WorldWideScience

Sample records for address translation unit

  1. Organization of Control Units with Operational Addressing

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander A. Barkalov; Roman M. Babakov; Larysa A. Titarenko

    2012-01-01

    The using of operational addressing unit as the block of control unit is proposed. The new structure model of Moore finite-state machine with reduced hardware amount is developed. The generalized structure of operational addressing unit is suggested. An example of synthesis process for Moore finite-state machine with operational addressing unit is given. The analytical researches of proposed structure of control unit are executed.

  2. Measuring Cognitive Translation Effort with Activity Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Carl, Michael; Lacruz, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    and complementarities of both partners. This paper traces cognitive approaches in machine translation back to the mid-1980s and argues that we now have the technologies available that will allow us to eventually arrive at an in-depth understanding of the human translation processes. It illustrates some of the research...... methods in empirical translation process research and suggests ngrams of Activity Units for measuring the translation process....

  3. Modes of address: translation strategies or the black hole Modes of address: translation strategies or the black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Anne Odber de Baubeta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The title of this paper is perhaps deceptively succint: although it indicates the object of study it does not immediately suggest the transdisciplinary nature of its subject matter. Any consideration of the problems posed and the lexical or syntactical options available when one sets out to translate forms of address from one language to another must necessarily involve some awareness not only of issues of translation theory, but also of a series of questions usually discussed under the rubrics of sociolinguistics, pragmatics and discourse analysis. The title of this paper is perhaps deceptively succint: although it indicates the object of study it does not immediately suggest the transdisciplinary nature of its subject matter. Any consideration of the problems posed and the lexical or syntactical options available when one sets out to translate forms of address from one language to another must necessarily involve some awareness not only of issues of translation theory, but also of a series of questions usually discussed under the rubrics of sociolinguistics, pragmatics and discourse analysis.

  4. Implementation of a Network Address Translation Mechanism Over IPv6

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baumgartner, Trevor

    2004-01-01

    ...; however, NAT provides several other benefits. NAT can be used to mask the internal IP addresses of an Intranet - IPv6, the emerging standard for Internet addressing, provides three times the number of bits for IP addressing...

  5. Translation to Brazilian Portuguese and cultural adaptation of a questionnaire addressing high-alert medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Ariane Cristina Barboza; Gabriel, Carmen Silvia; Bernardes, Andrea; Pereira, Leonardo Régis Leira

    2016-10-24

    To describe the translation into Portuguese and cultural adaptation of a Questionnaire addressing High-Alert Medications to the Brazilian context. Methodological study comprising the translation from Chinese to Brazilian Portuguese, synthesis of translations, back translation, panel of experts, and pretest to obtain the final version of the questionnaire. cultural and conceptual equivalence, though 50% of the items required adjustment. Thirty nurses from a teaching hospital participated in the pretest and considered the items to be understandable. Satisfactory semantic, idiomatic, cultural and conceptual equivalence was obtained between the versions. The Portuguese version was also considered to be relevant to the Brazilian culture and easily understood. Nevertheless, its psychometric properties need to be assessed before making it available.

  6. I-TNT: PHONE NUMBER EXPANSION AND TRANSLATION SYSTEM FOR MANAGING INTERCONNECTIVITY ADDRESSING IN SIP PEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. KHUDHER

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Voice over IP (VoIP subscribers is growing vastly in the recent years due to the ever increase in smartphones, 3G, WiFi, etc. This growth leads the VoIP service providers to peer with each other through Session Initiation Protocol (SIP peering for low/free cost of voice communication. Naturally, this growth is not without challenges, especially in phone addressing. This paper proposes an I-TNT (Infrastructure-Phone Number Translation numbering system to expand the range of the existing E.164 numbers and mapping between private and public number at the edge of the signalling path. As a result, I-TNT numbering system is successfully implemented and able to allocate the expanded phone numbers to end-users in one service provider.

  7. Translation of pronominal forms of address in for whom the bell tolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Luzón Marcos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The English system of personal pronouns lacks the distinction between polite and familiar second person forms, which is represented in Spanish by the opposition between "tú" and "usted". In For whom (he Bell Tolls Hemingway resorts to the Middle English distinction between "thou" and "you" in order to reflect the social and personal relationships of the characters. However, in this work "thou" and "you" are not used as exact equivalents of "tú" and "usted". Forms of address are basic elements in the communicative, pragmatic and semiotic dimensions of discourse; therefore the translator must analyst their functions in these dimensions in order 10 produce an adequate translation. In this paper we examine some examples of translation of "thou" and "you" to find out whether the linguistic item used in the target text has the same function!,\\ and brings about the same effects in the translation as those of the personal pronoun in the source text.

  8. Addresses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Point features representing locations of all street addresses in Orange County, NC including Chapel Hill, NC. Data maintained by Orange County, the Town of Chapel...

  9. Phrasal units in literary translation (the case of idioms in Miguel Delibes Las ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sevilla Muñoz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we explore the translation of phrasal units in the context of literary translation, arguing that such units may fulfil a specific function in a work. This is the case in the novel Las ratas, by Miguel Delibes, in which the author used them as linguistic markers of the social strata and cultural level of the different characters. We have analysed the translation of some idioms of the novel in order to highlight the key aspects to take into account in the translation, the problems that the translator has to face when performinghis profession, and the solutions that can be proposed. We show that thetranslation of phrasal units is certainly not a straightforward task, and thecorrespondences cover a wide range because of the differences between thetwo languages and the numerous factors which need to be taken into account when translate a phrasal unit in a literary text, none of which seems to prevailover the others in all situations. These difficulties compel the translator to study in advance how the author of a literary work uses the phrasal units in order to plan the translation process so that the effect of the phrasal units ofthe original text is also recreated as far as possible in the translation.

  10. Immuno-Oncology-The Translational Runway for Gene Therapy: Gene Therapeutics to Address Multiple Immune Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weß, Ludger; Schnieders, Frank

    2017-12-01

    Cancer therapy is once again experiencing a paradigm shift. This shift is based on extensive clinical experience demonstrating that cancer cannot be successfully fought by addressing only single targets or pathways. Even the combination of several neo-antigens in cancer vaccines is not sufficient for successful, lasting tumor eradication. The focus has therefore shifted to the immune system's role in cancer and the striking abilities of cancer cells to manipulate and/or deactivate the immune system. Researchers and pharma companies have started to target the processes and cells known to support immune surveillance and the elimination of tumor cells. Immune processes, however, require novel concepts beyond the traditional "single-target-single drug" paradigm and need parallel targeting of diverse cells and mechanisms. This review gives a perspective on the role of gene therapy technologies in the evolving immuno-oncology space and identifies gene therapy as a major driver in the development and regulation of effective cancer immunotherapy. Present challenges and breakthroughs ranging from chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, gene-modified oncolytic viruses, combination cancer vaccines, to RNA therapeutics are spotlighted. Gene therapy is recognized as the most prominent technology enabling effective immuno-oncology strategies.

  11. UNITS OF MEASUREMENT: ORAL TRADITION, TRANSLATION STUDIES AND CORPUS LINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John ZEMKE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the world’s verbal arts offers an opportunity to consider ways that computational analysis and modeling of narratives may lead to new understandings of how they are constructed, their dynamics and relationships. Similarly, as corpus linguistics operations must define metrics, it offers an occasion to review basic interpretive concepts such as “units of analysis, context, and genre." My essay begins with an admittedly cursory overview from a novice perspective of what capabilities corpus linguistics currently possesses for the analysis and modeling of narratives. Consideration is given to the epistemological issue in the social sciences with the positivistic prescription or empiricist description of units of analysis and the potential pitfalls or advantages corpus linguistics encounters in searching for adequate equivalent terms. This review leads naturally to reflection on the crucial determinative action of context on meaning and the extent to which current computational interfaces are able to account for and integrate into global analysis of linguistic and performance dimensions such as performer, intonation, gesture, diction, idioms and figurative language, setting, audience, time, and occasion. As a tentative conclusion from this review, it can be stated that artificial intelligence for modeling narratives or devising narrative algorithms must develop capacities to account for performance dimensions in order to fulfill their analytical potential.

  12. Product- and Process Units in the CRITT Translation Process Research Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael

    than 300 hours of text production. The database provides the raw logging data, as well as Tables of pre-processed product- and processing units. The TPR-DB includes various types of simple and composed product and process units that are intended to support the analysis and modelling of human text......The first version of the "Translation Process Research Database" (TPR DB v1.0) was released In August 2012, containing logging data of more than 400 translation and text production sessions. The current version of the TPR DB, (v1.4), contains data from more than 940 sessions, which represents more...

  13. IMPLEMENTASI NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION (NAT MENGGUNAKAN KERIO CONTROL VERSI 7.4.1 DI PUSAT PENELITIAN BIOTEKNOLOGI – LIPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutang Tutang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology Research Center as an institution engaged in the research, the need for data and updated information is an absolute thing. This requirement can be met one of them is the use of information technology either by using the internet. With the increasing number of Internet users in Biotechnology Research Center and order for all users who are members of the Local Area Network (LAN can utilize the internet needed a good network management. While, during the network management Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI, under the supervision of the Joint Network Team (TGJ – LIPI only provide one local IP segment which is limited to only 250 users. While number of internet users in Biotechnology Research Center and more than that number will continue to grow. To overcome these problems, then the LAN network at the Research Center for Biotechnology service facility utilizes Network Address Translation (NAT contained in Kerio Control software version 7.4.1. The subject of this article is limited to the implementation and configuration of NAT using Kerio Control 7.4.1 version. From these results, we concluded that the implementation of NAT helps all users in the network LAN Biotechnology Research Center get Public IP, so that it can connect to the internet properly.

  14. The Aquarius IIU Node: The Caches, the Address Translation Unit, and the VME Bus Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    between the caches and the processo r/prefetcber has a 32-bit bus, the cache uses a 128-bit bus to send blocks to the VME controller . This will even...ODCJO r-- c;;r -1\\J If) a: :r r- a: .., w "- "" .... CONTROLLER RCFRIL* + P 0 OUT (0~ 31) CE* WE* P I DE * V I DE * P 0 DE * V 0 DE * P 0 IN(0...SUN3/160). On every node, there are two controllers for data and instruction cach e that cooperate to suppon Berkeley’s snooping cache-lock state

  15. Addressing the Mental Health Problems of Chinese International College Students in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirong Liu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies unique mental health problems experienced by Chinese international students in the United States. The uniqueness of these problems suggests the need to address them independently from other Chinese and international student communities. First, an overview of the common sources of mental health problems and specific stressors these students face is provided. This article then develops culturally sensitive programming recommendations to improve collaborative efforts between health providers, mental health social workers, faculty, and academic staff within universities to serve these students more effectively.

  16. Addressing the common pathway underlying hypertension and diabetes in people who are obese by maximizing health: the ultimate knowledge translation gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Elizabeth; Lomi, Constantina; Bruno, Selma; Awad, Hamzeh; O'Donoghue, Grainne

    2011-03-06

    In accordance with the WHO definition of health, this article examines the alarming discord between the epidemiology of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and obesity and the low profile of noninvasive (nondrug) compared with invasive (drug) interventions with respect to their prevention, reversal and management. Herein lies the ultimate knowledge translation gap and challenge in 21st century health care. Although lifestyle modification has long appeared in guidelines for medically managing these conditions, this evidence-based strategy is seldom implemented as rigorously as drug prescription. Biomedicine focuses largely on reducing signs and symptoms; the effects of the problem rather than the problem. This article highlights the evidence-based rationale supporting prioritizing the underlying causes and contributing factors for hypertension and T2DM, and, in turn, obesity. We argue that a primary focus on maximizing health could eliminate all three conditions, at best, or, at worst, minimize their severity, complications, and medication needs. To enable such knowledge translation and maximizing health outcome, the health care community needs to practice as an integrated team, and address barriers to effecting maximal health in all patients. Addressing the ultimate knowledge translation gap, by aligning the health care paradigm to 21st century needs, would constitute a major advance.

  17. Addressing the Common Pathway Underlying Hypertension and Diabetes in People Who Are Obese by Maximizing Health: The Ultimate Knowledge Translation Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Dean

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the WHO definition of health, this article examines the alarming discord between the epidemiology of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and obesity and the low profile of noninvasive (nondrug compared with invasive (drug interventions with respect to their prevention, reversal and management. Herein lies the ultimate knowledge translation gap and challenge in 21st century health care. Although lifestyle modification has long appeared in guidelines for medically managing these conditions, this evidence-based strategy is seldom implemented as rigorously as drug prescription. Biomedicine focuses largely on reducing signs and symptoms; the effects of the problem rather than the problem. This article highlights the evidence-based rationale supporting prioritizing the underlying causes and contributing factors for hypertension and T2DM, and, in turn, obesity. We argue that a primary focus on maximizing health could eliminate all three conditions, at best, or, at worst, minimize their severity, complications, and medication needs. To enable such knowledge translation and maximizing health outcome, the health care community needs to practice as an integrated team, and address barriers to effecting maximal health in all patients. Addressing the ultimate knowledge translation gap, by aligning the health care paradigm to 21st century needs, would constitute a major advance.

  18. Addressing the key communication barriers between microbiology laboratories and clinical units: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodvin, Brita; Aase, Karina; Brekken, Anita Løvås; Charani, Esmita; Lindemann, Paul Christoffer; Smith, Ingrid

    2017-09-01

    Many countries are on the brink of establishing antibiotic stewardship programmes in hospitals nationwide. In a previous study we found that communication between microbiology laboratories and clinical units is a barrier to implementing efficient antibiotic stewardship programmes in Norway. We have now addressed the key communication barriers between microbiology laboratories and clinical units from a laboratory point of view. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 employees (managers, doctors and technicians) from six diverse Norwegian microbiological laboratories, representing all four regional health authorities. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was applied, identifying emergent themes, subthemes and corresponding descriptions. The main barrier to communication is disruption involving specimen logistics, information on request forms, verbal reporting of test results and information transfer between poorly integrated IT systems. Furthermore, communication is challenged by lack of insight into each other's area of expertise and limited provision of laboratory services, leading to prolonged turnaround time, limited advisory services and restricted opening hours. Communication between microbiology laboratories and clinical units can be improved by a review of testing processes, educational programmes to increase insights into the other's area of expertise, an evaluation of work tasks and expansion of rapid and point-of-care test services. Antibiotic stewardship programmes may serve as a valuable framework to establish these measures. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  19. 40 CFR 267.101 - What must I do to address corrective action for solid waste management units?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... action for solid waste management units? 267.101 Section 267.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT Releases from Solid Waste Management Units § 267.101 What must I do to address corrective action for solid waste management units? (a) You must institute...

  20. Building Capacity of Occupational Therapy Practitioners to Address the Mental Health Needs of Children and Youth: A Mixed-Methods Study of Knowledge Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirjian, Louise; LaGuardia, Teri; Thompson-Repas, Karen; Conway, Carol; Michaud, Paula

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE. We explored the meaning and outcomes of a 6-mo building capacity process designed to promote knowledge translation of a public health approach to mental health among pediatric occupational therapy practitioners participating in a Community of Practice. METHOD. A one-group (N = 117) mixed-methods design using a pretest–posttest survey and qualitative analysis of written reflections was used to explore the meaning and outcomes of the building capacity process. RESULTS. Statistically significant improvements (p occupational therapy’s role in addressing children’s mental health. PMID:26565099

  1. Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…

  2. Knowledge translation: An interprofessional approach to integrating a pain consult team within an acute care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Kira; Berall, Anna; Karuza, Jurgis; Senderovich, Helen; Perri, Giulia-Anna; Grossman, Daphna

    2016-11-01

    Management of pain in the frail elderly presents many challenges in both assessment and treatment, due to the presence of multiple co-morbidities, polypharmacy, and cognitive impairment. At Baycrest Health Sciences, a geriatric care centre, pain in its acute care unit had been managed through consultations with the pain team on a case-by-case basis. In an intervention informed by knowledge translation (KT), the pain specialists integrated within the social network of the acute care team for 6 months to disseminate their expertise. A survey was administered to staff on the unit before and after the intervention of the pain team to understand staff perceptions of pain management. Pre- and post-comparisons of the survey responses were analysed by using t-tests. This study provided some evidence for the success of this interprofessional education initiative through changes in staff confidence with respect to pain management. It also showed that embedding the pain team into the acute care team supported the KT process as an effective method of interprofessional team building. Incorporating the pain team into the acute care unit to provide training and ongoing decision support was a feasible strategy for KT and could be replicated in other clinical settings.

  3. The nursing professorial unit: translating acute and critical care nursing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Christensen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and context: Implementation of current research in practice is challenging for ward-based nursing staff. However, university-based nursing academics are seen as the research experts and are perhaps well placed to support clinical nursing research. The problem lies with the divide between practice and academia; universities often use the clinical environment as the place to conduct research but this is often not translated effectively into practice. The development of a nursing professorial unit for acute and critical care was undertaken to meet this challenge. The unit’s key aim is to develop, mentor and support a nursing research culture that is wholly situated within and driven by the requirements of the clinical environment. Aim: The aim of this article is to offer some insights as to how staff set about engaging with and developing the nursing professorial unit to support nursing research in our local hospital. Conclusions: The article highlights how an effective and coordinated approach to supporting clinical nursing research is possible. The nursing professorial unit has been successful in bridging the divide between academia and practice by using a non-university approach to supporting nursing research. Instead we have adopted the philosophy that practice is the sole driver for research and as academics our role is to support that position. Implications for practice: The adoption of the nursing professorial unit model for supporting clinical nursing research is beneficial in closing the divide between clinical practice and the university The continual presence of the academics in the clinical environment has had a positive impact on research development and implementation in practice The nursing professorial unit has become an integral part of the nursing culture in the hospital environment

  4. Evolving Distributed Generation Support Mechanisms: Case Studies from United States, Germany, United Kingdom, and Australia (Chinese translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lowder, Travis R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This is the Chinese translation of NREL/TP-6A20-67613. This report expands on a previous National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) technical report (Lowder et al. 2015) that focused on the United States' unique approach to distributed generation photovoltaics (DGPV) support policies and business models. While the focus of that report was largely historical (i.e., detailing the policies and market developments that led to the growth of DGPV in the United States), this report looks forward, narrating recent changes to laws and regulations as well as the ongoing dialogues over how to incorporate distributed generation (DG) resources onto the electric grid. This report also broadens the scope of Lowder et al. (2015) to include additional countries and technologies. DGPV and storage are the principal technologies under consideration (owing to market readiness and deployment volumes), but the report also contemplates any generation resource that is (1) on the customer side of the meter, (2) used to, at least partly, offset a host's energy consumption, and/or (3) potentially available to provide grid support (e.g., through peak shaving and load shifting, ancillary services, and other means).

  5. Quantities and Units used in Radiation Safety. Address at the third national course of Radiation Safety in Radiology. May 22-24, 2000 Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieguez, Lazaro

    2000-05-01

    The address discusses the following issues: the radiological units, radiation dose units, radiation protection units and operational quantities used for individual monitoring recently introduced by the International Commission of Radiological Units

  6. 75 FR 16837 - Public Review of Draft United States Thoroughfare, Landmark, and Postal Address Data Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... comments shall be sent to Julie Binder Maitra, of the FGDC Secretariat via electronic mail, [email protected] electronic addresses such as e-mail addresses. It recognizes that some organizations are prohibited by..., participants will receive written notification of how their comments were addressed by electronic or postal...

  7. Addressing Child Poverty: How Does the United States Compare With Other Nations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeeding, Timothy; Thévenot, Céline

    2016-04-01

    Poverty during childhood raises a number of policy challenges. The earliest years are critical in terms of future cognitive and emotional development and early health outcomes, and have long-lasting consequences on future health. In this article child poverty in the United States is compared with a set of other developed countries. To the surprise of few, results show that child poverty is high in the United States. But why is poverty so much higher in the United States than in other rich nations? Among child poverty drivers, household composition and parent's labor market participation matter a great deal. But these are not insurmountable problems. Many of these disadvantages can be overcome by appropriate public policies. For example, single mothers have a very high probability of poverty in the United States, but this is not the case in other countries where the provision of work support increases mothers' labor earnings and together with strong public cash support effectively reduces child poverty. In this article we focus on the role and design of public expenditure to understand the functioning of the different national systems and highlight ways for improvements to reduce child poverty in the United States. We compare relative child poverty in the United States with poverty in a set of selected countries. The takeaway is that the United States underinvests in its children and their families and in so doing this leads to high child poverty and poor health and educational outcomes. If a nation like the United States wants to decrease poverty and improve health and life chances for poor children, it must support parental employment and incomes, and invest in children's futures as do other similar nations with less child poverty. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. General and Partial Equilibrium Modeling of Sectoral Policies to Address Climate Change in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizer, William; Burtraw, Dallas; Harrington, Winston; Newell, Richard; Sanchirico, James; Toman, Michael

    2003-03-31

    This document provides technical documentation for work using detailed sectoral models to calibrate a general equilibrium analysis of market and non-market sectoral policies to address climate change. Results of this work can be found in the companion paper, "Modeling Costs of Economy-wide versus Sectoral Climate Policies Using Combined Aggregate-Sectoral Model".

  9. On the brink of extinction: the future of translational physician-scientists in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Hideki; Brenner, Dean; Rosser, Charles J

    2017-05-01

    Over the past decade, we have seen an unparalleled growth in our knowledge of cancer biology and the translation of this biology into a new generation of therapeutic tools that are changing cancer treatment outcomes. With the continued explosion of new biologic discoveries, we find ourselves with a limited number of trained and engaged translational physician-scientists capable of bridging the chasm between basic science and clinical science. Here, we discuss the current state translational physician-scientists find themselves in and offer solutions to navigate during this difficult time.

  10. Developing a Collection of Composable Data Translation Software Units to Improve Efficiency and Reproducibility in Ecohydrologic Modeling Workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olschanowsky, C.; Flores, A. N.; FitzGerald, K.; Masarik, M. T.; Rudisill, W. J.; Aguayo, M.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic models of the spatiotemporal evolution of water, energy, and nutrient cycling are important tools to assess impacts of climate and other environmental changes on ecohydrologic systems. These models require spatiotemporally varying environmental forcings like precipitation, temperature, humidity, windspeed, and solar radiation. These input data originate from a variety of sources, including global and regional weather and climate models, global and regional reanalysis products, and geostatistically interpolated surface observations. Data translation measures, often subsetting in space and/or time and transforming and converting variable units, represent a seemingly mundane, but critical step in the application workflows. Translation steps can introduce errors, misrepresentations of data, slow execution time, and interrupt data provenance. We leverage a workflow that subsets a large regional dataset derived from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and prepares inputs to the Parflow integrated hydrologic model to demonstrate the impact translation tool software quality on scientific workflow results and performance. We propose that such workflows will benefit from a community approved collection of data transformation components. The components should be self-contained composable units of code. This design pattern enables automated parallelization and software verification, improving performance and reliability. Ensuring that individual translation components are self-contained and target minute tasks increases reliability. The small code size of each component enables effective unit and regression testing. The components can be automatically composed for efficient execution. An efficient data translation framework should be written to minimize data movement. Composing components within a single streaming process reduces data movement. Each component will typically have a low arithmetic intensity, meaning that it requires about the same number of

  11. Addressing Cultural Diversity: Effects of a Problem-Based Intercultural Learning Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Vera; Krause, Ulrike-Marie

    2015-01-01

    This article explores to what extent a problem-based learning unit in combination with cooperative learning and affectively oriented teaching methods facilitates intercultural learning. As part of the study, students reflected on critical incidents, which display misunderstandings or conflicts that arise as a result of cultural differences. In…

  12. Functional unit and product functionality—addressing increase in consumption and demand for functionality in sustainability assessment with LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Seung Jin; Kara, Sami; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2016-01-01

    is proposed that caters for changes in consumer behaviour and the use of technology from a technical performance perspective. A dynamic approach to definition of the functional unit is proposed that is based on Kano’s model of product function and satisfaction. Results and discussion: The new approach......Purpose: The static functional unit definition in the current LCA framework has limitations in addressing the changing product functionality and associated environmental impact of constantly evolving product technologies. As a result, it overlooks the changes in consumer behaviour of increased...... consumption of products in provided services as well as in growing volumes. This article aims to present a new framework in defining a dynamic functional unit of product technologies that caters for changes in consumer behaviour and growing market. Methods: A new approach to defining the functional unit...

  13. Flight Demonstration Results of an Inertial Measurement Unit and Global Positioning System Translator Telemetry System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David, Bradford

    2001-01-01

    .... A GPS translator from the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory and a low-cost IMU designed by ARL from commercial off-the-shelf components were combined with a telemetry system, packaged...

  14. 'Renewables-Friendly' Grid Development Strategies: Experience in the United States, Potential Lessons for China (Chinese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-03

    This is a Chinese translation of NREL/TP-6A20-64940. This report aims to help China's reform effort by providing a concise summary of experience in the United States with 'renewables-friendly' grid management, focusing on experiences that might be applicable to China. It focuses on utility-scale renewables and sets aside issues related to distributed generation.

  15. TRANSLATION TECHNIQUE OF MODALITY ON INAUGURATION SPEECH OF UNITED STATE OF AMERICA ELECTED PRESIDENT (A SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL LINGUISTICS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nuraisiah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the United State of America elected president‘s attitude on inauguration speech revealed through the use of modality. It investigates category, level and orientation of modality and its translation technique used by two different news media. It employed descriptive qualitative approach. Its data were obtained through content analysis and analyzed by Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL perspective as proposed by Halliday (1994 and translation technique as proposed by Molina and Albir (2002. The result indicates the followings. First, inauguration speech states inclination, probablity, obligation and usuality. It is dominated by median level of modality, then followed by high and low level. Its attitudes are expressed through subjective implicit, as the most frequent orientation, objective implicit, subjective explicit and objective explicit. Second, the first news media uses some translation techniques including established equivalent, reduction, combination and transposition. Third, the second news media uses some translation techniques including established equivalent, combination, reduction and transposition. It is argued that established equivalent produces the same category, level and orientation of modality. Besides, reduction and transposition tend to change modality into another linguistic entities.

  16. Scientific English: a program for addressing linguistic barriers of international research trainees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Carrie; Chang, Shine; Pagel, Walter

    2011-03-01

    Within the international research environment, English is indisputably the lingua franca, and thus, the majority of the world's scientists must adapt to a second language. Linguistic barriers in science affect not only researchers' career paths but institutional productivity and efficiency as well. To address these barriers, we designed and piloted a specialized course, Scientific English. The pedagogical approach is based on English for specific purposes methodology in which curriculum and content are driven by the types of daily language used and interactions which occur in the participants' occupation, in this case, cancer research. The 11-week program was organized into three sections: presentation skill, meeting and discussion skills, and writing skills. Effectiveness of the course was measured by the number of participants able to produce the presentations and written products with a score of at least 75 of 100 possible points. From January to December 2008, participant scores averaged 90.4 for presentation and 86.8 for written products. The authors provide insights and recommendations on the development and delivery of the program.

  17. Addressing Value and Belief Systems on Climate Literacy in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    The southeast (SEUS; AL, AR, GA, FL, KY, LA, NC, SC, TN, E. TX) faces the greatest impacts as a result of climate change of any region in the U.S. which presents considerable and costly adaptation challenges. Paradoxically, people in the SEUS hold attitudes and perceptions that are more dismissive of climate change than those of any other region. An additional mismatch exists between the manner in which climate science is generally communicated and the underlying core values and beliefs held by a large segment of people in the SEUS. As a result, people frequently misinterpret and/or distrust information sources, inhibiting efforts to productively discuss and consider climate change and related impacts on human and environmental systems, and possible solutions and outcomes. The Climate Literacy Partnership in the Southeast (CLiPSE) project includes an extensive network of partners throughout the SEUS from faith, agriculture, culturally diverse, leisure, and K-20 educator communities that aim to address this educational need through a shared vision. CLiPSE has conducted a Climate Stewardship Survey (CSS) to determine the knowledge and perceptions of individuals in and beyond the CLiPSE network. The descriptive results of the CSS indicate that religion, predominantly Protestantism, plays a minor role in climate knowledge and perceptions. Likewise, political affiliation plays a minimal role in climate knowledge and perceptions between religions. However, when Protestants were broken out by political affiliation, statistically significant differences (t(30)=2.44, p=0.02) in knowledge related to the causes of climate change exist. Those Protestants affiliated with the Democratic Party (n=206) tended to maintain a statistically significant stronger knowledge of the causes of global climate change than their Republican counterparts. When SEUS educator (n=277) group was only considered, similar trends were evidenced, indicating that strongly held beliefs potentially

  18. Addressing a Yellow Fever Vaccine Shortage - United States, 2016-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Mark D; Angelo, Kristina M; Ritchey, Julian; Greenberg, David P; Muhammad, Riyadh D; Brunette, Gary; Cetron, Martin S; Sotir, Mark J

    2017-05-05

    Recent manufacturing problems resulted in a shortage of the only U.S.-licensed yellow fever vaccine. This shortage is expected to lead to a complete depletion of yellow fever vaccine available for the immunization of U.S. travelers by mid-2017. CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and Sanofi Pasteur are collaborating to ensure a continuous yellow fever vaccine supply in the United States. As part of this collaboration, Sanofi Pasteur submitted an expanded access investigational new drug (eIND) application to FDA in September 2016 to allow for the importation and use of an alternative yellow fever vaccine manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur France, with safety and efficacy comparable to the U.S.-licensed vaccine; the eIND was accepted by FDA in October 2016. The implementation of this eIND protocol included developing a systematic process for selecting a limited number of clinic sites to provide the vaccine. CDC and Sanofi Pasteur will continue to communicate with the public and other stakeholders, and CDC will provide a list of locations that will be administering the replacement vaccine at a later date.

  19. Toward core inter-professional health promotion competencies to address the non-communicable diseases and their risk factors through knowledge translation: curriculum content assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Elizabeth; Moffat, Marilyn; Skinner, Margot; Dornelas de Andrade, Armele; Myezwa, Hellen; Söderlund, Anne

    2014-07-14

    To increase the global impact of health promotion related to non-communicable diseases, health professionals need evidence-based core competencies in health assessment and lifestyle behavior change. Assessment of health promotion curricula by health professional programs is a first step. Such program assessment is a means of 1. demonstrating collective commitment across health professionals to prevent non-communicable diseases; 2. addressing the knowledge translation gap between what is known about non-communicable diseases and their risk factors consistent with 'best' practice; and, 3. establishing core health-based competencies in the entry-level curricula of established health professions. Consistent with the World Health Organization's definition of health (i.e., physical, emotional and social wellbeing) and the Ottawa Charter, health promotion competencies are those that support health rather than reduce signs and symptoms primarily. A process algorithm to guide the implementation of health promotion competencies by health professionals is described. The algorithm outlines steps from the initial assessment of a patient's/client's health and the indications for health behavior change, to the determination of whether that health professional assumes primary responsibility for implementing health behavior change interventions or refers the patient/client to others.An evidence-based template for assessment of the health promotion curriculum content of health professional education programs is outlined. It includes clinically-relevant behavior change theory; health assessment/examination tools; and health behavior change strategies/interventions that can be readily integrated into health professionals' practices. Assessment of the curricula in health professional education programs with respect to health promotion competencies is a compelling and potentially cost-effective initial means of preventing and reversing non-communicable diseases. Learning evidence

  20. Translating democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    grassroots activists in social movements use translation as a novel practice to debate political alternatives in the European Union's (EU) multilingual public sphere. In recent years, new cross-European protest movements have created the multilingual discursive democracy arena known as the European Social...... to the national context. In the ESF, grassroots deliberators work using a novel practice of translation that has the potential to include marginalized groups. It is, however, a distinct kind of translation that activists use. Translation, compared to EU-official practices of multilingualism, affects a change...... in institutionalized habits and norms of deliberation. Addressing democratic theorists, my findings suggest that translation could be a way to think about difference not as a hindrance but as a resource for democracy in linguistically heterogeneous societies and public spaces, without presupposing a shared language...

  1. Unaccompanied Children at the United States Border, a Human Rights Crisis that can be Addressed with Policy Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataiants, Janna; Cohen, Chari; Riley, Amy Henderson; Tellez Lieberman, Jamile; Reidy, Mary Clare; Chilton, Mariana

    2017-04-08

    In recent years, unaccompanied minors have been journeying to the United States (U.S.)-Mexico border in great numbers in order to escape violence, poverty and exploitation in their home countries. Yet, unaccompanied children attempting to cross the United States border face treatment at the hands of government representatives which violates their inherent rights as children. The result is a human rights crisis that has severe health consequences for the children. Their rights as children are clearly delineated in various, international human rights documents which merit increased understanding of and recognition by the U.S. government. This paper calls for the improvement of policies and procedures for addressing the rights of unaccompanied immigrant children; it provides specific, rights-based recommendations which work together to safeguard the rights of the child at the U.S. southwestern border.

  2. Address Points, The Address Point layer contains an address point for almost every structure over 200 square feet and for some vacant properties. Attributes include addresses, sub-units, address use, LAT/LONG, 10-digit SDAT taxpins, political areas and more., Published in 2013, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Baltimore County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Address Points dataset current as of 2013. The Address Point layer contains an address point for almost every structure over 200 square feet and for some vacant...

  3. Use of information visualization methods eliminating cross talk in multiple sensing units investigated for a light-addressable potentiometric sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, José R; Maki, Rafael M; Paulovich, Fernando V; Werner, Carl F; Poghossian, Arshak; de Oliveira, Maria C F; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Schöning, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The integration of nanostructured films containing biomolecules and silicon-based technologies is a promising direction for reaching miniaturized biosensors that exhibit high sensitivity and selectivity. A challenge, however, is to avoid cross talk among sensing units in an array with multiple sensors located on a small area. In this letter, we describe an array of 16 sensing units of a light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS), which was made with layer-by-layer (LbL) films of a poly(amidomine) dendrimer (PAMAM) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), coated with a layer of the enzyme penicillinase. A visual inspection of the data from constant-current measurements with liquid samples containing distinct concentrations of penicillin, glucose, or a buffer indicated a possible cross talk between units that contained penicillinase and those that did not. With the use of multidimensional data projection techniques, normally employed in information visualization methods, we managed to distinguish the results from the modified LAPS, even in cases where the units were adjacent to each other. Furthermore, the plots generated with the interactive document map (IDMAP) projection technique enabled the distinction of the different concentrations of penicillin, from 5 mmol L(-1) down to 0.5 mmol L(-1). Data visualization also confirmed the enhanced performance of the sensing units containing carbon nanotubes, consistent with the analysis of results for LAPS sensors. The use of visual analytics, as with projection methods, may be essential to handle a large amount of data generated in multiple sensor arrays to achieve high performance in miniaturized systems.

  4. Text Detection and Translation from Natural Scenes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao, Jiang; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Ying; Waibel, Alex

    2001-01-01

    .... The paper addresses challenges in automatic sign extraction and translation, describes methods for automatic sign extraction, and extends example-based machine translation technology for sign translation...

  5. Leading in the Arctic; Translating the United States Arctic Strategy into Opportunities for Peace and Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-16

    the Mississippi and the Nile move into their respective saltwater bodies of water. The remaining smaller rivers account for over “10 percent... importance to the United States, both from an economic and national security standpoint. The Arctic’s future depends primarily on the eight countries who...US and Asia, this generally neglected possession of the United States took on new strategic importance .10 The dynamic and dangerous

  6. Translator awareness Translator awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Wilss

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness. If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness.

  7. The paediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (pCAM-ICU: Translation and cognitive debriefing for the German-speaking area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens de Grahl

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To date there are only a few studies published, dealing with delirium in critically ill patients. The problem with these studies is that prevalence rates of delirium could only be estimated because of the lack of validated delirium assessment tools for the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU. The paediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (pCAM-ICU was specifically developed and validated for the detection of delirium in PICU patients. The purpose of this study was the translation of the English pCAM-ICU into German according to international validated guidelines. Methods: The translation process was performed according to the principles of good practice for the translation and cultural adaptation process for patient reported outcomes measures: From three independently created German forward-translation versions one preliminary German version was developed, which was then retranslated to English by a certified, state-approved translator. The back-translated version was submitted to the original author for evaluation. The German translation was evaluated by clinicians and specialists anonymously (German grades in regards to language and content of the translation. Results: The results of the cognitive debriefing revealed good to very good results. After that the translation process was successfully completed and the final version of the German pCAM-ICU was adopted by the expert committee. Conclusion: The German version of the pCAM-ICU is a result of a translation process in accordance with internationally acknowledged guidelines. Particularly, with respect to the excellent results of the cognitive debriefing, we could finalise the translation and cultural adaptation process for the German pCAM-ICU.

  8. A study on Requirements of Data Base Translator for APR1400 Computerized Procedure System at Shin-Hanul unit 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Nokyu; Lee, Sungjin

    2015-01-01

    The CPS is one of the Man Machine Interface (MMI) resources and the CPS can directly display plant graphic objects which are in the Digital Control System (DCS). And the CPS can send a request to DCS to provide DCS screen which is called step support display through DCS link button on a computerized procedure. The procedure writers can insert DCS graphic information to computerized procedure through data base which is provided by CPS Editing System (CPSES). The data base which is provided by CPSES conforms to the naming rule of DCS graphic objects. The naming rule of DCS graphic objects is defined by vendor thus status of DCS graphic objects which are in computerized procedure at Shin-Kori plant cannot be displayed on CPS at Shin-Hanul plant. To use computerized procedure which is written by other plant procedure writer, DCS graphic objects shall be translated by its plant data base. This paper introduces requirements of data base translator to reduce translation and re-inserting graphic objects burden. This paper introduces the requirements of data base translator of CPSES for APR1400 CPS at Shin-Hanul unit 1 and 2. The translator algorithms shall be tested to update data base of CPSES effectively. The prototype of translator is implemented and is being tested using real plant DB. This translator can be applied to Shin- Hanul unit1 and 2 through software V and V

  9. Lessons learned and present day challenges of addressing 20th century radiation legacies of Russia and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengel, M.T.; Kristofzski, J.G.; Schubert, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly enriched uranium and defense plutonium as well as processing of high-level wastes are among the most challenging issues of addressing radiation legacy of the 20th century. USA and Russia are the two primary countries that have to deal with the challenge and where most of the fissile materials to be processed are concentrated, nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are stored, and multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities are located. In the US, CH2M HILL is managing two of the most important nuclear projects being conducted by the US Department of Energy at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and at the DOE Hanford Site (177 underground tanks at this site contain 60 percent of the United States' high-level radioactive wastes). Within the framework of the Russian Federal special program 'Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Materials Management, Utilization and Disposal for 1996-2005' works were carried out on the Karachai lake covering with soil, highly active radwaste vitrification and fractionation at the 'Mayak' combine. Currently there is a discussion of launching joint Russian-American initiatives including comparative studies of environmental and public health impacts from high-level waste vitrification and plutonium stabilization processes in Russia and high-level waste removal from tanks in the USA and of continuing comprehensive research with the RADSITE project (USA, European Union, Japan, China and India) using coordinated approaches in 2000-2003. This paper presents comparative studies, technical approaches, and regulatory strategies to address the challenges of managing and closing highly enriched uranium, plutonium, and high level waste sites. (author)

  10. The Health Information Technology Competencies Tool: Does It Translate for Nursing Informatics in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipes, Carolyn; Hunter, Kathleen; McGonigle, Dee; West, Karen; Hill, Taryn; Hebda, Toni

    2017-12-01

    , given that Health Information Technology Competencies includes all healthcare workers, while the TIGER-based Assessment of Nursing Informatics Competencies and Nursing Informatics Competency Assessment of Level 3 and Level 4 tools and the American Nurses Association Nursing Informatics: Scope and Standards of Practice are nurse specific. No clear cross mapping across these tools and the standards of nursing informatics practice exists. Further examination and review are needed to translate Health Information Technology Competencies as a viable tool for nursing informatics use in the US.

  11. Addressing Environmental Health Problems in Ogoniland through Implementation of United Nations Environment Program Recommendations: Environmental Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okhumode H. Yakubu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available On 4 August 2011, United Nations Environment Program (UNEP submitted an unprecedented, scientific, groundbreaking environmental assessment report (EAR on Ogoniland to the Nigerian government. This was the outcome of a 14-month intensive evaluation of the extent of pollution. The intention was that UNEP’s recommendations would be implemented to restore the devastated environment, on the one hand, and on the other, counteract the numerous environmental health issues that have for decades, plagued Ogoniland. However, five years post-EAR, and despite the seriousness of the situation, no significant resolution has occurred on the part of the government or the Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC or Shell. To date, millions of Niger Delta residents particularly those living in the oil-bearing communities, continue to suffer severe consequences. Although the assessment was conducted in Ogoniland, other communities in the Niger Delta are also affected. This article explores prevailing issues in the Niger Delta, using Ogoniland (a microcosm of the Niger Delta as an example. A multidisciplinary approach for sustainable mitigation of environmental health risks in the Niger Delta is paramount, and environmental management tools offer valuable strategies. Adopting the UNEP’s recommendations for addressing environmental health problems requires implementing the environmental management/environmental management system (EM/EMS model. However, the persistent lack of political will on the part of the Nigerian government, and the grossly nonchalant attitude by Shell remain major obstacles towards executing UNEP’s recommendations.

  12. Study protocol: Addressing evidence and context to facilitate transfer and uptake of consultation recording use in oncology: A knowledge translation implementation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruether J Dean

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The time period from diagnosis to the end of treatment is challenging for newly diagnosed cancer patients. Patients have a substantial need for information, decision aids, and psychosocial support. Recordings of initial oncology consultations improve information recall, reduce anxiety, enhance patient satisfaction with communication, and increase patients' perceptions that the essential aspects of their disease and treatment have been addressed during the consultation. Despite the research evidence supporting the provision of consultation recordings, uptake of this intervention into oncology practice has been slow. The primary aim of this project is to conduct an implementation study to explicate the contextual factors, including use of evidence, that facilitate and impede the transfer and uptake of consultation-recording use in a sample of patients newly diagnosed with breast or prostate cancer. Methods Sixteen oncologists from cancer centres in three Canadian cities will participate in this three-phase study. The preimplementation phase will be used to identify and address those factors that are fundamental to facilitating the smooth adoption and delivery of the intervention during the implementation phase. During the implementation phase, breast and prostate cancer patients will receive a recording of their initial oncology consultation to take home. Patient interviews will be conducted in the days following the consultation to gather feedback on the benefits of the intervention. Patients will complete the Digital Recording Use Semi-Structured Interview (DRUSSI and be invited to participate in focus groups in which their experiences with the consultation recording will be explored. Oncologists will receive a summary letter detailing the benefits voiced by their patients. The postimplementation phase includes a conceptual framework development meeting and a seven-point dissemination strategy. Discussion Consultation

  13. Translation Theory 'Translated'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented......Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings....

  14. Centrally managed unified shared virtual address space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, John

    2018-02-13

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for managing a unified shared virtual address space. A host may execute system software and manage a plurality of nodes coupled to the host. The host may send work tasks to the nodes, and for each node, the host may externally manage the node's view of the system's virtual address space. Each node may have a central processing unit (CPU) style memory management unit (MMU) with an internal translation lookaside buffer (TLB). In one embodiment, the host may be coupled to a given node via an input/output memory management unit (IOMMU) interface, where the IOMMU frontend interface shares the TLB with the given node's MMU. In another embodiment, the host may control the given node's view of virtual address space via memory-mapped control registers.

  15. Centrally managed unified shared virtual address space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, John

    2018-02-13

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for managing a unified shared virtual address space. A host may execute system software and manage a plurality of nodes coupled to the host. The host may send work tasks to the nodes, and for each node, the host may externally manage the node's view of the system's virtual address space. Each node may have a central processing unit (CPU) style memory management unit (MMU) with an internal translation lookaside buffer (TLB). In one embodiment, the host may be coupled to a given node via an input/output memory management unit (IOMMU) interface, where the IOMMU frontend interface shares the TLB with the given node's MMU. In another embodiment, the host may control the given node's view of virtual address space via memory-mapped control registers.

  16. Addressing the Teaching of English Language Learners in the United States: A Case Study of Teacher Educators' Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Heidi L.; Meineke, Hannah R.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses teacher educators' response to how teacher education programs should prepare prospective teachers to be teachers of English language learners. In the case study presented, the authors note that discussions have ensued about whether teaching English language learners (ELLs) should be addressed through separate coursework or…

  17. Addressing Adolescent Depression in Schools: Evaluation of an In-Service Training for School Staff in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carmen R.; Budge, Stephanie L.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated an adolescent depression in-service training for school staff in the United States. A total of 252 school staff (e.g., teachers, principals, counselors) completed assessments prior to and following the in-service and a subsample of these staff participated in focus groups following the in-service and three months later.…

  18. Teaching Note--No Peace without Justice: Addressing the United States' War on Drugs in Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Elizabeth A.; Redmond, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The United States' War on Drugs encompasses a body of legislation characterized by punitive approaches to drug control. These policies have resulted in escalating incarceration rates and have extracted a particularly harsh toll on low-income people of color. This article argues that education on the War on Drugs is essential for effective practice…

  19. The preparation of the teaching unit for the address of the labor investigating formation in the pedagogic races

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Hernández-Estrada; Jacinto Ferrales-González; Irma Junco-Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Present it his purpose in the preparation of the teaching unit for the implementation of the principal integrative discipline centers experience: Labor Investigating integrated formation to the pedagogic process of The Basic secondary school. Once the parallelism between the formative processes that develop in these centers, was given pedagogic propitious scene for the complete development of technical training does not fail to come out as expected; for which actions of overcoming of the cloi...

  20. Inaugural address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  1. Developing and Pilot Testing a Spanish Translation of CollaboRATE for Use in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forcino, R.C.; Bustamante, N.; Thompson, R.; Percac-Lima, S.; Elwyn, G.; Perez-Arechaederra, D.; Barr, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Given the need for access to patient-facing materials in multiple languages, this study aimed to develop and pilot test an accurate and understandable translation of CollaboRATE, a three-item patient-reported measure of shared decision-making, for Spanish-speaking patients in the

  2. Translation, Adaptation and Invariance Testing of the Teaching Perspectives Inventory: Comparing Faculty of Malaysia and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misieng, Jecky

    2013-01-01

    As a result of growing attention in cross-cultural research, existing measurement instruments developed in one language are being translated and adapted for use in other languages and cultural contexts. Producing invariant measurement instruments that assess educational and psychological constructs provide a way of testing the cross-cultural…

  3. The preparation of the teaching unit for the address of the labor investigating formation in the pedagogic races

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hernández-Estrada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Present it his purpose in the preparation of the teaching unit for the implementation of the principal integrative discipline centers experience: Labor Investigating integrated formation to the pedagogic process of The Basic secondary school. Once the parallelism between the formative processes that develop in these centers, was given pedagogic propitious scene for the complete development of technical training does not fail to come out as expected; for which actions of overcoming of the cloister are proposed and organizational of the school that they contribute to solving the presented problems. The results reveal the potentialities of work metodológico in the formation and development of the professional pedagogic abilities, as well as the potentialities of the principal integrative discipline in the overcoming of the cloister; that they revert in the elevation of the quality of the graduate and best results in the school's process.

  4. Aggregate resource availability in the conterminous United States, including suggestions for addressing shortages, quality, and environmental concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.

    2011-01-01

    One-third of America's major roads are in poor or mediocre condition, and over one-quarter of the bridges are either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. A 70-percent increase in annual aggregate production may be required to upgrade the transportation infrastructure. Natural aggregate is widespread throughout the conterminous United States, but the location of aggregate is determined by geology and is non-negotiable. Natural aggregate is in short supply in the Coastal Plain and Mississippi embayment, Colorado Plateau and Wyoming Basin, glaciated Midwest, High Plains, and the non-glaciated Northern Plains. A variety of techniques have been used to overcome local shortages, such as the use of substitute materials, recycling, and importing high-quality aggregates from more distant locations.

  5. Understanding translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  6. A renewed Medication Adherence Alliance call to action: harnessing momentum to address medication nonadherence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullig, Leah L; Granger, Bradi B; Bosworth, Hayden B

    2016-01-01

    Nonadherence to prescription medications is a common and costly problem with multiple contributing factors, spanning the dimensions of individual behavior change, psychology, medicine, and health policy, among others. Addressing the problem of medication nonadherence requires strategic input from key experts in a number of fields. The Medication Adherence Alliance is a group of key experts, predominately from the US, in the field of medication nonadherence. Members include representatives from consumer advocacy groups, community health providers, nonprofit groups, the academic community, decision-making government officials, and industry. In 2015, the Medication Adherence Alliance convened to review the current landscape of medication adherence. The group then established three working groups that will develop recommendations for shifting toward solutions-oriented science. From the perspective of the Medication Adherence Alliance, the objective of this commentary is to describe changes in the US landscape of medication adherence, framing the evolving field in the context of a recent think tank meeting of experts in the field of medication adherence.

  7. Estimated Coverage to Address Financial Barriers to HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis Among Persons With Indications for Its Use, United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dawn K; Van Handel, Michelle; Huggins, Rebecca

    2017-12-15

    An estimated 1.2 million American adults engage in sexual and drug use behaviors that place them at significant risk of acquiring HIV infection. Engagement in health care for the provision of daily oral antiretroviral medication as preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), when clinically indicated, could substantially reduce the number of new HIV infections in these persons. However, resources to cover the financial cost of PrEP care are anticipated barriers for many of the populations with high numbers of new HIV infections. Using nationally representative data, we estimated the current national met and unmet need for financial assistance with covering the cost of PrEP medication, clinical visits, and laboratory tests among adults with indications for its use, overall and by transmission risk population. This study found that of the 1.2 million adults estimated to have indications for PrEP use, financial assistance for both PrEP medication and clinical care, at an estimated annual cost of $89 million. An additional 7% (∼86,300) are in need of financial assistance only for PrEP clinical care at an estimated annual cost of $119 million. This information on PrEP care costs, insurance coverage, and unmet financial need among persons in key HIV transmission risk subpopulations can inform policy makers at all levels as they consider how to address remaining financial barriers to the use of PrEP and accommodate any changes in eligibility for various insurance and financial assistance programs that may occur in coming years.

  8. Understanding benefits and addressing misperceptions and barriers to intrauterine device access among populations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoost, Jennie

    2014-01-01

    Three intrauterine devices (IUDs), one copper and two containing the progestin levonorgestrel, are available for use in the United States. IUDs offer higher rates of contraceptive efficacy than nonlong-acting methods, and several studies have demonstrated higher satisfaction rates and continuation rates of any birth control method. This efficacy is not affected by age or parity. The safety of IUDs is well studied, and the risks of pelvic inflammatory disease, perforation, expulsion, and ectopic pregnancy are all of very low incidence. Noncontraceptive benefits include decreased menstrual blood loss, improved dysmenorrhea, improved pelvic pain associated with endometriosis, and protection of the endometrium from hyperplasia. The use of IUDs is accepted in patients with multiple medical problems who may have contraindications to other birth control methods. Yet despite well-published data, concerns and misperceptions still persist, especially among younger populations and nulliparous women. Medical governing bodies advocate for use of IUDs in these populations, as safety and efficacy is unchanged, and IUDs have been shown to decrease unintended pregnancies. Dispersion of accurate information among patients and practitioners is needed to further increase the acceptability and use of IUDs. PMID:25050062

  9. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs

  10. The role of parents in public views of strategies to address childhood obesity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Gollust, Sarah E; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Barry, Colleen L

    2015-03-01

    POLICY POINTS: The American public--both men and women and those with and without children in the household--holds parents highly responsible and largely to blame for childhood obesity. High attributions of responsibility to parents for reducing childhood obesity did not universally undermine support for broader policy action. School-based obesity prevention policies were strongly supported, even among those viewing parents as mostly to blame for childhood obesity. Americans who viewed sectors outside the family (such as the food and beverage industry, schools, and the government) as helping address childhood obesity were more willing to support a wider range of population-based obesity prevention policies. The public's views of parents' behaviors and choices--and the attitudes held by parents themselves--are likely to influence the success of efforts to reverse obesity rates. We analyzed data from 2 US national public opinion surveys fielded in 2011 and 2012 to examine attributions of blame and responsibility to parents for obesity, both among the general public and parents themselves, and we also explored the relationship between views of parents and support for obesity prevention policies. We found that attribution of blame and responsibility to parents was consistently high, regardless of parental status or gender. Support for policies to curb childhood obesity also did not differ notably by parental status or gender. Multivariable analyses revealed consistent patterns in the association between public attitudes toward parents' responsibility and support for policies to curb childhood obesity. High parental responsibility was linked to higher support for school-targeted policies but generally was not associated with policies outside the school setting. Attribution of greater responsibility to entities external to children and their parents (schools, the food and beverage industry, and the government) was associated with greater support for both school

  11. Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and ICU Mobility Scale: translation into Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yurika Maria Fogaça; Nawa, Ricardo Kenji; Figueiredo, Thais Borgheti; Martins, Lourdes; Pires-Neto, Ruy Camargo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To translate the Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and the ICU Mobility Scale (IMS) into Portuguese, creating versions that are cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil, and to determine the interobserver agreement and reliability for both versions. Methods: The processes of translation and cross-cultural validation consisted in the following: preparation, translation, reconciliation, synthesis, back-translation, review, approval, and pre-test. The Portuguese-language versions of both instruments were then used by two researchers to evaluate critically ill ICU patients. Weighted kappa statistics and Bland-Altman plots were used in order to verify interobserver agreement for the two instruments. In each of the domains of the instruments, interobserver reliability was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The correlation between the instruments was assessed by Spearman's correlation test. Results: The study sample comprised 103 patients-56 (54%) of whom were male-with a mean age of 52 ± 18 years. The main reason for ICU admission (in 44%) was respiratory failure. Both instruments showed excellent interobserver agreement (κ > 0.90) and reliability (α > 0.90) in all domains. Interobserver bias was low for the IMS and the Perme Score (−0.048 ± 0.350 and −0.06 ± 0.73, respectively). The 95% CIs for the same instruments ranged from −0.73 to 0.64 and −1.50 to 1.36, respectively. There was also a strong positive correlation between the two instruments (r = 0.941; p < 0.001). Conclusions: In their versions adapted for use in Brazil, both instruments showed high interobserver agreement and reliability. PMID:28117473

  12. Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and ICU Mobility Scale: translation into Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurika Maria Fogaça Kawaguchi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To translate the Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and the ICU Mobility Scale (IMS into Portuguese, creating versions that are cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil, and to determine the interobserver agreement and reliability for both versions. Methods: The processes of translation and cross-cultural validation consisted in the following: preparation, translation, reconciliation, synthesis, back-translation, review, approval, and pre-test. The Portuguese-language versions of both instruments were then used by two researchers to evaluate critically ill ICU patients. Weighted kappa statistics and Bland-Altman plots were used in order to verify interobserver agreement for the two instruments. In each of the domains of the instruments, interobserver reliability was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The correlation between the instruments was assessed by Spearman's correlation test. Results: The study sample comprised 103 patients-56 (54% of whom were male-with a mean age of 52 ± 18 years. The main reason for ICU admission (in 44% was respiratory failure. Both instruments showed excellent interobserver agreement ( > 0.90 and reliability ( > 0.90 in all domains. Interobserver bias was low for the IMS and the Perme Score (−0.048 ± 0.350 and −0.06 ± 0.73, respectively. The 95% CIs for the same instruments ranged from −0.73 to 0.64 and −1.50 to 1.36, respectively. There was also a strong positive correlation between the two instruments (r = 0.941; p < 0.001. Conclusions: In their versions adapted for use in Brazil, both instruments showed high interobserver agreement and reliability.

  13. Translational Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    is given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention....... This creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented......A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention...

  14. Welcome Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  15. TRANSLATING FEMINISM

    OpenAIRE

    Gajewska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    Translating feminism Pointing to manifold and long-lasting connections between feminism and translation, the article first presents a selection of multilingual writers (Narcyza Żmichowska and Deborah Vogel), translators (Zofia Żeleńska and Kazimiera Iłłakowiczówna) and translation commentators (Joanna Lisek and Karolina Szymaniak) to ponder why the work of early Polish feminists is neglected. It seems that one of the reasons might be the current colonization of Polish femini...

  16. The Impact of Pecha Kucha Presentations in the Assessment of a Translation Studies Unit at the University of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, Anna Gadd

    2017-01-01

    Results of a case study on the implementation of Pecha Kucha presentations undertaken at The University of Western Australia in 2015 are presented and discussed here. Pecha Kucha, a fast-paced presentation format consisting of 20 slides set to proceed automatically every 20 seconds, was used in the assessment of the unit "Translation…

  17. An innovative telemedicine knowledge translation program to improve quality of care in intensive care units: protocol for a cluster randomized pragmatic trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Ruxandra

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are challenges to timely adoption of, and ongoing adherence to, evidence-based practices known to improve patient care in the intensive care unit (ICU. Quality improvement initiatives using a collaborative network approach may increase the use of such practices. Our objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel knowledge translation program for increasing the proportion of patients who appropriately receive the following six evidence-based care practices: venous thromboembolism prophylaxis; ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention; spontaneous breathing trials; catheter-related bloodstream infection prevention; decubitus ulcer prevention; and early enteral nutrition. Methods and design We will conduct a pragmatic cluster randomized active control trial in 15 community ICUs and one academic ICU in Ontario, Canada. The intervention is a multifaceted videoconferenced educational and problem-solving forum to organize knowledge translation strategies, including comparative audit and feedback, educational sessions from content experts, and dissemination of algorithms. Fifteen individual ICUs (clusters will be randomized to receive quality improvement interventions targeting one of the best practices during each of six study phases. Each phase lasts four months during the first study year and three months during the second. At the end of each study phase, ICUs are assigned to an intervention for a best practice not yet received according to a random schedule. The primary analysis will use patient-level process-of-care data to measure the intervention's effect on rates of adoption and adherence of each best practice in the targeted ICU clusters versus controls. Discussion This study design evaluates a new system for knowledge translation and quality improvement across six common ICU problems. All participating ICUs receive quality improvement initiatives during every study phase, improving buy-in. This study design

  18. Aliens in the promised land? Keynote address for the 1986 National Gathering of the United Church of Christ's Coalition for Lesbian/Gay Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, G D

    The following article is a condensed version of the keynote address given at the 1986 National Gathering of the Lesbian/Gay Coalition of the United Church of Christ (UCC). Problems encountered by lesbians and gay men in organized religion, especially within the liberal tradition, are identified by a method of inquiry developed by Christian educator John Westerhoff for assessing egalitarianism within institutions. The story of Queen Vashti from the Book of Esther in Hebrew scripture, and the emerging tradition of coming-out experiences by lesbians and gay men; provide the norm and model for declaring independence from denominations that neglect the concerns of lesbians and gay men and for constructing religious alternatives.

  19. Translational regulation in nutrigenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Botao; Qian, Shu-Bing

    2011-11-01

    The emergence of genome-wide analysis to interrogate cellular DNA, RNA, and protein content has revolutionized the study of the control network that mediates cellular homeostasis. Nutrigenomics addresses the effect of nutrients on gene expression, which provides a basis for understanding the biological activity of dietary components. Translation of mRNAs represents the last step of genetic flow and primarily defines the proteome. Translational regulation is thus critical for gene expression, in particular, under nutrient excess or deficiency. Until recently, it was unclear how the global effects of translational control are influenced by nutrient signaling. An emerging concept of translational reprogramming addresses how to maintain the expression of specific proteins during pathophysiological conditions by translation of selective mRNAs. Here we describe recent advances in our understanding of translational control, nutrient signaling, and their dysregulation in aging and cancer. The mechanistic understanding of translational regulation in response to different nutrient conditions may help identify potential dietary and therapeutic targets to improve human health.

  20. inaugral address

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to the Environment crisis'. Much of the formal work in the development of environmental education was spearheaded by international agencies such as the United Nations Educational,. Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) and the United Nations Environment. Programme (UNEP) internationally. This formal work ...

  1. Libros bilingues, traducciones desparpajadas y traducciones pobres: libros en espanol publicados en los Estados Unidos (Bilingual Books, Careless Translations, and Bad Translations: Books in Spanish Published in the United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of providing Spanish-speaking students with high-quality reading materials in Spanish and avoiding materials that have been badly translated into Spanish. Provides an annotated list of 10 books recommended for young children and a Spanish grammar for more advanced readers. Lists 29 badly translated books. Describes a Web…

  2. Translating Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallov, Mia Arp; Birk, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how practices of translation shape particular paths of inclusion for people living in marginalized residential areas in Denmark. Inclusion, we argue, is not an end-state, but rather something which must be constantly performed. Active citizenship, today......, is not merely a question of participation, but of learning to become active in all spheres of life. The paper draws on empirical examples from a multi-sited field work in 6 different sites of local community work in Denmark, to demonstrate how different dimensions of translation are involved in shaping active...... citizenship. We propose the following different dimensions of translation: translating authority, translating language, translating social problems. The paper takes its theoretical point of departure from assemblage urbanism, arguing that cities are heterogeneous assemblages of socio-material interactions...

  3. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbers, C. F.

    1987-09-01

    Ladies and gentlemen, it is indeed a great privilege and pleasure for me to present the opening address at this, the 17th International Congress on High Speed Photograpy and Photonics. Before turning to the business of the Congress, I would like to briefly introduce you to South Africa: its scientific past and its research challenges for the future.

  4. PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Your Excellency. Honoured Guests. Members of the Association. It is my duty and pleasure to thank H.E. Lij. Endalkatchew Makonnen for the fine address with which he has opened this First National Conference of the EAEA. He has pointedly reminded us that though. Engineers and Architects play a key role, develop-.

  5. Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and ICU Mobility Scale: translation into Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yurika Maria Fogaça; Nawa, Ricardo Kenji; Figueiredo, Thais Borgheti; Martins, Lourdes; Pires-Neto, Ruy Camargo

    2016-01-01

    To translate the Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and the ICU Mobility Scale (IMS) into Portuguese, creating versions that are cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil, and to determine the interobserver agreement and reliability for both versions. The processes of translation and cross-cultural validation consisted in the following: preparation, translation, reconciliation, synthesis, back-translation, review, approval, and pre-test. The Portuguese-language versions of both instruments were then used by two researchers to evaluate critically ill ICU patients. Weighted kappa statistics and Bland-Altman plots were used in order to verify interobserver agreement for the two instruments. In each of the domains of the instruments, interobserver reliability was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The correlation between the instruments was assessed by Spearman's correlation test. The study sample comprised 103 patients-56 (54%) of whom were male-with a mean age of 52 ± 18 years. The main reason for ICU admission (in 44%) was respiratory failure. Both instruments showed excellent interobserver agreement ( > 0.90) and reliability ( > 0.90) in all domains. Interobserver bias was low for the IMS and the Perme Score (-0.048 ± 0.350 and -0.06 ± 0.73, respectively). The 95% CIs for the same instruments ranged from -0.73 to 0.64 and -1.50 to 1.36, respectively. There was also a strong positive correlation between the two instruments (r = 0.941; p cultural para a língua portuguesa falada no Brasil e determinar a concordância e a confiabilidade dos instrumentos Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score (designado Perme Escore) e ICU Mobility Scale (designada Escala de Mobilidade em UTI, EMU). Os processos de tradução e adaptação cultural seguiram as seguintes etapas: preparação, tradução, reconciliação, síntese, tradução reversa, revisão, aprovação e pré-teste. Após esses processos, as versões em português dos dois instrumentos

  6. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianko, L.

    1993-01-01

    This short talk was the opening remarks to the attendees at this conference, presented by the Scientific Secretary, IWG-LMNPP, of the IAEA. This meeting is an effort to aid research on problems related to the general area of nuclear plant aging and life management. In particular it addresses fracture properties of reactor materials and components, both as installed, and at end of service condition. A major concern is relating measurements made on laboratory samples to properties displayed by actual reactor components

  7. Convocation address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, R

    1996-07-01

    By means of this graduation address at the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) in Bombay, the Chancellor of Urdu University voiced his concerns about overpopulation in India. During the speaker's tenure as Health Minister of Maharashtra, he implemented a sterilization incentive program that resulted in the state's having the best family planning (FP) statistics in India for almost 10 years. The incentive program, however, was misused by overenthusiastic officials in other states, with the result that the FP program was renamed the Family Welfare Programme. Population is growing in India because of improvements in health care, but the population education necessary to change fertility will require more time than the seriousness of the population problem allows. In the longterm, poverty and illiteracy must be addressed to control population. In the meanwhile, the graduate program at the IIPS should be expanded to include an undergraduate program, marriage age laws should be enforced, and misconceptions about religious objections to FP must be addressed. India can not afford to use the measures forwarded by developed countries to control population growth. India must integrate population control efforts with the provision of health care because if population continues to grow in the face of reduced infant mortality and longer life expectancy, future generations will be forced to live in a state of poverty and economic degradation.

  8. Offshore Finfish Aquaculture in the United States: An Examination of Federal Laws That Could be Used to Address Environmental and Occupational Public Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian P. Fry

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Half of the world’s edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production.

  9. Regulatory approaches to obesity prevention: A systematic overview of current laws addressing diet-related risk factors in the European Union and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisnowski, Jana; Handsley, Elizabeth; Street, Jackie M

    2015-06-01

    High prevalence of overweight and obesity remains a significant international public health problem. Law has been identified as a tool for obesity prevention and selected high-profile measures have been reported. However, the nature and extent of enacted legislation internationally are unclear. This research provides an overview of regulatory approaches enacted in the United States, the European Union, and EU Member States since 2004. To this end, relevant databases of primary and secondary legislation were systematically searched to identify and explore laws addressing dietary risk factors for obesity. Across jurisdictions, current regulatory approaches to obesity prevention are limited in reach and scope. Target groups are rarely the general population, but instead sub-populations in government-supported settings. Consumer information provision is preferred over taxation and marketing restrictions other than the regulation of health and nutrition claims. In the EU in particular, product reformulation with industry consent has also emerged as a popular small-scale measure. While consistent and widespread use of law is lacking, governments have employed a range of regulatory measures in the name of obesity prevention, indicating that there is, in principle, political will. Results from this study may serve as a starting point for future research and policy development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Offshore finfish aquaculture in the United States: An examination of federal laws that could be used to address environmental and occupational public health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; Shukla, Arunima; Lee, Ryan M

    2014-11-19

    Half of the world's edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US) government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production.

  11. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    out by specialised revisers, but by staff translators, who revise the work of colleagues and freelancers on an ad hoc basis. Corrections are mostly given in a peer-to-peer fashion, though the work of freelancers and inexperienced in-house translators is often revised in an authoritative (nonnegotiable...

  12. The CAM-ICU has now a French "official" version. The translation process of the 2014 updated Complete Training Manual of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit in French (CAM-ICU.fr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanques, Gérald; Garnier, Océane; Carr, Julie; Conseil, Matthieu; de Jong, Audrey; Rowan, Christine M; Ely, E Wesley; Jaber, Samir

    2017-10-01

    Delirium is common in Intensive-Care-Unit (ICU) patients but under-recognized by bed-side clinicians when not using validated delirium-screening tools. The Confusion-Assessment-Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU) has demonstrated very good psychometric properties, and has been translated into many different languages though not into French. We undertook this opportunity to describe the translation process. The translation was performed following recommended guidelines. The updated method published in 2014 including introduction letters, worksheet and flowsheet for bed-side use, the method itself, case-scenarios for training and Frequently-Asked-Questions (32 pages) was translated into French language by a neuropsychological researcher who was not familiar with the original method. Then, the whole method was back-translated by a native English-French bilingual speaker. The new English version was compared to the original one by the Vanderbilt University ICU-delirium-team. Discrepancies were discussed between the two teams before final approval of the French version. The entire process took one year. Among the 3692 words of the back-translated version of the method itself, 18 discrepancies occurred. Eight (44%) lead to changes in the final version. Details of the translation process are provided. The French version of CAM-ICU is now available for French-speaking ICUs. The CAM-ICU is provided with its complete training-manual that was challenging to translate following recommended process. While many such translations have been done for other clinical tools, few have published the details of the process itself. We hope that the availability of such teaching material will now facilitate a large implementation of delirium-screening in French-speaking ICUs. Copyright © 2017 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). All rights reserved.

  13. Knowledge Translation in Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos-Mendez, Ariel; Shademani, Ramesh

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the "know-do gap," present a definition of knowledge translation, and discuss its relative importance in bridging the know-do gap. Some of the underlying causes of the know-do gap are listed, along with ongoing efforts to address them. Knowledge translation is considered a cross-cutting, nonlinear process that involves not only recent…

  14. Technical Writing and Translation: Changing with the Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguinot, Candace

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the assumptions underlying the training of technical translators versus technical translation, and their differing notions of quality. Addresses integrating translation and documentation, implications for training, and cross-cultural procedures. (SR)

  15. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  16. The Importance of Culture in Translation: Should Culture be Translated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Al-Hassan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the importance of culture in translation, this article presents a descriptive study of translation of literary texts from English into Arabic. Using the data taken from works of Shakespeare and others which were translated by eminent translators, it first describes the study background, research contexts and procedures and problems. It then addresses some research questions on: (1 Will the translation be accepted by the new community of readers; 2 Is the relation between culture and translation important? It is worth noting that this study is significant for translators and readers of the target language, which is Arabic in this case. This has been substantiated by surveying the interests in cultural aspects of translation as early as the 19th Century. Thus translations do not only include lexical content  and syntax, but also ideologies, values and ways of  life in a given culture, which form translating problems. Therefore, translators have to know the audience.

  17. Presidential address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, L

    1984-01-01

    Stressed in this address is the crucial stage of the population boom, peeculiar to developing countries. The phenomenal rise in India's population, over the last 10 years, is particularly emphasized as it may thwart attempts for socioeconnomic development. Population and development are congruent concerns which need to be pursued simultaneously, and family planning must be accorded the highest priority in national efforts. In its attempts to curb its population explosion, India has witnessed significant progress in health and family welfare work in its march towards the goal of health for all. Recently, the focus has been on primary health care with its emphasis on prevention against risk of disease. The key element of the goal of health for all is the provision of primary health care to all, especially those who are poor. The new 20-Point Programme of India pinpoints areas of special thrust which show immediate tangible results in health and family welfare and the increase of primary health care facilities. Family planning is discussed as a people's movement in which the government's role is that of educator in contraceptive methodds so the people can be motivated to choose, on their own, anyone of them. Trained government personnel, service facilities and contraceptive supplies are being promoted for that goal. The energies of all social, political, religious and cultural organizations have to be channelled and utilized in the process of educating the people and making them adopt the small family norm. Graduates are urged to utilize their knowledge in the service of their country.

  18. Convocation address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatowar, P S

    1993-07-01

    The Union Deputy Minister of Health and Family Welfare in India addressed the 35th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay in 1993. Officials in developing countries have been concerned about population growth for more than 30 years and have instituted policies to reduce population growth. In the 1960s, population growth in developing countries was around 2.5%, but today it is about 2%. Despite this decline, the world will have 1 billion more individuals by the year 2001. 95% of these new people will be born in developing countries. India's population size is so great that India does not have the time to wait for development to reduce population growth. Population needs to be viewed as an integrated part of overall development, since it is linked to poverty, illiteracy, environmental damage, gender issues, and reproductive health. Despite a large population size, India has made some important advancements in health and family planning. For example, India has reduced population growth (to 2.14% annually between 1981-1991), infant mortality, and its birth rate. It has increased the contraceptive use rate and life expectancy. Its southern states have been more successful at achieving demographic goals than have the northern states. India needs to implement efforts to improve living conditions, to change attitudes and perceptions about small families and contraception, and to promote family planning acceptance earlier among young couples. Improvement of living conditions is especially important in India, since almost 33% of the people live in poverty. India needs to invest in nutrition, health, and education. The mass media and nongovernmental organizations need to create population awareness and demand for family planning services. Improvement in women's status accelerates fertility decline, as has happened in Kerala State. The government needs to facilitate generation of jobs. Community participation is needed for India to achieve

  19. Coordinator, Translation Services | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Assign the translation requests to the external service provider, and indicate any special features thereof in light of client's specifications; ... to the procurement staff into the competitive process for the selection of translation service suppliers — the sourcing and selection process being carried out by the Procurement Unit.

  20. Translating Alcohol Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Angela M.; Miles, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of streamlining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD. PMID:26259085

  1. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrich, E.W.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: It is an honour for me to make this opening address on behalf of the European Commission which has cooperated with the International Atomic Energy Agency in organizing this Conference, and in particular on behalf of Hans Forsstroem from the Directorate-General, Research, who will arrive only later this week. Protection of the environment is, and will continue to be, an important consideration in the development and application of soundly based radiation protection standards. Current standards rest largely on the premise that, in protecting man, the environment is afforded an adequate level of protection. While this premise is broadly accepted by the radiation protection profession, it has come under increasing challenge in recent years. This challenge has not arisen because of any observable damage to the environment while operating within current standards. Rather, it has different origins including: - The robustness of the premise that protection of man affords protection of the environment, in particular the extent to which it is based on value judgements as opposed to rigorous scientific argument; - The more explicit inclusion of protection of the environment into national legislation on radiation protection and the need to demonstrate compliance; - A desire to achieve greater comparability between radiation and other pollutants. These trends were recognized by the Commission in the late 1990s and, as a result, the topic of protection of the environment was included as an important element of the European Union's 5th Research Framework Programme. Community support has been given to the FASSET project about which we will hear much during this Conference. This multinational project is providing much of the scientific basis underpinning and informing ongoing discussions on the development of a system of protection for the environment. Much, however, remains to be done to establish a well conceived and practicable system for protection of the environment

  2. Can neural machine translation do simultaneous translation?

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Kyunghyun; Esipova, Masha

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the potential of attention-based neural machine translation in simultaneous translation. We introduce a novel decoding algorithm, called simultaneous greedy decoding, that allows an existing neural machine translation model to begin translating before a full source sentence is received. This approach is unique from previous works on simultaneous translation in that segmentation and translation are done jointly to maximize the translation quality and that translating each segmen...

  3. Translating organizational change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2016-01-01

    This paper takes it point of departure in actor-network-theory (ANT). It responds to the Next Management Theory tracks call for papers that address and further develops our understanding of organizational change as translation processes. It moreover addresses a critique of ANT researchers...... in organizational studies for making descriptions of studied empirical phenomena rather than developing theories and giving normative advice about how organizations or organizational change processes may be theorized, analyzed, managed and/or organized better. A new ANT-inspired theory about the characteristics...... of organizations, organizational change and change agents is therefore developed combining ANT with other theories. The relevance of this view is demonstrated in an analysis of a case where a nurse and the leader of a clinic for orthopedic surgery try to translate and thus implement a risk-management and deviation...

  4. Machine Translation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LANT has a suite of related Language Technology products: LANT-Master, a language checker, integrates into existing word processors like MS-Word and allows the vocabulary and style oftexts to be in a controlled language which can then be automatically translated; Pangaea is an electronic dictionary that allows the.

  5. Translation Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandepitte, Sonia; Mousten, Birthe; Maylath, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    After Kiraly (2000) introduced the collaborative form of translation in classrooms, Pavlovic (2007), Kenny (2008), and Huertas Barros (2011) provided empirical evidence that testifies to the impact of collaborative learning. This chapter sets out to describe the collaborative forms of learning...

  6. Word translation entropy in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied. In p...

  7. Translational Geoscience: Converting Geoscience Innovation into Societal Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffries, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Translational geoscience — which involves the conversion of geoscience discovery into societal, economic, and environmental impacts — has significant potential to generate large benefits but has received little systematic attention or resources. In contrast, translational medicine — which focuses on the conversion of scientific discovery into health improvement — has grown enormously in the past decade and provides useful models for other fields. Elias Zerhouni [1] developed a "new vision" for translational science to "ensure that extraordinary scientific advances of the past decade will be rapidly captured, translated, and disseminated for the benefit of all Americans." According to Francis Collins, "Opportunities to advance the discipline of translational science have never been better. We must move forward now. Science and society cannot afford to do otherwise." On 9 July 2015, the White House issued a memorandum directing U.S. federal agencies to focus on translating research into broader impacts, including commercial products and decision-making frameworks [3]. Natural hazards mitigation is one of many geoscience topics that would benefit from advances in translational science. This paper demonstrates that natural hazards mitigation can benefit from advances in translational science that address such topics as improving emergency preparedness, communicating life-saving information to government officials and citizens, explaining false positives and false negatives, working with multiple stakeholders and organizations across all sectors of the economy and all levels of government, and collaborating across a broad range of disciplines. [1] Zerhouni, EA (2005) New England Journal of Medicine 353(15):1621-1623. [2] Collins, FS (2011) Science Translational Medicine 3(90):1-6. [3] Donovan, S and Holdren, JP (2015) Multi-agency science and technology priorities for the FY 2017 budget. Executive Office of the President of the United States, 5 pp.

  8. Beyond Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the growing scholarship on local development practitioners by re-examining conceptualizations of practitioners as ‘brokers’ strategically translating between ‘travelling’ (development institution) rationalities and ‘placed’ (recipient area) rationalities in relation...... and practice spurred by new challenges deriving from climate change anxiety, the study shows how local practitioners often make local activities fit into travelling development rationalities as a matter of habit, rather than as a conscious strategy. They may therefore cease to ‘translate’ between different...... rationalities. This is shown to have important implications for theory, research and practice concerning disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in which such translation is often expected....

  9. Translational genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kussmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “Translational Genomics” reflects both title and mission of this new journal. “Translational” has traditionally been understood as “applied research” or “development”, different from or even opposed to “basic research”. Recent scientific and societal developments have triggered a re-assessment of the connotation that “translational” and “basic” are either/or activities: translational research nowadays aims at feeding the best science into applications and solutions for human society. We therefore argue here basic science to be challenged and leveraged for its relevance to human health and societal benefits. This more recent approach and attitude are catalyzed by four trends or developments: evidence-based solutions; large-scale, high dimensional data; consumer/patient empowerment; and systems-level understanding.

  10. Preventing and Addressing Homophobic and Transphobic Bullying in Education: A Human Rights-Based Approach Using the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Homophobic and transphobic bullying in schools can have a serious effect on children and young people subjected to it at a crucial moment in their lives. It is an obstacle to the right to education, which is one of the basic universal human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and various United Nations Conventions. This…

  11. Translational Regulation in Nutrigenomics12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Botao; Qian, Shu-Bing

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of genome-wide analysis to interrogate cellular DNA, RNA, and protein content has revolutionized the study of the control network that mediates cellular homeostasis. Nutrigenomics addresses the effect of nutrients on gene expression, which provides a basis for understanding the biological activity of dietary components. Translation of mRNAs represents the last step of genetic flow and primarily defines the proteome. Translational regulation is thus critical for gene expression, in particular, under nutrient excess or deficiency. Until recently, it was unclear how the global effects of translational control are influenced by nutrient signaling. An emerging concept of translational reprogramming addresses how to maintain the expression of specific proteins during pathophysiological conditions by translation of selective mRNAs. Here we describe recent advances in our understanding of translational control, nutrient signaling, and their dysregulation in aging and cancer. The mechanistic understanding of translational regulation in response to different nutrient conditions may help identify potential dietary and therapeutic targets to improve human health. PMID:22332093

  12. Contemporary Scholarship in Public Address: A Research Editorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Roderick P.

    1986-01-01

    Offers opinions on limitations in current scholarship and research in public address. Faults anecdotal fixation, personality fixation, translation fallacies, and other shortcomings perceived by the author. (MS)

  13. First Nations People: Addressing the Relationships between Under-Enrollment in Medical Education, STEM Education, and Health in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharam Persaud-Sharma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the United States of America, an analysis of enrollment statistics to institutions of higher education, those pursuing Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM fields, as well as those pursuing medical education show a paralleled ethnic stratification. Based upon such stratification, Native Americans consistently rank amongst the lowest demographic groups to enroll in and pursue higher education, STEM or medical education. A perturbed history of the First Nations people in the establishment of the United States of America laid the foundation for a multitude of factors contributing to current trends in health, living, and academic pursuits amongst First Nation’s people. This paper aims to explore the factors underlying the lack of Native American enrollment in higher education, careers in STEM and medicine. An investigation was conducted following a broad literature review relevant to the topic, and articles were critically appraised using the Search, Appraisal, Synthesis of Analysis (SALSA framework as well as the Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research (SRQR. Findings from such studies indicate that the Native American communities face a unique set of social circumstances rooted in a historical context, with several unmet basic needs of living required for integration, access, and pursuit of higher education.

  14. Statistical machine translation for biomedical text: are we there yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cuijun; Xia, Fei; Deleger, Louise; Solti, Imre

    2011-01-01

    In our paper we addressed the research question: "Has machine translation achieved sufficiently high quality to translate PubMed titles for patients?". We analyzed statistical machine translation output for six foreign language - English translation pairs (bi-directionally). We built a high performing in-house system and evaluated its output for each translation pair on large scale both with automated BLEU scores and human judgment. In addition to the in-house system, we also evaluated Google Translate's performance specifically within the biomedical domain. We report high performance for German, French and Spanish -- English bi-directional translation pairs for both Google Translate and our system.

  15. Addressing Global Warming, Air Pollution, Energy Security, and Jobs with Roadmaps for Changing the All-Purpose Energy Infrastructure of the 50 United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Global warming, air pollution, and energy insecurity are three of the most significant problems facing the world today. This talk discusses the development of technical and economic plans to convert the energy infrastructure of each of the 50 United States to those powered by 100% wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) for all purposes, namely electricity, transportation, industry, and heating/cooling, after energy efficiency measures have been accounted for. The plans call for all new energy to be WWS by 2020, ~80% conversion of existing energy by 2030, and 100% by 2050 through aggressive policy measures and natural transition. Resource availability, footprint and spacing areas required, jobs created versus lost, energy costs, avoided costs from air pollution mortality and morbidity and climate damage, and methods of ensuring reliability of the grid are discussed. Please see http://web.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/WWS-50-USState-plans.html

  16. Uniting Satellite Data With Health Records to Address the Societal Impacts of Particulate Air Pollution: NASA's Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastan, A.; Diner, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated convincingly that airborne particulate matter has a major impact on human health, particularly in urban areas. However, providing an accurate picture of the health effects of various particle mixtures — distinguished by size, shape, and composition — is difficult due to the constraints of currently available measurement tools and the heterogeneity of atmospheric chemistry and human activities over space and time. The Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols (MAIA) investigation, currently in development as part of NASA's Earth Venture Instrument Program, will address this issue through a powerful combination of technologies and informatics. Atmospheric measurements collected by the MAIA satellite instrument featuring multiangle and innovative polarimetric imaging capabilities will be combined with available ground monitor data and a chemical transport model to produce maps of speciated particulate matter at 1 km spatial resolution for a selected set of globally distributed cities. The MAIA investigation is also original in integrating data providers (atmospheric scientists), data users (epidemiologists), and stakeholders (public health experts) into a multidisciplinary science team that will tailor the observation and analysis strategy within each target area to improve our understanding of the linkages between different particle types and adverse human health outcomes.

  17. Is Neural Machine Translation Ready for Deployment? A Case Study on 30 Translation Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Junczys-Dowmunt, Marcin; Dwojak, Tomasz; Hoang, Hieu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we provide the largest published comparison of translation quality for phrase-based SMT and neural machine translation across 30 translation directions. For ten directions we also include hierarchical phrase-based MT. Experiments are performed for the recently published United Nations Parallel Corpus v1.0 and its large six-way sentence-aligned subcorpus. In the second part of the paper we investigate aspects of translation speed, introducing AmuNMT, our efficient neural machine ...

  18. Address Points - Allegheny County Address Points 201601

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This dataset contains Address Points in Allegheny County. The Address Points were created by GDR for the Allegheny County CAD project, October 2008. Data is updated...

  19. Address Translation Problems in IMS Based Next Generation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs Godor

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of packed based multimedia networks reached a turning point when the ITU-T and the ETSIhave incorporated the IMS to the NGN. With the fast development of mobile communication more and more services andcontent are available. In contrast with fix network telephony both the services and the devices are personalized in the “mobileworld”. Services, known from the Internet - like e-mail, chat, browsing, presence, etc. – are already available via mobiledevices as well. The IMS originally wanted to exploit both the benefits of mobile networks and the fancy services of theInternet. But today it is already more than that. IMS is the core of the next generation telecommunication networks and abasis for fix-mobile convergent services. The fact however that IMS was originally a “mobile” standard, where IPv6 was notoddity generated some problems for the fix networks, where IPv4 is used. In this article I give an overview of these problemsand mention some solutions as well.

  20. [Qualitative translational science in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Pei-Fan

    2013-10-01

    Qualitative translational research refers to the "bench-to-bedside" enterprise of harnessing knowledge from the basic sciences to produce new treatment options or nursing interventions for patients. Three evidence-based translational problems related to qualitative translational research discussed this year address the interfaces among the nursing paradigm, the basic sciences, and clinical nursing work. This article illustrates the definition of translational science and translational blocks of evidence-based practice; discusses the qualitative research perspective in evidence synthesis, evidence translation and evidence utilization; and discusses the research questions that must be answered to solve the problems of the three translational gaps from the qualitative research perspective. Qualitative inquiry has an essential role to play in efforts to improve current healthcare-provider nursing interventions, experiences, and contexts. Thus, it is vital to introduce qualitative perspectives into evidence-based practice from the knowledge discovery through to the knowledge implementation process.

  1. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    technology research as a subdiscipline of TS, and we define and discuss some basic concepts and models of the field that we use in the rest of the paper. Based on a small-scale study of papers published in TS journals between 2006 and 2016, Section 3 attempts to map relevant developments of translation......Due to the growing uptake of translation technology in the language industry and its documented impact on the translation profession, translation students and scholars need in-depth and empirically founded knowledge of the nature and influences of translation technology (e.g. Christensen....../Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...

  2. From Polarity to Plurality in Translation Scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolla Karimzadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of the literature in translation studies shows that translation scholarship can be discussed in 3 Macro-levels including 1 Corpus-based studies, 2 Protocol-based studies, and 3 Systems- based studies. Researchers in the corpus-based studies test the hypothesis about the universals of translation. They also try to identify translation norms and regular linguistic patterns. This scholarship aims at showing that the language of translation is different from that of non-translation. The other purpose is to identify the techniques and strategies adopted by the translators. In protocol –based studies, the researchers study the mental activities and the individual behaviors of the translators while translating. They aim to describe the behavior of professional translators (versus translator trainees during the process of translation in a bid to identify how they chunk the source text (unit of translation and to describe how the translation trainees develop their translation competence. These studies are longitudinal for the reason that they aim to investigate the change of intended behaviors in the subjects of the study. Like corpus-based studies, they are experimental and data for analysis are collected by various methods including the translators’ verbal report, keystroke logging, eye tracking, and so on. Recently, in a method called “triangulation”, they combine the above-mentioned methods of data collection to test their hypotheses on a stronger experimental basis. To collect the data, they also employ the methods used in neurology (for example the technology of Electroencephalogram in order to obtain information on the physiological processes in the brains of the translators while translating. And finally in the systems-based studies, the researchers analyze more extended systems of production, distribution, and consumption of translations and their impacts on the target culture in a specific socio-cultural context. Differentiating

  3. The researchers' role in knowledge translation: a realist evaluation of the development and implementation of diagnostic pathways for cancer in two United Kingdom localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jon; Wye, Lesley; Hall, Nicola; Rooney, James; Walter, Fiona M; Hamilton, Willie; Gjini, Ardiana; Rubin, Greg

    2017-12-13

    In examining an initiative to develop and implement new cancer diagnostic pathways in two English localities, this paper evaluates 'what works' and examines the role of researchers in facilitating knowledge translation amongst teams of local clinicians and policy-makers. Using realist evaluation with a mixed methods case study approach, we conducted documentary analysis of meeting minutes and pathway iterations to map pathway development. We interviewed 14 participants to identify the contexts, mechanisms and outcomes (CMOs) that led to successful pathway development and implementation. Interviews were analysed thematically and four CMO configurations were developed. One site produced three fully implemented pathways, while the other produced two that were partly implemented. In explaining the differences, we found that a respected, independent, well-connected leader modelling partnership working and who facilitates a local, stable group that agree about the legitimacy of the data and project (context) can empower local teams to become sufficiently autonomous (mechanism) to develop and implement research-based pathways (outcome). Although both teams designed relevant, research-based cancer pathways, in the site where the pathways were successfully implemented the research team merely assisted, while, in the other, the research team drove the initiative. Based on our study findings, local stakeholders can apply local and research knowledge to develop and implement research-based pathways. However, success will depend on how academics empower local teams to create autonomy. Crucially, after re-packaging and translating research for local circumstances, identifying fertile environments with the right elements for implementation and developing collaborative relationships with local leaders, academics must step back.

  4. Translation Theory and Translation Studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qin

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a comparative study of "translation theory" and "translation studies" in China and the West. Its focus is to investigate whether there is translation theory in the Chinese tradition. My study begins with an examination of the debate in China over whether there has already existed a system of translation…

  5. Efficacy of female rat models in translational cardiovascular aging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, K M; Fannin, J C; Gillette, C; Blough, E R

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Aging is a primary risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease as well as cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Aging is a universal process that all humans undergo; however, research in aging is limited by cost and time constraints. Therefore, most research in aging has been done in primates and rodents; however it is unknown how well the effects of aging in rat models translate into humans. To compound the complication of aging gender has also been indicated as a risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system associated with aging and gender for aging research with regard to the applicability of rat derived data for translational application to human aging.

  6. Allegheny County Addressing Landmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  7. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  8. Translational informatics: an industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Michael N

    2012-01-01

    Translational informatics (TI) is extremely important for the pharmaceutical industry, especially as the bar for regulatory approval of new medications is set higher and higher. This paper will explore three specific areas in the drug development lifecycle, from tools developed by precompetitive consortia to standardized clinical data collection to the effective delivery of medications using clinical decision support, in which TI has a major role to play. Advancing TI will require investment in new tools and algorithms, as well as ensuring that translational issues are addressed early in the design process of informatics projects, and also given higher weight in funding or publication decisions. Ultimately, the source of translational tools and differences between academia and industry are secondary, as long as they move towards the shared goal of improving health.

  9. Why Translation Is Difficult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz Jonas

    2017-01-01

    translations we investigate the effects of cross-lingual syntactic and semantic distance on translation production times and find that non-literality makes from-scratch translation and post-editing difficult. We show that statistical machine translation systems encounter even more difficulties with non-literality....

  10. On Various Negative Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proof translations of classical mathematics into intuitionistic mathematics have been proposed in the literature over the past century. These are normally referred to as negative translations or double-negation translations. Among those, the most commonly cited are translations due to Kolmogorov, Godel, Gentzen, Kuroda and Krivine (in chronological order. In this paper we propose a framework for explaining how these different translations are related to each other. More precisely, we define a notion of a (modular simplification starting from Kolmogorov translation, which leads to a partial order between different negative translations. In this derived ordering, Kuroda and Krivine are minimal elements. Two new minimal translations are introduced, with Godel and Gentzen translations sitting in between Kolmogorov and one of these new translations.

  11. 37 CFR 251.1 - Official addresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Express, United Parcel Service and similar corporate courier services), use the following address... through the U.S. Postal Service, use the following address: Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel, P.O. Box 70977, Southwest Station, Washington, DC 20024-0977. (d) Federal Express, United Parcel Service and...

  12. Translation and Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this article is to consider the issue of quality in translation. Specifically, the question under consideration is whether quality assurance in relation to translation is feasible and, if so, what some of the implications for translation theory, translation practice and the teaching of...... under the ISO 9001 standard, and section 4. discusses the implications which quality management seems to hold for the field of translation in a broad sense. Finally, section 5. concludes the article....

  13. High resolution MRI imaging at 9.4 Tesla of the osteochondral unit in a translational model of articular cartilage repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Lars; Müller, Andreas; Bücker, Arno; Madry, Henning

    2015-04-16

    Non-destructive structural evaluation of the osteochondral unit is challenging. Here, the capability of high-field magnetic resonance imaging (μMRI) at 9.4 Tesla (T) was explored to examine osteochondral repair ex vivo in a preclinical large animal model. A specific aim of this study was to detect recently described alterations of the subchondral bone associated with cartilage repair. Osteochondral samples of medial femoral condyles from adult ewes containing full-thickness articular cartilage defects treated with marrow stimulation were obtained after 6 month in vivo and scanned in a 9.4 T μMRI. Ex vivo imaging of small osteochondral samples (typical volume: 1-2 cm(3)) at μMRI was optimised by variation of repetition time (TR), time echo (TE), flip angle (FA), spatial resolution and number of excitations (NEX) from standard MultiSliceMultiEcho (MSME) and three-dimensional (3D) spoiled GradientEcho (SGE) sequences. A 3D SGE sequence with the parameters: TR = 10 ms, TE = 3 ms, FA = 10°, voxel size = 120 × 120 × 120 μm(3) and NEX = 10 resulted in the best fitting for sample size, image quality, scanning time and artifacts. An isovolumetric voxel shape allowed for multiplanar reconstructions. Within the osteochondral unit articular cartilage, cartilaginous repair tissue and bone marrow could clearly be distinguished from the subchondral bone plate and subarticular spongiosa. Specific alterations of the osteochondral unit associated with cartilage repair such as persistent drill holes, subchondral bone cysts, sclerosis of the subchondral bone plate and of the subarticular spongiosa and intralesional osteophytes were precisely detected. High resolution, non-destructive ex vivo analysis of the entire osteochondral unit in a preclinical large animal model that is sufficient for further analyses is possible using μMRI at 9.4 T. In particular, 9.4 T is capable of accurately depicting alterations of the subchondral bone that are associated with

  14. Translation-coupling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  15. Evaluative Meaning in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Jurko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative meaning is frequently understood as a form of connotation, pertaining to single lexical items. However, the term has recently been applied also to longer stretches of text, spanning several words. The paper generally deals with the latter aspect and provides a corpus-driven analysis of several Slovene and English phrases that may appear semantically neutral, yet turn out to be heavily non-neutral in terms of their semantic properties. After a short introduction of the main approaches to the topic, including its dilemmas, the paper focuses on the L1-into-L2 translation of such strings, with particular emphasis on proper rendering of the evaluative meaning. While further research is warranted into the matter, the work presented here attests to the complex and ubiquitous nature of the Sinclairian extended unit of meaning.

  16. Writing Through: Practising Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of

  17. Lost in Translation? Challenges and Opportunities for Raising Health and Safety Awareness among a Multinational Workforce in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooling, Robert Fletcher; Aw, Tar-Ching

    2012-01-01

    The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has experienced tremendous economic and industrial growth in the petroleum, airline, maritime and construction sectors, especially since the discovery of oil reserves. Mass recruitment of low skilled or unskilled laborers from less-developed countries has been utilized to satisfy the manpower demands of these fast paced industrial developments. Such workforce recruitment has created an unusual populace demographic, with the total UAE population estimated at 8.3 million, composed of 950,000 Emiratis, with the remainder being multinational expatriate workers, with varying educational qualifications, work experience, religious beliefs, cultural practices, and native languages. These unique characteristics pose a challenge for health and safety professionals tasked with ensuring the UAE workforce adheres to specific occupational health and safety procedures. The paper discusses two case studies that employ a novel multimedia approach to raising health and safety awareness among a multinational workforce. PMID:23251846

  18. Lost in Translation? Challenges and Opportunities for Raising Health and Safety Awareness among a Multinational Workforce in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Loney

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The United Arab Emirates (UAE has experienced tremendous economic and industrial growth in the petroleum, airline, maritime and construction sectors, especially since the discovery of oil reserves. Mass recruitment of low skilled or unskilled laborers from less-developed countries has been utilized to satisfy the manpower demands of these fast paced industrial developments. Such workforce recruitment has created an unusual populace demographic, with the total UAE population estimated at 8.3 million, composed of 950,000 Emiratis, with the remainder being multinational expatriate workers, with varying educational qualifications, work experience, religious beliefs, cultural practices, and native languages. These unique characteristics pose a challenge for health and safety professionals tasked with ensuring the UAE workforce adheres to specific occupational health and safety procedures. The paper discusses two case studies that employ a novel multimedia approach to raising health and safety awareness among a multinational workforce.

  19. Closing the Translation Gap: Toolkit-based Implementation of Universal Decolonization in Adult Intensive Care Units Reduces Central Line-associated Bloodstream Infections in 95 Community Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septimus, Edward; Hickok, Jason; Moody, Julia; Kleinman, Ken; Avery, Taliser R; Huang, Susan S; Platt, Richard; Perlin, Jonathan

    2016-07-15

    Challenges exist in implementing evidence-based strategies, reaching high compliance, and achieving desired outcomes. The rapid adoption of a publicly available toolkit featuring routine universal decolonization of intensive care unit (ICU) patients may affect catheter-related bloodstream infections. Implementation of universal decolonization-treatment of all ICU patients with chlorhexidine bathing and nasal mupirocin-used a prerelease version of a publicly available toolkit. Implementation in 136 adult ICUs in 95 acute care hospitals across the United States was supported by planning and deployment tactics coordinated by a central infection prevention team using toolkit resources, along with coaching calls and engagement of key stakeholders. Operational and process measures derived from a common electronic health record system provided real-time feedback about performance. Healthcare-associated central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), using National Healthcare Safety Network surveillance definitions and comparing the preimplementation period of January 2011 through December 2012 to the postimplementation period of July 2013 through February 2014, were assessed via a Poisson generalized linear mixed model regression for CLABSI events. Implementation of universal decolonization was completed within 6 months. The estimated rate of CLABSI decreased by 23.5% (95% confidence interval, 9.8%-35.1%; P = .001). There was no evidence of a trend over time in either the pre- or postimplementation period. Adjusting for seasonality and number of beds did not materially affect these results. Dissemination of universal decolonization of ICU patients was accomplished quickly in a large community health system and was associated with declines in CLABSI consistent with published clinical trial findings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have...... implications for the curriculum, (3) be pedagogically motivating, and (4) prepare students for employing translation technology in their future practice as translators. In a two-phase study in which 14 MA students translated texts in three modalities (sight, written, and oral translation using an SR program......), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation...

  1. Introduction: contemporary translation studies and Bible translation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: contemporary translation studies and Bible translation. J.A. Naude, C.H.J. Van der Merwe. Abstract. (Acta Theologica, Supplementum 2, 2002: 1-5). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/actat.v22i1.5450.

  2. Translation, Quality and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    The paper investigates the feasibility and some of the possible consequences of applying quality management to translation. It first gives an introduction to two different schools of translation and to (total) quality management. It then examines whether quality management may, in theory......, be applied to translation and goes on to present a case study which involves a firm in the translation industry and which illustrates quality management in practice. The paper shows that applying quality management to translation is feasible and that doing so may translate into sustained growth....

  3. Behavioral lifestyle interventions for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes and translation to Hispanic/Latino communities in the United States and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Elizabeth M

    2017-01-01

    Lifestyle behaviors in overweight and obese individuals are closely linked to the development, course, and outcomes of type 2 diabetes and multiple comorbid health conditions. Behavior change theory and many randomized controlled studies offer strong support for screening and identifying adults at increased cardiometabolic risk and for providing early intervention to mitigate risk factors to prevent or delay the onset of disease. The current article reviews key lifestyle intervention efficacy and dissemination trials conducted with individuals deemed to be at increased risk for diabetes and describes the rationale for training teams of professionals and community health workers (e.g., promotores [in Spanish]) to implement comprehensive programs, with fidelity, in a variety of medical care and community settings. This evidence-based road map may be used to facilitate the design and implementation of strategies for structured behavioral diabetes risk reduction programs in the public and private healthcare sectors and other relevant community-based platforms serving individuals of Hispanic/Latino origin in the United States and Mexico. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  5. Communicating the Past via Translation: The Manipulation of History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdeon, Roberto A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the connection between translation and narratives of history, with particular attention to Howard Zinn's "A People's History of the United States" and its Spanish version, "La otra historia de los Estados Unidos". It is argued that translation interacts with history in many ways: translation is fundamental to history and, in…

  6. Lost in translation?: Comparing three Scandinavian translations of the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granas, Anne Gerd; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2014-08-01

    The "Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire" (BMQ) assess balance of necessity and concern of medicines. The BMQ has been translated from English to many languages. However, the original meaning of statements, such as "My medicine is a mystery to me", may be lost in translation. The aim of this study is to compare three Scandinavian translations of the BMQ. (1) How reliable are the translations? (2) Are they still valid after translation? Translated Norwegian, Swedish and Danish versions of the BMQ were scrutinized by three native Scandinavian researchers. Linguistic differences and ambiguities in the 5-point Likert scale and the BMQ statements were compared. In the Scandinavian translations, the Likert scale expanded beyond the original version at one endpoint (Swedish) or both endpoints (Danish). In the BMQ statements, discrepancies ranged from smaller inaccuracies toward completely different meaning. Some dissimilarities reflect different cultural beliefs about medicines. When translating questionnaires, bilingual researchers should scrutinize translations across similar languages to address content validity across different countries and languages. Our findings are of relevance to other BMQ translations in non-English countries, as direct comparisons between different translations might not be reliable or valid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... courier (excluding Federal Express, United Parcel Service and similar courier services), the envelope must... of overnight delivery services such as Federal Express, United Parcel Service, etc., due to delays in... overnight delivery using United States Postal Service Express Mail), the envelope should be addressed to...

  8. Living in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    Exaugural presentation. A retrospect of my personal itinerary from literature, across translation studies to translation process research and a look ahead. In the retrospect, I range over diverse topics, all of which have sprung from my concern with the phenomenon of translation. I reflect on how......, as humans, we generate meaning, interpret meaning, and reformulate or translate meaning. I also reflect on the way computing has influenced research into these phenomena as seen e.g. in my creation of the Translog program and in projects I have been involved in, such as OFT (Translation of Professional...... for global communication purposes, and for improving research into translation, the phenomenon of translation and the world of translation in which we all live....

  9. Determinants of translation ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Tamar; Prior, Anat; Eddington, Chelsea M.; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Ambiguity in translation is highly prevalent, and has consequences for second-language learning and for bilingual lexical processing. To better understand this phenomenon, the current study compared the determinants of translation ambiguity across four sets of translation norms from English to Spanish, Dutch, German and Hebrew. The number of translations an English word received was correlated across these different languages, and was also correlated with the number of senses the word has in English, demonstrating that translation ambiguity is partially determined by within-language semantic ambiguity. For semantically-ambiguous English words, the probability of the different translations in Spanish and Hebrew was predicted by the meaning-dominance structure in English, beyond the influence of other lexical and semantic factors, for bilinguals translating from their L1, and translating from their L2. These findings are consistent with models postulating direct access to meaning from L2 words for moderately-proficient bilinguals. PMID:27882188

  10. Translation in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  11. Translating Others, Discovering Himself: Beckett as Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Gribben

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the work of Samuel Beckett in the light of his early work as a translator of the works of other writers.  In his translations for Negro: An Anthology (1934, the Anthology of Mexican Poetry (1958, or commissioned translations for journals such as “This Quarter”, early pre-figurings of Beckett’s own thematic and linguistic concerns abound.  Rarely viewed as more than acts of raising money for himself, Beckett’s acts of translation, examined chronologically, demonstrate a writer discovering his craft, and developing his unique voice, unencumbered by the expectations of originality.  This essay posits that Beckett’s works, with their distinctive voice and characterisation, owe much to the global perspective he gained through translating across cultural, continental divides, as well as experimenting with form, which became a staple of Beckett’s own work.  Without formal training or theoretical grounding in translation, Beckett utilises the act of translation as a means of finding himself, revisiting it as a means of shaping his own unique literary voice.

  12. The 2 °C Global Temperature Target and the Evolution of the Long-Term Goal of Addressing Climate Change—From the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to the Paris Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Gao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Agreement proposed to keep the increase in global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. It was thus the first international treaty to endow the 2 °C global temperature target with legal effect. The qualitative expression of the ultimate objective in Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC has now evolved into the numerical temperature rise target in Article 2 of the Paris Agreement. Starting with the Second Assessment Report (SAR of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, an important task for subsequent assessments has been to provide scientific information to help determine the quantified long-term goal for UNFCCC negotiation. However, due to involvement in the value judgment within the scope of non-scientific assessment, the IPCC has never scientifically affirmed the unacceptable extent of global temperature rise. The setting of the long-term goal for addressing climate change has been a long process, and the 2 °C global temperature target is the political consensus on the basis of scientific assessment. This article analyzes the evolution of the long-term global goal for addressing climate change and its impact on scientific assessment, negotiation processes, and global low-carbon development, from aspects of the origin of the target, the series of assessments carried out by the IPCC focusing on Article 2 of the UNFCCC, and the promotion of the global temperature goal at the political level.

  13. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeman, Daniel J; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J

    2012-08-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component "hepatitis c virus" separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such "Ab.IgG", "DNA", and "RNA". We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into nine languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC's open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeman, Daniel J.; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J.

    2012-01-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component “hepatitis c virus” separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such “Ab.IgG”, “DNA”, and “RNA”. We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into 9 languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC’s open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange PMID:22285984

  15. Translating HOL to Dedukti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Assaf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dedukti is a logical framework based on the lambda-Pi-calculus modulo rewriting, which extends the lambda-Pi-calculus with rewrite rules. In this paper, we show how to translate the proofs of a family of HOL proof assistants to Dedukti. The translation preserves binding, typing, and reduction. We implemented this translation in an automated tool and used it to successfully translate the OpenTheory standard library.

  16. Neural Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Koehn, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Draft of textbook chapter on neural machine translation. a comprehensive treatment of the topic, ranging from introduction to neural networks, computation graphs, description of the currently dominant attentional sequence-to-sequence model, recent refinements, alternative architectures and challenges. Written as chapter for the textbook Statistical Machine Translation. Used in the JHU Fall 2017 class on machine translation.

  17. Machine Translation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajis, Katie

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics and capabilities of existing machine translation systems were examined and procurement recommendations were developed. Four systems, SYSTRAN, GLOBALINK, PC TRANSLATOR, and STYLUS, were determined to meet the NASA requirements for a machine translation system. Initially, four language pairs were selected for implementation. These are Russian-English, French-English, German-English, and Japanese-English.

  18. For "Translation and Theories"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Lili

    2009-01-01

    Translation studies stem from comparative literature and contrastive analysis. It involves the transfer of messages between two different language systems and cultures, and Munday (2001, p.1) notes that translation "by its nature" "is multilingual and also interdisciplinary". Translation subjects are the texts in various…

  19. Clinical Macrosystem Simulation Translates Between Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, G Jesse; Maryman, James A

    2018-04-01

    Simulation has become an integral tool in healthcare facility redesign. Immersing clinical experts into their future environment has demonstrated benefits for transition planning. This study evaluates translation of a proven macrosystems testing protocol, TESTPILOT, to an organization with limited simulation experience. An experienced TESTPILOT team guided Woman's Hospital Baton Rouge's simulation preparation for their new neonatal intensive care unit. Metrics included participant evaluations, latent safety threats (LST), and clinician surveys. Latent safety threats recorded during debriefings were addressed by workflow committees. Clinicians were surveyed at four time points for readiness and preparedness on 24 key processes. The local team invested nearly 750 hours into learning and implementing seven simulations that participants rated positively. Most of the 305 LST were minor issues. Surveys at baseline (42% of staff), postsim (18%), pretransition (26%), and postmove (29%) demonstrated strong internal consistency. System readiness lagged behind staff preparedness (P structure, team coverage, and feedback were still evolving as of move day (P organizations with limited prior exposure. Woman's Hospital Baton Rouge accrued essential skills to model and orchestrate an immersive neonatal intensive care unit and then drive effective multidisciplinary debriefings. Staff immersed in the new environment began to articulate their jobs before moving in. The trajectory of system readiness improvement corroborated LST correction. Future research is needed to determine the extent of simulation required for different organizational structures.

  20. The Hermeneutical Approach in Translation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Stefanink

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to convince the reader of the validity of the hermeneutical approach in translation studies. In a first part, we will show that this validity is based on the fact that the hermeneutical approach integrates factors like subjectivity, intuition, corporeality and creativity in its theoretical reflection, being thus close to the reality of the translation process. In a second part, we will situate this approach in the context of the development of modern translation studies since the 1950s, and show that this development was characterized by a dominating tendency that led from an atomistic to a more and more holistic view of the translation unit, legitimating the holistic approach, which is fundamental in translational hermeneutics. Our third part relates the history of philosophical hermeneutics as the legitimate foundation of translational hermeneutics. In a fourth part, devoted to the “outcoming perspectives”, we will try to reinforce the legitimacy of the hermeneutical approach by showing how it is supported by recent results of research in cognitive science. In order to foster further research in translational hermeneutics we also offer a methodology based on hermeneutic principles to study the translation process. Finally, we give an example of legitimation of a creative problemsolving based on a hermeneutical approach of a translation problem which finds its validation in the results of cognitive research.

  1. Revisiting interaction in knowledge translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zackheim Lisa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the study of research utilization is not new, there has been increased emphasis on the topic over the recent past. Science push models that are researcher driven and controlled and demand pull models emphasizing users/decision-maker interests have largely been abandoned in favour of more interactive models that emphasize linkages between researchers and decisionmakers. However, despite these and other theoretical and empirical advances in the area of research utilization, there remains a fundamental gap between the generation of research findings and the application of those findings in practice. Methods Using a case approach, the current study looks at the impact of one particular interaction approach to research translation used by a Canadian funding agency. Results Results suggest there may be certain conditions under which different levels of decisionmaker involvement in research will be more or less effective. Four attributes are illuminated by the current case study: stakeholder diversity, addressability/actionability of results, finality of study design and methodology, and politicization of results. Future research could test whether these or other variables can be used to specify some of the conditions under which different approaches to interaction in knowledge translation are likely to facilitate research utilization. Conclusion This work suggests that the efficacy of interaction approaches to research translation may be more limited than current theory proposes and underscores the need for more completely specified models of research utilization that can help address the slow pace of change in this area.

  2. Machine vs. human translation of SNOMED CT terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stefan; Bernhardt-Melischnig, Johannes; Kreuzthaler, Markus; Daumke, Philipp; Boeker, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In the context of past and current SNOMED CT translation projects we compare three kinds of SNOMED CT translations from English to German by: (t1) professional medical translators; (t2) a free Web-based machine translation service; (t3) medical students. 500 SNOMED CT fully specified names from the (English) International release were randomly selected. Based on this, German translations t1, t2, and t3 were generated. A German and an Austrian physician rated the translations for linguistic correctness and content fidelity. Kappa for inter-rater reliability was 0.4 for linguistic correctness and 0.23 for content fidelity. Average ratings of linguistic correctness did not differ significantly between human translation scenarios. Content fidelity was rated slightly better for student translators compared to professional translators. Comparing machine to human translation, the linguistic correctness differed about 0.5 scale units in favour of the human translation and about 0.25 regarding content fidelity, equally in favour of the human translation. The results demonstrate that low-cost translation solutions of medical terms may produce surprisingly good results. Although we would not recommend low-cost translation for producing standardized preferred terms, this approach can be useful for creating additional language-specific entry terms. This may serve several important use cases. We also recommend testing this method to bootstrap a crowdsourcing process, by which term translations are gathered, improved, maintained, and rated by the user community.

  3. Speaking your Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara; Mees, Inger M.; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the translation processes and products of 14 MA students who produced translations from Danish (L1) into English (L2) under different working conditions: (1) written translation, (2) sight translation, and (3) sight translation with a speech recognition (SR) tool. Audio......, since students were dictating in their L2, we looked into the number and types of error that occurred when using the SR software. Items that were misrecognised by the program could be divided into three categories: homophones, hesitations, and incorrectly pronounced words. Well over fifty per cent...

  4. Lost in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Steffen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    of translated texts. Our results suggest (i) that frame-based classifiers are usable for author attribution of both translated and untranslated texts; (ii) that framebased classifiers generally perform worse than the baseline classifiers for untranslated texts, but (iii) perform as well as, or superior...... to the baseline classifiers on translated texts; (iv) that—contrary to current belief—naïve classifiers based on lexical markers may perform tolerably on translated texts if the combination of author and translator is present in the training set of a classifier....

  5. What is a translator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Pulido

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available I copied the title from Foucault’s text, "Qu'est-ce qu'un auteur" in Dits et écrits [1969], Paris, Gallimard, 1994, that I read in French, then in English in Donald F. Bouchard’s and Sherry Simon’s translation, and finally in Spanish in Yturbe Corina’s translation, and applied for the translator some of the analysis that Foucault presents to define the author. Foucault suggests that if we cannot define an author, at least we can see where their function is reflected. My purpose in this paper is to present those surfaces where the function of the translator is reflected or where it can be revealed, and to analyse the categories that could lead us to the elaboration of a suitable definition of a Translator. I dare already give a compound noun for the translator: Translator-Function.

  6. What is a translator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Martha Pulido

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available I copied the title from Foucault’s text, "Qu'est-ce qu'un auteur" in Dits et écrits [1969], Paris, Gallimard, 1994, that I read in French, then in English in Donald F. Bouchard’s and Sherry Simon’s translation, and finally in Spanish in Yturbe Corina’s translation, and applied for the translator some of the analysis that Foucault presents to define the author. Foucault suggests that if we cannot define an author, at least we can see where their function is reflected. My purpose in this paper is to present those surfaces where the function of the translator is reflected or where it can be revealed, and to analyse the categories that could lead us to the elaboration of a suitable definition of a Translator. I dare already give a compound noun for the translator: Translator-Function.

  7. Baudelaire: Translator-Auctoritas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zapata

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve visibility in the media and a position recognized by both the public and their peers, translators are compelled to take advantage of spaces of enunciation such as those provided by prefaces, criticism, or biographical notes. Thanks to these spaces, in which translators deploy discursive and institutional strategies that allow them to position themselves and their translation project, translators acquire the status of translator-auctoritas, that is, a level of symbolic authority capable of endowing them with a public image. Through the detailed analysis of the editorial strategies and institutional calculations implemented by Baudelaire in order to position his project of translating Edgar Allan Poe, we show how the poet achieves the status of translator-auctoritas and the role the latter played in the construction of his own literary identity.

  8. Lost in translation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granas, Anne Gerd; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The "Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire" (BMQ) assess balance of necessity and concern of medicines. The BMQ has been translated from English to many languages. However, the original meaning of statements, such as "My medicine is a mystery to me", may be lost in translation. The aim...... of this study is to compare three Scandinavian translations of the BMQ. (1) How reliable are the translations? (2) Are they still valid after translation? METHODS: Translated Norwegian, Swedish and Danish versions of the BMQ were scrutinized by three native Scandinavian researchers. Linguistic differences...... and ambiguities in the 5-point Likert scale and the BMQ statements were compared. RESULTS: In the Scandinavian translations, the Likert scale expanded beyond the original version at one endpoint (Swedish) or both endpoints (Danish). In the BMQ statements, discrepancies ranged from smaller inaccuracies toward...

  9. Introduction : Translation Peripheries. The Paratextual Elements In Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-Bardají, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The notion of paratext is an unquestionably important consideration for many lines of research in translation studies: the history of translation, literary translation, audiovisual translation, and the analysis of ideological discourse in translation or self-translation. This inexplicable short-age of studies on paratexts in translations was one of the reasons why the Department of Translation and Interpreting at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona decided to organise the 7th International ...

  10. International Test Comparisons: Reviewing Translation Error in Different Source Language-Target Language Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueyu; Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Qian, Ming

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses test translation review in international test comparisons. We investigated the applicability of the theory of test translation error--a theory of the multidimensionality and inevitability of test translation error--across source language-target language combinations in the translation of PISA (Programme of International…

  11. Measuring Translation Literality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz

    2017-01-01

    Tirkkonen-Condit (2005: 407–408) argues that “It looks as if literal translation is [the result of] a default rendering procedure”. As a corollary, more literal translations should be easier to process, and less literal ones should be associated with more cognitive effort. In order to assess...... this hypothesis, we operationalize translation literality as 1. the word-order similarity of the source and the target text and 2. the number of possible different translation renderings. We develop a literality metric and apply it on a set of manually word and sentence aligned alternative translations. Drawing...... on the monitor hypothesis (Tirkkonen-Condit 2005) and a model of shared syntax (Hartsuiker et al. 2004) we develop a model of translation effort based on priming strength: shared combinatorial nodes and meaning representations are activated through automatized bilingual priming processes where more strongly...

  12. Struggling with Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    This paper shows empirical how actors have difficulties with translating strategy texts. The paper uses four cases as different examples of what happens, and what might be difficult, when actors translate organizational texts. In order to explore this, it draws on a translation training method from...... translation theory. The study shows that for those who have produced the text, it is difficult to translate a strategy where they have to change the words so others who don’t understand the language in the text can understand it. It also shows that for those who haven’t been a part of the production, it very...... challenge the notion that actors understand all texts and that managers per se can translate a text....

  13. Translational ecology for hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, William H

    2013-01-01

    Translational ecology--a special discipline aimed to improve the accessibility of science to policy makers--will help hydrogeologists contribute to the solution of pressing environmental problems. Patterned after translational medicine, translational ecology is a partnership to ensure that the right science gets done in a timely fashion, so that it can be communicated to those who need it. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  14. The Metalanguage of Translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Amanda Case

    2013-04-01

    The Metalanguage of Translation, sections of which contain materials originally published in volume nineteen of the international translation studies journal, Target (2007, presents a compilation of eleven position articles, written by eleven contributors who draw attention to the often diametric variations between the practice and conceptualization of translation studies and the language we use to describe it. This volume provides a multiplicity of metalinguistic topics covering everything from terminology and bibliography to epistemology and localization.

  15. Variational Neural Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Biao; Xiong, Deyi; Su, Jinsong; Duan, Hong; Zhang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Models of neural machine translation are often from a discriminative family of encoderdecoders that learn a conditional distribution of a target sentence given a source sentence. In this paper, we propose a variational model to learn this conditional distribution for neural machine translation: a variational encoderdecoder model that can be trained end-to-end. Different from the vanilla encoder-decoder model that generates target translations from hidden representations of source sentences al...

  16. Vajon in Translated Hungarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Götz Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the structures the discourse marker vajon forms in translated Hungarian fiction. Although translation data has been deployed in the study of discourse markers (Aijmer & Simon- Vandenbergen, 2004, such studies do not account for translation-specific phenomena which can influence the data of their analysis. In addition, translated discourse markers could offer insights into the idiosyncratic properties of translated texts as well as the culturally defined norms of translation that guide the creation of target texts. The analysis presented in this paper extends the cross-linguistic approach beyond contrastive analysis with a detailed investigation of two corpora of translated texts in order to identify patterns which could be a sign of translation or genre norms impacting the target texts. As a result, a distinct, diverging pattern emerges between the two corpora: patterns of explicit polarity show a marked difference. However, further research is needed to clarify whether these are due to language, genre, or translation norms.

  17. Translation as cultural mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Petcu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the role that translation plays as cultural mediator, as it already widely accepted that translation involves not just two languages, but two cultures, two worlds that are brought into close contact with each other. Obviously, between the two cultures, the two worlds that translation compares and contrasts there are both similarities and dissimilarities. What is of interest to us is the way in which dissimilarities should be approached in the process of translation, whether they should be domesticated or foreignized as Venuti put it, whether the reader should be brought closer to the text or the text closer to the reader.

  18. Who translates the translation? (Retraduire les héros marginaux d'Alan Moore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice RAY

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The retranslation phenomenon is essential to the translation process. It is considered as the logical progression of this process which allows the translated literary work to regenerate in a restless cultural and language space. To a lesser extent, we can observe the same phenomenon in the translation of comics. However, this specific translation requires other competencies and a translating approach somehow different from the ones required to translate fiction literature, especially because of the presence of the visual system of drawings which is strongly bound to its own culture and the endless mutations it goes through. The comic book Watchmen (Les Gardiens, in the first French translation by Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons, is known in the whole world as the comic which had not only remodeled the vision we had of super-heroes, but had also given the comic books another voice. Watchmen was published between 1986 and 1987 in the United States and translated in French from 1987 to 1988. Fifteen years after this first translation by Jean-Patrick Manchette, Panini publishing decided to retranslate this famous comic in 2007. However, if the reviews of the first translation were laudatory, the retranslation did not enjoy a great reception from the readers or from the reviewers. This paper proposes a comparative analysis of both these translations and of their original version as well as an experiment on the readers, comic books readers or not, in order to establish why the first translation was a success and the retranslation a failure. Thus, we could withdraw the elements which allow us to understand the reception of comic translation.

  19. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  20. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  1. Translational Health Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogowski, Wolf; John, Jürgen; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Scheffler, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Translational health economics (THE) can be defined as the use of theoretical concepts and empirical methods in health economics to bridge the gap between the decision to fund and use a new health technology in clinical practice (the backend of translational medicine) and the decision to invest into

  2. Translating VDM to Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  3. Semantics via Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culhane, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

  4. Idioms and Back Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The challenges of intercultural communication are an integral part of many undergraduate business communication courses. Marketing gaffes clearly illustrate the pitfalls of translation and underscore the importance of a knowledge of the culture with which one is attempting to communicate. A good way to approach the topic of translation pitfalls in…

  5. Students' Differentiated Translation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, Michael J.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how students translate between mathematical representations is of both practical and theoretical importance. This study examined students' processes in their generation of symbolic and graphic representations of given polynomial functions. The purpose was to investigate how students perform these translations. The result of the study…

  6. Staging Ethnographic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Objectifying the cultural diversity of visual fieldmethods - and the analysis of balancing the cultural known and unknown through anthropological analysis (aided by the analytical concept translation (Edwin Ardener 1989))......Objectifying the cultural diversity of visual fieldmethods - and the analysis of balancing the cultural known and unknown through anthropological analysis (aided by the analytical concept translation (Edwin Ardener 1989))...

  7. Translation as (Global) Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  8. Creativity, Culture and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Siamak; Wan Yahya, Wan Roselezam; Babaee, Ruzbeh

    2014-01-01

    Some scholars (Bassnett-McGuire, Catford, Brislin) suggest that a good piece of translation should be a strict reflection of the style of the original text while some others (Gui, Newmark, Wilss) consider the original text untranslatable unless it is reproduced. Opposing views by different critics suggest that translation is still a challenging…

  9. Translating the Folk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Bryan

    2000-01-01

    This article looks at issues affecting Robert Garioch's translation into Scots of a sonnet from Giuseppe Gioachino Belli's Romaneschi collection. It begins with the discussion of a problem involved in writing in dialects with no settled written standard. This 'standardizing' poetry is then looked at in terms of translation and theories of the…

  10. Translation between cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Oliveira Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article will question the pertinence of understanding interculturality in terms of translation between cultures. I shall study this hypothesis in two ways : 1 / the cosmopolitan horizon, which the idea of translation may implicate ; 2 / the critique of the premises of unique origin and homogeneity of cultures which this hypothesis makes possible.

  11. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) ha...

  12. Parametrization of translational surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Diaz, Sonia; Shen, Liyong

    2014-01-01

    The algebraic translational surface is a typical modeling surface in computer aided design and architecture industry. In this paper, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for that algebraic surface having a standard parametric representation and our proof is constructive. If the given algebraic surface is translational, then we can compute a standard parametric representation for the surface.

  13. [Translational dental medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li-Wei; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Xue-Dong

    2011-06-01

    Over the last decade, as tremendous innovations have been achieved in scientific technology, translational medicine has come into the focus of academic medicine, and significant intellectual and financial efforts have been made to initiate a multitude of bench-to-bedside projects. The concept of translational medicine is described as the transfer of new understandings of disease mechanisms gained in the laboratory into the development of new methods for diagnosis, therapy, and prevention and their first testing in humans, meanwhile, translational medicine also is described as a patient-oriented population research and the translation of results from clinical studies into everyday clinical practice and health decision making. Translational medicine is a hot spot in recent academic field, and it is crucial for improving the living standard of population and renewing the research idea and technology. It has, however, significant obstacles during the approach of translational medicine. We here review the background, concept, current situation of translational dental medicine, key components and obstacles of translational medicine.

  14. Stimulating translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research...

  15. Rule-based machine translation for Aymara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coler, Matthew; Homola, Petr; Jones, Mari

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the ongoing result of an approach developed by the collaboration of a computational linguist with a field linguist that addresses one of the oft-overlooked keys to language maintenance: the development of modern language-learning tools. Although machine translation isn’t commonly

  16. Translation Quality Assessment in Health Research: A Functionalist Alternative to Back-Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colina, Sonia; Marrone, Nicole; Ingram, Maia; Sánchez, Daisey

    2017-09-01

    As international research studies become more commonplace, the importance of developing multilingual research instruments continues to increase and with it that of translated materials. It is therefore not unexpected that assessing the quality of translated materials (e.g., research instruments, questionnaires, etc.) has become essential to cross-cultural research, given that the reliability and validity of the research findings crucially depend on the translated instruments. In some fields (e.g., public health and medicine), the quality of translated instruments can also impact the effectiveness and success of interventions and public campaigns. Back-translation (BT) is a commonly used quality assessment tool in cross-cultural research. This quality assurance technique consists of (a) translation (target text [TT 1 ]) of the source text (ST), (b) translation (TT 2 ) of TT 1 back into the source language, and (c) comparison of TT 2 with ST to make sure there are no discrepancies. The accuracy of the BT with respect to the source is supposed to reflect equivalence/accuracy of the TT. This article shows how the use of BT as a translation quality assessment method can have a detrimental effect on a research study and proposes alternatives to BT. One alternative is illustrated on the basis of the translation and quality assessment methods used in a research study on hearing loss carried out in a border community in the southwest of the United States.

  17. Translation as iniciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Martina Schuler Zea

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2016v36n3p192        In an increasingly noteworthy manner translation appears as a process, device or configuration that is not limited do textual dimension, but inserted in the wider context of ritual, social and technical exchanges. This is a moment of overflowing or expansion of translation, which requires a specific attention. This extratextual proceeding of translation is taken here as a motif to rethink the practice and conceptualization of translation under the figure of shamanic initiation. Specifically, the purpose here is to elaborate articulations in the event of shamanic initiation as narrated in The falling sky (Kopenawa & Albert, 2010, 2013, 2015, emphasizing questions of access to otherness, interlocution with it and the ways of transformation that traverse the double field of anthropology and translation.

  18. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  19. Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…

  20. Translation Commentary: A Happy Medium between Translation Curriculum and EAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shei, Chris C.-C.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, "Translation Commentary" refers to an English composition written by a learner of both English and translation, submitted together with his or her translation output. In an academic setting combining English-to-Chinese translation and English as a second language, this article deals with both the issue of translation and that of…

  1. Unraveling the Contribution of Image Captioning and Neural Machine Translation for Multimodal Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lala Chiraag

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent work on multimodal machine translation has attempted to address the problem of producing target language image descriptions based on both the source language description and the corresponding image. However, existing work has not been conclusive on the contribution of visual information. This paper presents an in-depth study of the problem by examining the differences and complementarities of two related but distinct approaches to this task: textonly neural machine translation and image captioning. We analyse the scope for improvement and the effect of different data and settings to build models for these tasks. We also propose ways of combining these two approaches for improved translation quality.

  2. Engaging basic scientists in translational research: identifying opportunities, overcoming obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This report is based on the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology’s symposium, “Engaging basic Scientists in Translational Research: Identifying Opportunities, Overcoming Obstacles,” held in Chevy Chase, MD, March 24–25, 2011. Meeting participants examined the benefits of engaging basic scientists in translational research, the challenges to their participation in translational research, and the roles that research institutions, funding organizations, professional societies, and scientific publishers can play to address these challenges. PMID:22500917

  3. Quantifying the Efficiency of a Translator: The Effect of Syntactical and Literal Written Translations on Language Comprehension Using the Machine Translation System FALCon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloh, Ian A.; Morton, Jillian; Jantzi, Jennifer K.; Rodriguez, Amy M.; Graham, John

    2008-01-01

    This study introduces a new method of evaluating human comprehension in the context of machine translation using a language translation program known as the FALCon (Forward Area Language Converter). The participants include 48 freshmen from the United States Military Academy enrolled in the General Psychology course, PL100. Results of this study…

  4. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  5. Addressing Social Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  6. Sesotho Address Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akindele, Dele Femi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Address forms constitute an integral part of Basotho sociolinguistic etiquette. They are regarded as a kind of emotional capital that may be invested in putting others at ease. They are indicators of deference, politeness and markers of social distance. (Fasold 1990, Akindele 1990, 1991, 1993 This paper examines the address forms used by the Basotho people. It analyzes and discusses the various types and the factors determining their use. The discussion of address forms in Sesotho focuses on First Name, Title plus First Name, Title plus Last Name, Nickname, Multiple Names, and Teknonym. Drawing data from semi-literate and literate urban and rural population of Maseru district of Lesotho, it was found that the commonest form of address used by the Basotho people is title plus first name. e.g. ntate Thabo (father Thabo, 'm'e Puleng (mother Puleng, ausi Maneo (sister Maneo, abuti Mahao (brother Mahao. It is used by close relations, associates, and familiar people in both formal and informal situations.

  7. Addressivity in Cogenerative Dialogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one…

  8. Theory of Test Translation Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…

  9. Toward a Framework for Translational Research in School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Oliver W.

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses a translational research framework for school psychology. Translational research uses outcomes of basic and applied science to enhance the overall well-being of persons. This transdisciplinary framework connects disciplines and uses their resources, capacities, systems, and procedures to advance prevention, intervention, and…

  10. Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

    2012-01-01

    Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577

  11. Exploring Translations Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autor: Anthony Pym

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2016v36n3p214 This work is a translation of the chapter “Descriptions – the intellectual background” serving as a complement to the chapter 5 of the book titled Exploring Translations Studies (2010 by Anthony Pym. The chapter outlines the relationship between Russian Formalism and some of the strands of the Translation Studies which emerged during the 19th century. It brings to the fore works done in Prague (Prague Circle, Bratislava, Leipzig, Holland and Flanders focusing specially on the Tel-Aviv School of Itamar-Even and Gideon Toury, the main forerunners of the Descriptive Translation Studies (DTS. By analyzing this academic context, not only it describes the type of approaches those theorists suggested, but it also discusses the ups and downs of such paradigms problematizing concepts like “translation shifts”, “assumed translations” and “norms”. This translation aims at presenting and sharing Pym’s work as clearly and fluid as the original is, so that it serves as both a historical reference and an introductory text to Translation Studies.

  12. Exploring Translations Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pym

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is a translation of the chapter “Descriptions – the intellectual background” serving as a complement to the chapter 5 of the book titled Exploring Translations Studies (2010 by Anthony Pym. The chapter outlines the relationship between Russian Formalism and some of the strands of the Translation Studies which emerged during the 19th century. It brings to the fore works done in Prague (Prague Circle, Bratislava, Leipzig, Holland and Flanders focusing specially on the Tel-Aviv School of Itamar-Even and Gideon Toury, the main forerunners of the Descriptive Translation Studies (DTS. By analyzing this academic context, not only it describes the type of approaches those theorists suggested, but it also discusses the ups and downs of such paradigms problematizing concepts like “translation shifts”, “assumed translations” and “norms”. This translation aims at presenting and sharing Pym’s work as clearly and fluid as the original is, so that it serves as both a historical reference and an introductory text to Translation Studies.

  13. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2016-01-01

    language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross...

  14. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross...

  15. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning; Tarp, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Translation, interpreting and lexicography represent three separate areas of human activity, each of them with its own theories, models and methods and, hence, with its own disciplinary underpinnings. At the same time, all three disciplines are characterized by a marked interdisciplinary dimension...... in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...

  16. Perceived radial translation during centrifugation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Correia Gracio, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Linear acceleration generally gives rise to translation perception. Centripetal acceleration during centrifugation, however, has never been reported giving rise to a radial, inward translation perception. OBJECTIVE: To study whether centrifugation can induce a radial translation

  17. Perceived radial translation during centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Correia Grácio, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Linear acceleration generally gives rise to translation perception. Centripetal acceleration during centrifugation, however, has never been reported giving rise to a radial, inward translation perception. OBJECTIVE: To study whether centrifugation can induce a radial translation

  18. Wearable Language Translation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carroll, Wendell

    1999-01-01

    VIA Team Mission Statement: To develop a near real time, two way, mobile, lightweight, robust and low cost multi-lingual language translation device that can be operated with minimal training in a hands free manner...

  19. A phased translation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, R.J.; Schierbeek, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    A phased translation function, which takes advantage of prior phase information to determine the position of an oriented mulecular replacement model, is examined. The function is the coefficient of correlation between the electron density computed with the prior phases and the electron density of the translated model, evaluated in reciprocal space as a Fourier transform. The correlation coefficient used in this work is closely related to an overlap function devised by Colman, Fehlhammer and Bartels. Tests with two protein structures, one of which was solved with the help of the phased translation function, show that little phase information is required to resolve the translation problem, and that the function is relatively insensitive to misorientation of the model. (orig.)

  20. Russian translations for Cochrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudina, E V; Ziganshina, L E

    2015-01-01

    Cochrane collaboration has made a huge contribution to the development of evidence-based medicine; Cochrane work is the international gold standard of independent, credible and reliable high-quality information in medicine. Over the past 20 years the Cochrane Collaboration helped transforming decision-making in health and reforming it significantly, saving lives and contributing to longevity [1]. Until recently, Cochrane evidence were available only in English, which represents a significant barrier to their wider use in non-English speaking countries. To provide access to evidence, obtained from Cochrane Reviews, for health professionals and general public (from non-English-speaking countries), bypassing language barriers, Cochrane collaboration in 2014 initiated an international project of translating Plain language summaries of Cochrane Reviews into other languages [2, 3]. Russian translations of Plain language summaries were started in May 2014 by the team from Kazan Federal University (Department of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology; 2014-2015 as an Affiliated Centre in Tatarstan of the Nordic Cochrane Centre, since August 2015 as Cochrane Russia, a Russian branch of Cochrane Nordic, Head - Liliya Eugenevna Ziganshina) on a voluntary basis. To assess the quality of Russian translations of Cochrane Plain Language Summaries (PLS) and their potential impact on the Russian speaking community through user feedback with the overarching aim of furthering the translations project. We conducted the continuous online survey via Google Docs. We invited respondents through the electronic Russian language discussion forum on Essential Medicines (E-lek), links to survey on the Russian Cochrane.org website, invitations to Cochrane contributors registered in Archie from potential Russian-speaking countries. We set up the survey in Russian and English. The respondents were asked to respond to the questionnaire regarding the relevance and potential impact of the Cochrane Russian

  1. Translation and Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Bezerra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the differences betweenscientific and fictional translations, and focus on the second.The fictional translation works with meanings, opens itselfto the plurissignification in the purpose to create a similarity of the dissimilarity; in this process, the translator does nottranslate a language, but what a creative individuality makeswith a language. At last there is an approach to the knowledgeand skills necessaries to a translator of literature: theknowledge of the theories of the literature and of thetranslation, the capacity to preserve the national color ofthe original text and at the same time to respect the arrivallanguage, and the sensibility to his national languagevariations present in the daily and in the literary spheres.

  2. Translation for language purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the background, subjects, assumptions, procedure, and preliminary results of a small-scale experimental study of L2 translation (Danish into English) and picture verbalization in L2 (English)....

  3. The Teaching of Old English in Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuso, Joseph F.

    Advantage should be taken of the increased interest in teaching Old English literature, in translation, at the college and high school levels. The study of "Beowulf" and other Old English literature has proved to be a stimulating experience for students at the United States Air Force Academy and at Georgia College. At the academy, the…

  4. Gazing and Typing Activities during Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Kay, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates the notion of Translation Units (TUs) from a cognitive angle. A TU is defined as the translator’s focus of attention at a time. Since attention can be directed towards source text (ST) understanding and/or target text (TT) production, we analyze the activity data of the tra...

  5. Bible translations into Italian (20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Wróbel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussing twentieth-century translations of the Bible into Italian we have to make a crucial distinction: there are different translations and different editions; the latter are more numerous, as the same translation may appear in different forms. For many of them it is difficult to determine to whom they are addressed: some of the features show a broad willingness to promote the content of the Bible, while others make them a tool only for a group of specialists. The article discusses the issue of the Bibles, which were printed in Italy in the twentieth century; there were 27. It deliberately does not include translations and elaborations less prevalent or partial studies for professionals. The information is presented in a tangible and transparent scheme, which facilitates their mutual compatibility. Each description contains the name or title of work, author’s name, place and date of publication, publisher’s name, names of translators, editors, source of translation, editing characteristics, and other observations.

  6. Lost in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Wiebke; Reusswig, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    Lost in Translation? Introducing Planetary Boundaries into Social Systems. Fritz Reusswig, Wiebke Lass Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries by interdisciplinary science efforts is a challenging task—and a risky one, as the 1972 Limits to Growth publication has shown. Even if we may be assured that scientific understanding of underlying processes of the Earth system has significantly improved since then, the challenge of translating these findings into the social systems of the planet remains crucial for any kind of action, and in many respects far more challenging. We would like to conceptualize what could also be termed a problem of coupling social and natural systems as a nested set of social translation processes, well aware of the limited applicability of the language-related translation metaphor. Societies must, first, perceive these boundaries, and they have to understand their relevance. This includes, among many other things, the organization of transdisciplinary scientific cooperation. They will then have to translate this understood perception into possible actions, i.e. strategies for different local bodies, actors, and institutional settings. This implies a lot of 'internal' translation processes, e.g. from the scientific subsystem to the mass media, the political and the economic subsystem. And it implies to develop subsystem-specific schemes of evaluation for these alternatives, e.g. convincing narratives, cost-benefit analyses, or ethical legitimacy considerations. And, finally, societies do have to translate chosen action alternatives into monitoring and evaluation schemes, e.g. for agricultural production or renewable energies. This process includes the continuation of observing and re-analyzing the planetary boundary concept itself, as a re-adjustment of these boundaries in the light of new scientific insights cannot be excluded. Taken all together, societies may well

  7. Lost in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askehave, Inger; Zethsen, Karen Korning

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with an aspect of patient information that differs somewhat from the traditional scope of this journal; namely the linguistic and translational aspects of Patient Information Leaflets (PILs). During the past decade much work has been dedicated to making the English PILs...... as informative and lay-friendly as possible. However, much of the good work is ruined when the PIL is translated. Why is this so and what can be done about it?...

  8. Translational control of cyclins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Ming-Chih

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Regulation of cyclin levels is important for many cell cycle-related processes and can occur at several different steps of gene expression. Translational regulation of cyclins, which occurs by a variety of regulatory mechanisms, permits a prompt response to signal transduction pathways induced by environmental stimuli. This review will summarize translational control of cyclins and its influence on cell cycle progression.

  9. Jungmann's translation of Paradise Lost

    OpenAIRE

    Janů, Karel

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines Josef Jungmann's translation of John Milton's Paradise Lost. Josef Jungmann was one of the leading figures of the Czech National Revival and translated Milton 's poem between the years 1800 and 1804. The thesis covers Jungmann's theoretical model of translation and presents Jungmann's motives for translation of Milton's epic poem. The paper also describes the aims Jungmann had with his translation and whether he has achieved them. The reception Jungmann's translation rece...

  10. A Technique for Defining Metamodel Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Magariño, Iván; Fuentes-Fernández, Rubén

    Model-Driven Engineering and Domain-Specific Modeling Languages are encouraging an increased used of metamodels for the definition of languages and tools. Although the Meta Object Facility language is the standard for metamodeling, there are alternative metamodeling languages that are aimed at satisfying specific requirements. In this context, sharing information throughout different domains and tools requires not only being able to translate models between modeling languages defined with the same metamodeling language, but also between different metamodeling languages. This paper addresses this latter need describing a general technique to define transformations that perform this translation. In this work, two case studies illustrate the application of this process.

  11. Revisiting Translation Strategies and Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoran Constantine Tardzenyuy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many translation researchers, scholars and students or trainees have the tendency to use the terms ‘translation strategy’,’ translation technique’  ‘translation method’ and ‘translation procedure’ invariably, and sometimes with varying shades of meaning This paper attempts to define, distinguish and clarify these terms in a bid to give the study of translation the scientific basis it deserves, given that scientific terminology is bound to be clear and unequivocal. Employing the qualitative research method and secondary or documentary sources, the paper provides elaborate explanations of the terms using sourced and invented examples. The paper concludes that the term ‘translation strategy’ should be used strictly to refer to a global or general decision a translator takes before engaging  in the translation of any text. Such a general decision could concern the issue of whether the translation would be literal, foreignized or source-text oriented; or whether it would be free, oblique, domesticated or target-text-oriented. On the other hand, the paper conclusively contends that all the other terms, that is to say, ‘translation technique, ‘translation procedure’ and ‘translation method’ should be used to refer to tools or operational measures deployed   by the translator in the course of actual translation. In other words, they should be used as mechanisms for effecting general or globalizing translation strategies. Keywords: Translation, Strategy, Translation, Technique, Foreignization, Domestication.

  12. Challenges in legal translation - revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Simonnæs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss challenges in legal translation from the view of a teacher who evaluates the work of semi-professional translators in a special setting. Recurrent translation errors may subsequently be used as a pedagogical resource in specialised translator training. The observation of recurrent challenges confronting the candidates in legal translation and the absence of formal translator training programs are the reasons why NHH now offers an on-line course in legal translation, JurDist, focusing i.a. on useful translation strategies.

  13. Memory Compression Techniques for Network Address Management in MPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yanfei; Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael; Parker, Scott; Bland, Wesley; Raffenetti, Ken; Balaji, Pavan

    2017-05-29

    MPI allows applications to treat processes as a logical collection of integer ranks for each MPI communicator, while internally translating these logical ranks into actual network addresses. In current MPI implementations the management and lookup of such network addresses use memory sizes that are proportional to the number of processes in each communicator. In this paper, we propose a new mechanism, called AV-Rankmap, for managing such translation. AV-Rankmap takes advantage of logical patterns in rank-address mapping that most applications naturally tend to have, and it exploits the fact that some parts of network address structures are naturally more performance critical than others. It uses this information to compress the memory used for network address management. We demonstrate that AV-Rankmap can achieve performance similar to or better than that of other MPI implementations while using significantly less memory.

  14. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution. Copyright 2013, NMJI.

  15. Translating Alcohol Research: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Angela M; Miles, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of stream-lining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD.

  16. The Effect of Translators' Emotional Intelligence on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge, professional and psychological conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' Emotional Intelligence on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study," a sample of…

  17. The Impact of Translators' Academic Experience on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge and professional conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' academic experience on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study", a sample of 100 male and…

  18. Translating Signs, Producing Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Neilson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper moves between two streets: Liverpool Road in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield and Via Sarpi in the Italian city of Milan. What connects these streets is that both have become important sites for businesses in the Chinese diaspora. Moreover, both are streets on which locals have expressed desires for Chinese signs to be translated into the national lingua franca. The paper argues that the cultural politics inherent in this demand for translation cannot be fully understood in the context of national debates about diversity and integration. It is also necessary to consider the emergence of the official Chinese Putonghua as global language, which competes with English but also colonizes dialects and minority languages. In the case of these dual language signs, the space between languages can neither be reduced to a contact zone of minority and majority cultures nor celebrated as a ‘third space’ where the power relations implied by such differences are subverted. At stake is rather a space characterised by what Naoki Sakai calls the schema of co-figuration, which allows the representation of translation as the passage between two equivalents that resemble each other and thus makes possible their determination as conceptually different and comparable. Drawing on arguments about translation and citizenship, the paper critically interrogates the ethos of interchangeability implied by this regime of translation. A closing argument is made for a vision of the common that implies neither civilisational harmony nor the translation of all values into a general equivalent. Primary sources include government reports, internet texts and media stories. These are analyzed using techniques of discourse analysis and interpreted with the help of secondary literature concerning globalisation, language and migration. The disciplinary matrix cuts and mixes between cultural studies, translation studies, citizenship studies, globalization studies and

  19. Translation as Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Gilberthorpe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation of literature is generally understood as a copy of an original. As such, it finds itself compared negatively to the original; judged and found lacking either the style or meaning of the original text it was seeking to translate. However, this paper will explore the relationship between the text and its translation through the work of Jacques Derrida and his neologisms such as the supplement and différance in addition to the work of Walter Benjamin. Through understanding the translation as a supplement, this paper will explore whether the original text was complete in and of itself. Through this and Derrida’s understanding of the play of language, I argue that translation can be understood as the palingenesis of literature, as it is only through translation that literature is reborn and lives on. Moreover, this paper will conclude with an examination of Blanchot’s distinction between the Book and the book in order to argue that literature is in itself a form of translation. Thus, the relationship between translation and literature is one of a cycle of genesis and palingenesis, as translation finds itself at both the beginning and continual rebirth of literature. La traduzione letteraria viene generalmente intesa come la copia di un originale. In quanto tale essa viene considerata negativamente in rapporto a quest’ultimo, giudicata manchevole quanto a stile o contenuto rispetto al testo originale che cerca di tradurre. Questo articolo intende esaminare la relazione tra il testo e la sua traduzione attraverso l’opera di Jacques Derrida e i suoi neologismi, come supplemento e différance, e sulla scorta degli studi di Walter Benjamin. Considerando la traduzione come un supplemento, l’articolo indaga se l’originale sia completo in e di per se stesso. Attraverso questo concetto e la prospettiva di Derrida sul gioco del linguaggio, la tesi sostenuta è che la traduzione possa essere considerata come palingenesi della

  20. Bilingual Text Messaging Translation: Translating Text Messages From English Into Spanish for the Text4Walking Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Susan Weber; Sandi, Giselle; Ingram, Diana; Welch, Mary Jane; Ocampo, Edith V

    2015-05-06

    Hispanic adults in the United States are at particular risk for diabetes and inadequate blood pressure control. Physical activity improves these health problems; however Hispanic adults also have a low rate of recommended aerobic physical activity. To address improving physical inactivity, one area of rapidly growing technology that can be utilized is text messaging (short message service, SMS). A physical activity research team, Text4Walking, had previously developed an initial database of motivational physical activity text messages in English that could be used for physical activity text messaging interventions. However, the team needed to translate these existing English physical activity text messages into Spanish in order to have culturally meaningful and useful text messages for those adults within the Hispanic population who would prefer to receive text messages in Spanish. The aim of this study was to translate a database of English motivational physical activity messages into Spanish and review these text messages with a group of Spanish speaking adults to inform the use of these text messages in an intervention study. The consent form and study documents, including the existing English physical activity text messages, were translated from English into Spanish, and received translation certification as well as Institutional Review Board approval. The translated text messages were placed into PowerPoint, accompanied by a set of culturally appropriate photos depicting barriers to walking, as well as walking scenarios. At the focus group, eligibility criteria for this study included being an adult between 30 to 65 years old who spoke Spanish as their primary language. After a general group introduction, participants were placed into smaller groups of two or three. Each small group was asked to review a segment of the translated text messages for accuracy and meaningfulness. After the break out, the group was brought back together to review the text messages

  1. A translational research niche for small business innovation research grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelsman, Karl

    2009-11-04

    The United States Congress will decide the future of the Small Business Innovation Research program in the coming months. Essential changes needed in the program and its unique role in translational research are discussed.

  2. Bioinformatics in translational drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooller, Sarah K; Benstead-Hume, Graeme; Chen, Xiangrong; Ali, Yusuf; Pearl, Frances M G

    2017-08-31

    Bioinformatics approaches are becoming ever more essential in translational drug discovery both in academia and within the pharmaceutical industry. Computational exploitation of the increasing volumes of data generated during all phases of drug discovery is enabling key challenges of the process to be addressed. Here, we highlight some of the areas in which bioinformatics resources and methods are being developed to support the drug discovery pipeline. These include the creation of large data warehouses, bioinformatics algorithms to analyse 'big data' that identify novel drug targets and/or biomarkers, programs to assess the tractability of targets, and prediction of repositioning opportunities that use licensed drugs to treat additional indications. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Translation: Elements of a Craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiderson, Mazin A.

    An overview of the skills, techniques, tools, and compensation of language translators and interpreters is offered. It begins with a definition of translation and a brief history of translation in the western world. Basic principles of translation dating back to Roman writers are also outlined. A five-step process in producing a good translation…

  4. Engineering in translational medicine

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a broad area of engineering research in translational medicine. Leaders in academic institutions around the world contributed focused chapters on a broad array of topics such as: cell and tissue engineering (6 chapters), genetic and protein engineering (10 chapters), nanoengineering (10 chapters), biomedical instrumentation (4 chapters), and theranostics and other novel approaches (4 chapters). Each chapter is a stand-alone review that summarizes the state-of-the-art of the specific research area. Engineering in Translational Medicine gives readers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of a broad array of related research areas, making this an excellent reference book for scientists and students both new to engineering/translational medicine and currently working in this area.

  5. Translational research in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Translational medicine is a medical practice based on interventional epidemiology. It is regarded by its proponents as a natural progression from Evidence-Based Medicine. It integrates research from the basic sciences, social sciences and political sciences with the aim of optimizing patient care and preventive measures which may extend beyond healthcare services. In short, it is the process of turning appropriate biological discoveries into drugs and medical devices that can be used in the treatment of patients.[1]Scientific research and the development of modern powerful techniques are crucial for improving patient care in a society that is increasingly demanding the highest quality health services.[2] Indeed, effective patient care requires the continuous improvement of knowledge on the pathophysiology of the diseases, diagnostic procedures and therapeutic tools available. To this end, development of both clinical and basic research in health sciences is required. However, what is most effective in improving medical knowledge, and hence patient care, is the cross-fertilization between basic and clinical science. This has been specifically highlighted in recent years with the coining of the term “translational research”.[3] Translational research is of great importance in all medical specialties.Translational Research is the basis for Translational Medicine. It is the process which leads from evidence based medicine to sustainable solutions for public health problems.[4] It aims to improve the health and longevity of the world’s populations and depends on developing broad-based teams of scientists and scholars who are able to focus their efforts to link basic scientific discoveries with the arena of clinical investigation, and translating the results of clinical trials into changes in clinical practice, informed by evidence from the social and political sciences. Clinical science and ecological support from effective policies can

  6. Translational Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issenberg, S. Barry; Cohen, Elaine R.; Barsuk, Jeffrey H.; Wayne, Diane B.

    2012-01-01

    Medical education research contributes to translational science (TS) when its outcomes not only impact educational settings, but also downstream results, including better patient-care practices and improved patient outcomes. Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has demonstrated its role in achieving such distal results. Effective TS also encompasses implementation science, the science of health-care delivery. Educational, clinical, quality, and safety goals can only be achieved by thematic, sustained, and cumulative research programs, not isolated studies. Components of an SBME TS research program include motivated learners, curriculum grounded in evidence-based learning theory, educational resources, evaluation of downstream results, a productive research team, rigorous research methods, research resources, and health-care system acceptance and implementation. National research priorities are served from translational educational research. National funding priorities should endorse the contribution and value of translational education research. PMID:23138127

  7. Asymmetries of Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Gorčeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the incompatibility between aesthetic and economic approaches to literary translation, the A. perceives a lack of creative initiative in the international socialisation of Bulgarian literature within its literary field (and especially in the subfield of criticism. Together with a probable inability to (reintegrate ethnically Bulgarian emigré writers, this gives Bulgarian literature a “repellent capacity”. Pointing at non-mainstream developments in both literature and translation may offer a way out: Gorčeva recommends abundant analytical and not self-exoticising self-representation. She also stresses that not only interliterary ‘export’ but also ‘import’ forges a literature’s status, and suggests that “small” literatures can take part in interliterary communication as equals in so far as they have the opportunity to keep on translating not in an assimilative but in a foreignising manner.

  8. Interdisciplinarity in Translation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lambert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 1992 (Snell-Hornby et al. 1994 the Translation Studies * (EdT have claimed the status of "interdiscipline". In fact, there are still doubts about his academic status which is recent in relation to the profession. Since Holmes 1988 [1972], the development of the EdT was, several times, considered a success story; Although it is not clear whether the academic results (arguments and peculiar components linked to their prestige, such as books, societies, recognized scholars, congresses were more decisive than the translation market in the progressive recognition of WTS.

  9. Translating BPEL to FLOWer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    FLOWer is a case handling tool made by Pallas-Athena for process management in the service industry. BPEL on the other hand is a language for web service orchestration, and has become a de facto standard, because of its popularity, for specifying workflow processes even though that was not its...... original purpose. This paper describe an approach translating BPLE to FLOWer, or more precisely form BPEL to CHIP. where CHIP is the interchange language that FLOWer import from and export to. The aim of the translation scheme that I give is to derive a CHIP specification that is behaviorally equivalent...

  10. Data format translation routines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burris, R.D.

    1981-02-01

    To enable the effective connection of several dissimilar computers into a network, modification of the data being passed from one computer to another may become necessary. This document describes a package of routines which permit the translation of data in PDP-8 formats to PDP-11 or DECsystem-10 formats or from PDP-11 format to DECsystem-10 format. Additional routines are described which permit the effective use of the translation routines in the environment of the Fusion Energy Division (FED) network and the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT) data base

  11. The Arabic Hyperbolic Pattern "Fa??al" in Two Recent Translations of the Qur'an

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zawawy, Amr M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses the problem of rendering the ?? ?? 'fa??al' hyperbolic pattern into English in two recent translations of the Qur'an. Due to the variety of Qur'an translations and the large amount of hyperbolic forms of Arabic verbs recorded in the Qur'an, only two translations of the Qur'an are consulted and analyzed: these two…

  12. Current trends in translational research in leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricaldi, Jessica N; Swancutt, Mark A; Matthias, Michael A

    2013-10-01

    In the past years, the importance of studying leptospirosis in a translational context has become more evident. This review addresses recent findings in the study of leptospirosis infection, focusing on those applicable to public health, or that will affect management and diagnosis of cases of leptospirosis. We review here recent findings regarding translational aspects of leptospirosis research. Briefly, PCR or a combination of serology and PCR seem to have a higher sensitivity than the current gold standard (microagglutination test). More clinical trials are needed to determine the best treatment for mild and severe leptospirosis. Dendritic cells and γδ T cells seem to have an important role in the immune response to leptospirosis. Environmental assessment is emerging as a very useful tool. In order to understand leptospirosis, multiple aspects need to be considered, including host, pathogen and environment. In this review, we will address newer diagnostics, current advances in immunology and treatment and the growing role of environmental assessment.

  13. TRANSLATION ANALYSIS IN BILINGUAL TOURISM BROCHURE: TRANSLATING INDONESIAN TO ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elysa Hartati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The tourism brochure is considered to be the product of ethnographic translation. The methods used to translate are varied. This paper aims to see what kinds of methods used to translate from Indonesian to English in the tourism brochure, to see the problems emerge in the translation product of tourism brochure, and to find the solution to encounter the problems emerge in the translation product of tourism brochure. Journal articles and book references are mainly the source of this study. From the analysis result, it was shown that literal translation, faithful translation, free translation, and communicative translation were used to translate the text. However, the methods which more stressed on source language were mostly used in translating this product since the influence of Indonesian language still existed on them. Therefore, the product of the translation sometimes was not natural as English as the native-like. It happened on the grammatical function mostly, spelling and punctuation, and also the choice of words which then influenced the evaluation of translation product; they are accuracy, readability, and naturalness. Therefore, it is recommended for the translators to be aware of those components mentioned above. Moreover this is a tourism brochure which is used to promote Indonesia tourism especially for Central Java. The foreigners will need it to guide them go around this province, so that the information given should be acceptable in content and context of tourism.

  14. Is relevance theory applicable to proverbs’ translation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegulescu Anca-Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation, viewed as a multi-faceted task, can arise different types of difficulties. Proverbs have been considered special patterns, displaying sometimes hidden meanings or suggesting morals issuing from a particular example. These paremic units - the proverbs - conveyed feelings, states of mind, behaviours or ‘metaphorical descriptions of certain situations’(Krikmann. Starting from Savory’s list of pair-wise contradictory translation principles, I intend to prove that the link between different ‘forms’ and their ‘contents’ lies in the principle of relevance when referring to proverbs. Even if relevance theory is not a theory of linguistic structure - and many translation problems imply structural mismatches - relevance theory offers insights about contextual information. Proverbs are seen as texts in themselves. My analysis will target the ethnofields of ‘to buy’ and ‘to sell’ in English proverbs and their Romanian corresponding versions.

  15. Counting addressing method: Command addressable element and extinguishing module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Jovan D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific requirements that appear in addressable fire detection and alarm systems and the shortcomings of the existing addressing methods were discussed. A new method of addressing of detectors was proposed. The basic principles of addressing and responding of a called element are stated. Extinguishing module is specific subsystem in classic fire detection and alarm systems. Appearing of addressable fire detection and alarm systems didn't caused essential change in the concept of extinguishing module because of long calling period of such systems. Addressable fire security system based on counting addressing method reaches high calling rates and enables integrating of the extinguishing module in addressable system. Solutions for command addressable element and integrated extinguishing module are given in this paper. The counting addressing method was developed for specific requirements in fire detection and alarm systems, yet its speed and reliability justifies its use in the acquisition of data on slowly variable parameters under industrial conditions. .

  16. Innovation, Translation, and Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-03-01

    The 9th Wound Healing and Tissue Repair and Regeneration Annual Meeting of Chinese Tissue Repair Society was hold in Wuhan, China. This meeting was focused on the innovation, translation application, and cooperation in wound care both in China and other countries. More than 400 delegates took part in this meeting and communicated successfully. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Translating Dyslexia across Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Lisa A.; Manglani, Monica; Escalona, Nicholas; Cysner, Jessica; Hamilton, Rachel; Pfaffmann, Jeffrey; Johnson, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Direct relationships between induced mutation in the "DCDC2" candidate dyslexia susceptibility gene in mice and changes in behavioral measures of visual spatial learning have been reported. We were interested in determining whether performance on a visual-spatial learning and memory task could be translated across species (study 1) and…

  18. Intermediation, Brokerage and Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hönke, Jana; Müller, Markus-Michael; Risse, Thomas; Draude, Anke; Börzel, Tanja

    2018-01-01

    Brokerage, a term prominent in the 1960s and 1970s, has returned. A huge literature analyses how brokers and intermediators— such as government officials, heads of non-governmental organization (NGOs), translators, neo-traditional authorities— strategically negotiate flows of resources and political

  19. Made in translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, John C.

    2018-03-01

    Evolution of highly functionalized DNA could enable the discovery of artificial nucleic acid sequences with different properties to natural DNA. Now, an artificial translation system has been designed that can support the evolution of non-natural sequence-defined nucleic acid polymers carrying eight different functional groups on 32 codons.

  20. Machine Aids to Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Karl-Heinz

    1981-01-01

    Describes the TEAM Program System of the Siemens Language Services Department, particularly the main features of its terminology data bank. Discusses criteria to which stored terminology must conform and methods of data bank utilization. Concludes by summarizing the consequences that machine-aided translation development has had for the…

  1. TRANSLATING SERVICE TECHNICAL PROSE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of technical literature: advertising agencies dealing with clients in the technical fields, workshops ..... editing, a subject specialist. (preferably a physician au fait with aerospace matters), and two good translators. Having all the resources at hand, the teams seclude themselves with all their allocated documents and the senior.

  2. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied. In p...

  3. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied. In p...

  4. Translation of research outcome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    2017-01-03

    Jan 3, 2017 ... introducing implementation research, implementation science, knowledge translation to improve the role of research in development programs including health policies and programs. In Ethiopia, health sector felt the gap between health research and health policy, strategy and. 2 CNN TV host's statement.

  5. Notes for an address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, R.W.

    1981-06-01

    The policy of the Ontario government is to ensure that consumers have access to a full range of competitively-priced energy forms. Nuclear power is more desirable than coal, both environmentally and from the point of view of cost, and the nuclear industry is also important to Ontario, providing jobs and contributing to the province's industrial development. The government of Ontario is exploring the possibility of exporting surplus electrical power when a profit can be made. Ontario Hydro has been exporting electricity for about 60 years, and sales to the United States have increased significantly since 1973, allowing rates to Ontario consumers to be lowered. Exports at present are from fossil-fired plants, increasing nuclear capacity frees the more expensive coal-fuelled capacity for export purposes. In past generating plants have not been built exclusively for the export market, and only short-term power surplusses have been exported. Over the next ten years exports are likely to remain about 10 billion kilowatt-hours per year. It would be environmentally advantageous for Ontario to build nuclear plants to generate electricity for the American market, rather than have to import acid rain from US coal-fired power plants. Much depends on public opinion and government policies at the federal level in both countries

  6. STYLE, CONTEXT AND TRANSLATED NARRATIVES: A SOCIO-SEMIOTIC PROFILE FOR STUDYING STYLE IN TRANSLATED NARRATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawsan A. Aljahdali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A translated narrative has both its structure and texture creatively reproduced in the decoding-reencoding processes. These processes of intersemiotic and interlingual transformations yield variable results influenced by language-in-context, as the broadest environment of translation, and prompted by the level of the typological and semiotic distance between texts. Translation is thus an act of communication that is separate (contextually and discursively from, while it is still dependent (semantically on, the original writing. Here, the translator’s style is an “imprint” that is simultaneously compelled by the creativity of the literary translation act and the existence of the targeted reader in a new socio-semiotic context (Baker, 2000; Hasan, 1986/2011, 1989; Hatim & Mason, 1997; Malmkjær, 2004; Matthiessen, 2001. In response to Baker (2000, the present study aims to theoretically revisit the issue of style in narrative translation in a comparative view that takes into consideration the multiple contexts and meta-contexts of the acts of creation and translation. This comparative intersemiotic view ventures to address the complexity of narrative meaning recreation in these new acts of communication along the multi-stratal systems of language and narrative and in the light of the narrative, stylistic and socio-semiotic views of discourse and meaning.

  7. Translational ethics: an analytical framework of translational movements between theory and practice and a sketch of a comprehensive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bærøe, Kristine

    2014-09-30

    Translational research in medicine requires researchers to identify the steps to transfer basic scientific discoveries from laboratory benches to bedside decision-making, and eventually into clinical practice. On a parallel track, philosophical work in ethics has not been obliged to identify the steps to translate theoretical conclusions into adequate practice. The medical ethicist A. Cribb suggested some years ago that it is now time to debate 'the business of translational' in medical ethics. Despite the very interesting and useful perspective on the field of medical ethics launched by Cribb, the debate is still missing. In this paper, I take up Cribb's invitation and discuss further analytic distinctions needed to base an ethics aiming to translate between theory and practice. The analytic distinctions needed to base an ethics aiming to translate between theory and practice are identified as 'movements of translation'. I explore briefly what would constitute success and limitations to these intended translational movements by addressing the challenges of the epistemological gap between philosophical and practical ethics. The categories of translational movements I suggest can serve as a starting point for a systematic, collective self-inspection and discussion of the merits and limitations of the various academic and practical activities that bioethicists are engaged in. I further propose that translational ethics could be considered as a new discipline of ethical work constructively structured around compositions of translational movements. Breaking the idea of translational ethics into distinct translational movements provide us with a nuanced set of conditions to explore and discuss the justification and limitations of various efforts carried out in the field of bioethics. In this sense, the proposed framework could be a useful vehicle for augmented collective, self-reflexivity among both philosophers and practitioners who are 'doing bioethics'. Also

  8. Dutch-Flemish translation of nine pediatric item banks from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverman, Lotte; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Raat, Hein; van Rossum, Marion A J; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Correia, Helena; Cella, David; Roorda, Leo D; Terwee, Caroline B

    2016-03-01

    The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS(®)) is a new, state-of-the-art assessment system for measuring patient-reported health and well-being of adults and children. It has the potential to be more valid, reliable, and responsive than existing PROMs. The items banks are designed to be self-reported and completed by children aged 8-18 years. The PROMIS items can be administered in short forms or through computerized adaptive testing. This paper describes the translation and cultural adaption of nine PROMIS item banks (151 items) for children in Dutch-Flemish. The translation was performed by FACITtrans using standardized PROMIS methodology and approved by the PROMIS Statistical Center. The translation included four forward translations, two back-translations, three independent reviews (at least two Dutch, one Flemish), and pretesting in 24 children from the Netherlands and Flanders. For some items, it was necessary to have separate translations for Dutch and Flemish: physical function-mobility (three items), anger (one item), pain interference (two items), and asthma impact (one item). Challenges faced in the translation process included scarcity or overabundance of possible translations, unclear item descriptions, constructs broader/smaller in the target language, difficulties in rank ordering items, differences in unit of measurement, irrelevant items, or differences in performance of activities. By addressing these challenges, acceptable translations were obtained for all items. The Dutch-Flemish PROMIS items are linguistically equivalent to the original USA version. Short forms are now available for use, and entire item banks are ready for cross-cultural validation in the Netherlands and Flanders.

  9. The Impact of Machine Translation and Computer-aided Translation on Translators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao

    2018-03-01

    Under the context of globalization, communications between countries and cultures are becoming increasingly frequent, which make it imperative to use some techniques to help translate. This paper is to explore the influence of computer-aided translation on translators, which is derived from the field of the computer-aided translation (CAT) and machine translation (MT). Followed by an introduction to the development of machine and computer-aided translation, it then depicts the technologies practicable to translators, which are trying to analyze the demand of designing the computer-aided translation so far in translation practice, and optimize the designation of computer-aided translation techniques, and analyze its operability in translation. The findings underline the advantages and disadvantages of MT and CAT tools, and the serviceability and future development of MT and CAT technologies. Finally, this thesis probes into the impact of these new technologies on translators in hope that more translators and translation researchers can learn to use such tools to improve their productivity.

  10. Progress in Documentation: Machine Translation and Machine-Aided Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the prospects for fully automatic machine translation of good quality. Sections include history and background, operational and experimental machine translation systems of recent years, descriptions of interactive systems and machine-assisted translation, and a general survey of present problems and future possibilities. (VT)

  11. (Con)figuring gender in Bible translation: Cultural, translational and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gendered intersection of cultural studies and Bible translation is under acknowledged. Accounting for gender criticism in translation work requires, besides responsible theory and practice of translation, also attention to interwoven gender critical aspects. After a brief investigation of the intersections between biblical, ...

  12. A Writer's Thoughts on Translation and Always Living in Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosin, Marjorie; Jones, Robin

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how it feels to be a poet who writes in Spanish and has her work translated, examining the author's immigration experiences and noting the translator's contributions in making her work accessible across languages, borders, and cultures. Explains that writing in Spanish is a gesture of survival, and translation allows her memories to…

  13. Translation and identity: Translation of the Freedom Charter into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative analysis of the Afrikaans translations reveals how the respective translators struggled sporadically through certain ideological constraints in order to provide a satisfactory narrative. Their inability to internalise the principles contained in the Freedom Charter resulted in them presenting a 'framed' translation ...

  14. 'Inhabiting' the Translator's Habitus – Antjie Krog as Translator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drawing on the Bourdieusian concept of habitus and its applicability in the field of translation, this article discusses Antjie Krog's profile in the practice of translation in. South Africa. Bourdieu's conceptualisation of the relationship between the initiating activities of translators and the structures which constrain and enable ...

  15. Found in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tietjen, Anne

    2018-01-01

    on a teaching experiment in landscape architecture education, this paper proposes teaching creative site analysis as a translation process of observed site conditions into desirable future site conditions. Guided by actor-network theory, the paper outlines, first, a conceptual framework for creative site...... analysis. Second, it presents the applied educational procedure, with a focus on the decisive step from inventory to intervention which is the formulation of a design problem. The teaching experiment shows that onsite studies of spatial controversies in the form of recent physical changes, emerging new...... for the students. Overall, the produced design work and the student evaluations show that translation offers an operational framework for teaching a creative approach to site analysis....

  16. Translating a wicked problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tietjen, Anne; Jørgensen, Gertrud

    2016-01-01

    In a time of increasing globalisation and urbanisation, shrinking peripheral rural areas have become a truly wicked planning problem in many European countries. Although a problem can be easily perceived and measured by various indicators, the precise definition of the problem is problematic. Based......, place-based and project-oriented process directed at concrete physical outcomes. We frame strategic planning as a translation process where the interaction between human and non-human actors translates a unique, complex and contested situation into an innovated situation. We find that local physical......-understandings, increased social capital, and follow-up projects initiated beyond the actual planning process. We conclude that local physical projects, when conceived in a collaborative and strategic manner, can contribute to sustainable adaptation to rural shrinkage....

  17. Translation of Financial Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Dalthan Simas; Otavio De Medeiros

    2005-01-01

    This paper has the purpose of surveying and critically analyzing the effects of accounting procedures which are closely related to groups of companies operating multinationally. These are the methods for translation of financial statements, e.g. the Temporal and the Closing- rate Methods, as far as those methods are embodied in accounting standards which have been either recommended or adopted by countries such as the UK and US. We conclude that with regard to changing prices, General Price L...

  18. Multiculturalism and Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rebeca PRECUP STIEGELBAUER

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural diversity has emerged as a key concern in recent years, however the implications to this term are very different. A number of people see cultural diversity as fundamentally important and positive, as it points to a sharing of the wealth embodied in each of the world’s cultures and, accordingly, to the links tying us all in processes of exchange and dialogue via translation. On the other hand, for many others, cultural differences are what cause us to lose sight of our shared humanity and as a result are the root of numerous conflicts, since we can get lost in translation. This second finding is today all the more plausible since globalisation has increased the points of interaction and friction between cultures, giving rise to identity-linked tensions, withdrawals and claims, particularly of each one and other, which can become potential sources of dispute. The essential challenge, therefore, would be to propose a coherent vision of cultural diversity, languages and translations and thereby to clarify how, far from being a threat, it can become beneficial to the action of the international community.

  19. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  20. Machine Translation from Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard; Olive, Joseph; McCary, John; Christianson, Caitlin

    This chapter describes approaches for translation from speech. Translation from speech presents two new issues. First, of course, we must recognize the speech in the source language. Although speech recognition has improved considerably over the last three decades, it is still far from being a solved problem. In the best of conditions, when the speech comes from high quality, carefully enunciated speech, on common topics (such as speech read by a trained news broadcaster), the word error rate is typically on the order of 5%. Humans can typically transcribe speech like this with less than 1% disagreement between annotators, so even this best number is still far worse than human performance. However, the task gets much harder when anything changes from this ideal condition. Some of the conditions that cause higher error rate are, if the topic is somewhat unusual, or the speakers are not reading so that their speech is more spontaneous, or if the speakers have an accent or are speaking a dialect, or if there is any acoustic degradation, such as noise or reverberation. In these cases, the word error can increase significantly to 20%, 30%, or higher. Accordingly, most of this chapter discusses techniques for improving speech recognition accuracy, while one section discusses techniques for integrating speech recognition with translation.

  1. Translation-Memory (TM) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2010-01-01

    to be representative of the research field as a whole. Our analysis suggests that, while considerable knowledge is available about the technical side of TMs, more research is needed to understand how translators interact with TM technology and how TMs influence translators' cognitive translation processes.......  It is no exaggeration to say that the advent of translation-memory (TM) systems in the translation profession has led to drastic changes in translators' processes and workflow, and yet, though many professional translators nowadays depend on some form of TM system, this has not been the object...... of much research. Our paper attempts to find out what we know about the nature, applications and influences of TM technology, including translators' interaction with TMs, and also how we know it. An essential part of the analysis is based on a selection of empirical TM studies, which we assume...

  2. Literary translation and cultural memory

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    This article intends to investigate the relationship between literary translation and cultural memory, using a twentieth century film version of one of Shakespeare’s plays as a case study in inter-semiotic translation. The common perception of translation is often confined to its use as a language learning tool or as a means of information transfer between languages. The wider academic concept embraces not only inter-lingual translation, but both intra-lingual activity or rewording in the sam...

  3. Machine Translation Effect on Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Bjørn, Pernille

    2011-01-01

    Intercultural collaboration facilitated by machine translation has gradually spread in various settings. Still, little is known as for the practice of machine-translation mediated communication. This paper investigates how machine translation affects intercultural communication in practice. Based...... on communication in which multilingual communication system is applied, we identify four communication types and its’ influences on stakeholders’ communication process, especially focusing on establishment and maintenance of common ground. Different from our expectation that quality of machine translation results...

  4. TEACHING TRANSLATION: OBJECTIVES AND METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    Kobyakova, Iryna; Shvachko, Svitlana

    2016-01-01

    The article is focused on the set of items: teaching translation, objectives, exercises and assignments (both word-centered and text-centered translation), translation analysis. The choice of the items is motivated by the dominant functions of transatology (nominative and communicative). The latter succeed in identification of adequate, congruent, equivalent translation. The article discusses the problems of professional validity, theoretical insertions, textocentric analysis. Gains, achievem...

  5. On Collocations and Their Interaction with Parsing and Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Seretan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of automatically processing collocations—a subclass of multi-word expressions characterized by a high degree of morphosyntactic flexibility—in the context of two major applications, namely, syntactic parsing and machine translation. We show that parsing and collocation identification are processes that are interrelated and that benefit from each other, inasmuch as syntactic information is crucial for acquiring collocations from corpora and, vice versa, collocational information can be used to improve parsing performance. Similarly, we focus on the interrelation between collocations and machine translation, highlighting the use of translation information for multilingual collocation identification, as well as the use of collocational knowledge for improving translation. We give a panorama of the existing relevant work, and we parallel the literature surveys with our own experiments involving a symbolic parser and a rule-based translation system. The results show a significant improvement over approaches in which the corresponding tasks are decoupled.

  6. On Literal Translation of English Idioms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linli

    2009-01-01

    There are six translation tactics in translating English idioms into Chinese: literal translation, compensatory translation, free translation, explanational translation, borrowing, integrated approach. Each tactic should be reasonably employed in the process of translating, so as to keep the flavor of the original English idioms as well as to…

  7. Machine Translation for Academic Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui-chin; Chien, Paul Shih Chieh

    2009-01-01

    Due to the globalization trend and knowledge boost in the second millennium, multi-lingual translation has become a noteworthy issue. For the purposes of learning knowledge in academic fields, Machine Translation (MT) should be noticed not only academically but also practically. MT should be informed to the translating learners because it is a…

  8. BIBLE TRANSLATION AND RELEVANCE THEORY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    translated in the Kings James Version with. (6) and the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. In this translation the expression rtflch "^lohtm is assigned the referent "Spirit of God", that is, the Holy. Spirit However, the New English Bible translates: (7) and a mighty wind... swept over the surface of the waters,.

  9. Literary Translation: A Personal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotta, Madeleine Strong

    The nature of literary translation and ways in which it differs from other forms of translation are examined, looking at practical difficulties, challenges, and satisfaction in the profession of literary translation. The difficulties discussed include suggestions about how to get started, legal questions of copyright, and choice of text.…

  10. Lexical Discourse Analysis in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khotaba, Eissa; Al Tarawneh, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Lexical Discourse very often depend on lexis. Lexical Discourse analysis, however, has not yet been given enough consideration of the phenomenon of translation. This paper investigates lexical discourse analysis in translation from one language to another. This qualitative study comprises 15 text translated by M.A. students at the Department of…

  11. Selected international efforts to address climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, M.; Christ, R. [Atmosphere Unit, United Nations Environment Programme UNEP, Nairobi (Kenya)

    1995-12-31

    Over the past two decades, concern about human-induced climate change has become an increasingly important item on the environmental and political agenda. The signing of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the adoption of Agenda 21 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 provided international organizations and the nations of the world with a new focus for climate-related activities. Although there remains considerable scientific uncertainty about the extent, magnitude, and rate of climate change and the impacts of such change, actions to address climate change have been initiated both internationally and nationally. Major international activities include the World Climate Programme, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. and the United Nations Environment Program me. 16 refs.

  12. Machine Translation Tools - Tools of The Translator's Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this article three of the more common types of translation tools are presented, discussed and critically evaluated. The types of translation tools dealt with in this article are: Fully Automated Machine Translation (or FAMT), Human Aided Machine Translation (or HAMT) and Machine Aided Human...... Translation (or MAHT). The strengths and weaknesses of the different types of tools are discussed and evaluated by means of a number of examples. The article aims at two things: at presenting a sort of state of the art of what is commonly referred to as “machine translation” as well as at providing the reader...... with a sound basis for considering what translation tool (if any) is the most appropriate in order to meet his or her specific translation needs....

  13. Reengineering Biomedical Translational Research with Engineering Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Mary E; Nayak, Rahul Uday

    2015-08-01

    It is widely accepted that translational research practitioners need to acquire special skills and knowledge that will enable them to anticipate, analyze, and manage a range of ethical issues. While there is a small but growing literature that addresses the ethics of translational research, there is a dearth of scholarship regarding how this might apply to engineers. In this paper we examine engineers as key translators and argue that they are well positioned to ask transformative ethical questions. Asking engineers to both broaden and deepen their consideration of ethics in their work, however, requires a shift in the way ethics is often portrayed and perceived in science and engineering communities. Rather than interpreting ethics as a roadblock to the success of translational research, we suggest that engineers should be encouraged to ask questions about the socio-ethical dimensions of their work. This requires expanding the conceptual framework of engineering beyond its traditional focus on "how" and "what" questions to also include "why" and "who" questions to facilitate the gathering of normative, socially-situated information. Empowering engineers to ask "why" and "who" questions should spur the development of technologies and practices that contribute to improving health outcomes.

  14. Translating human biology (introduction to special issue).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewis, Alexandra A; Mckenna, James J

    2015-01-01

    Introducing a special issue on "Translating Human Biology," we pose two basic questions: Is human biology addressing the most critical challenges facing our species? How can the processes of translating our science be improved and innovated? We analyze articles published in American Journal of Human Biology from 2004-2013, and find there is very little human biological consideration of issues related to most of the core human challenges such as water, energy, environmental degradation, or conflict. There is some focus on disease, and considerable focus on food/nutrition. We then introduce this special volume with reference to the following articles that provide exemplars for the process of how translation and concern for broader context and impacts can be integrated into research. Human biology has significant unmet potential to engage more fully in translation for the public good, through consideration of the topics we focus on, the processes of doing our science, and the way we present our domain expertise. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Implementing Professional Approach within a Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagwa ElShafei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent and fast development in various spheres of information and communication technology, global trade, digital and social media have resulted in growth in excellent employment opportunities but also influenced the labor market. For instance, some jobs have become absolute, while others, related to information technology particularly, have become in higher demand. As such, there are many scenarios in which translators find themselves unable to communicate with their clients due to cultural and language barriers, especially in labor market environment. This clarifies the great need for translators to receive professional training which also takes into account the advancement in technology. Therefore, market demands should be taken into account when developing and planning university courses and curricula to meet the job market needs. Courses on translation and interpretation prepare professional translators as needed by the labor market. In other words, the role of academic professional and curriculum planners should be narrowing the gap between what the labor market needs from the modern translator and the courses offered by training institutions, universities and colleges. This research study introduces a Professional Approach to teacher to educate translators within the faculty of arts, in a manner that fits the requirements of the job market. As such, a unit was prepared and specified for the students, then taught by the researcher to the selected sample. The dependent t-test technique was employed to compare the means of the total scores of the experimental group on the proficiency pre-post administration of the tests. It was noted from the results that there is a notable difference between the mean scores of the two groups in favor of the experimental group.

  16. Mamma Mia, A Singable Translation!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Stopar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses and analyzes approaches to translating singable texts. It presents a linguistic (prosodic, lexical and structural analysis of the Slovenian translation of the musical Mamma Mia! The aim of the qualitative and quantitative study is to investigate the translation strategies used to produce a singable target text. The results of the analysis suggest that producing a prosodic match is a basic requirement, whereas the lexical, structural and/or poetic characteristics of the source text are subject to changes. Overall, the findings show that the function and the purpose of the translation play a crucial role in the prioritization of translation strategies.

  17. The Complexity of Indirect Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenjie, L. I.

    2017-01-01

    its complex nature, and thus determined that many facets of ITr remain to be studied. The present article will try to encompass the complexity of ITr by looking into the reasons for translating indirectly, the challenge of finding out mediating texts (MTs), indirectness in both translation...... of which have been translated and interpreted indirectly through major languages like English, will be employed as examples. Hopefully, this study will offer more insights into the nature of translation as a social activity and raise further interests in studying translation as a complex phenomenon....

  18. Translators: Travellers, Not Tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Rot Gabrovec

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores various representations of culture(s found in contemporary English children’s literature and discusses how they were rendered into Slovene. In the first part, some introductory definitions of culture and approaches to the translation of children’s literature are presented. In the second part, excerpts from selected literary works (for instance, Mary Poppins, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, Matilda, The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time are examined, both from the source and the target texts, with more attention paid to the cultural contexts, and the social changes that possibly influenced the translator’s decisions.

  19. Eye-movements During Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    -scratch translation with post-editing of machine translated texts, uncovering similarities and dierences between the two processes, overall and in interaction with other variables also investigated. These include gaze and keystroke behaviour, word and n-gram probabilities, participant variables including expertise......Translation process research or TPR, the study of the cognitive processes involved in translation, is a relatively new field characterised by small-scale studies with few participants and variables. However, the translation process is characterised by much variation between different translators......, texts, tasks and languages, and larger-scale investigations are therefore highly desirable. To that end, we have publicly released the CRITT TPR database which currently contains data from 845 translation sessions but is continually extended. The database includes information about the source and target...

  20. Translation Analysis on Civil Engineering Text Produced by Machine Translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutopo, Anam

    2018-02-01

    Translation is extremely needed in communication since people have serious problem in the language used. Translation activity is done by the person in charge for translating the material. Translation activity is also able to be done by machine. It is called machine translation, reflected in the programs developed by programmer. One of them is Transtool. Many people used Transtool for helping them in solving the problem related with translation activities. This paper wants to deliver how important is the Transtool program, how effective is Transtool program and how is the function of Transtool for human business. This study applies qualitative research. The sources of data were document and informant. This study used documentation and in dept-interviewing as the techniques for collecting data. The collected data were analyzed by using interactive analysis. The results of the study show that, first; Transtool program is helpful for people in translating the civil engineering text and it functions as the aid or helper, second; the working of Transtool software program is effective enough and third; the result of translation produced by Transtool is good for short and simple sentences and not readable, not understandable and not accurate for long sentences (compound, complex and compound complex) thought the result is informative. The translated material must be edited by the professional translator.

  1. Translation Analysis on Civil Engineering Text Produced by Machine Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutopo Anam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation is extremely needed in communication since people have serious problem in the language used. Translation activity is done by the person in charge for translating the material. Translation activity is also able to be done by machine. It is called machine translation, reflected in the programs developed by programmer. One of them is Transtool. Many people used Transtool for helping them in solving the problem related with translation activities. This paper wants to deliver how important is the Transtool program, how effective is Transtool program and how is the function of Transtool for human business. This study applies qualitative research. The sources of data were document and informant. This study used documentation and in dept-interviewing as the techniques for collecting data. The collected data were analyzed by using interactive analysis. The results of the study show that, first; Transtool program is helpful for people in translating the civil engineering text and it functions as the aid or helper, second; the working of Transtool software program is effective enough and third; the result of translation produced by Transtool is good for short and simple sentences and not readable, not understandable and not accurate for long sentences (compound, complex and compound complex thought the result is informative. The translated material must be edited by the professional translator.

  2. PERSONALITY TYPE AND TRANSLATION PERFORMANCE OF PERSIAN TRANSLATOR TRAINEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shaki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the relationship between the personality typology of a sample of Iranian translation students and their translation quality in terms of expressive, appellative, and informative text types. The study also attempted to identify the personality types that can perform better in English to Persian translation of the three text types. For that purpose, the personality type and the translation quality of the participants was assessed using Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI personality test and translation quality assessment (TQA, respectively. The analysis of the data revealed that the personality type of the participants seemed relevant to the translation quality of all the text types. The translation quality of the participants with intuitive and thinking types was significantly better than the sensing type counterparts in translating expressive texts. The participants with intuitive and feeling types also performed better than their counterparts with sensing type in translation of the informative text. Moreover, the participants with intuitive, feeling, and thinking personality types performed more successfully than the participants with sensing type in translation of the appellative text. The findings of the study are discussed in light of the existing research literature.

  3. Bridging the gap between translational medicine and unmet clinical needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebman, Michael N; Franchini, Michela; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    To date, the actual rate of successful translation has been extremely low although those few successes have been notable and provide for continued and expanding enthusiasm and support. This paper examines whether the fundamental premise may be flawed. Could the success rate be improved to further enhance quality of life and cost optimization for patients by changing the paradigm to "bedside to bench to bedside", and focusing the research on addressing unmet clinical needs? It examines all aspects of the healthcare ecosystem to understand issues that arise with real world patients and in real world clinical practice and how addressing these should be the focus of translational research.

  4. National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Models Core Technologies Clinical Innovation Clinical and Translational Science Awards Program Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network Patient ... to our monthly e-newsletter. About Translation Translational Science Spectrum Explore the full spectrum of translational science, ...

  5. Semi-Self-Translation: modalities and variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xosé Manuel Dasilva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we expound the concept of semi-self-translation, with which we aim to reflect the great diversity of self-translation in which the translator is offered other people’s collaboration. After analyzing the concept of collaboration with respect to allograph translation and to self-translation, we contend the convenience of not fusing the concepts of allograph translation with author’s collaboration and self-translation with allograph collaboration, the latter being associated with semi-self-translation. In addition, we describe five modalities of semi-self-translation: iself-translation in collaboration with an allograph translator; ii self-translation revised by an allograph translator; iii allograph translation revised by the author; iv self-translation in collaboration with a relative; and vallograph translation by a relative or a friend of the author.

  6. Energy balance at a crossroads: translating the science into action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manore, Melinda M; Brown, Katie; Houtkooper, Linda; Jakicic, John; Peters, John C; Smith Edge, Marianne; Steiber, Alison; Going, Scott; Gable, Lisa Guillermin; Krautheim, Ann Marie

    2014-07-01

    One of the major challenges facing the United States is the high number of overweight and obese adults and the growing number of overweight and unfit children and youth. To improve the nation's health, young people must move into adulthood without the burden of obesity and its associated chronic diseases. To address these issues, the American College of Sports Medicine, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, and the US Department of Agriculture/Agriculture Research Service convened an expert panel meeting in October 2012 titled "Energy Balance at a Crossroads: Translating the Science into Action." Experts in the fields of nutrition and exercise science came together to identify the biological, lifestyle, and environmental changes that will most successfully help children and families attain and manage energy balance and tip the scale toward healthier weights. Two goals were addressed: 1) professional training and 2) consumer/community education. The training goal focused on developing a comprehensive strategy to facilitate the integration of nutrition and physical activity (PA) using a dynamic energy balance approach for regulating weight into the training of undergraduate and graduate students in dietetics/nutrition science, exercise science/PA, and pre-K-12 teacher preparation programs and in training existing cooperative extension faculty. The education goal focused on developing strategies for integrating dynamic energy balance into nutrition and PA educational programs for the public, especially programs funded by federal/state agencies. The meeting expert presenters and participants addressed three key areas: 1) biological and lifestyle factors that affect energy balance, 2) undergraduate/graduate educational and training issues, and 3) best practices associated with educating the public about dynamic energy balance. Specific consensus recommendations were developed for each goal.

  7. THE FREEDOM IN VIDEO GAME LOCALIZATION (How Indonesian Game Translator applied Carte Blanche of Translation to Preserve Game Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Prasetyo Wibowo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of video game localisation in MMORPG video game that focusing on the freedom of the translator in transferring meaning in the in-game text assets of video games. Games, regardless of their forms, are the media of entertainments. Foreign audiences may have different expectations on how they wish to be entertained. They most certainly have their own canon of cultural references that they will put into relation to any content of the game. Localization has to take all these things into account, and subsequently the localization process can involve the addition, removal or replacement of elements of the product. Game localisation allows translators to transcreate the things that are necessary to preserve the game experience and to produce a fresh and engaging translation. In this paper, the writers cast a spotlight on translators, progressing from our analysis focused on games as translation texts and as products. The result of this paper shows about how the translator used the freedom of the translator or the degree of creativity that they may have when adapting the game. Concisely, the more complex and creative a storyline, the more useful transcreation may turn in the translation process.

  8. Pauses by Student and Professional Translators in Translation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdi Noor Rosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation as a process of meaning making activity requires a cognitive process one of which is realized in a pause, a temporary stop or a break indicating doing other than typing activities in a certain period of translation process. Scholars agree that pauses are an indicator of cognitive process without which there will never be any translation practices. Despite such agreement, pauses are debatable as well, either in terms of their length or in terms of the activities managed by a translator while taking pauses. This study, in particular, aims at finding out how student translators and professional translators managed the pauses in a translation process. This was a descriptive research taking two student translators and two professional translators as the participants who were asked to translate a text from English into bahasa Indonesia. The source text (ST was a historical recount text entitled ‘Early History of Yellowstone National Park’ downloaded from http://www.nezperce.com/yelpark9.html composed of 230-word long from English into bahasa Indonesia. The data were collected using Translog protocols, think aloud protocols (TAPs and screen recording. Based on the data analysis, it was found that student translators took the longest pauses in the drafting phase spent to solve the problems related to finding out the right equivalent for the ST words or terms and to solve the difficulties encountered in encoding their ST understanding in the TL; meanwhile, professional translators took the longest pauses in the pos-drafting phase spent to ensure whether their TT had been natural and whether their TT had corresponded to the prevailing grammatical rules of the TL.

  9. On the relevance of script writing basics in audiovisual translation practice and training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Martínez-Sierra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2012v1n29p145   Audiovisual texts possess characteristics that clearly differentiate audiovisual translation from both oral and written translation, and prospective screen translators are usually taught about the issues that typically arise in audiovisual translation. This article argues for the development of an interdisciplinary approach that brings together Translation Studies and Film Studies, which would prepare future audiovisual translators to work with the nature and structure of a script in mind, in addition to the study of common and diverse translational aspects. Focusing on film, the article briefly discusses the nature and structure of scripts, and identifies key points in the development and structuring of a plot. These key points and various potential hurdles are illustrated with examples from the films Chinatown and La habitación de Fermat. The second part of this article addresses some implications for teaching audiovisual translation.

  10. State of the Union Address, 1997. Remarks by the President in State of the Union Address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the text of President Clinton's State of the Union Address, delivered on February 4, 1997. The President issues a call to action to work together to prepare America for the twenty-first century. The United States must attend to the unfinished business of balancing the budget, enacting bipartisan campaign-finance reform, and…

  11. An Evergreen Challenge for Translators – The Translation of Idioms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács Gabriella

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Translating idioms has always been a challenging decision-making process for translators mainly because not all idioms have direct equivalents in the target language. Translators usually and ideally have a solid knowledge of the target language and its cultural aspects, but even so they cannot match the ability of a native speaker in deciding when – i.e. in what context and text type – an idiom would or would not be appropriate. This study aims to explore the main characteristics of idioms and the difficulties which might occur when translating them. A needs analysis will also be presented, where the various solutions which a group of translator trainees chose while translating certain idioms from the novel “A Game of Thrones” by George R. R. Martin into Hungarian are examined. Their strategies and the appropriateness of their choices are analysed and compared with the options of the experienced literary translator (Tamás Pétersz. We consider this an important endeavour because, based on our experience, we believe that the topic of the translation of idioms should be included into the curriculum and appropriate materials and tasks should be designed to develop the translator trainees’ knowledge and skills in this domain. Therefore, the aim of this analysis is to obtain a clearer view of the difficulties they are dealing with and bear them in mind when designing teaching materials for them.

  12. Port virtual addressing for PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolanos, L.; Arista, E.; Osorio Deliz, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper

  13. Reclaiming unused IPv4 addresses

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information).   Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...

  14. A minimum structure of aminoglycosides that causes an initiation shift of trans-translation

    OpenAIRE

    Konno, Takayuki; Takahashi, Toshiharu; Kurita, Daisuke; Muto, Akira; Himeno, Hyouta

    2004-01-01

    Trans-translation is an unusual translation in which transfer-messenger RNA plays a dual function—as a tRNA and an mRNA—to relieve the stalled translation on the ribosome. It has been shown that paromomycin, a typical member of a 4,5-disubstituted class of aminoglycosides, causes a shift of the translation-resuming point on the tmRNA by −1 during trans-translation. To address the molecular basis of this novel effect, we examined the effects of various aminoglycosides that can bind around the ...

  15. Writing or Translating Otherness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Federici

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to investigate a new voice in the Italian literary panorama, a voice which makes visible how the notions of nationality, literary canon and mother tongue should be revisioned and rethought.In this age of intensified migration in Europe (and in Italy transnational women writers are an enriching and challenging factor in many European literatures for the many issues discussed in their novels, among which identity, nationality, ethnicity, gender and language. The essay is divided into two main parts: 1 a theoretical approach aimed at a outlining the recent debate on World Literature and Transnational literatures, b rethinking the fruitful discussion within Translation Studies in the last decades, and 2 a textual analysis of a novel, Con il Vento Nei Capelli, written by a Palestinian woman, Salwa Salem.

  16. Holography without translational symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Vegh, David

    2013-01-01

    We propose massive gravity as a holographic framework for describing a class of strongly interacting quantum field theories with broken translational symmetry. Bulk gravitons are assumed to have a Lorentz-breaking mass term as a substitute for spatial inhomogeneities. This breaks momentum-conservation in the boundary field theory. At finite chemical potential, the gravity duals are charged black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime. The conductivity in these systems generally exhibits a Drude peak that approaches a delta function in the massless gravity limit. Furthermore, the optical conductivity shows an emergent scaling law: $|\\sigma(\\omega)| \\approx {A \\over \\omega^{\\alpha}} + B$. This result is consistent with that found earlier by Horowitz, Santos, and Tong who introduced an explicit inhomogeneous lattice into the system.

  17. Structural Coupling and Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    of structural couplings between psychic and social systems (Luhmann 2002: 275, Tække 2011). In this way media are seen as a necessary third, making it possible for two different kinds of systems to process, using complexity from one another - leaving out the idea of direct transmission. In actor-network theory...... Danish to English, but to describe: “displacement, drift, invention, mediation, the creation of a link that did not exist before and that to some degree modifies two elements or agents” (Latour 1994, 32). The paper works with two aims. The first aim is to discuss what kinds of structural couplings...... to compare the semantics of their concepts. The paper first provides an analysis and discussion of language as the mechanism of structural coupling between the levels of psychic and social systems. Then the article provides an analysis and discussion of translation as a transformation process between actors...

  18. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    depends on the translation strategy chosen. To meet the needs of learners, legal translation dictionaries should be designed as augmented reference tools. Electronic and printed dictionaries should include sections or CD-ROMs with syntactic, translation etc. data as well as exercises and illustrative......Legal translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain-specific discourse in a foreign language. The most common type is the bilingual law dictionary covering several or all the sub-fields within the general field of law. However, such law dictionaries tend...... strategies. When learners translate legal texts into a foreign language, it is important that their dictionaries can help them produce texts that conform to the expected style. This style requirement may be met by producing translations that use natural and idiomatic language, and really crafted dictionaries...

  19. Addressing refugee health through evidence-based policies: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Ingleby, J David; Pottie, Kevin; Tchangalova, Nedelina; Allen, Sophia I; Smith-Gagen, Julie; Hidalgo, Bertha

    2017-05-12

    The cumulative total of persons forced to leave their country for fear of persecution or organized violence reached an unprecedented 24.5 million by the end of 2015. Providing equitable access to appropriate health services for these highly diverse newcomers poses challenges for receiving countries. In this case study, we illustrate the importance of translating epidemiology into policy to address the health needs of refugees by highlighting examples of what works as well as identifying important policy-relevant gaps in knowledge. First, we formed an international working group of epidemiologists and health services researchers to identify available literature on the intersection of epidemiology, policy, and refugee health. Second, we created a synopsis of findings to inform a recommendation for integration of policy and epidemiology to support refugee health in the United States and other high-income receiving countries. Third, we identified eight key areas to guide the involvement of epidemiologists in addressing refugee health concerns. The complexity and uniqueness of refugee health issues, and the need to develop sustainable management information systems, require epidemiologists to expand their repertoire of skills to identify health patterns among arriving refugees, monitor access to appropriately designed health services, address inequities, and communicate with policy makers and multidisciplinary teams. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Translation of research outcome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    2017-01-03

    Jan 3, 2017 ... century, advances in science and technology have immensely contributed to global development in general ... Addressing such challenges requires investment in research and innovation. Relevant research is always a .... Do we need "more research" or better implementation through knowledge brokering.

  1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCREEN TRANSLATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sang Ayu Isnu Maharani

    2014-01-01

    Screen translations involve oral translation known as dubbing and revoicing. Re-voicing consists of lip-sync dubbing, free commentary, narration and voice over. The written version is called subtitle. Dubbing and subtitling are two preferred mode used in the screen translation even though various numbers of current options are available nowadays. Dubbing commenced to be used in larger countries in Europe meanwhile smaller countries apply subtitling because it is more...

  2. Issues in Translating Legal Texts

    OpenAIRE

    Myrteza MURIÇI

    2016-01-01

    We live in a world which is globalized and where international relations are much more active than ever. As people do not speak common language, need for translation and interpreting is more crucial in this regard. We cannot think of close contacts among states, societies, people and businesses without the mediation of translation and interpreting than before. Thus, translation and interpreting have became crucial and are playing a very important role in human interactions. International law,...

  3. 77 FR 41406 - Request for Public Comment on a Nomination to the Office of Health Assessment and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... of Health Assessment and Translation AGENCY: Division of the National Toxicology Program (DNTP..., which was nominated for a possible evaluation by the Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT.... ADDRESSES: Comments should be sent to Dr. Kembra Howdeshell, Office of Health Assessment and Translation...

  4. Methodological considerations when translating “burnout”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Squires

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No study has systematically examined how researchers address cross-cultural adaptation of burnout. We conducted an integrative review to examine how researchers had adapted the instruments to the different contexts. We reviewed the Content Validity Indexing scores for the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey from the 12-country comparative nursing workforce study, RN4CAST. In the integrative review, multiple issues related to translation were found in existing studies. In the cross-cultural instrument analysis, 7 out of 22 items on the instrument received an extremely low kappa score. Investigators may need to employ more rigorous cross-cultural adaptation methods when attempting to measure burnout.

  5. INCORPORATING GRAMMAR INTO TRANSLATION CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurendi Wiwoho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the teaching of translation. It is important to lay a strong foundation in translating for the second year students of English Department. The main goal of this study is to identify and improve students‘ grammar awareness and their grammatical adjustment ability especially in translating Indonesian sentences and short paragraphs into English. The data used in this study were students‘ translation assignments in Translation I course at the English Department of the Favulty of Languages and Culture, University of 17 Agustus 1945 Semarang, academic year 2015-2016. The findings of the research showed that the second year students still made a lot of grammatical mistakes especially in translating Indonesian sentences and short paragraphs into English. The greatest problem faced by the students was related with the use of verbs and tenses, followed by other problems related with the use of parts of speech and function words. This implies that incorporating grammar in teaching translation is important, in which students‘ awareness and knowledge of grammar should be taken with care. Therefore, in addition to these findings, a general model of grammatical instruction in translation teaching was presented to be useful for translation teachers.

  6. Specialised Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    the needs of learners, it is proposed that specialised translation dictionaries should be designed as augmented reference tools. It is argued that electronic and printed dictionaries should include sections or CD-ROMs with syntactic, translation etc. data as well as exercises and illustrative documents......Specialised translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain discourse in a foreign language in connection with translation. The most common type is the business dictionary covering several more or less related subject fields. However, business dictionaries...

  7. The Translation and the Translator of the Peshitta of Hosea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive examination of the Syriac Peshitta of Hosea (P-Hosea) is the first study of the Peshitta conducted via insights and methods from the discipline of Translation Studies. It uses in particular Andrew Chesterman's Causal Model and Gideon Toury's descriptive approach. Every translator leaves residue of his or her…

  8. The wise translator: reflecting on judgement in translator education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The question of how one goes about teaching students to be translators is a central area of concern for translation teachers. As a reflective practitioner, I have a hunch about how to solve my problem. This paper is therefore in itself part of a reflective practicum, part of my reflection-in-action. I am in the process of restructuring ...

  9. Onomastics and Translation: The Case of Igbo→English Translation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The qualitative research method will be used to translate, analyze and explain the data from the anthroponomical, semiotic and linguistic perspectives to show that contrary to the view held in some Western circles that names are obscure and may consist of words that can hardly be interpreted or translated, they, as symbols ...

  10. Translation Evaluation: A Comparative Study of an Oblique Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    / Esmail Zare Behtash

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Translation is of an absolute necessity in today’s world. Robinson (1997 states that the study of translation is an integral part of intercultural relations and of conveying scientific and technological knowledge. He further mentions that “translators need to be able to process linguistic materials quickly and efficiently; but they also need to be able to recognize problem areas and to slow down to solve them in complex analytical ways” (p. 2. This study is an attempt to explore and evaluate an oblique translation of a text from English into Persian to find the most frequent translation strategy. To reach the goal of the study, the researchers selected one hundred and ten sentences of an original English text which had been translated freely at random and compared them with their Persian counterparts. The findings of the study indicated that Persian translator used equivalent strategy with the highest percentage (45% in the translated corpus. After that, modulation, and transposition had the highest percentages respectively.

  11. Translation Memory and Computer Assisted Translation Tool for Medieval Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Törcsvári Attila

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation memories (TMs, as part of Computer Assisted Translation (CAT tools, support translators reusing portions of formerly translated text. Fencing books are good candidates for using TMs due to the high number of repeated terms. Medieval texts suffer a number of drawbacks that make hard even “simple” rewording to the modern version of the same language. The analyzed difficulties are: lack of systematic spelling, unusual word orders and typos in the original. A hypothesis is made and verified that even simple modernization increases legibility and it is feasible, also it is worthwhile to apply translation memories due to the numerous and even extremely long repeated terms. Therefore, methods and algorithms are presented 1. for automated transcription of medieval texts (when a limited training set is available, and 2. collection of repeated patterns. The efficiency of the algorithms is analyzed for recall and precision.

  12. Machine Translation of Public Health Materials From English to Chinese: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anne M; Dew, Kristin N; Desai, Loma; Martin, Nathalie; Kirchhoff, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Chinese is the second most common language spoken by limited English proficiency individuals in the United States, yet there are few public health materials available in Chinese. Previous studies have indicated that use of machine translation plus postediting by bilingual translators generated quality translations in a lower time and at a lower cost than human translations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using machine translation (MT) tools (eg, Google Translate) followed by human postediting (PE) to produce quality Chinese translations of public health materials. From state and national public health websites, we collected 60 health promotion documents that had been translated from English to Chinese through human translation. The English version of the documents were then translated to Chinese using Google Translate. The MTs were analyzed for translation errors. A subset of the MT documents was postedited by native Chinese speakers with health backgrounds. Postediting time was measured. Postedited versions were then blindly compared against human translations by bilingual native Chinese quality raters. The most common machine translation errors were errors of word sense (40%) and word order (22%). Posteditors corrected the MTs at a rate of approximately 41 characters per minute. Raters, blinded to the source of translation, consistently selected the human translation over the MT+PE. Initial investigation to determine the reasons for the lower quality of MT+PE indicate that poor MT quality, lack of posteditor expertise, and insufficient posteditor instructions can be barriers to producing quality Chinese translations. Our results revealed problems with using MT tools plus human postediting for translating public health materials from English to Chinese. Additional work is needed to improve MT and to carefully design postediting processes before the MT+PE approach can be used routinely in public health practice for a variety of

  13. Neural Networks Classifier for Data Selection in Statistical Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peris Álvaro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Corpora are precious resources, as they allow for a proper estimation of statistical machine translation models. Data selection is a variant of the domain adaptation field, aimed to extract those sentences from an out-of-domain corpus that are the most useful to translate a different target domain. We address the data selection problem in statistical machine translation as a classification task. We present a new method, based on neural networks, able to deal with monolingual and bilingual corpora. Empirical results show that our data selection method provides slightly better translation quality, compared to a state-of-the-art method (cross-entropy, requiring substantially less data. Moreover, the results obtained are coherent across different language pairs, demonstrating the robustness of our proposal.

  14. Practical Evaluation of Stateful NAT64/DNS64 Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SKOBERNE, N.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available It is often suggested that the approach to IPv6 transition is dual-stack deployment; however, it is not feasible in certain environments. As Network Address Translation -- Protocol Translation (NAT-PT has been deprecated, stateful NAT64 and DNS64 RFCs have been published, supporting only IPv6-to-IPv4 translation scenario. Now the question of usability in the real world arises. In this paper, we systematically test a number of widely used application-layer network protocols to find out how well they traverse Ecdysis, the first open source stateful NAT64 and DNS64 implementation. We practically evaluated 18 popular protocols, among them HTTP, RDP, MSNP, and IMAP, and discuss the shortcomings of such translations that might not be apparent at first sight.

  15. Insights and limits of translational research in critical care medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pène, Frédéric; Ait-Oufella, Hafid; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Monneret, Guillaume; Sharshar, Tarek; Tamion, Fabienne; Mira, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Experimental research has always been the cornerstone of pathophysiological and therapeutic advances in critical care medicine, where clinical observations and basic research mutually fed each other in a so-called translational approach. The objective of this review is to address the different aspects of translational research in the field of critical care medicine. We herein highlighted some demonstrative examples including the animal-to-human approach to study host-pathogen interactions, the human-to-animal approach for sepsis-induced immunosuppression, the still restrictive human approach to study critical illness-related neuromyopathy, and the technological developments to assess the microcirculatory changes in critically ill patients. These examples not only emphasize how translational research resulted in major improvements in the comprehension of the pathophysiology of severe clinical conditions and offered promising perspectives in critical care medicine but also point out the obstacles to translate such achievements into clinical practice.

  16. ASC Addresses Unit Commanders' Concerns through LBE and Reset Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Mark E

    2008-01-01

    .... Army Sustainment Command (ASC), part of the U.S. Army Materiel Command (AMC) team, is available to assist, identify, and resolve equipment and maintenance problems as well as materiel readiness issues for combatant commanders...

  17. Nonhuman primate models in translational regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daadi, Marcel M; Barberi, Tiziano; Shi, Qiang; Lanford, Robert E

    2014-12-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs) are similar in size, behavior, physiology, biochemistry, structure and function of organs, and complexity of the immune system. Research on NHPs generates complementary data that bridge translational research from small animal models to humans. NHP models of human disease offer unique opportunities to develop stem cell-based therapeutic interventions that directly address relevant and challenging translational aspects of cell transplantation therapy. These include the use of autologous induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cellular products, issues related to the immune response in autologous and allogeneic setting, pros and cons of delivery techniques in a clinical setting, as well as the safety and efficacy of candidate cell lines. The NHP model allows the assessment of complex physiological, biochemical, behavioral, and imaging end points, with direct relevance to human conditions. At the same time, the value of using primates in scientific research must be carefully evaluated and timed due to expense and the necessity for specialized equipment and highly trained personnel. Often it is more efficient and useful to perform initial proof-of-concept studies for new therapeutics in rodents and/or other species before the pivotal studies in NHPs that may eventually lead to first-in-human trials. In this report, we present how the Southwest National Primate Research Center, one of seven NIH-funded National Primate Research Centers, may help the global community in translating promising technologies to the clinical arena.

  18. The 2012 NCTE Presidential Address: Literacy, Rhetoric, Education, Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilyard, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the text of Keith Gilyard's presidential address, delivered at the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) Annual Convention in Las Vegas, Nevada, on November 18, 2012. In his address he proposes several core elements that he believes will instrumentally improve the education system in the United States: a rich…

  19. CULTURAL TRANSFER IN THE TRANSLATIONS OF MEDIA ORGANIZATION WEBSITES: A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF ARTICLES AND THEIR TURKISH TRANSLATIONS ON THE BBC WEBSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Aksoy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The websites of media organizations address to readers from many different languages and cultures. Each culture has its own specific values, habits and norms. Translators employ some translation strategies in order to transfer these culture specific items (hereinafter; CSIs from a source text (hereinafter; ST to a target text (hereinafter; TT. They are supposed to establish translations that are completely comprehensible for the target readers. In this study, the articles of the British Broadcast Company (hereinafter; the BBC that are translated by BBC Turkish Service translator and published in the link ‘Dergi’ are analysed based on Toury’s translational norms and Aixela’s classification for CSIs. It is designed with a qualitative method and supported with an interview to triangulate the data. The findings show that the translations are generally ‘acceptable’, that is, the translator has the tendency towards target culture according to Toury’ s translational norms. She mostly employs constitution strategies of Aixela to transfer CSIs and this indicates the general tendency of the translations to ‘be a representation of a source text’. However, the translator specifies the target readers of the link as ‘educated young population’ and this does not complicate the comprehensibility of the CSIs by the target readers.

  20. [Google translate is not sufficient to overcome language barriers in neonatal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, N; Sponholz, S; König, K; Brodkorb, S; Bührer, C; Roehr, C C

    2013-12-01

    Language barriers hinder the interaction with patients and relatives. The use of language services increases knowledge, satisfaction and the use of medical care and thus improves patient's clinical outcome. The recommended use of professional interpreters (PI) is not always feasible. We tested an online translation tool as an alternative for PI for the transla-tion of standardized sentences from a neonatal doctor-/nurse-relative-interview.Translation of 20 sentences from a German neonatal intensive care unit parent information brochure to English, Portuguese and Arabic, using Google Translate (GT). Assessment of accuracy concerning grammar and content, in a second step simplification of all incorrect sentences, translation by GT and critical re-assessment and evaluation.An average of 42% of the sentences was correctly translated concerning grammar and content. The proportion of incorrectly translated sentences varied between 45-70%. By simpli-fication another 23% were translated correctly.Translations by GT were often incorrect in content and grammar. We suppose that the design of GT, which is a statistical translation engine, might be an explanation for this phenomenon. Presently, GT cannot guarantee unambiguous translations and cannot substitute PIs, only in particular circumstances, the use of GT or similar engines may be justified. For future use of electronic translation services, we suggest to compile a catalogue of sentences containing central information, which can be translated into defined foreign languages without misinterpretation or loss of information. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Computer-aided translation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    in Denmark is rather high in general, but limited in the case of machine translation (MT) tools: While most TSPs use translation-memory (TM) software, often in combination with a terminology management system (TMS), only very few have implemented MT, which is criticised for its low quality output, especially...

  2. Approaches to translational plant science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Christensen, Brian; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    is lessened. In our opinion, implementation of translational plant science is a necessity in order to solve the agricultural challenges of producing food and materials in the future. We suggest an approach to translational plant science forcing scientists to think beyond their own area and to consider higher...

  3. Copyrights for Machine Translations Considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtseva, G. A.

    The translation of literature from one language into another is perhaps one of the most important problems in view of the fact that an inordinately large amount of human labor is expended on translation. A particularly complex problem arises before the scientists of all countries in connection with the need to become familiar with scientific…

  4. Reconceptualising translation in agricultural innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, Julie; Dwyer, Janet; Gaskell, Peter; Mills, Jane; Wolf, de Pieter

    2018-01-01

    Scientific research continues to play a significant role in meeting the multiple innovation challenges in agriculture. If this role is to be fulfilled, provision needs to be made for effective translation of research outputs, where translation is understood to be the process whereby science becomes

  5. Statistical Methods in Translational Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shein-Chung Chow

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on strategies and statistical considerations for assessment of translation in language (e.g. translation of case report forms in multinational clinical trials, information (e.g. translation of basic discoveries to the clinic and technology (e.g. translation of Chinese diagnostic techniques to well-established clinical study endpoints in pharmaceutical/clinical research and development. However, most of our efforts will be directed to statistical considerations for translation in information. Translational medicine has been defined as bench-to-bedside research, where a basic laboratory discovery becomes applicable to the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of a specific disease, and is brought forth by either a physician—scientist who works at the interface between the research laboratory and patient care, or by a team of basic and clinical science investigators. Statistics plays an important role in translational medicine to ensure that the translational process is accurate and reliable with certain statistical assurance. Statistical inference for the applicability of an animal model to a human model is also discussed. Strategies for selection of clinical study endpoints (e.g. absolute changes, relative changes, or responder-defined, based on either absolute or relative change are reviewed.

  6. Translation Accommodations Framework for Testing English Language Learners in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    The present framework is developed under contract with the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) as a conceptual and methodological tool for guiding the reasonings and actions of contractors in charge of developing and providing test translation accommodations for English language learners. The framework addresses important challenges in…

  7. Experiments in Language Translation: Technical English-to-Vietnamese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaiko, H. Wallace; Brislin, Richard W.

    This paper documents the results of a series of experiments conducted by the Institute for Defense Analyses on translating technical material from English to Vietnamese. The work was accomplished in support of the Office of the Deputy Director, Research and Engineering, Deputy Director for Southeast Asia Matters. The paper addresses the question…

  8. Found in Translation: Interdisciplinary Arts Integration in Project AIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Lara; Ingram, Debra; Weiss, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    This paper will share the arts-integration methodology used in Project AIM and address the question; "How is translation evident in interdisciplinary arts instruction, and how does it affect students?" Methods: The staff and researchers from Project AIM, (an arts-integration program of the Center for Community Arts Partnerships at…

  9. Rethinking Unconventional Translation in Neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fen-Biao; Richter, Joel D; Cleveland, Don W

    2017-11-16

    Eukaryotic translation is tightly regulated to ensure that protein production occurs at the right time and place. Recent studies on abnormal repeat proteins, especially in age-dependent neurodegenerative diseases caused by nucleotide repeat expansion, have highlighted or identified two forms of unconventional translation initiation: usage of AUG-like sites (near cognates) or repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation. We discuss how repeat proteins may differ due to not just unconventional initiation, but also ribosomal frameshifting and/or imperfect repeat DNA replication, expansion, and repair, and we highlight how research on translation of repeats may uncover insights into the biology of translation and its contribution to disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Revising and editing for translators

    CERN Document Server

    Mossop, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Revising and Editing for Translators provides guidance and learning materials for translation students learning to edit texts written by others, and professional translators wishing to improve their self-revision ability or learning to revise the work of others. Editing is understood as making corrections and improvements to texts, with particular attention to tailoring them to the given readership. Revising is this same task applied to draft translations. The linguistic work of editors and revisers is related to the professional situations in which they work. Mossop offers in-depth coverage of a wide range of topics, including copyediting, style editing, structural editing, checking for consistency, revising procedures and principles, and translation quality assessment. This third edition provides extended coverage of computer aids for revisers, and of the different degrees of revision suited to different texts. The inclusion of suggested activities and exercises, numerous real-world examples, a proposed gra...

  11. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Indra

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians" can be essential members of translational medicine teams.

  12. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2010-02-26

    Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics) may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records) and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians") can be essential members of translational medicine teams.

  13. Translation of measurement instruments and their reliability: an example of job-related affective well-being scale

    OpenAIRE

    Rode, Nino

    2014-01-01

    The translation of measurement instruments, like all cross-cultural research, presents many problems for researchers. Because of cultural and linguistic differences, the questions or items can have quite different meaning in the translated instruments, thus threatening the validity and reliability of measurement. These problems are (or should be) addressed by translation back-translation procedure. To illustrate the problems, the case of Job-related Affective Well-Being Scale is presented. Th...

  14. Translator: Expert of ‘What’? Translator Training and the Changing/Changeful Identity of the Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem Öner

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to trace the contemporary perceptions/definitions of the translator and translation in Turkey where the translation profession is not a legally regulated profession. (Invisibility of the translator and the scope of his/her expertise are widely debated issues among both the scholars/students of translation and the various players in the world of translation. Although translation is no longer being defined as a mere linguistic activity, reductionist views of translation that equate translation to ‘know’ing a foreign language still continues to prevail. What accompanies the said reductionist view is the claim that a translator can not translate ‘all the texts’ in different fields of expertise, at least not as successfully as the ‘real’ experts of the field who also know a foreign language such as engineer-translators or lawyer-translators who know English. However, recent developments concerning legal translation in plurilingual settings evidence a completely different understanding of translation and the identity/expertise of the translator. In such settings, translators work together with the drafters of the legal texts and are responsible for the source legal texts as well as the target ones, broadening the scope of the ‘expertise’ of the translator in an unprecedented way. In the light of the implications of the said transformation of the identity of the legal translator, this paper argues that the identity/definition of the translator/translation needs to be reconsidered and the results should be reflected onto the translator training programs with the aim of helping students of translation (redefine their identity as real ‘experts’ of the translation field and contributing to the transformation of the perception of translation and the translator.

  15. Translator: Expert of ‘What’? Translator Training and the Changing/Changeful Identity of the Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem Öner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to trace the contemporary perceptions/definitions of the translator and translation in Turkey where the translation profession is not a legally regulated profession. (Invisibility of the translator and the scope of his/her expertise are widely debated issues among both the scholars/students of translation and the various players in the world of translation. Although translation is no longer being defined as a mere linguistic activity, reductionist views of translation that equate translation to ‘know’ing a foreign language still continues to prevail. What accompanies the said reductionist view is the claim that a translator can not translate ‘all the texts’ in different fields of expertise, at least not as successfully as the ‘real’ experts of the field who also know a foreign language such as engineer-translators or lawyer-translators who know English. However, recent developments concerning legal translation in plurilingual settings evidence a completely different understanding of translation and the identity/expertise of the translator. In such settings, translators work together with the drafters of the legal texts and are responsible for the source legal texts as well as the target ones, broadening the scope of the ‘expertise’ of the translator in an unprecedented way. In the light of the implications of the said transformation of the identity of the legal translator, this paper argues that the identity/definition of the translator/translation needs to be reconsidered and the results should be reflected onto the translator training programs with the aim of helping students of translation (redefine their identity as real ‘experts’ of the translation field and contributing to the transformation of the perception of translation and the translator.

  16. TRANSLATING BLACKNESS: A CHALLENGE TO TRANSLATION STUDIES IN CONTEMPORANEITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Andrade Salgueiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents aspects of a work in progress about both African-American and Afro-Brazilian Literatures as well as Translation Studies. As it makes observations about how blackness has been translated in different contexts and geographical spaces, it calls the reader’s attention to power relations, processes of colonial and post-colonial identity construction, the rising of literary canons, cultural hegemony and globalization, demystifying spaces and showing translation as an activity that does not take place in a neutral space, but, for sure, inside social and political concrete situations.

  17. Translating Fashion into Danish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Riegels Melchior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available With their association to enterprise and innovation, creative industries have emerged as a legitimate concern in national cultural and economical policy in many countries across the world. In Denmark, the fashion business, in particular, has been hailed as a model for successful (postindustrial transformation. In this paper, we explore the birth of Danish fashion from the ashes of the country’s clothing manufacturing industry, suggesting that the very notion of Danish fashion is indicative of – and enabled by – a development towards a polycentric fashion system. The intriguing idea that fashion could emanate from Denmark and secure growth, jobs and exports even outside the fashion business has taken hold among policymakers, and compelled the government to embrace fashion as a national project. In investigating the emergence and rising stature of Danish fashion, particular at home, we first establish a theoretical frame for understanding the cultural economic policy and the motives, principles and strategies behind it. Then – drawing inspiration from Michel Callon’s “sociology of translation” with its moments of translation: problematization, interessement, enrolment and mobilization – we identify the actors and analyze their strategic roles and interrelationship through various phases of the development of Danish fashion. Callon’s actor network theory (ANT is based on the principle of “generalized symmetry” – originally using a single repertoire to analyze both society and nature. We adapt this principle to study the realms of market, culture and politics within a common analytical framework. In our analysis, the state responds to industry transformation, interprets it and develops its own agenda. But it can hardly be said to develop policies for the industry. On the contrary, we suggest, fashion is mobilized to lend its luster to the nation, its institutions and politicians.

  18. Cry, the beloved country's isiZulu translation: speech act of naming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper was to examine the role of translation in social development. One aspect of culture that had not previously received much attention is the speech act of naming. In this article, this aspect was addressed in the translation between the Zulu and English cultures as used by CLS Nyembezi [1957 (1997)] in ...

  19. Spreading stereotypes through media and translation

    OpenAIRE

    van Doorslaer, Luc

    2009-01-01

    This presentation makes a distinction between several subcategories in the field of media translation, mainly between research on audiovisual translation and news translation. It brings in imagology as a framework for the examples of stereotyping and translation of images in news translation.

  20. Translation and Short-Term L2 Vocabulary Retention: Hindrance or Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the role that active translation may have in second language (L2) vocabulary learning. Some research suggests that translation might be an effective cognitive strategy for L2 vocabulary learning. Participants were 191 native French-speaking students enrolled in a TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language) program.The study…

  1. Integrating Content Learning and ESL Writing in a Translation Commentary Writing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shei, Chi-Chiang

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of second language writing, with English as a second language, for advanced learners in a UK university. Confirming research findings about the limitations of second language writing, we examine the translation commentaries written by 14 Chinese students on a MA translation programme and find learner problems in…

  2. Productivity and quality when editing machine translation and translation memory outputs: an empirical analysis of English to Welsh translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Screen Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a controlled study carried out to examine the possible benefits of editing Machine Translation and Translation Memory outputs when translating from English to Welsh. Using software capable of timing the translation process per segment, 8 professional translators each translated 75 sentences of differing match percentage, and post- edited a further 25 segments of Machine Translation. Basing the final analysis on 800 sentences and 17,440 words, the use of Fuzzy Matches in the 70-99% match range, Exact Matches and Statistical Machine Translation was found to significantly speed up the translation process. Significant correlations were also found between the processing time data of Exact Matches and Machine Translation post-editing, rather than between Fuzzy Matches and Machine Translation as expected. Two experienced translators were then asked to rate all translations for fidelity, grammaticality and style, whereby it was found that the use of translation technology either did not negatively affect translation quality compared to manual translation, or its use actually improved final quality in some cases. As well as confirming the findings of research in relation to translation technology, these findings also contradict supposed similarities between translation quality in terms of style and post-editing Machine Translation.

  3. Translating Romans: some persistent headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. du Toit

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Translating Romans: some persistent headaches Gone are the days when it was axiomatic that expertise in biblical languages automatically qualified one as a Bible translator. In 1949, Ronald Knox, who for nine years conscientiously struggled with translating the Bible for his generation, published a booklet under the title The trials of a translator. At that stage Bible translation as the subject of scientific study was still in its infancy. Since then, research into the intricacies of communicating the biblical message in an authentic but understandable manner, has made significant progress (cf. Roberts, 2009. However, the frustrations of Bible translators, first of all to really understand what the biblical authors wanted to convey to their original addressees, and then to commu-nicate that message to their own targeted readers in a meaningful way, have not disappeared. In fact, the challenge to meet the vary-ing requirements of the multiple kinds of translation that are present-ly in vogue, has only increased.

  4. Data Integration Tool: From Permafrost Data Translation Research Tool to A Robust Research Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, H.; Schaefer, K. M.; Jafarov, E. E.; Strawhacker, C.; Pulsifer, P. L.; Thurmes, N.

    2016-12-01

    The United States National Science Foundation funded PermaData project led by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) with a team from the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) aimed to improve permafrost data access and discovery. We developed a Data Integration Tool (DIT) to significantly speed up the time of manual processing needed to translate inconsistent, scattered historical permafrost data into files ready to ingest directly into the GTN-P. We leverage this data to support science research and policy decisions. DIT is a workflow manager that divides data preparation and analysis into a series of steps or operations called widgets. Each widget does a specific operation, such as read, multiply by a constant, sort, plot, and write data. DIT allows the user to select and order the widgets as desired to meet their specific needs. Originally it was written to capture a scientist's personal, iterative, data manipulation and quality control process of visually and programmatically iterating through inconsistent input data, examining it to find problems, adding operations to address the problems, and rerunning until the data could be translated into the GTN-P standard format. Iterative development of this tool led to a Fortran/Python hybrid then, with consideration of users, licensing, version control, packaging, and workflow, to a publically available, robust, usable application. Transitioning to Python allowed the use of open source frameworks for the workflow core and integration with a javascript graphical workflow interface. DIT is targeted to automatically handle 90% of the data processing for field scientists, modelers, and non-discipline scientists. It is available as an open source tool in GitHub packaged for a subset of Mac, Windows, and UNIX systems as a desktop application with a graphical workflow manager. DIT was used to completely translate one dataset (133 sites) that was successfully added to GTN-P, nearly translate three datasets

  5. The third language: A recurrent textual restriction that translators come across in audiovisual translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montse Corrius Gimbert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available If the process of translating is not at all simple, the process of translating an audiovisual text is still more complex. Apart rom technical problems such as lip synchronisation, there are other factors to be considered such as the use of the language and textual structures deemed appropriate to the channel of communication. Bearing in mind that most of the films we are continually seeing on our screens were and are produced in the United States, there is an increasing need to translate them into the different languages of the world. But sometimes the source audiovisual text contains more than one language, and, thus, a new problem arises: the ranslators face additional difficulties in translating this “third language” (language or dialect into the corresponding target culture. There are many films containing two languages in the original version but in this paper we will focus mainly on three films: Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969, Raid on Rommel (1999 and Blade Runner (1982. This paper aims at briefly illustrating different solutions which may be applied when we come across a “third language”.

  6. Indicators of Difficulty in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to investigate the correlation between indicators of difficulty observable in translation product and translation process data respectively. It has been claimed that the number of alternative renditions in the target text across a group of subjects translating the same source...... text item indicates the degree of cognitive effort. We identified words with high versus low target text variability across eight subjects and related these to various indicators of difficulty observable in process data from eye-tracking and keystroke logging: number of fixations, gaze time, pauses...

  7. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCREEN TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ayu Isnu Maharani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Screen translations involve oral translation known as dubbing and revoicing. Re-voicing consists of lip-sync dubbing, free commentary, narration and voice over. The written version is called subtitle. Dubbing and subtitling are two preferred mode used in the screen translation even though various numbers of current options are available nowadays. Dubbing commenced to be used in larger countries in Europe meanwhile smaller countries apply subtitling because it is more economical than dubbing. In Indonesia, the use of dubbing as well as subtitle are found.

  8. Eye-movements During Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    texts as well as both eye-tracking and keylogging data. Based on this database, I present a large-scale analysis of gaze on the source text based on 91 translators' translations of six different texts from English into four different target languages. I use mixed-effects modelling to compare from......, and variables indexing the alignment between the source and target texts. The results are related to current models of translation processes and reading and compared to a parallel analysis of production time....

  9. On automatic machine translation evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka Verdonik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An important task of developing machine translation (MT is evaluating system performance. Automatic measures are most commonly used for this task, as manual evaluation is time-consuming and costly. However, to perform an objective evaluation is not a trivial task. Automatic measures, such as BLEU, TER, NIST, METEOR etc., have their own weaknesses, while manual evaluations are also problematic since they are always to some extent subjective. In this paper we test the influence of a test set on the results of automatic MT evaluation for the subtitling domain. Translating subtitles is a rather specific task for MT, since subtitles are a sort of summarization of spoken text rather than a direct translation of (written text. Additional problem when translating language pair that does not include English, in our example Slovene-Serbian, is that commonly the translations are done from English to Serbian and from English to Slovenian, and not directly, since most of the TV production is originally filmed in English. All this poses additional challenges to MT and consequently to MT evaluation. Automatic evaluation is based on a reference translation, which is usually taken from an existing parallel corpus and marked as a test set. In our experiments, we compare the evaluation results for the same MT system output using three types of test set. In the first round, the test set are 4000 subtitles from the parallel corpus of subtitles SUMAT. These subtitles are not direct translations from Serbian to Slovene or vice versa, but are based on an English original. In the second round, the test set are 1000 subtitles randomly extracted from the first test set and translated anew, from Serbian to Slovenian, based solely on the Serbian written subtitles. In the third round, the test set are the same 1000 subtitles, however this time the Slovene translations were obtained by manually correcting the Slovene MT outputs so that they are correct translations of the

  10. Translation and spaces of reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Scott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses relations between the original and translation in terms of imaginary spaces. Target text is understood here as one of the possible images of the source text, from the perspective which could not be accessible to the original. In accordance with the concept presented here, artistic translation can be not so much reconstructed, as conceptually constructed, in the manner of a cubist object. Acts of creative reading are commented on by the author with examples of his own experimental translations from contemporary French poetry.

  11. Optimising Comprehensibility in Interlingual Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbeth Jensen, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    information on medication and tax information. Such texts are often written by experts and received by lay people, and, in today’s globalised world, they are often translated as well. In these functional texts, the receiver is not a mere recipient of information, but s/he needs to be able to act upon it....... Action requires understanding, and these texts consequently need to be optimally comprehensible. The aim of this paper is therefore to provide a framework for optimising comprehensibility in translation. In order to do so, the concept of intralingual translation is argued for as a useful starting point...

  12. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation. © 2014 AWHONN.

  13. Literary Translation: The Experience of Translating Chinua Achebe's "Arrow of God" into French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Almeida, Irene

    1981-01-01

    Uses Achebe's "Arrow of God" as example of difficulty in translating English into French when author and translators are not native speakers of these languages. Suggests inventing French gibberish or use of translator's notes to translate Pidgin English. (BK)

  14. Political Pragmatism of Empire. [Book Review: Münkler, H. Empire. The Logic of Domination over the World: from Ancient Rome to the United States [Text] / Herfried Münkler ; Translated from German by L. V. Lannik, edited by T. A. Grablevsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Igor Ivanovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This publication is a review of Herfried Münkler’s book “Empire: The logic of domination over the world - from Ancient Rome to the United States”, published in translation from German language in 2015. The reviewer describes the specifics of publication, focusing on the fact that the author analyzes in the framework of the political science discourse pressing issues regarding the development of empires as the powers affecting the militarystrategic, economic and social aspects. On the pages of his book, Münkler carefully analyzes discussions about the fate and quality of empire in the United States. H. Münkler raises questions about “boundaries of an Empire”, including those important subjects that are of great interest to political scientists who study the dynamics of relations between states and other actors in contemporary world politics. The reviewer notes that the author in the book overcomes taboo on imperial discourse in relation to modern democracies, which was initially due to the collapse of the USSR and the collapse of the Warsaw Pact, as well as the concepts of liberal democracy triumph.

  15. HOW TO TRANSLATE SCIENTIFICALLY: A CASE IN THE JOURNAL OF “MEDICINA”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Juliarta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This reasearch aimed at analyzing and discussing the technique or procedure applied by translator in translating text found in the journal medicina. There are some procedures of translation techniques found and applied by translator. Some of the translation techniques applied by the translator consisting of borrowing, transposition, equivalence, structure shift, unti shift, literal, calque, addition and substraction. It was the borrowing technique used in applying the translation of terms which have been considered a part of respective TL. Unit shift is said as the change from word to group of word or in reverse. A different of modifierhead rule between SL and TL can occur in the structure shift. Equivalence and literal translation or words per word translation were found. It is important to apply the technique of calque which was reagarded as special kind of borrowing. There were the last two techniques which were also found as unavoidably which is applied by translator. Applying appropriate techniques in translating is needed in order the translation product can be reliable and acceptable for the reader.

  16. Reviewing back translation reports of questionnaires: the EORTC conceptual framework and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuliś, Dagmara; Whittaker, Cheryl; Greimel, Eva; Bottomley, Andrew; Koller, Michael

    2017-12-01

    In the process of translating patient-reported outcomes measures (forward translation(s), reconciliation, back translation(s), review, pilot-testing, review, final translation), there is a general consensus amongst the key players in the field that the back translation review is an important step. Despite this, there has been little guidance published on how to perform it. Areas covered: Having assessed the most recent back translation reports reviewed by the Translation Unit at the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) in Brussels, we have identified two concepts to help guide the back translation review process: the underlying issue (the problem that the item measures) and the structure (the linguistic and formal construction of the item). This paper presents these concepts and how they are used in the review process. Expert commentary: Despite certain difficulties it might pose, back translation review remains one of the standard steps to assure concept equivalence. This paper aims at starting a much-needed exchange of experience and knowledge among people who perform reviews as part of the process of translating patient-reported outcomes measures.

  17. Personalized translational epilepsy research - Novel approaches and future perspectives: Part II: Experimental and translational approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sebastian; van Alphen, Natascha; Becker, Albert; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Deichmann, Ralf; Deller, Thomas; Freiman, Thomas; Freitag, Christine M; Gehrig, Johannes; Hermsen, Anke M; Jedlicka, Peter; Kell, Christian; Klein, Karl Martin; Knake, Susanne; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Liebner, Stefan; Norwood, Braxton A; Omigie, Diana; Plate, Karlheinz; Reif, Andreas; Reif, Philipp S; Reiss, Yvonne; Roeper, Jochen; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W; Schorge, Stephanie; Schratt, Gerhard; Schwarzacher, Stephan W; Steinbach, Joachim P; Strzelczyk, Adam; Triesch, Jochen; Wagner, Marlies; Walker, Matthew C; von Wegner, Frederic; Rosenow, Felix

    2017-11-01

    Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics, and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy. In the context of these advances, the First International Symposium on Personalized Translational Epilepsy Research (1st ISymPTER) was held in Frankfurt on September 8, 2016, to discuss novel approaches and future perspectives for personalized translational research. These included new developments and ideas in a range of experimental and clinical areas such as deep phenotyping, quantitative brain imaging, EEG/MEG-based analysis of network dysfunction, tissue-based translational studies, innate immunity mechanisms, microRNA as treatment targets, functional characterization of genetic variants in human cell models and rodent organotypic slice cultures, personalized treatment approaches for monogenic epilepsies, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, therapeutic focal tissue modification, computational modeling for target and biomarker identification, and cost analysis in (monogenic) disease and its treatment. This report on the meeting proceedings is aimed at stimulating much needed investments of time and resources in personalized translational epilepsy research. This Part II includes the experimental and translational approaches and a discussion of the future perspectives, while the diagnostic methods, EEG network analysis, biomarkers, and personalized treatment approaches were addressed in Part I [1]. Copyright © 2017

  18. Audiovisual translation: American and European pragmatic and conversational strategies in subtitling nominal forms of address

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Rebollo-Couto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As fórmulas e formas nominais de tratamento constituem um repertório linguístico aberto, seu uso depende de condicionantes tanto pragmáticos quanto sociais (Fontanella de Weinberg, 1999. Do ponto de vista sociolinguístico, variam em função de condicionantes de idade, escolaridade e sexo, bem como de variação dialetal. Do ponto de vista pragmático, variam em função do grau de proximidade ou hierarquia da relação, conhecimento compartilhado, grau de coloquialidade da interação e tipo de ato de fala que realizam. Neste trabalho, analisamos a variação na legendagem em português (brasileiro e europeu e em espanhol (latino e ibérico das diferentes versões do filme Inside Out: Divertida Mente, Divertida-mente, Intensamente e Del Revés. Comparamos as escolhas convergentes e divergentes de tradução do original em inglês no que diz respeito às fórmulas e formas nominais de tratamento, bem como, do ponto de vista conversacional, suas funções de intensificação ou atenuação de atos diretivos e expressivos nos diálogos. Os resultados de nossa análise assinalam que as formas nominais de tratamento são mantidas na legendagem em função dos seguintes condicionamentos conversacionais: (i seleção do interlocutor e gestão dos turnos de fala; (ii intensificação de atos de fala expressivos; (iii marcas sociolinguísticas de relação interpessoal e (iv indexador de identidade social

  19. The Gettysburg Address as Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Peatman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During the Cold War agents of the United States government frequently invoked the Gettysburg Address in an attempt to spread pro-American sentiment across the globe. Throughout this period the Cold War and Civil Rights Movement were the U.S.’s two main concerns. While the one was seemingly an international issue and the other a domestic one, in reality they were closely linked. At a time when America was competing with the Soviet Union for global influence, particularly in the newly independent nations in Africa, the racial discord in the country was a major tool used against the United States. Consequently, in the early 1960s American officials began to look for ways to counter the negative image racial discrimination was giving the country. An examination of the ways the Gettysburg Address was invoked in 1959 during the Lincoln Birth Sesquicentennial, and then in 1963 as a part of the Civil War Centennial, shows how the speech’s meaning was recast from democracy to equality.

  20. Technical Translation and Industrial Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longyka, Tomaz

    1973-01-01

    Paper presented at the symposium on The Importance and Problems of Translation in Sciences, Technology, and Economic Life.'' in Ohrid, Yugoslavia. Argues for the adoption of artificial languages as an international terminological means in science and technology. (RS)

  1. Introduction to IP address management

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Tim

    2010-01-01

    "The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--

  2. A Minimal Cognitive Model for Translating and Post-editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Carl, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the coordination of reading (input) and writing (output) activities in from-scratch translation and post-editing. We segment logged eye movements and keylogging data into minimal units of reading and writing activity and model the process of post-editing and from-scratch...

  3. Functional Integration of mRNA Translational Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie C. MacNicol

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Regulated mRNA translation plays a key role in control of cell cycle progression in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, including in the self-renewal and survival of stem cells and cancer stem cells. While targeting mRNA translation presents an attractive strategy for control of aberrant cell cycle progression, mRNA translation is an underdeveloped therapeutic target. Regulated mRNAs are typically controlled through interaction with multiple RNA binding proteins (RBPs but the mechanisms by which the functions of distinct RBPs bound to a common target mRNA are coordinated are poorly understood. The challenge now is to gain insight into these mechanisms of coordination and to identify the molecular mediators that integrate multiple, often conflicting, inputs. A first step includes the identification of altered mRNA ribonucleoprotein complex components that assemble on mRNAs bound by multiple, distinct RBPs compared to those recruited by individual RBPs. This review builds upon our knowledge of combinatorial control of mRNA translation during the maturation of oocytes from Xenopus laevis, to address molecular strategies that may mediate RBP diplomacy and conflict resolution for coordinated control of mRNA translational output. Continued study of regulated ribonucleoprotein complex dynamics promises valuable new insights into mRNA translational control and may suggest novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of disease.

  4. Pragmatism and integrated knowledge translation: exploring the compatabilities and tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lorelli

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the role of the philosophy of pragmatism in the integrated knowledge translation approach to research. Critical inquiry is used to discuss bringing pragmatic philosophy and the integrated knowledge translation approach to research together to advance nursing knowledge. This paper draws from the literature written on the philosophy of pragmatism and from the current literature on knowledge translation. The possibilities, tensions and limitations for underpinning an integrated knowledge translation research approach with pragmatic philosophy are discussed while highlighting the implications this has for creating knowledge aimed at advancing the practice of nursing. The implications for how nursing knowledge is created in using an integrated knowledge translation approach that is underpinned by pragmatic philosophy are important. Creating nursing knowledge that address the complex problems found in nursing practice is needed. In acknowledging the inseparability of knowledge and practice, researchers, practitioners, policy makers and the public can come together to co-create knowledge that is useful for the practice of nursing. It is these implications of underpinning an integrated knowledge translation research approach with pragmatic philosophy that are significant in creating nursing knowledge that advances the practice of nursing.

  5. Ethical Considerations in Tissue Engineering Research: Case Studies in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Hannah B.; McQuilling, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering research is a complex process that requires investigators to focus on the relationship between their research and anticipated gains in both knowledge and treatment improvements. The ethical considerations arising from tissue engineering research are similarly complex when addressing the translational progression from bench to bedside, and investigators in the field of tissue engineering act as moral agents at each step of their research along the translational pathway, from early benchwork and preclinical studies to clinical research. This review highlights the ethical considerations and challenges at each stage of research, by comparing issues surrounding two translational tissue engineering technologies: the bioartificial pancreas and a tissue engineered skeletal muscle construct. We present relevant ethical issues and questions to consider at each step along the translational pathway, from the basic science bench to preclinical research to first-in-human clinical trials. Topics at the bench level include maintaining data integrity, appropriate reporting and dissemination of results, and ensuring that studies are designed to yield results suitable for advancing research. Topics in preclinical research include the principle of “modest translational distance” and appropriate animal models. Topics in clinical research include key issues that arise in early-stage clinical trials, including selection of patient-subjects, disclosure of uncertainty, and defining success. The comparison of these two technologies and their ethical issues brings to light many challenges for translational tissue engineering research and provides guidance for investigators engaged in development of any tissue engineering technology. PMID:26282436

  6. Challenges in translational research: the views of addiction scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergren, Jenny E; Hammer, Rachel R; Dingel, Molly J; Koenig, Barbara A; McCormick, Jennifer B

    2014-01-01

    To explore scientists' perspectives on the challenges and pressures of translating research findings into clinical practice and public health policy. We conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 20 leading scientists engaged in genetic research on addiction. We asked participants for their views on how their own research translates, how genetic research addresses addiction as a public health problem and how it may affect the public's view of addiction. Most scientists described a direct translational route for their research, positing that their research will have significant societal benefits, leading to advances in treatment and novel prevention strategies. However, scientists also pointed to the inherent pressures they feel to quickly translate their research findings into actual clinical or public health use. They stressed the importance of allowing the scientific process to play out, voicing ambivalence about the recent push to speed translation. High expectations have been raised that biomedical science will lead to new prevention and treatment modalities, exerting pressure on scientists. Our data suggest that scientists feel caught in the push for immediate applications. This overemphasis on rapid translation can lead to technologies and applications being rushed into use without critical evaluation of ethical, policy, and social implications, and without balancing their value compared to public health policies and interventions currently in place.

  7. A Translational Model of Research-Practice Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, Dina; Hershenberg, Rachel; Teachman, Bethany A.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Goldfried, Marvin R.; Wolfe, Barry

    2013-01-01

    We propose a four-level, recursive Research-Practice Integration framework as a heuristic to (a) integrate and reflect on the articles in this Special Section as contributing to a bidirectional bridge between research and practice, and (b) consider additional opportunities to address the research–practice gap. Level 1 addresses Treatment Validation studies and includes an article by Lochman and colleagues concerning the programmatic adaptation, implementation, and dissemination of the empirically supported Coping Power treatment program for youth aggression. Level 2 translation, Training in Evidence-Based Practice, includes a paper by Hershenberg, Drabick, and Vivian, which focuses on the critical role that predoctoral training plays in bridging the research–practice gap. Level 3 addresses the Assessment of Clinical Utility and Feedback to Research aspects of translation. The articles by Lambert and Youn, Kraus, and Castonguay illustrate the use of commercial outcome packages that enable psychotherapists to integrate ongoing client assessment, thus enhancing the effectiveness of treatment implementation and providing data that can be fed back to researchers. Lastly, Level 4 translation, the Cross-Level Integrative Research and Communication, concerns research efforts that integrate data from clinical practice and all other levels of translation, as well as communication efforts among all stakeholders, such as researchers, psychotherapists, and clients. Using a two-chair technique as a framework for his discussion, Wolfe's article depicts the struggle inherent in research–practice integration efforts and proposes a rapprochement that highlights advancements in the field. PMID:22642522

  8. Integration of statistical collocation segmentations in a phrase-based statistical machine translation system

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Costa-Jussà, Marta; Daudaravicius, Vidas; Banchs, Rafael E.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of integrating two different collocation segmentations methods in a standard phrase-based statistical machine translation approach. The collocation segmentation techniques are implemented simultaneously in the source and target side. Each resulting collocation segmentation is used to extract translation units. Experiments are reported in the English-to-Spanish Bible task and promising results (an improvement over 0.7 BLEU absolute) are achieved in translation q...

  9. Translating Linguistic Jokes for Dubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ALEKSANDROVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has attempted to establish the possible ways of translating linguistic jokes whendubbing. The study is also intended to identify the most problematic cases of screen translation andthe factors which cause these problems. In order to support such an approach a corpus of 7American and British films has been compiled, including as many as 16 as their various dubbingtranslations into Russian. In the films, almost 12 instances of original linguistic jokes have beenidentified.

  10. Style and ideology in translation

    CERN Document Server

    Munday, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, this book investigates the style, or 'voice,' of English language translations of twentieth-century Latin American writing, including fiction, political speeches, and film. Existing models of stylistic analysis, supported at times by computer-assisted analysis, are developed to examine a range of works and writers, selected for their literary, cultural, and ideological importance. The style of the different translators is subjected to a close linguistic investigation within their cultural and ideological framework.

  11. The Society for Translational Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shugeng; Zhang, Zhongheng; Aragón, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The Society for Translational Medicine and The Chinese Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery conducted a systematic review of the literature in an attempt to improve our understanding in the postoperative management of chest tubes of patients undergoing pulmonary lobectomy. Recommendati......The Society for Translational Medicine and The Chinese Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery conducted a systematic review of the literature in an attempt to improve our understanding in the postoperative management of chest tubes of patients undergoing pulmonary lobectomy...

  12. A tool for rapid manual translation

    OpenAIRE

    Nordström, Magnus; Pettersson, Paul

    1993-01-01

    There have been several attempts to realize the idea of a fully automatic translation system for text translation to replace human translators. By contrast, little work has been put into building tools to aid human translators. This report describes the ideas behind such a tool. The tool is intended to aid human translators in achieving higher productivity and better quality, by presenting terminological information extracted from previous translations. The report documents the i...

  13. First Result on Arabic Neural Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Almahairi, Amjad; Cho, Kyunghyun; Habash, Nizar; Courville, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Neural machine translation has become a major alternative to widely used phrase-based statistical machine translation. We notice however that much of research on neural machine translation has focused on European languages despite its language agnostic nature. In this paper, we apply neural machine translation to the task of Arabic translation (ArEn) and compare it against a standard phrase-based translation system. We run extensive comparison using various configurations in preprocessing Ara...

  14. Pseudonymization of patient identifiers for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamot, Harald; Kohl, Christian Dominik; Richter, Daniela; Knaup-Gregori, Petra

    2013-07-24

    collision-resistant function is incorporated into the method. These two facts combined enable us to address essential challenges in translational research. A productive software prototype was implemented to prove the functionality of the suggested translational, data privacy-preserving method. Eventually, we performed a threat analysis to evaluate potential hazards connected with this pseudonymization method. The proposed method offers sustainable organizational simplification regarding an ethically indicated, but secure and controlled process of de-pseudonymizing patients. A pseudonym is patient-centered to allow correlating separate datasets from one patient. Therefore, this method bridges the gap between bench and bedside in translational research while preserving patient privacy. Assigned ombudsmen are able to de-pseudonymize a patient, if an individual research result is clinically relevant.

  15. Perceived radial translation during centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Jelte E; Correia Grácio, Bruno J

    2015-01-01

    Linear acceleration generally gives rise to translation perception. Centripetal acceleration during centrifugation, however, has never been reported giving rise to a radial, inward translation perception. To study whether centrifugation can induce a radial translation perception in the absence of visual cues. To that end, we exposed 12 subjects to a centripetal acceleration with eyes closed. To avoid confounding with angular motion perception, subjects were fist rotated on-axis, and were shifted out fast and slow only after rotation sensation had vanished. They were asked for translation direction and velocity right after the shift-out, as well as after about 60 seconds of constant centrifugation. Independent of fast or slow shift-out, the vast statistically significant majority of trials yielded an inward radial translation perception, which velocity was constant after 60 seconds of constant centrifugation. We therefore conclude that during centrifugation, an inward radial translation perception does exist in humans, which perception reaches a constant, non-zero value during constant rotation, lasting for at least one minute. These results can be understood by high-pass filtering of otolith afferents to make a distinction between inertial and gravitational acceleration, followed by a mere integration over time to reach a constant velocity perception.

  16. Translational Repression in Malaria Sporozoites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turque, Oliver; Tsao, Tiffany; Li, Thomas; Zhang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals. It is caused by the parasitic protozoan, Plasmodium. Sporozoites, the infectious form of malaria parasites, are quiescent when they remain in the salivary glands of the Anopheles mosquito until transmission into a mammalian host. Metamorphosis of the dormant sporozoite to its active form in the liver stage requires transcriptional and translational regulations. Here, we summarize recent advances in the translational repression of gene expression in the malaria sporozoite. In sporozoites, many mRNAs that are required for liver stage development are translationally repressed. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α (eIF2α) leads to a global translational repression in sporozoites. The eIF2α kinase, known as Upregulated in Infectious Sporozoite 1 (UIS1), is dominant in the sporozoite. The eIF2α phosphatase, UIS2, is translationally repressed by the Pumilio protein Puf2. This translational repression is alleviated when sporozoites are delivered into the mammalian host. PMID:28357358

  17. Translational repression in malaria sporozoites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Turque

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals. It is caused by the parasitic protozoan, Plasmodium. Sporozoites, the infectious form of malaria parasites, are quiescent when they remain in the salivary glands of the Anopheles mosquito until transmission into a mammalian host. Metamorphosis of the dormant sporozoite to its active form in the liver stage requires transcriptional and translational regulations. Here, we summarize recent advances in the translational repression of gene expression in the malaria sporozoite. In sporozoites, many mRNAs that are required for liver stage development are translationally repressed. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α (eIF2α leads to a global translational repression in sporozoites. The eIF2α kinase, known as Upregulated in Infectious Sporozoite 1 (UIS1, is dominant in the sporozoite. The eIF2α phosphatase, UIS2, is translationally repressed by the Pumilio protein Puf2. This translational repression is alleviated when sporozoites are delivered into the mammalian host.

  18. Developing a translational ecology workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark W.; Hiers, J. Kevin; Davis, Frank W.; Garfin, Gregg; Jackson, Stephen T.; Terando, Adam J.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Morelli, Toni; Williamson, Matthew A.; Brunson, Mark W.

    2017-01-01

    We define a translational ecologist as a professional ecologist with diverse disciplinary expertise and skill sets, as well as a suitable personal disposition, who engages across social, professional, and disciplinary boundaries to partner with decision makers to achieve practical environmental solutions. Becoming a translational ecologist requires specific attention to obtaining critical non‐scientific disciplinary breadth and skills that are not typically gained through graduate‐level education. Here, we outline a need for individuals with broad training in interdisciplinary skills, use our personal experiences as a basis for assessing the types of interdisciplinary skills that would benefit potential translational ecologists, and present steps that interested ecologists may take toward becoming translational. Skills relevant to translational ecologists may be garnered through personal experiences, informal training, short courses, fellowships, and graduate programs, among others. We argue that a translational ecology workforce is needed to bridge the gap between science and natural resource decisions. Furthermore, we argue that this task is a cooperative responsibility of individuals interested in pursuing these careers, educational institutions interested in training scientists for professional roles outside of academia, and employers seeking to hire skilled workers who can foster stakeholder‐engaged decision making.

  19. Prospects for translational regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa-Ming; Zhao, Yi-Min; Jin, Yan; Shi, Songtao

    2012-01-01

    Translational medicine is an evolutional concept that encompasses the rapid translation of basic research for use in clinical disease diagnosis, prevention and treatment. It follows the idea "from bench to bedside and back", and hence relies on cooperation between laboratory research and clinical care. In the past decade, translational medicine has received unprecedented attention from scientists and clinicians and its fundamental principles have penetrated throughout biomedicine, offering a sign post that guides modern medical research toward a patient-centered focus. Translational regenerative medicine is still in its infancy, and significant basic research investment has not yet achieved satisfactory clinical outcomes for patients. In particular, there are many challenges associated with the use of cell- and tissue-based products for clinical therapies. This review summarizes the transformation and global progress in translational medicine over the past decade. The current obstacles and opportunities in translational regenerative medicine are outlined in the context of stem cell therapy and tissue engineering for the safe and effective regeneration of functional tissue. This review highlights the requirement for multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary cooperation to ensure the development of the best possible regenerative therapies within the shortest timeframe possible for the greatest patient benefit. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical translation of controlled protein delivery systems for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Kara L; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2015-04-01

    Strategies that utilize controlled release of drugs and proteins for tissue engineering have enormous potential to regenerate damaged organs and tissues. The multiple advantages of controlled release strategies merit overcoming the significant challenges to translation, including high costs and long, difficult regulatory pathways. This review highlights the potential of controlled release of proteins for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. We specifically discuss treatment modalities that have reached preclinical and clinical trials, with emphasis on controlled release systems for bone tissue engineering, the most advanced application with several products already in clinic. Possible strategies to address translational and regulatory concerns are also discussed.

  1. International Technical Communication: Beyond Translation, Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Fred

    1993-01-01

    Offers a personal view of international technical communication. Discusses computer-assisted translation, machine translation, machine interpreting, and the future of international technical communication. (SR)

  2. Errors in translation made by English major students: A study on types and causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattanapong Wongranu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many Thai English major students have problems when they translate Thai texts into English, as numerous errors can be found. Therefore, a study of translation errors is needed to find solutions to these problems. The objectives of this research were: 1 to examine types of translation errors in translation from Thai into English, 2 to determine the types of translation errors that are most common, and 3 to find possible explanations for the causes of errors. The results of this study will be used to improve translation teaching and the course “Translation from Thai into English”. The participants were 26 third-year, English major students at Kasetsart University. The data were collected from the students' exercises and examinations. Interviews and stimulated recall were also used to determine translation problems and causes of errors. The data were analyzed by considering the frequency and percentage, and by content analysis. The results shows that the most frequent translation errors were syntactic errors (65%, followed by semantic errors (26.5% and miscellaneous errors (8.5%, respectively. The causes of errors found in this study included translation procedures, carelessness, low self-confidence, and anxiety. It is recommended that more class time be spent to address the problematic points. In addition, more authentic translation and group work should be implemented to increase self-confidence and decrease anxiety.

  3. Hepatitis C virus translation preferentially depends on active RNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Minyi Liu

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA initiates its replication on a detergent-resistant membrane structure derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER in the HCV replicon cells. By performing a pulse-chase study of BrU-labeled HCV RNA, we found that the newly-synthesized HCV RNA traveled along the anterograde-membrane traffic and moved away from the ER. Presumably, the RNA moved to the site of translation or virion assembly in the later steps of viral life cycle. In this study, we further addressed how HCV RNA translation was regulated by HCV RNA trafficking. When the movement of HCV RNA from the site of RNA synthesis to the Golgi complex was blocked by nocodazole, an inhibitor of ER-Golgi transport, HCV protein translation was surprisingly enhanced, suggesting that the translation of viral proteins occurred near the site of RNA synthesis. We also found that the translation of HCV proteins was dependent on active RNA synthesis: inhibition of viral RNA synthesis by an NS5B inhibitor resulted in decreased HCV viral protein synthesis even when the total amount of intracellular HCV RNA remained unchanged. Furthermore, the translation activity of the replication-defective HCV replicons or viral RNA with an NS5B mutation was greatly reduced as compared to that of the corresponding wildtype RNA. By performing live cell labeling of newly synthesized HCV RNA and proteins, we further showed that the newly synthesized HCV proteins colocalized with the newly synthesized viral RNA, suggesting that HCV RNA replication and protein translation take place at or near the same site. Our findings together indicate that the translation of HCV RNA is coupled to RNA replication and that the both processes may occur at the same subcellular membrane compartments, which we term the replicasome.

  4. Bowker, L. et al., eds. Unity in diversity? current trends in translation studies. Bowker, L. et al., eds. Unity in diversity? current trends in translation studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Vasconcellos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Unity in Diversity? Current Trends in Translation Studies—a result of the diverse range of phenomena addressed in the Dublin City University Translation Studies (TS Conference (1996—proves to be a timely publication of St. Jerome Publishing at the end of the 20th century. This collection of papers exploring the central and uptodate issue of disciplinary identity in the young academic field of TS is in tune with the present concern in the area, as can be seen in the topic suggested for the international Translation Conference I IATIS Conference:“Disciplinary Identity—Redefining Translation in the 21st Century” (cf. www.iatis.org/content/korea/programme.php, to be held in 2005. Unity in Diversity? Current Trends in Translation Studies—a result of the diverse range of phenomena addressed in the Dublin City University Translation Studies (TS Conference (1996—proves to be a timely publication of St. Jerome Publishing at the end of the 20th century. This collection of papers exploring the central and uptodate issue of disciplinary identity in the young academic field of TS is in tune with the present concern in the area, as can be seen in the topic suggested for the international Translation Conference I IATIS Conference:“Disciplinary Identity—Redefining Translation in the 21st Century” (cf. www.iatis.org/content/korea/programme.php, to be held in 2005.

  5. The Complexities of Translating Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Bassnett

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers some of the long-standing debates about translating poetry, and explores the strategies used to bring about creative transposition through a series of examples, including translations from Persian, Korean and Welsh. The author drawsupon her own experiences both as a translator and translation scholar, also as one of the judges of the prestigious Stephen Spender poetry in translation prize for the last decade. The essay argues that the translator of a poem is both its rewriter and its recreator, and highlights the organic metaphor used by poets such as Percy Bysse Shelley proposing that the translation of poetry necessarily involves transplantation into new soil. The essay concludes by pointing out that the two crucial elements in translating poetry are joyfulness and playfulness, which gives the lie to the old negative idea of poetry being what is lost in translation.The translation of poetry is therefore a creative act, since it results in the blossoming of a new poem in a new language.Il saggio prende in esame una parte del dibatto di lunga data sulla traduzione della poesia e analizza le strategie utilizzate per trasporre la creatività attraverso una serie di esempi, tra i quali anche versioni dal persiano, coreano e gallese. L’autrice attinge allapropria esperienza di traduttrice e di studiosa della traduzione, anche in qualità di giudice nel corso dell’ultimo decennio del prestigioso premio per la traduzione poetica Stephen Spender. L’articolo sostiene che il traduttore di poesia è  contemporaneamente ri-scrittore e ri-creatore della stessa, e sottolinea la metafora biologica impiegata da poeti quali Percy Bysse Shelley secondo la quale la traduzione di poesia implica necessariamente il trapianto in un nuovo terreno. Il saggio si conclude mostrando come i due elementi cruciali nella traduzione di poesia siano la gioiosità e la giocosità, le quali sconfessano l’antica concezione della poesia come di

  6. Development of Translation Materials to Assess International Students' Mental Health Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalungsooth, Pornthip; Schneller, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    International college students in the United States often face adjustment difficulties; therefore, cultural sensitivity is necessary to help them express their concerns. This article describes the development of translations of international students' common mental health concerns into 7 languages. Suggestions for the use of translated materials…

  7. Translational selection in human: More pronounced in housekeeping genes

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Lina

    2014-07-10

    Background: Translational selection is a ubiquitous and significant mechanism to regulate protein expression in prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes. Recent evidence has shown that translational selection is weakly operative in highly expressed genes in human and other vertebrates. However, it remains unclear whether translational selection acts differentially on human genes depending on their expression patterns.Results: Here we report that human housekeeping (HK) genes that are strictly defined as genes that are expressed ubiquitously and consistently in most or all tissues, are under stronger translational selection.Conclusions: These observations clearly show that translational selection is also closely associated with expression pattern. Our results suggest that human HK genes are more efficiently and/or accurately translated into proteins, which will inevitably open up a new understanding of HK genes and the regulation of gene expression.Reviewers: This article was reviewed by Yuan Yuan, Baylor College of Medicine; Han Liang, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (nominated by Dr Laura Landweber) Eugene Koonin, NCBI, NLM, NIH, United States of America Sandor Pongor, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and biotechnology (ICGEB), Italy. © 2014 Ma et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  8. Translator-computer interaction in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Kristine; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    perspective, this paper investigates the relationship between machines and humans in the field of translation, analysing a CAT process in which machine-translation (MT) technology was integrated into a translation-memory (TM) suite. After a review of empirical research into the impact of CAT tools...... on translation processes, we report on an observational study of TCI processes in one particular instance of MT-assisted TM translation in a major Danish translation service provider (TSP). Results indicate that the CAT tool played a central role in the translation process. In fact, the study demonstrates......Though we lack empirically-based knowledge of the impact of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools on translation processes, it is generally agreed that all professional translators are now involved in some kind of translator-computer interaction (TCI), using O’Brien’s (2012) term. Taking a TCI...

  9. On the Systematicity of Human Translation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara; Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    While translation careers and the translation profession become more globalised and more technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we attempt to outline a method which helps to uncover character......While translation careers and the translation profession become more globalised and more technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we attempt to outline a method which helps to uncover...... characteristic steps in human translation processes. Based on the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles, which are characteristic for different kinds of translators. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis...

  10. Using example-based machine translation to translate DVD subtitles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Marian

    between Swedish and Danish and Swedish and Norwegian subtitles, with the company already reporting a successful return on their investment. The hybrid EBMT/SMT system used in the current research, on the other hand, remains within the confines of academic research, and the real potential of the system...... allotted to produce the subtitles have both decreased. Therefore, this market is recognised as a potential real-world application of MT. Recent publications have introduced Corpus-Based MT approaches to translate subtitles. An SMT system has been implemented in a Swedish subtitling company to translate...

  11. Localizing apps a practical guide for translators and translation students

    CERN Document Server

    Roturier, Johann

    2015-01-01

    The software industry has undergone rapid development since the beginning of the twenty-first century. These changes have had a profound impact on translators who, due to the evolving nature of digital content, are under increasing pressure to adapt their ways of working. Localizing Apps looks at these challenges by focusing on the localization of software applications, or apps. In each of the five core chapters, Johann Roturier examines:The role of translation and other linguistic activities in adapting software to the needs of different cultures (localization);The procedures required to prep

  12. Translational research: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, M Cecilia; Kirkbride, Geri; Wade, Kristen; Ferrell, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: Little is known about which approaches facilitate adoption and sustainment of evidence-based practice change in the highly complex care environments that constitute clinical practice today. The purpose of this article was to complete a concept analysis of translational research using a modified Walker and Avant approach. DESIGN/DATA COLLECTION: Using a rigorous and thorough review of the recent health care literature generated by a deep electronic search from 2004-2011, 85 appropriate documents were retrieved. Close reading of the articles by three coresearchers yielded an analysis of the emerging concept of translational research. Using the iterative process described by Walker and Avant, a tentative definition of the concept of translational research, along with antecedents and consequences were identified. Implications for health care professionals in education, practice, and research are offered. Further research is needed to determine the adequacy of the definition, to identify empirical referents, and to guide theory development. The study resulted in a theoretical definition of the concept of translational research, along with identification of antecedents and consequences and a description of an ideal or model case to illustrate the definition. Implications for practice and education include the importance of focusing on translational research approaches that may reduce the research-practice gap in health care, thereby improving patient care delivery. Research is needed to determine the usefulness of the definition in health care clinical practice.

  13. Virtual reality disaster training: translation to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farra, Sharon L; Miller, Elaine T; Hodgson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Disaster training is crucial to the mitigation of both mortality and morbidity associated with disasters. Just as clinical practice needs to be grounded in evidence, effective disaster education is dependent upon the development and use of andragogic and pedagogic evidence. Educational research findings must be transformed into useable education strategies. Virtual reality simulation is a teaching methodology that has the potential to be a powerful educational tool. The purpose of this article is to translate research findings related to the use of virtual reality simulation in disaster training into education practice. The Ace Star Model serves as a valuable framework to translate the VRS teaching methodology and improve disaster training of healthcare professionals. Using the Ace Star Model as a framework to put evidence into practice, strategies for implementing a virtual reality simulation are addressed. Practice guidelines, implementation recommendations, integration to practice and evaluation are discussed. It is imperative that health educators provide more exemplars of how research evidence can be moved through the various stages of the model to advance practice and sustain learning outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Machine translation with minimal reliance on parallel resources

    CERN Document Server

    Tambouratzis, George; Sofianopoulos, Sokratis

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a unified view on a new methodology for Machine Translation (MT). This methodology extracts information from widely available resources (extensive monolingual corpora) while only assuming the existence of a very limited parallel corpus, thus having a unique starting point to Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). In this book, a detailed presentation of the methodology principles and system architecture is followed by a series of experiments, where the proposed system is compared to other MT systems using a set of established metrics including BLEU, NIST, Meteor and TER. Additionally, a free-to-use code is available, that allows the creation of new MT systems. The volume is addressed to both language professionals and researchers. Prerequisites for the readers are very limited and include a basic understanding of the machine translation as well as of the basic tools of natural language processing.

  15. (ReTranslating as Re-membering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Tarif

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how (retranslation – interlingual and intersemiotic – can be perceived as a way of both remembering the literary legacy of other cultures but also as a way of re-membering/re-generating the body of literature(s of the importing culture. It focuses on what is called “a classic” and anchors its reflexion in polysystem theory and in the metaphorical vision of literary works as an organic living body. To do so, it concentrates on the British literary classic Oliver Twist and its translations and adaptations into French. The article addresses the following questions: What is to be remembered of certain works? Why, how and by whom are those works remembered?

  16. Predicting Post-Editor Profiles from the Translation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Karan; Orrego-Carmona, David; Gonzales, Ashleigh Rhea

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation is to predict post-editor profiles based on user behaviour and demographics using machine learning techniques to gain a better understanding of post-editor styles. Our study extracts process unit features from the CasMaCat LS14 database from the CRITT...... of translation process features. The classification and clustering of participants resulting from our study suggest this type of exploration could be used as a tool to develop new translation tool features or customization possibilities....

  17. A Communicative Translation Approach to Chinese-English Translation of Public Signs

    OpenAIRE

    王, 晶晶; Wang, Jing-jing

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to adopt a communicative translation approach of Peter Newmark into public sign translation and provide some insights for translators to do sign translation, particularly through using the translation theory as a guide in the whole process of translating. It begins with a general introduction on the current situation of Chinese-English translation of public signs followed by the definition and functions of public signs. After reviewing the recent academic research on signs a...

  18. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  19. Allocation of Cognitive Resources in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    The present study is an empirical investigation of translators' allocation of cognitive resources during the translation process, and it aims at investigating how translators' mental processing resources are put to use during translation. The study bases ts analyses on quantitative eye...

  20. Authorial and Editorial Voices in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Translation Studies now recognizes that translators are not the only agents involved in translation. Authors and editors provide suggestions and instructions. Publishers have considerable power over the final text and how it is presented to the public. While it is well-known that translations are...

  1. History and theory of Scripture translations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    translating thoughts into words, or an atomic fusion converting electric energy into light, or even a literary translation that has superseded its original. Generally speaking, Bible translation belongs to the category of literary and. “artistic translation, which converts a source text into a target one. It also involves a process known ...

  2. Semi-Self-Translation: modalities and variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xosé Manuel Dasilva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2017v37n2p229 In this paper, we expound the concept of semi-self-translation, with which we aim to reflect the great diversity of self-translation in which the translator is offered other people’s collaboration. After analyzing the concept of collaboration with respect to allograph translation and to self-translation, we contend the convenience of not fusing the concepts of allograph translation with author’s collaboration and self-translation with allograph collaboration, the latter being associated with semi-self-translation. In addition, we describe five modalities of semi-self-translation: iself-translation in collaboration with an allograph translator; ii self-translation revised by an allograph translator; iii allograph translation revised by the author; iv self-translation in collaboration with a relative; and vallograph translation by a relative or a friend of the author.

  3. Translators and Machines--Can They Cooperate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Alan K.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses fundamental questions about the nature of machine translation and outlines its history. Also describes an experiment in cooperative translation called ITS (Interactive Translation System), evaluating the system's capabilities and predicting future developments. Finally, offers suggestions for translators interested in preparing to use…

  4. Barriers vs Creativity in Translator Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Mine

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses translation problems awaiting Turkish students as well as the creative solutions they develop in overcoming them. It consists of two parts; The first part studies the barriers concerning translation procedures from the perspective of translation theory and Turkish translation history; The second parts analyses the impact of…

  5. Working with Corpora in the Translation Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to illustrate possible applications of electronic corpora in the translation classroom. Starting with a survey of corpus use within corpus-based translation studies, the didactic value of corpora in the translation classroom and their epistemic value in translation teaching and practice will be elaborated. A typology of…

  6. The Role of Semantics in Translation Recognition: Effects of Number of Translations, Dominance of Translations and Semantic Relatedness of Multiple Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxen, Jannika; Lavaur, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of multiple translations of a word on bilingual processing in three translation recognition experiments during which French-English bilinguals had to decide whether two words were translations of each other or not. In the first experiment, words with only one translation were recognized as translations…

  7. Translation Ambiguity in and out of Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Wintner, Shuly; MacWhinney, Brian; Lavie, Alon

    2011-01-01

    We compare translations of single words, made by bilingual speakers in a laboratory setting, with contextualized translation choices of the same items, made by professional translators and extracted from parallel language corpora. The translation choices in both cases show moderate convergence, demonstrating that decontextualized translation…

  8. Daisaku Ikeda and the Culture of Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebert, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Although not functionally multilingual or a translator himself, Daisaku Ikeda has been deeply involved in translation processes, both as a reader and as someone who has produced texts for translation into various languages. This article examines two sources of influence shaping Ikeda's attitude toward translation culture: the flourishing culture…

  9. A NEW FRAMEWORK FOR BIBLE TRANSLATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advances in linguistic theory and their relevance to translation (L. Ronald. Ross). • Biblical studies and Bible translation (Graham Ogden). • A literary approach to biblical text analysis and translation (Ernst Wendland). 4. Compare, for example, Nida's (1960) chapter “Scripture translation and revi- sion as techniques of ...

  10. Translation as a psycholinguistic phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasyekin, Serhiy

    2010-06-01

    The article sketches the outlines of a theoretical framework for the analysis of translation of literary texts, viewed as psycho-semiotic phenomenon and based on evaluation of earlier attempts in this direction, and on the results of a psycholinguistic empirical study of translations. Central to this framework is the recent insight that the human cerebral hemisphere functional asymmetry somehow plays a role in structuring the fictional text by its author and in its processing by the interpreter. It is argued that the texts of modernism and post-modernism contain information blocks describing a character's perception of events in altered states of consciousness. This model helps to explain how a translator's inappropriate linguistic choice may influence the target language reader's aesthetic reaction.

  11. Operational Risk, Translation, and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Czarniawska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares a translation of a global (more specifically, European regulation into two local contexts, setting this process in a broader context of the all-pervading risk management. The two countries are Sweden and Poland, both relatively untouched by the current financial crisis, and the regulation is Basel II Accord. In both countries, the translation is shaped by the past history, and the present circumstances. The results show that, in spite of local differences, there is a common belief in quantification of risks as the main remedy and therefore the main way of managing them. Abstract and vague formulations, combined with sophisticated calculation techniques, win over the complications of actual practices. The role of researchers in this process is also examined. A study illustrates also the advantages of translation theory versus diffusion theory of spreading of ideas.

  12. Translational Perspectives for Computational Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Klaas E; Iglesias, Sandra; Heinzle, Jakob; Diaconescu, Andreea O

    2015-08-19

    Functional neuroimaging has made fundamental contributions to our understanding of brain function. It remains challenging, however, to translate these advances into diagnostic tools for psychiatry. Promising new avenues for translation are provided by computational modeling of neuroimaging data. This article reviews contemporary frameworks for computational neuroimaging, with a focus on forward models linking unobservable brain states to measurements. These approaches-biophysical network models, generative models, and model-based fMRI analyses of neuromodulation-strive to move beyond statistical characterizations and toward mechanistic explanations of neuroimaging data. Focusing on schizophrenia as a paradigmatic spectrum disease, we review applications of these models to psychiatric questions, identify methodological challenges, and highlight trends of convergence among computational neuroimaging approaches. We conclude by outlining a translational neuromodeling strategy, highlighting the importance of openly available datasets from prospective patient studies for evaluating the clinical utility of computational models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Translating Culture in Bilingual Dictionaries Vertaling van kultuur in tweetalige woordeboeke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Kotzé

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In addition to the act of translation, transculturalisation and strategies of textuality come into play as interacting factors in the compilation of interlingual dictionaries. In this article, some conclusions resulting from a comparative survey of some South African dictionaries are drawn, specifically with regard to bi- and trilingual dictionaries in which Afrikaans, English, Japanese, Xhosa and Zulu combine as macrostructural components. After relating the act of translating in the various dictionaries to equivalence-based and descriptive theories of translation, the phenomenon of cultural transposition between lemma and translation equivalent is investigated. Starting with a brief characterisation of the dictionaries, the different perspectives and cultural biases vis-à-vis the "other" culture as reflected in the selection of lemmas and editorial examples are highlighted. In situating each instance of lexicographical contact, certain text linguistic principles are considered and applied to dictionary articles as units of discourse.

    Keywords: acceptability; afrikaans; associative meanings; cultural studies; english; informativity; intentionality; interlingual dictionaries; japanese; labelling; lexicography; macrostructural selection; offensive items; ostensive addressing; principles of textuality; text linguistics; translation; xhosa; zulu

    Benewens die handeling van vertaling, tree transkulturalisasie en strategieë van tekstualiteit as interaktiewe faktore op by die saamstel van intertalige woordeboeke. In hierdie artikel word enkele gevolgtrekkings gemaak as uitvloeisel van 'n oorsig oor sommige Suid-Afrikaanse woordeboeke, meer bepaald twee‑ en drietalige woordeboeke waarin Afrikaans, Engels, Japannees, Xhosa en Zulu as makrostrukturele komponente gekombineer word. Nadat die handeling van vertaling in die betrokke woordeboeke met ekwivalensie-gebaseerde en deskriptiewe teorieë van vertaling in verband gebring word, word

  14. Semi-Self-Translation: modalities and variants

    OpenAIRE

    Xosé Manuel Dasilva

    2017-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2017v37n2p229 In this paper, we expound the concept of semi-self-translation, with which we aim to reflect the great diversity of self-translation in which the translator is offered other people’s collaboration. After analyzing the concept of collaboration with respect to allograph translation and to self-translation, we contend the convenience of not fusing the concepts of allograph translation with author’s collaboration and self-translation with allo...

  15. A Taxonomy of Human Translation Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara; Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2011-01-01

    While the translation profession becomes increasingly technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we outline a method which helps to uncover characteristics of human translation processes. Based o...... on the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis for a felicitous and grounded integration of human machine interaction in translation....

  16. History and theory of Scripture translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Loba-Mkole

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article argues for the importance of Bible translations through its historical achievements and theoretical frames of reference. The missionary expansion of Christianity owes its very being to translations. The early Christian communities knew the Bible through the LXX translations while churches today still continue to use various translations. Translations shape Scripture interpretations, especially when a given interpretation depends on a particular translation. A particular interpretation can also influence a given translation. The article shows how translation theories have been developed to clarify and how the transaction source-target is culturally handled. The articles discuss some of these “theoretical frames”, namely the functional equivalence, relevance, literary functional equivalence and intercultural mediation. By means of a historical overview and a reflection on Bible translation theories the article aims to focus on the role of Africa in translation history.

  17. Balanced Codon Usage Optimizes Eukaryotic Translational Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wenfeng; Yang, Jian-Rong; Pearson, Nathaniel M.; Maclean, Calum; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2012-01-01

    Cellular efficiency in protein translation is an important fitness determinant in rapidly growing organisms. It is widely believed that synonymous codons are translated with unequal speeds and that translational efficiency is maximized by the exclusive use of rapidly translated codons. Here we estimate the in vivo translational speeds of all sense codons from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Surprisingly, preferentially used codons are not translated faster than unpreferred ones. We hypothesize that this phenomenon is a result of codon usage in proportion to cognate tRNA concentrations, the optimal strategy in enhancing translational efficiency under tRNA shortage. Our predicted codon–tRNA balance is indeed observed from all model eukaryotes examined, and its impact on translational efficiency is further validated experimentally. Our study reveals a previously unsuspected mechanism by which unequal codon usage increases translational efficiency, demonstrates widespread natural selection for translational efficiency, and offers new strategies to improve synthetic biology. PMID:22479199

  18. World Federation of Vascular Societies: presidential address

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Henrik Hegaard

    2010-01-01

    The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally....... Similar, in order to be able to train with relevant case mix and numbers, and in order always to have both complex open and endovascular skills on call 24 hours per day, 365 days a year, centralisation into larger units is necessary. The WFVS is important simply looking at the huge demographic differences...... throughout the world. In addition, for introduction of new treatments, training issues and dissemination of science a global organisation like the WFVS is needed....

  19. The translator status, the translation market and developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies ... article is an attempt to examine the sociology of translation in the development context of ten countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam).

  20. Nurturing and Testing Translation Competence for Text-Translating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubakirova, Karlygash Adilkhanovna

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the problems of contemporary professional education. As its instance, we examine the developmental scheme for training professional translators. Optimal ways of organizing the learning process are suggested from the point of view of the competence approach, which is widely recognized for training a modern specialist. The…

  1. Translation Technologies: A Dilemma between Translation Industry and Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakul, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Today, physical and virtual borders are shrinking thanks to technology whose footprints are greater and faster than one can imagine. Beyond the shadow of a doubt, technology is associated with the areas for which it offers solutions such as education technologies, health technologies and translation technologies. Nowadays using translation…

  2. Diglossia in Literary Translation: Accommodation into Translation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zughoul, Muhammad Raji; El-Badarien, Mohammed Nasser

    Sociolinguistic research on varieties of language and language variation, along with the necessity for meeting "equivalence" in terms of the appropriateness of the variety to the context have been well recognized in the formulation of a translation theory. However, the treatment of variation has always been restricted to dialect and has not…

  3. JavaScript DNA translator: DNA-aligned protein translations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William L

    2002-12-01

    There are many instances in molecular biology when it is necessary to identify ORFs in a DNA sequence. While programs exist for displaying protein translations in multiple ORFs in alignment with a DNA sequence, they are often expensive, exist as add-ons to software that must be purchased, or are only compatible with a particular operating system. JavaScript DNA Translator is a shareware application written in JavaScript, a scripting language interpreted by the Netscape Communicator and Internet Explorer Web browsers, which makes it compatible with several different operating systems. While the program uses a familiar Web page interface, it requires no connection to the Internet since calculations are performed on the user's own computer. The program analyzes one or multiple DNA sequences and generates translations in up to six reading frames aligned to a DNA sequence, in addition to displaying translations as separate sequences in FASTA format. ORFs within a reading frame can also be displayed as separate sequences. Flexible formatting options are provided, including the ability to hide ORFs below a minimum size specified by the user. The program is available free of charge at the BioTechniques Software Library (www.Biotechniques.com).

  4. Radiohumeral stability to forced translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Lund; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Seki, Atsuhito

    2002-01-01

    Radiohumeral stability to forced translation was experimentally analyzed in 8 osteocartilaginous joint preparations. The joints were dislocated in 8 centrifugal directions at 12 different combinations of joint flexion and rotation while a constant joint compression force of 23 N was applied....... Stability was measured as the maximum resistance to translation. On average, the specimens could resist a transverse force of 16.4 N (range, 13.0-19.1 N). Stability was greater in some directions than in others. Rotating the joint changed the direction at which stability was greatest, whereas joint flexion...

  5. Machine translation project alternatives analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajis, Catherine J.; Bedford, Denise A. D.

    1993-01-01

    The Machine Translation Project consists of several components, two of which, the Project Plan and the Requirements Analysis, have already been delivered. The Project Plan details the overall rationale, objectives and time-table for the project as a whole. The Requirements Analysis compares a number of available machine translation systems, their capabilities, possible configurations, and costs. The Alternatives Analysis has resulted in a number of conclusions and recommendations to the NASA STI program concerning the acquisition of specific MT systems and related hardware and software.

  6. Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Mercedes Garcia; Koglin, Arlene; Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    of quality criteria in as few edits as possible. The quality of MT systems is generally measured by automatic metrics, producing scores that should correlate with human evaluation.In this study, we investigate correlations between one of such metrics, i.e. Translation Edit Rate (TER), and actual post...... of post-editing effort, namely i) temporal (time), ii) cognitive (mental processes) and iii) technical (keyboard activity). For the purposes of this research, TER scores were correlated with two different indicators of post-editing effort as computed in the CRITT Translation Process Database (TPR...

  7. A syntax-oriented translator

    CERN Document Server

    Ingerman, Peter Zilahy

    1966-01-01

    A Syntax-Oriented Translator focuses on the field of programming and the characteristics and functions of compilers and translators.The book first offers information on the metasyntactic language and the details of a parsing processor. Discussions focus on processing, recovery, and output sections, detailed flow-chart of the parsing processor, parsing form of a grammar, canonical ordering, and the metasyntactic language in general. The text then elaborates on some extensions to the metasyntactic language and metasemantic and metapragmatic language, including punctuation marks and format contro

  8. Adoptive T cell therapy: Addressing challenges in cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Cassian

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adoptive T cell therapy involves the ex vivo selection and expansion of effector cells for the treatment of patients with cancer. In this review, the advantages and limitations of using antigen-specific T cells are discussed in counterpoint to vaccine strategies. Although vaccination strategies represent more readily available reagents, adoptive T cell therapy provides highly selected T cells of defined phenotype, specificity and function that may influence their biological behavior in vivo. Adoptive T cell therapy offers not only translational opportunities but also a means to address fundamental issues in the evolving field of cancer immunotherapy.

  9. Translators’ Use of Digital Resources during Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a study on translators’ use of digital resources during the translation process. Eye tracking data and screen recording data from 18 professional translators are analysed in order to 1) examine how much time translators spend on digital resource consultation ...... constitutes a considerable amount of the translation process. The findings also show longer fixations and larger pupils during resource consultation, indicating heavier cognitive load, and finally the study identifies considerable variation in the use of resources between translators....

  10. Are Literary Translators (still) Lone Wolves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how much the traditional image of the solitary literary translator still holds true. Changes in professional associations and modes of communication are influencing how translators communicate and collaborate with other translators. This paper presents the results...... of a questionnaire on collaboration within literary translation in Scandinavia. Concepts from Community Studies, such as generalized reciprocity, interpersonal trust and active participation, are employed to discuss whether literary translators feel like members of a community, lone wolves, or simply lonely....

  11. Translating Management Practices in Hierarchical Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    This study examines how translators in a hierarchical context approach the translation of management practices. Although current translation theory and research emphasize the importance of contextual factors in translation processes, little research has investigated how strongly hierarchical...... structures affect translators’ approaches taken towards management ideas. This paper reports the findings from a longitudinal case study of the translation of Leadership Pipeline in a Danish fire department and how the translators’ approach changed over time from a modifying to a reproducing mode. The study...

  12. A National Strategy to Address U.S./Mexican Border Security Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sturgeon, Melissa A

    2007-01-01

    This research project identifies the threat to the United States and proposes a national strategy to address the ease with which illegal migrants are entering the United States along the Mexican border...

  13. Integrating Bioethics into Clinical and Translational Science Research: A Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Robyn S.; Layde, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Recent initiatives to improve human health emphasize the need to effectively and appropriately translate new knowledge gleaned from basic biomedical and behavioral research to clinical and community application. To maximize the beneficial impact of scientific advances in clinical practice and community health, and to guard against potential deleterious medical and societal consequences of such advances, incorporation of bioethics at each stage of clinical and translational science research is essential. At the earliest stage, bioethics input is critical to address issues such as whether to limit certain areas of scientific inquiry. Subsequently, bioethics input is important to assure not only that human subjects trials are conducted and reported responsibly, but also that results are incorporated into clinical and community practices in a way that promotes and protects bioethical principles. At the final stage of clinical and translational science research, bioethics helps to identify the need and approach for refining clinical practices when safety or other concerns arise. The framework we present depicts how bioethics interfaces with each stage of clinical and translational science research, and suggests an important research agenda for systematically and comprehensively assuring bioethics input into clinical and translational science initiatives. PMID:20443821

  14. Moral hypocrisy: addressing some alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, C Daniel; Thompson, Elizabeth R; Chen, Hubert

    2002-08-01

    Two studies addressed alternative explanations for 3 pieces of evidence supporting the existence of moral hypocrisy. In Study 1, no support was found for the idea that low salience of social standards accounts for falsifying the result of a coin flip to assign oneself a more desirable task. In Study 2, no support was found for the idea that responses of those who honestly win the flip account for the higher ratings of morality of their action by participants who assign themselves the more desirable task after flipping the coin. Also, no support was found for the idea that responses of those who honestly win the flip account for the inability of personal moral responsibility measures to predict moral action. Instead, results of both studies provided additional evidence of moral hypocrisy.

  15. (Configuring gender in Bible translation: Cultural, translational and gender critical intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Punt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The gendered intersection of cultural studies and Bible translation is under acknowledged. Accounting for gender criticism in translation work requires, besides responsible theory and practice of translation, also attention to interwoven gender critical aspects. After a brief investigation of the intersections between biblical, translation and gender studies, translation in a few Pauline texts with bearing on gender and sexuality are investigated.

  16. Translating Legal Collocations in Contract Agreements by Iraqi EFL Students-Translators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulwahid, Muntaha A.; Hamzah, Zaitul Azma Binti Zainon; Hajimaming, Pabiyah; Alkhawaja, Hussein W.

    2017-01-01

    Legal translation of contract agreements is a challenge to translators as it involves combining the literary translation with the technical terminological precision. In translating legal contract agreements, a legal translator must utilize the lexical or syntactic precision and, more importantly, the pragmatic awareness of the context. This will…

  17. Scientific and Technical Translation and the All-Union Translation Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchuk, Yuri Nikolaevich

    1984-01-01

    The investigation and use of machine translation as an adjunct to human translation at the Soviet Union's All-Union Translation Center, a centralized scientific and technical translation facility, is examined. The issues of error correction, the variety of translation types needed, and special lexical considerations are discussed. (MSE)

  18. United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bernow

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an integrated set of policies designed to reduce U.S. carbon emissions over the next four decades. This innovation path also aims to promote environmental quality, particularly by reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants, to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and to induce technological innovation and diffusion in energy production and consumption. The innovation path would reduce economy-wide carbon emissions by 26% below baseline projections for 2010 and by 62% below baseline projections for 2030; this translates into 10% below 1990 levels in 2010 and 45% below 1990 levels in 2030. Emissions of criteria pollutants also would be significantly reduced, as would petroleum imports by the United States. Moreover, the innovation path would yield cumulative net savings for the United States of $218 billion (1993 dollars through 2010, or $19 billion on a leveled annual basis, and would result in 800,000 additional jobs nationwide by 2010. Although the overall findings from the innovation path analysis are robust, the results should be taken as indicative, rather than precisely predictive, owing to uncertainties in future costs, prices, technology performance, and consumer behavior.

  19. Keynote Address from K. Mendelsohn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, K.

    2015-01-01

    The United States believes it is critically important for Member States to support the Secretariat's efforts to continually improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the IAEA safeguards system. We should continue to work with the Agency to provide resources, technology, expertise, and training to strengthen the Secretariat's capabilities to implement safeguards agreements effectively and efficiently. The Secretariat went to extraordinary lengths over the last year to explain how safeguards implementation has evolved, particularly at the level of the state as a whole. The United States, like other member states, found the Secretariat's thorough technical briefings and the Director General's Supplementary Document to be extremely valuable. Now, after discussion of the issue at the September meetings of the Board of Governors and the General Conference, it really is time to let the Secretariat get on with its work. Our task now, especially for the assembled experts here at this Symposium, is to identify options for helping the IAEA as appropriate to find the best possible technologies, procedures, and practices for safeguards implementation. And like all of you, we look forward to further updates from the Secretariat on future lessons learned in implementing strengthened safeguards. I urge you to work together at this Symposium to make real progress on promoting peaceful uses of nuclear energy, strengthening safeguards, and preventing proliferation

  20. Advancing neurosurgery through translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Claire; Sutherland, Garnette

    2013-01-01

    Every year, the number of published research articles increases significantly. However, many potentially useful ideas are lost in this flood of data. Translational research provides a framework through which investigators or laboratories can maximize the likelihood that the product of their research will be adopted in medical practice. There are 2 recognizable models of translation appropriate for the majority of research: investigator driven and industry enabled. Investigator-driven research has more range because it does not have to consider the profit margin of research, but it is a slow process. The industry-enabled model accelerates the translational research process through the power of industry funding but is interested primarily in products with potential for profit. Two cases are examined to illustrate different methods of partnering with industry. IMRIS is a company founded by investigators to distribute intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging technology based on a movable high-field magnet. It took 7 years for IMRIS to make its first sale, but it is now a successful company. With neuroArm, a surgical robot, investigators decided to sell the intellectual property to an established company to ensure successful global commercialization. Translational research advances medicine by creating and distributing effective solutions to contemporary problems.

  1. Machine Translation: Developments and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    Examines the history and resurgence of machine translation, describing metalanguages and transfer languages as algorithms for transforming source languages into target languages and reviewing prospects for the future. Indicates that leadership in this field is held by Japan for both hardware and software development for Japanese/English…

  2. Semantic Analysis in Machine Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorokhodko, E. F.

    1970-01-01

    In many cases machine-translation does not produce satisfactory results within the framework of purely formal (morphological and syntaxic) analysis, particularly, in the case of syntaxic and lexical homonomy. An algorithm for syntaxic-semantic analysis is proposed, and its principles of operation are described. The syntaxico-semantic structure is…

  3. Recent Discoveries and Bible Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrelson, Walter

    1990-01-01

    Discusses recent discoveries for "Bible" translation with a focus on the "Dead Sea Scrolls." Examines recent discoveries that provide direct support for alternative reading of biblical passages and those discoveries that have contributed additional insight to knowledge of cultural practices, especially legal and religious…

  4. Machine Translation - A Gentle Introduction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 7. Machine Translation - A Gentle Introduction. Durgesh D Rao. General Article Volume 3 Issue 7 July 1998 pp 61-70. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/07/0061-0070 ...

  5. Translational medicine and drug discovery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Littman, Bruce H; Krishna, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    ..., and examples of their application to real-life drug discovery and development. The latest thinking is presented by researchers from many of the world's leading pharmaceutical companies, including Pfizer, Merck, Eli Lilly, Abbott, and Novartis, as well as from academic institutions and public- private partnerships that support translational research...

  6. Parsing statistical machine translation output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Monz, C.; Vetulani, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increasing research into the use of syntax during statistical machine translation, the incorporation of syntax into language models has seen limited success. We present a study of the discriminative abilities of generative syntax-based language models, over and above standard n-gram models,

  7. Hurdles in Basic Science Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina J. Perry

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past century there have been incredible advances in the field of medical research, but what hinders translation of this knowledge into effective treatment for human disease? There is an increasing focus on the failure of many research breakthroughs to be translated through the clinical trial process and into medical practice. In this mini review, we will consider some of the reasons that findings in basic medical research fail to become translated through clinical trials and into basic medical practices. We focus in particular on the way that human disease is modeled, the understanding we have of how our targets behave in vivo, and also some of the issues surrounding reproducibility of basic research findings. We will also look at some of the ways that have been proposed for overcoming these issues. It appears that there needs to be a cultural shift in the way we fund, publish and recognize quality control in scientific research. Although this is a daunting proposition, we hope that with increasing awareness and focus on research translation and the hurdles that impede it, the field of medical research will continue to inform and improve medical practice across the world.

  8. Semiotic web for translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaprasad, Arkalgud; Kashyap, Vipul

    2008-11-06

    The semiotic web for translational medicine generalizes the concept of the semantic web. We present the functions of the semiotic web as a simple ontology with three dimensions, namely: (a) the four steps of semiotics, (b) the two processes in semiotics, and (c) the four types of research. The resulting 32 combinations represent all its functions.

  9. Synaptic Plasticity and Translation Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, Eric; Antion, Marcia D.; Banko, Jessica L.; Hou, Lingfei

    2004-01-01

    It is widely accepted that protein synthesis, including local protein synthesis at synapses, is required for several forms of synaptic plasticity. Local protein synthesis enables synapses to control synaptic strength independent of the cell body via rapid protein production from pre-existing mRNA. Therefore, regulation of translation initiation is…

  10. Reengineering the national clinical and translational research enterprise: the strategic plan of the National Clinical and Translational Science Awards Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Steven E; Berglund, Lars; Bernard, Gordon R; Califf, Robert M; Fitzgerald, Garret A; Johnson, Peter C

    2010-03-01

    Advances in human health require the efficient and rapid translation of scientific discoveries into effective clinical treatments; this process, in turn, depends on observational data gathered from patients, communities, and public health research that can be used to guide basic scientific investigation. Such bidirectional translational science, however, faces unprecedented challenges due to the rapid pace of scientific and technological development, as well as the difficulties of negotiating increasingly complex regulatory and commercial environments that overlap the research domain. Further, numerous barriers to translational science have emerged among the nation's academic research centers, including basic structural and cultural impediments to innovation and collaboration, shortages of trained investigators, and inadequate funding.To address these serious and systemic problems, in 2006 the National Institutes of Health created the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program, which aims to catalyze the transformation of biomedical research at a national level, speeding the discovery and development of therapies, fostering collaboration, engaging communities, and training succeeding generations of clinical and translational researchers. The authors report in detail on the planning process, begun in 2008, that was used to engage stakeholders and to identify, refine, and ultimately implement the CTSA program's overarching strategic goals. They also discuss the implications and likely impact of this strategic planning process as it is applied among the nation's academic health centers.

  11. The pitfalls of translation--a case study based on the translation of the EQ-5D into Xhosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkoka, Siviwe; Vaughan, Jonathan; Wylie, Tarryn; Yelland, Heather; Jelsma, Jennifer

    2003-04-01

    There is an evident need for standardised, internationally recognised instruments to measure health-related outcomes that are also locally applicable. The European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions (EQ-5D) is a widely used measure of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) that was translated into Xhosa. This communication outlines some of the different cultural and linguistic issues that had to be addressed during the translation process. The translation guidelines provided by the EuroQol group were followed. This involved both forward and backward translations by Xhosa speakers, with consensus meetings after each. Thereafter, lay panel respondent testing of the consensus version was performed. Eventually a credible Xhosa version of the EQ-5D was produced. Concepts which proved surprisingly difficult to transfer across the languages and cultures included 'mobility', 'confined to bed' and the choice of word to denote 'male'. The translation process prompted lengthy discussion and proved more challenging than initially anticipated. Despite the rigorous process followed, later additions had to be made to the questionnaire after field testing. It would appear that extreme caution should be exercised when using a questionnaire in a culture and language different from the one in which it was originally developed and validated. If this is not done, the validity of cross-cultural research projects may be open to question.

  12. Dynamics of Chloroplast Translation during Chloroplast Differentiation in Maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakitchai Chotewutmontri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chloroplast genomes in land plants contain approximately 100 genes, the majority of which reside in polycistronic transcription units derived from cyanobacterial operons. The expression of chloroplast genes is integrated into developmental programs underlying the differentiation of photosynthetic cells from non-photosynthetic progenitors. In C4 plants, the partitioning of photosynthesis between two cell types, bundle sheath and mesophyll, adds an additional layer of complexity. We used ribosome profiling and RNA-seq to generate a comprehensive description of chloroplast gene expression at four stages of chloroplast differentiation, as displayed along the maize seedling leaf blade. The rate of protein output of most genes increases early in development and declines once the photosynthetic apparatus is mature. The developmental dynamics of protein output fall into several patterns. Programmed changes in mRNA abundance make a strong contribution to the developmental shifts in protein output, but output is further adjusted by changes in translational efficiency. RNAs with prioritized translation early in development are largely involved in chloroplast gene expression, whereas those with prioritized translation in photosynthetic tissues are generally involved in photosynthesis. Differential gene expression in bundle sheath and mesophyll chloroplasts results primarily from differences in mRNA abundance, but differences in translational efficiency amplify mRNA-level effects in some instances. In most cases, rates of protein output approximate steady-state protein stoichiometries, implying a limited role for proteolysis in eliminating unassembled or damaged proteins under non-stress conditions. Tuned protein output results from gene-specific trade-offs between translational efficiency and mRNA abundance, both of which span a large dynamic range. Analysis of ribosome footprints at sites of RNA editing showed that the chloroplast translation machinery

  13. ERRORS AND DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATING LEGAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, CHIRILA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the accurate translation of legal texts has become highly important as the mistranslation of a passage in a contract, for example, could lead to lawsuits and loss of money. Consequently, the translation of legal texts to other languages faces many difficulties and only professional translators specialised in legal translation should deal with the translation of legal documents and scholarly writings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze translation from three perspectives: translation quality, errors and difficulties encountered in translating legal texts and consequences of such errors in professional translation. First of all, the paper points out the importance of performing a good and correct translation, which is one of the most important elements to be considered when discussing translation. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of the errors and difficulties in translating texts and of the consequences of errors in professional translation, with applications to the field of law. The paper is also an approach to the differences between languages (English and Romanian that can hinder comprehension for those who have embarked upon the difficult task of translation. The research method that I have used to achieve the objectives of the paper was the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' works.

  14. A GRAMMATICAL ADJUSTMENT ANALYSIS OF STATISTICAL MACHINE TRANSLATION METHOD USED BY GOOGLE TRANSLATE COMPARED TO HUMAN TRANSLATION IN TRANSLATING ENGLISH TEXT TO INDONESIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Pujianto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Google translate is a program which provides fast, free and effortless translating service. This service uses a unique method to translate. The system is called ―Statistical Machine Translation‖, the newest method in automatic translation. Machine translation (MT is an area of many kinds of different subjects of study and technique from linguistics, computers science, artificial intelligent (AI, translation theory, and statistics. SMT works by using statistical methods and mathematics to process the training data. The training data is corpus-based. It is a compilation of sentences and words of the languages (SL and TL from translation done by human. By using this method, Google let their machine discovers the rules for themselves. They do this by analyzing millions of documents that have already been translated by human translators and then generate the result based on the corpus/training data. However, questions arise when the results of the automatic translation prove to be unreliable in some extent. This paper questions the dependability of Google translate in comparison with grammatical adjustment that naturally characterizes human translators' specific advantage. The attempt is manifested through the analysis of the TL of some texts translated by the SMT. It is expected that by using the sample of TL produced by SMT we can learn the potential flaws of the translation. If such exists, the partial of more substantial undependability of SMT may open more windows to the debates of whether this service may suffice the users‘ need.

  15. Integrating Automatic Speech Recognition and Machine Translation for Better Translation Outputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liyanapathirana, Jeevanthi

    Machine Translation (MT) and Computer-Assisted Translation (CAT) are considered complementary: the first one taking care of the translation process automatically and the latter getting the aid of human translators in order to get better translation outputs. With the demand for high quality...... translations, combining machine translation with computer assisted translation has drawn attention in current research. This combines two prospects: the opportunity of ensuring high quality translation along with a significant performance gain. Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) is another important area......, which caters important functionalities in language processing and natural language understanding tasks. In this work we integrate automatic speech recognition and machine translation in parallel. We aim to avoid manual typing of possible translations as dictating the translation would take less time...

  16. Typologically robust statistical machine translation : Understanding and exploiting differences and similarities between languages in machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daiber, J.

    2018-01-01

    Machine translation systems often incorporate modeling assumptions motivated by properties of the language pairs they initially target. When such systems are applied to language families with considerably different properties, translation quality can deteriorate. Phrase-based machine translation

  17. An Evaluation of Output Quality of Machine Translation (Padideh Software vs. Google Translate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haniyeh Sadeghi Azer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the translation quality of two machine translation systems in translating six different text-types, from English to Persian. The evaluation was based on criteria proposed by Van Slype (1979. The proposed model for evaluation is a black-box type, comparative and adequacy-oriented evaluation. To conduct the evaluation, a questionnaire was assigned to end-users to evaluate the outputs to examine and determine, if the machine-generated translations are intelligible and acceptable from their point of view and which one of the machine-generated translations produced by Padideh software and Google Translate is more acceptable and useful from the end-users point of view. The findings indicate that, the machine-generated translations are intelligible and acceptable in translating certain text-types, for end-users and Google Translate is more acceptable from end-users point of view. Keywords: Machine Translation, Machine Translation Evaluation, Translation Quality

  18. A region addresses patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.

  19. Addressing Semantic Geographic Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore F. Pileggi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The progressive consolidation of information technologies on a large scale has been facilitating and progressively increasing the production, collection, and diffusion of geographic data, as well as facilitating the integration of a large amount of external information into geographic information systems (GIS. Traditional GIS is transforming into a consolidated information infrastructure. This consolidated infrastructure is affecting more and more aspects of internet computing and services. Most popular systems (such as social networks, GPS, and decision support systems involve complex GIS and significant amounts of information. As a web service, GIS is affected by exactly the same problems that affect the web as a whole. Therefore, next generation GIS solutions have to address further methodological and data engineering challenges in order to accommodate new applications’ extended requirements (in terms of scale, interoperability, and complexity. The conceptual and semantic modeling of GIS, as well as the integration of semantics into current GIS, provide highly expressive environments that are capable of meeting the needs and requirements of a wide range of applications.

  20. Translation: between what can be translated and what must be translated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Jeanrenaud

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Starting from a disconcerting interpretation of Jacques Derrida, our analysis aims at investigating and also tries to explain the blockage which appears in the English, French and Romanian translations (signed by Maurice de Gandillac, Antoine Berman, Laurent Lamy, Alexis Nouss, Harry Zohn, Steven Rendall, Martine Broda, Catrinel Pleșu etc. of a well-known text of Walter Benjamin, Die Aufgabe des Übersetzers, when translators transpose in their target languages the two quotations given by Benjamin: one of Mallarmé, left untranslated in the source text, and another, signed by Pannwitz. The fact is that both quotations have something in common: a discoursive form which results from an unusual syntax, as if they were already, in a certain sense, „translations”. As if the translators feared—a feature of the translator’s psychology?—not to render their text sufficiently accessible, even when the source text is not intended to be accessible. Hence the painful dilemma of the intentional fallacy (not only of the text to be translated.

  1. Evidence of Parallel Processing During Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard; Sjørup, Annette Camilla

    2014-01-01

    Three eye tracking experiments test the hypothesis that translation involves parallel rather than sequential processing of the source and target texts. In Experiment 1, a group of professional translators translated texts from their native language Danish into English. The texts included both...... conclude that translation is a parallel process and that literal translation is likely to be a universal initial default strategy in translation. This conclusion is strengthened by the fact that all three experiments were relatively naturalistic, due to the combination of remote eye tracking and mixed......-effects regression modeling....

  2. Shared Representations and the Translation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Carl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present chapter is to investigate automated processing during translation. We provide evidence from a translation priming study which suggests that translation involves activation of shared lexico-semantic and syntactical representations, i.e., the activation of features of both...... source and target language items which share one single cognitive representation. We argue that activation of shared representations facilitates automated processing. The chapter revises the literal translation hypothesis and the monitor model (Ivir 1981; Toury 1995; Tirkkonen-Condit 2005), and re......-defines it in terms of findings from translation process research. On the basis of the evidence, we propose a recursive model of translation....

  3. Addressing risk factors for child abuse among high risk pregnant women: design of a randomised controlled trial of the nurse family partnership in Dutch preventive health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejdoubi Jamila

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low socio-economic status combined with other risk factors affects a person's physical and psychosocial health from childhood to adulthood. The societal impact of these problems is huge, and the consequences carry on into the next generation(s. Although several studies show these consequences, only a few actually intervene on these issues. In the United States, the Nurse Family Partnership focuses on high risk pregnant women and their children. The main goal of this program is primary prevention of child abuse. The Netherlands is the first country outside the United States allowed to translate and culturally adapt the Nurse Family Partnership into VoorZorg. The aim of the present study is to assess whether VoorZorg is as effective in the Netherland as in the United States. Methods The study consists of three partly overlapping phases. Phase 1 was the translation and cultural adaptation of Nurse Family Partnership and the design of a two-stage selection procedure. Phase 2 was a pilot study to examine the conditions for implementation. Phase 3 is the randomized controlled trial of VoorZorg compared to the care as usual. Primary outcome measures were smoking cessation during pregnancy and after birth, birth outcomes, child development, child abuse and domestic violence. The secondary outcome measure was the number of risk factors present. Discussion This study shows that the Nurse Family Partnership was successfully translated and culturally adapted into the Dutch health care system and that this program fulfills the needs of high-risk pregnant women. We hypothesize that this program will be effective in addressing risk factors that operate during pregnancy and childhood and compromise fetal and child development. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16131117

  4. Assessing the Impact of State-Community Collaboration to Address ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... between urban violence, poverty, and inequalities. Jointly funded by IDRC and the United Kingdom's Department for International Development, the SAIC program also seeks to identify the most effective strategies for addressing these challenges in Latin America and the Caribbean, South Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa.

  5. Building capacity for knowledge translation in occupational therapy: learning through participatory action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sally; Whitehead, Mary; Eames, Sally; Fleming, Jennifer; Low, Shanling; Caldwell, Elizabeth

    2016-10-01

    There has been widespread acknowledgement of the need to build capacity in knowledge translation however much of the existing work focuses on building capacity amongst researchers rather than with clinicians directly. This paper's aim is to describe a research project for developing a knowledge translation capacity building program for occupational therapy clinicians. Participatory action research methods were used to both develop and evaluate the knowledge translation capacity-building program. Participants were occupational therapists from a large metropolitan hospital in Australia. Researchers and clinicians worked together to use the action cycle of the Knowledge to Action Framework to increase use of knowledge translation itself within the department in general, within their clinical teams, and to facilitate knowledge translation becoming part of the department's culture. Barriers and enablers to using knowledge translation were identified through a survey based on the Theoretical Domains Framework and through focus groups. Multiple interventions were used to develop a knowledge translation capacity-building program. Fifty-two occupational therapists participated initially, but only 20 across the first 18 months of the project. Barriers and enablers were identified across all domains of the Theoretical Domains Framework. Interventions selected to address these barriers or facilitate enablers were categorised into ten different categories: educational outreach; teams working on clinical knowledge translation case studies; identifying time blocks for knowledge translation; mentoring; leadership strategies; communication strategies; documentation and resources to support knowledge translation; funding a knowledge translation champion one day per week; setting goals for knowledge translation; and knowledge translation reporting strategies. Use of these strategies was, and continues to be monitored. Participants continue to be actively involved in learning and

  6. The GAIT translational control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Abul; Yao, Peng; Terenzi, Fulvia; Jia, Jie; Ray, Partho Sarothi; Fox, Paul L

    2018-03-01

    The interferon (IFN)-γ-activated inhibitor of translation (GAIT) system directs transcript-selective translational control of functionally related genes. In myeloid cells, IFN-γ induces formation of a multiprotein GAIT complex that binds structural GAIT elements in the 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of multiple inflammation-related mRNAs, including ceruloplasmin and VEGF-A, and represses their translation. The human GAIT complex is a heterotetramer containing glutamyl-prolyl tRNA synthetase (EPRS), NS1-associated protein 1 (NSAP1), ribosomal protein L13a (L13a), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). A network of IFN-γ-stimulated kinases regulates recruitment and assembly of GAIT complex constituents. Activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), and S6K1 kinases induces EPRS release from its parental multiaminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex to join NSAP1 in a 'pre-GAIT' complex. Subsequently, the DAPK-ZIPK kinase axis phosphorylates L13a, inducing release from the 60S ribosomal subunit and binding to GAPDH. The subcomplexes join to form the functional GAIT complex. Each constituent has a distinct role in the GAIT system. EPRS binds the GAIT element in target mRNAs, NSAP1 negatively regulates mRNA binding, L13a binds eIF4G to block ribosome recruitment, and GAPDH shields L13a from proteasomal degradation. The GAIT system is susceptible to genetic and condition-specific regulation. An N-terminus EPRS truncate is a dominant-negative inhibitor ensuring a 'translational trickle' of target transcripts. Also, hypoxia and oxidatively modified lipoproteins regulate GAIT activity. Mouse models exhibiting absent or genetically modified GAIT complex constituents are beginning to elucidate the physiological role of the GAIT system, particularly in the resolution of chronic inflammation. Finally, GAIT-like systems in proto-chordates suggests an evolutionarily conserved role of the pathway in innate immunity

  7. Systems of Phraseological Machine Translation of Polythematic Texts from Russian into English and from English into Russian (RETRANS and ERTRANS Systems).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belonogov, G. G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the development of phraseological machine translation based on the theory that in natural languages, phraseological units cannot always be reduced to words. Describes the phraseological translation process of computer software and machine dictionary systems that translate Russian into English and English into Russian. (JMV)

  8. Translational research on advanced therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Belardelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  9. Translational research on advanced therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardelli, Filippo; Rizza, Paola; Moretti, Franca; Carella, Cintia; Galli, Maria Cristina; Migliaccio, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP) facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues) is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  10. Translation Competence and Translation Performance: Lexical, Syntactic and Textual Patterns in Student Translations of a Specialized EU Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Adrienn

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study aiming to reveal the recurring patterns of lexical, syntactic and textual errors in student translations of a specialized EU genre from English into Hungarian. By comparing the student translations to the official translation of the text, this article uncovers the most frequent errors that students made…

  11. The ubiquity of conservative translations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2012), s. 666-678 ISSN 1755-0203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : conservative translation * deductive system * nonclassical logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2012 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage= online &aid=8757256

  12. The ubiquity of conservative translations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2012), s. 666-678 ISSN 1755-0203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : conservative translation * deductive system * nonclassical logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2012 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8757256

  13. Livestock models in translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, James A; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    This issue of the ILAR Journal focuses on livestock models in translational medicine. Livestock models of selected human diseases present important advantages as compared with rodent models for translating fundamental breakthroughs in biology to useful preventatives and therapeutics for humans. Livestock reflect the complexity of applying medical advances in an outbred species. In many cases, the pathogenesis of infectious, metabolic, genetic, and neoplastic diseases in livestock species more closely resembles that in humans than does the pathogenesis of rodent models. Livestock models also provide the advantage of similar organ size and function and the ability to serially sample an animal throughout the study period. Research using livestock models for human disease often benefits not only human health but animal health and food production as well. This issue of the ILAR Journal presents information on translational research using livestock models in two broad areas: microbiology and infectious disease (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, mycobacterial infections, influenza A virus infection, vaccine development and testing, the human microbiota) and metabolic, neoplastic, and genetic disorders (stem cell therapy, male germ line cell biology, pulmonary adenocarcinoma, muscular dystrophy, wound healing). In addition, there is a manuscript devoted to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees' responsibilities for reviewing research using livestock models. Conducting translational research using livestock models requires special facilities and researchers with expertise in livestock. There are many institutions in the world with experienced researchers and facilities designed for livestock research; primarily associated with colleges of agriculture and veterinary medicine or government laboratories. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions

  14. EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES. Actions Needed to Address the Challenges of Responding to Zika Virus Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Actions Needed to Address the Challenges of Responding to Zika Virus Disease Outbreaks Report to...Congressional Requesters May 2017 GAO-17-445 United States Government Accountability Office United States Government Accountability Office...Highlights of GAO-17-445, a report to congressional requesters. May 2017 EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Actions Needed to Address the Challenges of

  15. Translation of ARAC computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kunio; Chino, Masamichi; Honma, Toshimitsu; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Kai, Michiaki; Imai, Kazuhiko; Asai, Kiyoshi

    1982-05-01

    In 1981 we have translated the famous MATHEW, ADPIC and their auxiliary computer codes for CDC 7600 computer version to FACOM M-200's. The codes consist of a part of the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) system of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The MATHEW is a code for three-dimensional wind field analysis. Using observed data, it calculates the mass-consistent wind field of grid cells by a variational method. The ADPIC is a code for three-dimensional concentration prediction of gases and particulates released to the atmosphere. It calculates concentrations in grid cells by the particle-in-cell method. They are written in LLLTRAN, i.e., LLNL Fortran language and are implemented on the CDC 7600 computers of LLNL. In this report, i) the computational methods of the MATHEW/ADPIC and their auxiliary codes, ii) comparisons of the calculated results with our JAERI particle-in-cell, and gaussian plume models, iii) translation procedures from the CDC version to FACOM M-200's, are described. Under the permission of LLNL G-Division, this report is published to keep the track of the translation procedures and to serve our JAERI researchers for comparisons and references of their works. (author)

  16. XML Translator for Interface Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroson, Elizabeth R.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program defines an XML schema for specifying the interface to a generic FPGA from the perspective of software that will interact with the device. This XML interface description is then translated into header files for C, Verilog, and VHDL. User interface definition input is checked via both the provided XML schema and the translator module to ensure consistency and accuracy. Currently, programming used on both sides of an interface is inconsistent. This makes it hard to find and fix errors. By using a common schema, both sides are forced to use the same structure by using the same framework and toolset. This makes for easy identification of problems, which leads to the ability to formulate a solution. The toolset contains constants that allow a programmer to use each register, and to access each field in the register. Once programming is complete, the translator is run as part of the make process, which ensures that whenever an interface is changed, all of the code that uses the header files describing it is recompiled.

  17. The translational metaphor in psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Lewis

    2015-02-01

    The translational metaphor in psychoanalysis refers to the traditional method of interpreting or restating the meaning of verbal and behavioral acts of a patient in other, presumably more accurate terms that specify the forces and conflicts underlying symptoms. The analyst translates the clinical phenomenology to explain its true meaning and origin. This model of analytic process has been challenged from different vantage points by authors presenting alternative conceptions of therapeutic action. Although the temptation to find and make interpretations of clinical material is difficult to resist, behaving in this way places the analyst in the position of a teacher or diagnostician, seeking a specific etiology, which has not proven fruitful. Despite its historical appeal, I argue that the translational model is a misleading and anachronistic version of what actually occurs in psychoanalysis. I emphasize instead the capacity of analysis to promote the emergence of new forms of representation, or figuration, from the unconscious, using the work of Lacan, Laplanche, and Modell to exemplify this reformulation, and provide clinical illustrations of how it looks in practice. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  18. Efficacy of Female Rat Models in Translational Cardiovascular Aging Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, K. M.; Fannin, J. C.; Gillette, C.; Blough, E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Aging is a primary risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease as well as cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Aging is a universal process that all humans undergo; however, research in aging is limited by cost and time constraints. Therefore, most research in aging has been done in primates and rodents; however it is unknown how well the effects of aging in rat models translate into h...

  19. Translation techniques for distributed-shared memory programming models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Douglas James [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The high performance computing community has experienced an explosive improvement in distributed-shared memory hardware. Driven by increasing real-world problem complexity, this explosion has ushered in vast numbers of new systems. Each new system presents new challenges to programmers and application developers. Part of the challenge is adapting to new architectures with new performance characteristics. Different vendors release systems with widely varying architectures that perform differently in different situations. Furthermore, since vendors need only provide a single performance number (total MFLOPS, typically for a single benchmark), they only have strong incentive initially to optimize the API of their choice. Consequently, only a fraction of the available APIs are well optimized on most systems. This causes issues porting and writing maintainable software, let alone issues for programmers burdened with mastering each new API as it is released. Also, programmers wishing to use a certain machine must choose their API based on the underlying hardware instead of the application. This thesis argues that a flexible, extensible translator for distributed-shared memory APIs can help address some of these issues. For example, a translator might take as input code in one API and output an equivalent program in another. Such a translator could provide instant porting for applications to new systems that do not support the application's library or language natively. While open-source APIs are abundant, they do not perform optimally everywhere. A translator would also allow performance testing using a single base code translated to a number of different APIs. Most significantly, this type of translator frees programmers to select the most appropriate API for a given application based on the application (and developer) itself instead of the underlying hardware.

  20. Morphological Analysis for Statistical Machine Translation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Young-Suk

    2004-01-01

    .... The technique improves Arabic-to-English translation qualities significantly when applied to IBM Model 1 and Phrase Translation Models trained on the training corpus size ranging from 3,500 to 3.3 million sentence pairs.