustering method for amplicon-based studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Mahé

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Popular de novo amplicon clustering methods suffer from two fundamental flaws: arbitrary global clustering thresholds, and input-order dependency induced by centroid selection. Swarm was developed to address these issues by first clustering nearly identical amplicons iteratively using a local threshold, and then by using clusters’ internal structure and amplicon abundances to refine its results. This fast, scalable, and input-order independent approach reduces the influence of clustering parameters and produces robust operational taxonomic units.

  13. Electrical charging changes the composition of sulfuric acid–ammonia/dimethylamine clusters

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Sulfuric acid clusters stabilized by base molecules are likely to have a significant role in atmospheric new-particle formation. Recent advances in mass spectrometry techniques have permitted the detection of electrically charged clusters. However, direct measurement of electrically neutral clusters is not possible. Mass spectrometry instruments can be combined with a charger, but the possible effect of charging on the composition of neutral clusters must be addressed in ord...

  14. Document Clustering Based on Semi-Supervised Term Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mahmoodi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study is conducted to propose a multi-step feature (term selection process and in semi-supervised fashion, provide initial centers for term clusters. Then utilize the fuzzy c-means (FCM clustering algorithm for clustering terms. Finally assign each of documents to closest associated term clusters. While most text clustering algorithms directly use documents for clustering, we propose to first group the terms using FCM algorithm and then cluster documents based on terms clusters. We evaluate effectiveness of our technique on several standard text collections and compare our results with the some classical text clustering algorithms.

  15. Clustered survival data with left-truncation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Left-truncation occurs frequently in survival studies, and it is well known how to deal with this for univariate survival times. However, there are few results on how to estimate dependence parameters and regression effects in semiparametric models for clustered survival data with delayed entry...... are investigated via simulation studies, and the suggested estimators are used in a study of prostate cancer based on the Finnish twin cohort where a twin pair is included only if both twins were alive in 1974....

  16. Towards semantically sensitive text clustering: a feature space modeling technology based on dimension extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanchao; Liu, Ming; Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of text clustering is to divide document collections into clusters based on the similarity between documents. In this paper, an extension-based feature modeling approach towards semantically sensitive text clustering is proposed along with the corresponding feature space construction and similarity computation method. By combining the similarity in traditional feature space and that in extension space, the adverse effects of the complexity and diversity of natural language can be addressed and clustering semantic sensitivity can be improved correspondingly. The generated clusters can be organized using different granularities. The experimental evaluations on well-known clustering algorithms and datasets have verified the effectiveness of our approach.

  17. Ergonomics guidelines for designing electronic mail addresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, P L; Salvendy, G

    2001-03-15

    The aim was to design a human-centred electronic mail (e-mail) address system based on networking technology and cognitive ergonomics. Based on the background literature and the results of users' survey, a conceptual model is developed for designing e-mail addresses. This model consists of e-mail address components of formats, domain length, meaningfulness, orientation and information type pertaining to recall, information association and categorization. Five hypotheses were proposed to test the conceptual model, and four experiments were conducted with 85 participants to test the hypotheses. The dependent variables were performance time, error rate and degree of satisfaction, and the independent variables were components of the e-mail addresses. The main results indicate that for a recall task, significantly lower total performance time (26.2%) and error rate (75%) were found for the hybrid formats (digits and letters) than for the letter format, and up to four characters was the best single domain length. For an information association task, embedding both geographical and organizational information significantly decreased the response time (10.9%) in comparison with only embedding organizational information. For a categorization task, embedding both geographical information and organizational information significantly decreased response time (40.7%) in comparison with only embedding organizational information. This research demonstrates the importance of human-centred design and provides guidelines in effectively designing e-mail addresses.

  18. Clustered impacts - Experiments and implications. [cratering mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.; Gault, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of impact by clusters of projectiles are experimentally studied by launching grouped projectiles of aluminum shot, steel shot, iron filings, and sand. Cratering efficiency is considered as a function of a dimensionless parameter related to projectile size and impact velocity. The effects of different target and projectile densities on cratering efficiency are examined. Crater morphology is addressed by considering a typical example, reviewing the systematics between cluster dispersion and crater morphology for vertical impacts, and examining oblique angle impacts which have relevance for planetary secondary cratering processes. These results are compared with impacts by single bodies with different strengths. The evolution of the ejecta plume for clustered impacts is compared to that for single-body impacts for vertical and oblique impacts from 1.3 to 1.8 km/s. The experimental results are discussed in the context of planetary surface processes, emphasizing processes in an atmosphere-free environment and secondary impact cratering.

  19. German-Catalan workshop on epigenetics and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizoso, Miguel; Esteller, Manel

    2013-09-01

    In the First German-Catalan Workshop on Epigenetics and Cancer held in Heidelberg, Germany (June 17-19, 2013), cutting-edge laboratories (PEBC, IMPPC, DKFZ, and the Collaborative Research Centre Medical Epigenetics of Freiburg) discussed the latest breakthroughs in the field. The importance of DNA demethylation, non-coding and imprinted genes, metabolic stress, and cell transdifferentiation processes in cancer and non-cancer diseases were addressed in several lectures in a very participative and dynamic atmosphere.   The meeting brought together leading figures in the field of cancer epigenetics to present their research work from the last five years. Experts in different areas of oncology described important advances in colorectal, lung, neuroblastoma, leukemia, and lymphoma cancers. The workshop also provided an interesting forum for pediatrics, and focused on the need to improve the treatment of childhood tumors in order to avoid, as far as possible, brain damage and disruption of activity in areas of high plasticity. From the beginning, the relevance of "omics" and the advances in genome-wide analysis platforms, which allow cancer to be studied in a more comprehensive and inclusive way, was very clear. Modern "omics" offer the possibility of identifying metastases of uncertain origin and establishing epigenetic signatures linked to a specific cluster of patients with a particular prognosis. In this context, invited speakers described novel tumor-associated histone variants and DNA-specific methylation, highlighting their close connection with other processes such as cell-lineage commitment and stemness.

  20. miRNAs芯片数据的聚类分析与羽扇豆醇抗癌途径预测%Cluster analysis of miRNAs microarray data and prediction of lupeol anti- cancer path

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘大川; 代翠红; 徐德昌

    2011-01-01

    Lupeol is an extract from natural plants that has an effective and low - toxic anticancer function. It is of very high value to the drug exploitation. However, the mechanism of its anticancer function still remains unclear. We analyzed the differential expression of miRNA from hela cells which are pretreated with lupeol to investigate the anticancer molecular paths of lupeol. The method of TaqMan MicroRNA Assay was employed through our research. Datas are analyzed with the method of cluster analysis. Targetscan and RNAfold are performed to analyze the gene sequences. With the help of NCBI and Gene Ontology searching, we find the molecular paths of lupeol from hela cells to inhibit cancer,namely, a path that pivots with ERBB4 and involvs in has - miR -23b,has - miR -200b.%羽扇豆醇是一种植物天然提取物,具有高效低毒的抗癌活性,对于药物开发领域有很高价值.目前对其抗癌机制还不是十分明确.使用TaqMan MicroRNA Assay芯片技术,从羽扇豆醇处理的hela细胞中miRNA的差异表达入手,探索扇豆醇抗癌分子途径.运用聚类分析等统计学方法和targetscan,RNAfold等序列分析工具进行信号组分的预测筛选,再结合对NCBI,Gene Ontology等大型生物信息数据库的检索,最终在生物信息学层面上,分析得到hela细胞中羽扇豆醇抗癌的分子调控途径,即以受体酪氨酸激酶ERBB4介导的,hsa - miR -23b,hsa -miR - 200b等几种miRNA参与的分子通路.

  1. Psychological aspects of nutrition and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, G V

    1986-12-01

    Cancer and the various treatments employed to combat this disease have an impact on food intake that is psychologic in nature. These psychologic consequences include behavioral responses such as learned food aversions, changes in food preferences, and anticipatory nausea and vomiting. In a second cluster of psychologic consequences are the emotional responses of anxiety and depression. A third type of psychologic consequence is perceptual in nature and is most commonly represented by changes in palatability of foods. A fourth psychologic aspect of food intake and cancer includes attitudinal responses, wherein social, religious, cultural, and other values related to food may change as a consequence of the disease. Studies are needed in this area. Approaches to nutritional care that address the psychologic impact of cancer are described. As a means of maintaining adequate nutritional status, artificial feeding routes may create psychologic problems. In general, cancer and its treatment can exert a negative impact on quality of life. Finally, the ethics of feeding are discussed in terms of care giving versus alimentation.

  2. Addressing the Issue: Bullying and LGBTQ Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Allen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Each day, thousands of youth experience bullying and as many of 70% of all youth report having experienced bullying, either directly or indirectly (Cantor, 2005. For Gay, Lesbian, Bi-sexual, Transgender and Questioning (LGBTQ youth, the chances of experiencing bullying are much higher than for youth in the general population (Russell, Horn, Kosciw, & Saewyc, 2010. Although many youth serving organizations have begun to address the issue of bullying with bullying prevention programs, there is a deficit of information and a lack of inclusion of prevention efforts that specifically address LGBTQ youth. This article address the role of youth organizations in creating safe and inclusive environments for all youth, with specific attention paid to resources and strategies for inclusive environments for LGBTQ youth.

  3. Development of Automatic Cluster Algorithm for Microcalcification in Digital Mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seok Yoon [Dept. of Medical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Soo [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    Digital Mammography is an efficient imaging technique for the detection and diagnosis of breast pathological disorders. Six mammographic criteria such as number of cluster, number, size, extent and morphologic shape of microcalcification, and presence of mass, were reviewed and correlation with pathologic diagnosis were evaluated. It is very important to find breast cancer early when treatment can reduce deaths from breast cancer and breast incision. In screening breast cancer, mammography is typically used to view the internal organization. Clusterig microcalcifications on mammography represent an important feature of breast mass, especially that of intraductal carcinoma. Because microcalcification has high correlation with breast cancer, a cluster of a microcalcification can be very helpful for the clinical doctor to predict breast cancer. For this study, three steps of quantitative evaluation are proposed : DoG filter, adaptive thresholding, Expectation maximization. Through the proposed algorithm, each cluster in the distribution of microcalcification was able to measure the number calcification and length of cluster also can be used to automatically diagnose breast cancer as indicators of the primary diagnosis.

  4. Cost-Effective Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Gottlieb, S

    2001-01-01

    Small Beowulf clusters can effectively serve as personal or group supercomputers. In such an environment, a cluster can be optimally designed for a specific problem (or a small set of codes). We discuss how theoretical analysis of the code and benchmarking on similar hardware lead to optimal systems.

  5. [Cluster headache differential diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guégan-Massardier, Evelyne; Laubier, Cécile

    2015-11-01

    Cluster headache is characterized by disabling stereotyped headache. Early diagnosis allows appropriate treatment, unfortunately diagnostic errors are frequent. The main differential diagnoses are other primary or essential headaches. Migraine, more frequent and whose diagnosis is carried by excess, trigeminal neuralgia or other trigemino-autonomic cephalgia. Vascular or tumoral underlying condition can mimic cluster headache, neck and brain imaging is recommended, ideally MRI.

  6. Coma cluster of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Atlas Image mosaic, covering 34' x 34' on the sky, of the Coma cluster, aka Abell 1656. This is a particularly rich cluster of individual galaxies (over 1000 members), most prominently the two giant ellipticals, NGC 4874 (right) and NGC 4889 (left). The remaining members are mostly smaller ellipticals, but spiral galaxies are also evident in the 2MASS image. The cluster is seen toward the constellation Coma Berenices, but is actually at a distance of about 100 Mpc (330 million light years, or a redshift of 0.023) from us. At this distance, the cluster is in what is known as the 'Hubble flow,' or the overall expansion of the Universe. As such, astronomers can measure the Hubble Constant, or the universal expansion rate, based on the distance to this cluster. Large, rich clusters, such as Coma, allow astronomers to measure the 'missing mass,' i.e., the matter in the cluster that we cannot see, since it gravitationally influences the motions of the member galaxies within the cluster. The near-infrared maps the overall luminous mass content of the member galaxies, since the light at these wavelengths is dominated by the more numerous older stellar populations. Galaxies, as seen by 2MASS, look fairly smooth and homogeneous, as can be seen from the Hubble 'tuning fork' diagram of near-infrared galaxy morphology. Image mosaic by S. Van Dyk (IPAC).

  7. Mixed-Initiative Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yifen

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-initiative clustering is a task where a user and a machine work collaboratively to analyze a large set of documents. We hypothesize that a user and a machine can both learn better clustering models through enriched communication and interactive learning from each other. The first contribution or this thesis is providing a framework of…

  8. Cluster Synchronization Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, Weiguo; Cao, Ming

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents two approaches to achieving cluster synchronization in dynamical multi-agent systems. In contrast to the widely studied synchronization behavior, where all the coupled agents converge to the same value asymptotically, in the cluster synchronization problem studied in this paper,

  9. Neurostimulation in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jeppe L; Barloese, Mads; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurostimulation has emerged as a viable treatment for intractable chronic cluster headache. Several therapeutic strategies are being investigated including stimulation of the hypothalamus, occipital nerves and sphenopalatine ganglion. The aim of this review is to provide...... effective strategy must be preferred as first-line therapy for intractable chronic cluster headache....

  10. Securing personal network clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jehangir, Assed; Heemstra de Groot, Sonia M.

    2007-01-01

    A Personal Network is a self-organizing, secure and private network of a user’s devices notwithstanding their geographic location. It aims to utilize pervasive computing to provide users with new and improved services. In this paper we propose a model for securing Personal Network clusters. Clusters

  11. Clustering Text Data Streams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Bao Liu; Jia-Rong Cai; Jian Yin; Ada Wai-Chee Fu

    2008-01-01

    Clustering text data streams is an important issue in data mining community and has a number of applications such as news group filtering, text crawling, document organization and topic detection and tracing etc. However, most methods are similarity-based approaches and only use the TF*IDF scheme to represent the semantics of text data and often lead to poor clustering quality. Recently, researchers argue that semantic smoothing model is more efficient than the existing TF.IDF scheme for improving text clustering quality. However, the existing semantic smoothing model is not suitable for dynamic text data context. In this paper, we extend the semantic smoothing model into text data streams context firstly. Based on the extended model, we then present two online clustering algorithms OCTS and OCTSM for the clustering of massive text data streams. In both algorithms, we also present a new cluster statistics structure named cluster profile which can capture the semantics of text data streams dynamically and at the same time speed up the clustering process. Some efficient implementations for our algorithms are also given. Finally, we present a series of experimental results illustrating the effectiveness of our technique.

  12. Relevant Subspace Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan;

    2009-01-01

    Subspace clustering aims at detecting clusters in any subspace projection of a high dimensional space. As the number of possible subspace projections is exponential in the number of dimensions, the result is often tremendously large. Recent approaches fail to reduce results to relevant subspace c...

  13. Structural transitions in clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, A.; Lévy, J.-C. S.

    1997-02-01

    Monatomic clusters are studied by Monte Carlo relaxation using generalized Lennard-Jones potentials. A transition from an icosahedral symmetry to a crystalline symmetry with stacking faults is always observed. Bcc-based soft atom clusters are found to have a lower energy than the corresponding hcp and fcc ones below the melting point.

  14. Clustering of polarization-encoded images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zallat, Jihad; Collet, Christophe; Takakura, Yoshitate

    2004-01-10

    Polarization-encoded imaging consists of the distributed measurements of polarization parameters for each pixel of an image. We address clustering of multidimensional polarization-encoded images. The spatial coherence of polarization information is considered. Two methods of analysis are proposed: polarization contrast enhancement and a more-sophisticated image-processing algorithm based on a Markovian model. The proposed algorithms are applied and validated with two different Mueller images acquired by a fully polarimetric imaging system.

  15. Strategies for Addressing Spreadsheet Compliance Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Brandon

    2006-01-01

    Most organizations today use spreadsheets in some form or another to support critical business processes. However the financial resources, and developmental rigor dedicated to them are often minor in comparison to other enterprise technology. The increasing focus on achieving regulatory and other forms of compliance over key technology assets has made it clear that organizations must regard spreadsheets as an enterprise resource and account for them when developing an overall compliance strategy. This paper provides the reader with a set of practical strategies for addressing spreadsheet compliance from an organizational perspective. It then presents capabilities offered in the 2007 Microsoft Office System which can be used to help customers address compliance challenges.

  16. Welfare work addressing immigrants and refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine

    these integrationist visions in their quest to protect immigrants’ and refugees’ fundamental wellbeing and status as human beings with equal rights, group life and history. These opposing elements generate ambiguity and contradiction within integrationist welfare work. The ambition of the presentation is to enquire......In this presentation I will discuss the ways in which welfare workers addressing immigrants and refugees (re)produce integrationist visions, symbolizing society as an integrated whole and immigrants/refugees as a distraction to that whole. Paradoxically, welfare workers also oppose......, nurses and more) addressing immigrants and refugees and their families and descendants in the Danish welfare nation-state....

  17. Shared address collectives using counter mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocksome, Michael; Dozsa, Gabor; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R; Miller, Douglas

    2014-02-18

    A shared address space on a compute node stores data received from a network and data to transmit to the network. The shared address space includes an application buffer that can be directly operated upon by a plurality of processes, for instance, running on different cores on the compute node. A shared counter is used for one or more of signaling arrival of the data across the plurality of processes running on the compute node, signaling completion of an operation performed by one or more of the plurality of processes, obtaining reservation slots by one or more of the plurality of processes, or combinations thereof.

  18. Addressing techniques of liquid crystal displays

    CERN Document Server

    Ruckmongathan, Temkar N

    2014-01-01

    Unique reference source that can be used from the beginning to end of a design project to aid choosing an appropriate LCD addressing technique for a given application This book will be aimed at design engineers who are likely to embed LCD drivers and controllers in many systems including systems on chip. Such designers face the challenge of making the right choice of an addressing technique that will serve them with best performance at minimal cost and complexity. Readers will be able to learn about various methods available for driving matrix LCDs and the comparisons at the end of each chap

  19. Mathematical classification and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Mirkin, Boris

    1996-01-01

    I am very happy to have this opportunity to present the work of Boris Mirkin, a distinguished Russian scholar in the areas of data analysis and decision making methodologies. The monograph is devoted entirely to clustering, a discipline dispersed through many theoretical and application areas, from mathematical statistics and combina­ torial optimization to biology, sociology and organizational structures. It compiles an immense amount of research done to date, including many original Russian de­ velopments never presented to the international community before (for instance, cluster-by-cluster versions of the K-Means method in Chapter 4 or uniform par­ titioning in Chapter 5). The author's approach, approximation clustering, allows him both to systematize a great part of the discipline and to develop many in­ novative methods in the framework of optimization problems. The optimization methods considered are proved to be meaningful in the contexts of data analysis and clustering. The material presented in ...

  20. Neutrosophic Hierarchical Clustering Algoritms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Şahin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interval neutrosophic set (INS is a generalization of interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy set (IVIFS, whose the membership and non-membership values of elements consist of fuzzy range, while single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS is regarded as extension of intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS. In this paper, we extend the hierarchical clustering techniques proposed for IFSs and IVIFSs to SVNSs and INSs respectively. Based on the traditional hierarchical clustering procedure, the single valued neutrosophic aggregation operator, and the basic distance measures between SVNSs, we define a single valued neutrosophic hierarchical clustering algorithm for clustering SVNSs. Then we extend the algorithm to classify an interval neutrosophic data. Finally, we present some numerical examples in order to show the effectiveness and availability of the developed clustering algorithms.

  1. Cool Cluster Correctly Correlated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varganov, Sergey Aleksandrovich [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Atomic clusters are unique objects, which occupy an intermediate position between atoms and condensed matter systems. For a long time it was thought that physical and chemical properties of atomic dusters monotonically change with increasing size of the cluster from a single atom to a condensed matter system. However, recently it has become clear that many properties of atomic clusters can change drastically with the size of the clusters. Because physical and chemical properties of clusters can be adjusted simply by changing the cluster's size, different applications of atomic clusters were proposed. One example is the catalytic activity of clusters of specific sizes in different chemical reactions. Another example is a potential application of atomic clusters in microelectronics, where their band gaps can be adjusted by simply changing cluster sizes. In recent years significant advances in experimental techniques allow one to synthesize and study atomic clusters of specified sizes. However, the interpretation of the results is often difficult. The theoretical methods are frequently used to help in interpretation of complex experimental data. Most of the theoretical approaches have been based on empirical or semiempirical methods. These methods allow one to study large and small dusters using the same approximations. However, since empirical and semiempirical methods rely on simple models with many parameters, it is often difficult to estimate the quantitative and even qualitative accuracy of the results. On the other hand, because of significant advances in quantum chemical methods and computer capabilities, it is now possible to do high quality ab-initio calculations not only on systems of few atoms but on clusters of practical interest as well. In addition to accurate results for specific clusters, such methods can be used for benchmarking of different empirical and semiempirical approaches. The atomic clusters studied in this work contain from a few atoms

  2. Job Oriented Monitoring Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalaxmi Cigala,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been a lot of development in the field of clusters and grids. Recently, the use of clusters has been on rise in every possible field. This paper proposes a system that monitors jobs onlarge computational clusters. Monitoring jobs is essential to understand how jobs are being executed. This helps us in understanding the complete life cycle of the jobs being executed on large clusters. Also, this paper describes how the information obtained by monitoring the jobs would help in increasing the overall throughput of clusters. Heuristics help in efficient job distribution among the computational nodes, thereby accomplishing fair job distribution policy. The proposed system would be capable of loadbalancing among the computational nodes, detecting failures, taking corrective actions after failure detection, job monitoring, system resource monitoring, etc.

  3. On TPC cluster reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Dydak, F; Nefedov, Y; Wotschack, J; Zhemchugov, A

    2004-01-01

    For a bias-free momentum measurement of TPC tracks, the correct determination of cluster positions is mandatory. We argue in particular that (i) the reconstruction of the entire longitudinal signal shape in view of longitudinal diffusion, electronic pulse shaping, and track inclination is important both for the polar angle reconstruction and for optimum r phi resolution; and that (ii) self-crosstalk of pad signals calls for special measures for the reconstruction of the z coordinate. The problem of 'shadow clusters' is resolved. Algorithms are presented for accepting clusters as 'good' clusters, and for the reconstruction of the r phi and z cluster coordinates, including provisions for 'bad' pads and pads next to sector boundaries, respectively.

  4. A Commodity Computing Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuben, P. J.; Wolfire, M. G.; Pound, M. W.; Mundy, L. G.

    We have assembled a cluster of Intel-Pentium based PCs running Linux to compute a large set of Photodissociation Region (PDR) and Dust Continuum models. For various reasons the cluster is heterogeneous, currently ranging from a single Pentium-II 333 MHz to dual Pentium-III 450 MHz CPU machines. Although this will be sufficient for our ``embarrassingly parallelizable problem'' it may present some challenges for as yet unplanned future use. In addition the cluster was used to construct a MIRIAD benchmark, and compared to equivalent Ultra-Sparc based workstations. Currently the cluster consists of 8 machines, 14 CPUs, 50GB of disk-space, and a total peak speed of 5.83 GHz, or about 1.5 Gflops. The total cost of this cluster has been about $12,000, including all cabling, networking equipment, rack, and a CD-R backup system. The URL for this project is http://dustem.astro.umd.edu.

  5. Automatic Clustering Approaches Based On Initial Seed Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V.S.N.R.V.Prasad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Since clustering is applied in many fields, a number of clustering techniques and algorithms have been proposed and are available in the literature. This paper proposes a novel approach to address the major problems in any of the partitional clustering algorithms like choosing appropriate K-value and selection of K-initial seed points. The performance of any partitional clustering algorithms depends oninitial seed points which are random in all the existing partitional clustering algorithms. To overcome this problem, a novel algorithm called Weighted Interior Clustering (WIC algorithm to find approximate initial seed-points, number of clusters and data points in the clusters is proposed in this paper. This paper also proposes another novel approach combining a newly proposed WIC algorithm with K-means named as Weighted Interior K-means Clustering (WIKC. The novelty of this WIKC is that it improves the quality and performance of K-means clustering algorithm with reduced complexity. The experimental results on various datasets, with various instances clearly indicates the efficacy of the proposed methods over the other methods.

  6. Transition through Teamwork: Professionals Address Student Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bube, Sue Ann; Carrothers, Carol; Johnson, Cinda

    2016-01-01

    Prior to 2013, there was no collaboration around the transition services for deaf and hard of hearing students in Washington State. Washington had numerous agencies providing excellent support, but those agencies were not working together. It was not until January 29, 2013, when pepnet 2 hosted the Building State Capacity to Address Critical…

  7. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  8. Addressing Psychosocial Factors with Library Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Bridget; Alabi, Jaena; Whaley, Pambanisha; Jenda, Claudine

    2017-01-01

    The majority of articles on mentoring in the library and information science field address career development by emphasizing the orientation process for new librarians and building the requisite skills for a specific job. Few articles deal with the psychological and social challenges that many early-career and minority librarians face, which can…

  9. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  10. Parallel Memory Addressing Using Coincident Optical Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-15

    defined for Al and M, respectively, and at each does not have to be the same for every pair of adjacent destination nodeje D, u D2, the number of...system, a register SKIP may be used at each nodej has to skip before reading the messages addressed node to indicate the number of messages to be

  11. Road Map to Address Cognitive Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-09

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Lynda Anderson highlights the important roles that states and communities can play in addressing cognitive health as part of overall health.  Created: 6/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/9/2014.

  12. Problem Solvers: Solutions--The Inaugural Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dause, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Fourth graders in Miss Dause's and Mrs. Hicks's mathematics classes at South Mountain Elementary School in Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, worked with the data from the Inauagural Address problem that was previously published published in the February 2013 issue of "Teaching Children Mathematics". This activity allowed students to showcase…

  13. assessing nutrition intervention programmes that addressed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-02

    Apr 2, 2012 ... address short-term hunger and improve active learning capacity of children in ... evaluation report of 2000 recommended that school feeding should ... were, however, anecdotal accounts of improved school attendance and classroom .... question of what type of food is best suited for the supplementation ...

  14. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  15. Addressing Measurement Issues Related to Bullying Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Deborah M.; Meter, Diana J.; Card, Noel A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we address measurement issues related to select aspects of bullying involvement with the goal of moving psychometrically sound measurement practices toward applied bullying research. We first provide a nontechnical introduction to psychometric considerations in measuring bullying involvement, highlighting the importance of…

  16. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops......, and gives examples of the unique challenges faced by the SME food industry....

  17. Mapping virtual addresses to different physical addresses for value disambiguation for thread memory access requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gala, Alan; Ohmacht, Martin

    2014-09-02

    A multiprocessor system includes nodes. Each node includes a data path that includes a core, a TLB, and a first level cache implementing disambiguation. The system also includes at least one second level cache and a main memory. For thread memory access requests, the core uses an address associated with an instruction format of the core. The first level cache uses an address format related to the size of the main memory plus an offset corresponding to hardware thread meta data. The second level cache uses a physical main memory address plus software thread meta data to store the memory access request. The second level cache accesses the main memory using the physical address with neither the offset nor the thread meta data after resolving speculation. In short, this system includes mapping of a virtual address to a different physical addresses for value disambiguation for different threads.

  18. Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio [Richland, WA; Calapristi, Augustin J [West Richland, WA; Crow, Vernon L [Richland, WA; Hetzler, Elizabeth G [Kennewick, WA; Turner, Alan E [Kennewick, WA

    2009-12-22

    Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a document clustering method includes providing a document set comprising a plurality of documents, providing a cluster comprising a subset of the documents of the document set, using a plurality of terms of the documents, providing a cluster label indicative of subject matter content of the documents of the cluster, wherein the cluster label comprises a plurality of word senses, and selecting one of the word senses of the cluster label.

  19. Cluster adjusted regression for displaced subject data (CARDS): Marginal inference under potentially informative temporal cluster size profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Joe; Beck, James D; Datta, Somnath

    2016-06-01

    Ignorance of the mechanisms responsible for the availability of information presents an unusual problem for analysts. It is often the case that the availability of information is dependent on the outcome. In the analysis of cluster data we say that a condition for informative cluster size (ICS) exists when the inference drawn from analysis of hypothetical balanced data varies from that of inference drawn on observed data. Much work has been done in order to address the analysis of clustered data with informative cluster size; examples include Inverse Probability Weighting (IPW), Cluster Weighted Generalized Estimating Equations (CWGEE), and Doubly Weighted Generalized Estimating Equations (DWGEE). When cluster size changes with time, i.e., the data set possess temporally varying cluster sizes (TVCS), these methods may produce biased inference for the underlying marginal distribution of interest. We propose a new marginalization that may be appropriate for addressing clustered longitudinal data with TVCS. The principal motivation for our present work is to analyze the periodontal data collected by Beck et al. (1997, Journal of Periodontal Research 6, 497-505). Longitudinal periodontal data often exhibits both ICS and TVCS as the number of teeth possessed by participants at the onset of study is not constant and teeth as well as individuals may be displaced throughout the study.

  20. New Trending Events Detection based on the Multi-Representation Index Tree Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Song

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Clustering is a powerful technique for revealing the hot topics among Web information. However, it failed to discover the trending events coming out gradually. In this paper, we propose a novel method to address this problem which is modeled as detecting the new cluster from time-streaming documents. Our approach concludes three parts: the cluster definition based on Multi-Representation Index Tree (MI-Tree, the new cluster detecting process and the metrics for measuring a new cluster. Compared with the traditional method, we process the newly coming data first and merge the old clustering tree into the new one. Our algorithm can avoid that the documents owning high similarity were assigned to different clusters. We designed and implemented a system for practical application, the experimental results on a variety of domains demonstrate that our algorithm can recognize new valuable cluster during the iteration process, and produce quality clusters.

  1. Cluster knockout reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun K Jain; B N Joshi

    2014-04-01

    Cluster knockout reactions are expected to reveal the amount of clustering (such as that of , d and even of heavier clusters such as 12C, 16O etc.) in the target nucleus. In simple terms, incident medium high-energy nuclear projectile interacts strongly with the cluster (present in the target nucleus) as if it were existing as a free entity. Theoretically, the relatively softer interactions of the two outgoing particles with the residual nucleus lead to optical distortions and are treated in terms of distorted wave (DW) formalism. The long-range projectile–cluster interaction is accounted for, in terms of the finite range (FR) direct reaction formalism, as against the more commonly adopted zero-range (ZR) distorted wave impulse approximation (DWIA) formalism. Comparison of the DWIA calculations with the observed data provide information about the momentum distribution and the clustering spectroscopic factor of the target nucleus. Interesting results and some recent advancements in the area of (, 2) reactions and heavy cluster knockout reactions are discussed. Importance of the finite-range vertex and the final-state interactions are brought out.

  2. Textile Industrial Clusters in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    "National Textile Industry Cluster Development Seminar" convened, held by China National Textile and Apparel Council, 23 cities and towns were awarded as China’s Textile Industry Cluster Pilot District. By far, China’s textile industrial clusters have grown

  3. Spanning Tree Based Attribute Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Jorge, Cordero Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    inconsistent edges from a maximum spanning tree by starting appropriate initial modes, therefore generating stable clusters. It discovers sound clusters through simple graph operations and achieves significant computational savings. We compare the Star Discovery algorithm against earlier attribute clustering...

  4. Allodynia in Cluster Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbrink, Leopoldine A; Louter, Mark A; Teernstra, Onno Pm; van Zwet, Erik W; Huygen, Frank Jpm; Haan, Joost; Ferrari, Michel D; Terwindt, Gisela M

    2017-03-04

    Cutaneous allodynia is an established marker for central sensitization in migraine. There is debate whether cutaneous allodynia may also occur in cluster headache, another episodic headache disorder. Here we examined the presence and severity of allodynia in a large well-defined nation-wide population of people with cluster headache.Using validated questionnaires we assessed, cross-sectionally, ictal allodynia and comorbid depression and migraine in the nation-wide "Leiden University Cluster headache neuro-Analysis" (LUCA) study. Participants with cluster headache were diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria. Multivariate regression models were used, with correction for demographic factors and cluster headache subtype (chronic vs. episodic; recent attacks cluster headache responded of whom 218/606 (36%) had allodynia during attacks. Female gender (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.28-3.29), low age at onset (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96- 0.99), lifetime depression (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.06-2.50), comorbid migraine (OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.02-3.79), and having recent attacks (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.13-2.86), but not duration of attacks and chronic cluster headache, were independent risk factors for allodynia.The high prevalence of cutaneous allodynia with similar risk factors for allodynia as found for migraine suggests that central sensitization, like in migraine, also occurs in cluster headache. In clinical practice, awareness that people with cluster headache may suffer from allodynia can in the future be an important feature in treatment options.

  5. Residential address errors in public health surveillance data: a description and analysis of the impact on geocoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinszer, Kate; Jauvin, Christian; Verma, Aman; Bedard, Lucie; Allard, Robert; Schwartzman, Kevin; de Montigny, Luc; Charland, Katia; Buckeridge, David L

    2010-07-01

    The residential addresses of persons with reportable communicable diseases are used increasingly for spatial monitoring and cluster detection, and public health may direct interventions based upon the results of routine spatial surveillance. There has been little assessment, however, of the quality of address data in reportable disease notifications and of the corresponding impact of these errors on geocoding and routine public health practices. The objectives of this study were to examine address errors for a selected reportable disease in a large urban center in Canada and to assess the impact of identified errors on geocoding and the estimated spatial distribution of the disease. We extracted data for all notifications of campylobacteriosis from the Montreal public health department from 1995 to 2008 and used an address verification algorithm to determine the validity of the residential address for each case and to suggest corrections for invalid addresses. We assessed the types of address errors as well as the resulting positional errors, calculating the distance between the original address and the correct address as well as changes in disease density. Address errors and missing addresses were prevalent in the public health records (10% and 5%, respectively) and they influenced the observed distribution of campylobacteriosis in Montreal, with address correction changing case location by a median of 1.1 km. Further examination of the extent of address errors in public health data is essential, as is the investigation of how these errors impact routine public health functions.

  6. Raspberry Pi super cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a step-by-step, tutorial-based approach which will teach you how to develop your own super cluster using Raspberry Pi computers quickly and efficiently.Raspberry Pi Super Cluster is an introductory guide for those interested in experimenting with parallel computing at home. Aimed at Raspberry Pi enthusiasts, this book is a primer for getting your first cluster up and running.Basic knowledge of C or Java would be helpful but no prior knowledge of parallel computing is necessary.

  7. Cluster modular autocontenido

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Desde hace años es común en organizaciones educativas y de investigación el desarrollo de actividades que requieren grandes capacidades de cálculo. La solución más común a estas necesidades es la compra o construcción de un cluster HPC (High Performance Computing), pero construir un cluster acarrea problemas y costos inesperados problemas al momento de utilizarlo y mantenerlo en operaciones. Nuestro proyecto busca desarrollar y documentar técnicas para construir un cluster HPC que sea fácilme...

  8. Extending Beowulf Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinwand, Daniel R.; Maddox, Brian; Beckmann, Tim; Hamer, George

    2003-01-01

    Beowulf clusters can provide a cost-effective way to compute numerical models and process large amounts of remote sensing image data. Usually a Beowulf cluster is designed to accomplish a specific set of processing goals, and processing is very efficient when the problem remains inside the constraints of the original design. There are cases, however, when one might wish to compute a problem that is beyond the capacity of the local Beowulf system. In these cases, spreading the problem to multiple clusters or to other machines on the network may provide a cost-effective solution.

  9. Introduction to cluster dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, Paul-Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Clusters as mesoscopic particles represent an intermediate state of matter between single atoms and solid material. The tendency to miniaturise technical objects requires knowledge about systems which contain a ""small"" number of atoms or molecules only. This is all the more true for dynamical aspects, particularly in relation to the qick development of laser technology and femtosecond spectroscopy. Here, for the first time is a highly qualitative introduction to cluster physics. With its emphasis on cluster dynamics, this will be vital to everyone involved in this interdisciplinary subje

  10. ClusterAlive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, G.; Arezzini, S.; Ciampa, A.; Formuso, A.; Mazzoni, E.

    2015-12-01

    INFN-Pisa Scientific Computing Center is working from many years both in GRID and HPC computing. The monitoring and managing tools have been key components of the center's successful operation. The lessons learned from the use of standard tools, such as Ganglia, have been starting points for the development of new tools specific for our infrastructure. In this note we will illustrate the integration of many different monitoring tools in one single platform called ClusterAlive. Aim of ClusterAlive is to increase the HPC cluster performance and simplify maintenance operations, possibly in a proactive approach.

  11. From collisions to clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loukonen, Ville; Bork, Nicolai; Vehkamaki, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    -principles molecular dynamics collision simulations of (sulphuric acid)1(water)0, 1 + (dimethylamine) → (sulphuric acid)1(dimethylamine)1(water)0, 1 cluster formation processes. The simulations indicate that the sticking factor in the collisions is unity: the interaction between the molecules is strong enough...... to overcome the possible initial non-optimal collision orientations. No post-collisional cluster break up is observed. The reasons for the efficient clustering are (i) the proton transfer reaction which takes place in each of the collision simulations and (ii) the subsequent competition over the proton...

  12. Negotiating Cluster Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacomin, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Palm oil was introduced to Malay(si)a as an alternative to natural rubber, inheriting its cluster organizational structure. In the late 1960s, Malaysia became the world’s largest palm oil exporter. Based on archival material from British colonial institutions and agency houses, this paper focuses...... on the governance dynamics that drove institutional change within this cluster during decolonization. The analysis presents three main findings: (i) cluster boundaries are defined by continuous tug-of-war style negotiations between public and private actors; (ii) this interaction produces institutional change...

  13. Combining cluster number counts and galaxy clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasa, Fabien; Rosenfeld, Rogerio

    2016-08-01

    The abundance of clusters and the clustering of galaxies are two of the important cosmological probes for current and future large scale surveys of galaxies, such as the Dark Energy Survey. In order to combine them one has to account for the fact that they are not independent quantities, since they probe the same density field. It is important to develop a good understanding of their correlation in order to extract parameter constraints. We present a detailed modelling of the joint covariance matrix between cluster number counts and the galaxy angular power spectrum. We employ the framework of the halo model complemented by a Halo Occupation Distribution model (HOD). We demonstrate the importance of accounting for non-Gaussianity to produce accurate covariance predictions. Indeed, we show that the non-Gaussian covariance becomes dominant at small scales, low redshifts or high cluster masses. We discuss in particular the case of the super-sample covariance (SSC), including the effects of galaxy shot-noise, halo second order bias and non-local bias. We demonstrate that the SSC obeys mathematical inequalities and positivity. Using the joint covariance matrix and a Fisher matrix methodology, we examine the prospects of combining these two probes to constrain cosmological and HOD parameters. We find that the combination indeed results in noticeably better constraints, with improvements of order 20% on cosmological parameters compared to the best single probe, and even greater improvement on HOD parameters, with reduction of error bars by a factor 1.4-4.8. This happens in particular because the cross-covariance introduces a synergy between the probes on small scales. We conclude that accounting for non-Gaussian effects is required for the joint analysis of these observables in galaxy surveys.

  14. National Cancer Institute Prostate Cancer Genetics Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalona, William J; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Camp, Nicola J; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooney, Kathleen A; Easton, Douglas F; Eeles, Rosalind A; FitzGerald, Liesel M; Freedman, Matthew L; Gudmundsson, Julius; Kittles, Rick A; Margulies, Elliott H; McGuire, Barry B; Ostrander, Elaine A; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Stanford, Janet L; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Witte, John S; Isaacs, William B

    2011-05-15

    Compelling evidence supports a genetic component to prostate cancer susceptibility and aggressiveness. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified more than 30 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with prostate cancer susceptibility. It remains unclear, however, whether such genetic variants are associated with disease aggressiveness--one of the most important questions in prostate cancer research today. To help clarify this and substantially expand research in the genetic determinants of prostate cancer aggressiveness, the first National Cancer Institute Prostate Cancer Genetics Workshop assembled researchers to develop plans for a large new research consortium and patient cohort. The workshop reviewed the prior work in this area and addressed the practical issues in planning future studies. With new DNA sequencing technology, the potential application of sequencing information to patient care is emerging. The workshop, therefore, included state-of-the-art presentations by experts on new genotyping technologies, including sequencing and associated bioinformatics issues, which are just beginning to be applied to cancer genetics.

  15. Overview of an address and purpose of the workshop [ISO Workshop on address standards: Considering the issues related to an international address standard

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This workshop was conceived with the aim of discussing what an address actually is and exploring the possibility of developing an international address standard across the various domains that use addresses. This paper attempts to provide...

  16. Characterization of addressability by simultaneous randomized benchmarking

    CERN Document Server

    Gambetta, Jay M; Merkel, S T; Johnson, B R; Smolin, John A; Chow, Jerry M; Ryan, Colm A; Rigetti, Chad; Poletto, S; Ohki, Thomas A; Ketchen, Mark B; Steffen, M

    2012-01-01

    The control and handling of errors arising from cross-talk and unwanted interactions in multi-qubit systems is an important issue in quantum information processing architectures. We introduce a benchmarking protocol that provides information about the amount of addressability present in the system and implement it on coupled superconducting qubits. The protocol consists of randomized benchmarking each qubit individually and then simultaneously, and the amount of addressability is related to the difference of the average gate fidelities of those experiments. We present the results on two similar samples with different amounts of cross-talk and unwanted interactions, which agree with predictions based on simple models for the amount of residual coupling.

  17. Improving student learning by addressing misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Carol A.; Huntoon, Jacqueline E.

    2011-12-01

    Students—and often those who teach them—come to class with preconceptions and misconceptions that hinder their learning. For instance, many K-12 students and teachers believe groundwater exists in the ground in actual rivers or lakes, but in fact, groundwater is found in permeable rock layers called aquifers. Such misconceptions need to be addressed before students can learn scientific concepts correctly. While other science disciplines have been addressing preconceptions and misconceptions for many years, the geoscience community has only recently begun to concentrate on the impact these have on students' learning. Valuable research is being done that illuminates how geologic thinking evolves from the "novice" to "expert" level. The expert is defined as an individual with deep understanding of Earth science concepts. As research progresses, geoscientists are realizing that correcting preconceptions and misconceptions can move teachers and students closer to the "expert" level [Libarkin, 2005].

  18. World Federation of Vascular Societies: presidential address

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Henrik Hegaard

    2010-01-01

    The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally imp...... throughout the world. In addition, for introduction of new treatments, training issues and dissemination of science a global organisation like the WFVS is needed.......The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally....... Similar, in order to be able to train with relevant case mix and numbers, and in order always to have both complex open and endovascular skills on call 24 hours per day, 365 days a year, centralisation into larger units is necessary. The WFVS is important simply looking at the huge demographic differences...

  19. Forms of Address as Discrete Modal Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Paweł Sosnowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Forms of Address as Discrete Modal Operators The category of expressions of politeness includes, among others, forms of address. Forms of address express honorification. Honorification can be defined as a special type of meaning that consists of information about the social and interpersonal relations between the speaker and the addressee, the speaker and the hearer, and the speaker and the protagonist of the predication. As far as their place in the syntactic structure is concerned, forms of address can either be integrated with the other elements of a predication or not. However, they are always part of a predication’s semantic structure. Moreover, forms of address convey the speaker’s attitude to the meaning of the predicate that they want to convey, which consequently means that forms of address also carry a modal element. Modality can be defined as a situation in which an individual is in a particular mental state, i.e. exhibits some kind of attitude to a situation or a type of situations. Forms of address can be categorised as modal operators conveying imperatives, requests, suppositions, etc. The term "operator" can be used for a unit of language when it changes the semantic structure of the predication. My research on honorification is mainly based on contemporary corpora, both monolingual and multilingual. In the present study, I analyse forms of address which carry imperative and optative meanings.   Formy adresatywne jako dyskretne operatory modalne W obrębie wyrażeń realizujących funkcje grzecznościowe znajduje się grupa form adresatywnych. Są one częścią kategorii honoryfikatywności rozumianej jako szczególny rodzaj znaczenia zawartego w treści wypowiedzi, informację o towarzysko-społecznej relacji między nadawcą a odbiorcą, nadawcą a słuchaczem oraz nadawcą a bohaterem wypowiedzi. Gramatycznie formy adresatywne mogą być zarówno zintegrowane, jak i niezintegrowane syntaktycznie z resztą wypowiedzi, ale

  20. CANE: The Content Addressed Network Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner-Stephen, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The fragmented nature and asymmetry of local and remote file access and network access, combined with the current lack of robust authenticity and privacy, hamstrings the current internet. The collection of disjoint and often ad-hoc technologies currently in use are at least partially responsible for the magnitude and potency of the plagues besetting the information economy, of which spam and email borne virii are canonical examples. The proposed replacement for the internet, Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), does little to tackle these underlying issues, instead concentrating on addressing the technical issues of a decade ago. This paper introduces CANE, a Content Addressed Network Environment, and compares it against current internet and related technologies. Specifically, CANE presents a simple computing environment in which location is abstracted away in favour of identity, and trust is explicitly defined. Identity is cryptographically verified and yet remains pervasively open in nature. It is argued tha...