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Sample records for address water resource

  1. Addressing trend-related changes within cumulative effects studies in water resources planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canter, L.W.; Chawla, M.K.; Swor, C.T.

    2014-01-01

    Summarized herein are 28 case studies wherein trend-related causative physical, social, or institutional changes were connected to consequential changes in runoff, water quality, and riparian and aquatic ecological features. The reviewed cases were systematically evaluated relative to their identified environmental effects; usage of analytical frameworks, and appropriate models, methods, and technologies; and the attention given to mitigation and/or management of the resultant causative and consequential changes. These changes also represent important considerations in project design and operation, and in cumulative effects studies associated therewith. The cases were grouped into five categories: institutional changes associated with legislation and policies (seven cases); physical changes from land use changes in urbanizing watersheds (eight cases); physical changes from land use changes and development projects in watersheds (four cases); physical, institutional, and social changes from land use and related policy changes in river basins (three cases); and multiple changes within a comprehensive study of land use and policy changes in the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (six cases). A tabulation of 110 models, methods and technologies used in the studies is also presented. General observations from this review were that the features were unique for each case; the consequential changes were logically based on the causative changes; the analytical frameworks provided relevant structures for the studies, and the identified methods and technologies were pertinent for addressing both the causative and consequential changes. One key lesson was that the cases provide useful, “real-world” illustrations of the importance of addressing trend-related changes in cumulative effects studies within water resources planning. Accordingly, they could be used as an “initial tool kit” for addressing trend-related changes

  2. Addressing trend-related changes within cumulative effects studies in water resources planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canter, L.W., E-mail: envimptr@aol.com [University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma and President, Canter Associates, Inc., Horseshoe Bay, TX (United States); Chawla, M.K. [ERDC-CERL, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States); Swor, C.T. [Canter Associates, Inc., Frankewing, TN (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Summarized herein are 28 case studies wherein trend-related causative physical, social, or institutional changes were connected to consequential changes in runoff, water quality, and riparian and aquatic ecological features. The reviewed cases were systematically evaluated relative to their identified environmental effects; usage of analytical frameworks, and appropriate models, methods, and technologies; and the attention given to mitigation and/or management of the resultant causative and consequential changes. These changes also represent important considerations in project design and operation, and in cumulative effects studies associated therewith. The cases were grouped into five categories: institutional changes associated with legislation and policies (seven cases); physical changes from land use changes in urbanizing watersheds (eight cases); physical changes from land use changes and development projects in watersheds (four cases); physical, institutional, and social changes from land use and related policy changes in river basins (three cases); and multiple changes within a comprehensive study of land use and policy changes in the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (six cases). A tabulation of 110 models, methods and technologies used in the studies is also presented. General observations from this review were that the features were unique for each case; the consequential changes were logically based on the causative changes; the analytical frameworks provided relevant structures for the studies, and the identified methods and technologies were pertinent for addressing both the causative and consequential changes. One key lesson was that the cases provide useful, “real-world” illustrations of the importance of addressing trend-related changes in cumulative effects studies within water resources planning. Accordingly, they could be used as an “initial tool kit” for addressing trend-related changes.

  3. Contamination of water resources by pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Water-borne pathogen contamination in water resources and related diseases are a major water quality concern throughout the world. Increasing interest in controlling water-borne pathogens in water resources evidenced by a large number of recent publications clearly attests to the need for studies that synthesize knowledge from multiple fields covering comparative aspects of pathogen contamination, and unify them in a single place in order to present and address the problem as a whole. Providing a broader perceptive of pathogen contamination in freshwater (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, groundwater) and saline water (estuaries and coastal waters) resources, this review paper attempts to develop the first comprehensive single source of existing information on pathogen contamination in multiple types of water resources. In addition, a comprehensive discussion describes the challenges associated with using indicator organisms. Potential impacts of water resources development on pathogen contamination as well as challenges that lie ahead for addressing pathogen contamination are also discussed. PMID:25006540

  4. Developing Socio-Techno-Economic-Political (STEP Solutions for Addressing Resource Nexus Hotspots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassel Daher

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of meeting increasing water, energy, and food needs is linked not only to growing demands globally, but also to the growing interdependency between these interconnected resource systems. Pressures on these systems will emerge to become hotspots with different characteristics, and will require a fresh look at the challenges existing both within each of the resource systems and at their respective interfaces. Proposing solutions to address different resource hotspots must be multi-faceted and need to acknowledge the multiple dimensions of the biophysical water, energy, and food systems, and the players connected with them. This commentary first explores the multiple dimensions of water, energy, and food systems as these relate to government, business, and society. It then identifies contemporary critical questions at the interface of these stressed resource systems. A 3-Filter framework is then introduced for vetting the feasibility of proposed resource allocation scenarios and to account for the bio-physical resource interactions and trade-offs, the stakeholder interactions and trade-offs, and to address governance and financing schemes for carrying forward the implementation of those scenarios.

  5. Water Resources Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untitled Document  Search Welcome to the University of Hawai'i at Manoa Water Resources Research Center At WRRC we concentrate on addressing the unique water and wastewater management problems and issues elsewhere by researching water-related issues distinctive to these areas. We are Hawaii's link in a network

  6. Integration of hydrogeology and soil science for sustainable water resources-focus on water quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased biofuel production has heightened awareness of the strong linkages between crop water use and depletion of water resources. Irrigated agriculture consumed 90% of global fresh water resources during the past century. Addressing crop water use and depletion of groundwater resources requires ...

  7. Water resources assessment and prediction in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Guangsheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water resources assessment in China, can be classified into three groups: (i comprehensive water resources assessment, (ii annual water resources assessment, and (iii industrial project water resources assessment. Comprehensive water resources assessment is the conventional assessment where the frequency distribution of water resources in basins or provincial regions are analyzed. For the annual water resources assessment, water resources of the last year in basins or provincial regions are usually assessed. For the industrial project water resources assessment, the water resources situation before the construction of industrial project has to be assessed. To address the climate and environmental changes, hydrological and statistical models are widely applied for studies on assessing water resources changes. For the water resources prediction in China usually the monthly runoff prediction is used. In most low flow seasons, the flow recession curve is commonly used as prediction method. In the humid regions, the rainfall-runoff ensemble prediction (ESP has been widely applied for the monthly runoff prediction. The conditional probability method for the monthly runoff prediction was also applied to assess next month runoff probability under a fixed initial condition.

  8. Web-Based Water Accounting Scenario Platform to Address Uncertainties in Water Resources Management in the Mekong : A Case Study in Ca River Basin, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apirumanekul, C.; Purkey, D. R.; Pudashine, J.; Seifollahi-Aghmiuni, S.; Wang, D.; Ate, P.; Meechaiya, C.

    2017-12-01

    Rapid economic development in the Mekong Region is placing pressure on environmental resources. Uncertain changes in land-use, increasing urbanization, infrastructure development, migration patterns and climate risks s combined with scarce water resources are increasing water demand in various sectors. More appropriate policies, strategies and planning for sustainable water resource management are urgently needed. Over the last five years, Vietnam has experienced more frequent and intense droughts affecting agricultural and domestic water use during the dry season. The Ca River Basin is the third largest river basin in Vietnam with 35% of its area located in Lao PDR. The delta landscape comprises natural vegetation, forest, paddy fields, farming and urban areas. The Ca River Basin is experiencing ongoing water scarcity that impacts on crop production, farming livelihoods and household water consumption. Water scarcity is exacerbated by uncertainties in policy changes (e.g. changes in land-use, crop types), basin development (e.g. reservoir construction, urban expansion), and climate change (e.g. changes in rainfall patterns and onset of monsoon). The Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) model, with inputs from satellite-based information and institutional data, is used to estimate water supply, water use and water allocation in various sectors (e.g. household, crops, irrigation and flood control) under a wide range of plausible future scenarios in the Ca River Basin. Web-Based Water Allocation Scenario Platform is an online implementation of WEAP model structured in terms of a gaming experience. The online game, as an educational tool, helps key agencies relevant to water resources management understand and explore the complexity of integrated system of river basin under a wide range of scenarios. Performance of the different water resources strategies in Ca River Basin (e.g. change of dam operation to address needs in various sectors, construction of dams, changes

  9. NASA Water Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David L.

    2011-01-01

    With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. In addition to the numerous water availability issues, water quality related problems are seriously affecting human health and our environment. The potential crises and conflicts especially arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. and also in numerous parts of the world. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands and needs requires using existing water resources more efficiently. The NASA Water Resources Program Element works to use NASA products and technology to address these critical water issues. The primary goal of the Water Resources is to facilitate application of NASA Earth science products as a routine use in integrated water resources management for the sustainable use of water. This also includes the extreme events of drought and floods and the adaptation to the impacts from climate change. NASA satellite and Earth system observations of water and related data provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as precipitation, snow, soil moisture, water levels, land cover type, vegetation type, and health. NASA Water Resources Program works closely to use NASA and Earth science data with other U.S. government agencies, universities, and non-profit and private sector organizations both domestically and internationally. The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its

  10. Applying the WEAP Model to Water Resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Christensen, Per; Li, Wei

    efficiency, treatment and reuse of water. The WEAP model was applied to the Ordos catchment where it was used for the first time in China. The changes in water resource utilization in Ordos basin were assessed with the model. It was found that the WEAP model is a useful tool for water resource assessment......Water resources assessment is a tool to provide decision makers with an appropriate basis to make informed judgments regarding the objectives and targets to be addressed during the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) process. The study shows how water resources assessment can be applied in SEA...... in assessing the effects on water resources using a case study on a Coal Industry Development Plan in an arid region in North Western China. In the case the WEAP model (Water Evaluation And Planning System) were used to simulate various scenarios using a diversity of technological instruments like irrigation...

  11. Water resources in the next millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Warren

    As pressures from an exponentially increasing population and economic expectations rise against a finite water resource, how do we address management? This was the main focus of the Dubai International Conference on Water Resources and Integrated Management in the Third Millennium in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 2-6 February 2002. The invited forum attracted an eclectic mix of international thinkers from five continents. Presentations and discussions on hydrology policy/property rights, and management strategies focused mainly on problems of water supply, irrigation, and/or ecosystems.

  12. Water resource management: an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadse, G K; Labhasetwar, P K; Wate, S R

    2012-10-01

    Water is precious natural resource for sustaining life and environment. Effective and sustainable management of water resources is vital for ensuring sustainable development. In view of the vital importance of water for human and animal life, for maintaining ecological balance and for economic and developmental activities of all kinds, and considering its increasing scarcity, the planning and management of water resource and its optimal, economical and equitable use has become a matter of the utmost urgency. Management of water resources in India is of paramount importance to sustain one billion plus population. Water management is a composite area with linkage to various sectors of Indian economy including the agricultural, industrial, domestic and household, power, environment, fisheries and transportation sector. The water resources management practices should be based on increasing the water supply and managing the water demand under the stressed water availability conditions. For maintaining the quality of freshwater, water quality management strategies are required to be evolved and implemented. Decision support systems are required to be developed for planning and management of the water resources project. There is interplay of various factors that govern access and utilization of water resources and in light of the increasing demand for water it becomes important to look for holistic and people-centered approaches for water management. Clearly, drinking water is too fundamental and serious an issue to be left to one institution alone. It needs the combined initiative and action of all, if at all we are serious in socioeconomic development. Safe drinking water can be assured, provided we set our mind to address it. The present article deals with the review of various options for sustainable water resource management in India.

  13. Thoughts on access to water in Peru within the new Water Resources Law framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Ruiz Ostoic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty involved addressing issues related with water management in Peru is the article’s starting point. Therefore, the water issue approach is introduced explaining its administrative procedures, the rights involved and making a critical analysis of 2008 Water Resources Law. Finally, the need for an integrated management analysis of the water resource is highlighted by integrally understanding the General Water Law as well as the current Water Resources Law, and encouraging dialogue among social actors involved in order to avoid future conflicts.

  14. Water resource management : a strategy for Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theakston, J.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1995, the Nova Scotia Department of the Environment has been the lead agency responsible for water resource management in the province. The agency's mandate has been to establish a water resource management strategy and to report periodically to the people of the province on the state of the environment, including air, water and waste resource management. One of the Department's goals is to ensure that surface and groundwater resources are being adequately protected. This paper summarizes issues related to dams and how they will be addressed. The Department allocates water through approvals and regulates use and alteration of watercourses. The construction of a dam and water withdrawal for municipal, industrial, hydroelectric or other purposes requires an approval. The major concerns with these activities are flows to sustain downstream habitat, competing demand for water, public safety, and water quality impacts. The main water management actions established under the water strategy involve: (1) geo-referencing water resource use and allocation, (2) protecting water quality, (3) integrating management of natural resources, and (4) promoting partnership in stewardship

  15. Water resources (Chapter 12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Romano Foti; Jorge Ramirez

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we focus on the vulnerability of U.S. freshwater supplies considering all lands, not just forest and rangelands. We do not assess the condition of those lands or report on how much of our water supply originates on lands of different land covers or ownerships, because earlier Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment work addressed these topics....

  16. Addressing water resources risk in England and Wales: Long term infrastructure planning in a private, regulated industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sean

    2015-04-01

    Water resources planning is a complex and challenging discipline in which decision makers must deal with conflicting objectives, contested socio-economic values and vast uncertainties, including long term hydrological variability. The task is arguably more demanding in England and Wales, where private water companies must adhere to a rigid set of regulatory planning guidelines in order to justify new infrastructural investments. These guidelines prescribe a "capacity expansion" approach to planning: ensure that a deterministic measure of supply, known as "Deployable Output," meets projected demand over a 25-year planning horizon. Deployable Output is derived using a method akin to yield analysis and is commensurate with the maximum rate of supply that a water resources system can sustain without incurring failure under a simulation of historical recorded hydrological conditions. This study examines whether Deployable Output analysis is fit to serve an industry in which: water companies are seeking to invest in cross-company water transfer schemes to deal with loss of water availability brought about by European environmental legislation and an increase in demand driven by population growth; water companies are expected address potential climate change impacts through their planning activities; and regulators wish to benchmark water resource system performance across the separate companies. Of particular interest, then, is the adequacy of Deployable Output analysis as a means to measuring current and future water shortage risk and comparing across supply systems. Data from the UK National River Flow Archive are used to develop a series of hypothetical reservoir systems in two hydrologically contrasting regions -- northwest England/north Wales and Southeast England. The systems are varied by adjusting the draft ratio (ratio of target annual demand to mean annual inflow), the inflow diversity (covariance of streamflow sequences supplying the system), the strength of

  17. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  18. The Role of Natural Resource Professionals in Addressing Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shorna B. Allred

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural resource professionals, ranging from forest managers and educators to floodplain managers, play a critical role in implementing and conducting outreach with regards to climate mitigation and adaptation appropriate to local and regional scales. Natural resource professionals can also pave the way by adopting actions that serve as demonstrations of efforts to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions or adapt natural systems for the future. A web survey of 1488 natural resource professionals across New York State (NYS was conducted to assess their attitudes toward climate change, views toward climate change mitigation and adaptation priorities, actions taken to address climate change, and barriers faced as they relate to their professional responsibilities. The majority of natural resource professionals believe that climate change is happening, but there was slightly less agreement about human causes of climate change. Most natural resource professionals (69% see evidence of how climate change is impacting natural resources in NYS, but few (17% believed that there was sufficient information about how to address climate impacts at the local level. Nearly 60% of natural resources professionals undertook climate mitigation or adaptation actions in their work. Prominent influencing factors for action were proactive leadership and local impacts. Barriers to taking action on climate change were a lack of human and financial resources, the nature of costs relative to benefits, and lack of perceived threat. As managers and educators responsible for local water, land, and wildlife resources, natural resource professionals witness changes resulting from climate change first-hand. This paper will be useful to decision-makers at state and federal government levels regarding policies, incentives, and guidance that can be created with the goal of promoting a sound natural resource strategy in support of climate change readiness.

  19. Analytical Frameworks for Addressing Physical, Social, and Institutional Changes in Water Resources Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    stability Presence of geologic hazards, e.g. landslides , site stability, distance to faults, and reservoir-induced seismicity BP9 Reservoir surface... Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council; National Academies Press. NRC–Panel on Adaptive Management for Resource Stewardship. 2004...Peer Review for Water Resources Project Planning, Water Science and Technology Board, Ocean Studies Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies

  20. Learning about water resource sharing through game play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ewen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Games are an optimal way to teach about water resource sharing, as they allow real-world scenarios to be enacted. Both students and professionals learning about water resource management can benefit from playing games, through the process of understanding both the complexity of sharing of resources between different groups and decision outcomes. Here we address how games can be used to teach about water resource sharing, through both playing and developing water games. An evaluation of using the web-based game Irrigania in the classroom setting, supported by feedback from several educators who have used Irrigania to teach about the sustainable use of water resources, and decision making, at university and high school levels, finds Irrigania to be an effective and easy tool to incorporate into a curriculum. The development of two water games in a course for masters students in geography is also presented as a way to teach and communicate about water resource sharing. Through game development, students learned soft skills, including critical thinking, problem solving, team work, and time management, and overall the process was found to be an effective way to learn about water resource decision outcomes. This paper concludes with a discussion of learning outcomes from both playing and developing water games.

  1. Learning about water resource sharing through game play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Tracy; Seibert, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Games are an optimal way to teach about water resource sharing, as they allow real-world scenarios to be enacted. Both students and professionals learning about water resource management can benefit from playing games, through the process of understanding both the complexity of sharing of resources between different groups and decision outcomes. Here we address how games can be used to teach about water resource sharing, through both playing and developing water games. An evaluation of using the web-based game Irrigania in the classroom setting, supported by feedback from several educators who have used Irrigania to teach about the sustainable use of water resources, and decision making, at university and high school levels, finds Irrigania to be an effective and easy tool to incorporate into a curriculum. The development of two water games in a course for masters students in geography is also presented as a way to teach and communicate about water resource sharing. Through game development, students learned soft skills, including critical thinking, problem solving, team work, and time management, and overall the process was found to be an effective way to learn about water resource decision outcomes. This paper concludes with a discussion of learning outcomes from both playing and developing water games.

  2. Higher Resolution for Water Resources Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumenil-Gates, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth system science community is providing an increasing range of science results for the benefit of achieving the Millennium Development Goals. In addressing questions such as reducing poverty and hunger, achieving sustainable global development, or by defining adaptation strategies for climate change, one of the key issues will be the quantitative description and understanding of the global water cycle, which will allow useful projections of available future water resources for several decades ahead. The quantities of global water cycle elements that we observe today - and deal with in hydrologic and atmospheric modeling - are already very different from the natural flows as human influence on the water cycle by storage, consumption and edifice has been going on for millennia, and climate change is expected to add more uncertainty. In this case Tony Blair’s comment that perhaps the most worrying problem is climate change does not cover the full story. We shall also have to quantify how the human demand for water resources and alterations of the various elements of the water cycle may proceed in the future: will there be enough of the precious water resource to sustain current and future demands by the various sectors involved? The topics that stakeholders and decision makers concerned with managing water resources are interested in cover a variety of human uses such as agriculture, energy production, ecological flow requirements to sustain biodiversity and ecosystem services, or human cultural aspects, recreation and human well-being - all typically most relevant at the regional or local scales, this being quite different from the relatively large-scale that the IPCC assessment addresses. Halfway through the Millennium process, the knowledge base of the global water cycle is still limited. The sustainability of regional water resources is best assessed through a research program that combines high-resolution climate and hydrologic models for expected

  3. Managing water resources in Malaysia: the use of isotope technique and its potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keizrul Abdullah

    2006-01-01

    This keynote address discusses the following subjects; state of Malaysia water resources, water related problem i.e floods, water shortage (droughts), water quality, river sedimentation, water resources management and the ongoing and potential application of isotope techniques in river management

  4. Managing Senegalese water resources: Definition and relative importance of information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D.

    1998-09-01

    This report provides an overview of the results of the Vital Issues process as implemented for the Senegal Water Resources Management Initiative, a collaborative effort between the Senegalese Ministry of Water Resources and Sandia National Laboratories. This Initiative is being developed to assist in the development of an efficient and sustainable water resources management system for Senegal. The Vital Issues process was used to provide information for the development of a proposal that will recommend actions to address the key management issues and establish a state-of-the-art decision support system (DSS) for managing Senegal`s water resources. Three Vital Issues panel meetings were convened to (1) develop a goal statement and criteria for identifying and ranking the issues vital to water resources management in Senegal; (2) define and rank the issues, and (3) identify and prioritize a preliminary list of information needed to address the vital issues. The selection of panelists from the four basic institutional perspectives (government, industry, academe, and citizens` interest groups) ensured a high level of stakeholder representation on the panels.

  5. University of Idaho Water of the West Initiative: Development of a sustainable, interdisciplinary water resources program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, J.; Cosens, B.; Fiedler, F.; Link, T.; Wilson, P.; Harris, C.; Tuller, M.; Johnson, G.; Kennedy, B.

    2006-12-01

    Recently, an interdisciplinary group of faculty from the University of Idaho was awarded a major internal grant for their project "Water of the West (WoW)" to launch an interdisciplinary Water Resources Graduate Education Program. This Water Resources program will facilitate research and education to influence both the scientific understanding of the resource and how it is managed, and advance the decision-making processes that are the means to address competing societal values. By educating students to integrate environmental sciences, socio-economic, and political issues, the WoW project advances the University's land grant mission to promote economic and social development in the state of Idaho. This will be accomplished through novel experiential interdisciplinary education activities; creation of interdisciplinary research efforts among water resources faculty; and focusing on urgent regional problems with an approach that will involve and provide information to local communities. The Water Resources Program will integrate physical and biological sciences, social science, law, policy and engineering to address problems associated with stewardship of our scarce water resources. As part of the WoW project, faculty will: (1) develop an integrative problem-solving framework; (2) develop activities to broaden WR education; (3) collaborate with the College of Law to offer a concurrent J.D. degree, (4) develop a virtual system of watersheds for teaching and research, and (5) attract graduate students for team-based education. The new program involves 50 faculty from six colleges and thirteen departments across the university. This university-wide initiative is strengthened by collaboration with the Idaho Water Resources Research Institute, and participation from off-campus Centers in Idaho Falls, Boise, Twin Falls, and Coeur d'Alene. We hope this presentation will attract university faculty, water resources professionals, and others for stimulating discussions on

  6. Addressing water challenges on the North China Plain with hydroeconomic optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Grith; Davidsen, Claus; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    . This enables the representation of links and interactions between the water resources system and the power system of Northern China. The multi-reservoir LP model is formulated as a flow path based optimization, which tracks each water delivery from supplier to receiver. This is useful for the exploration...... constructed. However, the project alone cannot solve the NCP’s water crisis. A hydroeconomic optimization model has been developed for the NCP system. The model area represents the administrative area of the Hai River Commission. The challenges addressed are the spatio-temporal distribution of costs......With its diverse environment and large population, China is facing water resource challenges, both in terms of quantity and quality. The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the world’s most densely populated areas and one of the highly water stressed regions of China. It counts for 15% of the Chinese...

  7. NASA'S Water Resources Element Within the Applied Sciences Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David; Doorn, Bradley; Engman, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program works within NASA Earth sciences to leverage investment of satellite and information systems to increase the benefits to society through the widest practical use of NASA research results. Such observations provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as land cover type, vegetation type and health, precipitation, snow, soil moisture, and water levels and radiation. Observations of this type combined with models and analysis enable satellite-based assessment of numerous water resources management activities. The primary goal of the Earth Science Applied Science Program is to improve future and current operational systems by infusing them with scientific knowledge of the Earth system gained through space-based observation, model results, and development and deployment of enabling technologies, systems, and capabilities. Water resources is one of eight elements in the Applied Sciences Program and it addresses concerns and decision making related to water quantity and water quality. With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands requires using existing resources more efficiently. The potential crises and conflicts arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. but also in many parts of the world. In addition to water availability issues, water quality related

  8. Isotopes in water resources management. V.2. Proceedings of a symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    At present, the thrusts of the IAEA involvement are towards improved management of water resources in regions suffering from water scarcity, assessment of human impact on water resources, e.g. water pollution, and exploration and management of geothermal resources. Lately, novel isotope based techniques have been evolving from specialized laboratories. These trends and challenges are reflected by the scientific contributions to the International Symposium on Isotopes in Water Resources Management, held from 20 to 24 March 1995 in Vienna. The main themes of the symposium were groundwater resources management, with about two thirds of the contributions addressing origin and recharge of groundwater, groundwater dynamics and pollution, modelling approaches, and geothermal and paleowater resources. The remaining third of the contributions were concerned with surface water sediments, unsaturated zones and methodological aspects. These proceedings contain the 43 papers presented and the extended synopses of over 100 poster presentations. Refs, figs, tabs

  9. Struggles over Access and Authority in the Governance of new water resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cold-Ravnkilde, Signe Marie; Funder, Mikkel

    Research on water scarcity in the South has often focused on the impacts of limited water resources for the rural poor, prompted most recently by the climate change debate. Less attention has been drawn to the social and institutional processes surrounding the emergence of new collective water...... of the way we understand the development of new water resources in the current context of inequality, water scarcity and climate change....... resources, and how this affects authority, access rights and social exclusion in local water governance. The paper addresses this issue through a study of local competition over access to new common-pool water resources in isolated rural areas of Zambia and Mali. In Mali, climate change has led...

  10. The use of an integrated variable fuzzy sets in water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Qingtai; Liu, Jia; Li, Chuanzhe; Yu, Xinzhe; Wang, Yang

    2018-06-01

    Based on the evaluation of the present situation of water resources and the development of water conservancy projects and social economy, optimal allocation of regional water resources presents an increasing need in the water resources management. Meanwhile it is also the most effective way to promote the harmonic relationship between human and water. In view of the own limitations of the traditional evaluations of which always choose a single index model using in optimal allocation of regional water resources, on the basis of the theory of variable fuzzy sets (VFS) and system dynamics (SD), an integrated variable fuzzy sets model (IVFS) is proposed to address dynamically complex problems in regional water resources management in this paper. The model is applied to evaluate the level of the optimal allocation of regional water resources of Zoucheng in China. Results show that the level of allocation schemes of water resources ranging from 2.5 to 3.5, generally showing a trend of lower level. To achieve optimal regional management of water resources, this model conveys a certain degree of accessing water resources management, which prominently improve the authentic assessment of water resources management by using the eigenvector of level H.

  11. Water Resources Management and Hydrologic Design Under Uncertain Climate Change Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teegavarapu, R. S.

    2008-05-01

    The impact of climate change on hydrologic design and management of water resource systems could be one of the important challenges faced by future practicing hydrologists and water resources managers. Many water resources managers currently rely on the historical hydrological data and adaptive real-time operations without consideration of the impact of climate change on major inputs influencing the behavior of hydrologic systems and the operating rules. Issues such as risk, reliability and robustness of water resources systems under different climate change scenarios were addressed in the past. However, water resources management with the decision maker's preferences attached to climate change has never been dealt with. This presentation discusses issues related to impacts of climate change on water resources management and application of a soft-computing approach, fuzzy set theory, for climate-sensitive management of water resources systems. A real-life case study example is presented to illustrate the applicability of soft-computing approach for handling the decision maker's preferences in accepting or rejecting the magnitude and direction of climate change.

  12. Water Resources Management in the Lerma-Chapala Basin, Mexico: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamagna, Amy M.; Murphy, Brian R.

    2008-01-01

    Water resources have become an increasingly important topic of discussion in natural resources and environmental management courses. To address the need for more critical thinking in the classroom and to provide an active learning experience for undergraduate students, we present a case study based on water competition and management in the…

  13. Hydrography - Water Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Resource is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Use Planning Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Resources that are included are:...

  14. Remote sensing and water resources

    CERN Document Server

    Champollion, N; Benveniste, J; Chen, J

    2016-01-01

    This book is a collection of overview articles showing how space-based observations, combined with hydrological modeling, have considerably improved our knowledge of the continental water cycle and its sensitivity to climate change. Two main issues are highlighted: (1) the use in combination of space observations for monitoring water storage changes in river basins worldwide, and (2) the use of space data in hydrological modeling either through data assimilation or as external constraints. The water resources aspect is also addressed, as well as the impacts of direct anthropogenic forcing on land hydrology (e.g. ground water depletion, dam building on rivers, crop irrigation, changes in land use and agricultural practices, etc.). Remote sensing observations offer important new information on this important topic as well, which is highly useful for achieving water management objectives. Over the past 15 years, remote sensing techniques have increasingly demonstrated their capability to monitor components of th...

  15. Doing Science that Matters to Address India's Water Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.

    2017-12-01

    Addressing water security in developing regions involves predicting water availability under unprecedented rates of population and economic growth. India is one of the most water stressed countries in the world. Despite appreciable increases in funding for water research, high quality science that is usable by stakeholders remains elusive. The absence of usable research, has been driven by notions of what is publishable in the developed world. This can be attributed to the absence of problem driven research on questions that actually matter to stakeholders, unwillingness to transcend disciplinary boundaries and the demise of a field-work research culture in favour of computer simulation. Yet the combination of rapid change, inadequate data and human modifications to watersheds poses a challenge, as researchers face a poorly constrained water resources modelling problem. Instead, what India and indeed all developing regions need is to approach the problem from first principles, identifying the most critical knowledge gaps, then prioritizing data collection using novel sensing and modelling approaches to address them. This might also necessitate consideration of underlying social and governance drivers of hydrologic change. Using examples from research in the Cauvery Basin, a highly contentious inter-state river basin, I offer some insights into framing "use-inspired" research agenda and show how the research generates not just new scientific insights but may be translated into practice.

  16. Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project: water-resources activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Stanley G.; Heiny, Janet S.

    1998-01-01

    Infrastructure, such as roads, buildings, airports, and dams, is built and maintained by use of large quantities of natural resources such as aggregate (sand and gravel), energy, and water. As urban area expand, local sources of these resource are becoming inaccessible (gravel cannot be mined from under a subdivision, for example), or the cost of recovery of the resource becomes prohibitive (oil and gas drilling in urban areas is costly), or the resources may become unfit for some use (pollution of ground water may preclude its use as a water supply). Governmental land-use decision and environmental mandates can further preclude development of natural resources. If infrastructure resources are to remain economically available. current resource information must be available for use in well-reasoned decisions bout future land use. Ground water is an infrastructure resource that is present in shallow aquifers and deeper bedrock aquifers that underlie much of the 2,450-square-mile demonstration area of the Colorado Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project. In 1996, mapping of the area's ground-water resources was undertaken as a U.S. Geological Survey project in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, and the Colorado Water Conservation Board.

  17. Water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on water resources describes how climate change will affect the supply of water in Canada. Water is one of Canada's greatest resources, which contributes about $7.5 to 23 billion per year to the Canadian economy. The decisions taken to adapt to climate change within the water resources sector will have profound implications in many other areas such as agriculture, human health, transportation and industry. The water related problems include water quality issues that relate to water shortages from droughts, or excesses from floods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts an increase in global average surface air temperatures of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100. Such a change would impact the hydrological cycle, affecting runoff, evaporation patterns, and the amount of water stored in glaciers, lakes, wetlands and groundwater. The uncertainty as to the magnitude of these changes is due to the difficulty that climate models have in projecting future changes in regional precipitation patterns and extreme events. This chapter presents potential impacts of climate change on water resources in the Yukon, British Columbia, the Prairies, the Great Lakes basin, the Atlantic provinces, and the Arctic and Subarctic. The associated concerns for each region were highlighted. Adaptation research has focused on the impacts of supply and demand, and on options to adapt to these impacts. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  18. Water footprint components required to address the water-energy-food nexus, with the recent Urban Water Atlas for Europe as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, Davy

    2017-04-01

    The first part of this presentation analyses which water footprint (WF) components are necessary in WF accounting to provide relevant information to address the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG's) water security (SDG 6), food security (SDG 2) and energy security (SDG 7) in a nexus setting. It is strongly based on the publication Vanham (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2015.08.003. First, the nexus links between (1) the planetary boundary freshwater resources (green and blue water resources) and (2) food, energy and blue water security are discussed. Second, it is shown which water uses are mostly represented in WF accounting. General water management and WF studies only account for the water uses agriculture, industry and domestic water. Important water uses are however mostly not identified as separate entities or even included, i.e. green and blue water resources for aquaculture, wild foods, biofuels, hydroelectric cooling, hydropower, recreation/tourism, forestry (for energy and other biomass uses) and navigation. Third, therefore a list of essential separate components to be included within WF accounting is presented. The latter would be more coherent with the water-food-energy-ecosystem nexus. The second part of the presentation gives a brief overview of the recently published Urban Water Atlas for Europe. It shows for a selected city which WF components are represented and which not. As such, it also identifies research gaps.

  19. Managing new resources in Arctic marine waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kourantidou, Melina; Fernandez, Linda; Kaiser, Brooks

    and management of the resource which poses challenges due its nature as a ‘sedentary species’ colonizing the Barents Sea continental shelf shared by Norway and Russia and approaching the fishery protection zone around Svalbard. Conversely, little research has looked into the implications of the invasion partly...... fishery straddling Arctic waters which lends towards different productivity under different management and we delineate acceptable risk levels in order build up a bioeconomic framework that pinpoints the underlying trade-offs. We also address the difficulties of managing the resource under uncertainty...

  20. Isotopes in water resources management. V.1. Proceedings of a symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In recent years isotope applications in hydrology and water resources assessment have reached a level of maturity. Adequate investigations have been carried out to provide sufficient examples for practical applications in combination with other hydrological methods. The IAEA contributed to this development through field projects implemented in Member States within the framework of the Agency's Technical Co-operation programme. At present, the thrusts of the IAEA involvement are towards improved management of water resources in regions suffering from water scarcity, assessment of human impact on water resources, e.g. water pollution, and exploration and management of geothermal resources. Lately, novel isotope based techniques have been evolving from specialized laboratories. While the techniques have emerged, efforts need to be concentrated on more practical work to accomplish a visible impact on water resources management. These trends and challenges are reflected by the scientific contributions to the International Symposium on Isotopes in Water Resources Management. The main themes of the symposium were groundwater resources management, with about two thirds of the contributions addressing origin and recharge of groundwater, groundwater dynamics and pollution, modelling approaches, and geothermal and palaeowater resources. The remaining third of the contributions were concerned with surface water and sediments, unsaturated zones and methodological aspects. These proceedings contain the 43 papers presented and the extended synopses of over 100 poster presentations. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. The Basin Water Resources Management System and Its Innovation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun; Pomponio

    2008-01-01

    Water provides the origin of human survival and prosperity,and the basic resource for the maintenance of terrestrial eco-systems,their biodiversity,productivity and ecological services.With China’s recent,rapid growth both in population and economic development,the water shortage has become one of the most constraints on its ecological restoration and socio-economic development,especially in the arid inland regions of northwest China.At first glance,this water shortage in China appears to be a resource crisis.But second,an in-depth analysis reveals that the water shortage crisis arises mainly resulting from the poor water management system and operating mechanism that cannot facilitate fair allocation and efficient utilization of water resources both regionally and nationally and thus is viewed as a crisis of water manage-ment.The solution of China’s water shortage and low-efficient utilization problem will,in particular,require a fundamen-tal and substantial reform or innovation of the existing water management system and operating mechanism.In this paper,we address explicitly the problems existed in the current water management system,explore the basic theory of water re-sources management and provide some insights into the way how to establish a river basin based integrated water re-sources management system in China.

  2. An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Bruff; Ned Godshall; Karen Evans

    2011-04-30

    This Final Scientific/ Technical Report submitted with respect to Project DE-FE0000833 titled 'An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale' in support of final reporting requirements. This final report contains a compilation of previous reports with the most current data in order to produce one final complete document. The goal of this research was to provide an integrated approach aimed at addressing the increasing water resource challenges between natural gas production and other water stakeholders in shale gas basins. The objective was to demonstrate that the AltelaRain{reg_sign} technology could be successfully deployed in the Marcellus Shale Basin to treat frac flow-back water. That objective has been successfully met.

  3. Save Our Water Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Albert W.

    The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water…

  4. Ohio Water Resources Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio.gov State Agencies | Online Services Twitter YouTube EPA IMAGE Ohio Water Resources Committee Ohio enjoys abundant water resources. Few states enjoy as many streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands as Ohio. Numerous agencies and organizations are involved in protecting Ohio's valuable water resources

  5. Preliminary research on quantitative methods of water resources carrying capacity based on water resources balance sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqiu; Huang, Xiaorong; Gao, Linyun; Guo, Biying; Ma, Kai

    2018-06-01

    Water resources are not only basic natural resources, but also strategic economic resources and ecological control factors. Water resources carrying capacity constrains the sustainable development of regional economy and society. Studies of water resources carrying capacity can provide helpful information about how the socioeconomic system is both supported and restrained by the water resources system. Based on the research of different scholars, major problems in the study of water resources carrying capacity were summarized as follows: the definition of water resources carrying capacity is not yet unified; the methods of carrying capacity quantification based on the definition of inconsistency are poor in operability; the current quantitative research methods of water resources carrying capacity did not fully reflect the principles of sustainable development; it is difficult to quantify the relationship among the water resources, economic society and ecological environment. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a better quantitative evaluation method to determine the regional water resources carrying capacity. This paper proposes a new approach to quantifying water resources carrying capacity (that is, through the compilation of the water resources balance sheet) to get a grasp of the regional water resources depletion and water environmental degradation (as well as regional water resources stock assets and liabilities), figure out the squeeze of socioeconomic activities on the environment, and discuss the quantitative calculation methods and technical route of water resources carrying capacity which are able to embody the substance of sustainable development.

  6. Bridging the Gap Between Climate Science and Water-resource Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J. R.; Clark, M. P.; Wood, A.; Gutmann, E. D.; Nijssen, B.; Brekke, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2010, the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Climate Preparedness and Resilience Program has supported development of a coordinated system of products and tools to improve use of climate information in water-resource planning and management. The key products include: 1) a new understanding of the limitations of methods used to quantify impacts of climate change on water resources; 2) development and evaluation of national-domain climate downscaling and hydrologic simulation capabilities to provide information from climate model output relevant to the multiple scales of water resources decision-making with a spatially consistent assessment of the impacts of climate change on hydrologic conditions; and 3) development and evaluation of advanced streamflow forecasting methods. This will support USACE Districts and their stakeholders and partners with new data, new and newly evaluated model output, and specific tools in a framework to help with routine applications for managing water resources throughout the U.S., and to enhance considerations of climate preparedness and resilience in that work. This presentation will summarize the collaborative development of some of those products; describe current and planned future USACE capabilities for incorporating advanced climate information at multiple scales of analysis and decision; discuss uses of climate information in water-resources planning and management; and outline key unanswered science questions being addressed to increase utility and use of information in short- and longer-term planning. Specifically, we will describe the current suite and planned trajectory of new products, moving from capability development through to testing in limited pilot domains, on to product applications throughout the U.S., and, ultimately, into actual implementation at the level of USACE Districts to address climate change issues. Two key foci of this talk will be: 1) where climatological and hydrologic science is currently

  7. California Institute for Water Resources - California Institute for Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources Skip to Content Menu California Institute for Water Resources Share Print Site Map Resources Publications Keep in Touch QUICK LINKS Our Blog: The Confluence Drought & Water Information University of California California Institute for Water Resources California Institute for Water Resources

  8. A Diagnostic Assessment of Evolutionary Multiobjective Optimization for Water Resources Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P.; Hadka, D.; Herman, J.; Kasprzyk, J.; Kollat, J.

    2012-04-01

    This study contributes a rigorous diagnostic assessment of state-of-the-art multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) and highlights key advances that the water resources field can exploit to better discover the critical tradeoffs constraining our systems. This study provides the most comprehensive diagnostic assessment of MOEAs for water resources to date, exploiting more than 100,000 MOEA runs and trillions of design evaluations. The diagnostic assessment measures the effectiveness, efficiency, reliability, and controllability of ten benchmark MOEAs for a representative suite of water resources applications addressing rainfall-runoff calibration, long-term groundwater monitoring (LTM), and risk-based water supply portfolio planning. The suite of problems encompasses a range of challenging problem properties including (1) many-objective formulations with 4 or more objectives, (2) multi-modality (or false optima), (3) nonlinearity, (4) discreteness, (5) severe constraints, (6) stochastic objectives, and (7) non-separability (also called epistasis). The applications are representative of the dominant problem classes that have shaped the history of MOEAs in water resources and that will be dominant foci in the future. Recommendations are provided for which modern MOEAs should serve as tools and benchmarks in the future water resources literature.

  9. Water - an inexhaustible resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Divenah, C.; Esperou, E.

    2012-04-01

    We have chosen to present the topic "Water", by illustrating problems that will give better opportunities for interdisciplinary work between Natural Science (Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geology) teachers at first, but also English teachers and maybe others. Water is considered in general, in all its shapes and states. The question is not only about drinking water, but we would like to demonstrate that water can both be a fragile and short-lived resource in some ways, and an unlimited energy resource in others. Water exists on Earth in three states. It participates in a large number of chemical and physical processes (dissolution, dilution, biogeochemical cycles, repartition of heat in the oceans and the atmosphere, etc.), helping to maintain the homeostasis of the entire planet. It is linked to living beings, for which water is the major compound. The living beings essentially organized themselves into or around water, and this fact is also valid for human kind (energy, drinking, trade…). Water can also be a destroying agent for living beings (tsunamis, mud flows, collapse of electrical dams, pollution...) and for the solid earth (erosion, dissolution, fusion). I) Water, an essential resource for the human kind After having highlighted the disparities and geopolitical problems, the pupils will study the chemistry of water with its components and their origins (isotopes, water trip). Then the ways to make it drinkable will be presented (filtration, decantation, iceberg carrying…) II) From the origin of water... We could manage an activity where different groups put several hypotheses to the test, with the goal to understand the origin(s?) of water on Earth. Example: Isotopic signature of water showing its extraterrestrial origin.. Once done, we'll try to determine the origin of drinking water, as a fossil resource. Another use of isotopes will allow them to evaluate the drinking water age, to realize how precious it can be. III) Water as a sustainable energy

  10. Water Biosensor Challenge to Address Toxicity of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ongoing concern for water treatment systems and resource managers is the need to monitor for the presence of increasing number of pollutants from agricultural, municipal, and industrial outfalls that are present in U.S. source waters. The associated environmental compounds can...

  11. Evaluation of the state water-resources research institutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertel, M.O.

    1988-01-01

    Water resources research institutes, as authorized by the Water Resources Research Act of 1984 (Public Law 98-242), are located in each state and in the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico , and the Virgin Islands. Public Law 98-242 mandated an onsite evaluation of each of these institutes to determine whether ' . . .the quality and relevance of its water resources research and its effectiveness as an institution for planning, conducting, and arranging for research warrant its continued support in the national interest. ' The results of these evaluations, which were conducted between September 1985 and June 1987, are summarized. The evaluation teams found that all 54 institutes are meeting the basic objectives of the authorizing legislation in that they: (1) use the grant funds to support research that addresses water problems of state and regional concern; (2) provide opportunities for training of water scientists through student involvement on research projects; and (3) promote the application of research results through preparation of technical reports and contributions to the technical literature. The differences among institutes relate primarily to degrees of effectiveness, and most often are determined by the financial, political, and geographical contexts in which the institutes function and by the quality of their leadership. (Lantz-PTT)

  12. Integrated Water Resource Management and Energy Requirements for Water Supply in the Copiapó River Basin, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Suárez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Population and industry growth in dry climates are fully tied to significant increase in water and energy demands. Because water affects many economic, social and environmental aspects, an interdisciplinary approach is needed to solve current and future water scarcity problems, and to minimize energy requirements in water production. Such a task requires integrated water modeling tools able to couple surface water and groundwater, which allow for managing complex basins where multiple stakeholders and water users face an intense competition for limited freshwater resources. This work develops an integrated water resource management model to investigate the water-energy nexus in reducing water stress in the Copiapó River basin, an arid, highly vulnerable basin in northern Chile. The model was utilized to characterize groundwater and surface water resources, and water demand and uses. Different management scenarios were evaluated to estimate future resource availability, and compared in terms of energy requirements and costs for desalinating seawater to eliminate the corresponding water deficit. Results show a basin facing a very complex future unless measures are adopted. When a 30% uniform reduction of water consumption is achieved, 70 GWh over the next 30 years are required to provide the energy needed to increase the available water through seawater desalination. In arid basins, this energy could be supplied by solar energy, thus addressing water shortage problems through integrated water resource management combined with new technologies of water production driven by renewable energy sources.

  13. Water Resource Sustainability Conference 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Resource Sustainability Issues on Tropical Islands December 1 - 3, 2015 | Hilton Hawaiian Village | Honolulu, Hawaii Presented By Water Resources Research Center (WRRC), Hawaii and American Samoa Water and Environmental Research Institute (WERI), Guam Puerto Rico Water Resources and Environmental Research Institute

  14. An ontology for component-based models of water resource systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elag, Mostafa; Goodall, Jonathan L.

    2013-08-01

    Component-based modeling is an approach for simulating water resource systems where a model is composed of a set of components, each with a defined modeling objective, interlinked through data exchanges. Component-based modeling frameworks are used within the hydrologic, atmospheric, and earth surface dynamics modeling communities. While these efforts have been advancing, it has become clear that the water resources modeling community in particular, and arguably the larger earth science modeling community as well, faces a challenge of fully and precisely defining the metadata for model components. The lack of a unified framework for model component metadata limits interoperability between modeling communities and the reuse of models across modeling frameworks due to ambiguity about the model and its capabilities. To address this need, we propose an ontology for water resources model components that describes core concepts and relationships using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). The ontology that we present, which is termed the Water Resources Component (WRC) ontology, is meant to serve as a starting point that can be refined over time through engagement by the larger community until a robust knowledge framework for water resource model components is achieved. This paper presents the methodology used to arrive at the WRC ontology, the WRC ontology itself, and examples of how the ontology can aid in component-based water resources modeling by (i) assisting in identifying relevant models, (ii) encouraging proper model coupling, and (iii) facilitating interoperability across earth science modeling frameworks.

  15. MAINSTREAMING GENDER IN PURSUIT OF MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN WATER RESOURCE GOVERNANCE IN BUHERA, ZIMBABWE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephraim Chifamba

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Women have the primary role for the management of household water supply, sanitation and health. Water is necessary for drinking, but also for food production and preparation, personal hygiene, care of the sick, cleaning, washing and waste disposal. Because of their dependence on water resources, women have accumulated considerable knowledge about water resources, including location, quality and storage methods. However, efforts geared towards improving the management of the finite water resources and extending access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation, have often overlooked the central role that women play in water management. The study used both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. The research noted that despite increased gender awareness and the availability of much more information on women's and men's roles in water management, gender is not yet mainstreamed into this sector. The study revealed that prospects for effective gender mainstreaming in water resource management will hinge on how the main agenda can address the transformation of gender relations and treat water as a human right so as to realize the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in Buhera. A gender equity approach within the water sector, should strive for a more balanced division between women and men in access to information, sharing of contribution, the degree of decision making, access to resources and benefits and the control over water resources. Addressing women's concerns and mainstreaming gender in water governance through a livelihood approach is critical because this generates an understanding of people's livelihood strategies and their decision making mechanisms and processes. Significant support and capacity development are required to enhance the participation in decision making processes for the success of water management initiatives.

  16. Ecosystem Services Insights into Water Resources Management in China: A Case of Xi'an City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingya; Li, Jing; Gao, Ziyi; Yang, Min; Qin, Keyu; Yang, Xiaonan

    2016-11-24

    Global climate and environmental changes are endangering global water resources; and several approaches have been tested to manage and reduce the pressure on these decreasing resources. This study uses the case study of Xi'an City in China to test reasonable and effective methods to address water resource shortages. The study generated a framework combining ecosystem services and water resource management. Seven ecosystem indicators were classified as supply services, regulating services, or cultural services. Index values for each indicator were calculated, and based on questionnaire results, each index's weight was calculated. Using the Likert method, we calculated ecosystem service supplies in every region of the city. We found that the ecosystem's service capability is closely related to water resources, providing a method for managing water resources. Using Xi'an City as an example, we apply the ecosystem services concept to water resources management, providing a method for decision makers.

  17. Managing Nicaraguan Water Resources Definition and Relative Importance of Information Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D.; Guillen, S.M.; Vammen, K.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the results of the Vital the Nicaraguan Water Resources Management Initiative, Issues process as implemented for a collaborative effort between the Nicaraguan Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources and Sandia National Laboratories. This initiative is being developed to assist in the development of an efficient and sustainable water resources management system for Nicamgua. The Vital Issues process was used to provide information for developing a project that will develop and implement an advanced information system for managing Nicaragua's water resources. Three Vital Issues panel meetings were convened to 1) develop a mission statement and evaluation criteria for identifying and ranking the issues vital to water resources management in Nicaragua 2) define and rank the vital issues; and 3) identify a preliminary list of information needed to address the vital issues. The selection of panelists from the four basic institutional perspectives- government, industiy, academe, and citizens' groups (through nongovernmental organizations (NGOs))-ensured a high level of stakeholder representation on the panels. The already existing need for a water resource management information system has been magnified in the aftemnath of Hurricane Mitch. This information system would be beneficial for an early warning system in emergencies, and the modeling and simulation capabilities of the system would allow for advanced planning. Additionally, the outreach program will provide education to help Nicaraguan improve their water hygiene practices.

  18. Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.

    2013-12-01

    As the anthropogenic footprint increases on Earth, the wise use, maintenance, and protection of freshwater resources will be a key element in the sustainability of development. Borne from efforts to promote sustainable development of water resources is Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), which promotes efficiency of water resources, equity in water allocation across different social and economic groups, and environmental sustainability. Methodologies supporting IWRM implementation have largely focused on the overall process, but have had limited attention on the evaluation methods for ecologic, economic, and social conditions (the sustainability criterion). Thus, assessment frameworks are needed to support the analysis of water resources and evaluation of sustainable solutions in the IWRM process. To address this need, the River Basin Analysis Framework (RBAF) provides a structure for understanding water related issues and testing the sustainability of proposed solutions in river basins. The RBAF merges three approaches: the UN GEO 4 DPSIR approach, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach, and the principles of sustainable development. Merging these approaches enables users to understand the spatiotemporal interactions between the hydrologic and ecologic systems, evaluate the impacts of disturbances (drivers, pressures) on the ecosystem goods and services (EGS) and constituents of human well-being (HWB), and identify and employ analytical methods and indicators in the assessments. The RBAF is comprised of a conceptual component (RBAF-C) and an analytical component (RBAF-A). For each disturbance type, the RBAF-C shows the potential directional change in the hydrologic cycle (peak flows, seasonality, etc.), EGS (drinking water supply, water purification, recreational opportunities, etc.), and HWB (safety, health, access to a basic materials), thus allowing users insight into potential impacts as well as providing technical guidance on the methods and

  19. Water management - management actions applied to water resources system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkovski, Ljupcho; Tanchev, Ljubomir

    2001-01-01

    In this paper are presented a general description of water resource systems, a systematisation of the management tasks and the approaches for solution, including a review of methods used for solution of water management tasks and the fundamental postulates in the management. The management of water resources is a synonym for the management actions applied to water resource systems. It is a general term that unites planning and exploitation of the systems. The modern planning assumes separating the water racecourse part from the hydro technical part of the project. The water resource study is concerned with the solution for the resource problem. This means the parameters of the system are determined in parallel with the definition of the water utilisation regime. The hydro-technical part of the project is the design of structures necessary for the water resource solution. (Original)

  20. Ecosystem Services Insights into Water Resources Management in China: A Case of Xi’an City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingya; Li, Jing; Gao, Ziyi; Yang, Min; Qin, Keyu; Yang, Xiaonan

    2016-01-01

    Global climate and environmental changes are endangering global water resources; and several approaches have been tested to manage and reduce the pressure on these decreasing resources. This study uses the case study of Xi’an City in China to test reasonable and effective methods to address water resource shortages. The study generated a framework combining ecosystem services and water resource management. Seven ecosystem indicators were classified as supply services, regulating services, or cultural services. Index values for each indicator were calculated, and based on questionnaire results, each index’s weight was calculated. Using the Likert method, we calculated ecosystem service supplies in every region of the city. We found that the ecosystem’s service capability is closely related to water resources, providing a method for managing water resources. Using Xi’an City as an example, we apply the ecosystem services concept to water resources management, providing a method for decision makers. PMID:27886137

  1. Technologies for water resources management: an integrated approach to manage global and regional water resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, W. C., LLNL

    1998-03-23

    Recent droughts in California have highlighted and refocused attention on the problem of providing reliable sources of water to sustain the State`s future economic development. Specific elements of concern include not only the stability and availability of future water supplies in the State, but also how current surface and groundwater storage and distribution systems may be more effectively managed and upgraded, how treated wastewater may be more widely recycled, and how legislative and regulatory processes may be used or modified to address conflicts between advocates of urban growth, industrial, agricultural, and environmental concerns. California is not alone with respect to these issues. They are clearly relevant throughout the West, and are becoming more so in other parts of the US. They have become increasingly important in developing and highly populated nations such as China, India, and Mexico. They are critically important in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, especially as they relate to regional stability and security issues. Indeed, in almost all cases, there are underlying themes of `reliability` and `sustainability` that pertain to the assurance of current and future water supplies, as well as a broader set of `stability` and `security` issues that relate to these assurances--or lack thereof--to the political and economic future of various countries and regions. In this latter sense, and with respect to regions such as China, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia, water resource issues may take on a very serious strategic nature, one that is most illustrative and central to the emerging notion of `environmental security.` In this report, we have identified a suite of technical tools that, when developed and integrated together, may prove effective in providing regional governments the ability to manage their water resources. Our goal is to formulate a framework for an Integrated Systems Analysis (ISA): As a strategic planning tool for managing

  2. ADDRESSING WATER FOOTPRINT CONCEPT: A DEMONSTRABLE STRATEGY FOR PAPERMAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shen,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of the water footprint concept in 2002, in the context of humankind’s ever-increasing awareness of the valuable global freshwater resources, it has received more and more attention. The application of this relatively new concept has been expected to provide ecological and environmental benefits. For the water-intensive papermaking industry, it seems that water footprint needs to be addressed. The water footprint of cellulosic paper can be divided into three components, including its green water footprint, blue water footprint, and grey water footprint, which may be accounted for by considering the individual contributions of wood or non-wood materials, pulp production processes, effluent discharge to the receiving water bodies, process chemicals and additives, energy consumption, etc. In the literature, the accounting of water footprint during the whole production chain of cellulosic paper is already available, and relevant research findings can provide useful insights into the application of the concept; however, further development of the accounting methodologies is much needed, so that the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of water footprint can be internationally recognized, certified, and standardized. Although there are ongoing or upcoming debates and challenges associated with the concept, its application to papermaking industry may be expected to provide various encouraging possibilities and impacts.

  3. Governance of water resources in Colombia: Between progress and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamudio Rodriguez, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This work is an overview of water management in Colombia, emphasizing governance as a key element in this type of process. Therefore, from the collection and analysis of secondary data, identifies the evolution of water management in the country and, to that extent, aspects that reveal a crisis of governance in this area. In this sense, initially some relevant issues are raised in order to analyze the integrated water resource management and water governance. Later, it addresses factors that show that, despite significant progress in water management in the country, it is still to emerge a comprehensive approach that considers multiple criteria to provide governance on water resources. Thus, we propose that there is a crisis of governance on water expressed in terms of lack of experience and international context, lack of coordination and dispersion of water policy, ignorance of the various forms of local government, a wrong perception on the water abundance and richness of the country, and dissimulation or disinterest ignoring the many pressures that threaten water.

  4. Fourth Tennessee water resources symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sale, M.J.; Presley, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    The annual Tennessee Water Resources Symposium was initiated in 1988 as a means to bring together people with common interests in the state's important water-related resources at a technical, professional level. Initially the symposium was sponsored by the American Institute of Hydrology and called the Hydrology Symposium, but the Tennessee Section of the American Water Resources Association (AWRA) has taken on the primary coordination role for the symposium over the last two years and the symposium name was changed in 1990 to water resources to emphasize a more inter-disciplinary theme. This year's symposium carries on the successful tradition of the last three years. Our goal is to promote communication and cooperation among Tennessee's water resources professionals: scientists, engineers, and researchers from federal, state, academic, and private institutions and organizations who have interests and responsibilities for the state's water resources. For these conference proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base

  5. Resilience-based performance metrics for water resources management under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Tom; Kapelan, Zoran; Ledbetter, Ralph

    2018-06-01

    This paper aims to develop new, resilience type metrics for long-term water resources management under uncertain climate change and population growth. Resilience is defined here as the ability of a water resources management system to 'bounce back', i.e. absorb and then recover from a water deficit event, restoring the normal system operation. Ten alternative metrics are proposed and analysed addressing a range of different resilience aspects including duration, magnitude, frequency and volume of related water deficit events. The metrics were analysed on a real-world case study of the Bristol Water supply system in the UK and compared with current practice. The analyses included an examination of metrics' sensitivity and correlation, as well as a detailed examination into the behaviour of metrics during water deficit periods. The results obtained suggest that multiple metrics which cover different aspects of resilience should be used simultaneously when assessing the resilience of a water resources management system, leading to a more complete understanding of resilience compared with current practice approaches. It was also observed that calculating the total duration of a water deficit period provided a clearer and more consistent indication of system performance compared to splitting the deficit periods into the time to reach and time to recover from the worst deficit events.

  6. Regulation of water resources for sustaining global future socioeconomic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; SHI, H.; Sivakumar, B.

    2016-12-01

    With population projections indicating continued growth during this century, socio-economic problems (e.g., water, food, and energy shortages) will be most likely to occur, especially if proper planning, development, and management strategies are not adopted. In the present study, firstly, we explore the vital role of dams in promoting economic growth through analyzing the relationship between dams and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at both global and national scales. Secondly, we analyze the current situation of global water scarcity based on the data representing water resources availability, dam development, and the level of economic development. Third, with comprehensive consideration of population growth as the major driving force, water resources availability as the basic supporting factor, and topography as the important constraint, this study addresses the question of dam development in the future and predicts the locations of future dams around the world.

  7. Interventions and Interactions: Understanding Coupled Human-Water Dynamics for Improved Water Resources Management in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crootof, A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding coupled human-water dynamics offers valuable insights to address fundamental water resources challenges posed by environmental change. With hydropower reshaping human-water interactions in mountain river basins, there is a need for a socio-hydrology framework—which examines two-way feedback loops between human and water systems—to more effectively manage water resources. This paper explores the cross-scalar interactions and feedback loops between human and water systems in river basins affected by run-of-the-river hydropower and highlights the utility of a socio-hydrology perspectives to enhance water management in the face of environmental change. In the Himalayas, the rapid expansion of run-of-the-river hydropower—which diverts streamflow for energy generation—is reconfiguring the availability, location, and timing of water resources. This technological intervention in the river basin not only alters hydrologic dyanmics but also shapes social outcomes. Using hydropower development in the highlands of Uttarakhand, India as a case study, I first illustrate how run-of-the-river projects transform human-water dynamics by reshaping the social and physical landscape of a river basin. Second, I emphasize how examining cross-scalar feedbacks among structural dynamics, social outcomes, and values and norms in this coupled human-water system can inform water management. Third, I present hydrological and social literature, raised separately, to indicate collaborative research needs and knowledge gaps for coupled human-water systems affected by run-of-the-river hydropower. The results underscore the need to understand coupled human-water dynamics to improve water resources management in the face of environmental change.

  8. Using Water Footprints to Identify Alternatives for Conserving Local Water Resources in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Marrin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As a management tool for addressing water consumption issues, footprints have become increasingly utilized on scales ranging from global to personal. A question posed by this paper is whether water footprint data that are routinely compiled for particular regions may be used to assess the effectiveness of actions taken by local residents to conserve local water resources. The current California drought has affected an agriculturally productive region with large population centers that consume a portion of the locally produced food, and the state’s arid climate demands a large volume of blue water as irrigation from its dwindling surface and ground water resources. Although California exports most of its food products, enough is consumed within the state so that residents shifting their food choices and/or habits could save as much or more local blue water as their reduction of household or office water use. One of those shifts is reducing the intake of animal-based products that require the most water of any food group on both a gravimetric and caloric basis. Another shift is reducing food waste, which represents a shared responsibility among consumers and retailers, however, consumer preferences ultimately drive much of this waste.

  9. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  10. The nexus between integrated natural resources management and integrated water resources management in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomlow, Stephen; Love, David; Walker, Sue

    The low productivity of smallholder farming systems and enterprises in the drier areas of the developing world can be attributed mainly to the limited resources of farming households and the application of inappropriate skills and practices that can lead to the degradation of the natural resource base. This lack of development, particularly in southern Africa, is of growing concern from both an agricultural and environmental perspective. To address this lack of progress, two development paradigms that improve land and water productivity have evolved, somewhat independently, from different scientific constituencies. One championed by the International Agricultural Research constituency is Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM), whilst the second championed predominantly by Environmental and Civil Engineering constituencies is Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). As a result of similar objectives of working towards the millennium development goals of improved food security and environmental sustainability, there exists a nexus between the constituencies of the two paradigms, particularly in terms of appreciating the lessons learned. In this paper lessons are drawn from past INRM research that may have particular relevance to IWRM scientists as they re-direct their focus from blue water issues to green water issues, and vice-versa. Case studies are drawn from the management of water quality for irrigation, green water productivity and a convergence of INRM and IWRM in the management of gold panning in southern Zimbabwe. One point that is abundantly clear from both constituencies is that ‘one-size-fits-all’ or silver bullet solutions that are generally applicable for the enhancement of blue water management/formal irrigation simply do not exist for the smallholder rainfed systems.

  11. Economic Requirements of Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Khiabani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Indicators of water resources status and water consumption in Iran reveal an imbalance between supply and demand. This is compounded by the current unrealistic water price that signals the inefficiency of the water market in Iran. In economics parlance, the most important factors responsible for the low efficiency of water market are inaccurate valuation and failure to define the ownership rights of water. Low prices, low sensitivity of water demand to prices, and the lack of proper inputs as substitutes for water resources have collectively contributed to excessive pressures on the available water resources for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses. A brief glance reveals that water resources in Iran are merely priced based on cost accounting. This is while study has shown that developed countries adopt approaches to water pricing that not only consider the final cost of water but also take into account such other parameters that are affected by intrinsic value of water including its bequest and existence values. The present paper draws upon the concepts of value, expenses, and pricing of water in an attempt to explore the marketing and pricing of water resources as the two major tools economists employ in the management of these resources. It is the objective of the study to arrive at an accurate definition of ownership rights of water resources to improve upon the present water marketing. In doing so, the more important components of modern pricing strategies adopted by developed nations will also be investigated. Results indicate that the present cost accounting method used in pricing water in Iran will in the long-run lead to the wastage of water resources and that it should, therefore, be given up in favor modern and more realistic policies to avoid such waste of resources.

  12. Visiting students work with professors to research water resources management issues

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate students visiting from universities across the continent, as well as one from Virginia Tech, are working with professors at Virginia Tech on individual research projects in a 10-week summer program that addresses issues related to sustainable management of water resources.

  13. Web-Based Geospatial Tools to Address Hazard Mitigation, Natural Resource Management, and Other Societal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn,, Paul P.

    2009-01-01

    Federal, State, and local government agencies in the United States face a broad range of issues on a daily basis. Among these are natural hazard mitigation, homeland security, emergency response, economic and community development, water supply, and health and safety services. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) helps decision makers address these issues by providing natural hazard assessments, information on energy, mineral, water and biological resources, maps, and other geospatial information. Increasingly, decision makers at all levels are challenged not by the lack of information, but by the absence of effective tools to synthesize the large volume of data available, and to utilize the data to frame policy options in a straightforward and understandable manner. While geographic information system (GIS) technology has been widely applied to this end, systems with the necessary analytical power have been usable only by trained operators. The USGS is addressing the need for more accessible, manageable data tools by developing a suite of Web-based geospatial applications that will incorporate USGS and cooperating partner data into the decision making process for a variety of critical issues. Examples of Web-based geospatial tools being used to address societal issues follow.

  14. Resource reliability, accessibility and governance: pillars for managing water resources to achieve water security in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, E. M.; Duncan, J.; Atkinson, P.; Dash, J.

    2013-12-01

    As one of the world's most water-abundant countries, Nepal has plenty of water yet resources are both spatially and temporally unevenly distributed. With a population heavily engaged in subsistence farming, whereby livelihoods are entirely dependent on rain-fed agriculture, changes in freshwater resources can substantially impact upon survival. The two main sources of water in Nepal come from monsoon precipitation and glacial runoff. The former is essential for sustaining livelihoods where communities have little or no access to perennial water resources. Much of Nepal's population live in the southern Mid-Hills and Terai regions where dependency on the monsoon system is high and climate-environment interactions are intricate. Any fluctuations in precipitation can severely affect essential potable resources and food security. As the population continues to expand in Nepal, and pressures build on access to adequate and clean water resources, there is a need for institutions to cooperate and increase the effectiveness of water management policies. This research presents a framework detailing three fundamental pillars for managing water resources to achieve sustainable water security in Nepal. These are (i) resource reliability; (ii) adequate accessibility; and (iii) effective governance. Evidence is presented which indicates that water resources are adequate in Nepal to sustain the population. In addition, aspects of climate change are having less impact than previously perceived e.g. results from trend analysis of precipitation time-series indicate a decrease in monsoon extremes and interannual variation over the last half-century. However, accessibility to clean water resources and the potential for water storage is limiting the use of these resources. This issue is particularly prevalent given the heterogeneity in spatial and temporal distributions of water. Water governance is also ineffective due to government instability and a lack of continuity in policy

  15. Water-resources programs and hydrologic-information needs, Marion County, Indiana, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duwelius, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Water resources are abundant in Marion County, Indiana, and have been developed for public and industrial supply, energy generation, irrigation, and recreation. The largest water withdrawals are from surface water, and the two largest water uses are public supply and cooling water for electrical-generating plants. Water-resources programs in the county are carried out by Federal, State and local agencies to address issues of surface and groundwater availability and quality. The programs of each agency are related to the functions and goals of the agency. Although each agency has specific information needs to fulfill its functions, sometimes these needs overlap, and there are times when the same hydrologic information benefits all. Overlapping information needs and activities create opportunities for interagency coordination and cooperation. Such cooperation could lead to a savings of dollars spent on water-resources programs and could assure an improved understanding of the water resources of the county. Representatives from four agencies-- the Indiana Department of Environmental Management, the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, the Indianapolis Department of Public Works, and the U.S. Geological Survey--met four times in 1987 to describe their own water-resources programs, to identify hydrologic-information needs, and to contact other agencies with related programs. This report presents the interagency findings and is intended to further communication among water resource agencies by identifying current programs and common needs for hydrologic information. Hydrologic information needs identified by the agency representatives include more precise methods for determining the volume of water withdrawals and for determining the volume of industrial and municipal discharges to surface water. Maps of flood-prone areas need to be updated as more of the county is developed. Improved aquifer maps of the inter-till aquifers are needed, and additional observation

  16. On inclusion of water resource management in Earth system models - Part 1: Problem definition and representation of water demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazemi, A.; Wheater, H. S.

    2015-01-01

    Human activities have caused various changes to the Earth system, and hence the interconnections between human activities and the Earth system should be recognized and reflected in models that simulate Earth system processes. One key anthropogenic activity is water resource management, which determines the dynamics of human-water interactions in time and space and controls human livelihoods and economy, including energy and food production. There are immediate needs to include water resource management in Earth system models. First, the extent of human water requirements is increasing rapidly at the global scale and it is crucial to analyze the possible imbalance between water demands and supply under various scenarios of climate change and across various temporal and spatial scales. Second, recent observations show that human-water interactions, manifested through water resource management, can substantially alter the terrestrial water cycle, affect land-atmospheric feedbacks and may further interact with climate and contribute to sea-level change. Due to the importance of water resource management in determining the future of the global water and climate cycles, the World Climate Research Program's Global Energy and Water Exchanges project (WRCP-GEWEX) has recently identified gaps in describing human-water interactions as one of the grand challenges in Earth system modeling (GEWEX, 2012). Here, we divide water resource management into two interdependent elements, related firstly to water demand and secondly to water supply and allocation. In this paper, we survey the current literature on how various components of water demand have been included in large-scale models, in particular land surface and global hydrological models. Issues of water supply and allocation are addressed in a companion paper. The available algorithms to represent the dominant demands are classified based on the demand type, mode of simulation and underlying modeling assumptions. We discuss

  17. Modern water resources engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chih

    2014-01-01

    The Handbook of Environmental Engineering series is an incredible collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. This exciting new addition to the series, Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering , has been designed to serve as a water resources engineering reference book as well as a supplemental textbook. We hope and expect it will prove of equal high value to advanced undergraduate and graduate students, to designers of water resources systems, and to scientists and researchers. A critical volume in the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series, chapters employ methods of practical design and calculation illustrated by numerical examples, include pertinent cost data whenever possible, and explore in great detail the fundamental principles of the field. Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering, provides information on some of the most innovative and ground-breaking advances in the field today from a panel of esteemed...

  18. Water resources in the Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, William J.

    1966-01-01

    Aerial photography is playing an important role in the evaluation of the water resources of the almost-inaccessible 1,400 square miles of Everglades in southern Florida. Color, infrared, and panchromatic photographs show salient features that permit evaluation of the overall water resources picture. The fresh water-salt water interface, drainage patterns, ecologic changes resulting from flood and drought, quantities of flow, and other hydrologic features are easily observed or measured from the photographs. Such data permit areal extension of very limited point observations of water resources data, and will assist in providing the necessary guidelines for decisions in water management in the Everglades.

  19. The role of hydrology in water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, U.

    2011-12-01

    Modern water resources management developed as a branch of science based engineering since the landmark publication of Mass et al. (1962&1967) which emerged from the Harvard Water Program. Clearly, water was managed much earlier, in fact since the early days of civilization, as evidenced by the publication of Vitruvius on architecture in the 1st Century BC, but the 1950s marked the advent of modeling enabled by computers, which transformed the field we call Water Resources Management (WRM). Since then, thousands of papers have been published and thousands of decisions and projects have been aided by WRM methodologies and model results. This presentation is not an historical review of water resources management, although it appears in a session titled The Evolution of WRM Paradigms. Instead, it is an attempt to discuss the role of hydrology as a feeder of information for the management domain. The issues faced by hydrologists who work to serve and support WRM will be discussed and elucidated by case studies. For hydrologists, some of the important points in this regard are: - Planning, design and operation are three interconnected "layers" of WRM. Planning is where the sources and consumers are identified, the overall "architecture" of a proposed system is laid out, including its topology and connectivity. Design is where sizes of facilities are fixed. Operational policy determines the operation of the system under a selected forecasted set of typical and/or critical conditions, while real-time operation means setting the operational variables for a defined time period ahead (hour, day, week, month, year). The three "layers" are inter-connected and inter-dependent, but still can be addressed differently. - Hydrological data of different types are required, according to the management issue being addressed. They range from short term now-casting/forecasting for real-time operation and response, e.g., for flood protection, to long-term time probabilistic series and

  20. Water resources management in a homogenizing world: Averting the Growth and Underinvestment trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirchi, Ali; Watkins, David W.; Huckins, Casey J.; Madani, Kaveh; Hjorth, Peder

    2014-09-01

    Biotic homogenization, a de facto symptom of a global biodiversity crisis, underscores the urgency of reforming water resources management to focus on the health and viability of ecosystems. Global population and economic growth, coupled with inadequate investment in maintenance of ecological systems, threaten to degrade environmental integrity and ecosystem services that support the global socioeconomic system, indicative of a system governed by the Growth and Underinvestment (G&U) archetype. Water resources management is linked to biotic homogenization and degradation of system integrity through alteration of water systems, ecosystem dynamics, and composition of the biota. Consistent with the G&U archetype, water resources planning primarily treats ecological considerations as exogenous constraints rather than integral, dynamic, and responsive parts of the system. It is essential that the ecological considerations be made objectives of water resources development plans to facilitate the analysis of feedbacks and potential trade-offs between socioeconomic gains and ecological losses. We call for expediting a shift to ecosystem-based management of water resources, which requires a better understanding of the dynamics and links between water resources management actions, ecological side-effects, and associated long-term ramifications for sustainability. To address existing knowledge gaps, models that include dynamics and estimated thresholds for regime shifts or ecosystem degradation need to be developed. Policy levers for implementation of ecosystem-based water resources management include shifting away from growth-oriented supply management, better demand management, increased public awareness, and institutional reform that promotes adaptive and transdisciplinary management approaches.

  1. Scenario Development for Water Resources Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S.; Mahmoud, M.; Liu, Y.; Hartman, H.; Wagener, T.; Gupta, H.

    2006-12-01

    The main objective of scenario development for water resources is to inform policy-makers about the implications of various policies to inform decision-making. Although there have been a number of studies conducted in the relatively-new and recent field of scenario analysis and development, very few of those have been explicitly applied to water resource issues. More evident is the absence of an established formal approach to develop and apply scenarios. Scenario development is a process that evaluates possible future states of the world by examining several feasible scenarios. A scenario is a projection of various physical and socioeconomic conditions that describe change from the current state to a future state. In this paper, a general framework for scenario development with special emphasis on applications to water resources is considered. The process comprises several progressive and reiterative phases: scenario definition, scenario construction, scenario analysis, scenario assessment, and risk management. Several characteristics of scenarios that are important in describing scenarios are also taken into account; these include scenario types, scenario themes, scenario likelihoods and scenario categories. A hindrance to the adoption of a unified framework for scenario development is inconsistency in the terminology used by scenario developers. To address this problem, we propose a consistent terminology of basic and frequent terms. Outreach for this formal approach is partially maintained through an interactive community website that seeks to educate potential scenario developers about the scenario development process, share and exchange information and resources on scenarios to foster a multidisciplinary community of scenario developers, and establish a unified framework for scenario development with regards to terminology and guidelines. The website provides information on scenario development, current scenario-related activities, key water resources scenario

  2. Payments for Ecosystem Services for watershed water resource allocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yicheng; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Chunling; Zang, Wenbin; Guo, Wenxian; Qian, Zhan; Liu, Laisheng; Zhao, Jinyong; Feng, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Watershed water resource allocation focuses on concrete aspects of the sustainable management of Ecosystem Services (ES) that are related to water and examines the possibility of implementing Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) for water ES. PES can be executed to satisfy both economic and environmental objectives and demands. Considering the importance of calculating PES schemes at the social equity and cooperative game (CG) levels, to quantitatively solve multi-objective problems, a water resources allocation model and multi-objective optimization are provided. The model consists of three modules that address the following processes: ① social equity mechanisms used to study water consumer associations, ② an optimal decision-making process based on variable intervals and CG theory, and ③ the use of Shapley values of CGs for profit maximization. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology for realizing sustainable development was examined. First, an optimization model with water allocation objective was developed based on sustainable water resources allocation framework that maximizes the net benefit of water use. Then, to meet water quality requirements, PES cost was estimated using trade-off curves among different pollution emission concentration permissions. Finally, to achieve equity and supply sufficient incentives for water resources protection, CG theory approaches were utilized to reallocate PES benefits. The potential of the developed model was examined by its application to a case study in the Yongding River watershed of China. Approximately 128 Mm3 of water flowed from the upper reach (Shanxi and Hebei Provinces) sections of the Yongding River to the lower reach (Beijing) in 2013. According to the calculated results, Beijing should pay USD6.31 M (¥39.03 M) for water-related ES to Shanxi and Hebei Provinces. The results reveal that the proposed methodology is an available tool that can be used for sustainable development with resolving PES

  3. Optimal Allocation of Water Resources Based on Water Supply Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the combined impacts of climate change and human activities, a series of water issues, such as water shortages, have arisen all over the world. According to current studies in Science and Nature, water security has become a frontier critical topic. Water supply security (WSS, which is the state of water resources and their capacity and their capacity to meet the demand of water users by water supply systems, is an important part of water security. Currently, WSS is affected by the amount of water resources, water supply projects, water quality and water management. Water shortages have also led to water supply insecurity. WSS is now evaluated based on the balance of the supply and demand under a single water resources condition without considering the dynamics of the varying conditions of water resources each year. This paper developed an optimal allocation model for water resources that can realize the optimal allocation of regional water resources and comprehensively evaluate WSS. The objective of this model is to minimize the duration of water shortages in the long term, as characterized by the Water Supply Security Index (WSSI, which is the assessment value of WSS, a larger WSSI value indicates better results. In addition, the simulation results of the model can determine the change process and dynamic evolution of the WSS. Quanzhou, a city in China with serious water shortage problems, was selected as a case study. The allocation results of the current year and target year of planning demonstrated that the level of regional comprehensive WSS was significantly influenced by the capacity of water supply projects and the conditions of the natural water resources. The varying conditions of the water resources allocation results in the same year demonstrated that the allocation results and WSSI were significantly affected by reductions in precipitation, decreases in the water yield coefficient, and changes in the underlying surface.

  4. Benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation on the supply, management, and use of water resources in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Strzepek, Kenneth; Neumann, J.; SMith, J.; Martinich, J.; Boehlert, B.; Hejazi, M.; Henderson, J.; Wobus, C.; Jones, R.; Calvin, K.; Johnson, D.; Monier, Erwan; Strzepek, J.; Yoon, J.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change impacts on water resources in the United States are likely to be far-reaching and substantial because the water is integral to climate, and the water sector spans many parts of the economy. This paper estimates impacts and damages from five water resource-related models addressing runoff, drought risk, economics of water supply/demand, water stress, and flooding damages. The models differ in the water system assessed, spatial scale, and unit of assessment, but together provide ...

  5. The Water Resources Board: England and Wales’ Venture into National Water Resources Planning, 1964-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine S. McCulloch

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An era of technocratic national planning of water resources is examined against the views of a leading liberal economist and critics, both contemporary and retrospective. Post Second World War Labour Governments in Britain failed to nationalise either land or water. As late as 1965, the idea of public ownership of all water supplies appeared in the Labour Party manifesto and a short-lived Ministry of Land and Natural Resources, 1964-1966, had amongst its duties the development of plans for reorganising the water supply industry under full public ownership. However, instead of pursuing such a politically dangerous takeover of the industry, in July 1964, a Water Resources Board (WRB, a special interest group dominated by engineers, was set up to advise on the development of water resources. In its first Annual Report (1965 WRB claimed its role as "the master planner of the water resources of England and Wales". The WRB had a great deal of influence and justified its national planning role by promoting large-scale supply schemes such as interbasin transfers of water, large reservoirs and regulated rivers. Feasibility studies were even carried out for building innovative, large storage reservoirs in tidal estuaries. Less progress was made on demand reduction. Yet the seeds of WRB’s demise were contained in its restricted terms of reference. The lack of any remit over water quality was a fatal handicap. Quantity and quality needed to be considered together. Privatisation of the water industry in 1989 led to a shift from national strategic planning by engineers to attempts to strengthen economic instruments to fit supply more closely to demand. Engineers have now been usurped as leaders in water resources management by economists and accountants. Yet climate change may demand a return to national strategic planning of engineered water supply, with greater democratic input.

  6. Water-resources activities in New York, 1987-88

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Mary P.; Finch, Anne J.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted more than 35 water resources projects in New York in 1987-88. These studies, done largely through cooperative joint-funding programs with the state, County, and local agencies, encompass statewide networks of measurement stations that provide continuous records of streamflow, groundwater levels, and water quality; they also address regional and local problems as well as critical problems of national scope. Some of the questions addressed by these studies are the effect of sewers on groundwater levels and streamflow on Long Island; the occurrence and transport of PCB residues within the upper Hudson River basin; the effect of acid rain on streams in the Catskill Mountains; the frequency and magnitude of floods statewide; the role of wetlands in improving the chemical quality of landfill leachate; the direction of groundwater movement from waste disposal sites near the Niagara River; and the location and potential well yields of stratified-drift aquifers in upstate New York. (USGS)

  7. Water : a commodity or resource?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeroy, G.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past several years, natural gas demand has increased significantly, as it is seen as an environmentally friendly, convenient and cost effective fuel. As a result, Alberta should experience the development of a sustainable resource in the form of natural gas from coal, provided adequate management of associated water is in place. The environmental impact and volume of water produced with natural gas from coal can be significant. Water is scarce and demand is growing. Gas producers are faced with the challenge of high water production and disposal costs, and often choose the deep disposal option as the most economical solution. However, environmentalists and agriculture groups who view water as a valuable resource, warrant the costs associated with the treatment of produced water. The author proposed a conceptual solution to this dilemma concerning produced water. It was suggested that producers of water should be connected with consumers, while allowing free market supply and demand dynamics to price out the inefficient use of the resource. The author also discussed the related regulatory, environmental, technological, economic, and commercial issues. It was concluded that water is both a resource and a commodity. Alberta should implement measures to promote water conservation, pollute less, and manage supply and demand. figs

  8. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  9. Collaborative Research for Water Resource Management under Climate Change Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundiers, K.; Garfin, G. M.; Gober, P.; Basile, G.; Bark, R. H.

    2010-12-01

    We present an ongoing project to co-produce science and policy called Collaborative Planning for Climate Change: An Integrated Approach to Water-Planning, Climate Downscaling, and Robust Decision-Making. The project responds to motivations related to dealing with sustainability challenges in research and practice: (a) state and municipal water managers seek research that addresses their planning needs; (b) the scientific literature and funding agencies call for more meaningful engagement between science and policy communities, in ways that address user needs, while advancing basic research; and (c) empirical research contributes to methods for the design and implementation of collaborative projects. To understand how climate change might impact water resources and management in the Southwest US, our project convenes local, state, and federal water management practitioners with climate-, hydrology-, policy-, and decision scientists. Three areas of research inform this collaboration: (a) the role of paleo-hydrology in water resources scenario construction; (b) the types of uncertainties that impact decision-making beyond climate and modeling uncertainty; and (c) basin-scale statistical and dynamical downscaling of climate models to generate hydrologic projections for regional water resources planning. The project engages all participants in the research process, from research design to workshops that build capacity for understanding data generation and sources of uncertainty to the discussion of water management decision contexts. A team of “science-practice translators” facilitates the collaboration between academic and professional communities. In this presentation we contextualize the challenges and opportunities of use-inspired science-policy research collaborations by contrasting the initial project design with the process of implementation. We draw from two sources to derive lessons learned: literature on collaborative research, and evaluations provided by

  10. Water Information System Platforms Addressing Critical Societal Needs in the Mena Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Kfouri, Claire; Peters, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The MENA region includes 18 countries, the occupied Palestinian territories and Western Sahara. However, the region of interest for this study has a strategic interest in countries adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, which includes, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Lebanon and Jordan. The 90% of the water in the MENA region is used for the agriculture use. By the end of this century. this region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation (lPCC, 2007). Due to lower precipitation, water run-off is projected to drop by 20% to 30% in most of MENA by 2050 Reduced stream flow and groundwater recharge might lead to a reduction in water supply of 10% or greater by 2050. Therefore, per IPCC projections in temperature rise and precipitation decline in the region, the scarcity of water will become more acute with population growth, and rising demand of food in the region. Additionally, the trans boundary water issues will continue to plague the region in terms of sharing data for better management of water resources. Such pressing issues have brought The World Bank, USAID and NASA to jointly collaborate for establishing integrated, modern, up to date NASA developed capabilities for countries in the MENA region for addressing water resource issues and adapting to climate change impacts for improved decision making and societal benefit. This initiative was launched in October 2011 and is schedule to be completed by the end of2015.

  11. Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda ... the adaptive capacity of communities to address the issue of climate-induced water stress. ... It will do so by testing the electronic dissemination of seasonal forecasts, early warning ...

  12. Nuclear technologies to address the challenges in plant-water systems and adaptation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, P.S.

    2016-01-01

    In India, over the last decade or so, the stagnation in yield and recent declining trend of the most popular varieties of wheat and rice suggest that the farmers' limited fields with the current soil fertility and agronomic practices has reached the limits of food production sustainability. While water is an important input resource in agriculture, a reliable assessment of its aggregate situation and its protection from depletion and degradation has not received its due respect in the management of agriculture. For enhancement in food production, besides the HYVs and agronomic practices, proper management of the limited groundwater resource, and the water demand under the scarce water availability conditions, enhancing water use efficiency and reducing post-harvest losses is important. Nuclear techniques can provide detailed insight into many long-term process governing Plant-Water Systems, and could be helpful to address the challenges in agriculture. Extensive studies on groundwater assessment and water use efficiency using radioactive "3H, "1"4C, "2"3"4U, "2"3"8U) and stable (2"H, "1"3C, "1"8O) isotopes, have been undertaken for over three decades in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh of the Gangetic Plains, in Sabarmati River Basin, Gujarat and in arid Rajasthan. Some examples have been discussed, along with HYV development and post harvest preservation using gamma irradiation

  13. Hyphenated hydrology: Interdisciplinary evolution of water resource science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurley, Kathryn L.; Jawitz, James W.

    2017-04-01

    Hydrology has advanced considerably as a scientific discipline since its recognized inception in the mid-twentieth century. Modern water resource related questions have forced adaptation from exclusively physical or engineering science viewpoints toward a deliberate interdisciplinary context. Over the past few decades, many of the eventual manifestations of this evolution were foreseen by prominent expert hydrologists. However, their narrative descriptions have lacked substantial quantification. This study addressed that gap by measuring the prevalence of and analyzing the relationships between the terms most frequently used by hydrologists to define and describe their research. We analyzed 16,591 journal article titles from 1965-2015 in Water Resources Research, through which the scientific dialogue and its time-sensitive progression emerged. Our word frequency and term cooccurrence network results revealed the dynamic timing of the lateral movement of hydrology across multiple disciplines as well as the deepening of scientific discourse with respect to traditional hydrologic questions. The conversation among water resource scientists surrounding the hydrologic subdisciplines of catchment-hydrology, hydro-meteorology, socio-hydrology, hydro-climatology, and eco-hydrology gained statistically significant momentum in the analyzed time period, while that of hydro-geology and contaminant-hydrology experienced periods of increase followed by significant decline. This study concludes that formerly exotic disciplines can potentially modify hydrology, prompting new insights and inspiring unconventional perspectives on old questions that may have otherwise become obsolete.

  14. Sustainable Development of Africa's Water Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Narenda P. Sharma

    1996-01-01

    This study, African water resources: challenges and opportunities for sustainable management propose a long-term strategy for water resource management, emphasizing the socially sustainable development imperatives for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The message of this strategy is one of optimism - the groundwork already exists for the sustainable management of Africa's water resources. The stra...

  15. Using Case Studies to Teach Interdisciplinary Water Resource Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, C. H.; Tillotson, K.

    2012-12-01

    Teaching about water resources and often emphasizes the biophysical sciences to understand highly complex hydrologic, ecologic and engineering systems, yet most impediments to improving management emerge from social processes. Challenges to more sustainable management often result from trade-offs among stakeholders (e.g., ecosystem services, energy, municipal use, and agriculture) and occur while allocating resources to competing goals of economic development, social equity, and efficient governance. Competing interests operating across multiple scales can increase tensions and prevent collaborative resolution of resource management problems. Here we discuss using specific, place-based cases to teach the interdisciplinary context of water management. Using a case approach allows instructors to first explore the geologic and hydrologic setting of a specific problem to let students understand where water comes from, then how it is used by people and ecosystems, and finally what conflicts arise from mismatches between water quality, quantity, timing, human demand, and ecosystem needs. The case approach helps students focus on specific problem to understand how the landscape influences water availability, without needing to first learn everything about the relevant fields. We look at geology, hydrology and climate in specific watersheds before addressing the human and ecosystem aspects of the broader, integrated system. This gives students the context to understand what limits water availability and how a water budget constrains possible solutions to sustainability problems. It also mimics the approach we have taken in research addressing these problems. In an example case the Spokane Coeur D'Alene basin, spanning the border between SE Washington and NW Idaho, includes a sole source aquifer system with high exchange between surface water and a highly conductive aquifer. The Spokane River does not meet water quality standards and is likely to face climate driven shifts

  16. Total Water Management: The New Paradigm for Urban Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current resource management practices put different stresses on local water resources and urban infrastructure. Total Water Manag...

  17. A review of inexact optimization modeling and its application to integrated water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Li, Yin; Tan, Qian

    2015-03-01

    Water is crucial in supporting people's daily life and the continual quest for socio-economic development. It is also a fundamental resource for ecosystems. Due to the associated complexities and uncertainties, as well as intensive competition over limited water resources between human beings and ecosystems, decision makers are facing increased pressure to respond effectively to various water-related issues and conflicts from an integrated point of view. This quandary requires a focused effort to resolve a wide range of issues related to water resources, as well as the associated economic and environmental implications. Effective systems analysis approaches under uncertainty that successfully address interactions, complexities, uncertainties, and changing conditions associated with water resources, human activities, and ecological conditions are desired, which requires a systematic investigation of the previous studies in relevant areas. Systems analysis and optimization modeling for integrated water resources management under uncertainty is thus comprehensively reviewed in this paper. A number of related methodologies and applications related to stochastic, fuzzy, and interval mathematical optimization modeling are examined. Then, their applications to integrated water resources management are presented. Perspectives of effective management schemes are investigated, demonstrating many demanding areas for enhanced research efforts, which include issues of data availability and reliability, concerns over uncertainty, necessity of post-modeling analysis, and the usefulness of the development of simulation techniques.

  18. Hyphenated hydrology: Multidisciplinary evolution of water resource science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurley, K. 4553; Jawitz, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrology has advanced considerably as a scientific discipline since its recognized inception in the mid-20th century. While hydrology may have evolved from the singular viewpoint of a more rigid physical or engineering science, modern water resource related questions have forced adaptation toward a deliberate interdisciplinary context. Over the past few decades, many of the eventual manifestations of this evolution have been foreseen by prominent expert hydrologists, though their narrative descriptions were not substantially quantified. This study addresses that gap by directly measuring and inspecting the words that hydrologists use to define and describe their research endeavors. We analyzed 16,591 journal article titles from 1965-2015 in Water Resources Research, through which the scientific dialogue and its time-sensitive progression emerges. Word frequency and term concurrence reveal the dynamic timing of the lateral movement of hydrology across multiple disciplines and a deepening of scientific discourse with respect to traditional hydrologic questions. This study concludes that formerly exotic disciplines are increasingly modifying hydrology, prompting new insights as well as inspiring unconventional perspectives on old questions.

  19. Cybernetics in water resources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, N.

    2005-01-01

    The term Water Resources is used to refer to the management and use of water primarily for the benefit of people. Hence, successful management of water resources requires a solid understanding of Hydrology. Cybernetics in Water Resources Management is an endeavor to analyze and enhance the beneficial exploitation of diverse scientific approaches and communication methods; to control the complexity of water management; and to highlight the importance of making right decisions at the right time, avoiding the devastating effects of drought and floods. Recent developments in computer technology and advancement of mathematics have created a new field of system analysis i.e. Mathematical Modeling. Based on mathematical models, several computer based Water Resources System (WRS) Models were developed across the world, to solve the water resources management problems, but these were not adaptable and were limited to computation by a well defined algorithm, with information input at various stages and the management tasks were also formalized in that well structured algorithm. The recent advancements in information technology has revolutionized every field of the contemporary world and thus, the WRS has also to be diversified by broadening the knowledge base of the system. The updation of this knowledge should be a continuous process acquired through the latest techniques of networking from all its concerned sources together with the expertise of the specialists and the analysis of the practical experiences. The system should then be made capable of making inferences and shall have the tendency to apply the rules based on the latest information and inferences in a given stage of problem solving. Rigid programs cannot adapt to changing conditions and new knowledge. Thus, there is a need for an evolutionary development based on mutual independence of computational procedure and knowledge with capability to adapt itself to the increasing complexity of problem. The subject

  20. NWS Water Resource Services Branch Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    the NWS homepage NWS Water Resources Program OS Home News Organization Search Search Home About Us Water Resources Policy Flood Loss Data AHPS Program Office (OHD) AHPS Software Development Hydrology Lab AHPS Toolbox Flood Safety Service Hydrology Program Turn Around Don't Drown! High Water Mark Signs

  1. Engaging the creative to better build science into water resource solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, P. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Psychological thought suggests that social engagement with an environmental problem requires 1) cognitive understanding of the problem, 2) emotional engagement with the problem, and 3) perceived efficacy that there is something we can do to solve the problem. Within the water sciences, we form problem-focused, cross-disciplinary teams to help address complex water resource problems, but often we only seek teammates from other disciplines within the realms of engineering and the natural/social sciences. Here I argue that this science-centric focus fails to fully solve these water resource problems, and often the science goes unheard because it is heavily cognitive and lacks the ability to effectively engage the audience through crucial social-psychological aspects of emotion and efficacy. To solve this, future cross-disciplinary collaborations that seek to include creative actors from the worlds of art, humanities, and design can begin to provide a much stronger overlap of the cognition, emotion, and efficacy needed to communicate the science, engage the audience, and create the solutions needed to solve or world's most complex water resource problems. Disciplines across the arts, sciences, and engineering all bring unique strengths that, through collaboration, allow for uniquely creative modes of art-science overlap that can engage people through additions of emotion and efficacy that compliment the science and go beyond the traditional cognitive approach. I highlight examples of this art-science overlap in action and argue that water resource collaborations like these will be more likely to have their hydrologic science accepted and applied by those who decide on water resource solutions. For this Pop-up Talk session, I aim to share the details of this proposed framework in the context of my own research and the work of others. I hope to incite discussion regarding the utility and relevance of this framework as a future option for other water resource

  2. Application of Isotope Techniques in the Assessment of Groundwater Resource in Water Resources Region 10, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racadio, Charles Darwin T.; Mendoza, Norman DS.; Castañeda, Soledad S.; Abaño, Susan P.; Rongavilla, Luis S.; Castro, Joey

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater has been the primary source of drinking water of about 50% of the people in the Philippines and the numbers continue to rise. However, data and information on groundwater resources are generally spasmodic or sparse in the country. A specific remedy to address this gap is the use of isotope hydrological techniques. A pilot project utilizing this technique was done in Water Resources Region X with the aim of demonstrating the effectiveness and efficiency of these approach in groundwater resources assessment. When optimized, the technique will be replicated in other areas of the country. Groundwater samples from springs deep wells hand pumps and dug wells and river water were collected within the study area from September 2012 to June 2014. Monthly integrated precipitation samples were also collected at different points within the study area from October 2012 to March 2015. Samples were analyzed for stable isotope (δ”2H and δ”1”8O) using Laser Water Isotope Analyzer and tritium for groundwater dating. Results showed that aquifers in the study area are recharged by infiltrated rain during the heavy rainfall moths (May to November for Cagayan-Tagaloan Basin, and December to April for Agusan Basin). Water in Agusan Basin is isotopically enriched compared with the water in Cagayan-Tagaloan Basin. There appears to be interaction between shallow unconfined aquifer and deep semi-confined aquifer in Cagayan de Oro City. Shallow aquifers appear to be recharged by local precipitation. Groundwater in the study area is of Ca-Mg-HCO 3 type, which is characteristic of dynamic water with short residence time. Tritium-helium aging puts the water at ages between 18 to 72 years. Recharged rates of 422 to 625 mm/year were calculated for Cagayan de Oro City.(author)

  3. Water Resources of Tajikistan and Water Use Issues in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Mukhabbatov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the formation and use of water resources in Tajikistan. The natural and geographic conditions as well as distribution of water resources across the economic regions are analyzed. It is stressed that after breakup of the Soviet Union the water use issues in Central Asia have acquired the dimensions of the interstate economic and political problems. Demographic growth, activation of desertification, global warming make most relevant the issue of equitable redistribution of water resources as the most valuable resource for economy.

  4. Water resources management plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Maia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Water resources manageWith the mission of providing reliable data for water supply activities in medium and large firefighting operations, the Firefighting Water Supply Tactical Group (GTSAI represents an important sector of the Rio de Janeiro State Fire Departmentment plan strategic support. Acting proactively, the Tactical Group prepared a Water Resources Management Plan, aiming to set up water resources for each jurisdiction of firefighters in the City of Rio de Janeiro, in order to assist the Fire Department in its missions. This goal was reached, and in association with LAGEOP (Geoprocessing Laboratory, UFRJ, the Tactical Group started using GIS techniques. The plan provides for the register of existing operational structures within each group (troops, vehicles and special equipment, along with knowledge about the nature and operating conditions of fire hydrants, as well as a detailed survey of areas considered to be "critical". The survey helps to support actions related to environmental disasters involved in the aforementioned critical areas (hospital, churches, schools, and chemical industries, among others. The Caju neighborhood, in Rio de Janeiro, was defined as initial application area, and was the first jurisdiction to have the system implemented, followed by Copacabana, Leblon, Lagoa, and Catete districts.

  5. Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 janv. 2012 ... Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda ... adaptive capacity of communities to address the issue of climate-induced water stress. ... It will do so by testing the electronic dissemination of seasonal forecasts, early ...

  6. Water, Society and the future of water resources research (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    The subject of water and society is broad, but at heart is the study of water as a resource, essential to human activities, a vital input to food and energy production, the sustaining medium for ecosystems and yet also a destructive hazard. Society demands, withdraws, competes, uses and wastes the resource in dynamic counterpart. The science of water management emerges from this interface, a field at the nexus of engineering and geoscience, with substantial influence from economics and other social sciences. Within this purview are some of the most pressing environmental questions of our time, such as adaptation to climate change, direct and indirect connections between water and energy policy, the continuing dependence of agriculture on depletion of the world's aquifers, the conservation or preservation of ecosystems within increasingly human-influenced river systems, and food security and poverty reduction for the earth's poorest inhabitants. This presentation will present and support the hypothesis that water resources research is a scientific enterprise separate from, yet closely interrelated to, hydrologic science. We will explore the scientific basis of water resources research, review pressing research questions and opportunities, and propose an action plan for the advancement of the science of water management. Finally, the presentation will propose a Chapman Conference on Water and Society: The Future of Water Resources Research in the spring of 2015.

  7. Incorporating green infrastructure into water resources management plans to address water quality impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managers of urban watersheds with excessive nutrient loads are more frequently turning to green infrastructure (GI) to manage their water quality impairments. The effectiveness of GI is dependent on a number of factors, including (1) the type and placement of GI within the waters...

  8. Technical procedures for water resources: Volume 3, Environmental Field Program, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    To ensure that the environmental field program comprehensively addresses the issues and requirements of the project, a site study plan (SSP) has been prepared for Water Resources (ONWI, 1987). This technical procedure (TP) has been developed to implement the field program described in the Water Resources Site Study Plan. This procedure provides the general method for the field collection of water and sediment samples from playa lakes using an Alpha horizontal type sampler or equivalent or a peristaltic pump for water and a KB-coring devise or ponar grab for sediments. The samples will be preserved and then shipped to a laboratory for analysis. The water quality and sediment samples will be collected as part of the surface-water quality field study described in the Site Plan for Water Resources. 15 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  9. International symposium on isotope hydrology and integrated water resources management. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Scarcity of freshwater, degradation of its quality, and increasing demand has motivated ongoing concern in the international community for more effective utilization of freshwater resources. The IAEA's symposia on the use of isotope techniques in water resources development and management have become a recurrent event held every four years. They have provided an international forum for a comprehensive review of the present state-of-the-art and recent advances made in this specific field as well as a basis for delineation of further research and development needs. The year 2003 marks the 40th anniversary of the first IAEA water resources symposium. Increasing use of isotope techniques over the past four decades, in part due to efforts of IAEA, has enhanced availability and effective use of isotopes to address water resources management issues. The Symposium covers a multi-disciplinary spectrum of research and applications of isotope techniques. The participation of isotope specialists, hydrologists, hydrogeologists, geochemists, environmental scientists and water managers is welcomed. The Organizers further encourage the participation and contribution of graduate students in these fields. The major areas covered include: Water cycle processes in the atmosphere and hydrosphere, including surface water, groundwater, and watershed-based studies, age dating of young groundwaters, water, carbon and nutrient cycling processes at the land-ocean-atmosphere interface, recent advances in analytical techniques for isotope hydrology and field applications of isotopes in groundwater or surface water resources management. This book of synopses covers oral presentations and poster sessions.

  10. Discussion on water resources value accounting and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Biying; Huang, Xiaorong; Ma, Kai; Gao, Linyun; Wang, Yanqiu

    2018-06-01

    The exploration of the compilation of natural resources balance sheet has been proposed since 2013. Several elements of water resources balance sheet have been discussed positively in China, including basic concept, framework and accounting methods, which focused on calculating the amount of water resources with statistical methods but lacked the analysis of the interrelationship between physical volume and magnitude of value. Based on the study of physical accounting of water resources balance sheet, the connotation of water resources value is analyzed in combination with research on the value of water resources in the world. What's more, the theoretical framework, form of measurement and research methods of water resources value accounting are further explored. Taking Chengdu, China as an example, the index system of water resources balance sheet in Chengdu which includes both physical and valuable volume is established to account the depletion of water resources, environmental damage and ecological water occupation caused by economic and social water use. Moreover, the water resources balance sheet in this region which reflects the negative impact of the economy on the environment is established. It provides a reference for advancing water resources management, improving government and social investment, realizing scientific and rational allocation of water resources.

  11. Promoting Early Brain and Child Development: Perceived Barriers and the Utilization of Resources to Address Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Andrew S; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Szilagyi, Moira; Stein, Ruth E K; Green, Cori M; Kerker, Bonnie D; O'Connor, Karen G; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; McCue Horwitz, Sarah

    Efforts to promote early brain and child development (EBCD) include initiatives to support healthy parent-child relationships, tools to identify family social-emotional risk factors, and referrals to community programs to address family risk factors. We sought to examine if pediatricians perceive barriers to implementing these activities, and if they utilize resources to address those barriers. Data were analyzed from 304 nontrainee pediatricians who practice general pediatrics and completed a 2013 American Academy of Pediatrics Periodic Survey. Sample weights were used to decrease nonresponse bias. Bivariate comparisons and multivariable regression analyses were conducted. At least half of the pediatricians agreed that barriers to promoting EBCD include: a lack of tools to promote healthy parent-child relationships, a lack of tools to assess the family environment for social-emotional risk factors, and a lack of local resources to address family risks. Endorsing a lack of tools to assess the family environment as a barrier was associated with using fewer screening tools and community resources. Endorsing a lack of local resources as a barrier was associated with using fewer community resources and fewer initiatives to promote parent-child relationships. Interest in pediatric mental health was associated with using more initiatives to promote healthy parent-child relationships, screening tools, and community resources. Although the majority of pediatricians perceive barriers to promoting EBCD, few are routinely using available resources to address these barriers. Addressing pediatricians' perceived barriers and encouraging interest in pediatric mental health may increase resource utilization and enhance efforts to promote EBCD. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Water Resources Assessment and Management in Drylands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaly Koch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drylands regions of the world face difficult issues in maintaining water resources to meet current demands which will intensify in the future with population increases, infrastructure development, increased agricultural water demands, and climate change impacts on the hydrologic system. New water resources evaluation and management methods will be needed to assure that water resources in drylands are optimally managed in a sustainable manner. Development of water management and conservation methods is a multi-disciplinary endeavor. Scientists and engineers must collaborate and cooperate with water managers, planners, and politicians to successfully adopt new strategies to manage water not only for humans, but to maintain all aspects of the environment. This particularly applies to drylands regions where resources are already limited and conflicts over water are occurring. Every aspect of the hydrologic cycle needs to be assessed to be able to quantify the available water resources, to monitor natural and anthropogenic changes, and to develop flexible policies and management strategies that can change as conditions dictate. Optimal, sustainable water management is achieved by cooperation and not conflict, thereby necessitating the need for high quality scientific research and input into the process.

  13. Water Resources Availability in Kabul, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, A. M.; Chornack, M. P.; Coplen, T. B.; Emerson, D. G.; Litke, D. W.; Mack, T. J.; Plummer, N.; Verdin, J. P.; Verstraeten, I. M.

    2008-12-01

    The availability of water resources is vital to the rebuilding of Kabul, Afghanistan. In recent years, droughts and increased water use for drinking water and agriculture have resulted in widespread drying of wells. Increasing numbers of returning refugees, rapid population growth, and potential climate change have led to heightened concerns for future water availability. The U.S. Geological Survey, with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development, began collaboration with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resource investigations in the Kabul Basin in 2004. This has led to the compilation of historic and recent water- resources data, creation of monitoring networks, analyses of geologic, geophysical, and remotely sensed data. The study presented herein provides an assessment of ground-water availability through the use of multidisciplinary hydrogeologic data analysis. Data elements include population density, climate, snowpack, geology, mineralogy, surface water, ground water, water quality, isotopic information, and water use. Data were integrated through the use of conceptual ground-water-flow model analysis and provide information necessary to make improved water-resource planning and management decisions in the Kabul Basin. Ground water is currently obtained from a shallow, less than 100-m thick, highly productive aquifer. CFC, tritium, and stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic analyses indicate that most water in the shallow aquifer appears to be recharged post 1970 by snowmelt-supplied river leakage and secondarily by late winter precipitation. Analyses indicate that increasing withdrawals are likely to result in declining water levels and may cause more than 50 percent of shallow supply wells to become dry or inoperative particularly in urbanized areas. The water quality in the shallow aquifer is deteriorated in urban areas by poor sanitation and water availability concerns may be compounded by poor well

  14. Integrated Water Resources Simulation Model for Rural Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.-H.; Liao, W.-T.; Tung, C.-P.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop several water resources simulation models for residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms and then integrate these models for a rural community. Domestic and irrigation water uses are the major water demand in rural community. To build up a model estimating domestic water demand for residence houses, the average water use per person per day should be accounted first, including water uses of kitchen, bathroom, toilet and laundry. On the other hand, rice is the major crop in the study region, and its productive efficiency sometimes depends on the quantity of irrigation water. The water demand can be estimated by crop water use, field leakage and water distribution loss. Irrigation water comes from rainfall, water supply system and reclaimed water which treated by constructed wetland. In recent years, constructed wetlands play an important role in water resources recycle. They can purify domestic wastewater for water recycling and reuse. After treating from constructed wetlands, the reclaimed water can be reused in washing toilets, watering gardens and irrigating farms. Constructed wetland is one of highly economic benefits for treating wastewater through imitating the processing mechanism of natural wetlands. In general, the treatment efficiency of constructed wetlands is determined by evapotranspiration, inflow, and water temperature. This study uses system dynamics modeling to develop models for different water resource components in a rural community. Furthermore, these models are integrated into a whole system. The model not only is utilized to simulate how water moves through different components, including residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms, but also evaluates the efficiency of water use. By analyzing the flow of water, the water resource simulation model can optimizes water resource distribution under different scenarios, and the result can provide suggestions for designing water resource system of a

  15. Nuclear contamination of water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In the wake of the Chernobyl accident, the vulnerability of the water cycle to radionuclide contamination has been an issue of great concern. The impact of the event throughout Europe has been highly variable and wide-ranging, and has demonstrated the need to evaluate the potential risk to drinking water supplies, soilwater and the food chain. This book provides information on radiological standards as they exist at present, on the methods of monitoring, and on concepts in design to minimize risk and to highlight the possible consequences of a nuclear event. With contributions from engineers and scientists from eight countries, this book is a unique source of information about present radiological standards and monitoring requirements. It also includes comprehensive coverage of the effects on water resources of, and deals with the development of management strategies designed to cope with, a nuclear event. There are 19 papers all indexed separately. These are divided into sections -introduction, present radiological standards relating to drinking water, radiological monitoring requirements, the consequences of a nuclear event on water resources and water resource management strategy. The discussion at the end of each section is recorded. (author)

  16. Advances in water resources management

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chih; Wang, Mu-Hao

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides in-depth coverage of such topics as multi-reservoir system operation theory and practice, management of aquifer systems connected to streams using semi-analytical models, one-dimensional model of water quality and aquatic ecosystem-ecotoxicology in river systems, environmental and health impacts of hydraulic fracturing and shale gas, bioaugmentation for water resources protection, wastewater renovation by flotation for water pollution control, determination of receiving water’s reaeration coefficient in the presence of salinity for water quality management, sensitivity analysis for stream water quality management, river ice process, and computer-aided mathematical modeling of water properties. This critical volume will serve as a valuable reference work for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, designers of water resources systems, and scientists and researchers. The goals of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series are: (1) to cover entire environmental fields, includin...

  17. The Connotation and Extension of Agricultural Water Resources Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bu-chun; MEI Xu-rong; LI Yu-zhong; YANG You-lu

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to define agricultural water resources security and its connotation and extension. The definitions of water security, water resources security, and water environment security were summarized, and their relationship was differentiated and analyzed. Based on these, the elements of the conception of agricultural water resources security were hashed and the conception was defined. Agricultural water resources security is the provision of water resource that ensures protection of agriculture against threat, hazards, destruction, and loss. Moreover, the connotation and extension of agricultural water resources security were ascertained. In detail, the connotation of the definition has natural attributes, socioeconomic attributes, and cultural attributes. The extensions of agricultural water resources security include both broad and narrow ones, as well as, food security, agroenvironmental security, agroeconomic security, rural society security, etc. The definition will serve as the frame of reference for developing the researches, limiting the frame of the theory, and founding a appraising system for agricultural water resources security.

  18. Model Hosting for continuous updating and transparent Water Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jódar, Jorge; Almolda, Xavier; Batlle, Francisco; Carrera, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    Numerical models have become a standard tool for water resources management. They are required for water volume bookkeeping and help in decision making. Nevertheless, numerical models are complex and they can be used only by highly qualified technicians, which are often far from the decision makers. Moreover, they need to be maintained. That is, they require updating of their state, by assimilation of measurements, natural and anthropic actions (e.g., pumping and weather data), and model parameters. Worst, their very complexity implies that are they viewed as obscure and far, which hinders transparency and governance. We propose internet model hosting as an alternative to overcome these limitations. The basic idea is to keep the model hosted in the cloud. The model is updated as new data (measurements and external forcing) becomes available, which ensures continuous maintenance, with a minimal human cost (only required to address modelling problems). Internet access facilitates model use not only by modellers, but also by people responsible for data gathering and by water managers. As a result, the model becomes an institutional tool shared by water agencies to help them not only in decision making for sustainable management of water resources, but also in generating a common discussion platform. By promoting intra-agency sharing, the model becomes the common official position of the agency, which facilitates commitment in their adopted decisions regarding water management. Moreover, by facilitating access to stakeholders and the general public, the state of the aquifer and the impacts of alternative decisions become transparent. We have developed a tool (GAC, Global Aquifer Control) to address the above requirements. The application has been developed using Cloud Computing technologies, which facilitates the above operations. That is, GAC automatically updates the numerical models with the new available measurements, and then simulates numerous management options

  19. Armenia : Towards Integrated Water Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the challenges in the water sector faced by Armenia today, and outline options for management and allocation of its water resources in the future, considering the need for a stable, transparent apublic sector management framework and sustainable resource use for long-term private investment and job creation, and for appropriate balances among water...

  20. Sensitive issues in natural resource management and discursive strategies addressing them

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouevi, T.A.; Mierlo, van B.C.; Leeuwis, C.; Vodouhê, S.D.

    2016-01-01

    In natural resource management facilitation literature, little attention is paid to sensitive issues in multi-stakeholder interaction and learning. This article aims to fill this gap. It discusses the variety of discursive strategies used by stakeholders to address sensitive issues with regard to

  1. Game Theory in water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanevaki, Styliani Maria; Varouchakis, Emmanouil; Karatzas, George

    2015-04-01

    Rural water management is a basic requirement for the development of the primary sector and involves the exploitation of surface/ground-water resources. Rational management requires the study of parameters that determine their exploitation mainly environmental, economic and social. These parameters reflect the influence of irrigation on the aquifer behaviour and on the level-streamflow of nearby rivers as well as on the profit from the farming activity for the farmers' welfare. The question of rural water management belongs to the socio-political problems, since the factors involved are closely related to user behaviour and state position. By applying Game Theory one seeks to simulate the behaviour of the system 'surface/ground-water resources to water-users' with a model based on a well-known game, "The Prisoner's Dilemma" for economic development of the farmers without overexploitation of the water resources. This is a game of two players that have been extensively studied in Game Theory, economy and politics because it can describe real-world cases. The present proposal aims to investigate the rural water management issue that is referred to two competitive small partnerships organised to manage their agricultural production and to achieve a better profit. For the farmers' activities water is required and ground-water is generally preferable because consists a more stable recourse than river-water which in most of the cases in Greece are of intermittent flow. If the two farmer groups cooperate and exploit the agreed water quantities they will gain equal profits and benefit from the sustainable availability of the water recourses (p). If both groups overexploitate the resource to maximize profit, then in the medium-term they will incur a loss (g), due to the water resources reduction and the increase of the pumping costs. If one overexploit the resource while the other use the necessary required, then the first will gain great benefit (P), and the second will

  2. Water Resource Management Mechanisms for Intrastate Violent Conflict Resolution: the Capacity Gap and What To Do About It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, M.; Veilleux, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Violent conflict and issues surrounding available water resources are both global problems and are connected. Violent conflict is increasingly intrastate in nature and coupled with increased hydrological variability as a function of climate change, there will be increased pressures on water resource use. The majority of mechanisms designed to secure water resources are often based on the presence of a governance framework or another type of institutional capacity, such as offered through a supra- or sub-national organization like the United Nations or a river basin organization. However, institutional frameworks are not present or loose functionality during violent conflict. Therefore, it will likely be extremely difficult to secure water resources for a significant proportion of populations in Fragile and Conflict Affected States. However, the capacity in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development nations for the appropriate interventions to address this problem is reduced by an increasing reluctance to participate in interventionist operations following a decade of expeditionary warfighting mainly in Iraq and Afghanistan, and related defence cuts. Therefore, future interventions in violent conflict and securing water resources may be more indirect in nature. This paper assesses the state of understanding key areas in the present literature and highlights the gap of securing water resources during violent conflict in the absence of institutional capacity. There is a need to close this gap as a matter of urgency by formulating frameworks to assess the lack of institutional oversight / framework for water resources in areas where violent conflict is prevalent; developing inclusive resource management platforms through transparency and reconciliation mechanisms; and developing endogenous confidence-building measures and evaluate how these may be encouraged by exogenous initiatives including those facilitated by the international community. This effort

  3. Analyses on Water Vapor Resource in Chengdu City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B.; Xiao, T.; Wang, C.; Chen, D.

    2017-12-01

    Chengdu is located in the Sichuan basin, and it is the most famous inland city in China. With suitable temperatures and rainfall, Chengdu is the most livable cities in China. With the development of urban economy and society, the population has now risen to 16 million, and it will up to 22 million in 2030. This will cause the city water resources demand, and the carrying capacity of water resources become more and more serious. In order to improve the contradiction between urban waterlogging and water shortage, sponge city planning was proposed by Chengdu government, and this is of great practical significance for promoting the healthy development of the city. Base on the reanalysis data from NCEP during 2007-2016, the characters of Water Vapor Resources was analyzed, and the main contents of this research are summarized as follows: The water vapor resource in Chengdu plain is more than that in Southeast China and less in Northwest China. The annual average water vapor resource is approximately 160 mm -320 mm, and the water vapor resource in summer can reach 3 times in winter. But the annual average precipitation in Chengdu is about 800 mm -1200 mm and it is far greater than the water vapor resource, this is because of the transport of water vapor. Using the formula of water vapor flux, the water vapor in Chengdu is comes from the west and the south, and the value is around 50kg/(ms). Base on the calculation of boundary vapor budget, the water vapor transport under 500hPa accounted for 97% of the total. Consider the water vapor transport, transformation and urban humidification effect, the Water Vapor Resource in Chengdu is 2500mm, and it can be used by artificial precipitation enhancement. Therefore, coordinated development of weather modification and sponge city construction, the shortage of water resources in Chengdu plain can be solved. Key words: Chengdu; Sponge city; Water vapor resource; Precipitation; Artificial precipitation enhancement Acknowledgements

  4. Review - Water resources development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, David K.

    1970-01-01

    For the past 15 years the possibilities of employing nuclear explosives to develop and manage water resources for the benefit of man have been studied, Experimental and theoretical studies of many types have been undertaken. Numerous applications have been considered including site studies for particular projects. Attention has been given to the economics of specific applications, to hazards and safety problems, to legal limitations, to geologic and hydrologic considerations, and to effects on water quality. The net result of this effort has been the development of a large body of knowledge ready to be drawn upon wherever and whenever needed. Nuclear explosives are important tools for water resources development; they must be carefully selected so as to serve their intended purpose at minimum cost with few side effects. (author)

  5. Review - Water resources development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, David K [Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (United States)

    1970-05-15

    For the past 15 years the possibilities of employing nuclear explosives to develop and manage water resources for the benefit of man have been studied, Experimental and theoretical studies of many types have been undertaken. Numerous applications have been considered including site studies for particular projects. Attention has been given to the economics of specific applications, to hazards and safety problems, to legal limitations, to geologic and hydrologic considerations, and to effects on water quality. The net result of this effort has been the development of a large body of knowledge ready to be drawn upon wherever and whenever needed. Nuclear explosives are important tools for water resources development; they must be carefully selected so as to serve their intended purpose at minimum cost with few side effects. (author)

  6. 18 CFR 701.76 - The Water Resources Council Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Council Staff. 701.76 Section 701.76 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.76 The Water Resources Council Staff. The Water Resources Council Staff (hereinafter the Staff) serves the Council and the Chairman in the performance of...

  7. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement 34, 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    The Environmental Quality Instructional Resources Center in Columbus, Ohio, acquires, reviews, indexes, and announces both print (books, modules, units, etc.) and non-print (films, slides, video tapes, etc.) materials related to water quality and water resources education and instruction. In addition some materials related to pesticides, hazardous…

  8. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement 32, 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    The Environmental Quality Instructional Resources Center in Columbus, Ohio, acquires, reviews, indexes, and announces both print (books, modules, units, etc.) and non-print (films, slides, video tapes, etc.) materials related to water quality and water resources education and instruction. In addition some materials related to pesticides, hazardous…

  9. Using NASA Products of the Water Cycle for Improved Water Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, D. L.; Doorn, B.; Engman, E. T.; Lawford, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    NASA Water Resources works within the Earth sciences and GEO community to leverage investments of space-based observation and modeling results including components of the hydrologic cycle into water resources management decision support tools for the goal towards the sustainable use of water. These Earth science hydrologic related observations and modeling products provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years. Observations of this type enable assessment of numerous water resources management issues including water scarcity, extreme events of drought and floods, and water quality. Examples of water cycle estimates make towards the contributions to the water management community include snow cover and snowpack, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, precipitation, streamflow and ground water. The availability of water is also contingent on the quality of water and hence water quality is an important part of NASA Water Resources. Water quality activities include both nonpoint source (agriculture land use, ecosystem disturbances, impervious surfaces, etc.) and direct remote sensing ( i.e., turbidity, algae, aquatic vegetation, temperature, etc.). . The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its projects under five functional themes: 1) stream-flow and flood forecasting; 2) water consumptive use and irrigation (includes evapotranspiration); 3) drought; 4) water quality; and 5) climate impacts on water resources. Currently NASA Water Resources is supporting 21 funded projects with 11 additional projects being concluded. To maximize the use of NASA water cycle measurements end to projects are supported with strong links with decision support systems. The NASA Water Resources Program works closely with other government agencies NOAA, USDA-FAS, USGS, AFWA, USAID, universities, and non-profit, international, and private sector organizations. International water cycle applications include: 1) Famine Early Warning System Network

  10. Scenario-based Water Resources Management Using the Water Value Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Wheater, Howard

    2013-04-01

    The Saskatchewan River is the key water resource for the 3 prairie provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba in Western Canada, and thus it is necessary to pursue long-term regional and watershed-based planning for the river basin. The water resources system is complex because it includes multiple components, representing various demand sectors, including the environment, which impose conflicting objectives, and multiple jurisdictions. The biophysical complexity is exacerbated by the socioeconomic dimensions associated for example with impacts of land and water management, value systems including environmental flows, and policy and governance dimensions.. We focus on the South Saskatchewan River Basin (SSRB) in Alberta and Saskatchewan, which is already fully allocated in southern Alberta and is subject to increasing demand due to rapid economic development and a growing population. Multiple sectors and water uses include agricultural, municipal, industrial, mining, hydropower, and environmental flow requirements. The significant spatial variability in the level of development and future needs for water places different values on water across the basin. Water resources planning and decision making must take these complexities into consideration, yet also deal with a new dimension—climate change and its possible future impacts on water resources systems. There is a pressing need to deal with water in terms of its value, rather than a mere commodity subject to traditional quantitative optimization. In this research, a value-based water resources system (VWRS) model is proposed to couple the hydrological and the societal aspects of water resources in one integrated modeling tool for the SSRB. The objective of this work is to develop the VWRS model as a negotiation, planning, and management tool that allows for the assessment of the availability, as well as the allocation scenarios, of water resources for competing users under varying conditions. The proposed

  11. Water resources assessment in a poorly gauged mountainous catchment using a geographical information system and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Roshan; Takara, Kaoru; Tachikawa, Yasuto; Jha, Raghu N.

    2004-11-01

    Water resources assessment, which is an essential task in making development plans managing water resources, is considerably difficult to do in a data-poor region. In this study, we attempted to conduct a quantitative water resources assessment in a poorly gauged mountainous catchment, i.e. the River Indrawati catchment (1233 km2) in Nepal. This catchment is facing problems such as dry-season water scarcity and water use conflicts. However, the region lacks the basic data that this study needs. The data needed are supplemented from field surveys and global data (e.g. GTOPO30 DEM data, LandsatTM data and MODIS NDVI data). The global data have significantly helped us to draw out the information needed for a number of water-use scenarios. These data helped us determine that the available water quantity is enough at present to address the dry-season problems. The situation is not much worse for the immediate future; however, the threat of drought is noticed in a future scenario in which resources are consumed extensively. The study uses a geographical information system and remotely sensed data analysis tools extensively. Utilization of modern tools and global data is found effective for investigating practical problems and for detecting important features of water resources, even though the catchment is poorly gauged.

  12. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  13. Water Resources Research Institute | Mississippi State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcome The Mississippi Water Resources Research Institute provides a statewide center of expertise in water and associated land-use and serves as a repository of knowledge for use in education private interests in the conservation, development, and use of water resources; to provide training

  14. Using Personal Water Footprints to Identify Consumer Food Choices that Influence the Conservation of Local Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrin, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    As the global demand for water and food escalates, the emphasis is on supply side factors rather than demand side factors such as consumers, whose personal water footprints are dominated (>90%) by food. Personal footprints include the water embedded in foods that are produced locally as well as those imported, raising the question of whether local shifts in people's food choices and habits could assist in addressing local water shortages. The current situation in California is interesting in that drought has affected an agriculturally productive region where a substantial portion of its food products are consumed by the state's large population. Unlike most agricultural regions where green water is the primary source of water for crops, California's arid climate demands an enormous volume of blue water as irrigation from its dwindling surface and ground water resources. Although California exports many of its food products, enough is consumed in-state so that residents making relatively minor shifts their food choices could save as much local blue water as their implementing more drastic reductions in household water use (comprising food group on both a caloric and gravimetric basis. Another change is wasting less food, which is a shared responsibility among consumers, producers and retailers; however, consumers' actions and preferences ultimately drive much of the waste. Personal water footprints suggest a role for individuals in conserving local water resources that is neither readily obvious nor a major focus of most conservation programs.

  15. Research advances on thereasonable water resources allocation in irrigation district

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Qi; Zhongdong, Huang; Dongmei, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area. The prog......The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area...... mechanism of water resources is not perfect, the model for optimal water resources allocation is not practical, and the basic conditions for optimal allocation of water resources is relatively weak. In order to solve those problems in water resources allocation practice, six important as?pects must...... in irrigation districts, studying the water resources control technology in irrigation districts by hydrology ecological system, studying the technologies of real?time risk dispatching and intelligent management in irrigation districts, and finally studying the technology of cou?pling optimal allocation...

  16. A General Water Resources Regulation Software System in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEI, X.

    2017-12-01

    To avoid iterative development of core modules in water resource normal regulation and emergency regulation and improve the capability of maintenance and optimization upgrading of regulation models and business logics, a general water resources regulation software framework was developed based on the collection and analysis of common demands for water resources regulation and emergency management. It can provide a customizable, secondary developed and extensible software framework for the three-level platform "MWR-Basin-Province". Meanwhile, this general software system can realize business collaboration and information sharing of water resources regulation schemes among the three-level platforms, so as to improve the decision-making ability of national water resources regulation. There are four main modules involved in the general software system: 1) A complete set of general water resources regulation modules allows secondary developer to custom-develop water resources regulation decision-making systems; 2) A complete set of model base and model computing software released in the form of Cloud services; 3) A complete set of tools to build the concept map and model system of basin water resources regulation, as well as a model management system to calibrate and configure model parameters; 4) A database which satisfies business functions and functional requirements of general water resources regulation software can finally provide technical support for building basin or regional water resources regulation models.

  17. Assessing water resource use in livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ran, Y.; Lannerstad, M.; Herrero, M.; Middelaar, Van C.E.; Boer, De I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews existing methods for assessing livestock water resource use, recognizing that water plays a vital role in global food supply and that livestock production systems consumes a large amount of the available water resources. A number of methods have contributed to the development

  18. Isotope Hydrology: Understanding and Managing Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Development is intricately linked to water whether concerning issues of health, food and agriculture, sanitation, the environment, industry, or energy. The IAEA, through its Water Resources Programme provides its Member States with science-based information and technical skills to improve understanding and management of their water resources

  19. Climate change and water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younos, Tamim; Grady, Caitlin A.

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents nine chapters prepared by international authors and highlighting various aspects of climate change and water resources. Climate change models and scenarios, particularly those related to precipitation projection, are discussed and uncertainties and data deficiencies that affect the reliability of predictions are identified. The potential impacts of climate change on water resources (including quality) and on crop production are analyzed and adaptation strategies for crop production are offered. Furthermore, case studies of climate change mitigation strategies, such as the reduction of water use and conservation measures in urban environments, are included. This book will serve as a valuable reference work for researchers and students in water and environmental sciences, as well as for governmental agencies and policy makers.

  20. Climate change and water resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younos, Tamim [The Cabell Brand Center for Global Poverty and Resource Sustainability Studies, Salem, VA (United States); Grady, Caitlin A. (ed.) [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Ecological Sciences and Engineering Program

    2013-07-01

    This volume presents nine chapters prepared by international authors and highlighting various aspects of climate change and water resources. Climate change models and scenarios, particularly those related to precipitation projection, are discussed and uncertainties and data deficiencies that affect the reliability of predictions are identified. The potential impacts of climate change on water resources (including quality) and on crop production are analyzed and adaptation strategies for crop production are offered. Furthermore, case studies of climate change mitigation strategies, such as the reduction of water use and conservation measures in urban environments, are included. This book will serve as a valuable reference work for researchers and students in water and environmental sciences, as well as for governmental agencies and policy makers.

  1. Water footprint as a tool for integrated water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaya, Maite; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2010-05-01

    In a context where water resources are unevenly distributed and, in some regions precipitation and drought conditions are increasing, enhanced water management is a major challenge to final consumers, businesses, water resource users, water managers and policymakers in general. By linking a large range of sectors and issues, virtual water trade and water footprint analyses provide an appropriate framework to find potential solutions and contribute to a better management of water resources. The water footprint is an indicator of freshwater use that looks not only at direct water use of a consumer or producer, but also at the indirect water use. The water footprint of a product is the volume of freshwater used to produce the product, measured over the full supply chain. It is a multi-dimensional indicator, showing water consumption volumes by source and polluted volumes by type of pollution; all components of a total water footprint are specified geographically and temporally. The water footprint breaks down into three components: the blue (volume of freshwater evaporated from surface or groundwater systems), green (water volume evaporated from rainwater stored in the soil as soil moisture) and grey water footprint (the volume of polluted water associated with the production of goods and services). Closely linked to the concept of water footprint is that of virtual water trade, which represents the amount of water embedded in traded products. Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. Virtual water trade between nations and even continents could thus be used as an instrument to improve global water use efficiency and to achieve water security in water-poor regions of the world. The virtual water trade

  2. Water Resources: Management and Strategies in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water Resources: Management and Strategies in Nigeria. ... the rational use of water resources poses a great problem and challenge to the nation. ... Suggestions were made on ways of planning sustainable water supply systems for Nigeria ... South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3); Swaziland (3); Tanzania (19) ...

  3. The maladies of water and war: addressing poor water quality in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnikov, Tara Rava

    2013-06-01

    Water is essential in providing nutrients, but contaminated water contributes to poor population health. Water quality and availability can change in unstructured situations, such as war. To develop a practical strategy to address poor water quality resulting from intermittent wars in Iraq, I reviewed information from academic sources regarding waterborne diseases, conflict and war, water quality treatment, and malnutrition. The prevalence of disease was high in impoverished, malnourished populations exposed to contaminated water sources. The data aided in developing a strategy to improve water quality in Iraq, which encompasses remineralized water from desalination plants, health care reform, monitoring and evaluation systems, and educational public health interventions.

  4. Water Resources Management in Tanzania: Identifying Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by human-induced activities. Over the past ... Review of water resources management in Tanzania; Global literature review on water resources ..... requirements for biodiversity and human health. .... Global warming is altering regional climates.

  5. Radio resource management using geometric water-filling

    CERN Document Server

    He, Peter; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng

    2014-01-01

    This brief introduces the fundamental theory and development of managing radio resources using a water-filling algorithm that can optimize system performance in wireless communication. Geometric Water-Filling (GWF) is a crucial underlying tool in emerging communication systems such as multiple input multiple output systems, cognitive radio systems, and green communication systems. Early chapters introduce emerging wireless technologies and provide a detailed analysis of water-filling. The brief investigates single user and multi-user issues of radio resource management, allocation of resources

  6. GEO/SQL in water resource manegement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Vidmar

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of water resource management concepts shouis the problem of collecting, combining, and using alphanumerical and graphical spatial data. The solution of this problem lies in the use of geographic information systems - GIS. This paper describes the usefulness of GIS programming tool Geo/SQL in water resources management.

  7. Water resources of Sedgwick County, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevans, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrologic data from streams, impoundments, and wells are interpreted to: (1) document water resources characteristics; (2) describe causes and extent of changes in water resources characteristics; and (3) evaluate water resources as sources of supply. During 1985, about 134,200 acre-ft of water (84% groundwater) were used for public (42%), irrigation, (40%), industrial (14%), and domestic (4%) supplies. Streamflow and groundwater levels are related directly to precipitation, and major rivers are sustained by groundwater inflow. Significant groundwater level declines have occurred only in the Wichita well field. The Arkansas and Ninnescah Rivers have sodium chloride type water; the Little Arkansas River, calcium bicarbonate type water. Water quality characteristics of water in small streams and wells depend primarily on local geology. The Wellington Formation commonly yields calcium sulfate type water; Ninnescah Shale and unconsolidated deposits generally yield calcium bicarbonate type water. Sodium chloride and calcium sulfate type water in the area often have dissolved-solids concentrations exceeding 1,000 mg/L. Water contamination by treated sewage effluent was detected inparts of the Arkansas River, Little Arkansas River, and Cowskin Creek. Nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen contamination was detected in 11 of 101 wells; oilfield brine was detected in the Wichita-Valley Center Floodway, Prairie Creek, Whitewater Creek, and 16 of 101 wells; and agricultural pesticides were detected in 8 of 14 impoundments and 5 of 19 wells. Generally, the water is acceptable for most uses. (USGS)

  8. Empowering stakeholders through simulation in water resources planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.N.; Keyes, A.M.; Fisher, S.

    1993-01-01

    During the past two years, researchers at the University of Washington (UW) have had the unique opportunity to facilitate and observe the development of drought planning activities associated with the National Drought Study (NDS) and its Drought Preparedness Studies (DPS) sites as sponsored by the Institute of Water Resources of the US Army Corps of Engineers. Each of the DPS sites is unique, with different study objectives and institutional constraints. However, one uniform requirement of the study is to develop tactical and strategic drought plans that can be successfully implemented within the study region. At the onset of the study, it was recognized that successful implementation is directly related to the active involvement of affected parties and agencies (denoted as stakeholders) and the degree to which they support the plan's conclusions. Their involvement is also necessary because the problems addressed by the DPS's require the experience and knowledge of a variety of water resource interests in order to arrive at effective alternatives. Their support of the plan conclusions enables regional implementation. Several techniques were used to encourage stakeholder participation in the planning process. Individuals representing the stakeholders had a wide range of professional backgrounds. This paper concentrates on one specific approach found useful in encouraging comprehensive and meaningful participation by a wide range of stakeholders; the development of object-oriented simulation models for the water resource systems under study. Simulation models were to develop tactical and strategic drought plans and to ensure the acceptance of the plans by building consensus among the stakeholders. The remainder of this paper describes: how simulation models became a part of the National Drought Study, procedures used to develop the DPS models, and how the model empowered stakeholders

  9. GIS and Game Theory for Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjali, N.; Guney, C.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, aspects of Game theory and its application on water resources management combined with GIS techniques are detailed. First, each term is explained and the advantages and limitations of its aspect is discussed. Then, the nature of combinations between each pair and literature on the previous studies are given. Several cases were investigated and results were magnified in order to conclude with the applicability and combination of GIS- Game Theory- Water Resources Management. It is concluded that the game theory is used relatively in limited studies of water management fields such as cost/benefit allocation among users, water allocation among trans-boundary users in water resources, water quality management, groundwater management, analysis of water policies, fair allocation of water resources development cost and some other narrow fields. Also, Decision-making in environmental projects requires consideration of trade-offs between socio-political, environmental, and economic impacts and is often complicated by various stakeholder views. Most of the literature on water allocation and conflict problems uses traditional optimization models to identify the most efficient scheme while the Game Theory, as an optimization method, combined GIS are beneficial platforms for agent based models to be used in solving Water Resources Management problems in the further studies.

  10. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF WATER RESOURCES USAGE BY HOUSEHOLDS IN GEORGETOWN-MALAYSIA AND PATTAYA-THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. W. Chan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia and Thailand are tropical countries relatively rich in water resources, but both suffer numerous water problems, chief of which is excessive domestic wastage. A lop-sided approach focusing on water supply management and neglecting water demand management have caused water problems to escalate in both countries in recent decades due to population explosion, rapid urbanization, industrial expansion and climate change. As the total quantity of available water is finite but demand increasing at geometrical rates, Malaysia and Thailand are facing water problems which have severe impacts, particularly on women. This study compares the main water issues faced by two cities, Georgetown in Malaysia and Pattaya in Thailand, both medium sized and major tourist destinations. This paper compares various water indicators for both cities, water use characteristics of consumers, and consumers’perception and willingness to pay. It also attempts to highlight the role of gender, documenting how women can manage water via water demand management in addressing water shortages. The paper concludes that water users need to be involved in a bottom-up approach in a sustained national water demand management initiative towards achieving sustainable management of water resources in both cities.

  11. U.S. Geological Survey; North Carolina's water resources; a partnership with State, Federal and local agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winner, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    For more than 80 years, the Federal-State Cooperative Program in North Carolina has been an effective partnership that provides timely water information for all levels of government. The cooperative program has raised awareness of State and local water problems and issues and has enhanced transfer and exchange of scientific information. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts statewide water-resources investigations in North Carolina that include hydrologic data collection, applied research studies, and other interpretive studies. These programs are funded through cooperative agreements with the North Carolina Departments of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources; Human Resources; and Transportation, as well as more than a dozen city and county governmental agencies. The USGS also conducts special studies and data-collection programs for Federal agencies, including the Department of Defense, the U.S. Soil Conservation Service, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that contribute to North Carolina's water information data base. Highlights of selected programs are presented to show the scope of USGS activities in North Carolina and their usefulness in addressing water-resource problems. The reviewed programs include the statewide data-collection program, estuarine studies, the National Water-Quality Assessment program, military installation restoration program, and groundwater flow model-development program in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont provinces.

  12. Advances in water resources engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The Handbook of Environmental Engineering is a collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. A sister volume to Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering, this volume focuses on the theory and analysis of various water resources systems including watershed sediment dynamics and modeling, integrated simulation of interactive surface water and groundwater systems, river channel stabilization with submerged vanes, non-equilibrium sediment transport, reservoir sedimentation, and fluvial processes, minimum energy dissipation rate theory and applications, hydraulic modeling development and application, geophysical methods for assessment of earthen dams, soil erosion on upland areas by rainfall and overland flow, geofluvial modeling methodologies and applications, and an environmental water engineering glossary. This critical volume will serve as a valuable reference work for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, designers of...

  13. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: ECO2 – sharing benefits from water resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claassen, Marius

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available benefits from water resources Socio-economic development de- pends on the reliable supply of water for industrial, mining, agricultural, potable and recreational purposes. These activities also generate waste products that are often discharged...

  14. Managing aquatic ecosystems and water resources under multiple stress--an introduction to the MARS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Daniel; Carvalho, Laurence; Argillier, Christine; Beklioglu, Meryem; Borja, Angel; Cardoso, Ana Cristina; Duel, Harm; Ferreira, Teresa; Globevnik, Lidija; Hanganu, Jenica; Hellsten, Seppo; Jeppesen, Erik; Kodeš, Vit; Solheim, Anne Lyche; Nõges, Tiina; Ormerod, Steve; Panagopoulos, Yiannis; Schmutz, Stefan; Venohr, Markus; Birk, Sebastian

    2015-01-15

    Water resources globally are affected by a complex mixture of stressors resulting from a range of drivers, including urban and agricultural land use, hydropower generation and climate change. Understanding how stressors interfere and impact upon ecological status and ecosystem services is essential for developing effective River Basin Management Plans and shaping future environmental policy. This paper details the nature of these problems for Europe's water resources and the need to find solutions at a range of spatial scales. In terms of the latter, we describe the aims and approaches of the EU-funded project MARS (Managing Aquatic ecosystems and water Resources under multiple Stress) and the conceptual and analytical framework that it is adopting to provide this knowledge, understanding and tools needed to address multiple stressors. MARS is operating at three scales: At the water body scale, the mechanistic understanding of stressor interactions and their impact upon water resources, ecological status and ecosystem services will be examined through multi-factorial experiments and the analysis of long time-series. At the river basin scale, modelling and empirical approaches will be adopted to characterise relationships between multiple stressors and ecological responses, functions, services and water resources. The effects of future land use and mitigation scenarios in 16 European river basins will be assessed. At the European scale, large-scale spatial analysis will be carried out to identify the relationships amongst stress intensity, ecological status and service provision, with a special focus on large transboundary rivers, lakes and fish. The project will support managers and policy makers in the practical implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD), of related legislation and of the Blueprint to Safeguard Europe's Water Resources by advising the 3rd River Basin Management Planning cycle, the revision of the WFD and by developing new tools for

  15. Water resources activities in Kentucky, 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, conducts three major types of activities in Kentucky in order to provide hydrologic information and understanding needed for the best management of Kentucky 's and the Nation 's water resources. These activities are: (1) Data collection and dissemination; (2) Water-resources appraisals (interpretive studies); and (3) Research. Activities described in some detail following: (1) collection of surface - and groundwater data; (2) operation of stations to collect data on water quality, atmospheric deposition, and sedimentation; (3) flood investigations; (4) water use; (5) small area flood hydrology; (6) feasibility of disposal of radioactive disposal in deep crystalline rocks; (7) development of a groundwater model for the Louisville area; (8) travel times for streams in the Kentucky River Basin; (9) the impact of sinkholes and streams on groundwater flow in a carbonate aquifer system; (10) sedimentation and erosion rates at the Maxey Flats Radioactive Waste Burial site; and (11) evaluation of techniques for evaluating the cumulative impacts of mining as applied to coal fields in Kentucky. (Lantz-PTT)

  16. Climate Change Extreme Events: Meeting the Information Needs of Water Resource Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, R.; Garfin, G. M.; Dominguez, F.; Hirschboeck, K. K.; Woodhouse, C. A.; Guido, Z.; White, D. D.

    2013-12-01

    Information about climate has long been used by water managers to develop short term and long term plans and strategies for regional and local water resources. Inherent within longer term forecasts is an element of uncertainty, which is particularly evident in Global Climate model results for precipitation. For example in the southwest estimates in the flow of the Colorado River based on GCM results indicate changes from 120% or current flow to 60%. Many water resource managers are now using global climate model down scaled estimates results as indications of potential climate change as part of that planning. They are addressing the uncertainty within these estimates by using an anticipatory planning approach looking at a range of possible futures. One aspect of climate that is important for such planning are estimates of future extreme storm (short term) and drought (long term) events. However, the climate science of future possible changes in extreme events is less mature than general climate change science. At a recent workshop among climate scientists and water managers in the southwest, it was concluded the science of climate change extreme events is at least a decade away from being robust enough to be useful for water managers in their water resource management activities. However, it was proposed that there are existing estimates and records of past flooding and drought events that could be combined with general climate change science to create possible future events. These derived events could be of sufficient detail to be used by water resource managers until such time that the science of extreme events is able to provide more detailed estimates. Based on the results of this workshop and other work being done by the Decision Center for a Desert City at Arizona State University and the Climate Assessment for the Southwest center at University of Arizona., this article will 1) review what are the extreme event data needs of Water Resource Managers in the

  17. Modeling resource basis for social and economic development strategies: Water resource case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosolapova, Natalia A.; Matveeva, Ludmila G.; Nikitaeva, Anastasia Y.; Molapisi, Lesego

    2017-10-01

    The article substantiates that the effectiveness of implementing socio-economic development strategies is to a large extent determined by the adequate provision of basic resources. The key role of water resources in economic strategic development is empirically illustrated. The article demonstrates the practicability of strategic management of water resources based on the principle of a combination of river basin management approaches and the consideration of regional development strategies. The Game Theory technique was used to develop economic and mathematical tools for supporting decision-making in meeting the needs of regional consumers under water balance deficit conditions. The choice of methods was determined from two positions: the methods should allow for the possibility of multi-variant solutions for the selection of optimal options for the distribution of limited water resources between different consumers; the methods should be orientated on the maximum possible harmonization of multidirectional and multi-scale interests of the subjects in the water management system of the different regions (including the state) in order to achieve a balance. The approbation of developing a toolkit for the example of the regions located in the Don and Kuban river basins resulted in the appropriate selection of priority regions for the allocation of water resources in terms of strategic management as well as the determination of measures of ensuring the sustainable use of the river basins under consideration. The proposed tools can be used for coordinating decisions on the water supply of regional economic systems with actual and projected indicators of socio-economic development of the respective regions for a strategic perspective.

  18. Strategic Program for Biodiversity and Water Resource Management and Climate Change Adaptation in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Hassan; Aldosari, Ali

    2014-05-01

    and temporal distribution of water resources on annual and inter-annual basis in the country. To address the impact of climate change on ago-biodiversity and water resources, the present study was initiated with the aim to increase awareness to adapt to changing water resources situation due to climate change. Secondly to build climate change resilience into Pakistan agriculture system and also to enhance the understanding of climate change issues by farmers, and policy makers to enable them to make informed decision. Our assessment revealed a gap in our knowledge on the climate change vulnerability of mountain agro-biodiversity and institutional setups, as well as lack of policy imperatives to address the issues. Therefore, the 2014 generally assembly of EGU will provide a forum for our further understanding of the relevant scienti?c and geopolitical issues. This forum will not only establish a social network for future collaborative research but will also enable us to devise better strategies for both biodiversity and water-resource management and climate change adaptation.

  19. Decentralisation and Water Resources Management in the Indian Himalayas: The Contribution of New Institutional Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The current debate on decentralisation offers a polarised view on the dynamic power relations involved in water resources management. Drawing New Institutionalism as applied in the social and ecological sciences, the paper argues that decentralisation represents a complex adaptive process that involves a combination of natural and a political endeavour by actors and agents to draw on existing structures to negotiate and renegotiate the existing unequal power relations to (mismanage water. Examining a Village in the Indian Himalayas as a case study, the paper demonstrates the significance of New Institutionalism for a comprehensive understanding of the decentralisation as a process, with an intention to identify the opportunities and barriers presented by institutional factors on water resources management. The paper reveals the contemporary top-down decentralised reforms though has helped actors to voice their concern and empowered the agents to remain adaptive, these have not ensured resource use efficiency, addressed poverty and promoted greater participation of the actors. Facilitating these will require a strengthening the role of statutory public organisations to regulate water distribution, build capacity of actors and offer diverse forums to facilitate informed water-related decisions for a sustainable future.

  20. Evaluating participation in water resource management: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, G.; BlöSchl, G.; Loucks, D. P.

    2012-11-01

    Key documents such as the European Water Framework Directive and the U.S. Clean Water Act state that public and stakeholder participation in water resource management is required. Participation aims to enhance resource management and involve individuals and groups in a democratic way. Evaluation of participatory programs and projects is necessary to assess whether these objectives are being achieved and to identify how participatory programs and projects can be improved. The different methods of evaluation can be classified into three groups: (i) process evaluation assesses the quality of participation process, for example, whether it is legitimate and promotes equal power between participants, (ii) intermediary outcome evaluation assesses the achievement of mainly nontangible outcomes, such as trust and communication, as well as short- to medium-term tangible outcomes, such as agreements and institutional change, and (iii) resource management outcome evaluation assesses the achievement of changes in resource management, such as water quality improvements. Process evaluation forms a major component of the literature but can rarely indicate whether a participation program improves water resource management. Resource management outcome evaluation is challenging because resource changes often emerge beyond the typical period covered by the evaluation and because changes cannot always be clearly related to participation activities. Intermediary outcome evaluation has been given less attention than process evaluation but can identify some real achievements and side benefits that emerge through participation. This review suggests that intermediary outcome evaluation should play a more important role in evaluating participation in water resource management.

  1. Water-resources activities, North Dakota District, Fiscal Year 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cathy R.

    1993-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, is to provide the hydrologic information and understanding needed for the optimum utilization and management of the Nation's water resources for the overall benefit of the people of the United States. This report describes water-resources activities of the Water Resources Division in North Dakota in fiscal year 1992. Information on each project includes objectives, approach, progress, plans for fiscal year 1993, and completed and planned report products.

  2. Research on Water Resources Design Carrying Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghua Qin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water resources carrying capacity (WRCC is a recently proposed management concept, which aims to support sustainable socio-economic development in a region or basin. However, the calculation of future WRCC is not well considered in most studies, because water resources and the socio-economic development mode for one area or city in the future are quite uncertain. This paper focused on the limits of traditional methods of WRCC and proposed a new concept, water resources design carrying capacity (WRDCC, which incorporated the concept of design. In WRDCC, the population size that the local water resources can support is calculated based on the balance of water supply and water consumption, under the design water supply and design socio-economic development mode. The WRDCC of Chengdu city in China is calculated. Results show that the WRDCC (population size of Chengdu city in development modeI (II, III will be 997 ×104 (770 × 104, 504 × 104 in 2020, and 934 × 104 (759 × 104, 462 × 104 in 2030. Comparing the actual population to the carrying population (WRDCC in 2020 and 2030, a bigger gap will appear, which means there will be more and more pressure on the society-economic sustainable development.

  3. Sustainability assessment of regional water resources under the DPSIR framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shikun; Wang, Yubao; Liu, Jing; Cai, Huanjie; Wu, Pute; Geng, Qingling; Xu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Fresh water is a scarce and critical resource in both natural and socioeconomic systems. Increasing populations combined with an increasing demand for water resources have led to water shortages worldwide. Current water management strategies may not be sustainable, and comprehensive action should be taken to minimize the water budget deficit. Sustainable water resources management is essential because it ensures the integration of social, economic, and environmental issues into all stages of water resources management. This paper establishes the indicators to evaluate the sustainability of water utilization based on the Drive-Pressure-Status-Impact-Response (DPSIR) model. Based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method, a comprehensive assessment of changes to the sustainability of the water resource system in the city of Bayannur was conducted using these indicators. The results indicate that there is an increase in the driving force of local water consumption due to changes in society, economic development, and the consumption structure of residents. The pressure on the water system increased, whereas the status of the water resources continued to decrease over the study period due to the increasing drive indicators. The local government adopted a series of response measures to relieve the decreasing water resources and alleviate the negative effects of the increasing driver in demand. The response measures improved the efficiency of water usage to a large extent, but the large-scale expansion in demands brought a rebounding effect, known as ;Jevons paradox; At the same time, the increasing emissions of industrial and agriculture pollutants brought huge pressures to the regional water resources environment, which caused a decrease in the sustainability of regional water resources. Changing medium and short-term factors, such as regional economic pattern, technological levels, and water utilization practices, can contribute to the sustainable utilization of

  4. Subsidiarity in Principle: Decentralization of Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Stoa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The subsidiarity principle of water resources management suggests that water management and service delivery should take place at the lowest appropriate governance level. The principle is attractive for several reasons, primarily because: 1 the governance level can be reduced to reflect environmental characteristics, such as the hydrological borders of a watershed that would otherwise cross administrative boundaries; 2 decentralization promotes community and stakeholder engagement when decision-making is localized; 3 inefficiencies are reduced by eliminating reliance on central government bureaucracies and budgetary constraints; and 4 laws and institutions can be adapted to reflect localized conditions at a scale where integrated natural resources management and climate change adaptation is more focused. Accordingly, the principle of subsidiarity has been welcomed by many states committed to decentralized governance, integrated water resources management, and/or civic participation. However, applications of decentralization have not been uniform, and in some cases have produced frustrating outcomes for states and water resources. Successful decentralization strategies are heavily dependent on dedicated financial resources and human resource capacity. This article explores the nexus between the principle of subsidiarity and the enabling environment, in the hope of articulating factors likely to contribute to, or detract from, the success of decentralized water resources management. Case studies from Haiti, Rwanda, and the United States’ Florida Water Management Districts provide examples of the varied stages of decentralization.

  5. A Web GIS Enabled Comprehensive Hydrologic Information System for Indian Water Resources Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, A.; Tyagi, H.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrological systems across the globe are getting increasingly water stressed with each passing season due to climate variability & snowballing water demand. Hence, to safeguard food, livelihood & economic security, it becomes imperative to employ scientific studies for holistic management of indispensable resource like water. However, hydrological study of any scale & purpose is heavily reliant on various spatio-temporal datasets which are not only difficult to discover/access but are also tough to use & manage. Besides, owing to diversity of water sector agencies & dearth of standard operating procedures, seamless information exchange is challenging for collaborators. Extensive research is being done worldwide to address these issues but regrettably not much has been done in developing countries like India. Therefore, the current study endeavours to develop a Hydrological Information System framework in a Web-GIS environment for empowering Indian water resources systems. The study attempts to harmonize the standards for metadata, terminology, symbology, versioning & archiving for effective generation, processing, dissemination & mining of data required for hydrological studies. Furthermore, modelers with humble computing resources at their disposal, can consume this standardized data in high performance simulation modelling using cloud computing within the developed Web-GIS framework. They can also integrate the inputs-outputs of different numerical models available on the platform and integrate their results for comprehensive analysis of the chosen hydrological system. Thus, the developed portal is an all-in-one framework that can facilitate decision makers, industry professionals & researchers in efficient water management.

  6. Conceptual model of water resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Akbari, M. Amin; Ashoor, M. Hanif; Chornack, Michael P.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Emerson, Douglas G.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Litke, David W.; Michel, Robert L.; Plummer, Niel; Rezai, M. Taher; Senay, Gabriel B.; Verdin, James P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Geological Survey has been working with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resources investigations in the Kabul Basin under an agreement supported by the United States Agency for International Development. This collaborative investigation compiled, to the extent possible in a war-stricken country, a varied hydrogeologic data set and developed limited data-collection networks to assist with the management of water resources in the Kabul Basin. This report presents the results of a multidisciplinary water-resources assessment conducted between 2005 and 2007 to address questions of future water availability for a growing population and of the potential effects of climate change. Most hydrologic and climatic data-collection activities in Afghanistan were interrupted in the early 1980s as a consequence of war and civil strife and did not resume until 2003 or later. Because of the gap of more than 20 years in the record of hydrologic and climatic observations, this investigation has made considerable use of remotely sensed data and, where available, historical records to investigate the water resources of the Kabul Basin. Specifically, this investigation integrated recently acquired remotely sensed data and satellite imagery, including glacier and climatic data; recent climate-change analyses; recent geologic investigations; analysis of streamflow data; groundwater-level analysis; surface-water- and groundwater-quality data, including data on chemical and isotopic environmental tracers; and estimates of public-supply and agricultural water uses. The data and analyses were integrated by using a simplified groundwater-flow model to test the conceptual model of the hydrologic system and to assess current (2007) and future (2057) water availability. Recharge in the basin is spatially and temporally variable and generally occurs near streams and irrigated areas in the late winter and early

  7. Water resources management in Tanzania: identifying research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims at identifying research gaps and needs and recommendations for a research agenda on water resources management in Tanzania. We reviewed published literature on water resources management in Tanzania in order to highlight what is currently known, and to identify knowledge gaps, and suggest ...

  8. Groundwater resource-directed measures software | Dennis | Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainability, equity and efficiency are identified as central guiding principles in the protection, use, development, conservation, management and control of water resources. These principles recognise the basic human needs of present and future generations, the need to protect water resources, the need to share some ...

  9. PROFILE: Integrating Stressor and Response Monitoring into a Resource-Based Water-Quality Assessment Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROUX; KEMPSTER; KLEYNHANS; VAN; DU

    1999-01-01

    / South African water law as well as the country's water resource management policies are currently under review. The Water Law Principles, which were established as part of this review process, indicate a commitment to sustainable development of water resources and the protection of an ecological "reserve." Such policy goals highlight the limitations of traditional and current water-quality management strategies, which rely on stressor monitoring and associated regulation of pollution. The concept of an assimilative capacity is central to the implementation of the current water-quality management approach. Weaknesses inherent in basing water management on the concept of assimilative capacity are discussed. Response monitoring is proposed as a way of addressing some of the weaknesses. Following a global trend, the new policy goals emphasize the need to protect rather than to use the ability of ecosystems to recover from disturbances. This necessitates the adoption of response measurements to quantify ecological condition and monitor ecological change. Response monitoring focuses on properties that are essential to the sustainability of the ecosystem. These monitoring tools can be used to establish natural ranges of ecological change within ecosystems, as well as to quantify conceptually acceptable and unacceptable ranges of change. Through a framework of biological criteria and biological impairment standards, the results of response monitoring can become an integral part of future water resource management strategies in South Africa. KEY WORDS: Stressor monitoring; Response monitoring; Assimilative capacity; Ecosystem stability; Resilience; Biocriteria

  10. Rangeland and water resources

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Session B3 Management for sustainable use — Rangeland and water resources. ... The theme of optimsing integrated catchment management will be treated ... land system, catchment, basin), with a focus on law, policy and implementation.

  11. Exploring Water Resources as a Study Abroad Experience in Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulava, V. M.; Callahan, T. J.

    2013-12-01

    Water and environmental resources are of high interest for students at the College of Charleston. These issues are covered in varying levels of detail in the Geology Department in introductory to advanced courses, some of which include field and laboratory components. While courses stress the importance of understanding global water resource issues, students are rarely given hands-on exposure beyond local problems. To address this, we designed a course that explored water resource issues along the entire length of the Ganges River from headwaters to the mouth, a region in which water is seen as a critical economic, environmental, and cultural resource. The 2500-km long Ganges River in northern India is stressed due to large demand and cyclical, yet unpredictable, supply. This region has a population of over 700 million who speak different languages, have diverse cultures, and varied states of development, economic access, and planning, and diverse geologic and ecological settings. Poor river management, inconsistent precipitation during monsoons likely affected by climate change and pollution from insufficient waste management practices and a burgeoning population has resulted in additional stress on the river and its ecosystems. A three-week travel-intensive study abroad course covered three important reaches of the river in the headwaters (Himalayan glaciers, steep mountain landscapes, and large hydroelectric dams in Uttarakhand state), the plains (industrial heartland and large population centers in Uttar Pradesh state), and the mouth (coastal development, Sunderbans mangrove forest, and coastal hazards near Bay of Bengal in West Bengal state). The course was timed to coincide with the pre-monsoon summer season to show students the importance of the monsoon season to this region. The course had two modules: (1) water resource and hydrology principles that delve into specific issues, including impacts of river management for economic development and associated

  12. A Historical Perspective on Local Environmental Movements in Japan: Lessons for the Transdisciplinary Approach on Water Resource Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, T.

    2014-12-01

    Typical studies on natural resources from a social science perspective tend to choose one type of resource—water, for example— and ask what factors contribute to the sustainable use or wasteful exploitation of that resource. However, climate change and economic development, which are causing increased pressure on local resources and presenting communities with increased levels of tradeoffs and potential conflicts, force us to consider the trade-offs between options for using a particular resource. Therefore, the transdisciplinary approach that accurately captures the advantages and disadvantages of various possible resource uses is particularly important in the complex social-ecological systems, where concerns about inequality with respect to resource use and access have become unavoidable. Needless to say, resource management and policy require sound scientific understanding of the complex interconnections between nature and society, however, in contrast to typical international discussions, I discuss Japan not as an "advanced" case where various dilemmas have been successfully addressed by the government through the optimal use of technology, but rather as a nation seeing an emerging trend that is based on a awareness of the connections between local resources and the environment. Furthermore, from a historical viewpoint, the nexus of local resources is not a brand-new idea in the experience of environmental governance in Japan. There exist the local environment movements, which emphasized the interconnection of local resources and succeeded in urging the governmental action and policymaking. For this reason, local movements and local knowledge for the resource governance warrant attention. This study focuses on the historical cases relevant to water resource management including groundwater, and considers the contexts and conditions to holistically address local resource problems, paying particular attention to interactions between science and society. I

  13. Handling Uncertain Gross Margin and Water Demand in Agricultural Water Resources Management using Robust Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaerani, D.; Lesmana, E.; Tressiana, N.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, an application of Robust Optimization in agricultural water resource management problem under gross margin and water demand uncertainty is presented. Water resource management is a series of activities that includes planning, developing, distributing and managing the use of water resource optimally. Water resource management for agriculture can be one of the efforts to optimize the benefits of agricultural output. The objective function of agricultural water resource management problem is to maximizing total benefits by water allocation to agricultural areas covered by the irrigation network in planning horizon. Due to gross margin and water demand uncertainty, we assume that the uncertain data lies within ellipsoidal uncertainty set. We employ robust counterpart methodology to get the robust optimal solution.

  14. Water resource management model for a river basin

    OpenAIRE

    Jelisejevienė, Emilija

    2005-01-01

    The objective is to develop river basin management model that ensures integrated analysis of existing water resource problems and promotes implementation of sustainable development principles in water resources management.

  15. Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Yuan Tsai Wen-Cheng Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a comprehensive assessment model to measure the regional impact of climate change on Taiwan¡¦s water resources. Working from future rainfall data simulated by Japan¡¦s high-resolution GCM model JMA/MRI TL959L60 in a SRES-A1B scenario, we first apply climate change to an assessment model of renewable water resources to estimate the volume of renewable water resources on a regional basis. We then conduct a water resources system simulation based on estimates of future water needs, regional reservoir effective capacity and renewable water resource volume. This paper uses three water resource assessment indicators: the annual water utilization ratio indicator, the water shortage indicator and the extreme event occurrence indicator. Through fuzzy comprehensive assessment, we divide the evaluation set into five levels: very good (L1, good (L2, fair (L3, poor (L4 and very poor (L5. Results indicate that, given the effects of future climate change (2080 - 2099 and the increase in water demand, future water resources conditions in northern and eastern Taiwan will not be significantly different from historical levels (1979 - 1998 and will maintain a ¡§good¡¨ level (L2, while the conditions in southern Taiwan will visibly deteriorate from its historical ¡§fair¡¨ level (L3 to ¡§poor¡¨ (L4; and the future conditions for central Taiwan will be ¡§poor¡¨ (L4. The initiation of adaptation options for water management in southern and central Taiwan would be needed by increasing reservoir capacity and reducing overall water use.

  16. Water advisory demand evaluation and resource toolkit

    OpenAIRE

    Paluszczyszyn, D.; Illya, S.; Goodyer, E.; Kubrycht, T.; Ambler, M.

    2016-01-01

    Cities are living organisms, 24h / 7day, with demands on resources and outputs. Water is a key resource whose management has not kept pace with modern urban life. Demand for clean water and loads on waste water no longer fit diurnal patterns; and they are impacted by events that are outside the normal range of parameters that are taken account of in water management. This feasibility study will determine how the application of computational intelligence can be used to analyse a mix of dat...

  17. promoting integrated water resources management in south west

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    1, 2 SOUTH WEST REGIONAL CENTRE FOR NATIONAL WATER RESOURCES CAPACITY BUILDING NETWORK,. FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF ... that an integrated approach to water resource development and management offers the best ...

  18. Scenario-Based Analysis on Water Resources Implication of Coal Power in Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahai Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 58% of coal-fired power generation capacity is located in eastern China, where the demand for electricity is strong. Serious air pollution in China, in eastern regions in particular, has compelled the Chinese government to impose a ban on the new construction of pulverized coal power plants in eastern regions. Meanwhile, rapid economic growth is thirsty for electric power supply. As a response, China planned to build large-scale coal power bases in six western provinces, including Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Ningxia and Gansu. In this paper, the water resource implication of the coal power base planning is addressed. We find that, in a business-as-usual (BAU scenario, water consumption for coal power generation in these six provinces will increase from 1130 million m3 in 2012 to 2085 million m3 in 2020, experiencing nearly a double growth. Such a surge will exert great pressure on water supply and lead to serious water crisis in these already water-starved regions. A strong implication is that the Chinese Government must add water resource constraint as a critical point in its overall sustainable development plan, in addition to energy supply and environment protection. An integrated energy-water resource plan with regionalized environmental carrying capacity as constraints should be developed to settle this puzzle. Several measures are proposed to cope with it, including downsizing coal power in western regions, raising the technical threshold of new coal power plants and implementing retrofitting to the inefficient cooling system, and reengineering the generation process to waterless or recycled means.

  19. Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    An-Yuan Tsai Wen-Cheng Huang

    2011-01-01

    This paper establishes a comprehensive assessment model to measure the regional impact of climate change on Taiwan¡¦s water resources. Working from future rainfall data simulated by Japan¡¦s high-resolution GCM model JMA/MRI TL959L60 in a SRES-A1B scenario, we first apply climate change to an assessment model of renewable water resources to estimate the volume of renewable water resources on a regional basis. We then conduct a water resources system simulation based on estimates of future wat...

  20. Mission improbable: Does petroleum-related aid address the resource curse?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolstad, Ivar; Wiig, Arne; Williams, Aled

    2009-01-01

    Petroleum-related aid programmes and projects are a key part of donor activities in oil-rich developing countries. This paper critically assesses petroleum-related aid activities, using the Norwegian Oil for Development programme as a main case. Recent research suggests that institutions, or governance, are essential in averting a resource curse. While governance issues are beginning to receive more attention in these types of programmes, they still form a minor part of programme activities. The narrow sector focus that characterizes petroleum-related aid makes it unlikely that it will produce the higher order institutional changes needed to lift the resource curse. Petroleum-related aid activities address the issue of corruption only to a limited extent. Given the commercial and political interests of donor countries, questions about the integrity and credibility of these types of programmes can be raised

  1. NASA's Applied Sciences for Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorn, Bradley; Toll, David; Engman, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The Earth Systems Division within NASA has the primary responsibility for the Earth Science Applied Science Program and the objective to accelerate the use of NASA science results in applications to help solve problems important to society and the economy. The primary goal of the Earth Science Applied Science Program is to improve future and current operational systems by infusing them with scientific knowledge of the Earth system gained through space-based observation, assimilation of new observations, and development and deployment of enabling technologies, systems, and capabilities. This paper discusses one of the major problems facing water resources managers, that of having timely and accurate data to drive their decision support tools. It then describes how NASA?s science and space based satellites may be used to overcome this problem. Opportunities for the water resources community to participate in NASA?s Water Resources Applications Program are described.

  2. Hydrocomplexity: Addressing water security and emergent environmental risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen

    2015-07-01

    Water security and emergent environmental risks are among the most significant societal concerns. They are highly interlinked to other global risks such as those related to climate, human health, food, human migration, biodiversity loss, urban sustainability, etc. Emergent risks result from the confluence of unanticipated interactions from evolving interdependencies between complex systems, such as those embedded in the water cycle. They are associated with the novelty of dynamical possibilities that have significant potential consequences to human and ecological systems, and not with probabilities based on historical precedence. To ensure water security we need to be able to anticipate the likelihood of risk possibilities as they present the prospect of the most impact through cascade of vulnerabilities. They arise due to a confluence of nonstationary drivers that include growing population, climate change, demographic shifts, urban growth, and economic expansion, among others, which create novel interdependencies leading to a potential of cascading network effects. Hydrocomplexity aims to address water security and emergent risks through the development of science, methods, and practices with the potential to foster a "Blue Revolution" akin to the Green revolution for food security. It blends both hard infrastructure based solution with soft knowledge driven solutions to increase the range of planning and design, management, mitigation and adaptation strategies. It provides a conceptual and synthetic framework to enable us to integrate discovery science and engineering, observational and information science, computational and communication systems, and social and institutional approaches to address consequential water and environmental challenges.

  3. Water Intensity of Electricity from Geothermal Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, G. S.; Glassley, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    BACKGROUND Electricity from geothermal resources could play a significant role in the United States over the next few decades; a 2006 study by MIT expects a capacity of 100GWe by 2050 as feasible; approximately 10% of total electricity generating capacity up from less than 1% today. However, there is limited research on the water requirements and impacts of generating electricity from geothermal resources - conventional as well as enhanced. To the best of our knowledge, there is no baseline exists for water requirements of geothermal electricity. Water is primarily required for cooling and dissipation of waste heat in the power plants, and to account for fluid losses during heat mining of enhanced geothermal resources. MODEL DESCRIPTION We have developed a model to assess and characterize water requirements of electricity from hydrothermal resources and enhanced geothermal resources (EGS). Our model also considers a host of factors that influence cooling water requirements ; these include the temperature and chemical composition of geothermal resource; installed power generation technology - flash, organic rankine cycle and the various configurations of these technologies; cooling technologies including air cooled condensers, wet recirculating cooling, and hybrid cooling; and finally water treatment and recycling installations. We expect to identify critical factors and technologies. Requirements for freshwater, degraded water and geothermal fluid are separately estimated. METHODOLOGY We have adopted a lifecycle analysis perspective that estimates water consumption at the goethermal field and power plant, and accounts for transmission and distribution losses before reaching the end user. Our model depends upon an extensive literature review to determine various relationships necessary to determine water usage - for example relationship between thermal efficiency and temperature of a binary power plant, or differences in efficiency between various ORC configurations

  4. Adapting ecological risk valuation for natural resource damage assessment in water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuzhen; Wu, Desheng

    2018-07-01

    Ecological risk assessment can address requirements of natural resource damage assessment by quantifying the magnitude of possible damages to the ecosystem. This paper investigates an approach to assess water damages from pollution incident on the basis of concentrations of contaminants. The baseline of water pollution is determined with not-to-exceed concentration of contaminants required by water quality standards. The values of damage cost to water quality are estimated through sewage treatment cost. To get a reliable estimate of treatment cost, DEA is employed to classify samples of sewage plants based on their efficiency of sewage treatment. And exponential fitting is adopted to determine the relation between treatment cost and the decrease of COCs. The range of damage costs is determined through the fitting curves respectively based on efficient and inefficient samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Concept and Connotation of Water Resources Carrying Capacity in Water Ecological Civilization Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Zhilong; Song, Xiaoyu; Feng, Xianghua

    2018-01-01

    Water ecological civilization construction is based on the water resources carrying capacity, guided by the sustainable development concept, adhered to the human-water harmony thoughts. This paper has comprehensive analyzed the concept and characteristics of the carrying capacity of water resources in the water ecological civilization construction, and discussed the research methods and evaluation index system of water carrying capacity in the water ecological civilization construction, finally pointed out that the problems and solutions of water carrying capacity in the water ecological civilization construction and put forward the future research prospect.

  6. Water demand management in Yemen and Jordan: addressing power and interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, Mark; Allan, Tony; Al Aulaqi, Nasser; Jabarin, Amer; Laamrani, Hammou

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which entrenched interests of stakeholder groups both maintain water use practice, and may be confronted. The focus is on the agricultural sectors of Yemen and Jordan, where water resource policymakers face resistance in their attempts to reduce water use to environmentally sustainable levels through implementation of water demand management (WDM) activities. Some farmers in both countries that have invested in irrigated production of high-value crops (such as qat and bananas) benefit from a political economy that encourages increased rather than reduced water consumption. The resultant over-exploitation of water resources affects groups in unequal measures. Stakeholder analysis demonstrates that the more ‘powerful’ groups (chiefly the large landowners and the political elites, as well as the ministries of irrigation over which they exert influence) are generally opposed to reform in water use, while the proponents of WDM (e.g. water resource managers, environmental ministries and NGOs, and the international donor community) are found to have minimal influence over water use policy and decisionmaking. Efforts and ideas attempted by this latter group to challenge the status quo are classified here as either (a) influencing or (b) challenging the power asymmetry, and the merits and limits of both approaches are discussed. The interpretation of evidence suggests current practice is likely to endure, but may be more effectively challenged if a long-term approach is taken with an awareness of opportunities generated by windows of opportunity and the participation of ‘overlap groups’.

  7. Climate proofing water and sanitation services and applying integrated water resource management in slums

    OpenAIRE

    Heath, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This thesis assesses how climate change impacts water resources and communities and reviews how the resource can be managed in an integrated manner for small water and sanitation providers. This thesis was based upon a 10 month Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) between Cranfield University and Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP). The aim of the project was to assess the opportunities and vulnerabilities presented by climate change and how Integrated Water Resource ...

  8. Assessing The Ecosystem Service Freshwater Production From An Integrated Water Resources Management Perspective. Case Study: The Tormes Water Resources System (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momblanch, Andrea; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín; Solera, Abel

    2014-05-01

    The Ecosystem Services are defined as the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems, and the species that make them up, sustain and fulfil human life. A strongly related concept is the Integrated Water Resources Management. It is a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximise the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. From these definitions, it is clear that in order to cover so many water management and ecosystems related aspects the use of integrative models is increasingly necessary. In this study, we propose to link a hydrologic model and a water allocation model in order to assess the Freshwater Production as an Ecosystem Service in anthropised river basins. First, the hydrological model allows determining the volume of water generated by each sub-catchment; that is, the biophysical quantification of the service. This result shows the relevance of each sub-catchment as a source of freshwater and how this could change if the land uses are modified. On the other hand, the water management model allocates the available water resources among the different water uses. Then, it is possible to provide an economic value to the water resources through the use of demand curves, or other economic concepts. With this second model, we are able to obtain the economical quantification of the Ecosystem Service. Besides, the influence of water management and infrastructures on the service provision can be analysed. The methodology is applied to the Tormes Water Resources System, in Spain. The software used are EVALHID and SIMGES, for hydrological and management aspects, respectively. Both models are included in the Decision Support System Shell AQUATOOL for water resources planning and management. A scenario approach is presented to illustrate the potential of the methodology, including the current

  9. Water resources management and European integration of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Dragoljub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper points to the main elements important for understanding the obligations arising from the process of accession of the Republic of Serbia (RS to the European Union (EU as related to water resources management. The general framework is determined by the importance of water resources for contemporary international relations as well as the rules governing the process of harmonizing the national legislation with the EU legislation. This paper provides an overview of the most important regulations of the RS and the EU in the field of water resources management, including its status in international treaties. Drawing upon the rules governing the harmonization process, the paper provides indicators of the achieved level of compliance of national legislation with key EU regulations in the field of water resources management. The provided analysis is based on the premise that the process of joining the EU is the main factor that determines the current position and policy of RS in the field of water resources management. In that context, management of water resources falls into the group of EU regulations which are, within the framework of Chapter 27, most difficult to transpose and apply in the internal legal system. Although the process of harmonizing the national legislation with the EU legislation has been underway as regards a vast number of regulations, the process of reaching full compliance is likely to take a couple of years. Concurrently, it has been estimated that the full implementation of legislation harmonized with the EU legislation will take at least two decades, primarily due to the substantial financial resources to be invested in the development of water infrastructure. In terms of participation in the activities undertaken within the framework of international agreements in the field of water resources management and the state's membership in relevant international treaties, it is noted that in the last decade the RS has

  10. Water Resources Research supports water economics submissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Ronald C.

    2012-09-01

    AGU's international interdisciplinary journal Water Resources Research (WRR) publishes original contributions in hydrology; the physical, chemical, and biological sciences; and the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. With the rising relevance of water economics and related social sciences, the editors of WRR continue to encourage submissions on economics and policy. WRR was originally founded in the mid 1960s by Walter Langbein and economist Allen Kneese. Several former WRR editors have been economists—including David Brookshire, Ron Cummings, and Chuck Howe—and many landmark articles in water economics have been published in WRR.

  11. Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

    1991-12-31

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  12. 78 FR 16706 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Planning AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of change. SUMMARY: The Water Resources Planning Act of 1965 and the Water Resources Development Act of 1974 require an annual determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate for Federal water resources planning...

  13. 75 FR 8106 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Planning AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of change. SUMMARY: The Water Resources Planning Act of 1965 and the Water Resources Development Act of 1974 require an annual determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate for Federal water resources planning...

  14. 78 FR 67393 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of change. SUMMARY: The Water Resources Planning Act of 1965 and the Water Resources Development Act of 1974 require an annual determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate...

  15. 75 FR 82066 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Planning AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of change. SUMMARY: The Water Resources Planning Act of 1965 and the Water Resources Development Act of 1974 require an annual determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate for Federal water resources planning...

  16. 76 FR 73674 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Planning AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of change. SUMMARY: The Water Resources Planning Act of 1965 and the Water Resources Development Act of 1974 require an annual determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate for Federal water resources planning...

  17. Application and Prospect of Big Data in Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Danchi; Xu, Xinyi

    2017-04-01

    Because of developed information technology and affordable data storage, we h ave entered the era of data explosion. The term "Big Data" and technology relate s to it has been created and commonly applied in many fields. However, academic studies just got attention on Big Data application in water resources recently. As a result, water resource Big Data technology has not been fully developed. This paper introduces the concept of Big Data and its key technologies, including the Hadoop system and MapReduce. In addition, this paper focuses on the significance of applying the big data in water resources and summarizing prior researches by others. Most studies in this field only set up theoretical frame, but we define the "Water Big Data" and explain its tridimensional properties which are time dimension, spatial dimension and intelligent dimension. Based on HBase, the classification system of Water Big Data is introduced: hydrology data, ecology data and socio-economic data. Then after analyzing the challenges in water resources management, a series of solutions using Big Data technologies such as data mining and web crawler, are proposed. Finally, the prospect of applying big data in water resources is discussed, it can be predicted that as Big Data technology keeps developing, "3D" (Data Driven Decision) will be utilized more in water resources management in the future.

  18. Energy and water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This book presents data and other information for those who desire an understanding of the relationship between water and energy development. The book is not a tract for a grand plan. It does not present solutions. Many of the issues, especially regarding conflict over water allocations and use, are controlled and reconciled at the state level. This report draws together some of the physical and institutional data useful for identifying and understanding water issues which rise in regard to the various aspects of energy development. Three basic water-energy areas are considered in this report: water quality, water supply, and their institutional framework. Water consumption by energy was three percent of the nation's total consumption in 1975, not a large proportion. It is projected to increase to six percent by 2000. Water consumption rates by the energy technologies addressed in this document are tabulated. Water pollutant loadings expected from these technologies are summarized. Finally, a summary of water-related legislation which have particular ramifications in regard to the production of energy is presented

  19. Water resources planning in a strategic context: Linking the water sector to the national economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Peter; Hurst, Christopher; Harshadeep, Nagaraja

    1993-07-01

    In many parts of the developing world investment in water resources takes a large proportion of the available public investment funds. As the conflicts for funds between the water and other sectors become more severe, the traditional ways of analyzing and planning water investments has to move away from project-by-project (or even a river basin-by-river basin) approaches to include the relationships of water investments to other sectors and to overall national development policies. Current approaches to water resources investments are too narrow. There is a need for ways to expand the strategic thinking of water sector managers. This paper develops a water resources planning methodology with the primary objective of giving insights into the linking of water sector investments and macroeconomic policies. The model optimizes the present value of investments for water resources development, while embedding a macroeconomic model into the framework to allow for an examination of the interactions between water investments, the growth in the agricultural sector, and the performance of the overall economy. A case study of Bangladesh is presented which shows how strategic thinking could lead to widely differing implications for water investments than would conventional water resources systems planning models.

  20. Water-resources activities, North Dakota District, fiscal year 1994-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cathy R.

    1995-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, is to provide the hydrologic information and understanding needed for the optimum utilization and management of the Nation's water resources for the overall benefit of the people of the United States. This report describes water-resources activities of the Water Resources Division in North Dakota in fiscal year 1994. Information on each project includes objectives, approach, progress, plans for fiscal year 1995, and completed and planned report products.

  1. Household-level heterogeneity of water resources within common-pool resource systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCord, Paul; Dell'angelo, Jampel; Gower, Drew; Caylor, Kelly K.; Evans, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Prior work has demonstrated the ability of common property systems to sustain institutional arrangements governing natural resources over long periods of time. Much of this work has focused on irrigation systems where upstream users agree to management arrangements that distribute water resources

  2. MULTIPLE-PURPOSE DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    practices of cost allocations to various functions of .... approach of water resources development the most attractive and benefitial .... project plus a share of the "joint cost" which are the ... Pricing and Repayments American Water Re- sources ...

  3. Dissolved nitrogen in drinking water resources of farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dissolved nitrogen in drinking water resources of farming communities in Ghana. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Concentrations of these potentially toxic substances were below WHO acceptable limits for surface and groundwaters, indicating these water resources appear safe for drinking ...

  4. Building Capacity to Use NASA Earth Observations in the Water Resource Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Ross, K. W.; Crepps, G.; Clayton, A.; Ruiz, M. L.; Rogers, L.; Allsbrook, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA DEVELOP National Program builds capacity to use and apply NASA Earth observations to address environmental concerns around the globe. The DEVELOP model builds capacity in both participants (students, recent graduates, and early and transitioning career professionals) who conduct the projects and partners (decision and policy makers) who are recipients of project methodologies and results. Projects focus on a spectrum of thematic topics, including water resource management which made up 30% of the DEVELOP FY2017 portfolio. During this period, DEVELOP conducted water-focused feasibility studies in collaboration with 22 partners across 13 U.S. states and five countries. This presentation will provide an overview of needs identified, DEVELOP's response, data sources, challenges, and lessons learned.

  5. Global climate change and California's water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaux, H.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter records the deliberations of a group of California water experts about answers to these and other questions related to the impact of global warming on California's water resources. For the most part, those participating in the deliberations believe that the current state of scientific knowledge about global warming and its impacts on water resources is insufficient to permit hard distinctions to be made between short- and long-term changes. consequently, the ideas discussed here are based on a number of assumptions about specific climatic manifestations of global warming in California, as described earlier in this volume. Ultimately, however, effective public responses to forestall the potentially costly impacts of global climate change will probably depend upon the credible validation of the prospects of global climate warming. This chapter contains several sections. First, the likely effects of global warming on California's water resources and water-supply systems are identified and analyzed. Second, possible responses to mitigate these effects are enumerated and discussed. Third, the major policy issues are identified. A final section lists recommendations for action and major needs for information

  6. Water footprints as an indicator for the equitable utilization of shared water resources. (Case study: Egypt and Ethiopia shared water resources in Nile Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Osama M.

    2014-12-01

    The question of "equity." is a vague and relative term in any event, criteria for equity are particularly difficult to determine in water conflicts, where international water law is ambiguous and often contradictory, and no mechanism exists to enforce principles which are agreed-upon. The aim of this study is using the water footprints as a concept to be an indicator or a measuring tool for the Equitable Utilization of shared water resources. Herein Egypt and Ethiopia water resources conflicts in Nile River Basin were selected as a case study. To achieve this study; water footprints, international virtual water flows and water footprint of national consumption of Egypt and Ethiopia has been analyzed. In this study, some indictors of equitable utilization has been gained for example; Egypt water footprint per capita is 1385 CM/yr/cap while in Ethiopia is 1167 CM/yr/cap, Egypt water footprint related to the national consumption is 95.15 BCM/yr, while in Ethiopia is 77.63 BCM/yr, and the external water footprints of Egypt is 28.5%, while in Ethiopia is 2.3% of the national consumption water footprint. The most important conclusion of this study is; natural, social, environmental and economical aspects should be taken into account when considering the water footprints as an effective measurable tool to assess the equable utilization of shared water resources, moreover the water footprints should be calculated using a real data and there is a necessity to establishing a global water footprints benchmarks for commodities as a reference.

  7. Water Resources Data, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, Water Year 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Pedro L.; Aquino, Zaida; Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos; Garcia, Rene; Sanchez, Ana V.

    2004-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with local and Federal agencies obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the area. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2002.' This report includes records on both surface and ground water. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 95 streamflow gaging stations, daily sediment records for 28 streamflow stations, 27 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations, stage records for 17 reservoirs, and (2) water-quality records for 17 streamflow-gaging stations, and for 42 ungaged stream sites, 11 lake sites, 2 lagoons, and 1 bay, and (3) water-level records for 102 observation wells.

  8. Water Resources Data, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, Water Year 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Pedro L.; Aquino, Zaida; Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos; Garcia, Rene; Sanchez, Ana V.

    2002-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with local and Federal agencies obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the area. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2001.' This report includes records on both surface and ground water. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 95 streamflow gaging stations, daily sediment records for 23 streamflow stations, 20 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations, stage records for 18 reservoirs, and (2) water-quality records for 17 streamflow-gaging stations, and for 42 ungaged stream sites, 11 lake sites, 2 lagoons, and 1 bay, and (3) water-level records for 103 observation wells.

  9. Isotope techniques in water resources development 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Water resources are scarce in many parts of the world. Often, the only water resource is groundwater. Overuse usually invites a rapid decline in groundwater resources which are recharged insufficiently, or not at all, by prevailing climatic conditions. These and other problems currently encountered in hydrology and associated environmental fields have prompted an increasing demand for the utilization of isotope methods. Such methods have been recognized as being indispensable for solving problems such as the identification of pollution sources, characterization of palaeowater resources, evaluation of recharge and evaporative discharge under arid and semi-arid conditions, reconstruction of past climates, study of the interrelationships between surface and groundwater, dating of groundwater and validation of contaminant transport models. Moreover, in combination with other hydrogeological and geochemical methods, isotope techniques can provide useful hydrological information, such as data on the origin, replenishment and dynamics of groundwater. It was against this background that the International Atomic Energy Agency, in co-operation with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences, organized this symposium on the Use of Isotope Techniques in Water Resources Development, which took place in Vienna from 11 to 15 March 1991. The main themes of the symposium were the use of isotope techniques in solving practical problems of water resources assessment and development, particularly with respect to groundwater protection, and in studying environmental problems related to water, including palaeohydrological and palaeoclimatological problems. A substantial part of the oral presentations was concerned with the present state and trends in groundwater dating, and with some methodological aspects. These proceedings contain the papers of 37 oral and the extended synopses of 47 poster

  10. Working group report on water resources, supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marta, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    A summary is presented of the issues discussed, and the conclusions and recommendations of a working group on water resources, supply and demand. The issues were grouped into the categories of detecting climatic change and water impacts, simulating potential impacts, and responding to potential impacts. The workshop groups achieved consensus on the following points: the physics of global warming and climatic change have been satifactorily proven; there appears to be some evidence of climatic change and a signal could soon be detected; policy decisions and strategic plans for climatic change and its potential impacts are needed immediately; and targets and priorities for decison making should be identified and addressed immediately. Three top-priority issues are the identification of indicators for the detection of climatic change impacts on hydrology, determining response to climate-related change, and evaluation of design criteria. Better information on regional climate and hydrology under conditions of global warming is needed before design criteria could be altered

  11. Fuzzy pricing for urban water resources: model construction and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ranhang; Chen, Shouyu

    2008-08-01

    A rational water price system plays a crucial role in the optimal allocation of water resources. In this paper, a fuzzy pricing model for urban water resources is presented, which consists of a multi-criteria fuzzy evaluation model and a water resources price (WRP) computation model. Various factors affecting WRP are comprehensively evaluated with multiple levels and objectives in the multi-criteria fuzzy evaluation model, while the price vectors of water resources are constructed in the WRP computation model according to the definition of the bearing water price index, and then WRP is calculated. With the incorporation of an operator's knowledge, it considers iterative weights and subjective preference of operators for weight-assessment. The weights determined are more rational and the evaluation results are more realistic. Particularly, dual water supply is considered in the study. Different prices being fixed for water resources with different qualities conforms to the law of water resources value (WRV) itself. A high-quality groundwater price computation model is also proposed to provide optimal water allocation and to meet higher living standards. The developed model is applied in Jinan for evaluating its validity. The method presented in this paper offers some new directions in the research of WRP.

  12. Remote Sensing products for water quality monitoring and water resources management; Teledeccion para la monitorizacion de vairables de calidad del agua y del recurso hidrologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pi Figueroa, A.; Moreno, L.

    2008-07-01

    This article addresses the use of remote sensing technology for water quality monitoring and water resources management. Remote sensing is the stand-off collection through the use of a variety of devices aboard on satellites for gathering information on a given object or area. The different kind of sensors used for the different applications are presented, as well as a list of products for a better monitoring and management of these topics. (Author) 3 refs.

  13. Analysis of asymmetries in air pollution with water resources, and energy consumption in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashouri, Mohammad Javad; Rafei, Meysam

    2018-04-17

    Iran should pay special attention to its excessive consumption of energy and air pollution due to the limited availability of water resources. This study explores the effects of the consumption of energy and water resources on air pollution in Iran from 1971 to 2014. It utilizes the non-linear autoregressive distributed lag approach to establish a robust relationship between the variables which show that both long- and short-run coefficients are asymmetrical. The positive and negative aspects of the long-run coefficients of energy consumption and water resources were found to be 0.19, - 1.63, 0.18, and 2.36, respectively, while only the negative ones were significant for energy consumption. Based on the cumulative effects, it can be established that there are important and significant differences in the responses of air pollution to positive and negative changes in water productivity and energy consumption. In particular, CO 2 gas emissions are affected by negative changes in H 2 O productivity both in terms of the total and the GDP per unit of energy use in Iran. In regard to short-run results, considerable asymmetric effects occur on all the variables for CO 2 emissions. Based on the results obtained, some recommendations are presented, which policymakers can adopt in efforts to address the issues of pollution and consumption.

  14. Risk-based water resources planning: Coupling water allocation and water quality management under extreme droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi-Naeini, M.; Bussi, G.; Hall, J. W.; Whitehead, P. G.

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of water companies is to have a reliable and safe water supply system. To fulfil their duty the water companies have to consider both water quality and quantity issues and challenges. Climate change and population growth will have an impact on water resources both in terms of available water and river water quality. Traditionally, a distinct separation between water quality and abstraction has existed. However, water quality can be a bottleneck in a system since water treatment works can only treat water if it meets certain standards. For instance, high turbidity and large phytoplankton content can increase sharply the cost of treatment or even make river water unfit for human consumption purposes. It is vital for water companies to be able to characterise the quantity and quality of water under extreme weather events and to consider the occurrence of eventual periods when water abstraction has to cease due to water quality constraints. This will give them opportunity to decide on water resource planning and potential changes to reduce the system failure risk. We present a risk-based approach for incorporating extreme events, based on future climate change scenarios from a large ensemble of climate model realisations, into integrated water resources model through combined use of water allocation (WATHNET) and water quality (INCA) models. The annual frequency of imposed restrictions on demand is considered as measure of reliability. We tested our approach on Thames region, in the UK, with 100 extreme events. The results show increase in frequency of imposed restrictions when water quality constraints were considered. This indicates importance of considering water quality issues in drought management plans.

  15. Enhancing participatory approach in water resources management: development of a survey to evaluate stakeholders needs and priorities related to software capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglia, L.; Rossetto, R.; Borsi, I.; Josef, S.; Boukalova, Z.; Triana, F.; Ghetta, M.; Sabbatini, T.; Bonari, E.; Cannata, M.; De Filippis, G.

    2016-12-01

    The EU H2020 FREEWAT project (FREE and open source software tools for WATer resource management) aims at simplifying the application of EU-water related Directives, by developing an open source and public domain, GIS-integrated platform for planning and management of ground- and surface-water resources. The FREEWAT platform is conceived as a canvas, where several distributed and physically-based simulation codes are virtually integrated. The choice of such codes was supported by the result of a survey performed by means of questionnaires distributed to 14 case study FREEWAT project partners and several stakeholders. This was performed in the first phase of the project within the WP 6 (Enhanced science and participatory approach evidence-based decision making), Task 6.1 (Definition of a "needs/tools" evaluation grid). About 30% among all the invited entities and institutions from several EU and non-EU Countries expressed their interest in contributing to the survey. Most of them were research institutions, government and geoenvironmental companies and river basin authorities.The result of the questionnaire provided a spectrum of needs and priorities of partners/stakeholders, which were addressed during the development phase of the FREEWAT platform. The main needs identified were related to ground- and surface-water quality, sustainable water management, interaction between groundwater/surface-water bodies, and design and management of Managed Aquifer Recharge schemes. Needs and priorities were then connected to the specific EU Directives and Regulations to be addressed.One of the main goals of the questionnaires was to collect information and suggestions regarding the use of existing commercial/open-source software tools to address needs and priorities, and regarding the needs to address specific water-related processes/problems.

  16. Hydroeconomic modeling to support integrated water resources management in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus

    resources. In this context, the PhD study focused on development of approaches to inform integrated water resources management to cope with multiple and coupled challenges faced in China. The proposed method is to formulate river water management as a joint hydroeconomic optimization problem that minimizes...... the system and allowed overdraft in dry years in return for increased recharge in wet years. Further, cost-effective recovery of an overdrafted groundwater aquifer was demonstrated. The third implementation assessed interactions of water resources and water quality management. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD...... problem with a single surface water reservoir state variable. A comparison of different management scenarios was used to evaluate how the South-to-North Water Transfer Project will impact optimal water resources management. Scenarios with unregulated groundwater pumping at realistic pumping costs verified...

  17. Water resources for Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Water scarcity is a matter of urgent, national, regional and international concern. For those people, usually women, who are responsible for the daily task of obtaining sufficient water for household use, water shortages are a perpetual worry. It is a situation which affects many individual families and communities throughout the arid and semi-arid regions of Africa. The isotope studies conducted thus far have proved that the majority of regional groundwater systems in northern Africa and the Sahel zone are paleowaters, replenished thousands of years ago, without the possibility of significant replenishment under present climatic conditions. Therefore, removal from such underground reservoirs will eventually deplete the resource. Mapping these paleowaters, and estimating their reservoir sizes, is a priority. (IAEA)

  18. Risk, Robustness and Water Resources Planning Under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgomeo, Edoardo; Mortazavi-Naeini, Mohammad; Hall, Jim W.; Guillod, Benoit P.

    2018-03-01

    Risk-based water resources planning is based on the premise that water managers should invest up to the point where the marginal benefit of risk reduction equals the marginal cost of achieving that benefit. However, this cost-benefit approach may not guarantee robustness under uncertain future conditions, for instance under climatic changes. In this paper, we expand risk-based decision analysis to explore possible ways of enhancing robustness in engineered water resources systems under different risk attitudes. Risk is measured as the expected annual cost of water use restrictions, while robustness is interpreted in the decision-theoretic sense as the ability of a water resource system to maintain performance—expressed as a tolerable risk of water use restrictions—under a wide range of possible future conditions. Linking risk attitudes with robustness allows stakeholders to explicitly trade-off incremental increases in robustness with investment costs for a given level of risk. We illustrate the framework through a case study of London's water supply system using state-of-the -art regional climate simulations to inform the estimation of risk and robustness.

  19. Southwest: a region under stress. [Analysis of environmental, resource-revenues, and water-resources issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.; Kneese, A.V.

    1978-05-01

    The southwestern states of New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, and Arizona share some of the nation's richest natural resources and the poorest people. One goal in the development of the area's resources will be to provide a means of raising the economic level of these people. Three major regional issues (environmental preservation, resource revenues, and water resources) must be faced in terms of the conflicting claims of the states involved. A summary of these issues illustrates the emotional and political strains that have developed. Justification for optimism is seen in the adaptability of new water users, the institutional evolution toward more flexibility in the water rights market, and the growing sophistication and assertiveness of interested parties determined to see that all positions are heard. 14 references.

  20. Water Market-scale Agricultural Planning: Promoting Competing Water Resource Use Efficiency Through Agro-Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorit, J. D.; Block, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Where strong water rights law and corresponding markets exist as a coupled econo-legal mechanism, water rights holders are permitted to trade allocations to promote economic water resource use efficiency. In locations where hydrologic uncertainty drives the assignment of annual per-water right allocation values by water resource managers, collaborative water resource decision making by water rights holders, specifically those involved in agricultural production, can result in both resource and economic Pareto efficiency. Such is the case in semi-arid North Chile, where interactions between representative farmer groups, treated as competitive bilateral monopolies, and modeled at water market-scale, can provide both price and water right allocation distribution signals for unregulated, temporary water right leasing markets. For the range of feasible per-water right allocation values, a coupled agricultural-economic model is developed to describe the equilibrium distribution of water, the corresponding market price of water rights and the net surplus generated by collaboration between competing agricultural uses. Further, this research describes a per-water right inflection point for allocations where economic efficiency is not possible, and where price negotiation among competing agricultural uses is required. An investigation of the effects of water right supply and demand inequality at the market-scale is completed to characterize optimal market performance under existing water rights law. The broader insights of this research suggest that water rights holders engaged in agriculture can achieve economic benefits from forming crop-type cooperatives and by accurately assessing the economic value of allocation.

  1. Sustainable water services and interaction with water resources in Europe and in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraqué, B.; Formiga Johnsson, R. M.; Britto, A. L.

    2007-09-01

    The increasing interaction between large cities and nature makes "urban water" an issue: water resources and water services - including public water supply, sewage collection and treatment, and in large cities, storm water control -, which had become separate issues thanks to the process of water transport and treatment technologies, are now increasingly interfering with each other. We cannot take nature for granted anymore, and we need to protect water resources, if only to reduce the long term cost of transporting and treating water. In this paper, we compare the historical development of water industry technologies in European and Brazilian metropolitan areas, in their socio-economic and political context, tracing it through three "ages" of water technology and services which developed under civil engineering, sanitary engineering, and environmental engineering perspectives: the "quantity of water" and civil engineering paradigm was developed on the assumption that water should be drawn from natural environments far from the cities; in the "water quality" and chemical/sanitation engineering paradigm, water treatment was invented and allowed cities to take water from rivers closer to them and treat it, but also to reduce sewer discharge impacts; finally, the environmental engineering paradigm proposes to overcome the supply side perspective, by introducing demand side management, water conservation, water allocation flexibilisation, and an integrated approach to water services, water resources management, and land use policies.

  2. Assessing water resources adaptive capacity to climate change impacts in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Hamlet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impacts in Pacific Northwest Region of North America (PNW are projected to include increasing temperatures and changes in the seasonality of precipitation (increasing precipitation in winter, decreasing precipitation in summer. Changes in precipitation are also spatially varying, with the northwestern parts of the region generally experiencing greater increases in cool season precipitation than the southeastern parts. These changes in climate are projected to cause loss of snowpack and associated streamflow timing shifts which will increase cool season (October–March flows and decrease warm season (April–September flows and water availability. Hydrologic extremes such as the 100 yr flood and extreme low flows are also expected to change, although these impacts are not spatially homogeneous and vary with mid-winter temperatures and other factors. These changes have important implications for natural ecosystems affected by water, and for human systems.

    The PNW is endowed with extensive water resources infrastructure and well-established and well-funded management agencies responsible for ensuring that water resources objectives (such as water supply, water quality, flood control, hydropower production, environmental services, etc. are met. Likewise, access to observed hydrological, meteorological, and climatic data and forecasts is in general exceptionally good in the United States and Canada, and is often supported by federally funded programs that ensure that these resources are freely available to water resources practitioners, policy makers, and the general public.

    Access to these extensive resources support the argument that at a technical level the PNW has high capacity to deal with the potential impacts of natural climate variability on water resources. To the extent that climate change will manifest itself as moderate changes in variability or extremes, we argue that existing water resources

  3. Assessing water resources adaptive capacity to climate change impacts in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, A. F.

    2011-05-01

    provide a reasonably solid foundation for coping with climate change impacts, and that the mandates of existing water resources policy and water resources management institutions are at least consistent with the fundamental objectives of climate change adaptation. A deeper inquiry into the underlying nature of PNW water resources systems, however, reveals significant and persistent obstacles to climate change adaptation, which will need to be overcome if effective use of the region's extensive water resources management capacity can be brought to bear on this problem. Primary obstacles include assumptions of stationarity as the fundamental basis of water resources system design, entrenched use of historical records as the sole basis for planning, problems related to the relatively short time scale of planning, lack of familiarity with climate science and models, downscaling procedures, and hydrologic models, limited access to climate change scenarios and hydrologic products for specific water systems, and rigid water allocation and water resources operating rules that effectively block adaptive response. Institutional barriers include systematic loss of technical capacity in many water resources agencies following the dam building era, jurisdictional fragmentation affecting response to drought, disconnections between water policy and practice, and entrenched bureaucratic resistance to change in many water management agencies. These factors, combined with a federal agenda to block climate change policy in the US during the Bush administration have (with some exceptions) contributed to widespread institutional "gridlock" in the PNW over the last decade or so despite a growing awareness of climate change as a significant threat to water management. In the last several years, however, significant progress has been made in surmounting some of these obstacles, and the region's water resources agencies at all levels of governance are making progress in addressing the fundamental

  4. Estimation of crop water requirements using remote sensing for operational water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliades, Lampros; Spiliotopoulos, Marios; Tzabiras, John; Loukas, Athanasios; Mylopoulos, Nikitas

    2015-06-01

    An integrated modeling system, developed in the framework of "Hydromentor" research project, is applied to evaluate crop water requirements for operational water resources management at Lake Karla watershed, Greece. The framework includes coupled components for operation of hydrotechnical projects (reservoir operation and irrigation works) and estimation of agricultural water demands at several spatial scales using remote sensing. The study area was sub-divided into irrigation zones based on land use maps derived from Landsat 5 TM images for the year 2007. Satellite-based energy balance for mapping evapotranspiration with internalized calibration (METRIC) was used to derive actual evapotranspiration (ET) and crop coefficient (ETrF) values from Landsat TM imagery. Agricultural water needs were estimated using the FAO method for each zone and each control node of the system for a number of water resources management strategies. Two operational strategies of hydro-technical project development (present situation without operation of the reservoir and future situation with the operation of the reservoir) are coupled with three water demand strategies. In total, eight (8) water management strategies are evaluated and compared. The results show that, under the existing operational water resources management strategies, the crop water requirements are quite large. However, the operation of the proposed hydro-technical projects in Lake Karla watershed coupled with water demand management measures, like improvement of existing water distribution systems, change of irrigation methods, and changes of crop cultivation could alleviate the problem and lead to sustainable and ecological use of water resources in the study area.

  5. Application of multiple objective models to water resources planning and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, we have seen the birth and growth of multiple objective analysis from an idea without tools to one with useful applications. Models have been developed and applications have been researched to address the multiple purposes and objectives inherent in the development and management of water resources. A practical approach to multiple objective modelling incorporates macroeconomic-based policies and expectations in order to optimize the results from both engineering (structural) and management (non-structural) alternatives, while taking into account the economic and environmental trade-offs. (author). 27 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Assessing Water and Carbon Footprints for Sustainable Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The key points of this presentation are: (1) Water footprint and carbon footprint as two sustainability attributes in adaptations to climate and socioeconomic changes, (2) Necessary to evaluate carbon and water footprints relative to constraints in resource capacity, (3) Critical...

  7. A vision for Water Resources Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    Water Resources Research (WRR) plays a leading role in advancing hydrologic science. As AGU's hydrology journal, WRR has nurtured and published major breakthroughs in hydrologic process understanding and prediction capabilities, accomplished through innovative measurement campaigns, novel data analysis techniques, and elegant computational methods. Developing synergies between process-oriented and applications-oriented science is becoming more important as large changes in coupled human-natural systems impose new stresses on hydrologic systems and create new needs for hydrologic process understanding and prediction. In this presentation I will summarize some major opportunities for WRR, such as the growth of interdisciplinary science and the need for greater international cooperation through sharing of data and model source codes. I will discuss these opportunities in the context of major external trends, especially (1) changes in the perceived value of science to address societal problems, (2) the explosive global growth in science over the past decade, and (3) the transition to a more diffuse publishing landscape. This presentation is intended to foster discussion on ways that WRR can enhance the quality and impact of hydrologic science.

  8. Science to support the understanding of Ohio's water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Kimberly; Kula, Stephanie; Bambach, Phil; Runkle, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Ohio’s water resources support a complex web of human activities and nature—clean and abundant water is needed for drinking, recreation, farming, and industry, as well as for fish and wildlife needs. The distribution of rainfall can cause floods and droughts, which affects streamflow, groundwater, water availability, water quality, recreation, and aquatic habitats. Ohio is bordered by the Ohio River and Lake Erie and has over 44,000 miles of streams and more than 60,000 lakes and ponds (State of Ohio, 1994). Nearly all the rural population obtain drinking water from groundwater sources. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) works in cooperation with local, State, and other Federal agencies, as well as universities, to furnish decisionmakers, policymakers, USGS scientists, and the general public with reliable scientific information and tools to assist them in management, stewardship, and use of Ohio’s natural resources. The diversity of scientific expertise among USGS personnel enables them to carry out large- and small-scale multidisciplinary studies. The USGS is unique among government organizations because it has neither regulatory nor developmental authority—its sole product is reliable, impartial, credible, relevant, and timely scientific information, equally accessible and available to everyone. The USGS Ohio Water Science Center provides reliable hydrologic and water-related ecological information to aid in the understanding of use and management of the Nation’s water resources, in general, and Ohio’s water resources, in particular. This fact sheet provides an overview of current (2012) or recently completed USGS studies and data activities pertaining to water resources in Ohio. More information regarding projects of the USGS Ohio Water Science Center is available at http://oh.water.usgs.gov/.

  9. Condition, use, and management of water resources among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study found that water supply in Harshin district is 100% surface water ... Besides, 76% of the respondents were not satisfied with the quality of drinking water. ... Key words: Water resources, pastoralists, rainwater, water-harvesting, gender ...

  10. Effect on water resources from upstream water diversion in the Ganges basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, M M

    2001-01-01

    Bangladesh faces at least 30 upstream water diversion constructions of which Farakka Barrage is the major one. The effects of Farakka Barrage on water resources, socioeconomy, and culture have been investigated downstream in the basins of the Ganges and its distributaries. A diversion of up to 60% of the Ganges water over 25 yr has caused (i) reduction of water in surface water resources, (ii) increased dependence on ground water, (iii) destruction of the breeding and raising grounds for 109 species of Gangetic fishes and other aquatic species and amphibians, (iv) increased malnutrition, (v) deficiency in soil organic matter content, (vi) change in the agricultural practices, (vii) eradication of inland navigable routes, (viii) outbreak of waterborne diseases, (ix) loss of professions, and (x) obstruction to religious observances and pastimes. Further, arsenopyrites buried in the prebarrage water table have come in contact with air and formed water-soluble compounds of arsenic. Inadequate recharging of ground water hinders the natural cleansing of arsenic, and threatens about 75,000,000 lives who are likely to use water contaminated with up to 2 mg/L of arsenic. Furthermore, the depletion of surface water resources has caused environmental heating and cooling effects. Apart from these effects, sudden releases of water by the barrage during the flood season cause devestating floods. In consideration of such a heavy toll for the areas downstream, strict international rules have to be laid down to preserve the riparian ecosystems.

  11. Transboundary Water Resources in Southern Africa: Conflict or cooperation?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Patrick, MJ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature suggests a linkage between internationally shared water resources and conflict potential. Anthony R. Turton, Marian J. Patrick and Frederic Julien examine transboundary water resource management in southern Africa, showing that empirical...

  12. Water resources data, Iowa, water year 2001, Volume 2. surface water--Missouri River basin, and ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalley, G.M.; Gorman, J.G.; Goodrich, R.D.; Miller, V.E.; Turco, M.J.; Linhart, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State, county, municipal, and other Federal agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Iowa each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make this data readily available to interested parties outside of the Geological Survey, the data is published annually in this report series entitled “Water Resources Data - Iowa” as part of the National Water Data System. Water resources data for water year 2001 for Iowa consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report, in two volumes, contains stage or discharge records for 132 gaging stations; stage records for 9 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality records for 4 gaging stations; sediment records for 13 gaging stations; and water levels for 163 ground-water observation wells. Also included are peak-flow data for 92 crest-stage partial-record stations, water-quality data from 86 municipal wells, and precipitation data collected at 6 gaging stations and 2 precipitation sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published here as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in Iowa.Records of discharge or stage of streams, and contents or stage of lakes and reservoirs were first published in a series of U.S. Geological Survey water-supply papers entitled “Surface Water Supply of the United States.” Through September 30, 1960, these water-supply papers were published in an annual series; during 1961-65 and 1966-70, they

  13. Sustainable water resources management in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Total river discharge in Pakistan in summer season vary from 3 thousand to 34 thousand cusses (100 thousand Cusses to 1,200 thousand Cusses) and can cause tremendous loss to human lives, crops and property, this causes the loss of most of the flood water in the lower Indus plains to the sea. Due to limited capacity of storage at Tarbela and Mangla Dams on river Indus and Jhelum, with virtually no control on Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej, devastating problems are faced between July and October in the event of excessive rainfall in the catchments. Due to enormous amounts of sediments brought in by the feeding rivers, the three major reservoirs -Tarbela, Mangla and Chashma will lose their storage capacity, by 25 % by the end of the year 2010, which will further aggravate the water-availability situation in Pakistan. The quality of water is also deteriorating due to urbanization and industrialization and agricultural developments. On the Environmental Front the main problems are water-logging and salinity, salt-imbalance, and increasing pollution of water-bodies. World's largest and most integrated system of irrigation was installed almost a hundred years ago and now its efficiency has been reduced to such an extent that more than 50 per cent of the irrigation-water is lost in transit and during application. On the other side, there are still not fully exploited water resources for example groundwater, the alluvial plains of Pakistan are blessed with extensive unconfined aquifer, with a potential of over 50 MAF, which is being exploited to an extent of about 38 MAF by over 562,000 private and 10,000 public tube-wells. In case of Balochistan, out of a total available potential of about 0.9 MAF of groundwater, over 0.5 MAF are already being utilized, but there by leaving a balance of about 0.4 MAF that can still be utilized. Future water resources management strategies should includes starting a mass-awareness campaign on a marshal scale in rural and urban areas to apply water

  14. Internet and mobile technologies: addressing the mental health of trauma survivors in less resourced communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzek, J I; Yeager, C M

    2017-01-01

    Internet and mobile technologies offer potentially critical ways of delivering mental health support in low-resource settings. Much evidence indicates an enormous negative impact of mental health problems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and many of these problems are caused, or worsened, by exposure to wars, conflicts, natural and human-caused disasters, and other traumatic events. Though specific mental health treatments have been found to be efficacious and cost-effective for low-resource settings, most individuals living in these areas do not have access to them. Low-intensity task-sharing interventions will help, but there is a limit to the scalability and sustainability of human resources in these settings. To address the needs of trauma survivors, it will be important to develop and implement Internet and mobile technology resources to help reduce the scarcity, inequity, and inefficiency of current mental health services in LMICs. Mobile and Internet resources are experiencing a rapid growth in LMICs and can help address time, stigma, and cost barriers and connect those who have been socially isolated by traumatic events. This review discusses current research in technological interventions in low-resource settings and outlines key issues and future challenges and opportunities. Though formidable challenges exist for large-scale deployment of mobile and Internet mental health technologies, work to date indicates that these technologies are indeed feasible to develop, evaluate, and deliver to those in need of mental health services, and that they can be effective.

  15. Addressing professional resource challenges facing modern utilities with technological solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldie, T. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Hodder, S. [GE Digital Energy, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The challenges facing electric utilities regarding a shortage of highly qualified labour to maintain, refurbish and expand electrical infrastructure can be attributed to a wave of retirements in skilled employees, a shortage of entry-level workers and a rapidly increasing workload caused by investment in electricity infrastructure. Two solutions were presented for finding and sustaining an adequate personnel base. The first involved developing local talent, both entry-level and mid-career staff to ensure that work continuity and workplace safety are maintained. The second involved the implementation of technological solutions to help optimize the use of existing and future labour resources. This paper presented the human resource programs developed by Hydro One, the largest electrical transmission and distribution utility in the province of Ontario. Their initiatives include raising the profile of the utility work environment through strategic partnerships with educational institutions and developing in house offerings to supplement existing academic programs. This paper also presented a technical solution to address the resources challenges specifically associated with power system protection and control. The solution targets professional and skilled trades involved in the design, installation and maintenance of automated substations and protection and control systems. It is based on the premise that resource optimization can be achieved by reducing inconsistent design and construction practices and replacing these designs with highly standardized materials with digital communications using IEC 61850. This new technology should attract young professionals to the power engineering field while still maintaining a high comfort level with the established professional workforce. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Challenges of Integrated Water Resources Management in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Fulazzaky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The increased demands for water and land in Indonesia as a consequence of the population growth and economic development has reportedly have been accelerated from the year to year. The spatial and temporal variability of human induced hydrological changes in a river basin could affect quality and quantity of water. The challenge is that integrated water resources management (IWRM should cope with complex issues of water in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner, without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. Even though the government of Indonesia has adopted new paradigm for water resources management by the enactment of Law No. 7/2004 on water resources, the implementation of IWRM may face the technical and managerial challenges. This paper briefly reviews the implementation of IWRM and related principles and provides an overview of potential water-related issues and progress towards implementation of IWRM in Indonesia. The availability of water and a broader range of water-related issues are identified. The recommended actions for improving the future IWRM are suggested. Challenges to improve the capacity buildings of IWRM related to enabling environment, institutional frameworks and management instruments are verified to contribute to the future directions for efficient problem-solving ability.

  17. Climate change and integrated water resources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiyan, Nurul Amin

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: In the Bangladesh Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRSP), Millennium Development Goals and other donor driven initiatives, two vital areas linked with poverty and ecosystem survival seem to be either missing or are being neglected: (a) transboundary water use and (b) coastal area poverty and critical ecosystems vulnerable due to climate change. Since the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) goals and PRSP are integrated, it is necessary that the countrys WSSD goals and PRSP should also be in harmony. All should give the recognition of Ganges Brahmaputra and Meghna as international basins and the approach should be taken for regional sustainable and integrated water resource management involving all co-riparian countries. The principle of low flow in the international rivers during all seasons should be ensured. All stakeholders should have a say and work towards regional cooperation in the water sector as a top priority. The energy sector should be integrated with water. The Indian River Linking project involving international rivers should be seriously discussed at all levels including the parliament so that voice of Bangladesh is concerted and information shared by all concerned. One of the most critical challenges Bangladesh faces is the management of water resources during periods of water excesses and acute scarcity. It is particularly difficult when only 7% of the catchments areas of the very international rivers, the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Meghna are in Bangladesh while 97% is outside Bangladesh where unfortunately, Bangladesh has no control on upstream diversion and water use. The UN Conference on Environment and Development in its Agenda 21 emphasizes the importance of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). The core point of IWRM is that is development of all aspects of entire basin in a basin wide approach, that all relevant agencies of the government and water users must be involved in the planning process and

  18. Research on evaluating water resource resilience based on projection pursuit classification model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Zhao, Dan; Liang, Xu; Wu, Qiuchen

    2016-03-01

    Water is a fundamental natural resource while agriculture water guarantees the grain output, which shows that the utilization and management of water resource have a significant practical meaning. Regional agricultural water resource system features with unpredictable, self-organization, and non-linear which lays a certain difficulty on the evaluation of regional agriculture water resource resilience. The current research on water resource resilience remains to focus on qualitative analysis and the quantitative analysis is still in the primary stage, thus, according to the above issues, projection pursuit classification model is brought forward. With the help of artificial fish-swarm algorithm (AFSA), it optimizes the projection index function, seeks for the optimal projection direction, and improves AFSA with the application of self-adaptive artificial fish step and crowding factor. Taking Hongxinglong Administration of Heilongjiang as the research base and on the basis of improving AFSA, it established the evaluation of projection pursuit classification model to agriculture water resource system resilience besides the proceeding analysis of projection pursuit classification model on accelerating genetic algorithm. The research shows that the water resource resilience of Hongxinglong is the best than Raohe Farm, and the last 597 Farm. And the further analysis shows that the key driving factors influencing agricultural water resource resilience are precipitation and agriculture water consumption. The research result reveals the restoring situation of the local water resource system, providing foundation for agriculture water resource management.

  19. Effective use of integrated hydrological models in basin-scale water resources management: surrogate modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Wu, B.; Wu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Integrated hydrological models (IHMs) consider surface water and subsurface water as a unified system, and have been widely adopted in basin-scale water resources studies. However, due to IHMs' mathematical complexity and high computational cost, it is difficult to implement them in an iterative model evaluation process (e.g., Monte Carlo Simulation, simulation-optimization analysis, etc.), which diminishes their applicability for supporting decision-making in real-world situations. Our studies investigated how to effectively use complex IHMs to address real-world water issues via surrogate modeling. Three surrogate modeling approaches were considered, including 1) DYCORS (DYnamic COordinate search using Response Surface models), a well-established response surface-based optimization algorithm; 2) SOIM (Surrogate-based Optimization for Integrated surface water-groundwater Modeling), a response surface-based optimization algorithm that we developed specifically for IHMs; and 3) Probabilistic Collocation Method (PCM), a stochastic response surface approach. Our investigation was based on a modeling case study in the Heihe River Basin (HRB), China's second largest endorheic river basin. The GSFLOW (Coupled Ground-Water and Surface-Water Flow Model) model was employed. Two decision problems were discussed. One is to optimize, both in time and in space, the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater for agricultural irrigation in the middle HRB region; and the other is to cost-effectively collect hydrological data based on a data-worth evaluation. Overall, our study results highlight the value of incorporating an IHM in making decisions of water resources management and hydrological data collection. An IHM like GSFLOW can provide great flexibility to formulating proper objective functions and constraints for various optimization problems. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that surrogate modeling approaches can pave the path for such incorporation in real

  20. Climate change and water resources in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnell, N.W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the potential implications of climate change for the use and management of water resources in Britain. It is based on a review of simulations of changes in river flows, groundwater recharge and river water quality. These simulations imply, under feasible climate change scenarios, that annual, winter and summer runoff will decrease in southern Britain, groundwater recharge will be reduced and that water quality - as characterised by nitrate concentrations and dissolved oxygen contents - will deteriorate. In northern Britain, river flows are likely to increase throughout the year, particularly in winter. Climate change may lead to increased demands for water, over and above that increase which is forecast for non-climatic reasons, primarily due to increased use for garden watering. These increased pressures on the water resource base will impact not only upon the reliability of water supplies, but also upon navigation, aquatic ecosystems, recreation and power generation, and will have implications for water management. Flood risk is likely to increase, implying a reduction in standards of flood protection. The paper discusses adaptation options. 39 refs., 5 figs

  1. Masteŕ s Programme at Stockholm University: Hydrology, Hydrogeology and Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarsjö, J.; Destouni, G.; Lyon, S. W.; Seibert, J.

    2009-04-01

    Many environmental risks and societal concerns are directly related to the way we manage our land and water environments. The two-year master's programme "Hydrology, Hydrogeology and Water Resources" at Stockholm University, Sweden, is based on a system perspective and provides extended knowledge about water and soil-rock-sediment systems and how these interact with each other and with land use, socio-economic and water resource policy and management systems. This water system perspective includes the spreading of dissolved substances and pollutants in various water systems and associated risks for society. Questions related to water resources are also covered: the management of water resources and conflicts as well as collaborations caused by shared water resources on local, regional and global scales. A common learning objective for the courses in the programme is to be able to identify, extract and combine relevant information from databases and scientific publications, and use the resulting dataset in hydrological, hydrogeological and water resources analyses, on local, regional or global levels. Traditional classroom teaching is to large extent complemented by case study analyses, performed as project assignments. The importance of water resources for both the society and the environment is emphasized through applications to practical water resources management challenges in society. The courses in this program include the following topics: · Hydrological and hydrogeological processes, main components of the water cycle (e.g., precipitation, evapotranspiration, discharge) and the spreading of dissolved substances and pollutants in various water systems. · Water resources and water quality, pollution spreading through surface, ground and coastal water systems, as well as vulnerability and resilience of water resources. · Regional analyses related to global water resource vulnerability and resilience. · Models and information systems as important tools for

  2. Water resources by orbital remote sensing: Examples of applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Selected applications of orbital remote sensing to water resources undertaken by INPE are described. General specifications of Earth application satellites and technical characteristics of LANDSAT 1, 2, 3, and 4 subsystems are described. Spatial, temporal and spectral image attributes of water as well as methods of image analysis for applications to water resources are discussed. Selected examples are referred to flood monitoring, analysis of water suspended sediments, spatial distribution of pollutants, inventory of surface water bodies and mapping of alluvial aquifers.

  3. Water-resources activities, North Dakota District, fiscal year 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cathy R.

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, is to provide the hydrologic information and understanding needed for the optimum utilization and management of the Nation's water resources for the overall benefit of the people of the United States. This report describes waterresources activities of the Water Resources Division in North Dakota in fiscal year 1990. Information on each project includes objectives, approach, progress in fiscal year 1990, plans for fiscal year 1991, completed and planned report products, and the name of the project chief.

  4. Modeling and analysis of collective management of water resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tilmant

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM recommends, among other things, that the management of water resources systems be carried out at the lowest appropriate level in order to increase the transparency, acceptability and efficiency of the decision-making process. Empowering water users and stakeholders transforms the decision-making process by enlarging the number of point of views that must be considered as well as the set of rules through which decisions are taken. This paper investigates the impact of different group decision-making approaches on the operating policies of a water resource. To achieve this, the water resource allocation problem is formulated as an optimization problem which seeks to maximize the aggregated satisfaction of various water users corresponding to different approaches to collective choice, namely the utilitarian and the egalitarian ones. The optimal operating policies are then used in simulation and compared. The concepts are illustrated with a multipurpose reservoir in Chile. The analysis of simulation results reveals that if this reservoir were to be managed by its water users, both approaches to collective choice would yield significantly different operating policies. The paper concludes that the transfer of management to water users must be carefully implemented if a reasonable trade-off between equity and efficiency is to be achieved.

  5. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin: Statewide project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Ohio each water year. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 131 streamflow-gaging stations, 95 miscellaneous sites; (2) stage and content records for 5 streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality for 40 streamflow-gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and (4) water levels for 431 observation wells.

  6. Isotope methods in water resources assessment and environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araguas-Araguas, L.

    1996-01-01

    Availability of water and protection of water resources have become top environmental issues in many countries. Governments are forced to issue strict guidelines to protect the environment and create agencies to pursue these aspects as well as enforce such regulations. The supply of good-quality water from rivers and lakes is becoming a costly and complex problem for many institutes responsible for water supply. Because of the high pollution levels in surface waters, ground water is the main source of drinking water in many countries. It is estimated that 1.5 billion people world-wide depend on it for drinking water. Since ground water cannot be directly measured, and despite its importance for drinking purposes there is not enough public concern about its protection. In other cases, it is found that the exploited ground water is not a renewable resource. In many countries in arid and semi-arid regions, fossil ground water is being tapped for extensive agricultural development, but such extraction depletes the reserves, in the same way as an oil reservoir. The availability of correct information, before decisions are taken will lead to improved management of water resources, distributing the available resources for different uses according to their quality, and ultimately, to manage the resource. Nuclear science has developed a series of methodologies based on the use of naturally-occurring isotopes and artificial tracers to study the processes involved in the occurrence and circulation of water. The discipline called 'Isotope Hydrology' provides a deep insight into many parts of the water cycle; from the evaporation over the ocean or the continents, to the formation of surface runoff and ground water and in the discharge of aquifer systems into the ocean. Isotope hydrology, as a scientific and applied discipline in earth sciences, was created during the late 1950s and early 1960s, beyond the classical hydrological science. In these early stages, new methodologies

  7. Estimating the Ground Water Resources of Atoll Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne E. Olsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground water resources of atolls, already minimal due to the small surface area and low elevation of the islands, are also subject to recurring, and sometimes devastating, droughts. As ground water resources become the sole fresh water source when rain catchment supplies are exhausted, it is critical to assess current groundwater resources and predict their depletion during drought conditions. Several published models, both analytical and empirical, are available to estimate the steady-state freshwater lens thickness of small oceanic islands. None fully incorporates unique shallow geologic characteristics of atoll islands, and none incorporates time-dependent processes. In this paper, we provide a review of these models, and then present a simple algebraic model, derived from results of a comprehensive numerical modeling study of steady-state atoll island aquifer dynamics, to predict the ground water response to changes in recharge on atoll islands. The model provides an estimate thickness of the freshwater lens as a function of annual rainfall rate, island width, Thurber Discontinuity depth, upper aquifer hydraulic conductivity, presence or absence of a confining reef flat plate, and in the case of drought, time. Results compare favorably with published atoll island lens thickness observations. The algebraic model is incorporated into a spreadsheet interface for use by island water resources managers.

  8. Research on the water resources regulation ability model of dams in the Huai He River Basin considering ecological and management factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Y.; Liu, H. C.; Li, L. H.; Yu, G. G.; Liu, J.

    2016-08-01

    Research that assesses the scheduling ability of dams gamers a great deal of attention due to the global water resource crisis. These studies can provide useful and practical suggestions for scheduling the water resources of dams to solve problems, such as addressing ecological water needs and so on. Recent studies have primarily evaluated the schedule ability of dams according to their quantifiable attributes, such as water quantity, flow velocity, etc. However, the ecological and management status can directly determine the possibility and efficiency of a dam's water resource scheduling. This paper presents an evaluation model to assess the scheduling capacity of dams that takes into consideration ecological and management factors. In the experiment stage, this paper takes the Sha Ying river of the Huai He River Basin as an example to evaluate the scheduling ability of its dams. The results indicate that the proposed evaluation model can provide more precise and practical suggestions.

  9. Water resources of the Lake Erie shore region in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, John William; Van Tuyl, Donald W.; White, Walter F.

    1952-01-01

    An abundant supply of water is available to the Lake Erie Shore region in Pennsylvania. Lake i£rie furnishes an almost inexhaustible supply of water of satisfactory chemical quality. Small quantities of water are available from small streams in the area and from the ground. A satisfactory water supply is one of the factors that affect the economic growth of a region. Cities and towns must have adequate amounts of pure water for human consumption. Industries must have suitable water ih sufficient quantities for all purposes. In order to assure. success and economy, the development of water resources should be based on adequate knowledge of the quantity and quality of the water. As a nation, we can not afford to run the risk of dissipating our resources, especially in times of national emergency, by building projects that are not founded on sound engineering and adequate water-resources information. The purpose of this report is to summarize and interpret all available water-resources information for the Lake Erie Shore region in Pennsylvania. The report will be useful for initial guidance in the location or expansion of water facilities for defense and nondefense industries and the municipalities upon which they are dependent. It will also be useful in evaluating the adequacy of the Geological Survey's part of the basic research necessary to plan the orderly development of the water resources of the Lake Erie Shore region. Most of the data contained inthis report have been obtained'by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Forests and Waters, the Pennsylvania Department of Internal Affairs, and the Pennsylvania State Planning Board, Department of Commerce. The Pennsylv~nia Department of Health furnished information on water pollution. The report was prepared in the Water Resources Division of the U. S. Geological Survey b:y John W. Mangan (Surface Water). Donald W. VanTuyl (Ground Water). and Walter F. White, Jr. (Quality of

  10. The use of coupled atmospheric and hydrological models for water-resources management in headwater basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavesley, G.; Hay, L.

    1998-01-01

    Coupled atmospheric and hydrological models provide an opportunity for the improved management of water resources in headwater basins. Issues currently limiting full implementation of coupled-model methodologies include (a) the degree of uncertainty in the accuracy of precipitation and other meteorological variables simulated by atmospheric models, and (b) the problem of discordant scales between atmospheric and bydrological models. Alternative methodologies being developed to address these issues are reviewed.

  11. Hydrogeology, water chemistry, and subsidence of underground coal mines at Huntsville, Missouri, July 1987 to December 1988. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blevins, D.W.; Ziegler, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    Underground coal mining in and near Huntsville, in Randolph County in north-central Missouri, began soon after 1831. Mining in the Huntsville area was at its peak during 1903 and continued until 1966 when the last underground mine was closed and the economically recoverable coals under Huntsville had been mostly, if not completely, removed. The now abandoned mines are of concern to the public and to various State and Federal agencies for two reasons: (1) mine drainage acidifies streams and leaves large, soft, dangerous deposits of iron oxyhydroxides at mine springs and on streambeds (data on file at the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Land Reclamation Commission), and (2) collapse of mine cavities sometimes causes surface subsidence resulting in property damage or personal injury. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, in 1987 initiated a study to: determine the location of mine springs, the seasonal variation of stream-water chemistry, and the effects of underground-mine water on flow and water quality of nearby ground water and receiving streams; and identify areas susceptible to surface subsidence because of mine collapse. The purpose of the report is to present the findings and data collected for the study

  12. MULTIPLE-PURPOSE DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    practices of cost allocations to various functions of the multiple-purpose development and calls for giving ... An appraisal of water resource must consider surface as well as ground water supplies in terms of location, .... as such a very satisfactory method of cost allocation that would be equally applicable to all projects and.

  13. A framework for unravelling the complexities of unsustainable water resource use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermody, Brian; Bierkens, Marc; Wassen, Martin; Dekker, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The majority of unsustainable water resource use is associated with food production, with the agricultural sector accounting for up to 70% of total freshwater use by humans. Water resource use in food production emerges as a result of dynamic interactions between humans and their environment in importing and exporting regions as well as the physical and socioeconomic trade infrastructure linking the two. Thus in order to understand unsustainable water resource use, it is essential to understand the complex socioecological food production and trade system. We present a modelling framework of the food production and trade system that facilitates an understanding of complex socioenvironmental processes that lead to unsustainable water resource use. Our framework is based on a coupling of the global hydrological model PC Raster Global Water Balance (PCR-GLOBWB) with a multi-agent socioeconomic food production and trade network. In our framework, agents perceive environmental conditions. They make food supply decisions based upon those perceptions and the heterogeneous socioeconomic conditions in which they exist. Agent decisions modify land and water resources. Those environmental changes feedback to influence decision making further. The framework presented has the potential to go beyond a diagnosis of the causes of unsustainable water resource and provide pathways towards a sustainable food system in terms of water resources.

  14. Review of Ghana's water resources: the quality and management with particular focus on freshwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeleliere, E.; Cobbina, S. J.; Duwiejuah, A. B.

    2018-06-01

    Freshwater resources are continually decreasing in quality and quantity. Approximately, 1% of this freshwater is accessible in lakes, river channels and underground for domestic use. The study reviewed literature on water resources with focus on freshwater, the quality of our freshwater in terms of physical, chemical and biological variables, the main mechanisms of management, and the challenges associated with these mechanisms as well as blending integrated water management with the indigenous or traditional management of water resources for sustainable development and peaceful co-existence. Also the review offered potent recommendations for policy makers to consider sustainable management of freshwater resources. A total of 95 articles were downloaded from Google scholar in water-related issues. The search took place from June to September 2017, and research articles from 1998 to 2018 were reviewed. Basically Ghana is made up of three discharge or outlet systems, namely the Coastal River Systems which is the least and Volta constituting the largest and with the South-Western been the intermediate. Also, freshwater resources usage can be put into two main categories, namely ex situ (withdrawal use) and in situ or in-stream use, and could also be referred to as the consumptive and non-consumptive use, respectively. With the exception of localised pollution engineered by illegal mining and other nuisance perpetuated by indigenes, the quality of water (surface and groundwater) in Ghana is generally better. The review outlined high microbial contamination of water as almost all surface waters are contaminated with either E. coli, faecal coliforms or total coliforms or all. However, these contaminations were more prevalent in surface water than groundwater.

  15. Nuclear contamination of water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The impact of the Chernobyl accident throughout Europe has been highly variable and wide-ranging, and has demonstrated the need to evaluate potential risk to drinking water supplies, soil water and the food chain. This book provides information on radiological standards as they exist at present, methods of monitoring, and concepts in design to minimize risk and to highlight possible consequences of a nuclear event. With contributions from engineers and scientists from eight countries, this book includes comprehensive coverage of the effects on water resources of, and deals with the development of management strategies designed to cope with, a nuclear event. (author)

  16. Integrated water resources management and infrastructure planning for water security in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapani, Benjamin; Magole, Lapologang; Makurira, Hodson; Meck, Maideyi; Mkandawire, Theresa; Mul, Marloes; Ngongondo, Cosmo

    2017-08-01

    This volume has brought together papers that are peer reviewed emanating from the WaterNet/WARFSA/GWP-SA 16th Symposium. The papers cover the following themes: Hydrology, Water and Environment, Water and Land, Water and Society, Water Supply and Sanitation and Water Resources Management.

  17. Investigation on Reservoir Operation of Agricultural Water Resources Management for Drought Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Investigation on Reservoir Operation of Agricultural Water Resources Management for Drought Mitigation Chung-Lien Cheng, Wen-Ping Tsai, Fi-John Chang* Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Da-An District, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC.Corresponding author: Fi-John Chang (changfj@ntu.edu.tw) AbstractIn Taiwan, the population growth and economic development has led to considerable and increasing demands for natural water resources in the last decades. Under such condition, water shortage problems have frequently occurred in northern Taiwan in recent years such that water is usually transferred from irrigation sectors to public sectors during drought periods. Facing the uneven spatial and temporal distribution of water resources and the problems of increasing water shortages, it is a primary and critical issue to simultaneously satisfy multiple water uses through adequate reservoir operations for sustainable water resources management. Therefore, we intend to build an intelligent reservoir operation system for the assessment of agricultural water resources management strategy in response to food security during drought periods. This study first uses the grey system to forecast the agricultural water demand during February and April for assessing future agricultural water demands. In the second part, we build an intelligent water resources system by using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II), an optimization tool, for searching the water allocation series based on different water demand scenarios created from the first part to optimize the water supply operation for different water sectors. The results can be a reference guide for adequate agricultural water resources management during drought periods. Keywords: Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II); Grey System; Optimization; Agricultural Water Resources Management.

  18. INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGES ON WATER RESOURCES IN MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Ivanov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the current state of affairs with water resources in Moldova, the challenges it faces for its national human and economic development, having in mind that the water resources are quite limited in Moldova, which encounters pollution, degradation influenced by climate change and unwise human activity to their biodiversity and ecosystems, availability and accessibility. It also attempts to highlight the relationship between climate change and water resources in Moldova, which has adverse effects on both environment and people’s health, and raise significant hurdles to the international, regional and sectoral development.

  19. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-04-14

    China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China's future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km(3)/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%.

  20. Comprehensive benefit analysis of regional water resources based on multi-objective evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yixia; Xue, Lianqing; Zhang, Hui

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the water resources comprehensive benefits analysis is to maximize the comprehensive benefits on the aspects of social, economic and ecological environment. Aiming at the defects of the traditional analytic hierarchy process in the evaluation of water resources, it proposed a comprehensive benefit evaluation of social, economic and environmental benefits index from the perspective of water resources comprehensive benefit in the social system, economic system and environmental system; determined the index weight by the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP), calculated the relative index of water resources comprehensive benefit and analyzed the comprehensive benefit of water resources in Xiangshui County by the multi-objective evaluation model. Based on the water resources data in Xiangshui County, 20 main comprehensive benefit assessment factors of 5 districts belonged to Xiangshui County were evaluated. The results showed that the comprehensive benefit of Xiangshui County was 0.7317, meanwhile the social economy has a further development space in the current situation of water resources.

  1. Senegal - Irrigation and Water Resource Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — IMPAQ: This evaluation report presents findings from the baseline data collected for the Irrigation and Water Resources Management (IWRM) project, which serves as...

  2. Overview of water resource assessment in South Africa: Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overview of water resource assessment in South Africa: Current state and future challenges. ... These studies illustrate how the exponential growth in computer power and the concomitant development of highly sophisticated tools have changed the manner in which our water resources have been appraised, allowing us to ...

  3. Integrated and Adaptive Management of Water Resources: Tensions, Legacies, and the Next Best Thing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan L. Engle

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated water resources management (IWRM and adaptive management (AM are two institutional and management paradigms designed to address shortcomings within water systems governance; the limits of hierarchical water institutional arrangements in the case of IWRM and the challenge of making water management decisions under uncertainty in the case of AM. Recently, there has been a trend to merge these paradigms to address the growing complexity of stressors shaping water management such as globalization and climate change. However, because many of these joint approaches have received little empirical attention, questions remain about how they might work, or not, in practice. Here, we explore a few of these issues using empirical research carried out in Brazil. We focus on highlighting the potentially negative interactions, tensions, and trade-offs between different institutions/mechanisms perceived as desirable as research and practice attempt to make water systems management simultaneously integrated and adaptive. Our examples pertain mainly to the use of techno-scientific knowledge in water management and governance in Brazil's IWRM model and how it relates to participation, democracy, deliberation, diversity, and adaptability. We show that a legacy of technical and hierarchical management has shaped the integration of management, and subsequently, the degree to which management might also be adaptive. Although integrated systems may be more legitimate and accountable than top-down command and control ones, the mechanisms of IWRM may be at odds with the flexible, experimental, and self-organizing nature of AM.

  4. Recovery of uranium resources from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurushima, Morihiro

    1980-01-01

    After the oil crisis in 1973, the development of atomic energy has become important as substitute energy, and the stable acquisition of uranium resources is indispensable, in order to promote smoothly the use of atomic energy. The Ministry of International Trade and Industry has engaged actively in the project ''The survey on the technical development of the system for recovering uranium and others from sea water'' since 1974. 80% of the uranium resources in the world is distributed in USA, Canada, South Africa, Australia and Niger, and in near future, the price of uranium ores may be raised. Japan must promote powerfully the development of foreign uranium resources, but also it is very important to get domestic uranium by efficiently recovering the uranium dissolved in sea water, the amount of which was estimated at 4 billion tons, and its practical use is expected in 1990s. The uranium concentration in sea water is about 3 g in 1000 t sea water. The processes of separation and recovery are as follows: (1) adsorption of uranium to titanic acid powder adsorbent by bringing sea water in contact with it, (2) dissolving the collected uranium with ammonium carbonate, the desorption agent, (3) concentration of uranium solution by ion exchange method or ion flotation method to 2800 ppm. The outline of the model plant is explained. (Kako, I.)

  5. Dynamic Coupling Analysis of Urbanization and Water Resource Utilization Systems in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailiang Ma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available While urbanization brings economic and social benefits, it also causes water pollution and other environmental ecological problems. This paper provides a theoretical framework to quantitatively analyze the dynamic relationship between water resource utilization and the process of urbanization. Using data from Jiangsu province, we first construct indices to evaluate urbanization and water resource utilization. We then adopt an entropy model to examine the correlation between urbanization and water resource utilization. In addition, we introduce a dynamic coupling model to analyze and predict the coupling degree between urbanization and water resource utilization. Our analyses show that pairing with rising urbanization during 2002–2014, the overall index of water resource utilization in Jiangsu province has experienced a “decline -rise-decline” trend. Specifically, after the index of water resource utilization reached its lowest point in 2004, it gradually began to rise. Water resource utilization reached its highest value in 2010. The coupling degree between urbanization and water resource utilization was relatively low in 2002 and 2003 varying between −90° and 0°. It has been rising since then. Out-of-sample forecasts indicate that the coupling degree will reach its highest value of 74.799° in 2016, then will start to gradually decline. Jiangsu province was chosen as our studied area because it is one of the selected pilot provinces for China’s economic reform and social development. The analysis of the relationship between provincial water resource utilization and urbanization is essential to the understanding of the dynamic relationship between these two systems. It also serves as an important input for developing national policies for sustainable urbanization and water resource management.

  6. Assessing the effects of adaptation measures on optimal water resources allocation under varied water availability conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dedi; Guo, Shenglian; Shao, Quanxi; Liu, Pan; Xiong, Lihua; Wang, Le; Hong, Xingjun; Xu, Yao; Wang, Zhaoli

    2018-01-01

    Human activities and climate change have altered the spatial and temporal distribution of water availability which is a principal prerequisite for allocation of different water resources. In order to quantify the impacts of climate change and human activities on water availability and optimal allocation of water resources, hydrological models and optimal water resource allocation models should be integrated. Given that increasing human water demand and varying water availability conditions necessitate adaptation measures, we propose a framework to assess the effects of these measures on optimal allocation of water resources. The proposed model and framework were applied to a case study of the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River Basin in China. Two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP4.5) were employed to project future climate, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model was used to simulate the variability of flows under historical (1956-2011) and future (2012-2099) conditions. The water availability determined by simulating flow with the VIC hydrological model was used to establish the optimal water resources allocation model. The allocation results were derived under an extremely dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 95%), a very dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 90%), a dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 75%), and a normal year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 50%) during historical and future periods. The results show that the total available water resources in the study area and the inflow of the Danjiangkou Reservoir will increase in the future. However, the uneven distribution of water availability will cause water shortage problems, especially in the boundary areas. The effects of adaptation measures, including water saving, and dynamic control of flood limiting water levels (FLWLs) for reservoir operation, were

  7. Sustainability Analysis of the Water Resources and Supply of the Vieux Fort Region of Saint Lucia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, D.; Johnson, B.; Morgan, F.

    2005-05-01

    In the Vieux Fort region of the Caribbean island of St. Lucia, water needs are becoming acute. The water supply shortfalls during the dry season will continue to grow as population and development increase, unless action is taken. Actions to address the problem should include measures to optimize the present water delivery system and the development of a new supply, through new intakes, groundwater, or reservoir construction. An investigation into the potential for groundwater resources using electrical resistivity soundings indicated a likely pervasive, shallow aquitard of clay materials below the water table; the shallowness of this aquitard virtually precludes the existence of productive perched aquifers. Consequently, a model of Grande Riviere du Vieux Fort (Big Vieux Fort River) seasonal surface-water flow was developed, based on a digital elevation model and rainfall data, allowing us to analyze the possible productivity of any new intakes placed along the river. A specific site downstream of the present intake was recommended for potential development. Recommendations were given for short, medium and long-term development of the resources and supply of the Vieux Fort region of southern St. Lucia.

  8. Relationships demand-supply of water and the rate of water shortage as tools for evaluating water resources in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Calle, Efrain Antonio; Gonzalo Rivera, Hebert; Vanegas, Sarmiento Raquel; Moreno, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows updated results about Colombian water resources and their requirements by the economic sectors. Water demand water availability relationship is used as a pressure index on water resources. This relationship is expressed through the water scarcity index, which applies constraints over water availability; due to the runoff temporal variability and to the low levels of water during the dry season each year and for each geographic region to characterize average and low runoff years. Different water availability scenarios were building. One for modal runoff values and another for 95 percents for 2025 also were prepared. To the results call our attention to problems caused by the concentration of high density settlements and the presence of economics sectors in regions with low water availability. The infrastructure lag for management of a scarce high variable and over pressured resources emerges as a key factor to avoid a looming crisis in the process of water management

  9. A Resource Curriculum in Public Address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Richard F.

    Developed as part of a series of teacher resource curriculum units in communication arts, this resource unit on public speaking includes several components organized for direct teacher use. The seven units that are offered include introduction to public communication, delivery, language, organization, speaking to share information, speaking to…

  10. Water, Politics and Development: Framing a Political Sociology of Water Resources Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollinga, P.P.; Bhat, A.; Cleaver, F.; Meinzen-Dick, R.; Molle, F.; Neef, A.; Subramanian, S.; Wester, P.

    2008-01-01

    EDITORIAL PREAMBLE: The first issue of Water Alternatives presents a set of papers that investigates the inherently political nature of water resources management. A Water, Politics and Development initiative was started at ZEF (Center for Development Research, Bonn, Germany) in 2004/2005 in the

  11. Managing Climate Risk to Agriculture and Water Resources in South ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Managing Climate Risk to Agriculture and Water Resources in South Africa ... to better integrate information on climate change and climate variability into water resources policy, planning and management. ... University of the Free State.

  12. Development of water resources management in Iraq and its obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawad, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Iraq witnessed recently a considerable development in the field of water resources management to go along with developed countries. Latest technology has been introduced in hydrology monitoring. Many stations for water measuring and monitoring have been constructed beside many irrigation and drainage canals in order to reach an optimum irrigation system. A special emphasis has been put on the role of nuclear techniques in enhancing the water resources management development. These techniques will provide the perfect opportunity for investing water and drained quantities and determining pollution resources to insure the sustainability of the agricultural sector without threatening the development processes. This development encounters the lack of knowledge of technology applied in the field of the use of peaceful atomic energy and nuclear technologies, which are essential in sustaining the momentum in the management of water resources, despite the entry of the latest developed devices and technologies in measurements and monitoring. (author)

  13. Modeling water resources as a constraint in electricity capacity expansion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmark, R. L.; Macknick, J.; Cohen, S.; Tidwell, V. C.; Woldeyesus, T.; Martinez, A.

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, the electric power sector is the largest withdrawer of freshwater in the nation. The primary demand for water from the electricity sector is for thermoelectric power plant cooling. Areas likely to see the largest near-term growth in population and energy usage, the Southwest and the Southeast, are also facing freshwater scarcity and have experienced water-related power reliability issues in the past decade. Lack of water may become a barrier for new conventionally-cooled power plants, and alternative cooling systems will impact technology cost and performance. Although water is integral to electricity generation, it has long been neglected as a constraint in future electricity system projections. Assessing the impact of water resource scarcity on energy infrastructure development is critical, both for conventional and renewable energy technologies. Efficiently utilizing all water types, including wastewater and brackish sources, or utilizing dry-cooling technologies, will be essential for transitioning to a low-carbon electricity system. This work provides the first demonstration of a national electric system capacity expansion model that incorporates water resources as a constraint on the current and future U.S. electricity system. The Regional Electricity Deployment System (ReEDS) model was enhanced to represent multiple cooling technology types and limited water resource availability in its optimization of electricity sector capacity expansion to 2050. The ReEDS model has high geographic and temporal resolution, making it a suitable model for incorporating water resources, which are inherently seasonal and watershed-specific. Cooling system technologies were assigned varying costs (capital, operations and maintenance), and performance parameters, reflecting inherent tradeoffs in water impacts and operating characteristics. Water rights supply curves were developed for each of the power balancing regions in ReEDS. Supply curves include costs

  14. Conversion of Blue Water into Green Water for Improving Utilization Ratio of Water Resources in Degraded Karst Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation deterioration and soil loss are the main causes of more precipitation leakages and surface water shortages in degraded karst areas. In order to improve the utilization of water resources in such regions, water storage engineering has been considered; however, site selection and cost associated with the special karstic geological structure have made this difficult. According to the principle of the Soil Plant Atmosphere Continuum, increasing both vegetation cover and soil thickness would change water cycle process, resulting in a transformation from leaked blue water (liquid form into green water (gas or saturated water form for terrestrial plant ecosystems, thereby improving the utilization of water resources. Using the Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer model and the geographical distributed approach, this study simulated the conversion from leaked blue water (leakage into green water in the environs of Guiyang, a typical degraded karst area. The primary results were as follows: (1 Green water in the area accounted for <50% of precipitation, well below the world average of 65%; (2 Vegetation growth played an important role in converting leakage into green water; however, once it increased to 56%, its contribution to reducing leakage decreased sharply; (3 Increasing soil thickness by 20 cm converted the leakage considerably. The order of leakage reduction under different precipitation scenarios was dry year > normal year > rainy year. Thus, increased soil thickness was shown effective in improving the utilization ratio of water resources and in raising the amount of plant ecological water use; (4 The transformation of blue water into green water, which avoids constructions of hydraulic engineering, could provide an alternative solution for the improvement of the utilization of water resources in degraded karst area. Although there are inevitable uncertainties in simulation process, it has important significance for overcoming similar

  15. Isotope techniques in water resources development and management. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The 10th International Symposium on Isotope Techniques in Water Resources Development and Management was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency in co-operation with UNESCO, WMO and International Association of Hydrological Sciences and was held at IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, during 10-14 May 1999. The symposium provided an international forum for assessing the status and recent advances in isotope applications to water resources and an exchange of information on the following main themes: processes at the interface between the atmosphere and hydrosphere; investigations in surface waters and groundwaters: their origin, dynamics, interrelations; problems and techniques for investigating sedimentation; water resources issues: pollution, source and transport of contaminants, salinization, water-rock interaction and processes in geothermal systems; isotope data interpretation and evaluation methodologies: modelling approaches. The proceedings contain the 46 papers presented and extended synopses of poster presentations; each of them was indexed individually

  16. Summary of technical information and agreements from Nuclear Management and Resources Council industry reports addressing license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, C.; Lee, S.

    1996-10-01

    In about 1990, the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) submitted for NRC review ten industry reports (IRs) addressing aging issues associated with specific structures and components of nuclear power plants ad one IR addressing the screening methodology for integrated plant assessment. The NRC staff had been reviewing the ten NUMARC IRs; their comments on each IR and NUMARC responses to the comments have been compiled as public documents. This report provides a brief summary of the technical information and NUMARC/NRC agreements from the ten IRs, except for the Cable License Renewal IR. The technical information and agreements documented herein represent the status of the NRC staffs review when the NRC staff and industry resources were redirected to address rule implementation issues. The NRC staff plans to incorporate appropriate technical information and agreements into the draft standard review plan for license renewal

  17. Conflicts Over Water as a Resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooksey, James

    2008-01-01

    .... A specific element that operational planners must consider when assessing political and military objectives of belligerents, and how those objectives may shape military operations, is water as a natural resource...

  18. Army Corps of Engineers: Water Resource Authorizations, Appropriations, and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-27

    eight divisions that are further divided into 38 districts.2 This report provides an overview of the Corps water resource activities , including...rules associated with authorization and appropriation earmarks, individual Members often brought attention to similar activities for congressional...Army Corps of Engineers: Water Resource Authorizations, Appropriations, and Activities Nicole T. Carter Specialist in Natural Resources Policy

  19. 30 CFR 402.6 - Water-Resources Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... productivity of water when used for agricultural, municipal, and commercial purposes; and (8) The economic, legal, engineering, social, recreational, biological, geographic, ecological, and other aspects of water... interpreting the results of scientific and engineering research on water-resources problems. (10) Providing...

  20. Addressing the Resource Requirements Mismatch

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braun, William

    2003-01-01

    ... on the other, appear to be developing a requirements-resource mismatch. The goals and objectives of the transformation rhetoric intuitively resonate with the military's increasingly technologic culture...

  1. Reservoirs operation and water resources utilization coordination in Hongshuihe basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chonghao; Chi, Kaige; Pang, Bo; Tang, Hongbin

    2018-06-01

    In the recent decade, the demand for water resources has been increasing with the economic development. The reservoirs of cascade hydropower stations in Hongshuihe basin, which are constructed with a main purpose of power generation, are facing more integrated water resources utilization problem. The conflict between power generation of cascade reservoirs and flood control, shipping, environmental protection and water supply has become increasingly prominent. This paper introduces the general situation and integrated water demand of cascade reservoirs in Hongshuihe basin, and it analyses the impact of various types of integrated water demand on power generation and supply. It establishes mathematic models, constrained by various types of integrated water demand, to guide the operation and water resources utilization management of cascade reservoirs in Hongshuihe basin. Integrated water coordination mechanism of Hongshuihe basin is also introduced. It provides a technical and management guide and demonstration for cascade reservoirs operation and integrated water management at home and abroad.

  2. Climate change: Implications for water and ecological resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, G.; Sanderson, M.

    1990-01-01

    A conference was held to discuss the implications of climate change on water and ecological resources. The meeting consisted of a number of plenary sessions, luncheon speeches, an open forum, and five workshops. Presentations concerned regional and global issues, climate modelling, international aspects of climate change, water resources supply and demand, wetlands, wildlife and fisheries, agriculture and forests, and conservation strategies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 32 presentations from the conference

  3. Analysis of Water Resources Supply and Demand and Security of Water Resources Development in Irrigation Regions of the Middle Reaches of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Xi-bin; KANG Er-si; CHEN Ren-sheng; ZHAO Wen-zhi; XIAO Sheng-chun; JIN Bo-wen

    2006-01-01

    Based on the data for meteorology, hydrology, soil, planting, vegetation, and socio-economic development of the irrigation region in the middle reaches of the Heihe River basin, Northwest China, the model of balance of water supply and demand in the region was established, and the security of water resource was assessed, from which the results that the effects of unified management of water resources in the Heihe River basin between Gansu Province and Inner Mongolia on regional hydrology are significant with a decrease in water supply diverted from Heihe River and an increase in groundwater extracted. In addition, it was found that the groundwater level has been steadily decreasing due to over pumping and decrease in recharges. In present year (2003), the volume of potential groundwater in the irrigation districts is far small because of the groundwater overdraft; even in the particular regions, there is no availability of groundwater resources for use. By 2003, water supply is not sufficient to meet the water demand in the different irrigation districts, the sustainable development and utilization of water resources are not secured, and the water supply crisis occurs in Pingchuan irrigation district. Achieving water security for the sustainable development of society, agriculture, economy, industry, and livelihoods while maintaining or improving the abilities of the management and planning of water resources, determining of the reasonable percentage between water supply and groundwater utilization and water saving in agricultural irrigation are taken into account. If this does not occur, it is feared that the present performance of water development and planning may further aggravate the problem of scarcities of water resources and further damage the fragile ecological system.

  4. Leveraging Earth Observations to Improve Data Resolution and Tracking of Sustainable Development Goals in Water Resources and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Nusrat, F.; Hasan, M. A.; Fallatah, O.

    2017-12-01

    Water scarcity affects more than 40 per cent of the world population and is projected to rise substantially, affecting safe water and sanitation access globally. The recently released WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) 2017 report on global water and sanitation access paints a grim picture across the planet; approximately 30% people worldwide, or 2.1 billion, still lack access to safe, readily available clean water, and 60% people worldwide, or 4.5 billion ppl, lack safely managed sanitation. Meanwhile, demand for water and competition for water resources are sharply rising amid growing uncertainty of climate change and its impacts on water resources. The United Nations Agenda 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for substantially increasing water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensuring sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity, providing clean water and sanitation for all, increasing international cooperation over transboundary surface and groundwater resources (under Goal 6), as well as ending preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, and end the epidemics of neglected tropical and water-borne diseases (under Goal 3). Data availability in developing regions, especially at the appropriate resolution in both space and time, has been a recurring problem for various technological and institutional reasons. Earth observation techniques provide the most cost-effective and encompassing tool to monitor these regions, large transboundary river basins and aquifer systems, and water resources vulnerabilities to climate change around the globe. University of Rhode Island, with US and international collaborators, is using earth observations to develop tools to analyze, monitor and support decision-makers to track their progress towards SDGs with better data resolution and accuracy. Here, we provide case studies on 1) providing safe water and sanitation access South Asia through safe water

  5. Climatic changes and water resources in the Middle East and North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zereini, Fathi [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences; Hoetzl, Heinz (eds.) [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Inst. Geologie

    2008-07-01

    ''Climatic Change and Water Resources in the Middle East and North Africa'' is dedicated to high-priority topics related to the impact of climate change on water resources in a water scarce region. The subject is described and discussed in three main chapters and different case studies. The three main chapters are (1) Climatic changes - sources and effects on the water cycle, (2) Impact of climate change on water resources, (3) Water resources and water management. These chapters are split up into further 26 sections. A total of 64 individuals from many countries have made contributions to this book. All topics in this book are complimentary and contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the interactions between global climate change, world water cycle and water resources. A valuable and meaningful interdisciplinary mixture of topics is combined in this book which will be of great interest to many scientists. (orig.)

  6. The perceptions of research values and priorities in water resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-29

    Jun 29, 2011 ... clear strengths in water resource management in southern Africa were identified, we found that ... and cross-sector collaboration in integrated water resource .... the 2 views that topped the list were the 'implementation and.

  7. Climate impact on BC Hydro's water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.; Rodenhuis, D.

    2008-01-01

    BC Hydro like many other hydro utilities has used the historical record of weather and runoff as the standard description the variability and uncertainty of the key weather drivers for its operation and planning studies. It has been conveniently assumed that this historical record is or has been statistically stationary and therefore is assumed to represent the future characteristics of climatic drivers on our system. This assumption is obviously no longer justifiable. To address the characterisation of future weather, BC Hydro has a multi-year a directed research program with the Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium to evaluate the impacts of climate change on the water resources that BC Hydro manages for hydropower generation and other uses. The objective of this program is to derive climate change adjusted meteorologic and hydrologic sequences suitable for use in system operations and planning studies. These climate-adjusted sequences then can be used to test system sensitivity to climate change scenarios relative to the baseline of the historical record. This paper describes BC Hydro's research program and the results achieved so far. (author)

  8. The Water-Energy-Food Nexus in a Rapidly Developing Resource Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. M.; Kirste, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Technological advances and access to global markets have changed the rate at which resource exploitation takes place. The environmental impact of the rapid development and distribution of resources such as minerals and hydrocarbons has led to a greater potential for significant stress on water resources both in terms of quality and quantity. How and where those impacts manifest is crucial to determining appropriate risk management strategies. North East British Columbia has an abundance of shale gas reserves that are anticipated to be exploited at a large scale in coming years, primarily for export as liquefied natural gas (LNG). However, there is growing concern that fracking and other activities related to shale gas development pose risks to water quality and quantity in the region. Water lies at the center of the water-energy-food nexus, with an accelerating water demand for fracking and industrial operations as well as for domestic, environmental and agricultural uses. Climate change is also anticipated to alter the hydrologic regime, posing added stress to the water resource. This case study examines the water-energy-food nexus in the context of a region that is impacted by a rapidly developing resource sector, encompassing water demand/supply, climate change, interaction between deep aquifers and shallow aquifers/surface waters, water quality concerns related to fracking, land use disturbance, and community impacts. Due to the rapid rate of development, there are significant knowledge gaps in our understanding of the water resource. Currently agencies are undertaking water resource assessments and establishing monitoring sites. This research aims to assess water security in North East British Columbia in a coordinated fashion through various partnerships. In addition to collecting baseline knowledge and data, the study will evaluate risk and resilience indicators in relation to water security. A risk assessment framework specific to the shale gas development

  9. Papers of the CWRA climate change symposium : understanding climate change impacts on Manitoba's water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This symposium provided an opportunity for discussions on climate change issues with particular reference to the impacts on Manitoba's water resources. The presentations addressed issues of importance to governments, scientists, academics, managers, consultants and the general public. Topics of discussion ranged from climate change impacts on water quality, wetlands, hydropower, fisheries and drought, to adaptation to climate change. Recent advances in global and regional climate modelling were highlighted along with paleo-environmental indicators of climate change. The objective was to provide a better understanding of the science of climate change. The conference featured 16 presentations of which 1 was indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  10. China's water scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong

    2009-08-01

    China has been facing increasingly severe water scarcity, especially in the northern part of the country. China's water scarcity is characterized by insufficient local water resources as well as reduced water quality due to increasing pollution, both of which have caused serious impacts on society and the environment. Three factors contribute to China's water scarcity: uneven spatial distribution of water resources; rapid economic development and urbanization with a large and growing population; and poor water resource management. While it is nearly impossible to adjust the first two factors, improving water resource management represents a cost-effective option that can alleviate China's vulnerability to the issue. Improving water resource management is a long-term task requiring a holistic approach with constant effort. Water right institutions, market-based approaches, and capacity building should be the government's top priority to address the water scarcity issue.

  11. Near real time water resources data for river basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Twenty Data Collection Platforms (DCP) are being field installed on USGS water resources stations in the Delaware River Basin. DCP's have been successfully installed and are operating well on five stream gaging stations, three observation wells, and one water quality monitor in the basin. DCP's have been installed at nine additional water quality monitors, and work is progressing on interfacing the platforms to the monitors. ERTS-related water resources data from the platforms are being provided in near real time, by the Goddard Space Flight Center to the Pennsylvania district, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. On a daily basis, the data are computer processed by the Survey and provided to the Delaware River Basin Commission. Each daily summary contains data that were relayed during 4 or 5 of the 15 orbits made by ERTS-1 during the previous day. Water resources parameters relays by the platforms include dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature, pH, specific conductance, well level, and stream gage height, which is used to compute stream flow for the daily summary.

  12. Water Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding Project Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synoptic sites, and partial-record sit -aid (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake-and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures 8a through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two or three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  13. Groundwater resources in Southern and Eastern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Water shortage, water quality, and the protection of investments in water supply, are of continuing concern to countries in Africa. As more countries join those already short of water, sound management of groundwater resources becomes more critical. Isotope techniques provide information that is unobtainable by other means and help to achieve a better understanding of mechanisms and processes through which water resources can be managed. The International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring a regional technical co-operation project addressing practical issues related to water resources assessment and development in Kenya, Madagascar, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe. The project also seeks to strengthen isotope hydrology capacity in the sub-region. (IAEA)

  14. How important are peatlands globally in providing drinking water resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiren; Morris, Paul; Holden, Joseph

    2017-04-01

    The potential role of peatlands as water stores and sources of downstream water resources for human use is often cited in publications setting the context for the importance of peatlands, but is rarely backed up with substantive evidence. We sought to determine the global role of peatlands in water resource provision. We developed the Peat Population Index (PPI) that combines the coverage of peat and the local population density to show focused (hotspot) areas where there is a combination of both large areas of peat and large populations who would potentially use water sourced from those peatlands. We also developed a method for estimating the proportion of river water that interacted with contributing peatlands before draining into rivers and reservoirs used as a drinking water resource. The Peat Reservoir Index (PRI) estimates the contribution of peatlands to domestic water use to be 1.64 km3 per year which is 0.35 % of the global total. The results suggest that although peatlands are widespread, the spatial distribution of the high PPI and PRI river basins is concentrated in European middle latitudes particularly around major conurbations in The Netherlands, northern England, Scotland (Glasgow) and Ireland (Dublin), although there were also some important systems in Florida, the Niger Delta and Malaysia. More detailed research into water resource provision in high PPI areas showed that they were not always also high PRI areas as often water resources were delivered to urban centres from non-peat areas, despite a large area of peat within the catchment. However, particularly in the UK and Ireland, there are some high PRI systems where peatlands directly supply water to nearby urban centres. Thus both indices are useful and can be used at a global level while more local refinement enables enhanced use which supports global and local peatland protection measures. We now intend to study the impacts of peatland degradation and climate change on water resource

  15. Rebalancing brain drain: exploring resource reallocation to address health worker migration and promote global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Timothy Ken; Liang, Bryan Albert

    2012-09-01

    Global public health is threatened by an imbalance in health worker migration from resource-poor countries to developed countries. This "brain drain" results in health workforce shortages, health system weakening, and economic loss and waste, threatening the well-being of vulnerable populations and effectiveness of global health interventions. Current structural imbalances in resource allocation and global incentive structures have resulted in 57 countries identified by WHO as having a "critical shortage" of health workers. Yet current efforts to strengthen domestic health systems have fallen short in addressing this issue. Instead, global solutions should focus on sustainable forms of equitable resource sharing. This can be accomplished by adoption of mandatory global resource and staff-sharing programs in conjunction with implementation of state-based health services corps. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Adaptation of water resources systems to changing society and environment: a statement by the International Association of Hydrological Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Serena Ceola; Alberto Montanari; Tobias Krueger; Fiona Dyer; H. Kreibich; Ida Westerberg; Gemma Carr; Christophe Cudennec; Amin Elshorbagy; Hubert Savenije; Pieter van der Zaag; Dan Rosbjerg; Hafzullah Aksoy; Francesco Viola; Guido Petrucci

    2016-01-01

    We explore how to address the challenges of adaptation of water resources systems under changing conditions by supporting flexible, resilient and low-regret solutions, coupled with on-going monitoring and evaluation. This will require improved understanding of the linkages between biophysical and social aspects in order to better anticipate the possible future co-evolution of water systems and society. We also present a call to enhance the dialogue and foster the actions of governments, the i...

  17. Optimal Use of Agricultural Water and Land Resources through Reconfiguring Crop Planting Structure under Socioeconomic and Ecological Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Tan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Many economic, social and ecological problems can be attributed to the scarcity and mismanagement of water and land resources. In this study, a multi-objective fuzzy–robust programming (MOFRP method was developed for supporting the optimal use of land and water resources in agriculture. MOFRP improved existing methods through taking ecological services of crop cultivation into account. It was also capable of reflecting fuzziness in preferences, priorities and parameters that were largely neglected in previous agricultural decision making. This method was applied to address a case in arid northwestern China. Optimal plans of crop cultivation reconfiguration were generated for sustaining local development under economic, ecological and social objectives as well as physical restraints in water and land resources. Compared to the status quo, the optimized plan would increase economic and ecological benefits by 12.2% and 18.8%, respectively. The efficiency of irrigation water could also be enhanced with the economic and ecological benefits per unit water being raised and the water consumption per unit land being reduced. The comparisons of the MOFRP model to four alternatives validated that it was capable of achieving satisfactory benefits and reducing system-violation risks without neglecting valuable uncertain information and ecological services of crops. The proposed method was also applicable to other multi-objective management problems under uncertainty without loss of generality.

  18. Addressing Open Water Data Challenges in the Bureau of Reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, L. D.; Danner, A.; Nagode, J.; Rocha, J.; Poulton, S.; Anderson, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation is largest wholesaler of water in the United States. Located in the 17 western states, Reclamation serves water to 31 million people, provides irrigated water to 20 percent of Western farmers, and is the second largest producer of hydroelectric power in the United States. Through these activities, Reclamation generates large amounts of water and water-related data, describing reservoirs and river system conditions, hydropower, environmental compliance activities, infrastructure assets, and other aspects of Reclamation's mission activities. Reclamation aims to make water and water-related data sets more easily found, accessed, and used in decision-making activities in order to benefit the public, private sector, and research communities. Historically, there has not been an integrated, bureau-wide system to store data in machine-readable formats; nor a system to permit centralized browsing, open access, and web-services. Reclamation began addressing these limitations by developing the Reclamation Water Information System (RWIS), released in Spring 2017 (https://water.usbr.gov/). A bureau-wide team contributed to RWIS development, including water data stewards, database administrators, and information technology (IT) specialists. The first RWIS release publishes reservoir time series data from Reclamation's five regions and includes a map interface for sites identification, a query interface for data discovery and access, and web-services for automated retrieval. As RWIS enhancement continues, the development team is developing a companion system - the Reclamation Information Sharing Environment (RISE) - to provide access to the other data subjects and types (geospatial, documents). While RWIS and RISE are promising starts, Reclamation continues to face challenges in addressing open water data goals: making data consolidation and open publishing a value-added activity for programs that publish data locally, going beyond providing open access

  19. Place Based STEM: Leveraging Local Resources to Engage K-12 Teachers in Teaching Integrated STEM and for Addressing the Local STEM Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Louis Nadelson; Anne Louise Seifert; Meagan McKinney

    2014-06-01

    Business, industry, parks, nature settings, government infrastructure, and people, can be invaluable resources for connecting STEM curriculum within context which results in conditions ideal for promoting purposeful learning of authentic STEM content. Thus, community-based STEM resources offer ideal context for teaching STEM content. A benefit of focusing teacher attention on these contextual, content aligned resources is that they are in every community; making place-based STEM education a possibility, regardless of the location of STEM teaching and learning. Further, associating STEM teaching and learning with local resources addresses workforce development and the STEM pipeline by exposing students to STEM careers and applications in their local communities. The desire to align STEM teaching and learning with local STEM related resources guided the design of our week-long integrated STEM K-12 teacher professional development (PD) program, i-STEM. We have completed four years of our i-STEM PD program and have made place-based STEM a major emphasis of our curriculum. This report focuses on the data collected in the fourth year of our program. Our week-long i-STEM PD served over 425 educators last summer (2013), providing them with in depth theme-based integrated STEM short courses which were limited to an average of 15 participants and whole group plenary sessions focused around placed based integrated STEM, inquiry, engineering design, standards and practices of Common Core and 21st Century skills. This state wide PD was distributed in five Idaho community colleges and took place over two weeks. The STEM short courses included topics on engineering for sustainability, using engineering to spark interest in STEM, municipal water systems, health, agriculture, food safety, mining, forestry, energy, and others. Integral to these short courses were field trips designed to connect the K-12 educators to the resources in their local communities that could be leveraged

  20. Sustainable development of water resources, water supply and environmental sanitation.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Austin, LM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available and be capable of destroying or isolating pathogens. A need exists for documentary evidence to support various claims about different storage periods for ensuring pathogen die-off and safe handling of biosolids (Peasy 2000). Handling of faecal material... in Water and Environmental Health, Task no. 324. [Online] http://www/lboro.ac.uk/well/resources/well-studies/full-reports-pdf/task0324.pdf WHO (2001). Water quality, guidelines, standards and health: Assessment of risk and risk management for water...

  1. Key issues for determining the exploitable water resources in a Mediterranean river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Monzonís, María; Ferrer, Javier; Solera, Abel; Estrela, Teodoro; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier

    2015-01-15

    One of the major difficulties in water planning is to determine the water availability in a water resource system in order to distribute water sustainably. In this paper, we analyze the key issues for determining the exploitable water resources as an indicator of water availability in a Mediterranean river basin. Historically, these territories are characterized by heavily regulated water resources and the extensive use of unconventional resources (desalination and wastewater reuse); hence, emulating the hydrological cycle is not enough. This analysis considers the Jucar River Basin as a case study. We have analyzed the different possible combinations between the streamflow time series, the length of the simulation period and the reliability criteria. As expected, the results show a wide dispersion, proving the great influence of the reliability criteria used for the quantification and localization of the exploitable water resources in the system. Therefore, it is considered risky to provide a single value to represent the water availability in the Jucar water resource system. In this sense, it is necessary that policymakers and stakeholders make a decision about the methodology used to determine the exploitable water resources in a river basin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Potential of in situ Rain Water Harvesting for Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of in situ rain water harvesting (RWH) in water resources conservation is well recognized in semiarid areas, such as the highlands of northern Ethiopia. However, in fringe areas of malaria endemicity, the potential impact of such schemes on vector populations and malaria transmission is not well documented.

  3. Water resources and shale gas/oil production in the Appalachian Basin: critical issues and evolving developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, William M.; Williams, John H.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional natural gas and oil resources in the United States are important components of a national energy program. While the Nation seeks greater energy independence and greener sources of energy, Federal agencies with environmental responsibilities, state and local regulators and water-resource agencies, and citizens throughout areas of unconventional shale gas development have concerns about the environmental effects of high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF), including those in the Appalachian Basin in the northeastern United States (fig. 1). Environmental concerns posing critical challenges include the availability and use of surface water and groundwater for hydraulic fracturing; the migration of stray gas and potential effects on overlying aquifers; the potential for flowback, formation fluids, and other wastes to contaminate surface water and groundwater; and the effects from drill pads, roads, and pipeline infrastructure on land disturbance in small watersheds and headwater streams (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2012). Federal, state, regional and local agencies, along with the gas industry, are striving to use the best science and technology to develop these unconventional resources in an environmentally safe manner. Some of these concerns were addressed in U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fact Sheet 2009–3032 (Soeder and Kappel, 2009) about potential critical effects on water resources associated with the development of gas extraction from the Marcellus Shale of the Hamilton Group (Ver Straeten and others, 1994). Since that time, (1) the extraction process has evolved, (2) environmental awareness related to high-volume hydraulic fracturing process has increased, (3) state regulations concerning gas well drilling have been modified, and (4) the practices used by industry to obtain, transport, recover, treat, recycle, and ultimately dispose of the spent fluids and solid waste materials have evolved. This report updates and expands on Fact Sheet 2009

  4. Evaluation of Water Resources Carrying Capacity in Shandong Province Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water resources carrying capacity is the maximum available water resources supporting by the social and economic development. Based on investigating and statisticing on the current situation of water resources in Shandong Province, this paper selects 13 factors including per capita water resources, water resources utilization, water supply modulus, rainfall, per capita GDP, population density, per capita water consumption, water consumption per million yuan, The water consumption of industrial output value, the agricultural output value of farmland, the irrigation rate of cultivated land, the water consumption rate of ecological environment and the forest coverage rate were used as the evaluation factors. Then,the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was used to analyze the water resources carrying capacity Force status evaluation. The results showed : The comprehensive evaluation results of water resources in Shandong Province were lower than 0.6 in 2001-2009 and higher than 0.6 in 2010-2015, which indicating that the water resources carrying capacity of Shandong Province has been improved.; In addition, most of the years a value of less than 0.6, individual years below 0.4, the interannual changes are relatively large, from that we can see the level of water resources is generally weak, the greater the interannual changes in Shandong Province.

  5. Barriers to sustainable water resources management : Case study in Omnogovi province, Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    Enkhtsetseg, Mandukhai

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the barriers to sustainable water resources management in water vulnerable, yet a mining booming area. The case study is conducted in Omnogovi province of Mongolia in Nov-Dec 2016. This study presents how the Omnogovi province manages its water with increased mining and examines what hinders the province from practicing sustainable water resources management and examines the involvement of residents in the water resources management of Omnogovi province. Qualitative approa...

  6. Water resources and water pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airey, P.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are widely used in the investigation of the dynamics of the water cycle. This paper focusses on their contributions to the development of strategies for the sustainability of environmental resources. Emphasis has been placed on the role of environmental isotopes and radiotracers in evaluating models of complex environmental systems. Specific reference is made to 1) the construction of a marine radioactivity database for Asia and the Pacific, 2) the sustainability of groundwater in regions challenged by climate change, and 3) the applications of radiotracers to off-shore transport of sediments and contaminants

  7. Western Water Resources: Coming Problems and the Policy Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Richard

    This quote from the book leads one to speculate as to what will happen to water policy in these times of increased concern for reducing federal spending, for more reliance on state and local governments as opposed to the federal government, and for more reliance on the private sector as opposed to any level of governmental control. Remembering that a wrenching debate preceded deregulation of oil and other energy prices, what are the opportunities for deregulation in the water resources field?Western Water Resources consists of the proceedings of a symposium held in Denver in September 1979 and Hosted by the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City. As in any conference, there is, in addition to the organized substantive content of the papers, a mixture of the clever and the banal, peppered with some humor and chit-chat. Among the contributors are economists, including Charles Howe, Allen Kneese, Emery Castle, and Kenneth Boulding; legal scholars, such as George Radosevich and Frank Trelease; and political figures, such as Scott Matheson, Governor of Utah, Guy Martin, former Assistant Secretary for Land and Water Resources of the Department of the Interior, and Leo Eisel, former Director of the Water Resources Council. Some papers are followed by a discussion from commentors.

  8. Optimal allocation of physical water resources integrated with virtual water trade in water scarce regions: A case study for Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Quanliang; Li, Yi; Zhuo, La; Zhang, Wenlong; Xiong, Wei; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2018-02-01

    This study provides an innovative application of virtual water trade in the traditional allocation of physical water resources in water scarce regions. A multi-objective optimization model was developed to optimize the allocation of physical water and virtual water resources to different water users in Beijing, China, considering the trade-offs between economic benefit and environmental impacts of water consumption. Surface water, groundwater, transferred water and reclaimed water constituted the physical resource of water supply side, while virtual water flow associated with the trade of five major crops (barley, corn, rice, soy and wheat) and three livestock products (beef, pork and poultry) in agricultural sector (calculated by the trade quantities of products and their virtual water contents). Urban (daily activities and public facilities), industry, environment and agriculture (products growing) were considered in water demand side. As for the traditional allocation of physical water resources, the results showed that agriculture and urban were the two predominant water users (accounting 54% and 28%, respectively), while groundwater and surface water satisfied around 70% water demands of different users (accounting 36% and 34%, respectively). When considered the virtual water trade of eight agricultural products in water allocation procedure, the proportion of agricultural consumption decreased to 45% in total water demand, while the groundwater consumption decreased to 24% in total water supply. Virtual water trade overturned the traditional components of water supplied from different sources for agricultural consumption, and became the largest water source in Beijing. Additionally, it was also found that environmental demand took a similar percentage of water consumption in each water source. Reclaimed water was the main water source for industrial and environmental users. The results suggest that physical water resources would mainly satisfy the consumption

  9. Environmental sustainability control by water resources carrying capacity concept: application significance in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuwansyah, M. R.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reviews the use of Water Resources carrying capacity concept to control environmental sustainability with the particular note for the case in Indonesia. Carrying capacity is a capability measure of an environment or an area to support human and the other lives as well as their activities in a sustainable manner. Recurrently water-related hazards and environmental problems indicate that the environments are exploited over its carrying capacity. Environmental carrying capacity (ECC) assessment includes Land and Water Carrying Capacity analysis of an area, suggested to always refer to the dimension of the related watershed as an incorporated hydrologic unit on the basis of resources availability estimation. Many countries use this measure to forecast the future sustainability of regional development based on water availability. Direct water Resource Carrying Capacity (WRCC) assessment involves population number determination together with their activities could be supported by available water, whereas indirect WRCC assessment comprises the analysis of supply-demand balance status of water. Water resource limits primarily environmental carrying capacity rather than the land resource since land capability constraints are easier. WRCC is a crucial factor known to control land and water resource utilization, particularly in a growing densely populated area. Even though capability of water resources is relatively perpetual, the utilization pattern of these resources may change by socio-economic and cultural technology level of the users, because of which WRCC should be evaluated periodically to maintain usage sustainability of water resource and environment.

  10. Nuclear techniques for sustainable development: Water resources and monitoring environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danesi, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    At the IAEA's Laboratories in Seibersdorf and Vienna, Austria, problems of water supply and pollution are some of the important environmental topics that scientists are addressing. Through a broad range of scientific and technical projects and services, the Laboratories develop and transfer technologies with important environmental applications, particularly in developing countries. The broad range of activities include assessments of water resources and their possible contamination, and sensitive analytical studies of toxic metals, pesticides, and other environmental pollutants. The work frequently involves using analytical methods based on radiation and isotopes ranging from neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence to atomic absorption spectrometry and tracer techniques. This article - the second of a two-part series - presents a selective overview of activities at the IAEA's Seibersdorf Laboratories contributing to efforts for a sustainable development. In many cases, the Laboratories serve as the institutional centre for research networks involving scientists at analytical laboratories around the world

  11. Continuous real-time water information: an important Kansas resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loving, Brian L.; Putnam, James E.; Turk, Donita M.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous real-time information on streams, lakes, and groundwater is an important Kansas resource that can safeguard lives and property, and ensure adequate water resources for a healthy State economy. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates approximately 230 water-monitoring stations at Kansas streams, lakes, and groundwater sites. Most of these stations are funded cooperatively in partnerships with local, tribal, State, or other Federal agencies. The USGS real-time water-monitoring network provides long-term, accurate, and objective information that meets the needs of many customers. Whether the customer is a water-management or water-quality agency, an emergency planner, a power or navigational official, a farmer, a canoeist, or a fisherman, all can benefit from the continuous real-time water information gathered by the USGS.

  12. Sustainable development of water resources in Pakistan and environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakir, A.S.; Bashir, M.A

    2005-01-01

    Irrigation water represents an essential input for sustaining agricultural growth in Pakistan's arid to semi arid climate. While the surface water availability for irrigation has been more or less stagnant for the last three decades, the ground water utilization also appears to have touched the peak in most of the sweet aquifers. In the present state of inaction for the water resources development, the overall water availability is in fact declining due to progressive sedimentation of the existing storages and gradual lowering of water table in fresh ground water areas. The paper discusses major water resources concerns that threaten the sustainability of Pakistan's irrigated agriculture. The paper identifies overall water scarcity, high degree of temporal variability in river flows, lack of balancing storages and declining capacity of existing storages due to natural sedimentation as the serious concerns. Over exploitation of ground water and water quality concerns also seems to be emerging threats for environmentally sustainable irrigated agriculture in this country. The salt-water intrusion and increase in soil and ground water salinity are indicators of over exploitation of ground water for irrigation. The continuous use of poor quality ground water for irrigation is considered as one of the major causes of salinity in the area of irrigated agriculture. Indiscriminate pumping of the marginal and saline ground water can add to the root zone salinity and ultimately reduce the crop yields. The paper presents various management options for development and efficient utilization of water resources for environment friendly sustainable development of irrigated agriculture in Pakistan. These include construction of additional storage, modernization of irrigation system and effective conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources. The better soil and water management practices, saline agriculture, use of biotechnology and genetic engineering can further increase

  13. Community based adaptation options for climate change impacts on water resources: The case of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammouri Nezar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A strategic vision to ensure an adequate, safe and secure drinking water supply presents a challenge, particularly for such a small country as Jordan, faced with a critical supply-demand imbalance and a high risk of water quality deterioration. In order to provide sustainable and equitable long-term water management plans for the future, current and future demands, along with available adaptation options should be assessed through community engagement. An analysis of available water resources, existing demands and use per sector served to assess the nation’s historic water status. Taking into account the effect of both population growth and rainfall reduction, future per sector demands were predicted by linear temporal trend analysis. Water sector vulnerability and adaptation options were assessed by engaging thirty five stakeholders. A set of weighed-criterions were selected, adopted, modified, and then framed into comprehensive guidelines. A quantitative ratio-level approach was used to quantify the magnitude and likelihood of risks and opportunities associated with each proposed adaptation measure using the level of effectiveness and severity status. Prioritization indicated that public awareness and training programs were the most feasible and effective adaptation measures, while building new infrastructure was of low priority. Associated barriers were related to a lack of financial resources, institutional arrangements, and data collection, sharing, availability, consistency and transparency, as well as willingness to adapt. Independent community-based watershed-vulnerability analyses to address water integrity at watershed scale are recommended.

  14. Working group report on water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baulder, J.

    1991-01-01

    The results and conclusions of a working group held to discuss climate change implications for water resources are presented. The existing water resources and climatological databases necessary to develop models and functional relationships lack integration and coordination. The density and spatial distribution of the existing sampling networks for obtaining necessary climatological data is inadequate, especially in areas of complex terrain, notably higher elevations in the Rocky Mountains. Little information and knowledge is available on potential socio-economic responses that can be anticipated from either increases in climate variability or major change. Recommended research initiatives include the following. Basic functional relationships between climatic events, climatic variability and change, and both surface and groundwater hydrologic processes need to be investigated and improved. Basin-scale and regional-scale climatic models need to be developed, tested, and interfaced with existing global climate models. Public sector attitudes to water management issues and opportunities need to be investigated, and integrated scientific, socio-economic, multidisciplinary, regional databases on climatic change and variability and associated processes need to be developed

  15. Simulation of Integrated Qualitative and Quantitative Allocation of Surafce and Underground Water Resources to Drinking Water Demand in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Atashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that both surface and groundwater resources inside and outside the city of Mashhad have been already exploited to their maximum capacity and that the large water transfer Doosti Dam Project has been already implemented to transfer a considerable quanity of water to Mashhad, the city will be encountering a daily water shortage of about 1.7 m3/s by 2021. The problem would be even worse if the quality of the water resources are taken into account, in which case, the shortage would start even sooner in 2011 when the water deficit will be about 0.9 m3/s. As a result, it is essential to develop short- and medium-term strategies for secure adequate water supplies for the city's domestic water demand. The present study aims to carry out a qualitative and quantitative modeling of surface and groundwater resources supplying Mashhad domestic water. The qualitative model is based on the quality indices of surface and groundwater resources according to which the resources are classified in the three quality categories of resources with no limitation, those with moderate limitations, and those with high limitations for use as domestic water supplies. The pressure zones are then examined with respect to the potable water demand and supply to be simulated in the MODSIM environment. The model thus developed is verified for the 2012 data based on the measures affecting water resources in the region and various scenarios are finally evaluated for a long-term 30-year period. Results show that the peak hourdaily water shortage in 2042for the zone supplied from no limitation resources will be 38%. However, this value will drop to 28% if limitations due to resource quality are also taken into account. Finally, dilution is suggested as a solution for exploiting the maximum quantitative and qualitative potential of the resources used as domestic water supplies. In this situation, the daily peak hour water shortage will be equal to 31%.

  16. Water resources vulnerability assessment in the Adriatic Sea region: the case of Corfu Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakoudis, Vasilis; Tsitsifli, Stavroula; Papadopoulou, Anastasia; Cencur Curk, Barbara; Karleusa, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    Cross-border water resources management and protection is a complicated task to achieve, lacking a common methodological framework. Especially in the Adriatic region, water used for drinking water supply purposes pass from many different countries, turning its management into a hard task to achieve. During the DRINKADRIA project, a common methodological framework has been developed, for efficient and effective cross-border water supply and resources management, taking into consideration different resources types (surface and groundwater) emphasizing in drinking water supply intake. The common methodology for water resources management is based on four pillars: climate characteristics and climate change, water resources availability, quality, and security. The present paper assesses both present and future vulnerability of water resources in the Adriatic region, with special focus on Corfu Island, Greece. The results showed that climate change is expected to impact negatively on water resources availability while at the same time, water demand is expected to increase. Water quality problems will be intensified especially due to land use changes and salt water intrusion. The analysis identified areas where water resources are more vulnerable, allowing decision makers develop management strategies.

  17. Ultimate resources of drinking water in the event of a major pollution crisis: the role of bottled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collin, J.J.; Comte, J.P.; Daum, J.R.; Lopoukhine, M.; Mesny, M.

    1995-01-01

    In the event of a serious and widespread pollution incident - on the level of the ''Chernobyl cloud'' - most of the drinking water resources in France could be contaminated : surface water immediately, ground water in a few days... or a few months. Therefore on the initiative of the Ministry of the Environment's Director for Defence, a study has been initiated as to what might be qualified as ''final emergency resources''. An inventory and map of protected resources have been prepared. In this context it seems reasonable to show bottled water as a resource meeting the necessary protection criteria. However it seems that these criteria are not all, nor always, relevant for defining a ''ultimate emergency resource'' not contaminated by a major incident. This article outlines a typology of situations and defines the main criteria necessary for bottled water to be able to constitute an ultimate resource

  18. TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS ON WATER RESOURCES IN NORTHERN KUTA DISTRICT OF BADUNG BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Sunarta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the problem in the development of Bali tourism is declining carrying capacity supporting tourism resources, especially water. In the past, rural areas have never experienced a lack of water, by which presently facing a water crisis. This condition corresponds to the higher intensity of exploitation of water resources as a result of tourism development. The rapid development of business on accommodation facilities in North Kuta District is potential to accupy rice paddy and water resources. If this development is not properly controlled can cause negative impacts not only on the existence of the fields, but also for the potential of water resources. Tourism is significantly depend on adequacy of water resources to be able to function properly, thus in case of a water crisis in the tourist areas of Bali in particular, then sooner or later will create the economic crisis and the crisis of tourism. The research was located in North Kuta District aimed to know the impacts of the development of the tourism on water resources potential. In order to understand the impact on water resources used geography disciplines approach, and applying survey research methods. Tourism development is determined by the interpretation of Quickbird imagery in a different location. Carrying capacity of water resources is determined by using the guidelines of Per Men LH. No. 17 year 2009. Impact of tourism development on water resources was determined using comparative analysis of surface water and groundwater, both an quantity and quality. There were two patterns of land use change in North Kuta District, namely from the rice fields to tourist accommodation and from the dryland/orchard land, to tourist accommodation. Changes from rice field for about 16 years (1992-2008 in North Kuta District was 1,218.44 Ha. Carrying capacity of water resources was considered deficit at all village in North Kuta District. Development of tourism, especially tourism accommodation

  19. Power-law Growth and Punctuated Equilibrium Dynamics in Water Resources Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolari, A.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The global rise in population-driven water scarcity and recent appreciation of strong dynamic coupling between human and natural systems has called for new approaches to predict the future sustainability of regional and global water resources systems. The dynamics of coupled human-water systems are driven by a complex set of social, environmental, and technological factors. Present projections of water resources systems range from a finite carrying capacity regulated by accessible freshwater, or `peak renewable water,' to punctuated evolution with new supplied and improved efficiency gained from technological and social innovation. However, these projections have yet to be quantified from observations or in a comprehensive theoretical framework. Using data on global water withdrawals and storage capacity of regional water supply systems, non-trivial dynamics are identified in water resources systems development over time, including power-law growth and punctuated equilibria. Two models are introduced to explain this behavior: (1) a delay differential equation and (2) a power-law with log-periodic oscillations, both of which rely on past conditions (or system memory) to describe the present rate of growth in the system. In addition, extension of the first model demonstrates how system delays and punctuated equilibria can emerge from coupling between human population growth and associated resource demands. Lastly, anecdotal evidence is used to demonstrate the likelihood of power-law growth in global water use from the agricultural revolution 3000 BC to the present. In a practical sense, the presence of these patterns in models with delayed oscillations suggests that current decision-making related to water resources development results from the historical accumulation of resource use decisions, technological and social changes, and their consequences.

  20. Water, Energy, and Food Nexus: Modeling of Inter-Basin Resources Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIm, T. W.; Kang, D.; Wicaksono, A.; Jeong, G.; Jang, B. J.; Ahn, J.

    2016-12-01

    The water, energy, and food (WEF) nexus is an emerging issue in the concern of fulfilling the human requirements with a lack of available resources. The WEF nexus concept arises to develop a sustainable resources planning and management. In the concept, the three valuable resources (i.e. water, energy, and food) are inevitably interconnected thus it becomes a challenge for researchers to understand the complicated interdependency. A few studies have been committed for interpreting and implementing the WEF nexus using a computer based simulation model. Some of them mentioned that a trade-off is one alternative solution that can be taken to secure the available resources. Taking a concept of inter-basin water transfer, this study attempts to introduce an idea to develop a WEF nexus model for inter-basin resources trading simulation. Using the trading option among regions (e.g., cities, basins, or even countries), the model provides an opportunity to increase overall resources availability without draining local resources. The proposed model adopted the calculation process of an amount of water, energy, and food from a nation-wide model, with additional input and analysis process to simulate the resources trading between regions. The proposed model is applied for a hypothetic test area in South Korea for demonstration purposes. It is anticipated that the developed model can be a decision tool for efficient resources allocation for sustainable resources management. Acknowledgements This study was supported by a grant (14AWMP-B082564-01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of the Korean government.

  1. Evolution of the societal value of water resources for economic development versus environmental sustainability in Australia from 1843 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Wei, J., , Dr; Western, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    The scale of human activity in the last 200 years has reached a point where our actions are affecting the global biophysical environment to such a degree and at such a speed that irreversible effects are being observed. Societal values are generally seen as leading to changes in human decisions and actions, but have not been addressed adequately in current water management, which is blind to changes in the social drivers for, or societal responses to, management decisions. This paper describes the evolution of societal value of water resources in Australia over a period of 169 years. These values were classified into two groups: supporting economic development versus supporting environmental sustainability. The Sydney Morning Herald newspaper was used as the main data source to track the changes in the societal value of water resources. Content analysis was used to create a description of the evolution of these societal values. Mathematical regression analysis, in combination of transition theory, was used to determine the stages of transition of the societal value, and the co-evolved social-ecological framework was used to explain how the evolution of societal values interacted with water management policies/practices and droughts. Key findings included that the transition of the societal value of water resources fitted the sigmoid curve - a conceptual S curve for the transition of social systems. Also, the transition of societal value of water resources in Australia went through three stages: (1) pre-development (1900s-1960s), when the societal value of water resources was dominated by economic development; (2) take-off (1962-1980), when the societal value of water resources reflected the increasing awareness of the environment due to the outbreak of pollution events; (3) acceleration (1981-2011), when the environment-oriented societal value of water resources combined with the Millennium Drought to trigger a package of policy initiatives and management practices

  2. Assessment and management of water resources in Egypt to face drought and water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Wouter; El Guindy, Samia; Salah El Deen, Magdy; Roest, Koen; Smit, Robert; Froebrich, Jochen

    2013-04-01

    , innovations on resource efficiency enabling use of rest and by-products of one agricultural activity as an input for another one will be profitable for the food producers and will also be better for the environment. The creative design process to reach the required technological and policy innovations contributes to the developed adaptation strategy to face drought and water scarcity. Results will incorporate some previously un-thought of options. The issues of water scarcity and drought have consequences and implications that can no longer be adequately addressed by any one of the Ministries alone. Many other government departments and agencies must be involved and decisions will have to be made at the highest political level. All policies in Egypt must be conscious of the limitations in water availability, and water policies need to address technological developments as well as the full range of other issues, including: macro-economic factors, economic issues that influence farm-level decisions, development of human capital, governance, and financial risk management.

  3. Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, Rashmi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Evaporative coolers (ECs) provide significant gains in energy efficiency compared to vapor compression air conditioners, but simultaneously have significant onsite water demand. This can be a major barrier to deployment in areas of the world with hot and arid climates. To address this concern, this study determined where in the world evaporative cooling is suitable, the water consumption of ECs in these cities, and the potential that greywater can be used reduce the consumption of potable water in ECs. ECs covered 69percent of the cities where room air conditioners are may be deployed, based on comfort conditions alone. The average water consumption due to ECs was found to be 400 L/household/day in the United States and Australia, with the potential for greywater to provide 50percent this amount. In the rest of the world, the average water consumption was 250 L/household/day, with the potential for greywater to supply 80percent of this amount. Home size was the main factor that contributed to this difference. In the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Northern India, and the Midwestern and Southwestern United States alkalinity levels are high and water used for bleeding will likely contribute significantly to EC water consumption. Although technically feasible, upfront costs for household GW systems are currently high. In both developed and developing parts of the world, however, a direct EC and GW system is cost competitive with conventional vapor compression air conditioners. Moreover, in regions of the world that face problems of water scarcity the benefits can substantially outweigh the costs.

  4. Study on characteristics of water resources in Beijing in recent 15 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, L. M.; Zheng, H. G.; Zhao, J. J.; Wang, A. L.; Zhang, X. J.

    2018-02-01

    In order to understand the characteristics of water supply and water usage in Beijing in recent 15 years, a variety of statistical datasets were collected and field investigations were carried out, to analyze the total water resource, the characteristics and trends of water resource supply, utilization and distribution during 2000-2014. The results showed that the total amount of water resources in Beijing is maintained at 1.61~3.95 billion m3, and the surface water accounts for about 1/3, and the groundwater accounts for 2/3. Agricultural water and living water were the dominated consumption in the past 15 years in Beijing, accounted for 35.3% and 38.9% of the total amount, followed by industrial water, which accounting for 17.9% of total water consumption, and water used in environment is relatively small, only accounting for 7.8% of the total amount. This study can provide theoretical support for the establishment and management of water conservation policies and the rational utilization of water resources in Beijing.

  5. Human and climate impacts on global water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341387819

    2013-01-01

    Over past decades, terrestrial water fluxes have been affected by humans at an unprecedented scale and the fingerprints that humans have left on Earth’s water resources are turning up in a diverse range of records. In this thesis, a state-of-the-art global hydrological model (GHM) and global water

  6. Emergence of Integrated Water Resources Management : Measuring implementation in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, M.; Khanh, N.T.; Witter, M.; Rutten, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the changes in laws and regulations, such as the revised Law on Water Resources in 2012, have sought to provide a legal framework for the internationally recognized practices of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Vietnam. With IWRM being a novel approach for Vietnam, it would

  7. Toward best practice framing of uncertainty in scientific publications: A review of Water Resources Research abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Helgeson, Casey; Elsawah, Sondoss; Jakeman, Anthony J.; Kummu, Matti

    2017-08-01

    Uncertainty is recognized as a key issue in water resources research, among other sciences. Discussions of uncertainty typically focus on tools and techniques applied within an analysis, e.g., uncertainty quantification and model validation. But uncertainty is also addressed outside the analysis, in writing scientific publications. The language that authors use conveys their perspective of the role of uncertainty when interpreting a claim—what we call here "framing" the uncertainty. This article promotes awareness of uncertainty framing in four ways. (1) It proposes a typology of eighteen uncertainty frames, addressing five questions about uncertainty. (2) It describes the context in which uncertainty framing occurs. This is an interdisciplinary topic, involving philosophy of science, science studies, linguistics, rhetoric, and argumentation. (3) We analyze the use of uncertainty frames in a sample of 177 abstracts from the Water Resources Research journal in 2015. This helped develop and tentatively verify the typology, and provides a snapshot of current practice. (4) We make provocative recommendations to achieve a more influential, dynamic science. Current practice in uncertainty framing might be described as carefully considered incremental science. In addition to uncertainty quantification and degree of belief (present in ˜5% of abstracts), uncertainty is addressed by a combination of limiting scope, deferring to further work (˜25%) and indicating evidence is sufficient (˜40%)—or uncertainty is completely ignored (˜8%). There is a need for public debate within our discipline to decide in what context different uncertainty frames are appropriate. Uncertainty framing cannot remain a hidden practice evaluated only by lone reviewers.

  8. The development of water services and their interaction with water resources in European and Brazilian cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraqué, B.; Formiga Johnsson, R. M.; Nogueira de Paiva Britto, A. L.

    2008-08-01

    The extension and complexity of large cities creates "urban water" and a related issue: public water services, including public water supply, sewage collection and treatment, and storm water control, had previously become a policy sector separate from water resource allocation issues thanks to water transport and treatment technologies. Large metropolitan areas today cannot take nature for granted anymore, and they need to protect water resources, if only to reduce the long term cost of transporting and treating water. In this paper, we compare the historical development of water services in European and Brazilian metropolitan areas, placing the technological developments in their geographic, socio-economic and political contexts. Our frame is to follow the successive contributions of civil engineering, sanitary engineering, and environmental engineering: the "quantity of water" and civil engineering paradigm allowed to mobilise water in and out of the city, and up the hills or the floors; in the "water quality" and chemical/sanitary engineering paradigm, water treatment gave more freedom to cities to take water from rivers closer to them, but also to reduce sewer discharge impacts; lastly, the environmental engineering paradigm proposes to overcome the supply side perspective, by introducing demand side management, water conservation, water allocation flexibilisation, and an integrated approach to water services, water resources management, and land use policies.

  9. Advances and limitations of the integrated water resources management in Panama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalante Henriquez, Luis Carlos; Charpentier, Claudia; Diez Hernandez, Juan Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Panama competitiveness depends largely on quality and abundance of natural resources, which are being progressively degraded by a disordered urban and economic development. The availability of water in adequate quantity and quality poses serious problems in some areas of the country. This affects both the quality of life of the population and key sectors such as agriculture, industry, hydro and tourism; and stimulates social conflicts related to access, use and disposal of used water. To prevent the degradation of water resources has been promoted a holistic, known as integrated in water resources management (IWRM) strategy. From the Summit of Mar del Plata, Argentina (1977) until the 5th Forum world of the water in Istanbul in Turkey (2009), international meetings that have contributed to defining the principles and recommendations for the IWRM have been held. This work presents a methodological model of IWRM designed for Panama. Essentially consists of a perfected in how to manage water, requiring changes in the political, social, economic and administrative systems of water resource management approach

  10. Integrated water resources management (IWRM) approach in water governance in Lao PDR. Cases of hydropower and irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jusi, S.

    2013-06-01

    Water resources are essential for socio-economic development, enabling, for example, hydropower and irrigation. Water resources management and development are expected to become more complex and challenging and to involve new uncertainties as water development increases and accelerates in different water use sectors and is coupled with increasing population, urbanisation, and climate change. Hence, water resources need to be managed in more integrated and sustainable way, both in Lao PDR and in the whole Mekong Basin area. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) has become a universal paradigm of enhancing and promoting sustainable and equal water resources management and use. However, integrating water functions is a very complex task as it involves many actors with different interests. This research analyses the application of the IWRM approach and the related principles of integration, decentralisation, and participation in the development and management of water resources in Laotian water regime at the water use sectors of hydropower and irrigation. A case study approach was used for the research and for the four appended articles in order to examine hydropower and irrigation sectors, institutional structures, and processes of institutional change - Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) at constitutional, organisational, and operational levels. The constitutional level refers to water policy and law, organisational to water resource management, and operational to water use. The Management and Transition Framework (MTF) and one of its components, Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework, have been used for the research to explore processes, institutions, and actors related to water governance reforms including the adoption of the IWRM paradigm, and to increase understanding of the strengths and weaknesses related to different institutional contexts and levels in Laotian water management. Through Action Situations, IAD and MTF have

  11. Generation of SEEAW asset accounts based on water resources management models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Monzonís, María; Solera, Abel; Andreu, Joaquín

    2015-04-01

    One of the main challenges in the XXI century is related with the sustainable use of water. This is due to the fact that water is an essential element for the life of all who inhabit our planet. In many cases, the lack of economic valuation of water resources causes an inefficient water use. In this regard, society expects of policymakers and stakeholders maximise the profit produced per unit of natural resources. Water planning and the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) represent the best way to achieve this goal. The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water (SEEAW) is displayed as a tool for water allocation which enables the building of water balances in a river basin. The main concern of the SEEAW is to provide a standard approach which allows the policymakers to compare results between different territories. But building water accounts is a complex task due to the difficulty of the collection of the required data. Due to the difficulty of gauging the components of the hydrological cycle, the use of simulation models has become an essential tool extensively employed in last decades. The target of this paper is to present the building up of a database that enables the combined use of hydrological models and water resources models developed with AQUATOOL DSSS to fill in the SEEAW tables. This research is framed within the Water Accounting in a Multi-Catchment District (WAMCD) project, financed by the European Union. Its main goal is the development of water accounts in the Mediterranean Andalusian River Basin District, in Spain. This research pretends to contribute to the objectives of the "Blueprint to safeguard Europe's water resources". It is noteworthy that, in Spain, a large part of these methodological decisions are included in the Spanish Guideline of Water Planning with normative status guaranteeing consistency and comparability of the results.

  12. Philippines -- country wide water development projects and funds needed. Water crisis in Manila coincide with parliamentarians seminar on water resources and population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Philippines' Clean Water Act was developed to protect the country's remaining water resources by institutionalizing mechanisms to monitor, regulate, and control human and industrial activities which contribute to the ongoing environmental degradation of marine and freshwater resources. Approximately 70 participants attended the Philippine Parliamentarians' Conference on Water Resources, Population and Development held December 3-4, 1997, at the Sulo Hotel in Quezon City. Participants included the legislative staff of the members of the House of Representatives and the Senate, Committee Secretaries of the House and Senate, and government and nongovernmental organization officials. Following the opening programs, panel discussions were held on the role of nongovernmental organizations as legitimate monitors of governments' activities; the need to evaluate water sector assessment methods, water policy and strategy, and water legislation standards; and waste water treatment and sewerage systems used in households and industries. The following issues were raised during the conference's open forum: the need to implement new methods in water resource management; the handling of water for both economic and social purposes; the need to implement guidelines, policies, and pricing mechanisms on bottled water; regulating the construction of recreational facilities such as golf courses; and transferring watershed rehabilitation from the Department of Environment and Natural Resources to local water districts. A declaration was prepared and signed by the participants at the close of the conference.

  13. Dissolved nitrogen in drinking water resources of farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    of the total drinking water needs. Dry season vegetable farmers also prepare their nur- sery beds close to streams and use surface water for irri- gation. The proximity of nurseries to streams results in clearing of stream bank vegetation to accommodate nur- series. Pollution of stream water and depletion of their resources ...

  14. Assessing water resources vulnerability and resilience of southern Taiwan to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsu Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water resources management has become more challenging in Taiwan due to rapid socio-economic development and the complications of climate change. This study developed a systematic procedure for assessing water resources vulnerability and resilience with an integrated tool, TaiWAP, including climate change scenarios, a weather generator, a hydrological model, and system dynamic models. Five assessment indicators, including two for vulnerability, two for resilience, and one for availability were used to quantify changes in water resources and improvements after implementing adaption measures. Each indicator was presented with 3 grades, namely low, medium, and high. Water resources vulnerability and resilience for Tainan City in southern Taiwan were evaluated. Insufficient water supply facilities capacity is the major weakness causing low resilience. Water resources allocation flexibility is limited by substantial agricultural water demands. A total of 9 adaption measures and combinations of measures were assessed. Desalination plant implementation can steadily supply public water to lessen system failure duration. Although agricultural water conservation and fallow land can greatly reduce water demand, fallow compensation is a potential cost. When food security is considered, reducing irrigation leakage will be a better adaption measure to both water and agriculture stakeholders. Both agriculture water conservation and cropping systems adjustment have cross-spatial flexibilities. The combination of desalination, reservoirs and public water conservation provide the most beneficial effects in reducing climate change impact.

  15. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Stephen M.; Jolley, Scott T.; Captain, James G.

    2013-01-01

    One of NASA's goals is to enable longterm human presence in space, without the need for continuous replenishment of consumables from Earth. In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is the use of extraterrestrial resources to support activities such as human life-support, material fabrication and repair, and radiation shielding. Potential sources of ISRU resources include lunar and Martian regolith, and Martian atmosphere. Water and byproducts (including hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids) can be produced from lunar regolith via a high-temperature hydrogen reduction reaction and passing the produced gas through a condenser. center dot Due to the high solubility of HCI and HF in water, these byproducts are expected to be present in the product stream (up to 20,000 ppm) and must be removed (less than 10 ppm) prior to water consumption or electrolysis.

  16. Water Resources of Israel: Trackrecord of the Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai S. Orlovsky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Israel is a country in the Near East consisting for 95% of the arid regions in which 60% of the territory are covered by the Negev Desert. Therefore, the water resources are scant here and formed mostly by atmospheric precipitations. In the period from 1989 to 2005 the average precipitations were 6 billion cu. m, of which 60–70% were evaporated soon after rainfalls, at least 5% run down by rivers into the sea (mostly in winter and the remaining 25% of precipitations infiltrated into soil from where the greater part of water got into the sea with ground waters. In Israel there are two groups of water resources: surface and underground. Israel is not rich in surface waters. The natural reservoir of surface fresh water is the Kinneret Lake in the northeast of the country. It gets water from the Jordan River and its tributaries. The average annual amount of available water of this lake is around 370 million cu. m, which accounts for one-third of the country’s water needs and still higher share of the drinking water needs. The greater part of fresh waters (37% of water supply of Israel as of 2011 in this country is supplied from ground water sources. Owing to insufficiency of available natural resources, unevenness of precipitations by years and seasons and with the growth of the population and economic development the issues of provision with the quality drinking water of the population as well as agriculture and industry, rehabilitation of natural environment cause permanently growing concern. In view of the water shortage untiring efforts have been taken to improve the irrigation efficiency and to reduce water use by improving the efficacy of irrigation techniques and application of advanced system management approaches. Among the water saving technologies applied in Israel there are: drop irrigation, advanced filtration, up to date methods of water leak detection from networks, rainwater collection and processing systems. At the same time

  17. System dynamics model of Suzhou water resources carrying capacity and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cheng

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A model of Suzhou water resources carrying capacity (WRCC was set up using the method of system dynamics (SD. In the model, three different water resources utilization programs were adopted: (1 continuity of existing water utilization, (2 water conservation/saving, and (3 water exploitation. The dynamic variation of the Suzhou WRCC was simulated with the supply-decided principle for the time period of 2001 to 2030, and the results were characterized based on socio-economic factors. The corresponding Suzhou WRCC values for several target years were calculated by the model. Based on these results, proper ways to improve the Suzhou WRCC are proposed. The model also produced an optimized plan, which can provide a scientific basis for the sustainable utilization of Suzhou water resources and for the coordinated development of the society, economy, and water resources.

  18. Resources for National Water Savings for Outdoor Water Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melody, Moya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunham, Camilla [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-05-01

    In support of efforts by the U.S. Environmental Agency's (EPA's) WaterSense program to develop a spreadsheet model for calculating the national water and financial savings attributable to WaterSense certification and labeling of weather-based irrigation controllers, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory reviewed reports, technical data, and other information related to outdoor water use and irrigation controllers. In this document we categorize and describe the reviewed references, highlighting pertinent data. We relied on these references when developing model parameters and calculating controller savings. We grouped resources into three major categories: landscapes (section 1); irrigation devices (section 2); and analytical and modeling efforts (section 3). Each category is subdivided further as described in its section. References are listed in order of date of publication, most recent first.

  19. Understanding and managing the food-energy-water nexus - opportunities for water resources research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ximing; Wallington, Kevin; Shafiee-Jood, Majid; Marston, Landon

    2018-01-01

    Studies on the food, energy, and water (FEW) nexus lay a shared foundation for researchers, policy makers, practitioners, and stakeholders to understand and manage linked production, utilization, and security of FEW systems. The FEW nexus paradigm provides the water community specific channels to move forward in interdisciplinary research where integrated water resources management (IWRM) has fallen short. Here, we help water researchers identify, articulate, utilize, and extend our disciplinary strengths within the broader FEW communities, while informing scientists in the food and energy domains about our unique skillset. This paper explores the relevance of existing and ongoing scholarship within the water community, as well as current research needs, for understanding FEW processes and systems and implementing FEW solutions through innovations in technologies, infrastructures, and policies. Following the historical efforts in IWRM, hydrologists, water resources engineers, economists, and policy analysts are provided opportunities for interdisciplinary studies among themselves and in collaboration with energy and food communities, united by a common path to achieve sustainability development goals.

  20. Effects of virtual water flow on regional water resources stress: A case study of grain in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shikun; Wang, Yubao; Engel, Bernie A; Wu, Pute

    2016-04-15

    Scarcity of water resources is one of the major challenges in the world, particularly for the main water consumer, agriculture. Virtual water flow (VWF) promotes water redistribution geographically and provides a new solution for resolving regional water shortage and improving water use efficiency in the world. Virtual water transfer among regions will have a significant influence on the water systems in both grain export and import regions. In order to assess the impacts of VWF related grain transfer on regional water resources conditions, the study takes mainland China as study area for a comprehensive evaluation of virtual water flow on regional water resources stress. Results show that Northeast China and Huang-Huai-Hai region are the major grain production regions as well as the major virtual water export regions. National water savings related to grain VWF was about 58Gm(3), with 48Gm(3) blue water and 10Gm(3) green water. VWF changes the original water distribution and has a significant effect on water resources in both virtual water import and export regions. Grain VWF significantly increased water stress in grain export regions and alleviated water stress in grain import regions. Water stress index (WSI) of Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia has been increased by 138% and 129% due to grain export. Stress from water shortages is generally severe in export regions, and issues with the sustainability of grain production and VWF pattern are worthy of further exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Research of water resources allocation of South-to-North Water Diversion East Route Project in Jiangsu Province ,Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Optimized allocation of water resources is the important means of solving regional water shortage and can improve the utilization of water resources. Water resources allocation in the large-scale water diversion project area is the current research focus. This research takes the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in Jiangsu province as the research area, based on the hydrological model, agricultural irrigation quota model, and water project scheduling model, a water resources allocation model was constructed. The research carried on generalized regional water supply network, simulated the water supply, water demand and water deficit in agriculture, industry, life, ecology and lock under the status quo and planning engineering conditions. According to the results, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project is helpful to improve regional water shortage situation. The results showed that pump output increase by 2.8 billion cubic meters of water. On the conditions of P = 95%, 75% and 50%, compared with the benchmark year, water demand increases slightly due to the need of social and economic development in planning years, and water supply increased significantly because of new diversion ability. Water deficit are greatly reduced by 74.9% especially in the commonly drought condition because of the new project operation and optimized allocation of water resources.

  2. Incorporating Green Infrastructure into Water Resources Management Plans to Address Water Quality Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscopo, A. N.; Detenbeck, N. E.

    2017-12-01

    Managers of urban watersheds with excessive nutrient loads are more frequently turning to green infrastructure (GI) to manage their water quality impairments. The effectiveness of GI is dependent on a number of factors, including (1) the type and placement of GI within the watershed, (2) the specific nutrients to be treated, and (3) the uncertainty in future climates. Although many studies have investigated the effectiveness of individual GI units for different types of nutrients, relatively few have considered the effectiveness of GI on a watershed scale, the scale most relevant to management plans. At the watershed scale, endless combinations of GI type and location are possible, each with different effectiveness in reducing nutrient loads, minimizing costs, and maximizing co-benefits such as reducing runoff. To efficiently generate management plan options that balance the tradeoffs between these objectives, we simulate candidate options using EPA's Stormwater Management Model for multiple future climates and determine the Pareto optimal set of solution options using a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. Our approach is demonstrated for an urban watershed in Rockville, Maryland.

  3. Water on Mars - Volatile history and resource availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.

    1990-01-01

    An attempt is made to define the available deposits of water in the near-surface region of Mars which will be available to human exploration missions. The Martian seasonal water cycle is reviewed, and geochemical and geological constraints on the availability of water are examined. It is concluded that the only sure source of water in amounts significant as a resource are in the polar ice deposits.

  4. Hydraulic modeling development and application in water resources engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, Francisco J.; Yang, Chih Ted; Wang, Lawrence K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of modeling has become widespread in water resources engineering and science to study rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal regions. For example, computer models are commonly used to forecast anthropogenic effects on the environment, and to help provide advanced mitigation measures against catastrophic events such as natural and dam-break floods. Linking hydraulic models to vegetation and habitat models has expanded their use in multidisciplinary applications to the riparian corridor. Implementation of these models in software packages on personal desktop computers has made them accessible to the general engineering community, and their use has been popularized by the need of minimal training due to intuitive graphical user interface front ends. Models are, however, complex and nontrivial, to the extent that even common terminology is sometimes ambiguous and often applied incorrectly. In fact, many efforts are currently under way in order to standardize terminology and offer guidelines for good practice, but none has yet reached unanimous acceptance. This chapter provides a view of the elements involved in modeling surface flows for the application in environmental water resources engineering. It presents the concepts and steps necessary for rational model development and use by starting with the exploration of the ideas involved in defining a model. Tangible form of those ideas is provided by the development of a mathematical and corresponding numerical hydraulic model, which is given with a substantial amount of detail. The issues of model deployment in a practical and productive work environment are also addressed. The chapter ends by presenting a few model applications highlighting the need for good quality control in model validation.

  5. Biological approaches for addressing the grand challenge of providing access to clean drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) recently published a document presenting "Grand Challenges for Engineering". This list was proposed by leading engineers and scientists from around the world at the request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). Fourteen topics were selected for these grand challenges, and at least seven can be addressed using the tools and methods of biological engineering. Here we describe how biological engineers can address the challenge of providing access to clean drinking water. This issue must be addressed in part by removing or inactivating microbial and chemical contaminants in order to properly deliver water safe for human consumption. Despite many advances in technologies this challenge is expanding due to increased pressure on fresh water supplies and to new opportunities for growth of potentially pathogenic organisms. PMID:21453515

  6. Smart Markets for Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffensperger, John

    2017-04-01

    Commercial water users often want to trade water, but their trades can hurt other users and the environment. So government has to check every transaction. This checking process is slow and expensive. That's why "free market" water trading doesn't work, especially with trading between a single buyer and a single seller. This talk will describe a water trading mechanism designed to solve these problems. The trading mechanism is called a "smart market". A smart market allows simultaneous many-to-many trades. It can reduce the transaction costs of water trading, while improving environmental outcomes. The smart market depends on a combination of recent technologies: hydrology simulation, computer power, and the Internet. Our smart market design uses standard hydrological models, user bids from a web page, and computer optimization to maximize the economic value of water while meeting all environmental constraints. Before the smart market can be implemented, however, users and the water agency must meet six critical prerequisites. These prerequisites may be viewed as simply good water management that should be done anyway. I will describe these prerequisites, and I will briefly discuss common arguments against water markets. This talk will be an abstract of a forthcoming book, "Smart Markets for Water Resources: A Manual for Implementation," by John F. Raffensperger and Mark W. Milke, from Springer Publishing.

  7. Department of Water Resources and Environm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-05-01

    May 1, 2015 ... tolerable gauge network density of 1 gauge per 3000km. 2 ... for Nigeria. In the Sahelian region of West. Africa ... number of functional stations in the area is far less than this ..... Water Resources Development, 9(4):. 411 – 424.

  8. Public participation in water resources management: Restructuring model of upstream Musi watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Yuli; Zagloel, T. Yuri M.; Koestoer, R. H.; Suparmoko, M.

    2017-11-01

    Water is the source of life needed by living things. Human as one of living most in needs of water. Because the population growth follows the geometrical progression, while the natural resource increases calculates the arithmetic. Humans besides needing water also need land for shelter and for their livelihood needs, such as gardening or rice farmers. If the water absorption area is reduced, water availability will decrease. Therefore it is necessary to conduct an in-depth study of water resources management involving the community. The purpose of this study is to analyze community participation in water resources management, so that its availability can still meet the needs of living and sustainable. The method that used the level of community participation according to Arstein theory. The results obtained that community participation is at the level of partnership and power delegation. This level of participation is at the level of participation that determines the sustainability of water resources for present and future generations.

  9. Research on monitoring system of water resources in irrigation region based on multi-agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, T H; Wang, D S

    2012-01-01

    Irrigation agriculture is the basis of agriculture and rural economic development in China. Realizing the water resource information of irrigated area will make full use of existing water resource and increase benefit of irrigation agriculture greatly. However, the water resource information system of many irrigated areas in our country is not still very sound at present, it lead to the wasting of a lot of water resources. This paper has analyzed the existing water resource monitoring system of irrigated areas, introduced the Multi-Agent theories, and set up a water resource monitoring system of irrigated area based on multi-Agent. This system is composed of monitoring multi-Agent federal, telemetry multi-Agent federal, and the Communication Network GSM between them. It can make full use of good intelligence and communication coordination in the multi-Agent federation interior, improve the dynamic monitoring and controlling timeliness of water resource of irrigated area greatly, provide information service for the sustainable development of irrigated area, and lay a foundation for realizing high information of water resource of irrigated area.

  10. Participatory Water Resources Modeling in a Water-Scarce Basin (Rio Sonora, Mexico) Reveals Uncertainty in Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, A. S.; Vivoni, E. R.; Halvorsen, K. E.; Kossak, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Rio Sonora Basin (RSB) in northwest Mexico has a semi-arid and highly variable climate along with urban and agricultural pressures on water resources. Three participatory modeling workshops were held in the RSB in spring 2013. A model of the water resources system, consisting of a watershed hydrology model, a model of the water infrastructure, and groundwater models, was developed deliberatively in the workshops, along with scenarios of future climate and development. Participants were asked to design water resources management strategies by choosing from a range of supply augmentation and demand reduction measures associated with water conservation. Participants assessed water supply reliability, measured as the average daily supply divided by daily demand for historical and future periods, by probing with the climate and development scenarios. Pre- and post-workshop-surveys were developed and administered, based on conceptual models of workshop participants' beliefs regarding modeling and local water resources. The survey results indicate that participants believed their modeling abilities increased and beliefs in the utility of models increased as a result of the workshops. The selected water resources strategies varied widely among participants. Wastewater reuse for industry and aquifer recharge were popular options, but significant numbers of participants thought that inter-basin transfers and desalination were viable. The majority of participants indicated that substantial increases in agricultural water efficiency could be achieved. On average, participants chose strategies that produce reliabilities over the historical and future periods of 95%, but more than 20% of participants were apparently satisfied with reliabilities lower than 80%. The wide range of strategies chosen and associated reliabilities indicate that there is a substantial degree of uncertainty in how future water resources decisions could be made in the region.

  11. Analyses of impacts of China's international trade on its water resources and uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. Y.; Yang, H.; Shi, M. J.; Zehnder, A. J. B.; Abbaspour, K. C.

    2011-04-01

    This study provides an insight into the impact of China's international trade of goods and services on its water resources and uses. Virtual water flows associated with China's international trade are quantified in an input-output framework. The analysis is scaled down to the sectoral and provincial levels to trace the origins and destinations of virtual water flows associated with the international trade. The results reveal that China is a net virtual water exporter of 4.7 × 1010 m3 year-1, accounting for 2.1% of its total water resources and 8.9% of the total water use. Water scarce regions tend to have higher percentages of virtual water export relative to their water resources and water uses. In the water scarce Huang-Huai-Hai region, the net virtual water export accounts for 7.9% of the region's water resources and 11.2% of its water uses. For individual sectors, major net virtual water exporters are those where agriculture provides raw materials in the initial process of the production chain and/or pollution intensity is high. The results suggest that China's economic gains from being a world "manufacture factory" have come at a high cost to its water resources and through pollution to its environment.

  12. The development of water services and their interaction with water resources in European and Brazilian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barraqué

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The extension and complexity of large cities creates "urban water" and a related issue: public water services, including public water supply, sewage collection and treatment, and storm water control, had previously become a policy sector separate from water resource allocation issues thanks to water transport and treatment technologies. Large metropolitan areas today cannot take nature for granted anymore, and they need to protect water resources, if only to reduce the long term cost of transporting and treating water. In this paper, we compare the historical development of water services in European and Brazilian metropolitan areas, placing the technological developments in their geographic, socio-economic and political contexts. Our frame is to follow the successive contributions of civil engineering, sanitary engineering, and environmental engineering: the "quantity of water" and civil engineering paradigm allowed to mobilise water in and out of the city, and up the hills or the floors; in the "water quality" and chemical/sanitary engineering paradigm, water treatment gave more freedom to cities to take water from rivers closer to them, but also to reduce sewer discharge impacts; lastly, the environmental engineering paradigm proposes to overcome the supply side perspective, by introducing demand side management, water conservation, water allocation flexibilisation, and an integrated approach to water services, water resources management, and land use policies.

  13. Hydrological Modeling and WEB-GIS for the Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierleoni, A.; Bellezza, M.; Casadei, S.; Manciola, P.

    2006-12-01

    Water resources are a strategically natural resource although they can be extremely susceptible to degradation. As a matter of fact the increasing demand from multipurpose uses, which often are in competition amongst themselves, seems to affect the concept of sustainability per se', thus highlighting phenomena of quality-quantity degradation of water resources. In this context, the issue of water resource management rises to a more important role, especially when, other then the traditional uses for civil, industrial and agronomic purposes, environmental demands are taken into consideration. In particular, for environmental demands we mean: to preserve minimal flows, to conserve ecosystems and biodiversities, to protect and improve the environment and finally also the recreational facilities. In the present work, two software tools are presented; they combine the scientific aspect of the issues with a feasible and widely accessible application of the mathematical modeling in techno-operative fields within a sustainable management policy of the water resource at the basin scale. The first evaluation model of the available superficial water resource bases its algorithms upon regionalization procedures of flow parameters deduced from the geomorphologic features of the soil of the basin (BFI, Area) and presents, as output, a set of duration curves (DC) of the natural, measurable (natural after withdrawal), and residual (discharge usable for dissipative use) flow. The hydrological modeling combined with a GIS engine allows to process the dataset and regionalize the information of each section of the hydrographic network, in order to attain information about the effect of upriver withdrawals, in terms of evaluation parameters (measurable DC) to maintain an optimal water supply all along the entire downstream network. This model, projected with a WEB interface developed in PERL and connected to a MySQL database, has also been tested at the basin and sub-basin scale as an

  14. Science to support the understanding of Ohio's water resources, 2016-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Kimberly; Kula, Stephanie P.; Shaffer, Kimberly; Kula, Stephanie P.

    2016-12-19

    Ohio’s water resources support a complex web of human activities and nature—clean and abundant water is needed for drinking, recreation, farming, and industry, as well as for fish and wildlife needs. Although rainfall in normal years can support these activities and needs, occasional floods and droughts can disrupt streamflow, groundwater, water availability, water quality, recreation, and aquatic habitats. Ohio is bordered by the Ohio River and Lake Erie; it has over 44,000 miles of streams and more than 60,000 lakes and ponds (State of Ohio, 1994). Nearly all of the rural population obtains drinking water from groundwater sources. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) works in cooperation with local, State, and other Federal agencies, as well as universities, to furnish decisionmakers, policy makers, USGS scientists, and the general public with reliable scientific information and tools to assist them in management, stewardship, and use of Ohio’s natural resources. The diversity of scientific expertise among USGS personnel enables them to carry out large- and small-scale multidisciplinary studies. The USGS is unique among government organizations because it has neither regulatory nor developmental authority—its sole product is impartial, credible, relevant, and timely scientific information, equally accessible and available to everyone. The USGS Ohio Water Science Center provides reliable hydrologic and water-related ecological information to aid in the understanding of the use and management of the Nation’s water resources, in general, and Ohio’s water resources, in particular. This fact sheet provides an overview of current (2016) or recently completed USGS studies and data activities pertaining to water resources in Ohio. More information regarding projects of the USGS Ohio Water Science Center is available at http://oh.water.usgs.gov/.

  15. Guide to North Dakota's ground-water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Q.F.

    1983-01-01

    Ground water, the water we pump from the Earth through wells or that which flows naturally from springs, is one of North Dakota's most valuable resources. More than 60 percent of the people living in the State use ground water for one purpose of another. It is the only source of water for thousands of farm families and their livestock. Almost all smaller cities and villages depend solely on groudn water as a source of supply. Increasingly, ground water is being used to irrigate crops and grasslands (fig. 1) during protracted dry spells so common in North Dakota. During recent years there has been a rapid development of rural water ditribution systems in which thousands of farms and rurals residences are connected via underground pipeline to a single water source, usually wells pumping ground water.

  16. The Story Behind the Numbers: Lessons Learned from the Integration of Monitoring Resources in Addressing an ISS Water Quality Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Torin; Flint, Stephanie; Straub, John, II; Gazda, Dan; Schultz, John

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in June of 2010 an environmental mystery was unfolding on the International Space Station (ISS). The U.S. Water Processor Assembly (WPA) began to produce water with increasing levels of total organic carbon (TOC). A surprisingly consistent upward TOC trend was observed through weekly in-flight total organic carbon analyzer (TOCA) monitoring. As TOC is a general organics indicator, return of water archive samples was needed to make better-informed crew health decisions and to aid in WPA troubleshooting. TOCA-measured TOC was more than halfway to its health-based screening limit before archive samples could be returned on Soyuz 22 and analyzed. Although TOC was confirmed to be elevated, somewhat surprisingly, none of the typical target compounds were the source. After some solid detective work, it was confirmed that the TOC was associated with a compound known as dimethylsilanediol (DMSD). DMSD is believed to be a breakdown product of silicon-containing compounds present on ISS. A toxicological limit was set for DMSD and a forward plan developed for operations given this new understanding of the source of the TOC. This required extensive coordination with ISS stakeholders and innovative use of available in-flight and archive monitoring resources. Behind the numbers and scientific detail surrounding this anomaly, there exists a compelling story of multi-disciplinary awareness, teamwork, and important environmental lessons learned.

  17. A review on water pricing problem for sustainable water resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hek, Tan Kim; Ramli, Mohammad Fadzli; Iryanto

    2017-05-01

    A report that presented at the World Forum II at The Hague in March 2000, said that it would be water crisis around the world and some countries will be lack of water in 2025, as a result of global studies. Inefficient using of water and considering water as free goods which means it can be used as much as we want without any lost. Thus, it causes wasteful consumption and low public awareness in using water without effort to preserve and conserve the water resources. In addition, the excessive exploitation of ground water for industrial facilities also leads to declining of available freshwater. Therefore, this paper reviews some problems arise all over the world regarding to improper and improving management, policies and methods to determine the optimum model of freshwater price in order to avoid its wasteful thus ensuring its sustainability. In this paper, we also proposed a preliminary model of water pricing represents a case of Medan, North Sumatera, Indonesia.

  18. Integrating policy, disintegrating practice: water resources management in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swatuk, Larry A.; Rahm, Dianne

    Botswana is generally regarded as an African ‘success story’. Nearly four decades of unabated economic growth, multi-party democracy, conservative decision-making and low-levels of corruption have made Botswana the darling of the international donor community. One consequence of rapid and sustained economic development is that water resources use and demands have risen dramatically in a primarily arid/semi-arid environment. Policy makers recognize that supply is limited and that deliberate steps must be taken to manage demand. To this end, and in line with other members of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), Botswana devised a National Water Master Plan (NWMP) and undertook a series of institutional and legal reforms throughout the 1990s so as to make water resources use more equitable, efficient and sustainable. In other words, the stated goal is to work toward Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in both policy and practice. However, policy measures have had limited impact on de facto practice. This paper reflects our efforts to understand the disjuncture between policy and practice. The information presented here combines a review of primary and secondary literatures with key informant interviews. It is our view that a number of constraints-cultural, power political, managerial-combine to hinder efforts toward sustainable forms of water resources use. If IWRM is to be realized in the country, these constraints must be overcome. This, however, is no small task.

  19. The role of the municipality in water resources management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Carneiro de Noronha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes decentralization of the water resources management within the watershed, where the municipality problems are delimited. The analysis of the water management development in Brazil indicates that the legal framework is embedded in a process of decentralization. The Constitution of 1988 establishes that the superficial waters are goods of the Union and the States. Later, the National Water Resources Policy establishes the watershed as the territorial unit of management. However, the supervision and management of basins remain centralized and without providing an interconnection between water use and other environmental goods. Among the attributions of the municipality are the environmental enforcement, agricultural policy, definition of conservation units and management of the urban territory. The incorporation of these policies in an environmental zoning based in the water management allows better utilization of water availability and local participation in administrative decisions watershed through the municipality.

  20. GIS-and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Minnick, Matthew [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Geza, Mengistu [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Murray, Kyle [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Mattson, Earl [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-09-30

    The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) was awarded a grant by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a research project en- titled GIS- and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development in October of 2008. The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a water resource geo-spatial infrastructure that serves as “baseline data” for creating solutions on water resource management and for supporting decisions making on oil shale resource development. The project came to the end on September 30, 2012. This final project report will report the key findings from the project activity, major accomplishments, and expected impacts of the research. At meantime, the gamma version (also known as Version 4.0) of the geodatabase as well as other various deliverables stored on digital storage media will be send to the program manager at NETL, DOE via express mail. The key findings from the project activity include the quantitative spatial and temporal distribution of the water resource throughout the Piceance Basin, water consumption with respect to oil shale production, and data gaps identified. Major accomplishments of this project include the creation of a relational geodatabase, automated data processing scripts (Matlab) for database link with surface water and geological model, ArcGIS Model for hydrogeologic data processing for groundwater model input, a 3D geological model, surface water/groundwater models, energy resource development systems model, as well as a web-based geo-spatial infrastructure for data exploration, visualization and dissemination. This research will have broad impacts of the devel- opment of the oil shale resources in the US. The geodatabase provides a “baseline” data for fur- ther study of the oil shale development and identification of further data collection needs. The 3D geological model provides better understanding through data interpolation and

  1. Science center capabilities to monitor and investigate Michigan’s water resources, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, Julia A.; Givens, Carrie E.

    2016-09-06

    Michigan faces many challenges related to water resources, including flooding, drought, water-quality degradation and impairment, varying water availability, watershed-management issues, stormwater management, aquatic-ecosystem impairment, and invasive species. Michigan’s water resources include approximately 36,000 miles of streams, over 11,000 inland lakes, 3,000 miles of shoreline along the Great Lakes (MDEQ, 2016), and groundwater aquifers throughout the State.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) works in cooperation with local, State, and other Federal agencies, as well as tribes and universities, to provide scientific information used to manage the water resources of Michigan. To effectively assess water resources, the USGS uses standardized methods to operate streamgages, water-quality stations, and groundwater stations. The USGS also monitors water quality in lakes and reservoirs, makes periodic measurements along rivers and streams, and maintains all monitoring data in a national, quality-assured, hydrologic database.The USGS in Michigan investigates the occurrence, distribution, quantity, movement, and chemical and biological quality of surface water and groundwater statewide. Water-resource monitoring and scientific investigations are conducted statewide by USGS hydrologists, hydrologic technicians, biologists, and microbiologists who have expertise in data collection as well as various scientific specialties. A support staff consisting of computer-operations and administrative personnel provides the USGS the functionality to move science forward. Funding for USGS activities in Michigan comes from local and State agencies, other Federal agencies, direct Federal appropriations, and through the USGS Cooperative Matching Funds, which allows the USGS to partially match funding provided by local and State partners.This fact sheet provides an overview of the USGS current (2016) capabilities to monitor and study Michigan’s vast water resources. More

  2. Water Resources: the Central Component of the WEF Nexus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, K.; Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing population growth, consumption of natural resources, and deterioration of the environment coupled with climate change impacts (such as increased variability in precipitation) will challenge our abilities to provide water, energy and food (WEF) to the global populace. Less developed areas, such as the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, are particularly vulnerable to such resource issues due to immature governance and management structures and strategies. We introduce an integrated approach to resource security analysis, which traditionally has focused on the WEF components separately and apply the methods to a suite of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Specifically, we evaluate the inter-connected nature of WEF securities by considering physical, demographic, socioeconomic, health, and institutional parameters related to each of the resource securities and by analyzing the relationships among the metrics. For example, reported food deficits for countries are strongly correlated with reported levels of access to safe drinking water. Multivariate statistical analyses are applied to identify relationships among resources and to develop indices that robustly and comprehensively capture the WEF nexus. Our results indicate that water plays the central role in the WEF nexus, due to its extensive use for both food and energy production in these countries. This approach provides a framework for analyzing the WEF nexus in other regions of the world.

  3. ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES UNDER COMPREHENSIVE UTILIZATION OF GEOTHERMAL SALINE WATER RESOURCES IN THE NORTHERN DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Ramazanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study is to develop technologies for processing geothermal brine produced with the extraction of oil as well as to solve environmental problems in the region.Methods. In order to determine the chemical composition and radioactivity of the geothermal water and solid samples, we used atomic absorption and gamma spectrometry. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the technology was made on the basis of experimental studies.Results. In the geothermal water, eight radionuclides were recognized and quantified with the activity of 87 ± 5 Bq / dm3. For the processing of this water to produce lithium carbonate and other components we propose a technological scheme, which provides a step of water purification from radio-nuclides. As a result of aeration and alkalinization, we can observe deactivation and purification of the geothermal water from mechanical impurities, iron ions, hydrogen carbonates and organic substances. Water treatment allows recovering lithium carbonate, magnesite caustic powder and salt from geothermal water. The mother liquors produced during manufacturing operations meet the requirements for the water suitable for waterflooding of oil reservoirs and can be injected for maintaining the reservoir pressure of the deposits.Conclusion. The implementation of the proposed processing technology of mineralized geothermal water produced with the extraction of oil in the Northern Dagestan will contribute to extend the life of the oil fields and improve the environmental problems. It will also allow import substitution in Russia for lithium carbonate and edible salt.

  4. Sustainability of integrated land and water resources management in the face of climate and land use changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setegn, Shimelis

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable development integrates economic development, social development, and environmental protection. Land and Water resources are under severe pressure from increasing populations, fast development, deforestation, intensification of agriculture and the degrading environment in many part of the world. The demand for adequate and safe supplies of water is becoming crucial especially in the overpopulated urban centers of the Caribbean islands. Moreover, population growth coupled with environmental degradation and possible adverse impacts of land use and climate change are major factors limiting freshwater resource availability. The main objective of this study is to develop a hydrological model and analyze the spatiotemporal variability of hydrological processes in the Caribbean islands of Puerto Rico and Jamaica. Physically based eco-hydrological model was developed and calibrated in the Rio Grande Manati and Wag water watershed. Spatial distribution of annual hydrological processes, water balance components for wet and dry years, and annual hydrological water balance of the watershed are discussed. The impact of land use and climate change are addressed in the watersheds. Appropriate nature based adaptation strategies were evaluated. The study will present a good understanding of advantages and disadvantages of nature-based solutions for adapting climate change, hydro-meteorological risks and other extreme hydrological events.

  5. Water Resources and Sustainable Agriculture in 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar, G.

    2008-05-01

    in genomic, genetics, breeding and applied biotechnologies are a key to our ability to address these challenges. We must also continue to develop agronomic practices that sustain the integrity of natural resources and conserve energy on one-hand while maximizing agricultural production per unit area of land on the other hand. This will require managing agricultural ecosystems for their multiple functions and services together, instead of looking at each function/service in isolation. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of the scientific and technical knowledge required for sustainable management of agricultural ecosystems and associated natural resources. We will describe the soil, water and energy research needs/priorities in agriculture. We will also provide some examples of recent accomplishments and future directions in developing decision support tools for assessing the impacts of weather and climate variations and change, and their risk to agricultural ecosystems. We will then focus on opportunities and challenges associated with measurement, monitoring and modeling of soil moisture and its use in management and operation of agricultural ecosystems. The overall intent of this presentation is to stimulate some discussion on future directions and priorities for soil, water and energy research in agricultural ecosystems, and how the knowledge we gain from this research can be conveyed to the users for risk assessment, decision making, and multi-service ecosystem management purposes.

  6. Water, Politics and Development: Framing a Political Sociology of Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Mollinga

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The first issue of Water Alternatives presents a set of papers that investigates the inherently political nature of water resources management. A Water, Politics and Development initiative was started at ZEF (Center for Development Research, Bonn, Germany in 2004/2005 in the context of a national-level discussion on the role of social science in global (environmental change research. In April 2005 a roundtable workshop with this title was held at ZEF, sponsored by the DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft/German Research Foundation and supported by the NKGCF (Nationales Komitee für Global Change Forschung/German National Committee on Global Change Research, aiming to design a research programme in the German context. In 2006 it was decided to design a publication project on a broader, European and international basis. The Irrigation and Water Engineering Group at Wageningen University, the Netherlands joined as a co-organiser and co-sponsor. The collection of papers published in this issue of Water Alternatives is one of the products of the publication project. As part of the initiative a session on Water, Politics and Development was organised at the Stockholm World Water Week in August 2007, where most of the papers in this collection were presented and discussed. Through this publication, the Water, Politics and Development initiative links up with other initiatives simultaneously ongoing, for instance the 'Water governance – challenging the consensus' project of the Bradford Centre for International Development at Bradford University, UK. At this point in time, the initiative has formulated its thrust as 'framing a political sociology of water resources management'. This, no doubt, is an ambitious project, methodologically, theoretically as well as practically. Through the compilation of this collection we have started to explore whether and how such an endeavour might make sense. The participants in the initiative think it does, are quite

  7. Entropy, recycling and macroeconomics of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    We propose a macroeconomic model for water quantity and quality supply multipliers derived by water recycling (Karakatsanis et al. 2013). Macroeconomic models that incorporate natural resource conservation have become increasingly important (European Commission et al. 2012). In addition, as an estimated 80% of globally used freshwater is not reused (United Nations 2012), under increasing population trends, water recycling becomes a solution of high priority. Recycling of water resources creates two major conservation effects: (1) conservation of water in reservoirs and aquifers and (2) conservation of ecosystem carrying capacity due to wastewater flux reduction. Statistical distribution properties of the recycling efficiencies -on both water quantity and quality- for each sector are of vital economic importance. Uncertainty and complexity of water reuse in sectors are statistically quantified by entropy. High entropy of recycling efficiency values signifies greater efficiency dispersion; which -in turn- may indicate the need for additional infrastructure for the statistical distribution's both shifting and concentration towards higher efficiencies that lead to higher supply multipliers. Keywords: Entropy, water recycling, water supply multipliers, conservation, recycling efficiencies, macroeconomics References 1. European Commission (EC), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), United Nations (UN) and World Bank (2012), System of Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) Central Framework (White cover publication), United Nations Statistics Division 2. Karakatsanis, G., N. Mamassis, D. Koutsoyiannis and A. Efstratiades (2013), Entropy and reliability of water use via a statistical approach of scarcity, 5th EGU Leonardo Conference - Hydrofractals 2013 - STAHY '13, Kos Island, Greece, European Geosciences Union, International Association of Hydrological Sciences

  8. Investigation of Fungi in Drinking Water Resources as a Source of Contamination Tap Water in Sari, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Yousefi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: One of the most prominent concerns for the water consumers is pathogenic microorganism contamination. Wells and underground water resources are the main resources of drinking water in Sari city, Iran. The main objectives of the research project were to explore the distribution and frequency of mycoflora in wells and underground water resources of the city and their contamination effects on humans. Materials and methods: Three reservoirs and 18 wells or underground water resources were analyzed. Water samples were then filtered and analyzed according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Each filter and 0.2 ml of suspension inoculated on SDA+CG media. For fungal growth, plates were incubated at 27’C for 7-10 days. The fungi were identified by standard mycological techniques. Results: Fungal colonies were isolated from all samples. From total of 160 fungal colonies isolated from wells water, 14 species of fungi were distinguished. Rhodotorula (54.4%, Monilinia (13.7%, Alternaria (6.9% were the most commonly isolated. Drechslera, Rhizopus, and Exserohilum (0.6% had the lowest frequency. There was no significant difference between fungal elements isolated from three major reservoirs (P>0.05. Conclusion: This study revealed that resources of drinking water from an area have to monitored and if its fungal CFU be greater than a certain value, medical and health preventive measures should be taken before the water is used by human. In this context, public and private awareness should also be provided through the media, broadcasting, teachers and scholars.

  9. Effects of meteorological droughts on agricultural water resources in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Houquan; Wu, Yihua; Li, Yijun; Liu, Yongqiang

    2017-05-01

    With the global warming, frequencies of drought are rising in the humid area of southern China. In this study, the effects of meteorological drought on the agricultural water resource based on the agricultural water resource carrying capacity (AWRCC) in southern China were investigated. The entire study area was divided into three regions based on the distributions of climate and agriculture. The concept of the maximum available water resources for crops was used to calculate AWRCC. Meanwhile, an agricultural drought intensity index (ADI), which was suitable for rice planting areas, was proposed based on the difference between crop water requirements and precipitation. The actual drought area and crop yield in drought years from 1961 to 2010 were analyzed. The results showed that ADI and AWRCC were significantly correlated with the actual drought occurrence area and food yield in the study area, which indicated ADI and AWRCC could be used in drought-related studies. The effects of seasonal droughts on AWRCC strongly depended on both the crop growth season and planting structure. The influence of meteorological drought on agricultural water resources was pronounced in regions with abundant water resources, especially in Southwest China, which was the most vulnerable to droughts. In Southwest China, which has dry and wet seasons, reducing the planting area of dry season crops and rice could improve AWRCC during drought years. Likewise, reducing the planting area of double-season rice could improve AWRCC during drought years in regions with a double-season rice cropping system. Our findings highlight the importance of adjusting the proportions of crop planting to improve the utilization efficiency of agricultural water resources and alleviate drought hazards in some humid areas.

  10. WATER RESOURCES IN THE ROMANIAN CARPATHIANS – GENESIS, TERRITORIAL DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. GÂȘTESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Water resources in Romanian Carpathians-genesis, territorial distribution, management. Discussing water resources in Romania implies a twofold approach: water as a sine qua non of life itself and water as an important factor for the development of the contemporary society. Lying in a temperate zone, Romania’s water resources are rather modest compared with other countries in Europe. Inland rivers span 78,905 km (referred only to the 4,864 codified watercourses at an average density: 0.38 km/km2 and an annual volume: 40.6 billion m3, which means 1,765 m3/capita. To knowledge ground waters are put at 9.62 billion m3/year, of which 6 billion can be used in optimal technological and economic conditions. According to a recent UN statistical report, Romania lists at position 21 among the 34 European. Natural lakes are replenished from precipitation and springs water every year and the reserves are estimated at around 1 billion m3/year and are of local importance for water management schemes. The Black Sea (in the Romanian sector could become a major source if sea water desalting could be economical.The water resources of the drainage network were calculated on the basis of the mean liquid flow map (scale 1: 500,000 releves picture of river-water resources in the major relief units: the Carpathian, which occupies only 27.9% of the Romanian territory, 65.3% (26.48 billion mc from a total of 40.61 billion m3 of the water is formed and regenerated every year; the hill unit, which includes the Subcarpathians, the tablelands and the piedmont hills, and occupies 42.4% of Romania’s territory, only 28.0% of the water volume is formed (11.38 billion m3, of which 8.7% (3.51 billion m3 in the Subcarpathians and 19.4% (7.87 billion m3 in the other two units; the plain unit, which covers 29.7% of the country’s territory, the water volume formed there is small (6.7%

  11. Bridging Water Resources Policy and Environmental Engineering in the Classroom at Cornell University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M. T.; Shaw, S. B.; Seifert, S.; Schwarz, T.

    2006-12-01

    Current university undergraduate students in environmental sciences and engineering are the next generation of environmental protection practitioners. Recognizing this, Cornell's Biological and Environmental Engineering department has developed a popular class, Watershed Engineering (BEE 473), specifically designed to bridge the too-common gap between water resources policy and state-of-art science and technology. Weekly homework assignments are to design real-life solutions to actual water resources problems, often with the objective of applying storm water policies to local situations. Where appropriate, usually in conjunction with recent amendments to the Federal Clean Water Act, this course introduces water resource protection tools and concepts developed in the Cornell Soil and Water Lab. Here we present several examples of how we build bridges between university classrooms and the complex world of water resources policy.

  12. Water Resources Management for Shale Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoxtheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons, especially natural gas, from shale formations has been facilitated by advents in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies. Shale energy resources are very promising as an abundant energy source, though environmental challenges exist with their development, including potential adverse impacts to water quality. The well drilling and construction process itself has the potential to impact groundwater quality, however if proper protocols are followed and well integrity is established then impacts such as methane migration or drilling fluids releases can be minimized. Once a shale well has been drilled and hydraulically fractured, approximately 10-50% of the volume of injected fluids (flowback fluids) may flow out of the well initially with continued generation of fluids (produced fluids) throughout the well's productive life. Produced fluid TDS concentrations often exceed 200,000 mg/L, with elevated levels of strontium (Sr), bromide (Br), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), barium (Ba), chloride (Cl), radionuclides originating from the shale formation as well as fracturing additives. Storing, managing and properly disposisng of these fluids is critical to ensure water resources are not impacted by unintended releases. The most recent data in Pennsylvania suggests an estimated 85% of the produced fluids were being recycled for hydraulic fracturing operations, while many other states reuse less than 50% of these fluids and rely moreso on underground injection wells for disposal. Over the last few years there has been a shift to reuse more produced fluids during well fracturing operations in shale plays around the U.S., which has a combination of economic, regulatory, environmental, and technological drivers. The reuse of water is cost-competitive with sourcing of fresh water and disposal of flowback, especially when considering the costs of advanced treatment to or disposal well injection and lessens

  13. Challenges of communicating integrated water resource management in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marimbe, S.; Manzungu, E.

    2003-01-01

    With the promulgation of the 1998 Water Act the Government of Zimbabwe took a decisive step to reform the country's water sector, to bring it in line with contemporary socio-political realities obtaining in the country, and in tune with the philosophy of integrated water resources management.

  14. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-07-08

    China's water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability--with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north--increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content to build China's domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China's domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China's soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km(3)/y irrigation water savings, 41 km(3)/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements.

  15. Adjusting water resources management to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riebsame, W E

    1988-01-01

    The nature of climate impacts and adjustment in water supply and flood management is discussed, and a case study of water manager response to climate fluctuation in California's Sacramento Basin is presented. The case illuminates the effect on climate impact and response of traditional management approaches, the dynamic qualities of maturing water systems, socially imposed constraints, and climate extremes. A dual pattern of crisis-response and gradual adjustment emerges, and specific mechanisms for effecting adjustment of water management systems are identified. The case study, and broader trends in US water development, suggest that oversized structural capacity, the traditional adjustment to climate variability in water resources, may prove less feasible in the future as projects become smaller and new facilities are delayed by economic and environmental concerns.

  16. Applications of NASA GSFC's Land Information System (LIS) for water resources management in Korea and East-Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D. H.; Hwang, E.; Jung, H. C.; Kim, E. J.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Kumar, S.; Chae, H.; Baeck, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    NASA has contributed to resolve global water issues by utilizing their long-term legacy of remote sensing technologies supported by a state of art software engineering. In this context, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a land surface model framework to monitor and predict water hazards such as flood and drought with the Land Information System (hereafter LIS) applied to North America and beyond it to include a global coverage. However, it is still challenging to apply the LIS to East-Asia where a rice-paddy agriculture is prevalent compared to other parts of the world, but retains a high population density in this region. Thus, this paper introduces recent efforts from the Korea Water Resources Corporation (K-water) in S. Korea to establish the LIS in East-Asia including Korea, aiming at producing surface hydrology datasets in Asia. One of the ultimate goals of this project is to manage the water hazards in Korea and to provide the water resources dataset in East-Asia by adapting the LIS with their abundantly available hydrometeorological observations to support the LIS applications. Preliminary results from initiating efforts since the beginning of 2017 between NASA and K-water are addressed in the paper to review the possible outcomes after this ongoing project to benefit both entities. Acknowledgements This research was supported by a grant (17AWMP-B079625-04) from Water Management Research Program sponsored by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  17. The current state of water resources of Transcarpathia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. І. Nikolaichuk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Throughout their existence, humans use the water of rivers, lakes and underground sources not only for water supply but also for dumping of polluted waters and wastes into it. Significant development of urbanization, concentration of urban industrial enterprises, transport, increase in mining, expansion of drainage and irrigation reclamation, plowing of the river channels, creating a large number of landfills resulted in significant, and in some regions critical, depletion and contamination of the surface and ground waters. Because of this disastrous situation, the society is getting more and more concerned about the state of the environment. The public became increasingly interested in the state of the soil cover, air, water resources, and biotic diversity. Transcarpathian region (Zakarpattya is situated in the heart of Europe, bordered by four Central European countries (Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania and two regions of Ukraine (Lviv and Ivano-Frankivsk regions. Transcarpathian region (Zakarpattya is one of the richest regions of Ukraine in terms of water resources. The territory is permeated by the dense network of rivers. There are in total 9,429 rivers of 19,866 kmlength flowing in the region. Among them, the rivers Tysa, Borzhava, Latoryca, Uzh have the length of over 100 kmeach. 25 cities and urban settlements of the area are substantially provided with the centralized water intake of underground drinking water. The rural areas have virtually no centralized water supply; mainly, it is carried out due to domestic wells or water boreholes. Predicted resources of underground drinking waters in the region are equal to 1,109,300 m3/day. The use of fresh water in 2014 per capita amounted to 23,769 m3, 15% less than in 2009. The main pollutants of surface water bodies are the facilities of utility companies in the region. Analysis of studies of surface water quality in Transcarpathian region in 2014 shows that water quality meets the

  18. Evaluation of Water Resource Security Based on an MIV-BP Model in a Karst Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Liu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of water resource security deserves particular attention in water resource planning and management. A typical karst area in Guizhou Province, China, was used as the research area in this paper. First, based on data from Guizhou Province for the past 10 years, the mean impact value–back propagation (MIV-BP model was used to analyze the factors influencing water resource security in the karst area. Second, 18 indices involving five aspects, water environment subsystem, social subsystem, economic subsystem, ecological subsystem, and human subsystem, were selected to establish an evaluation index of water resource security. Finally, a BP artificial neural network model was constructed to evaluate the water resource security of Guizhou Province from 2005 to 2014. The results show that water resource security in Guizhou, which was at a moderate warning level from 2005 to 2009 and a critical safety level from 2010 to 2014, has generally improved. Groundwater supply ratio, industrial water utilization rate, water use efficiency, per capita grain production, and water yield modulus were the obstacles to water resource security. Driving factors were comprehensive utilization rate of industrial solid waste, qualifying rate of industrial wastewater, above moderate rocky desertification area ratio, water requirement per unit gross domestic product (GDP, and degree of development and utilization of groundwater. Our results provide useful suggestions on the management of water resource security in Guizhou Province and a valuable reference for water resource research.

  19. An imminent human resource crisis in ground water hydrology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence, mostly from the United States, suggests that it has become increasingly difficult to find well-trained, entry-level ground water hydrologists to fill open positions in consulting firms and regulatory agencies. The future prospects for filling positions that require training in ground water hydrology are assessed by considering three factors: the market, the numbers of qualified students entering colleges and universities, and the aging of the existing workforce. The environmental and water resources consulting industry has seen continuous albeit variable growth, and demand for environmental scientists and hydrologists is expected to increase significantly. Conversely, students' interest and their enrollment in hydrology and water resources programs have waned in recent years, and the interests of students within these departments have shifted away from ground water hydrology in some schools. This decrease in the numbers of U.S. students graduating in hydrology or emphasizing ground water hydrology is coinciding with the aging of and pending retirement of ground water scientists and engineers in the baby boomer generation. We need to both trigger the imagination of students at the elementary school level so that they later want to apply science and math and communicate the career opportunities in ground water hydrology to those high school and college graduates who have acquired the appropriate technical background. Because the success of a consulting firm, research organization, or regulatory agency is derived from the skills and judgment of the employees, human resources will be an increasingly more critical strategic issue for many years.

  20. Water resources of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore, northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Apostle Islands National Lakeshore consists of 21 islands, part of the Bayfield Peninsula, and the adjacent waters of Lake Superior. Selected water resources of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore were assessed to aid the National Park Service in developing and managing the Lakeshore and to provide a data base against which future changes can be compared. This summary of water-resources data, collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1979-84, provides a qualitative description of selected hydrologic components of the Lakeshore.

  1. Water-scarcity patterns : spatiotemporal interdependencies between water use and water availability in a semi-arid river basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oel, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis addresses the interdependencies between water use and water availability and describes a model that has been developed to improve understanding of the processes that drive changes and variations in the spatial and temporal distribution of water resources in a semi-arid river basin. These

  2. Water resource taxation with full-cost water pricing: lessons from Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Pizzol, Massimo

    Green fiscal reform involves removal of environmentally harmful subsidies, introduction of taxes on pollution and resource depletion as well as full-cost pricing for environmental services. One sector which traditionally has been shielded against Green Fiscal Reform is the water sector, where...... social and distributional concerns have had priority over charging policies. This may seem a paradox, as the water sector is of major financial significance and traditionally accounts for 1-2 per cent of GDP in developed nations. Moreover, in the European Union the Water Framework Directive prescribes...

  3. Aquatics Systems Branch: transdisciplinary research to address water-related environmental problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Quan; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Aquatic Systems Branch at the Fort Collins Science Center is a group of scientists dedicated to advancing interdisciplinary science and providing science support to solve water-related environmental issues. Natural resource managers have an increasing need for scientific information and stakeholders face enormous challenges of increasing and competing demands for water. Our scientists are leaders in ecological flows, riparian ecology, hydroscape ecology, ecosystem management, and contaminant biology. The Aquatic Systems Branch employs and develops state-of-the-science approaches in field investigations, laboratory experiments, remote sensing, simulation and predictive modeling, and decision support tools. We use the aquatic experimental laboratory, the greenhouse, the botanical garden and other advanced facilities to conduct unique research. Our scientists pursue research on the ground, in the rivers, and in the skies, generating and testing hypotheses and collecting quantitative information to support planning and design in natural resource management and aquatic restoration.

  4. Simulation of blue and green water resources in the Wei River basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Xu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Wei River is the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China and it is suffering from water scarcity and water pollution. In order to quantify the amount of water resources in the study area, a hydrological modelling approach was applied by using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, calibrated and validated with SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting program based on river discharge in the Wei River basin (WRB. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were also performed to improve the model performance. Water resources components of blue water flow, green water flow and green water storage were estimated at the HRU (Hydrological Response Unit scales. Water resources in HRUs were also aggregated to sub-basins, river catchments, and then city/region scales for further analysis. The results showed that most parts of the WRB experienced a decrease in blue water resources between the 1960s and 2000s, with a minimum value in the 1990s. The decrease is particularly significant in the most southern part of the WRB (Guanzhong Plain, one of the most important grain production basements in China. Variations of green water flow and green water storage were relatively small on the spatial and temporal dimensions. This study provides strategic information for optimal utilization of water resources and planning of cultivating seasons in the Wei River basin.

  5. Long-term climatic change and sustainable ground water resources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaiciga, Hugo A

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs), prominently carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and halocarbons, have risen from fossil-fuel combustion, deforestation, agriculture, and industry. There is currently heated national and international debate about the consequences of such increasing concentrations of GHGs on the Earth's climate, and, ultimately, on life and society in the world as we know it. This paper reviews (i) long-term patterns of climate change, secular climatic variability, and predicted population growth and their relation to water resources management, and, specifically, to ground water resources management, (ii) means available for mitigating and adapting to trends of climatic change and climatic variability and their impacts on ground water resources. Long-term (that is, over hundreds of millions of years), global-scale, climatic fluctuations are compared with more recent (in the Holocene) patterns of the global and regional climates to shed light on the meaning of rising mean surface temperature over the last century or so, especially in regions whose historical hydroclimatic records exhibit large inter-annual variability. One example of regional ground water resources response to global warming and population growth is presented.

  6. Water resources of the Black Sea Basin at high spatial and temporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouholahnejad, Elham; Abbaspour, Karim C.; Srinivasan, Raghvan; Bacu, Victor; Lehmann, Anthony

    2014-07-01

    The pressure on water resources, deteriorating water quality, and uncertainties associated with the climate change create an environment of conflict in large and complex river system. The Black Sea Basin (BSB), in particular, suffers from ecological unsustainability and inadequate resource management leading to severe environmental, social, and economical problems. To better tackle the future challenges, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model the hydrology of the BSB coupling water quantity, water quality, and crop yield components. The hydrological model of the BSB was calibrated and validated considering sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. River discharges, nitrate loads, and crop yields were used to calibrate the model. Employing grid technology improved calibration computation time by more than an order of magnitude. We calculated components of water resources such as river discharge, infiltration, aquifer recharge, soil moisture, and actual and potential evapotranspiration. Furthermore, available water resources were calculated at subbasin spatial and monthly temporal levels. Within this framework, a comprehensive database of the BSB was created to fill the existing gaps in water resources data in the region. In this paper, we discuss the challenges of building a large-scale model in fine spatial and temporal detail. This study provides the basis for further research on the impacts of climate and land use change on water resources in the BSB.

  7. Water: A critical resource in the thermoelectric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeley, Thomas J. III.; McNemar, Andrea; Skone, Timothy J.; Stiegel, Gary J. Jr.; Nemeth, Michael; Schimmoller, Brian; Murphy, James T.; Manfredo, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Water availability represents a growing concern for meeting future power generation needs. In the United States, projected population growth rates, energy consumption patterns, and demand from competing water use sectors will increase pressure on power generators to reduce water use. Water availability and use also exhibit strong regional variations, complicating the nature of public policy and technological response. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is engaged in a research and development (R and D) program to reduce freshwater withdrawal (total quantity of water utilized) and consumption (portion of withdrawal not returned to the source) from existing and future thermoelectric power generating facilities. The Innovations for Existing Plants (IEP) Program is currently developing technologies in 5 categories of water management projects to reduce water use while minimizing the impacts of plant operations on water quality. This paper outlines the freshwater withdrawal and consumption rates for various thermoelectric power generating types and then estimates the potential benefits of IEP program technologies at both the national and regional levels in the year 2030. NETL is working to protect and conserve water resources while leveraging domestic fossil fuel resources, such as coal, to increase national energy security. (author)

  8. A Connection Entropy Approach to Water Resources Vulnerability Analysis in a Changing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwei Pan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a water resources vulnerability framework based on sensitivity, natural resilience and artificial adaptation, through the analyses of the four states of the water system and its accompanying transformation processes. Furthermore, it proposes an analysis method for water resources vulnerability based on connection entropy, which extends the concept of contact entropy. An example is given of the water resources vulnerability in Anhui Province of China, which analysis illustrates that, overall, vulnerability levels fluctuated and showed apparent improvement trends from 2001 to 2015. Some suggestions are also provided for the improvement of the level of water resources vulnerability in Anhui Province, considering the viewpoint of the vulnerability index.

  9. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: water and human health research in CSIR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Water and Human Health team researches water related science to address the CSIR’s mandate, national priorities and to improve quality of life for all. The overall aim of the research is to achieve a sustainable balance between the use of water...

  10. Information in the Water and Sanitation Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, John C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes 17 articles on aspects of collecting, managing, and disseminating data about the world's water supply and use. Topics addressed include United Nations agencies involved with water resources; management information systems; providing information needed by water resources professionals; and the role of regional organizations in providing…

  11. Resolving and Prevention of Shared Water Resources Conflicts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Learning from experiences from other parts of the world, it was recommended to incorporate game theory technique in water resources conflicts and cooperation in the African river basins for equitable and fair utilization and management of shared water. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.1(1) 2004: 51- ...

  12. Linking poverty levels to water resource use and conflicts in rural Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madulu, Ndalahwa F.

    Water scarcity is an important environmental constraint to development. Water availability is closely linked to human welfare and health by affecting nutrition status and quantity of drinking water especially for the poor. It has impacts on household labour because of the time and energy spent in obtaining it. These problems are more keenly felt among the poor households and in the agricultural subsistence economy. In many areas, the demand for water has been increasing due to rapid population growth, economic development, and climatic change. Water scarcity also stimulates social conflicts between various water users: individuals, communities, industries, livestock, wildlife, agriculture etc. Consequently, local communities have evolved strategies for coping with water stress and drought. These strategies include use of various sources of water, inaction to strict bye-laws regarding the use of water, crop diversification, wage labour, and possibly seasonal migration. The available strategies are likely to vary from one area to another. Some of these actions have measurable longterm demographic consequences, particularly if water stress is severe or repetitive. Although most governments and donor organizations often put much emphasis on the provision of water for drinking purposes, there is clear evidence that the supply of water for other uses has equal importance especially among rural communities. This observation suggests that putting too much emphasis on drinking water needs, addresses a rather insignificant part of the problem of water resources and biases the range of solutions which are likely to be proposed for perceived shortages. The presence of other water uses necessitates the provision of multi-purpose water sources that can serve a number of contrasting functions. This demand-responsive approach can enable the local communities and the poor households to choose the type of services they require on the basis of perceived needs and their ability to

  13. Water use efficiency and integrated water resource management for river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiangzheng; Singh, R. B.; Liu, Junguo; Güneralp, Burak

    Water use efficiency and management have attracted increasing attention as water has become scare to challenge the world's sustainable development. Water use efficiency is correlated to the land use and cover changes (LUCC), population distribution, industrial structure, economic development, climate changes, and environmental governance. These factors significantly alter water productivity for water balance through the changes in natural environment and socio-economic system (Wang et al., 2015b). Consequently, dynamics of water inefficiency lower the social welfare of water allocation (Wang et al., 2015b), and induce water management alternation interactively and financially (Wang et al., 2015a). This triggers on actual water price changes through both natural resource and socioeconomic system (Zhou et al., 2015). Therefore, it is very important to figure out a mechanism of water allocation in the course of LUCC (Jin et al., 2015) at a global perspective (Zhao et al., 2015), climate and economic changes of ecosystem service at various spatial and temporal scales (Li et al., 2015).

  14. Water Resources Management in Tanzania: Identifying Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    many factors affecting water resources decision making, it is ubiquitous in that it permeates the planning, policy-making .... estimated that in many farming systems, more than 70% of the rain ..... Using correlation techniques, the relationship ...

  15. A Generalized Decision Framework Using Multi-objective Optimization for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basdekas, L.; Stewart, N.; Triana, E.

    2013-12-01

    Colorado Springs Utilities (CSU) is currently engaged in an Integrated Water Resource Plan (IWRP) to address the complex planning scenarios, across multiple time scales, currently faced by CSU. The modeling framework developed for the IWRP uses a flexible data-centered Decision Support System (DSS) with a MODSIM-based modeling system to represent the operation of the current CSU raw water system coupled with a state-of-the-art multi-objective optimization algorithm. Three basic components are required for the framework, which can be implemented for planning horizons ranging from seasonal to interdecadal. First, a water resources system model is required that is capable of reasonable system simulation to resolve performance metrics at the appropriate temporal and spatial scales of interest. The system model should be an existing simulation model, or one developed during the planning process with stakeholders, so that 'buy-in' has already been achieved. Second, a hydrologic scenario tool(s) capable of generating a range of plausible inflows for the planning period of interest is required. This may include paleo informed or climate change informed sequences. Third, a multi-objective optimization model that can be wrapped around the system simulation model is required. The new generation of multi-objective optimization models do not require parameterization which greatly reduces problem complexity. Bridging the gap between research and practice will be evident as we use a case study from CSU's planning process to demonstrate this framework with specific competing water management objectives. Careful formulation of objective functions, choice of decision variables, and system constraints will be discussed. Rather than treating results as theoretically Pareto optimal in a planning process, we use the powerful multi-objective optimization models as tools to more efficiently and effectively move out of the inferior decision space. The use of this framework will help CSU

  16. Analysis of the Water Resources on Baseflow River Basin in Jeju Island, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.-K.; Jung, W.-Y.; Kang, M.-S.

    2012-04-01

    Jeju Island is a volcanic island located at the southernmost of Korea, and is the heaviest raining area in Korea, but due to its hydrological / geological characteristics different from those of inland areas, most streams are of the dry form, and it relies on groundwater for water resources. As for some streams, however, springwater is discharged at a point near the downstream of the final discharge to maintain the flow of the stream; this has been developed as the source for water supply since the past, but the studies on detail observations and analysis are yet inadequate. This study utilizes the ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) hydrometer to regularly observe the flow amount of base run-off stream, and the water resources of base discharge basin of Jeju Island were analyzed using the SWAT (Soil & Water Assessment Tool) model. The detail water resource analysis study using modeling and site observation with high precision for Jeju Island water resources is expected to become the foundation for efficient usage and security of water resources against future climate changes.

  17. Multiobjective optimization of urban water resources: Moving toward more practical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Mohammad; Kuczera, George; Cui, Lijie

    2012-03-01

    The issue of drought security is of paramount importance for cities located in regions subject to severe prolonged droughts. The prospect of "running out of water" for an extended period would threaten the very existence of the city. Managing drought security for an urban water supply is a complex task involving trade-offs between conflicting objectives. In this paper a multiobjective optimization approach for urban water resource planning and operation is developed to overcome practically significant shortcomings identified in previous work. A case study based on the headworks system for Sydney (Australia) demonstrates the approach and highlights the potentially serious shortcomings of Pareto optimal solutions conditioned on short climate records, incomplete decision spaces, and constraints to which system response is sensitive. Where high levels of drought security are required, optimal solutions conditioned on short climate records are flawed. Our approach addresses drought security explicitly by identifying approximate optimal solutions in which the system does not "run dry" in severe droughts with expected return periods up to a nominated (typically large) value. In addition, it is shown that failure to optimize the full mix of interacting operational and infrastructure decisions and to explore the trade-offs associated with sensitive constraints can lead to significantly more costly solutions.

  18. Serious-game for water resources management adaptation training to climatic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Eve; Saulnier, Georges-Marie

    2013-04-01

    Water resources access is a main issue for territorial development to ensure environmental and human well-being. Indeed, sustainable development is vulnerable to water availability and climate change may affect the quantity and temporality of available water resources for anthropogenic water uses. How then to adapt, how to change water management rules and practices and how to involve stakeholders is such process? To prevent water scarcity situations, which may generate conflicts and impacts on ecosystems, it is important to think about a sustainable development where anthropogenic water uses are in good balance with forecasted water resources availability. This implies to raise awareness and involve stakeholders for a sustainable water management. Stakeholders have to think about future territorial development taking into account climate change impacts on water resources. Collaboration between scientists and stakeholders is essential to insure consistent climate change knowledge, well identification of anthropogenic uses, tensions and stakes of the territory. However sharing information on complex questions such as climate change, hydro-meteorological modeling and practical constraints may be a difficult task. Therefore to contribute to an easier debate and to the global training of all the interested actors, a serious game about water management was built. The serious game uses scientist complex models with real data but via a simple and playful web-game interface. The advantage of this interface is that it may help stakeholders, citizen or the target group to raise their understandings of impacts of climate change on water resources and to raise their awareness to the need for a sustainable water management while using state-of-the-art knowledge. The principle of the game is simple. The gamer is a mayor of a city and has to manage the water withdrawals from hydro systems, water distribution and consumption, water retreatment etc. In the same time, a clock is

  19. optimization of water resources allocation in semi-arid region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eng Obi Ibeje

    This study is aimed at achieving optimal water resources allocation .... (2005) points out, in his discussions of non- cooperative games model ... the linear and dynamic programming model which many ... e.g. Institute of Water and Hydropower.

  20. A solution to the water resources crisis in wetlands: development of a scenario-based modeling approach with uncertain features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ying; Huang, Guohe; Sun, Wei

    2013-01-01

    A scenario-based interval two-phase fuzzy programming (SITF) method was developed for water resources planning in a wetland ecosystem. The SITF approach incorporates two-phase fuzzy programming, interval mathematical programming, and scenario analysis within a general framework. It can tackle fuzzy and interval uncertainties in terms of cost coefficients, resources availabilities, water demands, hydrological conditions and other parameters within a multi-source supply and multi-sector consumption context. The SITF method has the advantage in effectively improving the membership degrees of the system objective and all fuzzy constraints, so that both higher satisfactory grade of the objective and more efficient utilization of system resources can be guaranteed. Under the systematic consideration of water demands by the ecosystem, the SITF method was successfully applied to Baiyangdian Lake, which is the largest wetland in North China. Multi-source supplies (including the inter-basin water sources of Yuecheng Reservoir and Yellow River), and multiple water users (including agricultural, industrial and domestic sectors) were taken into account. The results indicated that, the SITF approach would generate useful solutions to identify long-term water allocation and transfer schemes under multiple economic, environmental, ecological, and system-security targets. It can address a comparative analysis for the system satisfactory degrees of decisions under various policy scenarios. Moreover, it is of significance to quantify the relationship between hydrological change and human activities, such that a scheme on ecologically sustainable water supply to Baiyangdian Lake can be achieved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Towards the assessment of climate change and human activities impacts on the water resources of the Ebro catchment (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, M.; Ruelland, D.; Dezetter, A.; Ardoin-Bardin, S.; Thivet, G.; Servat, E.

    2012-04-01

    module has also been implemented in the model. The ability of water resources to satisfy the water demands is assessed by computing a water allocation index which depends on site priorities and supply preferences. This modelling framework was applied to eight sub-catchments, each one representative of typical climatic or water use conditions within the basin, over the 1971-1990 period. The results show the interest of integrated modelling to address water resources vulnerability. The hydrological response to climatic and anthropogenic variations witnesses the influence of both these pressures on water resources availability. Moreover, the water allocation index makes it possible to highlight the growing competition among users, especially during the summer season. The developed methodology hence provides us a more complete analysis to support decision-making compared to uncoupled analysis. This study is a first step towards evaluating future water resources availability and ability to satisfy water demands under climatic and anthropogenic pressures scenarios.

  2. Recruitment and Selection Strategies in Optometric Education towards Addressing Human Resource Disparities in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, V. R.; Loughman, James; Naidoo, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    The dire need for eye care services and a dearth of human resources (HR) in sub-Saharan Africa motivated the setting up of new optometry programmes. However, to make a meaningful impact, geographical, gender, economic and educational disparities must additionally be addressed. A qualitative study utilizing purposive sampling to select academic…

  3. International symposium on advances in isotope hydrology and its role in sustainable water resources management (IHS-2007). Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The quadrennial IAEA isotope hydrology symposia provide an international forum for a comprehensive review of the state of the art and recent advances in this field. The symposia also facilitate the transfer of information, knowledge and interactions between developed and developing countries. Isotopes are increasingly being used to address many of the challenges in sustainable water resources management. The integration of these tools with classical methods and spatial information technologies has been growing rapidly over the past sel years. These have provided unsurpassed capabilities to apply nuclear and geochemical techniques in complex hydrological systems. The main objectives of this symposium are to: - Review the state of the art in isotope hydrology; - Outline recent developments in the application of isotope techniques for water resources management; - Identify future trends and developments for research and applications.

  4. International symposium on advances in isotope hydrology and its role in sustainable water resources management (IHS-2007). Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The quadrennial IAEA isotope hydrology symposia provide an international forum for a comprehensive review of the state of the art and recent advances in this field. The symposia also facilitate the transfer of information, knowledge and interactions between developed and developing countries. Isotopes are increasingly being used to address many of the challenges in sustainable water resources management. The integration of these tools with classical methods and spatial information technologies has been growing rapidly over the past several years. These have provided unsurpassed capabilities to apply nuclear and geochemical techniques in complex hydrological systems. The main objectives of this symposium are to: - Review the state of the art in isotope hydrology; - Outline recent developments in the application of isotope techniques for water resources management; - Identify future trends and developments for research and applications

  5. Effects of climate change on evapotranspiration over the Okavango Delta water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Oliver; Hambira, Wame L.

    2018-06-01

    In semi-arid developing countries, most poor people depend on contaminated surface or groundwater resources since they do not have access to safe and centrally supplied water. These water resources are threatened by several factors that include high evapotranspiration rates. In the Okavango Delta region in the north-western Botswana, communities facing insufficient centrally supplied water rely mainly on the surface water resources of the Delta. The Delta loses about 98% of its water through evapotranspiration. However, the 2% remaining water rescues the communities facing insufficient water from the main stream water supply. To understand the effects of climate change on evapotranspiration over the Okavango Delta water resources, this study analysed trends in the main climatic parameters needed as input variables in evapotranspiration models. The Mann Kendall test was used in the analysis. Trend analysis is crucial since it reveals the direction of trends in the climatic parameters, which is helpful in determining the effects of climate change on evapotranspiration. The main climatic parameters required as input variables in evapotranspiration models that were of interest in this study were wind speeds, solar radiation and relative humidity. Very little research has been conducted on these climatic parameters in the Okavango Delta region. The conducted trend analysis was more on wind speeds, which had relatively longer data records than the other two climatic parameters of interest. Generally, statistically significant increasing trends have been found, which suggests that climate change is likely to further increase evapotranspiration over the Okavango Delta water resources.

  6. Waters Without Borders: Scarcity and the Future of State Interactions over Shared Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    earth’s water is fresh water , stored in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, glaciers, permanent snow, groundwater aquifers, and the atmosphere. 10 This... freshwater resources between and within countries. 13 There is significant media attention given to intra-state water sharing issues. One...intrusion into coastal ground freshwater sources, among other effects. Consequently, water scarcity brought about by climate change could drive

  7. Identifying Key Features, Cutting Edge Cloud Resources, and Artificial Intelligence Tools to Achieve User-Friendly Water Science in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Decision making for groundwater systems is becoming increasingly important, as shifting water demands increasingly impact aquifers. As buffer systems, aquifers provide room for resilient responses and augment the actual timeframe for hydrological response. Yet the pace impacts, climate shifts, and degradation of water resources is accelerating. To meet these new drivers, groundwater science is transitioning toward the emerging field of Integrated Water Resources Management, or IWRM. IWRM incorporates a broad array of dimensions, methods, and tools to address problems that tend to be complex. Computational tools and accessible cyberinfrastructure (CI) are needed to cross the chasm between science and society. Fortunately cloud computing environments, such as the new Jetstream system, are evolving rapidly. While still targeting scientific user groups systems such as, Jetstream, offer configurable cyberinfrastructure to enable interactive computing and data analysis resources on demand. The web-based interfaces allow researchers to rapidly customize virtual machines, modify computing architecture and increase the usability and access for broader audiences to advanced compute environments. The result enables dexterous configurations and opening up opportunities for IWRM modelers to expand the reach of analyses, number of case studies, and quality of engagement with stakeholders and decision makers. The acute need to identify improved IWRM solutions paired with advanced computational resources refocuses the attention of IWRM researchers on applications, workflows, and intelligent systems that are capable of accelerating progress. IWRM must address key drivers of community concern, implement transdisciplinary methodologies, adapt and apply decision support tools in order to effectively support decisions about groundwater resource management. This presentation will provide an overview of advanced computing services in the cloud using integrated groundwater management case

  8. Science requirements for free-flying imaging radar (FIREX) experiment for sea ice, renewable resources, nonrenewable resources and oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.

    1982-01-01

    A future bilateral SAR program was studied. The requirements supporting a SAR mission posed by science and operations in sea-ice-covered waters, oceanography, renewable resources, and nonrenewable resources are addressed. The instrument, mission, and program parameters were discussed. Research investigations supporting a SAR flight and the subsequent overall mission requirements and tradeoffs are summarized.

  9. Bioregional Assessments: Determining the Impacts of Coal Resource Development on Water Resources in Australia through Groundwater, Surface Water and Ecological Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, L. J.; Post, D. A.; Crosbie, R.; Holland, K.

    2017-12-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States, in Australia extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed `coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus to date. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics including the potential requirement for hydraulic fracturing. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction on surface and groundwater resources may be of even greater concern. The Australian Federal Government commissioned a multi-disciplinary programme of bioregional assessments to improve understanding of the potential impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining activities on water resources and water-dependent assets across six bioregions Australia. A bioregional assessment is a transparent scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. The first step in the analysis is to establish the most likely scenario for coal development in each region and establish a causal pathway linking coal development to impacts to the social, economic and ecological functioning of water resources. This forms the basis for a sequence of probabilistic geological, hydrogeological, hydrological and ecological models to quantify the probability of potential impacts. This suite of models is developed independent of the proponents and regulators of coal resource developments and so can provide unbiased information to all stakeholders. To demonstrate transparency of the modelling, all inputs, outputs and executables will be available from http://www.bioregionalassessments.gov.au. The analysis delineated a zone of potential hydrological change for each region, outside of which impacts

  10. Dynamical Models of Interactions between Herds Forage and Water Resources in Sahelian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Jules Tewa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal foraging is one of the capital topics nowadays in Sahelian region. The vast majority of feed consumed by ruminants in Sahelian region is still formed by natural pastures. Pastoral constraints are the high variability of available forage and drinking water in space and especially in time (highly seasonal, interannual variability and the scarcity of water resources. The mobility is the main functional and opportunistic adaptation to these constraints. Our goal in this paper is to formalize two dynamical models for interactions between a herd of domesticate animals, forage resources, and water resources inside a given Sahelian area, in order to confirm, explain, and predict by mathematical models some observations about pastoralism in Sahelian region. These models in some contexts can be similar to predator-prey models as forage and water resources can be considered as preys and herd’s animals as predators. These models exhibit very rich dynamics, since it predicts abrupt changes in consumer behaviour and disponibility of forage or water resources. The dynamics exhibits a possible coexistence between herd, resources, and water with alternative peaks in their trajectories.

  11. Study on the Flexibility in Cross-Border Water Resources Cooperation Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zongrui; Wang, Teng; Zhou, Li

    2018-02-01

    Flexible strategy is very important to cross-border cooperation in international rivers water resources, which may be employed to reconcile contradictions and ease conflicts. Flexible characters of cross-border cooperation in international rivers water resources could be analyzed and revealed, using flexible strategic management framework, by taking international cooperation protocols related to water from Transboundary Freshwater Disputes Database (TFDD) as samples from the number of cooperation issues, the amount of management layers and regulator agencies in cooperation organization and the categories of income (cost) distribution (allocation) mode. The research demonstrates that there are some flexible features of cross-border cooperation in international rivers water resources: Riparian countries would select relative diversification strategies related to water, tend to construct a flexible cooperation organization featured with moderate hierarchies from vertical perspective and simplified administrations from horizontal perspective, and adopt selective inducement modes to respect ‘joint and several liability’.

  12. SALINE WATER RESOURCES IN CLUJ-NAPOCA SURROUNDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. CZELLECZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Saline waters are usually researched in those places where it is used for balneotherapy or other industrial purposes. The aim of this study is to describe the saline water sources from less known areas, as they are an important natural mineral water resource. Twenty nine water samples were analyzed from Cojocna-Pata-Sopor region, thirteen of them can be considered saline waters. The visited locations are 21, 15 and 3 km far from Cluj-Napoca. Highly concentrated springs are to be found in the old mine area from Pata village and in the slough from Cojocna. Beside the well known saline lakes from Cojocna, five other saline lakes were identified; most of them are having artificial origin.

  13. WATER RESOURCES AND URBAN PLANNING: THE CASE OF A COASTAL AREA IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana Alexandra Alves Rufino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban planning requires the integration of several disciplines, among them ones related to water resources. The impacts of urban development on those resources, and viceversa, are well known, but some aspects have not been well characterized in literature. This research analyzes a case that shows interesting relationships between urban planning, its legislation, the evolution of urban occupation and several aspects of water resources: groundwater, surface water, drainage and saltwater intrusion. The research argues for integrated and dynamic planning, monitoring and directive enforcement of the urban processes, including environmental dimension and water resources. Advanced decision support techniques are suggested as tools for supporting this integrated approach.

  14. World water resources and water use: Modern assessment and outlook for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiklomanov, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    A quantitative assessment of the world water resources, water use, and water availability has been made during 1991-1996. The assessment has been made in retrospective for the period 1921-1985, for 1995, and for the future (2000, 2010 and 2025)

  15. The potential impacts of biomass feedstock production on water resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, K C; Hunt, P G; Cantrell, K B; Ro, K S

    2010-03-01

    Biofuels are a major topic of global interest and technology development. Whereas bioenergy crop production is highly dependent on water, bioenergy development requires effective allocation and management of water. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the bioenergy production relative to the impacts on water resource related factors: (1) climate and weather impact on water supplies for biomass production; (2) water use for major bioenergy crop production; and (3) potential alternatives to improve water supplies for bioenergy. Shifts to alternative bioenergy crops with greater water demand may produce unintended consequences for both water resources and energy feedstocks. Sugarcane and corn require 458 and 2036 m(3) water/m(3) ethanol produced, respectively. The water requirements for corn grain production to meet the US-DOE Billion-Ton Vision may increase approximately 6-fold from 8.6 to 50.1 km(3). Furthermore, climate change is impacting water resources throughout the world. In the western US, runoff from snowmelt is occurring earlier altering the timing of water availability. Weather extremes, both drought and flooding, have occurred more frequently over the last 30 years than the previous 100 years. All of these weather events impact bioenergy crop production. These events may be partially mitigated by alternative water management systems that offer potential for more effective water use and conservation. A few potential alternatives include controlled drainage and new next-generation livestock waste treatment systems. Controlled drainage can increase water available to plants and simultaneously improve water quality. New livestock waste treatments systems offer the potential to utilize treated wastewater to produce bioenergy crops. New technologies for cellulosic biomass conversion via thermochemical conversion offer the potential for using more diverse feedstocks with dramatically reduced water requirements. The development of bioenergy

  16. Integrated system dynamics toolbox for water resources planning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Marissa Devan; Passell, Howard David; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Peplinski, William J.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Coursey, Don (University of Chicago, Chicago, IL); Hanson, Jason (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Grimsrud, Kristine (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Thacher, Jennifer (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Broadbent, Craig (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Brookshire, David (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Chemak, Janie (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Cockerill, Kristan (Cockeril Consulting, Boone, NC); Aragon, Carlos (New Mexico Univeristy of Technology and Mining (NM-TECH), Socorro, NM); Hallett, Heather (New Mexico Univeristy of Technology and Mining (NM-TECH), Socorro, NM); Vivoni, Enrique (New Mexico Univeristy of Technology and Mining (NM-TECH), Socorro, NM); Roach, Jesse

    2006-12-01

    Public mediated resource planning is quickly becoming the norm rather than the exception. Unfortunately, supporting tools are lacking that interactively engage the public in the decision-making process and integrate over the myriad values that influence water policy. In the pages of this report we document the first steps toward developing a specialized decision framework to meet this need; specifically, a modular and generic resource-planning ''toolbox''. The technical challenge lies in the integration of the disparate systems of hydrology, ecology, climate, demographics, economics, policy and law, each of which influence the supply and demand for water. Specifically, these systems, their associated processes, and most importantly the constitutive relations that link them must be identified, abstracted, and quantified. For this reason, the toolbox forms a collection of process modules and constitutive relations that the analyst can ''swap'' in and out to model the physical and social systems unique to their problem. This toolbox with all of its modules is developed within the common computational platform of system dynamics linked to a Geographical Information System (GIS). Development of this resource-planning toolbox represents an important foundational element of the proposed interagency center for Computer Aided Dispute Resolution (CADRe). The Center's mission is to manage water conflict through the application of computer-aided collaborative decision-making methods. The Center will promote the use of decision-support technologies within collaborative stakeholder processes to help stakeholders find common ground and create mutually beneficial water management solutions. The Center will also serve to develop new methods and technologies to help federal, state and local water managers find innovative and balanced solutions to the nation's most vexing water problems. The toolbox is an important step toward

  17. Missouri StreamStats—A water-resources web application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jarrett T.

    2018-01-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains and operates more than 8,200 continuous streamgages nationwide. Types of data that may be collected, computed, and stored for streamgages include streamgage height (water-surface elevation), streamflow, and water quality. The streamflow data allow scientists and engineers to calculate streamflow statistics, such as the 1-percent annual exceedance probability flood (also known as the 100-year flood), the mean flow, and the 7-day, 10-year low flow, which are used by managers to make informed water resource management decisions, at each streamgage location. Researchers, regulators, and managers also commonly need physical characteristics (basin characteristics) that describe the unique properties of a basin. Common uses for streamflow statistics and basin characteristics include hydraulic design, water-supply management, water-use appropriations, and flood-plain mapping for establishing flood-insurance rates and land-use zones. The USGS periodically publishes reports that update the values of basin characteristics and streamflow statistics at selected gaged locations (locations with streamgages), but these studies usually only update a subset of streamgages, making data retrieval difficult. Additionally, streamflow statistics and basin characteristics are most often needed at ungaged locations (locations without streamgages) for which published streamflow statistics and basin characteristics do not exist. Missouri StreamStats is a web-based geographic information system that was created by the USGS in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources to provide users with access to an assortment of tools that are useful for water-resources planning and management. StreamStats allows users to easily obtain the most recent published streamflow statistics and basin characteristics for streamgage locations and to automatically calculate selected basin characteristics and estimate streamflow statistics at ungaged

  18. Factors Influencing Water Resource Governance among Pastoral Community at Mkondoa Sub-Catchment Morogoro Region Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Yeremia Yohana Masifia; Sarone Ole Sena

    2017-01-01

    The importance of proper Water Resource Management with greater emphasis on ensuring sustainability quality accountability and community participation has become imminent as water resources increasingly become scarce Harvey et al 2007. Water resources management in Tanzania is governed under the National Water Policy of 2002 and Water Resources Management Act No.11 of year 2009. Other related legislations include Environmental Management Act No. 20 of year 2004 Forest Policy and Forest Act No...

  19. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TECHNOLOGY TO PREVENT WATER RESOURCES POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Zeki Gökalp; Sedat Karaman; Ismail Taş; Halil Kirnak

    2016-01-01

    Discharge of untreated waste waters into surface waters creates significant pollution in these resources. Wastewaters are most of the time discharged into seas, rivers and other water bodies without any treatments due to high treatment costs both in Turkey and throughout the world. Constructed wetlands, also called as natural treatment systems, are used as an alternative treatment system to conventional high-cost treatment systems because of their low construction, operation and maintenance c...

  20. Evaluating Impacts of Land Use/Land Cover Change on Water Resources in Semiarid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Faunt, C. C.; Pool, D. R.; Reedy, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes play an integral role in water resources by controlling the partitioning of water at the land surface. Here we evaluate impacts of changing LU/LC on water resources in response to climate variation and change and land use change related to agriculture using data from semiarid regions in the southwestern U.S. Land cover changes in response to climate can amplify or dampen climate impacts on water resources. Changes from wet Pleistocene to much drier Holocene climate resulted in expansion of perennial vegetation, amplifying climate change impacts on water resources by reducing groundwater recharge as shown in soil profiles in the southwestern U.S.. In contrast, vegetation response to climate extremes, including droughts and floods, dampen impacts of these extremes on water resources, as shown by water budget monitoring in the Mojave Desert. Agriculture often involves changes from native perennial vegetation to annual crops increasing groundwater recharge in many semiarid regions. Irrigation based on conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater increases water resource availability, as shown in the Central Valley of California and in southern Arizona. Surface water irrigation in these regions is enhanced by water transported from more humid settings through extensive pipelines. These projects have reversed long-term declining groundwater trends in some regions. While irrigation design has often focused on increased efficiency, "more crop per drop", optimal water resource management may benefit more from inefficient (e.g. flood irrigation) surface-water irrigation combined with efficient (e.g. subsurface drip) irrigation to maximize groundwater recharge, as seen in parts of the Central Valley. Flood irrigation of perennial crops, such as almonds and vineyards, during winter is being considered in the Central Valley to enhance groundwater recharge. Managed aquifer recharge can be considered a special case of conjunctive use of

  1. Integrated Water Resources Management: A Global Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Cohen, M.; Akudago, J.; Keith, D.; Palaniappan, M.

    2011-12-01

    The diversity of water resources endowments and the societal arrangements to use, manage, and govern water makes defining a single paradigm or lens through which to define, prioritize and evaluate interventions in the water sector particularly challenging. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) emerged as the dominant intervention paradigm for water sector interventions in the early 1990s. Since then, while many successful implementations of IWRM have been demonstrated at the local, basin, national and trans-national scales, IWRM has also been severely criticized by the global water community as "having a dubious record that has never been comprehensively analyzed", "curiously ambiguous", and "ineffective at best and counterproductive at worst". Does IWRM hold together as a coherent paradigm or is it a convenient buzzword to describe a diverse collection of water sector interventions? We analyzed 184 case study summaries of IWRM interventions on the Global Water Partnership (GWP) website. The case studies were assessed to find the nature, scale, objectives and outcomes of IWRM. The analysis does not suggest any coherence in IWRM as a paradigm - but does indicate distinct regional trends in IWRM. First, IWRM was done at very different scales in different regions. In Africa two-thirds of the IWRM interventions involved creating national or transnational organizations. In contrast, in Asia and South America, almost two-thirds were watershed, basin, or local body initiatives. Second, IWRM interventions involved very different types of activities in different regions. In Africa and Europe, IWRM entailed creation of policy documents, basin plans and institution building. In contrast, in Asia and Latin America the interventions were much more likely to entail new technology, infrastructure or watershed measures. In Australia, economic measures, new laws and enforcement mechanisms were more commonly used than anywhere else.

  2. Water resources of the Chad Basin Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklyn R. Kaloko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available River basin development is seen as a very effective means of improving agricultural productivity. In the Chad Basin area of the Sahelian Zone of the West African Sub-Region, the water resources have been harnessed to ensure viable agricultural programmes for Nigeria. However,the resultant successes have met by many problems that range from physical to socio-economic and of which water losses have been the most threatening. The study has called for the use of Hexa.deconal (C1-OH film on the water surface of the Chad as a means of reducing evaporation.

  3. Desalinated drinking water in the GCC countries - The need to address consumer perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomar, Basem; Hawari, Jalal

    2017-10-01

    The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries consist of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. These countries depend mainly on seawater desalination to meet their water needs. Although great emphasis is given to characterize desalinated water for its physicochemical and microbial properties, e.g. presence of metals, other organic contaminants and for bacteria, sensorial characteristics including smell, taste and color have not received the same attention. This is possibly attributed to the fact that inhabitants of GCC States do not use desalinated tap water for drinking consumption, rather they depend on locally produced or imported bottled water where color, taste and odor are not problematic. To address the consumer needs and perceptions of drinking desalinated water in GCC countries, water quality standards and guidelines, should respond to the public concern about other sensorial characteristics (organoleptic properties) including taste, odor, and trigeminal sensations. Often the root causes of color and smell in water are attributed to the presence of organic and inorganic contaminants and to bacterial growth which is frequently accompanied by the production of metabolites and byproducts that are obnoxious. The unpleasant sensorial problems associated with desalinated drinking tap water may constitute the driving force for most people in GCC countries to depend on bottled water. To encourage people in the GCC countries to consume desalinated tap water, it is essential that water testing include measurements of physicochemical properties, biofilm presence and organoleptic parameters to improve overall water quality. This review highlights the contribution of organoleptics for consumers of desalinated tap water. It extends water quality research to be addressed by standards for organoleptic parameters in desalinated drinking water. Accordingly, consumer awareness and outreach campaigns should be implemented to encourage people

  4. Watered down : overcoming federal inaction on the impact of oil sands development to water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droitsch, D.

    2009-11-01

    The oil sands industry is having a negative impact on Canada's fresh water resources and aquatic ecosystems. Members of the Government of the Northwest Territories (NT) and experts from scientific, non-governmental, and First Nations groups have stated at federal hearings that the federal government must involve itself in the protection of Canada's water resources. This report discussed compelling testimony from recent federal hearings by the House of Commons Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development.The federal government must establish enforceable standards for key toxic substances created by oil sands activity. A water-sharing agreement must be established between Alberta, NT, Saskatchewan, and First Nations governments. Other recommendations included the establishment of a peer-reviewed assessment of the health impacts of industrial oil sands development on First Nations communities; the establishment of cumulative effects assessment procedures; the identification and protection of listed species at risk; and the establishment of proactive measures designed to ensure that oil sands operators pay for the environmental damage caused to water resources. 94 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Assessment of the sustainability of a water resource system expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Rødding; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2001-01-01

    A sustainability assessment method involving risk criteria related to reliability, resilience and vulnerability, has been applied to quantify the relative sustainability of possible expansions of a water resources system in the KwaZulu-Natal province South Africa. A river basin model has been setup....... Based on initial experience the method was modified leading to more credible results. A problem with assessing sustainability using risk criteria is a favouring of supply-oriented solutions, in particular when aspects not directly related to demand and availability of water are excluded....... for the water resources system, comprising all important water users within the catchment. Measures to meet the growing water demand in the catchment are discussed. Six scenarios including both supply and demand oriented solutions are identified, modelled and compared in tenus of the sustainability criteria...

  6. Arid landscape dynamics along a precipitation gradient: addressing vegetation - landscape structure - resource interactions at different time scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, E.

    2008-01-01

    This research is entitled ‘Arid landscape dynamics along a precipitation gradient: addressing
    vegetation – landscape structure – resource interactions at different time scales’ with as subtitle
    ‘A case study for the Northern Negev Desert of Israel’. Landscape dynamics describes the

  7. Adapting a geographical information system-based water resource management to the needs of the Romanian water authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutter, Marc; Alexandrescu, Maria; Schenk, Colin; Drobot, Radu

    2009-08-01

    The need for global and integrated approaches to water resources management, both from the quantitative and the qualitative point of view, has long been recognized. Water quality management is a major issue for sustainable development and a mandatory task with respect to the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive as well as the Swiss legislation. However, data modelling to develop relational databases and subsequent geographic information system (GIS)-based water management instruments are a rather recent and not that widespread trend. The publication of overall guidelines for data modelling along with the EU Water Framework Directive is an important milestone in this area. Improving overall water quality requires better and more easily accessible data, but also the possibility to link data to simulation models. Models are to be used to derive indicators that will in turn support decision-making processes. For this whole chain to become effective at a river basin scale, all its components have to become part of the current daily practice of the local water administration. Any system, tool, or instrument that is not designed to meet, first of all, the fundamental needs of its primary end-users has almost no chance to be successful in the longer term. Although based on a pre-existing water resources management system developed in Switzerland, the methodological approach applied to develop a GIS-based water quality management system adapted to the Romanian context followed a set of well-defined steps: the first and very important step is the assessment of needs (on the basis of a careful analysis of the various activities and missions of the water administration and other relevant stakeholders in water management related issues). On that basis, a conceptual data model (CDM) can be developed, to be later on turned into a physical database. Finally, the specifically requested additional functionalities (i.e. functionalities not provided by classical

  8. Local and Transboundary Sharing of Water Resources: Legal and Equity Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumma, A

    2001-01-01

    The article reviewed the law on water in local and transboundary contexts.The aim was to highlight the mechanisms for facilitating equity in the allocation and sharing of the resource. It has been demonstrated that, the relevant local and transboundary laws are in need for further urgent development in order to be able to achieve their objectives. The objective that will be of greatest importance in the 21. century is that of ensuring that, water conservation is fostered and promoted. The effort to meet the increasing demand for water, on the whole, have focused on attempts to increase supply to water users. In the era of increasing water scarcity, the management of demand and development of legal and other mechanisms to ensure efficient utilisation of the available water resources will become the central issue of the day. Equity in allocation will take, as it's central premises the conservation of the limited resource. The law will therefore need to develop increasingly in the direction of fostering a conservation ethic

  9. Istanbul : the challenges of integrated water resources management in Europa’s megacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Kees; Sjerps, Rosa

    Effective integrated water resources management (IWRM) and developments impacting on water resources are recognized as key components of environmentally sustainable development. Istanbul (Turkey) is a very large metropolitan city with a population of approximately 14 million. Istanbul is one of the

  10. A review of Ghana’s water resource management and the future prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phebe Asantewaa Owusu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water covers about 70% of the earth’s surface and it exists naturally in the earth in all the three physical states of matter and it is always moving around because the water flows with the current. Out of the earth’s percentage of water covering the surface, only about 2.5% is fresh water and due to the fact that most are stored in deep groundwater, a small amount is readily available for human use. Water scarcity is becoming a major concern for people around the world and the need to protect the existing ones and find ways or means to provide safe water for individuals around the globe in adequate quantities with keeping the needs of future generations in mind. Water is life, and it is linked with lots of services either directly or indirectly, such as; human health and welfare and social and economic development of a community or country. The need to delve into Ghana’s water resources management is essential. The study reviewed existing literature on the various members of the Water Resource Commission (WRC in Ghana; the various basins in the country; the existing measures that the WRC authorities have in place to deal with water resources management issues; the challenges that hinder the progress of their achievements and some suggestions that if considered can improve the current water resources management situations in Ghana.

  11. Appropriate administrative structures in harnessing water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriate administrative structures in harnessing water resources for sustainable growth in Nigeria. Lekan Oyebande. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol. 42(1) 2006: 21-30. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  12. Lake Victoria water resources management challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... governing management measures capable of meeting the needs of riparian states and ensuring sustainability within the basin is highlighted. Keywords: biodiversity loss; East Africa; eutrophication; heavy metal pollution; international treaties; Nile Basin; shared water resources. African Journal of Aquatic Science 2008, ...

  13. Remote-Sensing and Automated Water Resources Tracking: Near Real-Time Decision Support for Water Managers Facing Drought and Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M. E.; Elliott, N.; Veloz, S.; Love, F.; Moody, D.; Hickey, C.; Fitzgibbon, M.; Reynolds, M.; Esralew, R.

    2016-12-01

    Innovative approaches for tracking the Earth's natural resources, especially water which is essential for all living things, are essential during a time of rapid environmental change. The Central Valley is a nexus for water resources in California, draining the Sacramento and San Joaquin River watersheds. The distribution of water throughout California and the Central Valley, while dynamic, is highly managed through an extensive regional network of canals, levees, and pumps. Water allocation and delivery is determined through a complex set of rules based on water contracts, historic priority, and other California water policies. Furthermore, urban centers, agriculture, and the environment throughout the state are already competing for water, particularly during drought. Competition for water is likely to intensify as California is projected to experience continued increases in demand due to population growth and more arid growing conditions, while also having reduced or modified water supply due to climate change. As a result, it is difficult to understand or predict how water will be used to fulfill wildlife and wetland conservation needs. A better understanding of the spatial distribution of water in near real-time can facilitate adaptation of water resource management to changing conditions on the landscape, both over the near- and long-term. The Landsat satellite mission delivers imagery every 16-days from nearly every place on the earth at a high spatial resolution. We have integrated remote sensing of satellite data, classification modeling, bioinformatics, optimization, and ecological analyses to develop an automated near real-time water resources tracking and decision-support system for the Central Valley of California. Our innovative system has applications for coordinated water management in the Central Valley to support people, places, and wildlife and is being used to understand the factors that drive variation in the distribution and abundance of water

  14. Passive Solar Driven Water Treatment of Contaminated Water Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Mubasher

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in Environmental technology Freshwater, being vital for mankind survival, has become a very serious concern for the public especially living in countries with limited water, energy and economic resources. Freshwater generation is an energy-intensive task particularly when fossil based fuels are required as energy source. However, environmental concerns and high energy costs have called for the alternative and renewable sources of energy like wind, hy...

  15. Pricing of Water Resources With Depletable Externality: The Effects of Pollution Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitabatake, Yoshifusa

    1990-04-01

    With an abstraction of a real-world situation, the paper views water resources as a depletable capital asset which yields a stream of services such as water supply and the assimilation of pollution discharge. The concept of the concave or convex water resource depletion function is then introduced and applied to a general two-sector, three-factor model. The main theoretical contribution is to prove that when the water resource depletion function is a concave rather than a convex function of pollution, it is more likely that gross regional income will increase with a higher pollution charge policy. The concavity of the function is meant to imply that with an increase in pollution released, the ability of supplying water at a certain minimum quality level diminishes faster and faster. A numerical example is also provided.

  16. Earth and water resources and hazards in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles G.; Fary, R.W.; Guffanti, Marianne; Laura, Della; Lee, M.P.; Masters, C.D.; Miller, R.L.; Quinones-Marques, Ferdinand; Peebles, R.W.; Reinemund, J.A.; Russ, D.P.

    1984-01-01

    Long-range economic development in Central America will depend in large part on production of indigenous mineral, energy, and water resources and on mitigation of the disastrous effects of geologic and hydrologic hazards such as landslides, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and floods. The region has six world-class metal mines at present as well as additional evidence of widespread mineralization. Systematic investigations using modern mineral exploration techniques should reveal more mineral deposits suitable for development. Widespread evidence of lignite and geothermal resources suggests that intensive studies could identify producible energy sources in most Central American countries. Water supply and water quality vary greatly from country to country. Local problems of ground- and surface-water availability and of contamination create a need for systematic programs to provide better hydrologic data, capital improvements, and management. Disastrous earthquakes have destroyed or severely damaged many cities in Central America. Volcanic eruptions, landslides, mudflows, and floods have devastated most of the Pacific side of Central America at one time or another. A regional approach to earthquake, volcano, and flood-risk analysis and monitoring, using modern technology and concepts, would provide the facilities and means for acquiring knowledge necessary to reduce future losses. All Central American countries need to strengthen institutions and programs dealing with earth and water resources and natural hazards. Some of these needs may be satisfied through existing or pending projects and technical and economic assistance from U.S. or other sources. The need for a comprehensive study of the natural resources of Central America and the requirements for their development is evident. The U.S. Caribbean Basin Initiative offers both an excellent opportunity for a regional approach to these pervasive problems and an opportunity for international cooperation.

  17. Regional Systems Development for Geothermal Energy Resources Pacific Region (California and Hawaii). Task 3: water resources evaluation. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, J.L.

    1979-03-19

    The fundamental objective of the water resources analysis was to assess the availability of surface and ground water for potential use as power plant make-up water in the major geothermal areas of California. The analysis was concentrated on identifying the major sources of surface and ground water, potential limitations on the usage of this water, and the resulting constraints on potentially developable electrical power in each geothermal resource area. Analyses were completed for 11 major geothermal areas in California: four in the Imperial Valley, Coso, Mono-Long Valley, Geysers-Calistoga, Surprise Valley, Glass Mountain, Wendel Amedee, and Lassen. One area in Hawaii, the Puna district, was also included in the analysis. The water requirements for representative types of energy conversion processes were developed using a case study approach. Cooling water requirements for each type of energy conversion process were estimated based upon a specific existing or proposed type of geothermal power plant. The make-up water requirements for each type of conversion process at each resource location were then estimated as a basis for analyzing any constraints on the megawatts which potentially could be developed.

  18. Socio–economic benefits and pollution levels of water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communities are dependent on wetlands resources for income generation. However, anthropogenic activities that result into pollution of water are one of the major public health problems. Assessment of socio–economic activities and pollution levels of domestic water sources in Gulu Municipality, Pece wetland was done.

  19. Thailand Environment Monitor : Integrated Water Resources Management - A Way Forward

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Water is everyone's business. Beside a necessity for living, water has implications on public health and, most importantly, can cause social conflicts. This is because water is limited, is difficult to control, and can easily be polluted. The Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) process is considered worldwide as a means to reduce social conflicts from competing water needs as well ...

  20. China's coal-fired power plants impose pressure on water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Liu, Junguo; Tang, Yu; Zhao, Xu; Yang, Hong; Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Vliet, van Michelle T.H.; Yan, Jinyue

    2017-01-01

    Coal is the dominant fuel for electricity generation around the world. This type of electricity generation uses large amounts of water, increasing pressure on water resources. This calls for an in-depth investigation in the water-energy nexus of coal-fired electricity generation. In China,

  1. An Implentation Methodology for Integrated Resource Management in Urban Water Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, G.; Thurm, B.; Klein, D. R.; Öberg, G.

    2014-12-01

    Urban water management requires innovative and integrative approaches to improve sustainability in cities keeping in touch with science progress. Integrated Resource Management (IRM) is one of these strategies and has been developed to integrate various natural and human resources. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that it is challenging to move from vision to implementation. The aim of this paper is to identify strengths and weaknesses of IRM and analyze if the approach might facilitate implementation of sustainability objectives in the water management field. A literature review was performed on peer-reviewed papers that were identified through Google Scholar search for the term 'Integrated Resource Management'. It was found that IRM has been used in a number of contexts such as urban planning, forestry, and management of waste and livestock. Significant implementation challenges are highlighted in the literature. Based on the lessons learned in many different fields, from forestry to communication sciences, important characteristics of IRM approach were found such as the need for adequate governance and strong leaderships, stakeholder's involvement, the learning process and the critical need of appropriate evaluation criteria. We conclude developing an implementation methodology and presenting several recommendations to implement IRM in urban management. While Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) is recognized as a fruitful approach to achieve sustainable water management, this study suggests that a shift toward Integrated Resource Management (IRM) can be beneficial as it is designed to facilitate consideration of the interrelationships between various natural and human resources.

  2. Climate change and mountain water resources: overview and recommendations for research, management and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Viviroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mountains are essential sources of freshwater for our world, but their role in global water resources could well be significantly altered by climate change. How well do we understand these potential changes today, and what are implications for water resources management, climate change adaptation, and evolving water policy? To answer above questions, we have examined 11 case study regions with the goal of providing a global overview, identifying research gaps and formulating recommendations for research, management and policy.

    After setting the scene regarding water stress, water management capacity and scientific capacity in our case study regions, we examine the state of knowledge in water resources from a highland-lowland viewpoint, focusing on mountain areas on the one hand and the adjacent lowland areas on the other hand. Based on this review, research priorities are identified, including precipitation, snow water equivalent, soil parameters, evapotranspiration and sublimation, groundwater as well as enhanced warming and feedback mechanisms. In addition, the importance of environmental monitoring at high altitudes is highlighted. We then make recommendations how advancements in the management of mountain water resources under climate change could be achieved in the fields of research, water resources management and policy as well as through better interaction between these fields.

    We conclude that effective management of mountain water resources urgently requires more detailed regional studies and more reliable scenario projections, and that research on mountain water resources must become more integrative by linking relevant disciplines. In addition, the knowledge exchange between managers and researchers must be improved and oriented towards long-term continuous interaction.

  3. Evaluation the concentration of mercury, zinc, arsenic, lead and cobalt in the Ilam city water supply network and resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Yazdanbakhsh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of heavy metals in water resources above threshold levels can be toxic and carcinogenic for consumers. This study determined the concentrations of heavy metals in the drinking water distribution network and resources of the city of Ilam in Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study from 6 sources of water supply and also, different parts of the water supply system of Ilam city, samples were collected based on standard sampling methods. The samples were tested with a BRAIC atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data was analyzed using nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Results: The concentration of zinc in all water sources of the city of Ilam was higher than WHO guidelines and Iranian standard 1053. Contamination by cobalt, arsenic and lead from Ilam dam, Pich-e Ashoori well and Haft Cheshmeh well was higher than national and international standards. The amount of cobalt and mercury at Ilam dam was significantly different from the levels at other sources (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The use of pesticides in the agricultural sector, contamination of water by human waste and aged and worn water pipes are the likely sources of the increased concentrations of heavy metals, especially lead and arsenic. Because there is a cumulative effect from these metals, appropriate measures are necessary by the relevant agencies to address this problem.

  4. Earth, Air, Fire, & Water: Resource Guide 6. The Arts and Learning, Interdisciplinary Resources for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ronald T., Ed.

    This resource guide is intended to aid practitioners in the design of new curriculum units or the enrichment of existing units by suggesting activities and resources in the topic areas of earth, air, fire, and water. Special projects and trips relating to these topic areas are proposed. A sample arts networking system used to integrate various…

  5. Installed water resource modelling systems for catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following international trends there are a growing number of modelling systems being installed for integrated water resource management, in Southern Africa. Such systems are likely to be installed for operational use in ongoing learning, research, strategic planning and consensus-building amongst stakeholders in the ...

  6. Water EducaTion for Alabama's Black Belt (WET Alabama): Facilitating Scientific Understanding of the Hydrologic Cycle in Low-Resource Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, L. W.; Lee, M.; Stone, K.

    2008-12-01

    Youth, as future citizens, play an important role in obtaining and maintaining water resources. Water EducaTion for Alabama's Black Belt (WET Alabama) provides off-campus environmental and water-education activities designed to increase the appreciation, knowledge, conservation, and protection of water resources by middle-school teachers and children from predominantly African-American families in some of Alabama's poorest counties. The project is structured around a variety of indoor and outdoor activities held at two field sites, Auburn University's E. V. Smith Center in Macon County and the Robert G. Wehle Nature Center in Bullock County located in Alabama's "Black Belt" region, a region in which the prosperity of local communities is low. The educational activities provide an engaging laboratory and field experience for children from rural schools that lack scientific facilities and equipment. Both hosting centers have easy access to surface water (ponds, wetlands, streams) and offer facilities for basic hydrologic experiments (e.g., aquifer models, permeameter, water quality). The E.V. Smith site has access to groundwater through pairs of nested wells. Educational activities are designed to help students and teachers visualize groundwater flow and its interaction with surface water in an aquifer tank model; compare the hydrologic properties (porosity and permeability) of different aquifer materials (sands, gravels, and clays); learn about groundwater purging and sampling; and assess water quality and flow direction in the field. Simple exercises demonstrate (1) the balance of recharge and discharge, (2) the effects of flooding, drought and pumping, and (3) movement of contaminants through aquifers. A set of ready-to-teach laboratory exercises and tutorials address goals specified by the State of Alabama science curriculum for grades 6 to 8. The ultimate goal of Project WET Alabama is to help students and teachers from resource-poor schools become knowledgeable

  7. The Process of Creation and Consolidation Committees for Hydrographic Basin Management Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Marcos Lopes Lopes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Water is among the most precious goods in Earth's environmental heritage, however, the economic activities have caused the contamination and degradation of surface and underground springs. Consequently, emerges the need to reconcile the development and the management of natural resources. Several national and international conferences have been taken place to spread this idea. In Brazil, this new model of water resources management is beginning to be implanted, culminating in the approval of The State Water Resources Policy and, later, in the National Water Resources Policy. This legislation takes the river basin as a regional unity of water planning and management. The objective of this work is to present the evolution of the process of organization and creation of river basin committees. Literature search as well as documentary analysis (minutes, decisions were used as research methodology. The experience of basin committees is considered an innovation for considering deliberative groups with effectively deliberative actions, incorporating guiding principles favoring shared management, taking as a support basis decentralization, integration and participation in the destiny of water resources in each region of the river basin. However, it is also necessary to intensify the involvement of users and other segments of society so that these groups can really work as "Water Parliament".

  8. Nuclear explosives in water-resource management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, Arthur M [United States Department of the Interior, Geological Survey (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Nuclear explosives afford diverse tools for managing our water resources. These include principally: the rubble column of a fully contained underground detonation, the similar rubble column of a retarc, the crater by subsidence, the throwout crater of maximum volume (the latter either singly or in-line), and the ejecta of a valley-slope crater. By these tools, one can create space in which to store water, either underground or on the land surface - in the latter instance, to a considerable degree independently of the topography. Underground, one can accelerate movement of water by breaching a confining bed, a partition of a compartmented aquifer, or some other obstruction in the natural 'plumbing system'. Finally, on the land surface, one can modify the natural pattern of water flow, by canals excavated with in-line detonation. In all these applications, the potential advantage of a nuclear explosive rests chiefly in undertakings of large scale, under a consequent small cost per unit of mechanical work accomplished.

  9. A Water Resources Management Model to Evaluate Climate Change Impacts in North-Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciarelli, L. F.; Losano, F. T.; Marizza, M.; Cello, P.; Forni, L.; Young, C. A.; Girardin, L. O.; Nadal, G.; Lallana, F.; Godoy, S.; Vallejos, R.

    2014-12-01

    Most recently developed climate scenarios indicate a potential future increase in water stress in the region of Comahue, located in the North-Patagonia, Argentina. This region covers about 140,000 km2 where the Limay River and the Neuquén River converge into the Negro River, constituting the largest integrated basins in Argentina providing various uses of water resources: a) hydropower generation, contributing 15% of the national electricity market; b) fruit-horticultural products for local markets and export; c) human and industrial water supply; d) mining and oil exploitation, including Vaca Muerta, second world largest reserves of shale gas and fourth world largest reserves of shale-oil. The span of multiple jurisdictions and the convergence of various uses of water resources are a challenge for integrated understanding of economically and politically driven resource use activities on the natural system. The impacts of climate change on the system could lead to water resource conflicts between the different political actors and stakeholders. This paper presents the results of a hydrological simulation of the Limay river and Neuquén river basins using WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning) considering the operation of artificial reservoirs located downstream at a monthly time step. This study aims to support policy makers via integrated tools for water-energy planning under climate uncertainties, and to facilitate the formulation of water policy-related actions for future water stress adaptation. The value of the integrated resource use model is that it can support local policy makers understand the implications of resource use trade-offs under a changing climate: 1) water availability to meet future growing demand for irrigated areas; 2) water supply for hydropower production; 3) increasing demand of water for mining and extraction of unconventional oil; 4) potential resource use conflicts and impacts on vulnerable populations.

  10. Management of water resources in the Cantareira Water Producer System area: a look at the rural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Eduardo Chiodi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Water Resources Policy established the principles of participation, integration and decentralization, as well as new instruments for the management of water resources in Brazil. The implementation of this policy created several challenges, such as establishing effective management within the framework of rural territorial structure. The example of the Cantareira’s System in Piracicaba river watershed is conducive to the understanding of this challenge. In this scenario, we analyzed the effective implementation of principles, and of two instruments of water resource management from the perspective of farmers’ participation: the integration of water management and rural land use, and public policies for rural areas. To accomplish this, we reviewed documents and literature, and considered conclusions drawn from meetings at the Technical Chamber of Use and Water Conservation in Rural Areas (CT-Rural. We identified a lack of participation by farmers’ representatives in the CT-Rural Chamber and little concern to increase their participation in the management practices. However, the support payments for environmental services projects (PES are stimulating farmers and calling attention to the Cantareira area, in addition to promoting the integration of water resource management and rural land use. However, even though this support acknowledges the importance of the farmers, we emphasize the low priority given by the Piracicaba, Capivari and Jundiaí Watershed Committee to the rural context of the area studied.

  11. Summary of West Virginia Water-Resource Data through September 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaldi, R.D.; Ward, S.M.; White, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    The West Virginia Water Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State and Federal agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of West Virginia each water year. A water year is the 12-month period beginning October 1 and ending September 30. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable database for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. These data are maintained in the National Water Information System (NWIS) and are available through its World-Wide Web interface, NWISWeb, at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/wv/nwis. Data can be retrieved in a variety of common formats, and a tutorial is available at http://nwis.waterdata.usgs.gov/tutorial. Location information for all continuous-record gaging stations operated in West Virginia through September 2008 is provided in this report, as well as statistical summaries of the available daily records. This report can serve as an index to the daily records data available on the World-Wide Web. Hydrologic data for nearly all of the gaging stations identified in this report are also available in the annual publication series titled Water-Resources Data - West Virginia. This series of annual reports for West Virginia began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report format was changed to include data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface water and groundwater, and groundwater levels. Prior to the introduction of the Water-Resources Data - West Virginia series and for several water years concurrent with it, water-resources data for West Virginia were published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers. Data on stream discharge and stage and on lake or reservoir contents and stage through September

  12. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics branch--interdisciplinary research for addressing complex natural resource issues across landscapes and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wilson, Juliette T.

    2013-01-01

    The Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center offers an interdisciplinary team of talented and creative scientists with expertise in biology, botany, ecology, geology, biogeochemistry, physical sciences, geographic information systems, and remote-sensing, for tackling complex questions about natural resources. As demand for natural resources increases, the issues facing natural resource managers, planners, policy makers, industry, and private landowners are increasing in spatial and temporal scope, often involving entire regions, multiple jurisdictions, and long timeframes. Needs for addressing these issues include (1) a better understanding of biotic and abiotic ecosystem components and their complex interactions; (2) the ability to easily monitor, assess, and visualize the spatially complex movements of animals, plants, water, and elements across highly variable landscapes; and (3) the techniques for accurately predicting both immediate and long-term responses of system components to natural and human-caused change. The overall objectives of our research are to provide the knowledge, tools, and techniques needed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, state agencies, and other stakeholders in their endeavors to meet the demand for natural resources while conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecosystem Dynamics scientists use field and laboratory research, data assimilation, and ecological modeling to understand ecosystem patterns, trends, and mechanistic processes. This information is used to predict the outcomes of changes imposed on species, habitats, landscapes, and climate across spatiotemporal scales. The products we develop include conceptual models to illustrate system structure and processes; regional baseline and integrated assessments; predictive spatial and mathematical models; literature syntheses; and frameworks or protocols for improved ecosystem monitoring, adaptive management, and program evaluation. The descriptions

  13. Simulation Games: The Future of Water Resources Education and Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla Rho, J. C.; Mariethoz, G.; Rojas, R. F.; Andersen, M. S.; Kelly, B. F.; Holley, C.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists rely on models of the water cycle to describe and predict problems of water scarcity in a changing climate, and to suggest adaptation strategies for securing future water needs. Yet these models are too often complicated for managers, the general public and for students to understand. Simpler modelling environments will help with finding solutions by engaging a broader segment of the population. Such environments will enable education at the earliest stages and collective action. I propose that simulation games can be an effective communication platform between scientists and 'non-experts' and that such games will shed light on problems of pollution and overuse of water resources. In the same way as pilots use flight simulators to become proficient at flying aircraft, simulation games—if underpinned by good science—can be used to educate the public, students and managers about how to best manage our water resources. I aim to motivate young scientists to think about using games to advance water education and management.

  14. The problem of institutional fit in integrated water resources management: A case of Zimbabwe’s Mazowe catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chereni, A.

    Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) concepts have now been accepted in various contexts and efforts are now being made to implement these concepts. Zimbabwe adopted and indigenized IWRM within the 1990s Water Reforms and stakeholder institutions designed to engender cross-sectoral efforts are now in place. Using evidence from Mazowe Catchment, this paper observes that far from fostering integration, institutions involved in water resources management are multiple, disparate and discordant. In practice, associational relationships - specifications of mandate based roles, lines and direction of accountability and evaluation criteria - of institutions intended to foster sectoral integration in natural resources management are not defined. These poorly defined associational relationships coupled with a dearth of a catchment management and development outline plan have translated into a lack of compulsion of duty among institutions. The study derives its evidence from a blend of qualitative unstructured interviews, participant observation and secondary sources. Although the weaknesses of IWRM are more contextual, it is argued, there are certain weaknesses that are also conceptual. IWRM, it is argued, has to contend with a growing plethora of methodological and motivational questions. Whilst it is agreeable within IWRM discourse that institutions need to be integrated, in practice, the approach falls short of a methodological approach that addresses ways in which the various aspects of these disparate institutions could be harmonized. The paper suggests that associational relationships or modes of interaction among institutions need to be defined. This definition should be based on a catchment development master plan.

  15. The Wealth of W