WorldWideScience

Sample records for address translation unit

  1. CLAUSE AS THE TRANSLATION UNIT IN CHINESE TO ENGLISH TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向阳

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of Halliday' s theory, this paper makes it clear that clause as the translation unit is operational in Chinese to English translation and expounds the application of clause as the translation unit with some examples.

  2. Translating Developmental Science to Address Childhood Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Andrew S; Forkey, Heather; Szilagyi, Moira

    2015-01-01

    Demystifying child development is a defining element of pediatric care, and pediatricians have long appreciated the profound influences that families and communities have on both child development and life course trajectories. Dramatic advances in the basic sciences of development are beginning to reveal the biologic mechanisms underlying well-established associations between a spectrum of childhood adversities and less than optimal outcomes in health, education and economic productivity. Pediatricians are well positioned to translate this new knowledge into both practice and policy, but doing so will require unprecedented levels of collaboration with educators, social service providers, and policy makers. Pediatricians might recognize the negative impact of family-level adversities on child development, but developing an effective response will likely require the engagement of community partners. By developing collaborative, innovative ways to promote the safe, stable, and nurturing relationships that are biologic prerequisites for health, academic success, and economic productivity, family-centered pediatric medical homes will remain relevant in an era that increasingly values wellness and population health. PMID:26183002

  3. Measuring Cognitive Translation Effort with Activity Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Carl, Michael; Lacruz, Isabel;

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increased quality of Machine Translation output, human interaction will remain a crucial activity to guarantee the quality of the final translation products. Human-computer interaction in translation will likely be the more successful the more we understand the properties and compleme......Despite the increased quality of Machine Translation output, human interaction will remain a crucial activity to guarantee the quality of the final translation products. Human-computer interaction in translation will likely be the more successful the more we understand the properties...... methods in empirical translation process research and suggests ngrams of Activity Units for measuring the translation process....

  4. Modes of address: translation strategies or the black hole Modes of address: translation strategies or the black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Anne Odber de Baubeta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The title of this paper is perhaps deceptively succint: although it indicates the object of study it does not immediately suggest the transdisciplinary nature of its subject matter. Any consideration of the problems posed and the lexical or syntactical options available when one sets out to translate forms of address from one language to another must necessarily involve some awareness not only of issues of translation theory, but also of a series of questions usually discussed under the rubrics of sociolinguistics, pragmatics and discourse analysis. The title of this paper is perhaps deceptively succint: although it indicates the object of study it does not immediately suggest the transdisciplinary nature of its subject matter. Any consideration of the problems posed and the lexical or syntactical options available when one sets out to translate forms of address from one language to another must necessarily involve some awareness not only of issues of translation theory, but also of a series of questions usually discussed under the rubrics of sociolinguistics, pragmatics and discourse analysis.

  5. New Approach to translation of Isolated Units in English-Korean Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Jon, Kim Song; Gum, An Hae

    2015-01-01

    It is the most effective way for quick translation of tremendous amount of explosively increasing science and technique information material to develop a practicable machine translation system and introduce it into translation practice. This essay treats problems arising from translation of isolated units on the basis of the practical materials and experiments obtained in the development and introduction of English-Korean machine translation system. In other words, this essay considers establ...

  6. The Translation of Address Terms from the Perspective of Interpersonal Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雪萍

    2014-01-01

    This paper, as its title suggests, will mainly focus on the translation of address term from the perspective of interperson-al metafunction proposed by Halliday to shed some light on the everlasting headache in translating, which is caused by culture dif-ference. With examples taken from A Dream of Red Mansions translated by Yang Xian-yi, the author came up with the idea that, in order to achieve equivalence in translating the address term which differs greatly from culture to culture, region to region, even group to group, we should carefully analyze the interpersonal meaning conveyed by the address term in source language, and then translate it into the corresponding one which may bare similar meaning in target language.

  7. 功能对等理论指导下的标点符号翻译--以《美国总统就职演说全集》为例%The Translation of Punctuations under the Guidance of the Functional Equivalence Theory:Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents of the United States as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭泓江

    2013-01-01

    Chinese and English punctuations have differences and similarities in shapes and functions. This thesis makes research on the translation of punctuations under the guidance of functional equivalence theory with Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents of the United States as study object. Nearly all punctuations in this book are referred to and discussed. In the light of functional equivalence theory, this thesis puts forward translation strategies of transformation, transplantation, addition and deletion in punc-tuation translation.%中英两种标点在功能及外形有差别、亦有共同之处。该文在功能对等理论指导下,以《美国总统就职演说全集》为研究对象,对本书中标点符号的翻译进行研究。在功能对等理论的指导下,采用转换法、移植法和增减法等不同的翻译策略。

  8. TRANSLATION OF RELIGIOUS-CULTURAL TERMS OF ADDRESS IN THE LUKE’S BIBLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans I Made Brata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses words and phrases used for addressing in the translation ofreligious-cultural terms of address in the Luke’s Bible. Their profiles and attitudes,techniques, methods, and ideologies applied as well as factors leading to and theirimpacts towards the degree of accuracy, readability, and acceptability were qualitativelydescribed.The data were taken from the Luke’s English Bible and their translations intoBalinese. First, the terms of address found in the source text were compared with thosefound in the target text with reference to the appraisal theoretical framework to identifythe social stratifications to which the addressee belongs to, which was then applied toidentify what translation techniques were applied. The formal and dynamic equivalence(de Ward and Nida, 1986: 36, and V diagram of the translation method (New Mark,1988: 45 were employed to show the translation orientations closely related to thetranslation ideology itself.The findings show that: (1 the choice of the linguistic variants in the targetlanguage was influenced by the dimensions of attitude: affect, judgment, andappreciation, either (positive [+], or negative [-] among the participants; (2 there were12 translation techniques applied, two of which were the technique of calque and literal(0.06% which were oriented towards the source language, 0.02% was ‘gray’, and therest, that is, 99.2% was oriented towards the target language. The dominance of thetranslation techniques which were oriented towards the target language shows that therewas a great cultural difference between the source text and the target text; (3 thedominance of the translation communicative method and the domestication ideologyshows that, when the translation process took place, the translator’s orientation wastowards the target reader; (4 the linguistic factor, the religious-cultural difference, andthe translator’s preference led to the translation techniques, methods and

  9. I-TNT: PHONE NUMBER EXPANSION AND TRANSLATION SYSTEM FOR MANAGING INTERCONNECTIVITY ADDRESSING IN SIP PEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. KHUDHER

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Voice over IP (VoIP subscribers is growing vastly in the recent years due to the ever increase in smartphones, 3G, WiFi, etc. This growth leads the VoIP service providers to peer with each other through Session Initiation Protocol (SIP peering for low/free cost of voice communication. Naturally, this growth is not without challenges, especially in phone addressing. This paper proposes an I-TNT (Infrastructure-Phone Number Translation numbering system to expand the range of the existing E.164 numbers and mapping between private and public number at the edge of the signalling path. As a result, I-TNT numbering system is successfully implemented and able to allocate the expanded phone numbers to end-users in one service provider.

  10. A Strategic Framework for Utilizing Late-Stage (T4) Translation Research to Address Health Inequities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Class, Maria; Peprah, Emmanuel; Zhang, Xinzhi; Kaufmann, Peter G; Engelgau, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Achieving health equity requires that every person has the opportunity to attain their full health potential and no one is disadvantaged from achieving this potential because of social position or other socially determined circumstances. Inequity experienced by populations of lower socioeconomic status is reflected in differences in health status and mortality rates, as well as in the distribution of disease, disability and illness across these population groups. This article gives an overview of the health inequities literature associated with heart, lung, blood and sleep (HLBS) disorders. We present an ecological framework that provides a theoretical foundation to study late-stage T4 translation research that studies implementation strategies for proven effective interventions to address health inequities. PMID:27440979

  11. Translating Research Into E/PO That Addresses Real Needs in K-12 Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Wil E.; Belbruno, E. A.; Roelofsen Moody, T.

    2009-01-01

    One of the challenges in NASA ROSES E/PO is translating cutting edge research into products for which there is a demonstrated need. Rather than working from the premise that the "research is so cool’ that K-12 students or the public should learn about it, it is key to consult with the target audience to identify what their needs really are. The partnership between NJACE, Innovative Orbital Design, Inc., and Princeton offered a unique opportunity to translate intriguing but theoretical and mathematical research related to low energy orbits into a valuable education product. NJACE worked with educators to identify several needs with an intellectual link to this research: 1) Understanding of Gravity and Newton's Laws, 2) Understanding of Energy and Energy Transformations, 3) Integration of the sciences with math and technology, and 4) Knowledge of NASA's past accomplishments (such as the moon landings). Based on these identified needs, two science units were developed for students in grades 5-12 that integrate astronomy, physics, and the life sciences with math and technology. In addition an engaging public lecture was developed that tells a personal story of the quest for more economic space travel. In the past year, the workshops have been presented on three occasions, reaching over 75 teachers and demand exceeded available space with numerous teachers on waiting lists. The lecture has been presented numerous times at planetariums, museums, amateur astronomy and other clubs. We hope that our partnership will serve as a useful example of how to translate cutting edge research into valuable education products with an identified need. We will provide handouts with links to a website where the products and training can be downloaded in hope that others will help disseminate our product.

  12. Principle and Application of Network Address Translation Systems%网络地址翻译系统的原理和应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包亮; 潘金贵

    2001-01-01

    Since Network Address Translation (NAT)systems, which will translate address between two address realms,were first introduced to solve the address shortage problem,they have been adopted in many domains. In this paper, basic principles, primary forms and application will be discussed. And some countermeasure on the co-exist with IPSec will be given.

  13. Addressing Trainees’ Diversity Conundrums in Translator Education: Towards a Responsive Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakwe George Mbotake

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the impact of some trainee translators’ background factors on their learning outcomes by highlighting the challenges that diverse classrooms pose for translator trainers. The study demonstrates that psycho-socio-educational and professional background factors such as educational and linguistic backgrounds, prior-work or professional experiences, socio-economic status and home learning environments, perceptions and dispositions towards translation learning, as well as expectations, levels of satisfaction and loyalty provide an explanatory background to the process of translation production and performance of most translation students. The data for this study is drawn from 60 students of the MA Programme in Translation at the Advanced School of Translators and Interpreters (ASTI of the University of Buea in Cameroon. The data reveals that students’ performances vary significantly with these background characteristics. The study posits that responsive pedagogy in translator education can only grow out of an understanding of students’ background, whereby the strengths and weaknesses that students bring to school are identified, nurtured and utilized to promote student achievement.

  14. On translation unit in translating imagery poetry%意象诗歌的翻译单位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁周敏

    2012-01-01

    诗歌的意象性特质要求诗歌翻译单位的特殊性和多元性。在梳理翻译单位研究历史和现状的基础之上,探究意象溯源与分类,考察诗歌翻译实践和翻译单位的建设要求,在坚持翻译单位动态观的同时,认为意象是诗歌动态翻译单位层面的核心,其他翻译单位的建构应该在意象的统领下完成。%The image property of poetry demands particularity and multiplicity of translation unit of poetry.Based on a detailed analysis of the history and current situation of translation unit study the present study looks into the source and classification of image,explore the translation practice and requirements on the construction of translation unit and holds the view that image is the core of dynamic translation unit with others subject to the construction of image.

  15. Translating patient education theory into practice: Developing material to address the cardiovascular education needs of people with rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    John, Holly; Hale, Elizabeth D.; Bennett, Paul; Treharne, Gareth J; Carroll, Douglas; Kitas, George D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This paper describes the rationale and design of a theory-informed patient education programme addressing cardiovascular disease for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to illustrate how theory can explicitly be translated into practice. Methods A steering group of rheumatologists and psychologists was convened to design the programme. The Common Sense Model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Stages of Change Model were used to underpin the topics and activities in the progr...

  16. Responsible Localization : Game Translation Between Japan and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Mandiberg, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Responding to increasing flows of digital media texts across national borders during the late 20th century, video game production companies began to expand translation from linguistic alteration to extensive semiotic manipulation. The practices involved with moving a digital game over national and linguistic lines widened from translating boxes, instruction manuals, and in-game dialogue, to re-designing audio, visual, and ludic aspects of games. Called 'localization' within the game industry,...

  17. The Slavic Translation Lexicography Theory and Practice: on the Material of the Stable Word Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алла [Alla] Лучик [Luchyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Slavic Translation Lexicography Theory and Practice: on the Material of the Stable Word UnitsThe paper deals with the idea of the need for the dictionaries of stable units in each of the Slavic language. The register of the lexicographical works must include the word equivalents, phraseological units terminological units. For a new type of the dictionary the principles its arrangement are established. It is proved that such work will open new horizons for the further theoretical observations on the properties of the language system as well as its practical mastering. The dictionaries of the stable units will be of particular importance to the field of Slavic translation.

  18. Collusion and Culture Construction in the Translation of Modest Social Address Terms a case study of "Xiao Ren" in Shui Hu Zhuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡佳

    2009-01-01

    Bassnett believed that collusion exerts influence between the author, translator as well as target reader, thus providing us with a new perspective for translation studies. Enlightened by Susan Bassnett's notion of "collusion" , the writer makes a contemplative study about the social address terms in Chinese classic novel Shui Hu Zhuan. The research studies the translation of modest social address terms in Outlaws of the Marsh and All Men are Brothers from the perspective of collusion and culture construction. Through the study of the source text and target text, the thesis makes analysis as well as comparison of the two English versions, in order to investigate the possible criteria for the translators to evaluate their choices of words in translating the Chinese specific terms. During the research, the writer discovers that collusion plays an im portant role in the process of translation, with a potential result of culture construction in the target readers' mind.

  19. Translating Life Course Theory to clinical practice to address health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tina L; Solomon, Barry S

    2014-02-01

    Life Course Theory (LCT) is a framework that explains health and disease across populations and over time and in a powerful way, conceptualizes health and health disparities to guide improvements. It suggests a need to change priorities and paradigms in our healthcare delivery system. In "Rethinking Maternal and Child Health: The Life Course Model as an Organizing Framework," Fine and Kotelchuck identify three areas of rethinking that have relevance to clinical care: (1) recognition of context and the "whole-person, whole-family, whole-community systems approach;" (2) longitudinal approach with "greater emphasis on early ("upstream") determinants of health"; and (3) need for integration and "developing integrated, multi-sector service systems that become lifelong "pipelines" for healthy development". This paper discusses promising clinical practice innovations in these three areas: addressing social influences on health in clinical practice, longitudinal and vertical integration of clinical services and horizontal integration with community services and resources. In addition, barriers and facilitators to implementation are reviewed.

  20. Complex Underdetermination and the Units of Clinical Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Phillips Hey

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available What makes a high-quality biomarker experiment? The success of personalized medicine hinges on the answer to this question. Unfortunately, as many commentators have now emphasized, the quality of most biomarker experiments to date has been quite low. Although the technical side of this problem has received considerable attention, the philosophical issues remain largely unexplored. In this paper, I argue that understanding what constitutes a high-quality biomarker experiment requires some fundamental shifts in how we think about the epistemology, ontology, and methodology of clinical translation.

  1. Product- and Process Units in the CRITT Translation Process Research Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael

    The first version of the "Translation Process Research Database" (TPR DB v1.0) was released In August 2012, containing logging data of more than 400 translation and text production sessions. The current version of the TPR DB, (v1.4), contains data from more than 940 sessions, which represents more...... than 300 hours of text production. The database provides the raw logging data, as well as Tables of pre-processed product- and processing units. The TPR-DB includes various types of simple and composed product and process units that are intended to support the analysis and modelling of human text...... reception, production, and translation processes. In this talk I describe some of the functions and features of the TPR-DB v1.4, and how they can be deployed in empirical human translation process research....

  2. Development and testing of INSPIRE themes Addresses (AD and Administrative Units (AU managed by COSMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Med

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Main content of this article is to describe implementing INSPIRE themes Addresses and Administrative Units in Czech Republic. Themes were implemented by Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre. Implementation contains developing GML files with data and designing its structure, developing and testing of INSPIRE services and preparing metadata for data and services. Besides harmonised INSPIRE themes COSMC manages also non-harmonised themes Cadastral map (KM and Units eXtended (UX.

  3. Addressing Core Challenges for the Next Generation of Type 2 Translation Research and Systems: The Translation Science to Population Impact (TSci Impact) Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Spoth, Richard; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Greenberg, Mark; Leaf, Philip; Brown, C Hendricks; Fagan, Abigail; Catalano, Richard F.; Pentz, Mary Ann; Sloboda, Zili; Hawkins, J. David; ,

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based preventive interventions developed over the past two decades represent great potential for enhancing public health and well-being. Research confirming the limited extent to which these interventions have been broadly and effectively implemented, however, indicates much progress is needed to achieve population-level impact. In part, progress requires Type 2 translation research that investigates the complex processes and systems through which evidence-based interventions are ado...

  4. Java芯片系统中的混合地址转换技术研究%HYBRID ADDRESS TRANSLATION TECHNOLOGY IN JAVA CHIP SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈虎; 戴葵; 杨晓东; 胡守仁

    2001-01-01

    Based on the analysis of memory management of JVM(Java VirtualMachine), the concepts of object address, segmented address and physical address are defined. Their relationship in Java Chip system is also presented here. After the discussion of current address translation schemes, a novel address translation technology, which hybridizes the segment scheme and segment-page scheme, is presented. A perfect tradeoff will be gained among the object accessing performance, the memory utilization and the Java chip system simplicity. The hardware architecture to implement address translation and the algorithm to allocate physical memory are presented too. At the end of paper, the performance evaluation of these algorithms is given.%本文首先定义了Java芯片系统中的地址结构:对象地址、段式地址和物理地址.针对现有地址转换方法的不足,提出了一种结合段式和段页式的混合转换方法.该方法使访问对象的速度、存储空间利用率和设备复杂度等方面得到合理的折衷.文中还给出了该方法在Java芯片系统中的硬件实现方法和相关的物理存储空间分配算法,并对其进行了性能评价.

  5. 40 CFR 267.101 - What must I do to address corrective action for solid waste management units?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... action for solid waste management units? 267.101 Section 267.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT Releases from Solid Waste Management Units § 267.101 What must I do to address corrective action for solid waste management units? (a) You must...

  6. Josephson address control unit IC for a 4-bit microcomputer prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosaka, S.; Nakagawa, H.; Kawamura, H.; Okada, Y.; Hamazaki, Y.; Aoyagi, M.; Kurosawa, I.; Shoji, A.; Takada, S.

    1989-03-01

    This paper describes a design and operations of a Josephson address control unit IC (CTRU) used for controlling the instruction sequence of an experimental 4-bit Josephson microcomputer prototype system. The CTRU is composed of three sets of 7 to 10-bit wide registers and combinational logic circuits driven by a two-phase mono-polar power supply. 593 4-Junction-Logic (4JL) gates have been used in the circuit and fabricated by using 2.5um NbN/oxide/NbN junction technology with Mo resistors and SiO/sub 2/ insulations. Experimental operations of the circuit have been successfully tested for all the instructions which control the program sequence of the computer system.

  7. Addressing the Common Pathway Underlying Hypertension and Diabetes in People Who Are Obese by Maximizing Health: The Ultimate Knowledge Translation Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Dean

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the WHO definition of health, this article examines the alarming discord between the epidemiology of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and obesity and the low profile of noninvasive (nondrug compared with invasive (drug interventions with respect to their prevention, reversal and management. Herein lies the ultimate knowledge translation gap and challenge in 21st century health care. Although lifestyle modification has long appeared in guidelines for medically managing these conditions, this evidence-based strategy is seldom implemented as rigorously as drug prescription. Biomedicine focuses largely on reducing signs and symptoms; the effects of the problem rather than the problem. This article highlights the evidence-based rationale supporting prioritizing the underlying causes and contributing factors for hypertension and T2DM, and, in turn, obesity. We argue that a primary focus on maximizing health could eliminate all three conditions, at best, or, at worst, minimize their severity, complications, and medication needs. To enable such knowledge translation and maximizing health outcome, the health care community needs to practice as an integrated team, and address barriers to effecting maximal health in all patients. Addressing the ultimate knowledge translation gap, by aligning the health care paradigm to 21st century needs, would constitute a major advance.

  8. Quantities and Units used in Radiation Safety. Address at the third national course of Radiation Safety in Radiology. May 22-24, 2000 Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The address discusses the following issues: the radiological units, radiation dose units, radiation protection units and operational quantities used for individual monitoring recently introduced by the International Commission of Radiological Units

  9. Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…

  10. 地址翻译技术在防火墙系统中的应用%Address Translation Technology in Firewall System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周新卫; 许自龙; 刘浪

    2012-01-01

    随着Intemet的迅速发展,IP地址缺少已经是一个十分明显的问题。为了解决IP缺少这个问题,出现了很多解决方案。虽然也有提出新一代的IPv6技术从根本上解决地址空间问题,但由于多方面的原因,NAT成为事实上广泛使用的解决方法。它主要思想是把本地的私有口地址映射到公网的合法IP地址,以缓解可用IP地址空间的消耗。本文将介绍一种在目前网络环境中运用比较多的方法,即地址转换(NAT)技术及其在防火墙上的实现方法,以及这种技术在防火墙中的一些实际应用。%With the rapid development of Internet,there is an unsufficiency of IP addresses. A lot of solutions in solving this problem appear. Although a new generation of IPv6 technology can solve the problem of address spac fundamently, NAT has be widely used due to some reasons. Its main principle is to map the local private IP address to the legal public network IP addresses to alleviate the comsumption of the available IP address space. This paper introduces address translation technology ( NAT ), apopular method used in the current network envi- ronment,the method of its implementation in firewall, as well as tits practical applications.

  11. Addressing Child Poverty: How Does the United States Compare With Other Nations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeeding, Timothy; Thévenot, Céline

    2016-04-01

    Poverty during childhood raises a number of policy challenges. The earliest years are critical in terms of future cognitive and emotional development and early health outcomes, and have long-lasting consequences on future health. In this article child poverty in the United States is compared with a set of other developed countries. To the surprise of few, results show that child poverty is high in the United States. But why is poverty so much higher in the United States than in other rich nations? Among child poverty drivers, household composition and parent's labor market participation matter a great deal. But these are not insurmountable problems. Many of these disadvantages can be overcome by appropriate public policies. For example, single mothers have a very high probability of poverty in the United States, but this is not the case in other countries where the provision of work support increases mothers' labor earnings and together with strong public cash support effectively reduces child poverty. In this article we focus on the role and design of public expenditure to understand the functioning of the different national systems and highlight ways for improvements to reduce child poverty in the United States. We compare relative child poverty in the United States with poverty in a set of selected countries. The takeaway is that the United States underinvests in its children and their families and in so doing this leads to high child poverty and poor health and educational outcomes. If a nation like the United States wants to decrease poverty and improve health and life chances for poor children, it must support parental employment and incomes, and invest in children's futures as do other similar nations with less child poverty.

  12. Addressing Child Poverty: How Does the United States Compare With Other Nations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeeding, Timothy; Thévenot, Céline

    2016-04-01

    Poverty during childhood raises a number of policy challenges. The earliest years are critical in terms of future cognitive and emotional development and early health outcomes, and have long-lasting consequences on future health. In this article child poverty in the United States is compared with a set of other developed countries. To the surprise of few, results show that child poverty is high in the United States. But why is poverty so much higher in the United States than in other rich nations? Among child poverty drivers, household composition and parent's labor market participation matter a great deal. But these are not insurmountable problems. Many of these disadvantages can be overcome by appropriate public policies. For example, single mothers have a very high probability of poverty in the United States, but this is not the case in other countries where the provision of work support increases mothers' labor earnings and together with strong public cash support effectively reduces child poverty. In this article we focus on the role and design of public expenditure to understand the functioning of the different national systems and highlight ways for improvements to reduce child poverty in the United States. We compare relative child poverty in the United States with poverty in a set of selected countries. The takeaway is that the United States underinvests in its children and their families and in so doing this leads to high child poverty and poor health and educational outcomes. If a nation like the United States wants to decrease poverty and improve health and life chances for poor children, it must support parental employment and incomes, and invest in children's futures as do other similar nations with less child poverty. PMID:27044705

  13. General and Partial Equilibrium Modeling of Sectoral Policies to Address Climate Change in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizer, William; Burtraw, Dallas; Harrington, Winston; Newell, Richard; Sanchirico, James; Toman, Michael

    2003-03-31

    This document provides technical documentation for work using detailed sectoral models to calibrate a general equilibrium analysis of market and non-market sectoral policies to address climate change. Results of this work can be found in the companion paper, "Modeling Costs of Economy-wide versus Sectoral Climate Policies Using Combined Aggregate-Sectoral Model".

  14. A More Proactive Approach to Addressing Gender-related Employment Disparities in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Mary E. Graham; Hotchkiss, Julie L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose a proactive public policy approach to complement relatively reactive existing policies addressing gender-related employment disparities in the USA, and to provide an initial empirical illustration of the proposal. Design/methodology/approach – The paper provides a conceptual application of theories of total quality management (TQM) to the topic of gender-related employment disparities, followed by an empirical illustration using...

  15. Addressing Cultural Diversity: Effects of a Problem-Based Intercultural Learning Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Vera; Krause, Ulrike-Marie

    2015-01-01

    This article explores to what extent a problem-based learning unit in combination with cooperative learning and affectively oriented teaching methods facilitates intercultural learning. As part of the study, students reflected on critical incidents, which display misunderstandings or conflicts that arise as a result of cultural differences. In…

  16. Scientific English: a program for addressing linguistic barriers of international research trainees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Carrie; Chang, Shine; Pagel, Walter

    2011-03-01

    Within the international research environment, English is indisputably the lingua franca, and thus, the majority of the world's scientists must adapt to a second language. Linguistic barriers in science affect not only researchers' career paths but institutional productivity and efficiency as well. To address these barriers, we designed and piloted a specialized course, Scientific English. The pedagogical approach is based on English for specific purposes methodology in which curriculum and content are driven by the types of daily language used and interactions which occur in the participants' occupation, in this case, cancer research. The 11-week program was organized into three sections: presentation skill, meeting and discussion skills, and writing skills. Effectiveness of the course was measured by the number of participants able to produce the presentations and written products with a score of at least 75 of 100 possible points. From January to December 2008, participant scores averaged 90.4 for presentation and 86.8 for written products. The authors provide insights and recommendations on the development and delivery of the program. PMID:20623348

  17. Addressing Value and Belief Systems on Climate Literacy in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    The southeast (SEUS; AL, AR, GA, FL, KY, LA, NC, SC, TN, E. TX) faces the greatest impacts as a result of climate change of any region in the U.S. which presents considerable and costly adaptation challenges. Paradoxically, people in the SEUS hold attitudes and perceptions that are more dismissive of climate change than those of any other region. An additional mismatch exists between the manner in which climate science is generally communicated and the underlying core values and beliefs held by a large segment of people in the SEUS. As a result, people frequently misinterpret and/or distrust information sources, inhibiting efforts to productively discuss and consider climate change and related impacts on human and environmental systems, and possible solutions and outcomes. The Climate Literacy Partnership in the Southeast (CLiPSE) project includes an extensive network of partners throughout the SEUS from faith, agriculture, culturally diverse, leisure, and K-20 educator communities that aim to address this educational need through a shared vision. CLiPSE has conducted a Climate Stewardship Survey (CSS) to determine the knowledge and perceptions of individuals in and beyond the CLiPSE network. The descriptive results of the CSS indicate that religion, predominantly Protestantism, plays a minor role in climate knowledge and perceptions. Likewise, political affiliation plays a minimal role in climate knowledge and perceptions between religions. However, when Protestants were broken out by political affiliation, statistically significant differences (t(30)=2.44, p=0.02) in knowledge related to the causes of climate change exist. Those Protestants affiliated with the Democratic Party (n=206) tended to maintain a statistically significant stronger knowledge of the causes of global climate change than their Republican counterparts. When SEUS educator (n=277) group was only considered, similar trends were evidenced, indicating that strongly held beliefs potentially

  18. 'Renewables-Friendly' Grid Development Strategies: Experience in the United States, Potential Lessons for China (Chinese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-03

    This is a Chinese translation of NREL/TP-6A20-64940. This report aims to help China's reform effort by providing a concise summary of experience in the United States with 'renewables-friendly' grid management, focusing on experiences that might be applicable to China. It focuses on utility-scale renewables and sets aside issues related to distributed generation.

  19. Modularized architecture of address generation units suitable for real-time processing MR data on an FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Limin; Wyrwicz, Alice M.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we describe a modular approach to the design of an Address Generation Unit (AGU). The approach consists of development of a generic Address Generation Core (AGC) as a basic building block and the construction of an AGU from the AGCs. We illustrate this concept with AGUs capable of handling 2D- and 3D-structured data, and as well as their setup for executing 2D and 3D FFT algorithms on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The AGUs developed using our proposed method are simple and easily expandable. Furthermore, they can potentially support irregularly structured data which are often generated from the wide variety of pulse sequences in magnetic resonance imaging. Our experimental results show that these AGUs are capable of generating addresses with a user-predefined pattern automatically at the speed of one address per clock cycle and operate at clock rates up to 80 MHz. They can operate concurrently with other processes and thus do not introduce additional operation latencies. Although we focus on applying the developed AGUs to executing 2D and 3D FFT, we expect that the modular design method should have much wider applications.

  20. Building Capacity of Occupational Therapy Practitioners to Address the Mental Health Needs of Children and Youth: A Mixed-Methods Study of Knowledge Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Bazyk, Susan; Demirjian, Louise; LaGuardia, Teri; Thompson-Repas, Karen; Conway, Carol; Michaud, Paula

    2015-01-01

    A 6-mo building capacity process designed to promote knowledge translation of a public health approach to mental health among pediatric occupational therapy practitioners empowered change leaders to articulate, advocate for, and implement practice changes.

  1. The paediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (pCAM-ICU: Translation and cognitive debriefing for the German-speaking area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens de Grahl

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To date there are only a few studies published, dealing with delirium in critically ill patients. The problem with these studies is that prevalence rates of delirium could only be estimated because of the lack of validated delirium assessment tools for the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU. The paediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (pCAM-ICU was specifically developed and validated for the detection of delirium in PICU patients. The purpose of this study was the translation of the English pCAM-ICU into German according to international validated guidelines. Methods: The translation process was performed according to the principles of good practice for the translation and cultural adaptation process for patient reported outcomes measures: From three independently created German forward-translation versions one preliminary German version was developed, which was then retranslated to English by a certified, state-approved translator. The back-translated version was submitted to the original author for evaluation. The German translation was evaluated by clinicians and specialists anonymously (German grades in regards to language and content of the translation. Results: The results of the cognitive debriefing revealed good to very good results. After that the translation process was successfully completed and the final version of the German pCAM-ICU was adopted by the expert committee. Conclusion: The German version of the pCAM-ICU is a result of a translation process in accordance with internationally acknowledged guidelines. Particularly, with respect to the excellent results of the cognitive debriefing, we could finalise the translation and cultural adaptation process for the German pCAM-ICU.

  2. A study on Requirements of Data Base Translator for APR1400 Computerized Procedure System at Shin-Hanul unit 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Nokyu; Lee, Sungjin [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The CPS is one of the Man Machine Interface (MMI) resources and the CPS can directly display plant graphic objects which are in the Digital Control System (DCS). And the CPS can send a request to DCS to provide DCS screen which is called step support display through DCS link button on a computerized procedure. The procedure writers can insert DCS graphic information to computerized procedure through data base which is provided by CPS Editing System (CPSES). The data base which is provided by CPSES conforms to the naming rule of DCS graphic objects. The naming rule of DCS graphic objects is defined by vendor thus status of DCS graphic objects which are in computerized procedure at Shin-Kori plant cannot be displayed on CPS at Shin-Hanul plant. To use computerized procedure which is written by other plant procedure writer, DCS graphic objects shall be translated by its plant data base. This paper introduces requirements of data base translator to reduce translation and re-inserting graphic objects burden. This paper introduces the requirements of data base translator of CPSES for APR1400 CPS at Shin-Hanul unit 1 and 2. The translator algorithms shall be tested to update data base of CPSES effectively. The prototype of translator is implemented and is being tested using real plant DB. This translator can be applied to Shin- Hanul unit1 and 2 through software V and V.

  3. Address Points, The Address Point layer contains an address point for almost every structure over 200 square feet and for some vacant properties. Attributes include addresses, sub-units, address use, LAT/LONG, 10-digit SDAT taxpins, political areas and more., Published in 2013, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Baltimore County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2013. It is described as 'The...

  4. Novel implementation research designs for scaling up global mental health care: overcoming translational challenges to address the world's leading cause of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meffert, Susan M; Neylan, Thomas C; Chambers, David A; Verdeli, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Despite established knowledge that Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) bear the majority of the world's burden of mental disorders, and more than a decade of efficacy research showing that the most common disorders, such as depression and anxiety, can be treated using readily available local personnel in LMICs to apply evidence-based treatments, there remains a massive mental health treatment gap, such that 75 % of those in LMICs never receive care. Here, we discuss the use of a new type of implementation science study design, the effectiveness-implementation hybrids, to speed the translation and scale up of mental health care in LMICs. We use our current study of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) delivered by local personnel for depression and trauma-related disorders among HIV+ women in Kenya as an example of effectiveness-implementation hybrid design for mental health services research in LMICs. PMID:26958075

  5. 37 CFR 2.190 - Addresses for trademark correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., during the hours the Office is open to receive correspondence, to the Trademark Assistance Center, James... correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. 2.190 Section 2.190 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN...

  6. Study protocol: Addressing evidence and context to facilitate transfer and uptake of consultation recording use in oncology: A knowledge translation implementation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruether J Dean

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The time period from diagnosis to the end of treatment is challenging for newly diagnosed cancer patients. Patients have a substantial need for information, decision aids, and psychosocial support. Recordings of initial oncology consultations improve information recall, reduce anxiety, enhance patient satisfaction with communication, and increase patients' perceptions that the essential aspects of their disease and treatment have been addressed during the consultation. Despite the research evidence supporting the provision of consultation recordings, uptake of this intervention into oncology practice has been slow. The primary aim of this project is to conduct an implementation study to explicate the contextual factors, including use of evidence, that facilitate and impede the transfer and uptake of consultation-recording use in a sample of patients newly diagnosed with breast or prostate cancer. Methods Sixteen oncologists from cancer centres in three Canadian cities will participate in this three-phase study. The preimplementation phase will be used to identify and address those factors that are fundamental to facilitating the smooth adoption and delivery of the intervention during the implementation phase. During the implementation phase, breast and prostate cancer patients will receive a recording of their initial oncology consultation to take home. Patient interviews will be conducted in the days following the consultation to gather feedback on the benefits of the intervention. Patients will complete the Digital Recording Use Semi-Structured Interview (DRUSSI and be invited to participate in focus groups in which their experiences with the consultation recording will be explored. Oncologists will receive a summary letter detailing the benefits voiced by their patients. The postimplementation phase includes a conceptual framework development meeting and a seven-point dissemination strategy. Discussion Consultation

  7. Translating Words, Translating Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Whitaker

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available What exactly does (or should translation from one language into another try to do? Attempt to convey to readers of the target language (the language into which one is translating something of the strangeness, difference and historicity of the original in the source language (the language from which one is translating? Or must translation try to bridge the gap between source and target language, by rendering the original in a thoroughly contemporary style and diction, as if this were a work being written now for the first time? And related to these the further questions: how closely should a translation render the genre, language, metre, style and content of the original? How far can a translation depart from the original without ceasing to be a translation – in other words, where is one to situate the border between “translation”, “version” and “adaptation”?

  8. An innovative telemedicine knowledge translation program to improve quality of care in intensive care units: protocol for a cluster randomized pragmatic trial

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto Ruxandra; Hales Brigette; Dainty Katie; Scales Damon C; Fowler Robert A; Adhikari Neill KJ; Zwarenstein Merrick

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background There are challenges to timely adoption of, and ongoing adherence to, evidence-based practices known to improve patient care in the intensive care unit (ICU). Quality improvement initiatives using a collaborative network approach may increase the use of such practices. Our objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel knowledge translation program for increasing the proportion of patients who appropriately receive the following six evidence-based care practices: ve...

  9. A renewed Medication Adherence Alliance call to action: harnessing momentum to address medication nonadherence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullig, Leah L; Granger, Bradi B; Bosworth, Hayden B

    2016-01-01

    The problem Nonadherence to prescription medications is a common and costly problem with multiple contributing factors, spanning the dimensions of individual behavior change, psychology, medicine, and health policy, among others. Addressing the problem of medication nonadherence requires strategic input from key experts in a number of fields. Meeting of experts The Medication Adherence Alliance is a group of key experts, predominately from the US, in the field of medication nonadherence. Members include representatives from consumer advocacy groups, community health providers, nonprofit groups, the academic community, decision-making government officials, and industry. In 2015, the Medication Adherence Alliance convened to review the current landscape of medication adherence. The group then established three working groups that will develop recommendations for shifting toward solutions-oriented science. Commentary of expert opinion From the perspective of the Medication Adherence Alliance, the objective of this commentary is to describe changes in the US landscape of medication adherence, framing the evolving field in the context of a recent think tank meeting of experts in the field of medication adherence. PMID:27462145

  10. Translating China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    sidney Shapiro, an American-born translator famous for his translation of Chinese literary works, received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Translation by the Translators Association of China on December 2, 2010.

  11. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs

  12. Understanding translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...

  13. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear terrorism has been recognized as a potential threat to human security and economic prosperity since at least the 1970s. Evidence of Al Qaeda's interest in acquiring nuclear material came to light during the 1990s. However, it is since the attacks of 11 September 2001 that the risk of nuclear terrorist acts has come to be a widespread public and governmental concern, for understandable reasons, and that efforts to combat illicit trafficking, which could lead to nuclear or other radioactive materials falling into the hands of terrorists, have intensified. Six years on, it makes sense to take stock of what has been achieved in the combat to stem illicit trafficking and of where further actions - actions of individual States and cooperative international actions - might usefully be initiated. The IAEA has maintained an Illicit Trafficking Database since 1995. Information reported to this database confirms that concerns about illicit trafficking in nuclear material are justified. Database information points to persistent theft and loss of radioactive sources. States' international obligations relevant to international nuclear trafficking are based on the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, which deals with weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons and non-State actors, and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1375, which requires all States to take the necessary steps to prevent the commission of terrorist acts, including early warning to other States. In addition to these legally binding instruments, there is the non-binding Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, which Member States of the IAEA agreed in 2003. The Code addresses the establishment of an adequate system of regulatory control, from the production of radioactive sources to their final

  14. Human Translator and Translation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辰

    2016-01-01

    With the great development of technology, translation technology exerts great influence on human translators because during their translation process, they may use many computer-aided translation tools, such as TRADOS, Snowman, WordFisher and etc. However, they always misunderstand the concept of computer-aided translation, so this thesis managed to providedetails about some translation technology and human translators' strengths so as to help them improve the productivity and the quality of theirtranslation works effectively and efficiently.

  15. Translators and Translation: 1974 Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caille, Pierre-Francois

    1974-01-01

    An international survey of conditions and practices involving translators deals with the following points: (1) change in the legal status and material situation of translators since 1968; (2) translators' associations; (3) translators' training, and (4) encouraging translation of contemporary works. (CK)

  16. Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of ancillary translation tool, Machine Translation has been paid increasing attention to and received different kinds of study by a great deal of researchers and scholars for a long time. To know the definition of Machine Translation and to analyse its benefits and problems are significant for translators in order to make good use of Machine Translation, and helpful to develop and consummate Machine Translation Systems in the future.

  17. Welcome Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  18. Opening Address by A. Bychkov [3. International Conference on Nuclear Power Plant Life Management, Salt Lake City, UT (United States), 14-18 May 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima incident, following the earthquake and tsunami in Japan, has shaken global public confidence in the safety of nuclear power. Still, nuclear power remains and will remain important for many countries. It is important to maintain plant safety, particularly as facilities age, and since 354 of the 436 nuclear power plants in the world are equal to or greater than 20 effective years of age. In this respect, PLiM becomes increasingly important and may very well become indispensable in the future. It is important that ageing management programmes be established in accordance with guidelines issued by government regulatory and industry agencies. For example, a PLiM programme could draw on United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) rules, guidance and reports; on industry guidance such as provided by the Nuclear Engineering Institute (NEI), by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and by the IAEA through its safety standards. The ultimate goal of this conference is to do address these main themes through an open exchange of information, by means of the keynote speeches, the oral/poster presentations and the panel discussions. If these activities are approached in this spirit, the sharing of recent lessons learned will achieve the conference’s goals and play a critical role in the development of new and effective approaches to addressing issues relating to structure, systems and component (SSC) ageing and PLiM

  19. Translation Methodology in the Spoken Language Translator An Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, D; Rayner, M; Eklund, R; MacDermid, C; Wiren, M; Kirchmeier-Andersen, S; Philp, C; Carter, David; Becket, Ralph; Rayner, Manny; Dermid, Catriona Mac; Wiren, Mats; Philp, Christina

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe how the translation methodology adopted for the Spoken Language Translator (SLT) addresses the characteristics of the speech translation task in a context where it is essential to achieve easy customization to new languages and new domains. We then discuss the issues that arise in any attempt to evaluate a speech translator, and present the results of such an evaluation carried out on SLT for several language pairs.

  20. Forms of creativity in translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia V Aranda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2009v1n23p23This paper explores the creative constructs utilized by translators in the reformulation of texts. As translation studies realigns the definition of translation vis-à-vis the original, a number of factors inform translations: the agency and subjectivity of the translator, as well as questions of form, and the more obvious social factors. This discussion addresses the articulation of creativity as a response to specific cases and repositions translation as part of a greater creative project.

  1. Address Points, Point locations for address sites, including residential, commercial, all units and suites, using Esri's Local Government Information Model schema., Published in 12/1/2014, Not Applicable scale, Gwinnett County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 12/1/2014. It is described as...

  2. An innovative telemedicine knowledge translation program to improve quality of care in intensive care units: protocol for a cluster randomized pragmatic trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Ruxandra

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are challenges to timely adoption of, and ongoing adherence to, evidence-based practices known to improve patient care in the intensive care unit (ICU. Quality improvement initiatives using a collaborative network approach may increase the use of such practices. Our objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel knowledge translation program for increasing the proportion of patients who appropriately receive the following six evidence-based care practices: venous thromboembolism prophylaxis; ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention; spontaneous breathing trials; catheter-related bloodstream infection prevention; decubitus ulcer prevention; and early enteral nutrition. Methods and design We will conduct a pragmatic cluster randomized active control trial in 15 community ICUs and one academic ICU in Ontario, Canada. The intervention is a multifaceted videoconferenced educational and problem-solving forum to organize knowledge translation strategies, including comparative audit and feedback, educational sessions from content experts, and dissemination of algorithms. Fifteen individual ICUs (clusters will be randomized to receive quality improvement interventions targeting one of the best practices during each of six study phases. Each phase lasts four months during the first study year and three months during the second. At the end of each study phase, ICUs are assigned to an intervention for a best practice not yet received according to a random schedule. The primary analysis will use patient-level process-of-care data to measure the intervention's effect on rates of adoption and adherence of each best practice in the targeted ICU clusters versus controls. Discussion This study design evaluates a new system for knowledge translation and quality improvement across six common ICU problems. All participating ICUs receive quality improvement initiatives during every study phase, improving buy-in. This study design

  3. Letter Report to Address Comments on the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0, March 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-03-17

    The Closure Report (CR) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224, Decon Pad and Septic Systems, was approved by the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on November 01, 2007. The approval letter contained the following two comments: Comment 1--For 06-05-01, 06-17-04, 06-23-01 provide evidence that the 6 inch VCP pipe originating from building CP-2 is no longer active and sealed to prevent possible future contamination. Comment 2--For the area that includes 06-03-01, provide evidence that active lines are no longer feeding the North and South lagoons and have been sealed to prevent possible future contamination. To address these comments, closure documentation was reviewed, and site visits were conducted to locate and document the areas of concern. Additional fieldwork was conducted in March 2008 to seal the lines and openings described in the two comments. Photographs were taken of the closed drains and lines to document that the NDEP comments were adequately addressed and potential inadvertent discharge to the environment has been eliminated. Investigation and closure documentation was reviewed to identify the locations of potential drains, lines, and other features that could receive and/or transmit liquid. Based on the investigation findings and subsequent closure activities, no openings, distribution boxes, or other features (excluding known floor drains at CP-2) that could receive liquid were found at the CP-2 location (Figure 1), and potential manholes for the north and south sewage lagoons were identified for Corrective Action Site (CAS) 06-03-01 (Figure 2). The distribution box identified in Figure 1 was not located during the investigation and was assumed to have been previously removed.

  4. Translational Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention is...... given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention. This...... creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...

  5. Opening Address by G. Apostolakis [3. International Conference on Nuclear Power Plant Life Management, Salt Lake City, UT (United States), 14-18 May 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageing management is not a simple process. The NRC has been involved with its ageing management and licence renewal programmes since 1982. At that time, the NRC began its Ageing Research Program. In 1991, it initiated a License Renewal Rule and Demonstration Program. In the course of these activities, it was discovered that the NRC was giving insufficient credit for the existing PLiM programme. In 1995, there was an Amended License Renewal rule, which focused on managing the adverse effects of ageing. In 1998, the NRC received its first licence renewal application to enable a plant to operate from 40 to 60 years. Presently (May 2012), the NRC has renewed licences for 71 plants at 42 sites. Ten units at nine sites have passed 40 years of licensed operation and entered the period of 40−60 year extended operation. There are applications under review for 15 units at 11 sites. The NRC expects applications for all remaining currently operating units. The NRC’s licence renewal guiding principles are that the ongoing regulatory process is adequate to ensure the safety of all currently operating US plants and that the same plant operating rules apply during the 20-year renewal term. In addition, the NRC applies supplementary conditions for ageing management through the licence renewal process and is fully aware that operating experience is very important in terms of lessons learned, which can then bring about further changes in the process and in practice. Recent additional NRC guidance addresses the need to manage buried piping and tanks, inaccessible non-environmentally qualified cables, spent fuel pool neutron absorbing materials other than Boraflex, and pressurized water reactor vessel internals. In summary, the NRC believes that: – Ageing management must be a living process that continuously incorporates operating experience. – Research is necessary to establish the technical basis for LTO of existing nuclear plants beyond 60 years. – The industry must have a

  6. Offshore Finfish Aquaculture in the United States: An Examination of Federal Laws That Could be Used to Address Environmental and Occupational Public Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian P. Fry

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Half of the world’s edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production.

  7. Regulatory approaches to obesity prevention: A systematic overview of current laws addressing diet-related risk factors in the European Union and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisnowski, Jana; Handsley, Elizabeth; Street, Jackie M

    2015-06-01

    High prevalence of overweight and obesity remains a significant international public health problem. Law has been identified as a tool for obesity prevention and selected high-profile measures have been reported. However, the nature and extent of enacted legislation internationally are unclear. This research provides an overview of regulatory approaches enacted in the United States, the European Union, and EU Member States since 2004. To this end, relevant databases of primary and secondary legislation were systematically searched to identify and explore laws addressing dietary risk factors for obesity. Across jurisdictions, current regulatory approaches to obesity prevention are limited in reach and scope. Target groups are rarely the general population, but instead sub-populations in government-supported settings. Consumer information provision is preferred over taxation and marketing restrictions other than the regulation of health and nutrition claims. In the EU in particular, product reformulation with industry consent has also emerged as a popular small-scale measure. While consistent and widespread use of law is lacking, governments have employed a range of regulatory measures in the name of obesity prevention, indicating that there is, in principle, political will. Results from this study may serve as a starting point for future research and policy development.

  8. Translation Nation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The International Federation of Translators will hold its largest ever world congress in China on the eve of 2008 Olympic Games china’ s position as a powerhouse of the translation industry is to be cemented,

  9. Translating Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Chevrel

    2008-07-01

    Europe thinks in many languages and Europe is a land of translation. Translation is a means of transmitting culture, a means of making it available to others and an invitation to share. It is a cement which binds Europe together.

  10. Translating Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jaques, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Generative Linguistics can and should be engaged by those with an interest in Translation Studies while developing their own positions on literary theory in general, but translation theory in particular. Generative theory provides empirical evidence for a free, creative mind that can comprehend, read, speak and translate a language. What is being proposed here contrasts radically with the dominant position of this generation's Translation Studies specialists, who freely incorporate Post-struc...

  11. IP Addressing

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    tut quiz anim This interactive tutorial covers the following: The concept of halving a binary number space., Using the halving concept to explain how the Internet IP space is segmented into the A, B, and C address classifications., How the first octet ranges for the A, B, and C IP space are produced.In this tutorial, explanations are illustrated by simple animations. Students are asked to observe number patterns, and check their observations against automated 'answers.' There is a qu...

  12. Inaugural Address

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani

    2008-01-01

    Sardar Aseff Ahmad Ali, Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission, Dr Rashid Amjad, President, Pakistan Society of Development Economists, Honourable Ministers, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen! It is indeed a privilege and honour to address this distinguished gathering of economists. I am very happy that this meeting is being attended by internationally acclaimed economists and academics from both within and outside the country. I am especially heartened to see that students of economics from a...

  13. Libros bilingues, traducciones desparpajadas y traducciones pobres: libros en espanol publicados en los Estados Unidos (Bilingual Books, Careless Translations, and Bad Translations: Books in Spanish Published in the United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of providing Spanish-speaking students with high-quality reading materials in Spanish and avoiding materials that have been badly translated into Spanish. Provides an annotated list of 10 books recommended for young children and a Spanish grammar for more advanced readers. Lists 29 badly translated books. Describes a Web…

  14. Keynote Address

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Biography: Nominated by President George W. Bush and confirmed by the United States Senate, Michael Griffin began his duties as the 11th Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration on April 14, 2005. As Administrator, he leads the NASA team and manages its resources to advance the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. Prior to being nominated as NASA Administrator, Griffin was serving as Space Department Head at Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory in Laur...

  15. Semantics on Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琦

    2014-01-01

    Semantics is the study of the meanings of words and sentences. While word is the most basic unit in every language and the understanding of the word meaning is the most important problem in translation. Therefore, the analysis of semantics just provides a very direct approach to doing translation. In this paper, I’d like to focus on the three kinds of word meaning in transla- tion, the ambiguities caused by the word meaning and how to deal with such ambiguities.

  16. Welcome Address

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@  On behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute, I welcome you to Beijing and to the Third Asian Conference on Food Safety and Nutrition. Many of you will remember the first Asian conference on Food Safety held in Kuala Lumpur in 1990 and the second held in Bangkok in 1994. These meetings have been so successful that ILSI made the commitment to host such a conference periodically in order to provide a forum to share the latest information and to set new goals and priorities.   This year, we have broadened the scope of the agenda to include issues on nutrition. I want to thank all of our co-sponsors and members of the Planning Committee for preparing such a comprehensive and timely program. Some of the issues and challenges facing Asia that will be addressed at this meeting are:

  17. Translation as a critical practice:using retranslation when teaching translation

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the question of how to relate translation theory to translation practice when teaching translation. Retranslation is viewed as a critical practice (kydd 2011) that integrates critical engagement with existing translations and theory into practice. This critical reflexion is part of translation competence, both in Pym’s (2003) minimalist formulation and the European Master’s in Translation guidelines. Retranslation can therefore be seen to help students achieve the sort ...

  18. Opening Address [International Conference on Human Resource Development for Introducing and Expanding Nuclear Power Programmes, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates), 14-18 March 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is a pleasure for me to open this IAEA conference on Human Resource Development for Introducing and Expanding Nuclear Power Programmes. I am very grateful to the Government of the United Arab Emirates for hosting this important event. As you know, the world is witnessing a resurgence of interest in nuclear power. The IAEA has projects on introducing nuclear power with no fewer than 58 of our Member States. We expect between 10 and 25 new countries to bring their first nuclear power plants on line by 2030. These are momentous changes. However, some countries are concerned about a possible shortage of skilled professionals in the nuclear field in the coming decades. The generation of professionals who built and led the nuclear power industry for much of the past 50 years is approaching retirement and in some countries not enough students are coming up through the educational system to take their place. Naturally, we, at the IAEA, want to do all we can to help Member States address this issue. That is why we have organized this conference. The situation is different in each country. For countries with expanding nuclear power programmes, the challenge is to scale up their existing education and training in order to have the required qualified workforce on time. Countries planning to supply nuclear technology to others must not only meet their national human resource needs, but also be able to transfer education and training capacity together with the technology they provide. Finally, countries embarking on nuclear power cannot become too dependent on their technology supplier and need to develop their own home grown expertise and skills base. The IAEA would be happy to help interested States to formulate country specific policies on human resource development, education, training and knowledge management in support of nuclear power programmes. We could also help countries make better use of training facilities, research reactors and other educational

  19. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adopted under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, Resolution 1540 (2004) - hereafter UNSCR 1540 - sets out several obligations and recommendations for United Nations Member States, including specific requirements regarding illicit trafficking in operational paragraph (OP) 3, where it decides that all States shall take and enforce measures to prevent WMD proliferation including: 'Develop and maintain appropriate effective border controls and law enforcement efforts to detect, deter, prevent and combat, including through international cooperation when necessary, the illicit trafficking and brokering in such items in accordance with their national legal authorities and legislation and consistent with international law'. UNSCR 1540 also created a committee to monitor and report on the measures taken by States to implement these obligations, known as the 1540 Committee. This paper discusses the gaps in national and international proliferation systems identified by the 1540 Committee. By creating obligations for States regarding non-State actors UNSCR 1540 supplements the existing NPT and other nuclear non-proliferation treaty regimes. The presentation looks more narrowly at eight questions of particular relevance to illicit trafficking in nuclear materials, which UNSCR 1540 broadly defines to include dual-use as well as special purpose items. The questions are whether a State has legislation specifically related to nuclear materials for border control, trading or brokering of nuclear items, and controls on transit, trans-shipment, re-export or import of nuclear items. The largest gaps exist in establishing legal frameworks for trans-shipments, trading or brokering of items and re-exports. The 1540 Committee recognizes the need to help the international community close these gaps. The 1540 Committee would like to work in even closer cooperation with the IAEA and other NGOs to develop mechanisms to share appropriate information and foster the global effort to

  20. Presidential address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  1. Toward a poetics of translation

    OpenAIRE

    Janaina Rocha de Paula

    2012-01-01

    From the essay "Die Aufgabe des Übersetzers" by Walter Benjamin, and its connection with the book Des tours de Babel by Jacques Derrida, we seek to address translations done by Maria Gabriela Llansol from the concepts of resignation and free giving. Surrending to a translation method within the melancholic/maniac tradition, Llansol’s translation task approaches a poetic practice, having love as its opening element

  2. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opening address by the host country started by thanking to the International Atomic Energy Agency for holding this important scientific event in in Morocco. The themes to be considered by this conference are among the priorities of the Scientific Research Department in its endeavour to promote scientific research in the field of nuclear science and technology for peaceful uses in Morocco. By so doing, this Department is following and supporting the efforts being made by our country to provide training, and elaborate rules and regulations, and to create infrastructure, acquire material and, equipment and encourage qualified and active researchers. Hence, the convening of this conference responds to a strategic interest of our country, which, similar to other countries, is committed to the achievement of comprehensive and sustainable development for the protection of human kind and the environment. This is considered nowadays as a strategic and vital objective as it entails the protection of people from radiation and against all kinds of professional risks and health hazards. Morocco attaches great importance to radiation safety issues. Our country adhered to all international conventions related to nuclear safety. It is in the process of adapting its internal regulations to international norms and standards, and it is making progress towards the establishment of a national safety body which meets those norms and standards, with the assistance of the IAEA. For this purpose, a standing committee for the follow-up of nuclear affairs has been created on the basis of Royal Instructions, and placed under the authority of the Prime Minister. Its task is to serve as a think-tank on nuclear safety issues and to make proposals on ways and means of reinforcing radiation safety measures. It goes without saying that the peaceful uses of nuclear energy must meet the safety standards elaborated by the IAEA. However, we are convinced that the elaboration of safety standards

  3. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    and become more technical. Involving experts from all fields is then crucial for success. This perception is reflected in the goals of this meeting. It is designed as an extensive information exchange forum between decision makers, regulators, radiation and waste safety specialists, and the nuclear industry. It is this mix which promises high efficiency with respect to solving the problems that you are addressing. I am sure that the safe termination of practices involving radioactive materials during the decommissioning of nuclear installations is one of the major challenges that industrialized nations will have to face during the next decades

  4. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Being fully aware of the IAEA's central and important roles in the field of nuclear security, Japan has cooperated closely with the IAEA in the field of nuclear security. One of Japan's efforts was holding a seminar on strengthening nuclear security in Asian countries in November 2006, making use of Japan's contribution to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. The seminar was organized for the first time in Asia to address nuclear security matters, in which more than 100 experts from 19 countries participated. Japan also hosted a seminar, aimed at promoting the accession to the international counterterrorism conventions and protocols, inviting government officials and experts from Asia Pacific countries. At the seminar, Japan presented its experience and lessons learned with regard to its ratification of relevant international conventions such as the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. Japan has also provided assistance for capacity building in the field of physical protection measures, and is preparing three projects for Asian countries through the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. In Thailand, Japan has a project aimed at improving physical protection of nuclear research facilities. In Vietnam, Japan plans to host a workshop on radiation detection equipment for border officials and is also preparing for a seminar aimed at capacity building of control on nuclear material in Vietnam. Japan is committed to continue its efforts to make the IAEA Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement together with an Additional Protocol the universally accepted verification standard for the peaceful use undertakings of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Japan's basic policy on bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements is as follows. Considering the dual nature of nuclear material and technology, Japan is of the view that three Ss, that is, S for 'safeguards' (non-proliferation), S for 'safety

  5. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognizing the global danger of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive material, governments have in recent years taken a number of steps which includes the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), the 2005 Amendments to the CPPNM, the International Convention of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540. Perhaps more important than formal legal measures alone are the actions governments have initiated to institute practical cooperation in this field. Of course, the IAEA has been a leader in this effort, as reflected in the Nuclear Security Plan. Of the many areas where the IAEA has contributed, let me cite three: the development of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, the numerous efforts through technical assistance programmes to assess physical protection needs and to build national capacity to implement physical protection systems, and the collection and dissemination of information through the Illicit Trafficking Database. States are acting together to develop training and communications channels to facilitate intervention in an ongoing illicit transfer or to build national capacity to protect nuclear materials and respond to security threats. 60 nations have joined the Russian Federation and the USA as partners in the global initiative to Combat nuclear Terrorism. These visible forms of international cooperation are backed up by numerous bilateral assistance and cooperation programmes directed at improving physical protection, including during transport, consolidating and eliminating unused nuclear materials and radioactive sources, bolstering nuclear detection at ports and borders, strengthening the ability of law enforcement agencies to identify and prosecute nuclear smuggling cases, developing procedures and protocols to intervene in emergency situations involving nuclear or radioactive materials, and exchanging information on nuclear terrorism

  6. Specialised Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Specialised translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain discourse in a foreign language in connection with translation. The most common type is the business dictionary covering several more or less related subject fields. However, business dictionaries....... The result is that the traditional focus on language system will be extended to usage because the central unit of translation is not the word but the text....

  7. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  8. Precision translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Robert P.; Crawford, Daniel W.

    1984-01-01

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  9. Preventing and Addressing Homophobic and Transphobic Bullying in Education: A Human Rights-Based Approach Using the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Homophobic and transphobic bullying in schools can have a serious effect on children and young people subjected to it at a crucial moment in their lives. It is an obstacle to the right to education, which is one of the basic universal human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and various United Nations Conventions. This…

  10. Addressing Diversity in US Teacher Preparation Programs: A Survey of Elementary and Secondary Programs' Priorities and Challenges from across the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Todd

    2007-01-01

    Data gathered from 142 public university elementary and secondary teacher preparation programs across the United States (representing the preparation of approximately 23,000-30,000 new teachers annually), indicated that race/ethnicity was the most emphasized diversity topic followed by special needs, language diversity, economic (social class),…

  11. Word translation entropy in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard;

    2016-01-01

    language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show......This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross...

  12. Can neural machine translation do simultaneous translation?

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, KyungHyun; Esipova, Masha

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the potential of attention-based neural machine translation in simultaneous translation. We introduce a novel decoding algorithm, called simultaneous greedy decoding, that allows an existing neural machine translation model to begin translating before a full source sentence is received. This approach is unique from previous works on simultaneous translation in that segmentation and translation are done jointly to maximize the translation quality and that translating each segmen...

  13. Translating organizational change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2016-01-01

    This paper takes it point of departure in actor-network-theory (ANT). It responds to the Next Management Theory tracks call for papers that address and further develops our understanding of organizational change as translation processes. It moreover addresses a critique of ANT researchers...... in organizational studies for making descriptions of studied empirical phenomena rather than developing theories and giving normative advice about how organizations or organizational change processes may be theorized, analyzed, managed and/or organized better. A new ANT-inspired theory about the characteristics...... of organizations, organizational change and change agents is therefore developed combining ANT with other theories. The relevance of this view is demonstrated in an analysis of a case where a nurse and the leader of a clinic for orthopedic surgery try to translate and thus implement a risk-management and deviation...

  14. Gazing and Typing Activities during Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Kay, Martin

    2011-01-01

    of the translators’ eye movements and keystrokes. We describe methods to detect patterns of keystrokes (production units) and patterns of gaze fixations on the source text (fixation units) and compare translation performance of student and professional translators. Based on 24 translations from English into Danish...... or write the TT. In contrast to what is frequently expected, our data reveals that TUs are rather coarse units as compared to the notion of ‘translation atom,’ which coincide only partially with linguistic units....

  15. Translational Geoscience: Converting Geoscience Innovation into Societal Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffries, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Translational geoscience — which involves the conversion of geoscience discovery into societal, economic, and environmental impacts — has significant potential to generate large benefits but has received little systematic attention or resources. In contrast, translational medicine — which focuses on the conversion of scientific discovery into health improvement — has grown enormously in the past decade and provides useful models for other fields. Elias Zerhouni [1] developed a "new vision" for translational science to "ensure that extraordinary scientific advances of the past decade will be rapidly captured, translated, and disseminated for the benefit of all Americans." According to Francis Collins, "Opportunities to advance the discipline of translational science have never been better. We must move forward now. Science and society cannot afford to do otherwise." On 9 July 2015, the White House issued a memorandum directing U.S. federal agencies to focus on translating research into broader impacts, including commercial products and decision-making frameworks [3]. Natural hazards mitigation is one of many geoscience topics that would benefit from advances in translational science. This paper demonstrates that natural hazards mitigation can benefit from advances in translational science that address such topics as improving emergency preparedness, communicating life-saving information to government officials and citizens, explaining false positives and false negatives, working with multiple stakeholders and organizations across all sectors of the economy and all levels of government, and collaborating across a broad range of disciplines. [1] Zerhouni, EA (2005) New England Journal of Medicine 353(15):1621-1623. [2] Collins, FS (2011) Science Translational Medicine 3(90):1-6. [3] Donovan, S and Holdren, JP (2015) Multi-agency science and technology priorities for the FY 2017 budget. Executive Office of the President of the United States, 5 pp.

  16. Translation Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandepitte, Sonia; Mousten, Birthe; Maylath, Bruce;

    2014-01-01

    After Kiraly (2000) introduced the collaborative form of translation in classrooms, Pavlovic (2007), Kenny (2008), and Huertas Barros (2011) provided empirical evidence that testifies to the impact of collaborative learning. This chapter sets out to describe the collaborative forms of learning at...

  17. Estimating return on investment in translational research: methods and protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazier, Kyle L; Trochim, William M; Dilts, David M; Kirk, Rosalind

    2013-12-01

    Assessing the value of clinical and translational research funding on accelerating the translation of scientific knowledge is a fundamental issue faced by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and its Clinical and Translational Awards (CTSAs). To address this issue, the authors propose a model for measuring the return on investment (ROI) of one key CTSA program, the clinical research unit (CRU). By estimating the economic and social inputs and outputs of this program, this model produces multiple levels of ROI: investigator, program, and institutional estimates. A methodology, or evaluation protocol, is proposed to assess the value of this CTSA function, with specific objectives, methods, descriptions of the data to be collected, and how data are to be filtered, analyzed, and evaluated. This article provides an approach CTSAs could use to assess the economic and social returns on NIH and institutional investments in these critical activities.

  18. 谈语篇翻译中主位结构的形式对等与功能对等--葛底斯堡演说三篇译文比较为例%Formal Equivalence and Functional Equivalence of Thematic Structure in Translation-A Comparison of Three Trans-lated Versions of Gettysburg Address

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹燕

    2015-01-01

    翻译中存在形式对等与功能对等两个方面。主位结构反映的是语篇的信息结构,原文与译文的主位系统存在着形式对等与功能对等两个方面。通过葛底斯堡演说三篇译文的主位结构分析比较,认为由于英汉语的差异,有的译文与原文的主位结构在形式上不对等,但是功能上是对等的。译文主位结构的选择需要考虑到原语篇的概念意义与人际意义。如果原文是口语语篇,则还应考虑原语篇在音系层的体现。以主位结构的角度来评析翻译作品是可行的。%Thematic structure is a system in textual metafunction. In discourse translation, there are formal equivalence and func⁃tional equivalence between the source text and target text. Through a comparison among the three target texts of Gettysburg Ad⁃dress, it is regarded that a good translation work should make both formal equivalence and functional equivalence. A choice of the⁃matic structure should be related with the ideational metafunction and interpersonal metafunction. If the source text is oral, a real⁃ization of phoneme structure should be taken into consideration. It is feasible to comment on translation through thematic structure.

  19. Geometric Reasoning About Translational Motions

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarzer, Fabian

    2007-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problems of planning highly coordinated collision-free translational motions of multiple objects (general polygons or polyhedra) and finding sequences of translations that allow for the removal of one or more objects. These problems are known to be PSPACE-hard in general. Our main focus is therefore on the design and analysis of adaptive algorithms that can cope with practically relevant cases such as tightly interlaced placements. Exact and complete algorithms are i...

  20. Opening Address by C.L. Otter [3. International Conference on Nuclear Power Plant Life Management, Salt Lake City, UT (United States), 14-18 May 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, the INL’s Advanced Test Reactor is the world’s premier nuclear test reactor. And, it’s a vital tool in developing the next generation of nuclear power plants. That continues a great tradition of work at the INL having a significant influence on every commercial reactor designed in the United States and in many of your countries. One of the key points I make when I meet with a business leader looking to expand or open up a new business in Idaho is our low cost, reliable energy. We have a competitive advantage that provides enormous benefits to Idaho’s industrial, commercial and residential customers. The average residential electric bill in Idaho is 30 per cent less than the national average. The downside is that Idaho only generates about half the electricity it uses; the rest is imported primarily from coal fired plants in neighbouring states. Now, we all know that demand for energy nationwide will grow significantly in the next few decades. For Idaho and many other areas of the western USA, that means we need to increase the supply of safe, reliable and affordable power. And that in turn will require us to be more efficient and more effective, more creative and more collaborative in the role we play as policy makers, industry leaders and regulators of commercial nuclear power

  1. Translational genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kussmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “Translational Genomics” reflects both title and mission of this new journal. “Translational” has traditionally been understood as “applied research” or “development”, different from or even opposed to “basic research”. Recent scientific and societal developments have triggered a re-assessment of the connotation that “translational” and “basic” are either/or activities: translational research nowadays aims at feeding the best science into applications and solutions for human society. We therefore argue here basic science to be challenged and leveraged for its relevance to human health and societal benefits. This more recent approach and attitude are catalyzed by four trends or developments: evidence-based solutions; large-scale, high dimensional data; consumer/patient empowerment; and systems-level understanding.

  2. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The paper explains the theoretical background and findings of an empirical study of revision policies, using Denmark as a case in point. After an overview of important definitions, types and parameters, the paper explains the methods and data gathered from a questionnaire survey and an interview...... survey. Results clearly show that most translation companies regard both unilingual and comparative revisions as essential components of professional quality assurance. Data indicate that revision is rarely fully comparative, as the preferred procedure seems to be a unilingual revision followed by a more...... or less comparative rereading. Though questionnaire data seem to indicate that translation companies use linguistic correctness and presentation as the only revision parameters, interview data reveal that textual and communicative aspects are also considered. Generally speaking, revision is not carried...

  3. Address Points - Volusia County Addresses (Point)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Situs Addresses for Volusia County. Maintained by Growth and Resource Management. Addresses are determined by the cities for their jurisdiction and by the County...

  4. Core Skills in the Development of English-Chinese Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔学颖

    2015-01-01

    English to Chinese translation skill is a comprehensive skill that professionals work hard to develop. Most people know that every English learners have general skills on English-Chinese translation. The way we read, understand, absorb, ana-lyze, and transfer information is what makes each translation different. This dissertation addresses the question of what core skills a professional translator should have when performing English to Chinese translation in professional fields. Verbal English and translation are totally two different skill sets. However, in English-Chinese translation, it needs various kinds of skill sets in different aspects in order to achieve a seamless translation.

  5. Beyond Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the growing scholarship on local development practitioners by re-examining conceptualizations of practitioners as ‘brokers’ strategically translating between ‘travelling’ (development institution) rationalities and ‘placed’ (recipient area) rationalities in relation...... to the development ‘interface’. It argues that local development practitioners, as a result of unconscious dispositions linked to a growing ‘development legacy’, habitually employ a simultaneity of rationalities. Based on fieldwork in northern Ghana conducted in the context of changing development discourse, policy...... and practice spurred by new challenges deriving from climate change anxiety, the study shows how local practitioners often make local activities fit into travelling development rationalities as a matter of habit, rather than as a conscious strategy. They may therefore cease to ‘translate’ between different...

  6. On Feminist Translation Theory and Literary Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄东睿

    2015-01-01

    Feminist translation theory emerged in the late 70s and early 80s of 20th Century. It is the combination of the feminist movement and the“cultural turn”of translation. It was introduced to China in the 1980s, and with the development of the transla⁃tion theory and translation practice, more and more Chinese translators want to study the feminist translation theory from the deep levels.

  7. The paediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (pCAM-ICU): Translation and cognitive debriefing for the German-speaking area

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens de Grahl; Alawi Luetz; Alexander Gratopp; Dennis Gensel; Judith Mueller; Heidi Smith; E Wesley Ely; Heiko Krude; Claudia Spies

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To date there are only a few studies published, dealing with delirium in critically ill patients. The problem with these studies is that prevalence rates of delirium could only be estimated because of the lack of validated delirium assessment tools for the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). The paediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (pCAM-ICU) was specifically developed and validated for the detection of delirium in PICU patients. The purpose of this s...

  8. Completeness of Compositional Translation for Context-Free Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Huijsen, W O

    1996-01-01

    A machine translation system is said to be *complete* if all expressions that are correct according to the source-language grammar can be translated into the target language. This paper addresses the completeness issue for compositional machine translation in general, and for compositional machine translation of context-free grammars in particular. Conditions that guarantee translation completeness of context-free grammars are presented.

  9. On Translation of Ren in The Analects in Terms of Cultural Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qin

    2013-01-01

    In 1980’s, the famous translator and scholar Bassnett proposes a new translation theory, namely cultural translation the-ory, in which Bassnett insists that culture should be taken as the basic unit of translation, which attracts the attentions all over the world. In the thesis, the translation of Ren, one of the main ideas of Confucianism, will be discussed from the perspective of Bassnett’s cultural translation theory. Ren, the essence of The Analects, also the symbol of Chinese traditional culture, is endowed with profound connotation and important status. There are more and more translations of Ren in contemporary era. After com-paring different kinds of translation and cultural translation theory, the most proper way of doing it may be transliterating it to Ren.

  10. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  11. On Becoming a Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2015-01-01

    Douglas Robinson’s Becoming a Translator:An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation has been well received around the world.Fusing translation theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating,it is an essential resource for novice and practicing translators.

  12. Deconstructive Reconsideration of Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳清

    2014-01-01

    This paper is on the deconstructive reconsideration of the definition of translation, the relation of source text and translation, as well as the relation of translator and author. It also points out the differences between tranditioanal concepts of translation and deconstructive reconsideration of translation.

  13. Equivalence in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良杰

    2013-01-01

    There are many researches about translation theories and methods in western translation history. Equivalence in transla⁃tion has always been the central issue for discussion. This paper gives a general review and comment on equivalence in translation in terms of three representative translation theorists and their views about equivalence in translation.

  14. On Becoming a Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2015-01-01

    Douglas Robinson's Becoming a Translator:An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation has been well received around the world.Fusing translation theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating,it is an essential resource for novice and practicing translators.

  15. Translator Studies in Retrospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭勤

    2009-01-01

    The concern about translator has run for thousands of years on which many translators and translation scholars have made comments.A rough examination of the translator within translation studies at home and abroad is expounded in a loosely chronological way as follows.

  16. Efficacy of Female Rat Models in Translational Cardiovascular Aging Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Rice

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Aging is a primary risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease as well as cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Aging is a universal process that all humans undergo; however, research in aging is limited by cost and time constraints. Therefore, most research in aging has been done in primates and rodents; however it is unknown how well the effects of aging in rat models translate into humans. To compound the complication of aging gender has also been indicated as a risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system associated with aging and gender for aging research with regard to the applicability of rat derived data for translational application to human aging.

  17. Translation Theory and Translation Studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qin

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a comparative study of "translation theory" and "translation studies" in China and the West. Its focus is to investigate whether there is translation theory in the Chinese tradition. My study begins with an examination of the debate in China over whether there has already existed a system of translation…

  18. The Peculiar Art of Cultural Formations: Roberto Bolaño and the Translation of Latin American Literature in The United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Pollack

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Les Détectives sauvages de Roberto Bolaño, traduit en anglais en 2007, représente une rupture avec l’esthétique en pleine expansion du réalisme magique et l’appétit du lecteur états-unien pour ce genre. La décision du New York Times de décerner au roman de Bolaño sa plus grande distinction, ainsi que les comptes-rendus enthousiastes que le livre a reçus dans d’autres publications à travers le pays, interrogent inévitablement : comment l’ establishement littéraire des Etats-Unis reconfigure-t-il actuellement ce qu’il juge être « la littérature latino-américaine », et, par extension, comment cette région est-elle représentée à travers la traduction anglaise de ces romans ? Bien que Les Détectives sauvages réorganisent en apparence les coordonnées du roman latino-américain, l’image qui transparaît dans ses pages révèle certaines idées préconçues de l’altérité qui satisfont l’imaginaire des consommateurs de culture états-uniens.Roberto Bolaño’s The Savage Detectives, translated in 2007, represents a break with “boom” aesthetics and the U.S. reader’s appetite for magic realism. The New York Times’s decision to honor Bolaño’s 577-page-long novel with its highest accolade, and the rave reviews the novel received in other publications across the country, necessitate the pondering of how the U.S. literary establishment is presently reconfiguring what it deems “Latin American literature” to be, and, by extension, how it represents the region to itself through literature in English translation. I propose that although The Savage Detectives ostensibly realigns the coordinates of the Latin American novel, the image that is gleaned from its pages foments other (preconceptions of alterity that satisfy the fantasies and collective imagination of U.S. cultural consumers.Los detectives salvajes (1998 de Roberto Bolaño, traducido al inglés en 2007, representa una ruptura con las est

  19. Ministerial Presentation: United States of America. Ambassador Schulte's Remarks on Behalf of Energy Secretary Chu [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is a pleasure to participate in this second Ministerial Conference convened by the IAEA here in Beijing. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu has asked that I deliver this speech on his behalf. He sends his sincere regrets that he is unable to attend this event personally. As you know, this week is Earth Week, and the Secretary is very engaged promoting our energy and climate change agenda back in Washington. Let me assure you, however, that the United States views nuclear energy as an important part of our effort to put the world on the road to a low-carbon future. The global expansion of nuclear energy. It is now widely recognized that nuclear energy has the potential to curtail dependence on fossil fuels and greatly reduce greenhouse gas emissions while promoting greater energy security. Yet, given the stakes associated with the use (and potential misuse) of nuclear energy around the world, it is imperative that all nations with existing or new nuclear power programs play an active role in global efforts to address the safety, security, and safeguards implications of nuclear power. As President Obama recently stated, it is time we consider a new framework for civil nuclear cooperation, one that allows all interested countries to enjoy the benefits of nuclear energy while limiting the associated risks of nuclear weapons proliferation. This new framework should include measures that improve energy security, including an international fuel bank and related fuel services arrangements. This conclusion reflects our recognition of the right of nations that comply with global nonproliferation norms to share in the benefits of peaceful nuclear uses. We also share a responsibility to maintain and strengthen global standards for safety, security and nonproliferation. Today, access to nuclear energy faces significant challenges-- the development of sound infrastructure, the reliable provision of nuclear fuel, and the safe and secure management of spent fuel and nuclear waste

  20. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  1. Translation Theory 'Translated': Three Perspectives on Translation in Organizational Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings....

  2. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  3. On translation equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石雏凤

    2009-01-01

    Nida's translation theories, especially for his "Dynamic equivalence theory", are highly praised and adopted in Chinese translation circle. Howev-er, there are a lot of criticism and misunderstanding at the same time. This paper explores the issue on translation equivalence so as to benefit our translation studies on both theory and practice level.

  4. Translation, Quality and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    , be applied to translation and goes on to present a case study which involves a firm in the translation industry and which illustrates quality management in practice. The paper shows that applying quality management to translation is feasible and that doing so may translate into sustained growth....

  5. Lost in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Zhitao; Chen Wen

    2011-01-01

    IT is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  6. Corpora and Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅丽莉

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Recent years have witnessed a significant growth of corpora heat. One of the many fields where corpora have a growing impact is translation, both at a descriptive and a practical level. Chesterman pointed out that the focus of Translation Studies shifted from translation itself to translators, from regulative to descriptive studies, from philosophical to empirical studies (Chesterman, 1998).

  7. FACTORS REGULATING LIBERAL TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚海红

    2012-01-01

    Literal translation and liberal translation are two important methods and both play key roles in translation.However,some textbooks say that most translations are literal translations while others maintain most are liberal ones,besides,some others suggest a combination of the two.This paper focuses on the facts that regulate liberal translation.Because of the differences in culture,society,history,geography,and so on,there exists a great difference between Chinese language and English language,which does naturally lead to the liberal translation.

  8. Methodological considerations when translating "burnout"

    OpenAIRE

    Allison Squires; Catherine Finlayson; Lauren Gerchow; Cimiotti, Jeannie P.; Anne Matthews; Rene Schwendimann; Peter Griffiths; Reinhard Busse; Maude Heinen; Tomasz Brzostek; Maria Teresa Moreno-Casbas; Aiken, Linda H.; Walter Sermeus

    2014-01-01

    No study has systematically examined how researchers address cross-cultural adaptation of burnout. We conducted an integrative review to examine how researchers had adapted the instruments to the different contexts. We reviewed the Content Validity Indexing scores for the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey from the 12-country comparative nursing workforce study, RN4CAST. In the integrative review, multiple issues related to translation were found in existing studies. In the cross...

  9. Measuring translation competence acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco Jutorán, Mariana; Hurtado Albir, Amparo

    2002-01-01

    The following article describes the development of instruments for measuring the process of acquiring translation competence in written translation. Translation competence and its process of acquisition are firstly described, and then the lack of empirical research in our field is tackled. Thirdly, three measuring instruments especially developed to measure translation competence acquisition are presented: (i) to measure notions about translation, (ii) to measure students’ behaviour when face...

  10. Translation Quality Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Williams

    2009-01-01

    The relevance of, and justification for, translation quality assessment (TQA) is stronger than ever: professional translators, their clients, translatological researchers and trainee translators all rely on TQA for different reasons. Yet whereas there is general agreement about the need for a translation to be "good," "satisfactory" or "acceptable," the definition of acceptability and of the means of determining it are matters of ongoing debate. National and international translation standard...

  11. Cultural Context and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.

  12. Stylistic Requirement for Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Yin-zhen

    2016-01-01

    Stylistic research is subordinate to language use research. The fast maturing modern stylistics has greatly boosted trans-lation studies. Translation has a close relationship with stylistics. Many problems can be solved in translation practice by stylis-tic theories and analysis methods. Based on a brief introduction of stylistics and the relationship between stylistics and transla-tion, this paper will give a specific analysis of the stylistic requirement for translation.

  13. Translation-coupling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  14. Writing Through: Practising Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of

  15. Communicating the Past via Translation: The Manipulation of History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdeon, Roberto A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the connection between translation and narratives of history, with particular attention to Howard Zinn's "A People's History of the United States" and its Spanish version, "La otra historia de los Estados Unidos". It is argued that translation interacts with history in many ways: translation is fundamental to history and, in…

  16. The Probe of Significance of Text Analysis in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莉

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the significance of text analysis in translation in regard to the analysis both inside and outside the "text", discussing the weight of analyzing lexical units and stylistic scales in translation and examining the importance of analyzing the translator's intention, the author's intention and the target language (TL) readership.

  17. Pancreatic Cancer Chemoprevention Translational Workshop: Meeting Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark Steven; Allen, Peter; Brentnall, Teresa A; Goggins, Michael; Hruban, Ralph H; Petersen, Gloria M; Rao, Chinthalapally V; Whitcomb, David C; Brand, Randall E; Chari, Suresh T; Klein, Alison P; Lubman, David M; Rhim, Andrew D; Simeone, Diane M; Wolpin, Brian M; Umar, Asad; Srivastava, Sudhir; Steele, Vernon E; Rinaudo, Jo Ann S

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States with a 5-year survival rate of less than 10%. The Division of Cancer Prevention of the National Cancer Institute sponsored the Pancreatic Cancer Chemoprevention Translational Workshop on September 10 to 11, 2015. The goal of the workshop was to obtain information regarding the current state of the science and future scientific areas that should be prioritized for pancreatic cancer prevention research, including early detection and intervention for high-risk precancerous lesions. The workshop addressed the molecular/genetic landscape of pancreatic cancer and precursor lesions, high-risk populations and criteria to identify a high-risk population for potential chemoprevention trials, identification of chemopreventative/immunopreventative agents, and use of potential biomarkers and imaging for assessing short-term efficacy of a preventative agent. The field of chemoprevention for pancreatic cancer is emerging, and this workshop was organized to begin to address these important issues and promote multi-institutional efforts in this area. The meeting participants recommended the development of an National Cancer Institute working group to coordinate efforts, provide a framework, and identify opportunities for chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27518363

  18. On Advertisement Language Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ya-lu

    2015-01-01

    Advertisement language is a special practical writing with abundant imagination, great creativity and instigation. During translation the diversity in social culture, language and ethnic psychology, etc. will be directly reflected into its effect, presenting both the trouble in business of translators and also significant influences on the business brand. Starting from the features of adver⁃tisement language itself, this paper integrates translation situations and measures from several schools over the latest 20 years, gives typical examples in advertising translation and analyzes from varies perspectives and points out some problems in today ’s ad⁃vertisement translation,aiming to provide some constructive opinions for translation of advertisements.

  19. Film Name Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师晓晓

    2014-01-01

    <正>1.Introduction A good translation of the name should convey the information of the film and attract the audience’s desire for going to the cinema.Translation of film names should have business,information,culture,aesthetic features,while a short eye-catching name aims to leave the audience an unforgettable impression.This thesis discusses the translation of English film names from the aspects of the importance of English film name translation,principles for translating English film names and methods of English film name translation.

  20. Translating the concepts behind gateways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabachinski, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The intention of this installment of IT World is to bring the various aspects of gateways into view. You can see how loosely the gateway term is used and how the meaning of the term has changed over time. Keep concepts of gateways in order by considering their main function. The main function for gateways is to convert from one set of communication protocols to some other set of communication protocols-thus allowing access to otherwise incompatible networks. These functions include: Protocol Conversion--When a message is prepared for transmission, each layer adds control information unique to the protocol used at that layer (see Figure 1). The gateway must be able to convert control information to the format the receiving network expects. Services affected may include message segmentation and reassembly, data flow control, and error detection and recovery. Protocol converters connect networks that use different communication protocols. Address Translation--Different networks may employ different network addressing schemes, mechanisms, and network address structures. The gateway must be able to interpret network addresses in one network and convert them into appropriate network addresses for the other network while holding the validity of the address resolution. Examples that include both protocol conversion and address translation are when a gateway converts a TCP/IP packet to a NetWare IPX packet and vice versa or from AppleTalk to DECnet, and so on. Message Format Conversion--Different networks can employ different message formats, maximum message sizes, or character codes. The gateway must be able to convert messages to an appropriate format, size, and coding for the receiving network. Examples are CGI and an email gateway (which is a layer 7-application layer-gateway). Keep these main concepts in mind while surfing the web trying to find out more information about what your gateways are up to! PMID:16796324

  1. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeman, Daniel J.; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J.

    2012-01-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component “hepatitis c virus” separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such “Ab.IgG”, “DNA”, and “RNA”. We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into 9 languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC’s open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange PMID:22285984

  2. Nonhuman Primate Models in Translational Regenerative Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Daadi, Marcel M.; Barberi, Tiziano; Shi, Qiang; Lanford, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs) are similar in size, behavior, physiology, biochemistry, structure and function of organs, and complexity of the immune system. Research on NHPs generates complementary data that bridge translational research from small animal models to humans. NHP models of human disease offer unique opportunities to develop stem cell–based therapeutic interventions that directly address relevant and challenging translational aspects of cell transplantation therapy. These ...

  3. Translation in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  4. Accommodating Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This is an article in a series illustrating the way scholars in communication have pursued translating their research into practice. The translational nature of communication accommodation theory and examples of its application are the focus of this contribution.

  5. Living in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    Exaugural presentation. A retrospect of my personal itinerary from literature, across translation studies to translation process research and a look ahead. In the retrospect, I range over diverse topics, all of which have sprung from my concern with the phenomenon of translation. I reflect on how......, as humans, we generate meaning, interpret meaning, and reformulate or translate meaning. I also reflect on the way computing has influenced research into these phenomena as seen e.g. in my creation of the Translog program and in projects I have been involved in, such as OFT (Translation of Professional...... for global communication purposes, and for improving research into translation, the phenomenon of translation and the world of translation in which we all live....

  6. Speaking your Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara; Mees, Inger M.; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the translation processes and products of 14 MA students who produced translations from Danish (L1) into English (L2) under different working conditions: (1) written translation, (2) sight translation, and (3) sight translation with a speech recognition (SR) tool. Audio...... output and keystrokes were recorded. Oral and written translation data were examined in order to investigate if task times and translation quality differed in the three modalities. Although task times were found to be highest in written translation, the quality was not consistently better. In addition......, since students were dictating in their L2, we looked into the number and types of error that occurred when using the SR software. Items that were misrecognised by the program could be divided into three categories: homophones, hesitations, and incorrectly pronounced words. Well over fifty per cent...

  7. Lost in translation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granas, Anne Gerd; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The "Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire" (BMQ) assess balance of necessity and concern of medicines. The BMQ has been translated from English to many languages. However, the original meaning of statements, such as "My medicine is a mystery to me", may be lost in translation. The aim...... IMPLICATIONS: Our findings are of relevance to other BMQ translations in non-English countries, as direct comparisons between different translations might not be reliable or valid....

  8. Metaphor and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    坎曼丽·麦麦提; 朱毅

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the author first analyzed the nature of metaphor and difficulties in metaphor translation, displayed the fac-tors that will influence the translation between English and Chinese metaphors, and then explored the metaphor translation strate-gies by taking some English and Chinese idioms as examples.

  9. Using Pragmatic in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井琳

    2013-01-01

    Translating process is coordination of the source language and target language. As the source language and translation language readers are in different cultural background, so their understanding of the environment is different. When the translator express their understanding in the receptor language, he must figure out the best relevance between source language and target language, which can achieve pragmatic equivalence.

  10. For "Translation and Theories"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Lili

    2009-01-01

    Translation studies stem from comparative literature and contrastive analysis. It involves the transfer of messages between two different language systems and cultures, and Munday (2001, p.1) notes that translation "by its nature" "is multilingual and also interdisciplinary". Translation subjects are the texts in various…

  11. OVERVIEW OF TRANSLATION- JAHIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Yuslina Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research tries to contrive Jahiz's stands and ideas in translation which he has discussed in his two books named "Al-Bayan Wal-Tabyeen" and "Al-Haiwan". As it was known this issue of translation was emergence since long period of time, and there was no need toward translation, however, after Arabian and Persian assembled with Greek philosophers had increasingly the need and concerned on Religion Sciences and others, for instances: Mathematics, Medicine, Logic, Engineering, Business and others which were existed during that time. The translation movement had gone by several stages in the different periods and being developed during Abassid period for example, the works of "Hanen Ibn Ishaq" and his own school which the translators had faced difficulties and problems in their translation. To summarize, this research has found a number of results that the "Jahiz" was precedence than others who had stated the conditions of translation before 12th century ago. Besides, these conditions appropriate till nowadays, he had also pointed these conditions cannot be applied in translation of literature texts and holy texts because its might be obliterated the savoir faire. "Jahiz" had looked through this issue seriously, he tried to help translators in this area and he had stated in his famous books the conditions of translation and he had given his ideas toward translation benefited from his previous experience in translation the ancient philosopher's books from Persian to Arabic. Though, the readers could benefit his ideas in translation generally and for the translator specifically, also his books became as a heritage references and cannot be neglected at all in translation work.

  12. Lost in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Steffen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    translated texts. Our results suggest (i) that frame-based classifiers are usable for author attribution of both translated and untranslated texts; (ii) that framebased classifiers generally perform worse than the baseline classifiers for untranslated texts, but (iii) perform as well as, or superior to the...... baseline classifiers on translated texts; (iv) that—contrary to current belief—naïve classifiers based on lexical markers may perform tolerably on translated texts if the combination of author and translator is present in the training set of a classifier....

  13. Foreignizing Translation and Domesticating Translation of Hong Kong Movie Titles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林慧韵

    2014-01-01

    Generally,the movie title translation strategy would be divided into two:domesticating translation strategy and foreignizing translation strategy.The movie title translation in Hong Kong is chosen to be the material for the analysis of the domesticating translation strategy and foreignizing translation strategy,compared with that of Mainland China.

  14. Compiling a Corpus for Teaching Medical Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth de la Teja Bosch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: medical translation has countless documentary sources; the major difficulty lies in knowing how to assess them. The corpus is the ideal tool to perform this activity in a rapid and reliable way, and to define the learning objectives based on text typology and oriented towards professional practice.Objective: to compile an electronic corpus that meets the requirements of the professional practice to perform specialized medical translation. Methods: a pedagogical research was conducted in the province of Cienfuegos. The units of analysis involved records from translators of the Provincial Medical Sciences Information Center and specialized translators in this field, who completed a questionnaire to accurately determine their information needs, conditioning the corpus design criteria. The analysis of a set of texts extracted from highly reputable sources led to the text selection and final compilation. Subsequently, the validation of the corpus as a documentary tool for teaching specialized medical translation was performed. Results: there was a concentration of translation assignments in the topics: malignant tumors, hypertension, heart disease, diabetes mellitus and pneumonias. The predominant text typologies were: evaluative and dissemination of current research, with plenty original articles and reviews. The text corpus design criteria were: unannotated, documented, specialized, monitor and comparable. Conclusions: the corpus is a useful tool to show the lexical, terminological, semantic, discursive and contextual particularities of biomedical communication. It allows defining learning objectives and translation problems. Key words: teaching; translating; medicine

  15. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  16. Addressing Social Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  17. Text Type and Translation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘福娟

    2015-01-01

    Translation strategy and translation standards are undoubtedly the core problems translators are confronted with in translation. There have arisen many kinds of translation strategies in translation history, among which the text type theory is considered an important breakthrough and a significant complement of traditional translation standards. This essay attempts to demonstrate the value of text typology (informative, expressive, and operative) to translation strategy, emphasizing the importance of text types and their communicative functions.

  18. Appendix III: Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant: Phased implementation of similar units - Human resource management and training programmes (Romania) (Case study of human resource issues faced by NPP operating organizations, and how they were (or are being) addressed)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power generation is a reliable source of energy for Romania and an important contributor to the national electricity supply. Romania has one nuclear power plant, Cernavoda, which operates one CANDU 6 reactor, 707 MW(e), designed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL). Provides about 10 percent of the total country energy consumption. The state-owned company responsible for the production and supply of energy from Cernavoda NPP, as well as for its development, is Societatea Nationala 'Nuclearelectrica'. The plant was designed to have five similar units. The studies performed for the plant, prior to the construction's start, established feasible technical solutions for all problems related to a 5-unit site, including the environmental impact, which would be entirely acceptable. Construction of the first unit started in 1980 and of units 2-5 in 1982. The pressing problems encountered during construction of Unit 1 (import restrictions, delays etc.) restrained the progress at Unit 2. Starting with 1990, the work on Cernavoda site was focused on Unit 1 and the construction at the other units was suspended. Since then, only preservation activities have been carried-out. The re-start of work at Unit 2 took place in 1995, under the management of the AECLANSALDO Consortium. Some construction work was carried-out (e.g. installation of the fuel channels) and a thorough assessment was performed concerning the condition of the equipment procured for Unit 2 and stored on site, or already installed. The absence of a clear contractual framework and the lack of resources hindered significant advance in the construction of Unit 2. Since then, many economic estimates foresee that, starting with winter 2005 when Romanian electricity consumption is expected to increase with about 1000 MW(e), the annual electricity production will become insufficient and will be not covered unless Unit 2 of Cernavoda NPP is commissioned. In this environment and considering the relatively low cost

  19. Rare diseases research: expanding collaborative translational research opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groft, Stephen C

    2013-07-01

    Extensive public-private partnerships, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the rare diseases community, which is seeing a renewed industry interest in smaller niche markets, have resulted in an increase of interventions for rare diseases. Significant collaborative efforts are required among the pharmaceutical industry, foundations, patient-advocacy groups, academic and government investigators and funding programs, regulatory scientists, and reimbursement agencies to meet the unmet diagnostic and treatment needs for approximately 25 million people in the United States with 7,000 rare diseases. The expanding role and outreach activities of patient-advocacy groups have increased public awareness. In the United States, a rare disease is defined as a disorder or condition with a prevalence of $3.5 billion for rare diseases research, including $750 million for orphan product development activities, nearly 11.4% of the NIH research budget. Several research institutes and centers of the NIH, including the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, have initiated varied translational research efforts to address the absence of preclinical and clinical data required for regulatory review purposes. Clinicians can expect to see significant increases in requests from patients and their families to participate in patient registries and natural history or observational studies to gather specific information from a larger pool of patients on the progression of the disease or response to treatments. An expanding emphasis on rare diseases provides hope for the millions of patients with rare diseases.

  20. [Translational research: an interpretation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Reinaldo

    2013-06-01

    Translational Research (TR) appears to be developing into the key health research issue of the beginning of this century. Initially proposed in the United States, TR is spread rapidly throughout both the developed and the developing world. This article discusses the main topics it covers, such as its definition and scope and the reasons why it has emerged in the USA and in this century. It examines the relationship between TR and the basic principles of US scientific policy established at the end of World War II. It sees the demands of a mighty pharmaceutical industry, currently facing a major crisis, linked to scientific genomic and post-genomic output impairments in terms of real innovative products and processes as being the explanation for US government intervention in biomedical research via the NIH. It realizes that it is not easy to predict the future of TR and suggests that it is not sustained by a solid conceptual and theoretical framework. It also discusses the opportunities and possibilities of TR in countries with nascent national innovative systems, such as Brazil. Lastly, it suggests that the existence of a universal health system can be an important tool to provide potential research answers tin health for the demands of innovation on the part of society. PMID:23752539

  1. Current Trends in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Maylath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Driven by the growth of a global economy and developments in high technology, the process of creating and translating technical documentation has been evolving rapidly. In particular, machine translation (MT has shown increasing capabilities of efficaciously accomplishing the early stages of the eight stages of translation identified years ago by Robert Bly. As a consequence, translators have learned to use MT as a tool to accelerate their work, but they have also grown wary of MT’s potential for replacing them. To ensure steady employment, some translators have begun cross-training as technical writers; correspondingly, a few technical writers have begun cross-training as translators, as the two professions appear to be undergoing a gradual trend of convergence. Academic programs are urged to respond to the evolving trends.

  2. Relevance Theory in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Jun; Jiang Min

    2008-01-01

    In perspective of relevance theory, translation is regarded as communication. According to relevance theory, communication not only requires encoding, transfer and decoding processes, but also involves inference in addition. As communication, translation decision-making is also based on the human beings' inferential mental faculty. Concentrating on relevance theory, this paper tries to analyze and explain some translation phenomena in two English versions of Cai Gen Tan-My Crude Philosophy of Life.

  3. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor develop...

  4. Translating the Untranslatable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jie; WANG Ping

    2015-01-01

    Translations contribute to our knowledge and understanding in various fields of daily life, as they open us to a greater awareness of the world in which we live. The deeper we are delved into the meaning of the translation, the more questions are raised, among which, translatable/untranslatable argument strikes the most. In this article, factors including cultural vocabulary va⁃cancy and different image associations leading to temporary untranslatability are presented. Besides, the strategies to change this situation to relatively translatable are given as well.

  5. Translation and Political Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bánhegyi Mátyás

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the text linguistic research of political texts in the field of Translation Studies and presents an overview of critical discourse analysis-based studies. First, the relationship between text, power and ideology and its implications on the role of translation are explored. This is followed by a review of a number of studies on the translation of political texts and on the power relations involved. The paper classifies such studies into the following six categories representing distinct research fields: translators' professional roles and politics; translators acting as mediators in situations of political conflict; translators' professional responsibilities and the strategies they apply; the inference of translators' own historical, social and cultural backgrounds; manipulation in the translation of literary texts and other text types; and critical discourse awareness in Translation Studies. The most recent studies in the above research fields and their results are also presented. It is concluded that these approaches exhibit quite varied research methods and their results are almost impossible to compare. With a view to the future development of this research field, it seems expedient to introduce a unified research theory, method and tool.

  6. Translation, capitalism, psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Goran Skare

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article defends that the discourse of the translator is the inverse of the discourse of the capitalist. We present the theory of discourses of the psychoanalist Jacques Lacan: the discourse of the master, of the university, of the hysteric and of the analyst, as well as the capitalist. We develop the characteristics of the translator and his ethics of the Real, and we formally present his discourse. We oppose the discourses of the translator and of the capitalist. We conclude that the translator can question the hegemonic discourse

  7. Trusted Translation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Yacine; Serhani, Mohamed Adel; Campbell, Piers; Mathew, Sujith Samuel

    Administering multilingual Web sites and applications reliably, involves interconnected and multipart tasks, where trust in the involved parties and content translation sources is paramount. Published Web sites may reflect content from databases, content management systems and other repositories to manage related Web content. But a Web site mirrored wholly or selectively onto a target language version requires streamlined trusted processes. Traditionally, files are translated and transferred via FTP, e-mail, or other communication means. Similarly, translation instructions are communicated between involved parties through verbal instruction, e-mail, and instruction files lead to a variety of inconsistencies and lack of trust in the translation process. This paper proposes a Web service approach to streamline the translation processes and an integration of trust properties in the proposed translation Web services. Web Services have been instrumental in handling problems inherent to systems integration, allowing web-based systems to converse and communicate data automatically. The OASIS Translation Web Services Technical Committee has released a standard way for Web Services to serve the translation and localization business. This article proposes a framework to centralize translation services at a reputable source providing a workflow and a mechanism to quantify service trust. An implementation of the framework is also described in the context of a localization case study.

  8. Translation and corpus design

    OpenAIRE

    Zanettin, Federico

    2011-01-01

    In this article I discuss the role of translated texts in different types of corpora. I first consider the role of translations in corpus-based monolingual linguistics, arguing that while translated texts are often excluded from corpora on the basis of a more or less implicit assumption that they “corrupt” the reference norm for a language, this assumption does not seem to be justified on theoretical grounds. For the same reason, translated texts should also be included in bi- and multi-lingu...

  9. Cultural bridge: translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易菲

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers study on the relation between culture and language, language and translation, or culture and translation. Indeed, the three subjects are inseparable. It's incomprehensive to look into just two of them for a linguist. It's more useful for us to study on the relation between them, because we can extend our eyesight and searching scope and propel our translation business. Moreover, studying on them provides a rich material for other fields, such as sociology, translation, cross-cultural communication as well as give other subjects a lead to deep further.

  10. Stimulating translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim;

    2015-01-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research with...... without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom.......Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research...

  11. Feminist Translation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩伟

    2008-01-01

    Feminist translation studies have underg one rapid development in China in recent years.However,most of its research rema ins on the inquiry of the influence on the theoretical layer.In this thesis,I tr y to probe carefully into the translation of "Men and Women,Women and the City" done by Zhu Hong in an attempt to find out wh at is the difference that exits in the translation between the Chinese female tr anslators and the western feminist translators.

  12. ALinguisticandStylisticAnalysisoftheChineseTranslationofObama’sSpeechattheFirstMeetingoftheStrategicandEconomicDialoguebetweentheUnitedStatesandChina--ThroughtheLensofReiss’sTextTypeTheory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付端凌

    2014-01-01

    AccordingtoReiss’sTextTypetheory,akeypartofthefunctionalistapproachintranslationstudies,thesourcetextcanbeassignedtoatexttypeandtoagenre.Inmakingthisassignment,thetranslatorcandecideonthehierarchyofpostulateswhichhastobeobservedduringtarget-textproduction(Mona,2005).ThisessayintendstoconductalinguisticandstylisticanalysisoftheChinesetranslationofObama’sspeechtoexplorethegeneralapproachofthetranslatorifthereisone),bycomparingtherespectiveresultsofthetwoanalysesfromtheperspectiveofKatharinaReiss’sTextTypetheory.Indoingso,criticaljudgmentswillaccordinglybemadeastowhethersuchanapproachisjustifiableornot.

  13. Engaging basic scientists in translational research: identifying opportunities, overcoming obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hobin Jennifer A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This report is based on the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology’s symposium, “Engaging basic Scientists in Translational Research: Identifying Opportunities, Overcoming Obstacles,” held in Chevy Chase, MD, March 24–25, 2011. Meeting participants examined the benefits of engaging basic scientists in translational research, the challenges to their participation in translational research, and the roles that research institutions, funding organizations, professional societies, and scientific publishers can play to address these challenges.

  14. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution. PMID:24758452

  15. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  16. Influence of Cultural Differences on Advertisement Translation and Trademark Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓玮

    2014-01-01

    Advertisement translation and trademark translation are becoming more and more prevailing and influential under the increasing development of internationalization of business. This paper attempts to analyze the influence of cultural differences on advertisement translation and trademark translation. It finds that advertisement translation and trademark translation are under the impressive influence of the differences between Chinese and Western cultures. This paper aims to stress the cultural differences in advertisement translation and trademark translation and reminds translators of the importance of noticing cultural differences and finding a proper point between foreign cultures and native cultures.

  17. Creativity, Culture and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Siamak; Wan Yahya, Wan Roselezam; Babaee, Ruzbeh

    2014-01-01

    Some scholars (Bassnett-McGuire, Catford, Brislin) suggest that a good piece of translation should be a strict reflection of the style of the original text while some others (Gui, Newmark, Wilss) consider the original text untranslatable unless it is reproduced. Opposing views by different critics suggest that translation is still a challenging…

  18. Translation as (Global) Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  19. Text Coherence in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanping

    2009-01-01

    In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…

  20. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge;

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have...

  1. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge;

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have...

  2. Translation as Literary Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Stefano, B. Follkart

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that literary translation is intrinsically an act of literary criticism. This theory is illustrated by discussion of specific problems in translating Sartre's "La Nausee" and Leonard Forest's "Le pays de la Sagouine," especially the use of verb tense. (MSE)

  3. Translational Health Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogowski, Wolf; John, Jürgen; IJzerman, Maarten; Scheffler, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Translational health economics (THE) can be defined as the use of theoretical concepts and empirical methods in health economics to bridge the gap between the decision to fund and use a new health technology in clinical practice (the backend of translational medicine) and the decision to invest into

  4. Translational control of cyclins

    OpenAIRE

    Lai Ming-Chih; Tarn Woan-Yuh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Regulation of cyclin levels is important for many cell cycle-related processes and can occur at several different steps of gene expression. Translational regulation of cyclins, which occurs by a variety of regulatory mechanisms, permits a prompt response to signal transduction pathways induced by environmental stimuli. This review will summarize translational control of cyclins and its influence on cell cycle progression.

  5. Culture Difference and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冬兰

    2012-01-01

    Culture difference is necessary to be paid attention to during the process of translating.Culture difference is caused by different history,regions,customs,religions and the modes of thinking.Having the awareness of the culture difference will make translation more accurate and successful.

  6. Idioms and Back Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The challenges of intercultural communication are an integral part of many undergraduate business communication courses. Marketing gaffes clearly illustrate the pitfalls of translation and underscore the importance of a knowledge of the culture with which one is attempting to communicate. A good way to approach the topic of translation pitfalls in…

  7. Quantifying the Efficiency of a Translator: The Effect of Syntactical and Literal Written Translations on Language Comprehension Using the Machine Translation System FALCon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloh, Ian A.; Morton, Jillian; Jantzi, Jennifer K.; Rodriguez, Amy M.; Graham, John

    2008-01-01

    This study introduces a new method of evaluating human comprehension in the context of machine translation using a language translation program known as the FALCon (Forward Area Language Converter). The participants include 48 freshmen from the United States Military Academy enrolled in the General Psychology course, PL100. Results of this study…

  8. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  9. Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…

  10. Sign Language to Speech Translation System Using PIC Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunasekaran. K

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in embedded system, provides a space to design and develop a sign language translator system to assist the dumb people. This paper mainly addresses to facilitate dumb person's lifestyle. Dumb people throughout the world use sign language to communicate with others, this is possible for those who has undergone special trainings. Common people also face difficult to understand the gesture language. To overcome these real time issues, this system is developed. Whenever the proposed system senses any sign language, it plays corresponding recorded voice. This reduces the communication gap between dumb and ordinary people. This proposed model consist of four modules, they are sensing unit, processing unit, voice storage unit and wireless communication unit. It is achieved by integrating flux sensor and APR9600 with PIC16F877A. The flux sensors are placed in gloves, which respond to gesture. By using suitable circuit response of the sensor is given to the microcontroller based on the response microcontroller plays the recorded voice using APR9600. A snapshot of the entire system, advantage over existing methods and simulation output of the process is discussed in this work. Thissystem offers high reliability and fast response. This method is more precise on hand movement and different languages can be installed without altering the code in PIC microcontroller.

  11. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  12. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  13. Translation and Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    1996-01-01

    of translation would be. To provide a backdrop against which the issue may be discussed, I present an overview of the two areas which seem most likely to hold potential answers, viz., that of translation theory and that of quality management. Section 1. gives a brief outline of some contributions to translation...... theory which would seem likely to be of interest in this connection and section 2. gives a linguist's introduction to the part of the area of quality management which I consider relevant for present purposes. Section 3. is devoted to the case study of a small translation firm which has been certified...... under the ISO 9001 standard, and section 4. discusses the implications which quality management seems to hold for the field of translation in a broad sense. Finally, section 5. concludes the article....

  14. On the 40th Anniversary of the Restoration of the Lawful Seat of the People's Republic of China in the United Nations Keynote Address at the Fourth Lanting Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Hailong

    2011-01-01

    Excellencies,Scholars and experts,Friends from the business commnmunity and the press,Ladies and gentlemen,The theme of this Lanting Forum is China and the United Nations (UN).This is of special significance,because this year marks the 40th anniversary of the restoration of the lawful seat of the People's Republic of China in the UN.

  15. Translation skills of Business English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Lu; He Yan-ni

    2014-01-01

    With the deepening of economic globalization, business English plays an increasingly vital role. In order to better translate business English, the translator has to adopt some important translation techniques. Thus, emphasis is placed on business English translation skills, such as omission, supplement and word conversion, etc, which provides some practical advice to the translation of business English.

  16. Translation in Global News Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Othman, Zeineb

    2012-01-01

    The work is divided into two parts. The 1st part is the translation of Chapter One "Power language and translation" and the Chapter Four "Translation in Global News Agencies". The 2nd part is about the characteristics and theories of translation particularly in News Agencies and Institutions as well as the difficulties I found in the translation of a specialized book.

  17. Theory of Test Translation Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…

  18. Translation skills of Business English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu; Lu; He; Yan-ni

    2014-01-01

    With the deepening of economic globalization,business English plays an increasingly vital role.In order to better translate business English,the translator has to adopt some important translation techniques.Thus,emphasis is placed on business English translation skills,such as omission,supplement and word conversion,etc,which provides some practical advice to the translation of business English.

  19. REFLECTION AND TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korolkova Svetlana Azadovna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the correlation between reflection and translation and proves the possibility to extrapolate the notion of "hermeneutic circle" into translation. Translation, which is understood as a specific speech activity, has a hermeneutic character as in its basis there is a "reflexive delay", a specific state of intelligence which occurs as a result of a language, ethnic or cultural barrier and demands a reflective action. At that, the circle is transformed into a spiral, which lets conceive the essence of every text fragment through its integration into the former comprehended layer. Interpretation, a reflexive action, which has a three-level structure, creates a unified image of a foreign text in the translator's consciousness and provides the integration of the text concept into the translator's pragmatic net, the representative of a foreign language community, and promotes the target text creation which conforms to the recipient's expectations. At that, the interpreter's personality, their ability to interpret, total existential competence and active position are of precedence for sense comprehension. Reflexive abilities refer to the category of the over-subjective; however, they provide adequate interpretation of the source text and creation of the so-called natural target text. The so-called des-objective reading, predicted synthesis and retrospective analysis are the key notions for the translator. Such abilities are the basis of the professional competence of the translator, who becomes not only a professional but also an intelligent personality that has existential and academic background.

  20. Combining statistical machine translation and translation memories with domain adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Läubli, Samuel; Fishel, Mark; Volk, Martin; Weibel, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Since the emergence of translation memory software, translation companies and freelance translators have been accumulating translated text for various languages and domains. This data has the potential of being used for training domain-specific machine translation systems for corporate or even personal use. But while the resulting systems usually perform well in translating domain-specific language, their out-of-domain vocabulary coverage is often insufficient due to the limited size of the t...

  1. On the Degree of Approximation by Spherical Translations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-huai Sheng

    2006-01-01

    The degree of approximation of spherical functions by the translations formed by a function defined on the unit sphere is dealt with. A kind of Jackson inequality is established under the condition that none of the L2(Sq) norms of the orthogonal projection operators of the translated function are zeros. In the present paper we show that the spherical translations share the same degree of approximation as that of spherical harmonics.

  2. The Teaching of Old English in Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuso, Joseph F.

    Advantage should be taken of the increased interest in teaching Old English literature, in translation, at the college and high school levels. The study of "Beowulf" and other Old English literature has proved to be a stimulating experience for students at the United States Air Force Academy and at Georgia College. At the academy, the study of…

  3. Cultural Considerations in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嫔荣

    2009-01-01

    Language is the expression of human communication through which knowledge, belief, and behavior can be experi- enced, explained, and shared. It influences the way the speakers perceive the world. But as it has been long taken for granted, translation deals only with language. Cultural perspective, however, has never been brought into discussion. This paper first analyses the definitions of translation and culture, and then discusses why we should take culture into consideration and in the end, two translating strategies: domestication and foreignization are introduced.

  4. Translation as a discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Walkiewicz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Every translation is a second-order discourse, based on a first-order discourse, whose form is the result of negotiation between the discursive polysystems of the source and target cultures. Its dual role, representing the source-language discourse in the target culture as well as meeting the intended expectations of the target text receiver, inevitably entails the intervention of the translator as a second-order communicating subject, as will be illustrated using a French translation of a building design.

  5. Cultural Considerations in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嫔荣

    2009-01-01

    Language is the expression of human communication through which knowledge, belief, and behavior can be experi-enced, explained, and shared. It influences the way the speakers perceive the world. But as it has been long taken for granted, translation deals only with language. Cultural perspective, however, has never been brought into discussion. This paper first analyses the definitions of translation and culture, and then discusses why we should take culture into consideration and in the end, two translating strategies:domestication and foreignization are introduced.

  6. Machine Translation of Public Health Materials From English to Chinese: A Feasibility Study

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Anne M.; Dew, Kristin N; Desai, Loma; Martin, Nathalie; Kirchhoff, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Background Chinese is the second most common language spoken by limited English proficiency individuals in the United States, yet there are few public health materials available in Chinese. Previous studies have indicated that use of machine translation plus postediting by bilingual translators generated quality translations in a lower time and at a lower cost than human translations. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using machine translation (MT) tool...

  7. Translation, Cultural Translation and the Hegemonic English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Horak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This brief chapter problematizes the hegemonic position of the English language in Cultural Studies, which, in the author's view, can be understood as a moment that stands against a true internationalisation of the project. Following an argu-ment referring to the necessary 'translation' process (here seen as 're-articulation', 'transcoding' or 'transculturation' Stuart Hall has put forward almost two decades ago, the essay, firstly, turns to the notion of 'linguistic translations', and deals, secondly, with what has been coined 'cultural translation'. Discussing approaches developed by Walter Benjamin, Umberto Eco and Homi Bhabha, the complex relationship between the two terms is being investigated. Finally, in a modest attempt to throw some light on this hegemonic structure, central aspects of the output of three important journals (European Journal of Cultural Studies, International Journal of Cultural Studies, Cultural Studies, i. e. an analysis of the linguistic and institutional backgrounds of the authors of the ten most-read and most-cited essays, are presented. Based on these findings I argue that it is not simply the addition of the discursive field (language to the academic space (institution that defines the mecha-nism of exclusion and inclusion. Rather, it is the articulation of both moments, i.e. that of language and that of the institution, which - in various contexts (but in their own very definite ways - can help to develop that structure which at present is still hindering a further, more profound internationalisation of the project that is Cultural Studies.

  8. Perceived radial translation during centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Correia Grácio, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Linear acceleration generally gives rise to translation perception. Centripetal acceleration during centrifugation, however, has never been reported giving rise to a radial, inward translation perception. OBJECTIVE: To study whether centrifugation can induce a radial translation percepti

  9. Translation Strategies of English Metaphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令会

    2010-01-01

    Metaphor is one of the important and forceful figures of speech in English. In practice of translating English metaphors into Chinese, some approaches are available: literal translation, changing metaphor into sim/h, conversion, liberal translation and complement.

  10. KVSA VERTAALPRYS / CASA TRANSLATION PRIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie De Villiers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A translation competition was initiated and sponsored by theClassical Association of South Africa in 2011. This translation wasjudged to be the best student translation submitted to CASA duringthis past year.

  11. False Psychology Treaty for Translators

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Frosin

    2015-01-01

    The publication of a book containing translations of our great writers should not leave anyone indifferent, even less the experienced translators. By using objective criticism and based on examples from translations, we have chosen in this study to examine the feat, as we say, the feat of Annie Bentoiu, for the translation of Eminescu, for the reason that his translation of the LAC is resumed in 4 covers. This poem is viewed under the microscope by the translator's experience of m...

  12. Statistical computer-assisted translation

    OpenAIRE

    Khadivi, Shahram

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, significant improvements have been achieved in statistical machine translation (MT), but still even the best machine translation technology is far from replacing or even competing with human translators. However, an MT system helps to increase the productivity of human translators. Usually, human translators edit the MT system output to correct the errors, or they may edit the source text to limit vocabulary. A way of increasing the productivity of the whole translation proce...

  13. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven; Dam, Helle Vrønning

    2017-01-01

    Translation, interpreting and lexicography represent three separate areas of human activity, each of them with its own theories, models and methods and, hence, with its own disciplinary underpinnings. At the same time, all three disciplines are characterized by a marked interdisciplinary dimension...... in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...... disciplines frequently come into touch with each other. This chapter discusses and explores some of the basic aspects of this interrelationship, focusing on the (potential) contribution of lexicography to translation and interpreting and on explaining the basic concepts and methods of the former discipline...

  14. Translation and Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Bezerra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the differences betweenscientific and fictional translations, and focus on the second.The fictional translation works with meanings, opens itselfto the plurissignification in the purpose to create a similarity of the dissimilarity; in this process, the translator does nottranslate a language, but what a creative individuality makeswith a language. At last there is an approach to the knowledgeand skills necessaries to a translator of literature: theknowledge of the theories of the literature and of thetranslation, the capacity to preserve the national color ofthe original text and at the same time to respect the arrivallanguage, and the sensibility to his national languagevariations present in the daily and in the literary spheres.

  15. On Chinese Parody Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊俊

    2013-01-01

    Chinese parody, as a traditional figure of speech, has captured more and more attention from scholars. The researches conducted up to date are inadequate in theorizing and exploring its translation. This paper, based on the comparative data analysis of Chinese parody translation examples in different types of texts, attempts to probe into the means about how to achieve the clos⁃est function equivalence in rendering Chinese parody under the guidance of Sociosemiotic Approach. It is found that the nature of Chinese parody translation is to achieve the closest natural equivalence or similarity in expressive function, informative func⁃tion, vocative function and aesthetic function in its equivalents in English. And it is suggested that borrowing, imitating, para⁃phrasing and adapting are effective strategies in translating Chinese parody.

  16. Lost in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Wiebke; Reusswig, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    Lost in Translation? Introducing Planetary Boundaries into Social Systems. Fritz Reusswig, Wiebke Lass Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries by interdisciplinary science efforts is a challenging task—and a risky one, as the 1972 Limits to Growth publication has shown. Even if we may be assured that scientific understanding of underlying processes of the Earth system has significantly improved since then, the challenge of translating these findings into the social systems of the planet remains crucial for any kind of action, and in many respects far more challenging. We would like to conceptualize what could also be termed a problem of coupling social and natural systems as a nested set of social translation processes, well aware of the limited applicability of the language-related translation metaphor. Societies must, first, perceive these boundaries, and they have to understand their relevance. This includes, among many other things, the organization of transdisciplinary scientific cooperation. They will then have to translate this understood perception into possible actions, i.e. strategies for different local bodies, actors, and institutional settings. This implies a lot of 'internal' translation processes, e.g. from the scientific subsystem to the mass media, the political and the economic subsystem. And it implies to develop subsystem-specific schemes of evaluation for these alternatives, e.g. convincing narratives, cost-benefit analyses, or ethical legitimacy considerations. And, finally, societies do have to translate chosen action alternatives into monitoring and evaluation schemes, e.g. for agricultural production or renewable energies. This process includes the continuation of observing and re-analyzing the planetary boundary concept itself, as a re-adjustment of these boundaries in the light of new scientific insights cannot be excluded. Taken all together, societies may well

  17. Stochastic noise in translation

    OpenAIRE

    Stefaniuk, Adam; Racle, Julien; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily

    2011-01-01

    Translation lies at the heart of every living organism, it is the process synthesizing the proteins, a main component in the cells. Earlier studies have considered protein synthesis as mainly initiation limited, modeling it as a first-order reaction with respect to free ribosomes and mRNA. In such studies, the noise is therefore coming from initiation phase only. We have previously studied a continuous deterministic model for translation, taking into account the ribosome elongation and a poss...

  18. Machine Translation from Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habash, Nizar; Olive, Joseph; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John

    Machine translation (MT) from text, the topic of this chapter, is perhaps the heart of the GALE project. Beyond being a well defined application that stands on its own, MT from text is the link between the automatic speech recognition component and the distillation component. The focus of MT in GALE is on translating from Arabic or Chinese to English. The three languages represent a wide range of linguistic diversity and make the GALE MT task rather challenging and exciting.

  19. Juliane House, Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelle, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Many young doctors in linguistics or literature are filling positions in departments of translation studies but might not necessarily have a clear idea of the kind of research carried out by their new-found colleagues. For them, Juliane House's brief introduction to the field of translation theory provides a welcome survey of the main concepts and issues in this area, even though the book is actually intended for readers with little or no background in language study at all.

  20. The Translation Of Colors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰

    2012-01-01

    Different nations have different or even opposite perception of color, which results in non-equivalence of color words in mutual translation between Chinese and English. This paper is to discuss non-equivalence of color words between Chinese and English on the two aspects and emphasizes the importance of transmitting cultural message accurately in the mutual translation between Chinese and English. Studying the cultural connotations of the words is of great importance for successful communication.

  1. Translation for language purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the background, subjects, assumptions, procedure, and preliminary results of a small-scale experimental study of L2 translation (Danish into English) and picture verbalization in L2 (English).......The paper describes the background, subjects, assumptions, procedure, and preliminary results of a small-scale experimental study of L2 translation (Danish into English) and picture verbalization in L2 (English)....

  2. Stylistic Adaptation in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芳

    2011-01-01

    <正>A translation criteria universally accepted is faithfulness, which can be examined from different dimensions of content, form and style.Among these three dimensions,faithfulness in content and form is easier to be noted,while the faithfulness in style is harder to judge.This paper will mainly focus on the study of stylistic features for the purpose of language providing methods to achieve stylistic adaptation in translation.

  3. Translational control of cyclins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Ming-Chih

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Regulation of cyclin levels is important for many cell cycle-related processes and can occur at several different steps of gene expression. Translational regulation of cyclins, which occurs by a variety of regulatory mechanisms, permits a prompt response to signal transduction pathways induced by environmental stimuli. This review will summarize translational control of cyclins and its influence on cell cycle progression.

  4. Strategies of English Translation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Yu; WANG; Jin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract:Translation is an independent discipline(Jean Delisle,1988).With the deepening of translation studies,translation teaching aroused widespread concern among translation academia,and gradually separated from language teaching,being a subj ect with its own obj ectives and a special position.This paper,firstly introduces the obj ectives and content of translation teaching,then points out several common problems in translation teaching.Finally,associated with the basic principles of translation teaching,it analyzes the strategies of English translation teaching.

  5. Translation Studies: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina García de Toro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly outlines the main schools and approaches that make up the current landscape of Translation Studies. The purpose of this paper is to offer an introduction to translation theory for those who are beginning their studies in this field or whose knowledge of Translation Studies is tangential. The article starts with a few preliminary matters, such as the question of what Translation Studies is and how the discipline has been mapped out. Then it moves on to examine the theoretical considerations that have been developed since the second half of the 20th century, with special attention being paid to the most recent decades. In this section, which is devoted to theoretical considerations, I will review some of the fundamental issues from a theories of equivalence and comparisons between languages; b functionalist theories; c discursive approaches; d polysystem theory, descriptive studies and norms; e cultural studies; f philosophical theories; g latest contributions to the field of Translation Studies; and h interdisciplinary and integrating approaches. Keywords: translation studies, contemporary theories, linguistic approaches, descriptive studies, cultural studies.

  6. Translation readthrough mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribere, Joshua A; Cenik, Elif S; Jain, Nimit; Hess, Gaelen T; Lee, Cameron H; Bassik, Michael C; Fire, Andrew Z

    2016-06-30

    A fraction of ribosomes engaged in translation will fail to terminate when reaching a stop codon, yielding nascent proteins inappropriately extended on their C termini. Although such extended proteins can interfere with normal cellular processes, known mechanisms of translational surveillance are insufficient to protect cells from potential dominant consequences. Here, through a combination of transgenics and CRISPR–Cas9 gene editing in Caenorhabditis elegans, we demonstrate a consistent ability of cells to block accumulation of C-terminal-extended proteins that result from failure to terminate at stop codons. Sequences encoded by the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) were sufficient to lower protein levels. Measurements of mRNA levels and translation suggested a co- or post-translational mechanism of action for these sequences in C. elegans. Similar mechanisms evidently operate in human cells, in which we observed a comparable tendency for translated human 3′ UTR sequences to reduce mature protein expression in tissue culture assays, including 3′ UTR sequences from the hypomorphic ‘Constant Spring’ haemoglobin stop codon variant. We suggest that 3′ UTRs may encode peptide sequences that destabilize the attached protein, providing mitigation of unwelcome and varied translation errors. PMID:27281202

  7. Addressing psychiatric comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, G E; McLellan, A T; O'Brien, C P; Luborsky, L

    1991-01-01

    Research studies indicate that addressing psychiatric comorbidity can improve treatment for selected groups of substance-abusing patients. However, the chances for implementing the necessary techniques on a large scale are compromised by the absence of professional input and guidance within programs. This is especially true in public programs, which treat some of the most disadvantaged, disturbed, and socially destructive individuals in the entire mental health system. One starting point for upgrading the level of knowledge and training of staff members who work in this large treatment system could be to develop a better and more authoritative information dissemination network. Such a system exists in medicine; physicians are expected to read appropriate journals and to guide their treatment decisions using the data contained in the journals. Standards of practice and methods for modifying current practice are within the tradition of reading new facts, studying old ones, and comparing treatment outcome under different conditions with what is actually being done. No such general system of information-gathering or -sharing exists, particularly in public treatment programs. One of the most flagrant examples of this "educational shortfall" can be found among those methadone programs that adamantly insist on prescribing no more than 30 to 35 mg/day for all patients, in spite of the overwhelming evidence that these dose levels generally are inadequate. In some cases, program directors are unaware of studies that have shown the relationship between dose and outcome. In other cases, they are aware of the studies but do not modify their practices accordingly. This example of inadequate dosing is offered as an example of one situation that could be improved by adherence to a system of authoritative and systematic information dissemination. Many issues in substance abuse treatment do not lend themselves to information dissemination as readily as that of methadone dosing

  8. The Effect of Translators' Emotional Intelligence on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge, professional and psychological conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' Emotional Intelligence on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study," a sample of…

  9. Analysis of translation initiation using a translation control reporter system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiesenthal, Volker; Leutz, Achim; Calkhoven, Cornelis F

    2006-01-01

    The study of translational control has become increasingly important, as aberrant translation has been linked to the etiology of human diseases. Nevertheless, a convenient research tool to measure and quantify cellular translational activity has not been developed to date. Here we present a translat

  10. The Impact of Translators' Academic Experience on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge and professional conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' academic experience on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study", a sample of 100 male and…

  11. Translation and Language Teaching: Translation as a useful teaching Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Randaccio, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Both language teaching experts and translation theorists have proposed detailed analyses of the advantages and disadvantages of using translation in language teaching. However, in order to make translation a useful teaching resource, they have provided new and challenging insights into the nature of translation itself. Some of the principles among these insights will be outlined and discussed in this paper.

  12. Implementing Professional Approach within a Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagwa ElShafei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent and fast development in various spheres of information and communication technology, global trade, digital and social media have resulted in growth in excellent employment opportunities but also influenced the labor market. For instance, some jobs have become absolute, while others, related to information technology particularly, have become in higher demand. As such, there are many scenarios in which translators find themselves unable to communicate with their clients due to cultural and language barriers, especially in labor market environment. This clarifies the great need for translators to receive professional training which also takes into account the advancement in technology. Therefore, market demands should be taken into account when developing and planning university courses and curricula to meet the job market needs. Courses on translation and interpretation prepare professional translators as needed by the labor market. In other words, the role of academic professional and curriculum planners should be narrowing the gap between what the labor market needs from the modern translator and the courses offered by training institutions, universities and colleges. This research study introduces a Professional Approach to teacher to educate translators within the faculty of arts, in a manner that fits the requirements of the job market. As such, a unit was prepared and specified for the students, then taught by the researcher to the selected sample. The dependent t-test technique was employed to compare the means of the total scores of the experimental group on the proficiency pre-post administration of the tests. It was noted from the results that there is a notable difference between the mean scores of the two groups in favor of the experimental group.Keywords: Professional Approach, translation course, student translator, practical skills, labor market demands.

  13. Resolution of Unidentified Words in Machine Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a mechanism of resolving unidentified lexical units in text-based machine translation (TBMT). In machine translation system it is unlikely to have a complete MT lexicon and hence there is a need of a mechanism to handle the problem of unidentified words. These unknown words could be abbreviations, names, acronyms and newly introduced terms. We have proposed an algorithm for the resolution of the unidentified words. This algorithm takes discourse unit (primitive discourse) as a unit of analysis and provides real time updates to the lexicon. We have manually applied the algorithm to news paper fragments. Along with anaphora and cataphora1 resolution, many unknown words especially names and abbreviations were updated to the lexicon. Moreover flowchart of the proposed algorithm is also presented.

  14. Translating Signs, Producing Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Neilson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper moves between two streets: Liverpool Road in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield and Via Sarpi in the Italian city of Milan. What connects these streets is that both have become important sites for businesses in the Chinese diaspora. Moreover, both are streets on which locals have expressed desires for Chinese signs to be translated into the national lingua franca. The paper argues that the cultural politics inherent in this demand for translation cannot be fully understood in the context of national debates about diversity and integration. It is also necessary to consider the emergence of the official Chinese Putonghua as global language, which competes with English but also colonizes dialects and minority languages. In the case of these dual language signs, the space between languages can neither be reduced to a contact zone of minority and majority cultures nor celebrated as a ‘third space’ where the power relations implied by such differences are subverted. At stake is rather a space characterised by what Naoki Sakai calls the schema of co-figuration, which allows the representation of translation as the passage between two equivalents that resemble each other and thus makes possible their determination as conceptually different and comparable. Drawing on arguments about translation and citizenship, the paper critically interrogates the ethos of interchangeability implied by this regime of translation. A closing argument is made for a vision of the common that implies neither civilisational harmony nor the translation of all values into a general equivalent. Primary sources include government reports, internet texts and media stories. These are analyzed using techniques of discourse analysis and interpreted with the help of secondary literature concerning globalisation, language and migration. The disciplinary matrix cuts and mixes between cultural studies, translation studies, citizenship studies, globalization studies and

  15. Proper Nouns in Translation: Should They Be Translated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Zarei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The translation of proper nouns is not as easy as that of other parts of speech as this is more challenging for certain reasons. The present article presents a descriptive study of proper nouns in translation, scrutinizing the challenges and exploring the solutions. Building on some scholars’ approach and suggestions from other researchers, the article clarifies the nature and problems of proper nouns in translation; it seeks to answer three questions: 1 Should proper nouns be translated? 2 What are the problems on the way of translation of the proper nouns? 3 How can the translator overcome such problems? Moreover, strategies applied by the researchers to make their translation easier are also discussed. It follows that translating proper nouns is not simple and there is little flexibility about translating proper nouns.Keywords: proper nouns, translation, strategies

  16. Address Points, Addressing, Published in 2008, Taylor County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as 'Addressing'. Data by this publisher are often...

  17. Old genes experience stronger translational selection than young genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hongyan; Ma, Lina; Wang, Guangyu; Li, Mengwei; Zhang, Zhang

    2016-09-15

    Selection on synonymous codon usage for translation efficiency and/or accuracy has been identified as a widespread mechanism in many living organisms. However, it remains unknown whether translational selection associates closely with gene age and acts differentially on genes with different evolutionary ages. To address this issue, here we investigate the strength of translational selection acting on different aged genes in human. Our results show that old genes present stronger translational selection than young genes, demonstrating that translational selection correlates positively with gene age. We further explore the difference of translational selection in duplicates vs. singletons and in housekeeping vs. tissue-specific genes. We find that translational selection acts comparably in old singletons and old duplicates and stronger translational selection in old genes is contributed primarily by housekeeping genes. For young genes, contrastingly, singletons experience stronger translational selection than duplicates, presumably due to redundant function of duplicated genes during their early evolutionary stage. Taken together, our results indicate that translational selection acting on a gene would not be constant during all stages of evolution, associating closely with gene age. PMID:27259662

  18. Advertisement Translation under Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严妙

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of advertisement translation under skopos theory.It is explained that the nature of advertisement translation under skopos theory is reconstructing the information of the source text to persuade target audience.Three translation strategies are put forward in translating advertisements.

  19. Advertisement Translation under Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严妙

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of advertisement translation under skopos theory.It is explained that the nature of advertisement translation under skopos theory is reconstructing the information of the source text to persuade target audience. Three translation strategies are put forward in translating advertisements.

  20. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  1. Observations of IPv6 Addresses

    OpenAIRE

    Malone, David

    2008-01-01

    IPv6 addresses are longer than IPv4 addresses, and are so capable of greater expression. Given an IPv6 address, conventions and standards allow us to draw conclusions about how IPv6 is being used on the node with that address. We show a technique for analysing IPv6 addresses and apply it to a number of datasets. The datasets include addresses seen at a busy mirror server, at an IPv6-enabled TLD DNS server and when running traceroute across the production IPv6 network. The technique quantif...

  2. Explorations of Corpus Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琳琳

    2014-01-01

    Corpus-based translation studies belong to a new translation study paradigm which rose at the beginning of 1990s. The rise of corpus brings the update of research tools and research methods, and lead to the emerging of Corpus Translation Stud-ies. It is necessary to introduce the theory basis of Translational English Corpus and its application in the translation, especially in the science and technology translation. Besides, it makes an analysis and discussion about the potential of Corpus Translation Stud-ies.

  3. Opening Address by H. Alkaabi [International Conference on Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources: Maintaining Continuous Global Control of Sources throughout their Life Cycle, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates), 27-31 October 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whenever the topic of safety and security of radioactive sources is discussed, the issue of the long term management of and funding for disused sources arises. The absence of clear routes for the safe and secure handling of disused sources, including legacy sources, is a vulnerability of the existing international system. The long title of this Conference — maintaining continuous global control of sources throughout their life cycle — reminds us that the life cycle of control needs to include the end-of-useful-life stage. Here in the United Arab Emirates, we believe that we have made progress in securing the radioactive sources used in our industries. You will hear about FANR’s (Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation) regulations both for the safety and security of radioactive sources. More importantly, you will hear about the practical arrangements we are implementing, working with licensees, to see that effective security plans and arrangements are put in place: both for sources at company headquarters and in the field, and also in transport

  4. Engineering in translational medicine

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a broad area of engineering research in translational medicine. Leaders in academic institutions around the world contributed focused chapters on a broad array of topics such as: cell and tissue engineering (6 chapters), genetic and protein engineering (10 chapters), nanoengineering (10 chapters), biomedical instrumentation (4 chapters), and theranostics and other novel approaches (4 chapters). Each chapter is a stand-alone review that summarizes the state-of-the-art of the specific research area. Engineering in Translational Medicine gives readers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of a broad array of related research areas, making this an excellent reference book for scientists and students both new to engineering/translational medicine and currently working in this area.

  5. Eyes on Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekulaeva, Marina; Landthaler, Markus

    2016-09-15

    Translation is a fundamental biological process by which ribosomes decode genetic information into proteins. The regulation of this process plays a key role in tuning protein levels, allowing cells to respond rapidly to changes in the environment and to synthesize proteins with precise timing and at specific subcellular locations. Despite detailed biochemical and structural insight into the mechanism of protein synthesis, translational dynamics and localization in a cellular context are less well understood. Here, we summarize recent efforts to quantify and visualize translation, focusing on four publications (Morisaki et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2016; Wu et al., 2016; Yan et al., 2016) describing novel approaches to imaging in real time the synthesis of nascent peptides from individual mRNAs in living cells. PMID:27635758

  6. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard;

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross......-linguistic priming: items which have a similar word order in source and target texts are likely to have similar syntactic structures. These items are therefore more likely to prime structurally. Source items which have few translation alternatives are more likely to share a semantic representation and are hence more...

  7. ASL Fingerspelling Translator Glove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Haydar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe an automatic sign language to text translation system. This system consists of a glove that can be worn by a deaf to facilitate its conversation in real-time with hearing persons. The system translates the signs to the corresponding letters, using Bluetooth communication, to a PC that displays the result letters. The recognition of the sign is accomplished using five flex sensors and a 3-axis accelerometer; the signals are converted to digital data, which is compared with a lookup table to get the resulted letter. This system is suspected to help deaf people to communicate with other persons without the need of a human translator.

  8. Translation and Transtextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapodi Zsuzsa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Umberto Eco’s novel The Name of the Rose as a postmodern literary work is extensively based on transtextuality. There are series of quotations from the Bible, Petrus Abelardus, St. Bernard, Petrarch, Conan Doyle, Agatha Christie, Jorge L. Borges, Nietzsche, and other classic authors interwoven into the novel’s narrative. The text is a result of multiple translations, a truly intercultural adventure: Adso, a 14th-century German monk from the Melk monastery provides a Northern Italian travel experience in Latin language, this memoir is translated by the publishing narrator into the Italian language of the 20th century. The characters of the story come from different areas of Europe, as there are monks from England, Spain, Norway, Germany, and other countries. This paper sheds light on the problems that occurred during the novel’s translation.

  9. Asymmetries of Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Gorčeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the incompatibility between aesthetic and economic approaches to literary translation, the A. perceives a lack of creative initiative in the international socialisation of Bulgarian literature within its literary field (and especially in the subfield of criticism. Together with a probable inability to (reintegrate ethnically Bulgarian emigré writers, this gives Bulgarian literature a “repellent capacity”. Pointing at non-mainstream developments in both literature and translation may offer a way out: Gorčeva recommends abundant analytical and not self-exoticising self-representation. She also stresses that not only interliterary ‘export’ but also ‘import’ forges a literature’s status, and suggests that “small” literatures can take part in interliterary communication as equals in so far as they have the opportunity to keep on translating not in an assimilative but in a foreignising manner.

  10. SENSEVAL-2 Japanese Translation Task

    OpenAIRE

    Kurohashi, Sadao; Uchimoto, Kiyotaka

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the Senseval-2 Japanese translation task. In this task, word senses are defined according to distinct translations in a given target language. A translation memory (TM) was constructed which contains, for each Japanese head word, a list of typical Japanese expressions and their English translations. For each test word instance, participants were required to submit the TM record best approximating that usage, or alternatively, actual target word translations. There were 9 ...

  11. Translation in Lydia Davis's work

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This thesis analyses the position of translations in the work of the American writer and translator Lydia Davis. Davis has been publishing stories and translations since the early 1970s, and has translated works by Maurice Blanchot, Michel Leiris, and Marcel Proust among others. This thesis argues that her translations form a graft onto the body of her own fiction; they are both part of her work and retain their identity as being written by someone else. The first chapter builds on theory...

  12. Is relevance theory applicable to proverbs’ translation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegulescu Anca-Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation, viewed as a multi-faceted task, can arise different types of difficulties. Proverbs have been considered special patterns, displaying sometimes hidden meanings or suggesting morals issuing from a particular example. These paremic units - the proverbs - conveyed feelings, states of mind, behaviours or ‘metaphorical descriptions of certain situations’(Krikmann. Starting from Savory’s list of pair-wise contradictory translation principles, I intend to prove that the link between different ‘forms’ and their ‘contents’ lies in the principle of relevance when referring to proverbs. Even if relevance theory is not a theory of linguistic structure - and many translation problems imply structural mismatches - relevance theory offers insights about contextual information. Proverbs are seen as texts in themselves. My analysis will target the ethnofields of ‘to buy’ and ‘to sell’ in English proverbs and their Romanian corresponding versions.

  13. Translating BPEL to FLOWer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    FLOWer is a case handling tool made by Pallas-Athena for process management in the service industry. BPEL on the other hand is a language for web service orchestration, and has become a de facto standard, because of its popularity, for specifying workflow processes even though that was not its...... original purpose. This paper describe an approach translating BPLE to FLOWer, or more precisely form BPEL to CHIP. where CHIP is the interchange language that FLOWer import from and export to. The aim of the translation scheme that I give is to derive a CHIP specification that is behaviorally equivalent...

  14. Intercultural Communication and Translation--A case study of Song Poetries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春星; 苗思薇

    2014-01-01

    Intercultural communication is considered to be a significant constituent in translation, an act of culture-specific communication. In the C-E translation, it is a must for a translator first to recognize the cultural factors in a text, and then choose the appropriate way to address them. This paper analyzes the cultural gaps of a poem to demonstrate the importance of cultural factors in translation and provide approaches to deal with these difficulties.

  15. Translating Terms and Concepts in the Texts of Translation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Birkan Baydan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to explore challenges in translating terms and concepts of the social sciences within the frame of scholarly texts of translation studies translated into Turkish. Conceptual problems in the translation of scholarly texts in translation studies arise both from the “interdisciplinary” and “independent” nature of the field. Given the interdisciplinary nature of translation studies, key concepts of the influential movements of thought from adjacent fields pose challenges for the translator. Furthermore, terms which specifically belong to the field of translation studies require the translator to be familiar with the literature of the field in both source and target languages. Immanuel Wallerstein’s suggestions for translating concepts of the social sciences are evaluated within this context with certain reservations. The translator of the scholarly texts of translation studies encounters challenges both with regard to “commonly shared” and “specific” concepts. Already existent Turkish translations of “common” concepts shared with the other disciplines are often diverse and varied, while some of the “specific” concepts of the field have not yet been translated. Both instances bring to the fore the translator’s agency as the decision-maker who makes informed decisions among various alternatives. Examples[i] of two Derridean concepts and two terms specific to the field of translation studies are provided to illustrate the problem-solving and decision-making process of the translator.Keywords: Concept translation, Derridaen concepts, common concepts, specific concepts, translator’s agency[i] Examples are selected from my unpublished translations (completed for MA and PhD projects of Arrojo (1995, Arrojo (1998 and Hermans (2007.

  16. Chinese Meter in Translating English Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温荣芬

    2009-01-01

    <正>Translation is not easy and poetry translation is troublesome,while meter poetry translation is the most difficult. This paper will focus on the meter in translating English poetry into Chinese. From the review of translation history to

  17. Thinking translation a course in translation method French to English

    CERN Document Server

    Hervey, Sandor

    2014-01-01

    Thinking Translation is a comprehensive and revolutionary 20-week course in translation method. It has been fully and successfully piloted at the University of St. Andrews. The course offers a challenging and entertaining approach to the acquisition of translation skills.Translation is presented as a problem-solving discipline. Discussion, examples and a full range of exercise work allows students to acquire the skills necessary for a broad range of translation problems.Thinking Translation draws on a wide range of material from technical texts to poetry and song.

  18. Translational research in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Madhury; Farma, Jeffrey M; Hsu, Cary

    2013-10-01

    Recent breakthroughs in the fundamental understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of melanoma have culminated in new therapies with unquestionable efficacy. Immunotherapy and targeted therapy strategies have completely transformed the contemporary management of advanced melanoma. The translational research behind these developments is discussed, with an emphasis on immune checkpoint blockade and inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.

  19. Lost in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askehave, Inger; Zethsen, Karen Korning

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with an aspect of patient information that differs somewhat from the traditional scope of this journal; namely the linguistic and translational aspects of Patient Information Leaflets (PILs). During the past decade much work has been dedicated to making the English PILs as info...

  20. Synonymy and translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Franciska; Appelo, Lisette

    1987-01-01

    This paper is meant to give some insight into the interaction between on the one hand theoretical concepts in the field of formal semantics, and on the other hand linguistic research directed towards an application, more specifically, the research in the machine translation project Rosetta. The cent

  1. Grammatical Gender in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordag, Denisa; Pechmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments native speakers of Czech translated bare nouns and gender-marked adjective + noun phrases into German, their second language (L2). In Experiments 1-3 we explored the so-called gender interference effect from first language (L1) as observed in previous picture naming studies (naming latencies were longer when the L1 noun and…

  2. Ethylene prunes translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehin, Mohammad; Estelle, Mark

    2015-10-22

    Ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. In the presence of ethylene, the C terminus of EIN2 (EIN2C) translocates into the nucleus and activates transcription. Li et al. and Merchante et al. show that EIN2C also regulates translation through an interaction with the 3' UTRs of transcripts. PMID:26496600

  3. Translation as Adaptation for Language Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laviosa Sara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores, within an ecological perspective on language learning (cf. van Lier 2004, the valuable role that translation as adaptation can play in mediating and making sense of cross-cultural experiences in the multilingual language classroom. The aim is to develop a multilingual pedagogy that includes translation as adaptation as an integral part of the language curriculum in order to foster translingual and transcultural competence, this being the goal of foreign language education in the 21st century (cf. MLA 2007:2. The first part of the paper introduces the theoretical framework that conceptualises translation as being closely related to adaptation. It then analyses salient scenes from Gianni Amelio’s bilingual drama La stella che non c'è/The Missing Star/L'Étoile Imaginaire (2006 filmed in Italy and China and screened in competition as part of the 2006 Venice Film Festival. Moving on from research to pedagogic practice, the final part of the paper outlines a teaching unit that is based on the film and is aimed at undergraduate L1 Chinese learners of Italian and L1 Italian learners of Chinese. The objective of the pedagogic unit is to raise awareness of the transformative power enshrined in linguistic and cultural exchanges mediated by audio-visual translation as an eminent example of adaptation.

  4. CDC's Health Equity Resource Toolkit: disseminating guidance for state practitioners to address obesity disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Gayle Holmes; James, Stephen D; Hawley, Lisa; Corrigan, Bethany; Kramer, Rachel E; Overton, Samantha N; Farris, Rosanne P; Wasilewski, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been on the rise in the United States over the past three decades, and is high. In addition to population-wide trends, it is clear that obesity affects some groups more than others and can be associated with age, income, education, gender, race and ethnicity, and geographic region. To reverse the obesity epidemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) promotes evidence-based and practice-informed strategies to address nutrition and physical activity environments and behaviors. These public health strategies require translation into actionable approaches that can be implemented by state and local entities to address disparities. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention used findings from an expert panel meeting to guide the development and dissemination of the Health Equity Resource Toolkit for State Practitioners Addressing Obesity Disparities (available at http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/health_equity/toolkit.html). The Toolkit helps public health practitioners take a systematic approach to program planning using a health equity lens. The Toolkit provides a six-step process for planning, implementing, and evaluating strategies to address obesity disparities. Each section contains (a) a basic description of the steps of the process and suggested evidence-informed actions to help address obesity disparities, (b) practical tools for carrying out activities to help reduce obesity disparities, and (c) a "real-world" case study of a successful state-level effort to address obesity with a focus on health equity that is particularly relevant to the content in that section. Hyperlinks to additional resources are included throughout.

  5. Machine Translation Based on Translation Corresponding Tree Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A representation schema called translation corresponding tree (TCT) has been applied to a Portuguese to Chinese example-based machine translation system. The translation examples are annotated by the representation of the TCT structure. Each TCT describes not only the syntactic structure of the source sentence (i.e., Portuguese in our system) but also the translation correspondences (i.e., Chinese translation). In addition, the TCT nodes describe the corresponding linguistic relationships between the source and target languages. The translation examples can be effectively represented with this annotation schema and organized in the bilingual knowledge database or example base. In the real machine translation process, the target language is synthesized with higher quality by referring to the TCT translation information.

  6. The relevance of translation studies The relevance of translation studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsten Malmkjaer

    2008-01-01

    Most translation theorists today would like to see translation studies firmly established as an independent discipline which, although it draws on insights from other disciplines, should be subsumed under none, (Hatim and Mason, 1990; Snell-Hornby, 1988; Bassnett-McGuire, 1980). The discipline which the majority translation theorists draw on most heavily is linguistics — indeed many books on translation theory and/or practice take the form of expositions of their authors' favourite linguistic...

  7. On Translatability of Metaphors and Relevant Translating Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱采真; 张文普

    2012-01-01

    Metaphor is one of the most poetic forms of language.It is widely used in daily life and good translation of it is of great significance.In spite of the cultural and lingual hindrance,to some extent,good translation of metaphors can be achieved because of the similarities between two cultures and the overlaps of two languages.This paper explores translatability of metaphores from cultural and linguistic perspectives as well as specific techniques in terms of metaphor translation.

  8. A Stylistic Study of Translator Based on Western Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the historic development of the stylistic study of translator in light of western translation theory,and analyzes its features on each phase and current emphasis of research,by which knowledge of the development of western theory and translators' style can be shown.After that,we can research its problems existing in the stylistic study of translator based on western theory so than we can provide a panoramic analysis in thisfield.

  9. «Translation Journal & Translation Journal Blog»: an on-line publication for translators, by translators, about translators and translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabe Bokor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available «The Translation Journal» is the oldest continuously published translation-oriented on-line journal in the U.S. Appearing on a quarterly basis, each issue contains 10 - 15 feature articles on different aspects of translation. The TJ is fully searchable by author or keyword. Its companion publication, the «Translation Journal Blog», launched in 2004, deals with topical issues of the translation industry. ------------------------------------------- «Translation Journal» y «Translation Journal Blog»: una publicación en línea para traductores, hecha por traductores y sobre traductores y traducción. «Translation Journal» es la más antigue de las revistas electrónicas sobre traducción publicadas ininterrumpidamente en los Estados Unidos. Cada número, de periodicidad trimestral, contiene entre diez y quince artículos sobre diversos aspectos de la traducción. La revista permite las búsquedas por autores o palabras clave. Su publicación hermana, la bitácora «Translation Journal Blog», nacida en 2004, aborda temas relacionados con el sector de la traducción.

  10. On Collocations and Their Interaction with Parsing and Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Seretan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of automatically processing collocations—a subclass of multi-word expressions characterized by a high degree of morphosyntactic flexibility—in the context of two major applications, namely, syntactic parsing and machine translation. We show that parsing and collocation identification are processes that are interrelated and that benefit from each other, inasmuch as syntactic information is crucial for acquiring collocations from corpora and, vice versa, collocational information can be used to improve parsing performance. Similarly, we focus on the interrelation between collocations and machine translation, highlighting the use of translation information for multilingual collocation identification, as well as the use of collocational knowledge for improving translation. We give a panorama of the existing relevant work, and we parallel the literature surveys with our own experiments involving a symbolic parser and a rule-based translation system. The results show a significant improvement over approaches in which the corresponding tasks are decoupled.

  11. Challenges in Translational Research: The Views of Addiction Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Ostergren, Jenny E.; Rachel R Hammer; Dingel, Molly J.; Koenig, Barbara A.; McCormick, Jennifer B

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore scientists' perspectives on the challenges and pressures of translating research findings into clinical practice and public health policy. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 20 leading scientists engaged in genetic research on addiction. We asked participants for their views on how their own research translates, how genetic research addresses addiction as a public health problem and how it may affect the public's view of addictio...

  12. Cross-Cultural Instrument Translation: Assessment, Translation, and Statistical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Teresa Crowe

    2005-01-01

    This article has four major sections: (a) general issues of assessment; (b) assessment of ethnic-group members, including those who are deaf; (c) translation of assessment tools, emphasizing translation into American Sign Language (ASL); and (d) statistical applications for translated instruments. The purpose of the article is to provide insight…

  13. Lost in Translation: Examining Translation Errors Associated with Mathematical Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Stiff, Lee V.; Bosse, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Translation errors and conceptual misunderstandings made by students translating among graphical, tabular, and symbolic representations of linear functions were examined. The study situated student errors in the context of the "Translation-Verification Model" developed specifically for the purpose of explaining student behavior during the process…

  14. Translation in Language Teaching: Insights from Professional Translator Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreres, Angeles; Noriega-Sanchez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The past three decades have seen vast changes in attitudes towards translation, both as an academic discipline and as a profession. The insights we have gained in recent years, in particular in the area of professional translator training, call for a reassessment of the role of translation in language teaching. Drawing on research and practices in…

  15. Port virtual addressing for PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper

  16. 2015 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  17. Reclaiming unused IPv4 addresses

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information).   Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...

  18. Translation-Memory (TM) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2010-01-01

      It is no exaggeration to say that the advent of translation-memory (TM) systems in the translation profession has led to drastic changes in translators' processes and workflow, and yet, though many professional translators nowadays depend on some form of TM system, this has not been the object...... of much research. Our paper attempts to find out what we know about the nature, applications and influences of TM technology, including translators' interaction with TMs, and also how we know it. An essential part of the analysis is based on a selection of empirical TM studies, which we assume...... to be representative of the research field as a whole. Our analysis suggests that, while considerable knowledge is available about the technical side of TMs, more research is needed to understand how translators interact with TM technology and how TMs influence translators' cognitive translation processes....

  19. Translation, Sprache und Wahrnehmung

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Traditional issues of hermeneutics on language, comprehension and interpretation are retaken here in their relation to translation studies, under the less common philosophical perspective of the late Wittgenstein, taking into account also some aspects of linguistic pragmatics. Main target is a prophylaxis of the dogmatism that emerges when properties of the theoretical model are projected into the object under examination. Two kinds of necessity are to be distinguished: on one hand, a necessi...

  20. CADAT network translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, E. R.

    1981-01-01

    Program converts cell-net data into logic-gate models for use in test and simulation programs. Input consists of either Place, Route, and Fold (PRF) or Place-and-Route-in-Two-Dimensions (PR2D) layout data deck. Output consists of either Test Pattern Generator (TPG) or Logic-Simulation (LOGSIM) logic circuitry data deck. Designer needs to build only logic-gate-model circuit description since program acts as translator. Language is FORTRAN IV.

  1. Process analytical approach to translation and implications for translations teaching Process analytical approach to translation and implications for translations teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Lörscher

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The considerations which will be made in this paper can be located within the newly established field of translation process analysis (cf. Gerloff 1988; Jääskeläinen 1990; Krings 1986; Lörscher 1991; Séguinot 1989; Tirkkonen-Condit 1991. They are based on a research project which I have been carrying out since 1983. The aim of this project is to analyze psycholinguistically translation performance as contained in a corpus of orally produced translations from German into English and vice versa. This is done in order to reconstruct translation strategies. These underlie translation performance, operate within the translation process, and are thus not open to direct inspection. In the first stage of the project, translation processes of advanced foreign language learners were investigated. The results yielded are contained in my monograph Translation Performance, Translation Process, and Translation Strategies. A sycholinguistic Investigation. Tübingen 1991. The second stage of the project, in which professional translators’ and, later on, bilingual children’s translation processes are analyzed, is in progress (Lörscher in preparation. The considerations which will be made in this paper can be located within the newly established field of translation process analysis (cf. Gerloff 1988; Jääskeläinen 1990; Krings 1986; Lörscher 1991; Séguinot 1989; Tirkkonen-Condit 1991. They are based on a research project which I have been carrying out since 1983. The aim of this project is to analyze psycholinguistically translation performance as contained in a corpus of orally produced translations from German into English and vice versa. This is done in order to reconstruct translation strategies. These underlie translation performance, operate within the translation process, and are thus not open to direct inspection. In the first stage of the project, translation processes of advanced foreign language learners were investigated. The

  2. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  3. Multiculturalism and Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rebeca PRECUP STIEGELBAUER

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural diversity has emerged as a key concern in recent years, however the implications to this term are very different. A number of people see cultural diversity as fundamentally important and positive, as it points to a sharing of the wealth embodied in each of the world’s cultures and, accordingly, to the links tying us all in processes of exchange and dialogue via translation. On the other hand, for many others, cultural differences are what cause us to lose sight of our shared humanity and as a result are the root of numerous conflicts, since we can get lost in translation. This second finding is today all the more plausible since globalisation has increased the points of interaction and friction between cultures, giving rise to identity-linked tensions, withdrawals and claims, particularly of each one and other, which can become potential sources of dispute. The essential challenge, therefore, would be to propose a coherent vision of cultural diversity, languages and translations and thereby to clarify how, far from being a threat, it can become beneficial to the action of the international community.

  4. Translational research in retinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira RC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Rubens Camargo Siqueira1,2, Rodrigo Jorge21Rubens Siqueira Research Center, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Retina and Vitreous Section, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Clinical laboratories are strong, integral partners in personalized health care. Laboratory databases hold a vast amount of data on human phenotypes, genotypes, biomarkers, progression of disease, and response to therapy. These structured and unstructured free text data are critical for patient care and a resource for personalized medicine and translational research. Laboratory data are integrated into many electronic medical records that provide “summary reports” and “trending” to visualize longitudinal patient data. Recent advances in ophthalmology such as gene therapy, cell therapy using stem cells, and also retinal prosthesis explore the potential of translational research marking a new era in research into the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases.Keywords: translational, retinal diseases, stem cell, gene therapy

  5. On Literal Translation of English Idioms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linli

    2009-01-01

    There are six translation tactics in translating English idioms into Chinese: literal translation, compensatory translation, free translation, explanational translation, borrowing, integrated approach. Each tactic should be reasonably employed in the process of translating, so as to keep the flavor of the original English idioms as well as to…

  6. New Historicism in Translation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Mir Mohammad Khadem-Nabi; Elaheh Gharesoufloo

    2014-01-01

    Translation Studies has moved from linguistically oriented approaches to a historicist one. This is evident in many recent publications, and has brought about new trends in Translation Studies as well as in Cultural Studies. This paper is an attempt at summarizing the influence of the historicist approaches on translation. Of specific importance for this paper is New Historicism, which has poststructuralist tendencies. Keywords: New Historicism, translation studies, cultural studies

  7. New Historicism in Translation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mohammad Khadem-Nabi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Translation Studies has moved from linguistically oriented approaches to a historicist one. This is evident in many recent publications, and has brought about new trends in Translation Studies as well as in Cultural Studies. This paper is an attempt at summarizing the influence of the historicist approaches on translation. Of specific importance for this paper is New Historicism, which has poststructuralist tendencies. Keywords: New Historicism, translation studies, cultural studies

  8. Addressing Uncertainty in Fecal Indicator Bacteria Dark Inactivation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal contamination is a leading cause of surface water quality degradation. Roughly 20% of all total maximum daily load assessments approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency since 1995, for example, address water bodies with unacceptably high fecal indicator...

  9. Phosphoproteomics in translational research: a sarcoma perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noujaim, J; Payne, L S; Judson, I; Jones, R L; Huang, P H

    2016-05-01

    Phosphoproteomics has been extensively used as a preclinical research tool to characterize the phosphorylated components of the cancer proteome. Advances in the field have yielded insights into new drug targets, mechanisms of disease progression and drug resistance, and biomarker discovery. However, application of this technology to clinical research has been challenging because of practical issues relating to specimen integrity and tumour heterogeneity. Beyond these limitations, phosphoproteomics has the potential to play a pivotal role in translational studies and contribute to advances in different tumour groups, including rare disease sites like sarcoma. In this review, we propose that deploying phosphoproteomic technologies in translational research may facilitate the identification of better defined predictive biomarkers for patient stratification, inform drug selection in umbrella trials and identify new combinations to overcome drug resistance. We provide an overview of current phosphoproteomic technologies, such as affinity-based assays and mass spectrometry-based approaches, and discuss their advantages and limitations. We use sarcoma as an example to illustrate the current challenges in evaluating targeted kinase therapies in clinical trials. We then highlight useful lessons from preclinical studies in sarcoma biology to demonstrate how phosphoproteomics may address some of these challenges. Finally, we conclude by offering a perspective and list the key measures required to translate and benchmark a largely preclinical technology into a useful tool for translational research. PMID:26802162

  10. Reengineering Biomedical Translational Research with Engineering Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Mary E; Nayak, Rahul Uday

    2015-08-01

    It is widely accepted that translational research practitioners need to acquire special skills and knowledge that will enable them to anticipate, analyze, and manage a range of ethical issues. While there is a small but growing literature that addresses the ethics of translational research, there is a dearth of scholarship regarding how this might apply to engineers. In this paper we examine engineers as key translators and argue that they are well positioned to ask transformative ethical questions. Asking engineers to both broaden and deepen their consideration of ethics in their work, however, requires a shift in the way ethics is often portrayed and perceived in science and engineering communities. Rather than interpreting ethics as a roadblock to the success of translational research, we suggest that engineers should be encouraged to ask questions about the socio-ethical dimensions of their work. This requires expanding the conceptual framework of engineering beyond its traditional focus on "how" and "what" questions to also include "why" and "who" questions to facilitate the gathering of normative, socially-situated information. Empowering engineers to ask "why" and "who" questions should spur the development of technologies and practices that contribute to improving health outcomes. PMID:24928281

  11. Machine Translation Tools - Tools of The Translator's Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Translation (or MAHT). The strengths and weaknesses of the different types of tools are discussed and evaluated by means of a number of examples. The article aims at two things: at presenting a sort of state of the art of what is commonly referred to as “machine translation” as well as at providing the reader......In this article three of the more common types of translation tools are presented, discussed and critically evaluated. The types of translation tools dealt with in this article are: Fully Automated Machine Translation (or FAMT), Human Aided Machine Translation (or HAMT) and Machine Aided Human...

  12. Adaptation in Tourist Publicity Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭娟

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide a preliminary study of adaptation adopted in the translation of tourist publicity and ex-plore the main reasons behind the adaptive techniques on the basis of functionalist theories of translation. It is found that cultural blanks, different linguistic conventions and also the intended functions of tourist publicity may all contribute to adaptation in translation.

  13. Translational plant proteomics: A perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agrawal, G.K.; Pedreschi, R.; Barkla, B.J.; Bindschedler, L.V.; Cramer, R.; Sarkar, A.; Renaut, J.; Job, D.; Rakwal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Translational proteomics is an emerging sub-discipline of the proteomics field in the biological sciences. Translational plant proteomics aims to integrate knowledge from basic sciences to translate it into field applications to solve issues related but not limited to the recreational and economic v

  14. Ideological Manipulation in Translation Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张靖

    2011-01-01

    Lefevere's rewriting theory states that translation is a rewriting of the original text,all rewritings reflect a certain ideology and a poetics and as such manipulate literature to function in a given society.Based on this theory,some translation examples are illustrated and analyzed here to show that political and aesthetic ideology will inevitably manipulate translation in different aspects.

  15. The Manipulation of Translator's Ideology in Translating In Liu Village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何霞; 李莎莎

    2014-01-01

    Traditional studies on translation have generally been source-oriented. Since 1980s, translation theorists shifted their eyes on new areas, such as culture, history, and ideology. Andre Lefevere puts forward the theory of rewriting, including such three important factors as ideology, poetics and patronage. This paper focuses on the study of manipulation of ideology over trans-lation of In Liu Village by a famous writer-cum-translator Yu Lihua. Based on the data collected, the present paper argues that during the process of translation, ideology exerts constraints on the translator and influences her in such aspects as the choice of texts, the process of decoding and the choice of translation strategy.

  16. Eye-movements During Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    Translation process research or TPR, the study of the cognitive processes involved in translation, is a relatively new field characterised by small-scale studies with few participants and variables. However, the translation process is characterised by much variation between different translators......, texts, tasks and languages, and larger-scale investigations are therefore highly desirable. To that end, we have publicly released the CRITT TPR database which currently contains data from 845 translation sessions but is continually extended. The database includes information about the source and target...

  17. On the relevance of script writing basics in audiovisual translation practice and training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Martínez-Sierra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2012v1n29p145 Audiovisual texts possess characteristics that clearly differentiate audiovisual translation from both oral and written translation, and prospective screen translators are usually taught about the issues that typically arise in audiovisual translation. This article argues for the development of an interdisciplinary approach that brings together Translation Studies and Film Studies, which would prepare future audiovisual translators to work with the nature and structure of a script in mind, in addition to the study of common and diverse translational aspects. Focusing on film, the article briefly discusses the nature and structure of scripts, and identifies key points in the development and structuring of a plot. These key points and various potential hurdles are illustrated with examples from the films Chinatown and La habitación de Fermat. The second part of this article addresses some implications for teaching audiovisual translation.

  18. Translation dynamics of single mRNAs in live cells and neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Eliscovich, Carolina; Yoon, Young J; Singer, Robert H

    2016-06-17

    Translation is the fundamental biological process converting mRNA information into proteins. Single-molecule imaging in live cells has illuminated the dynamics of RNA transcription; however, it is not yet applicable to translation. Here, we report single-molecule imaging of nascent peptides (SINAPS) to assess translation in live cells. The approach provides direct readout of initiation, elongation, and location of translation. We show that mRNAs coding for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins are translated when they encounter the ER membrane. Single-molecule fluorescence recovery after photobleaching provides direct measurement of elongation speed (5 amino acids per second). In primary neurons, mRNAs are translated in proximal dendrites but repressed in distal dendrites and display "bursting" translation. This technology provides a tool with which to address the spatiotemporal translation mechanism of single mRNAs in living cells. PMID:27313041

  19. Translating Shakespeare for the theatre Translating Shakespeare for the theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Déprats

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Translate Shakespeare for the theatre? The question is not purely rhetorical. In his Memoires, Jean Vilar, speaking of his work as an actor, raises the question of whether it is even possible to translate dramatic texts: Macbeth. Whilst learning my part alone at home in the morning, I keep on saying to myself , ‘Never again will I perform translated plays, not even those of Shakespeare.’ Translations either emasculate the original so that the actors may ‘utter’ a French which is straightforward, or at least authentic, or force us to chew up and spit out a stodgy French, weighed down by the burden of the English. My friend Curtis, the translator, can’t help it. Remaining faithful to the original text makes the French prose heavy, but to stray from the original is a crime. So what can we do? (131 This dilemma, so accurately put into words by Vilar, brings us to the question: when translating a Shakespeare play for performance, must we incorporate into our work aims which curtail the usual demands of translation? What is specific about translating for the theatre? Or rather, what demands must a French translation of a dramatic text meet if it is to make performance possible? Translate Shakespeare for the theatre? The question is not purely rhetorical. In his Memoires, Jean Vilar, speaking of his work as an actor, raises the question of whether it is even possible to translate dramatic texts: Macbeth. Whilst learning my part alone at home in the morning, I keep on saying to myself , ‘Never again will I perform translated plays, not even those of Shakespeare.’ Translations either emasculate the original so that the actors may ‘utter’ a French which is straightforward, or at least authentic, or force us to chew up and spit out a stodgy French, weighed down by the burden of the English. My friend Curtis, the translator, can’t help it. Remaining faithful to the original text makes the French prose heavy

  20. Ebola: translational science considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappelli, Francesco; Bakhordarian, Andre; Thames, April D; Du, Angela M; Jan, Allison L; Nahcivan, Melissa; Nguyen, Mia T; Sama, Nateli; Manfrini, Ercolano; Piva, Francesco; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; Maida, Carl A

    2015-01-01

    We are currently in the midst of the most aggressive and fulminating outbreak of Ebola-related disease, commonly referred to as "Ebola", ever recorded. In less than a year, the Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire ebolavirus species) has infected over 10,000 people, indiscriminately of gender or age, with a fatality rate of about 50%. Whereas at its onset this Ebola outbreak was limited to three countries in West Africa (Guinea, where it was first reported in late March 2014, Liberia, where it has been most rampant in its capital city, Monrovia and other metropolitan cities, and Sierra Leone), cases were later reported in Nigeria, Mali and Senegal, as well as in Western Europe (i.e., Madrid, Spain) and the US (i.e., Dallas, Texas; New York City) by late October 2014. World and US health agencies declared that the current Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has a strong likelihood of growing exponentially across the world before an effective vaccine, treatment or cure can be developed, tested, validated and distributed widely. In the meantime, the spread of the disease may rapidly evolve from an epidemics to a full-blown pandemic. The scientific and healthcare communities actively research and define an emerging kaleidoscope of knowledge about critical translational research parameters, including the virology of EBOV, the molecular biomarkers of the pathological manifestations of EVD, putative central nervous system involvement in EVD, and the cellular immune surveillance to EBOV, patient-centered anthropological and societal parameters of EVD, as well as translational effectiveness about novel putative patient-targeted vaccine and pharmaceutical interventions, which hold strong promise, if not hope, to curb this and future Ebola outbreaks. This work reviews and discusses the principal known facts about EBOV and EVD, and certain among the most interesting ongoing or future avenues of research in the field, including vaccination programs for the wild animal vectors of the virus

  1. Applicability and Challenges of Using Machine Translation in Translator Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Koletnik Korošec

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, translation as well as translator training have experienced a significant change. This change has been significantly influenced by the development of the Internet and the successive availability of web-based translation resources, such as Google Translate. Their introduction into the translation didactic process and training is no longer a matter of a teacher’s personal preference and IT skills, but a necessity imposed by the ever-swifter advancement of technology. This article presents the experimental results of an ongoing broader research study focusing on the modes and frequency of use of the Internet, Google Translate and Google Translator Toolkit among translation students at the undergraduate level. The preliminary results, presented in this article, are based on a questionnaire which was prepared in relation to the use of Google Translate while considering the latest professional findings. The article concludes with the author’s observations as to the applicability of these resources in translator training and the challenges thereof.

  2. Translators: Travellers, Not Tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Rot Gabrovec

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores various representations of culture(s found in contemporary English children’s literature and discusses how they were rendered into Slovene. In the first part, some introductory definitions of culture and approaches to the translation of children’s literature are presented. In the second part, excerpts from selected literary works (for instance, Mary Poppins, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, Matilda, The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time are examined, both from the source and the target texts, with more attention paid to the cultural contexts, and the social changes that possibly influenced the translator’s decisions.

  3. An upstream open reading frame modulates ebola virus polymerase translation and virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed S Shabman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebolaviruses, highly lethal zoonotic pathogens, possess longer genomes than most other non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses due in part to long 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs present in the seven viral transcriptional units. To date, specific functions have not been assigned to these UTRs. With reporter assays, we demonstrated that the Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV 5'-UTRs lack internal ribosomal entry site function. However, the 5'-UTRs do differentially regulate cap-dependent translation when placed upstream of a GFP reporter gene. Most dramatically, the 5'-UTR derived from the viral polymerase (L mRNA strongly suppressed translation of GFP compared to a β-actin 5'-UTR. The L 5'-UTR is one of four viral genes to possess upstream AUGs (uAUGs, and ablation of each uAUG enhanced translation of the primary ORF (pORF, most dramatically in the case of the L 5'-UTR. The L uAUG was sufficient to initiate translation, is surrounded by a "weak" Kozak sequence and suppressed pORF translation in a position-dependent manner. Under conditions where eIF2α was phosphorylated, the presence of the uORF maintained translation of the L pORF, indicating that the uORF modulates L translation in response to cellular stress. To directly address the role of the L uAUG in virus replication, a recombinant EBOV was generated in which the L uAUG was mutated to UCG. Strikingly, mutating two nucleotides outside of previously-defined protein coding and cis-acting regulatory sequences attenuated virus growth to titers 10-100-fold lower than a wild-type virus in Vero and A549 cells. The mutant virus also exhibited decreased viral RNA synthesis as early as 6 hours post-infection and enhanced sensitivity to the stress inducer thapsigargin. Cumulatively, these data identify novel mechanisms by which EBOV regulates its polymerase expression, demonstrate their relevance to virus replication and identify a potential therapeutic target.

  4. The translating techniques analyzation of Oliver Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Ran

    2014-01-01

    In order to deeply understanding the translation methods and further improving translation skil s, the article provides notions of Translation methods with examples form the translating version by Mr.Rong from shanghai.

  5. Magnetic translator bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockney, Richard L. (Inventor); Downer, James R. (Inventor); Eisenhaure, David B. (Inventor); Hawkey, Timothy J. (Inventor); Johnson, Bruce G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic bearing system for enabling translational motion includes a carriage and a shaft for movably supporting the carriage; a first magnetic bearing fixed to one of the carriage and shaft and slidably received in a first channel of the other of the carriage and shaft. The first channel is generally U shaped with two side walls and a back wall. The magnetic bearing includes a pair of spaced magnetic pole pieces, each pole piece having a pair of electromagnetic coils mounted on poles on opposite ends of the pole piece proximate the side walls, and a third electromagnetic coil mounted on a pole of the pole piece proximate the backwall; a motion sensor for sensing translational motion along two axes and rotationally about three axes of the carriage and shaft relative to each other; and a correction circuit responsive to the sensor for generating a correction signal to drive the coils to compensate for any misalignment sensed between the carriage and the shaft.

  6. Application of translation strategies in the translation of trademark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾丽晔

    2014-01-01

    The trademark propaganda is an important means of sel ing goods and way of competition in international market. Cultivating famous brand serves as an important links in opening up the international market. So the importance of a good trademark translation is evident. Through discussing the importance of the Chinese-English trademark translation, the translation of the principles, tactics, errors and trademark translation of cultural taboos, this paper studies initial y several aspects about how to translate the Chinese trademark into English, which is in order to make the translation of the original brand names and the products match perfectly in the sound, shape, meaning, and beauty. Thus, commodity exchanges and cultural exchanges both can be achieved.

  7. A Review of Translation and Gender

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄东睿

    2012-01-01

    Around 1970th, translation theory comes across feminism, thus the feminist translation theory emerged as the times required. The appearance of feminist translation enriches the modern translation theory, and extends the horizon of translation theory. At the same time, feminist translation has its shortcomings, especially in its exaggeration and arbitrariness. This paper explores the similarities between feminism and translation, the contributions and limitations of feminist translation theory.

  8. Teaching machine translation and translation technology: a contrastive study

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Dorothy; Way, Andy

    2001-01-01

    The Machine Translation course at Dublin City University is taught to undergraduate students in Applied Computational Linguistics, while Computer-Assisted Translation is taught on two translator-training programmes, one undergraduate and one postgraduate. Given the differing backgrounds of these sets of students, the course material, methods of teaching and assessment all differ. We report here on our experiences of teaching these courses over a number of years, which we hope will be of...

  9. On Translation Thoughts of American Translator Howard Goldblatt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亚丽; 王亚荣; 李静莹

    2015-01-01

    In 2012,Moyan won the Nobel Prize for literature to which the media and the scholars paid great attention.The transla-tions of his works by Howard Goldblatt were also caught great attention.Howard Goldblatt was believed to help Moyan win the No-bel Prize.Based on this,it is necessary to study translation thoughts of Howard Goldblatt,which will provide some references for Chinese literature translations.

  10. A Stylistic Study of Translator Based on Western Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the historic development of the stylistic study of translator in light of western translation theory,and analyzes its features on each phase and current emphasis of research,by which knowledge of the development of western theory and translators’ style can be shown.After that,we can research its problems existing in the stylistic study of translator based on western theory so than we can provide a panoramic analysis in this field.

  11. Translation Aestheticsand Communication Theory of Journalism English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曜

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the present translation theories and standards especially in journalism English translation and imply these theories in my issue. Moreover, I will explain how to apply the translation aesthetics and communication theory of translation in the course of journalism English translation activities. So that translation will achieve elegance in English news text and its Chinese version as well.

  12. Methodological considerations when translating “burnout”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Squires

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No study has systematically examined how researchers address cross-cultural adaptation of burnout. We conducted an integrative review to examine how researchers had adapted the instruments to the different contexts. We reviewed the Content Validity Indexing scores for the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey from the 12-country comparative nursing workforce study, RN4CAST. In the integrative review, multiple issues related to translation were found in existing studies. In the cross-cultural instrument analysis, 7 out of 22 items on the instrument received an extremely low kappa score. Investigators may need to employ more rigorous cross-cultural adaptation methods when attempting to measure burnout.

  13. Raster Metafile and Raster Metafile Translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nancy L.; Everton, Eric L.; Randall, Donald P.; Gates, Raymond L.; Skeens, Kristi M.

    1989-01-01

    The intent is to present an effort undertaken at NASA Langley Research Center to design a generic raster image format and to develop tools for processing images prepared in this format. Both the Raster Metafile (RM) format and the Raster Metafile Translator (RMT) are addressed. This document is intended to serve a varied audience including: users wishing to display and manipulate raster image data, programmers responsible for either interfacing the RM format with other raster formats or for developing new RMT device drivers, and programmers charged with installing the software on a host platform.

  14. Approaches to translational plant science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Christensen, Brian; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Translational science deals with the dilemma between basic research and the practical application of scientific results. In translational plant science, focus is on the relationship between agricultural crop production and basic science in various research fields, but primarily in the basic plant...... to the same problems. By theuse of examples where translational plant science has either been successfully or not successfully applied we describe an approach for advancing translational plant science.......Translational science deals with the dilemma between basic research and the practical application of scientific results. In translational plant science, focus is on the relationship between agricultural crop production and basic science in various research fields, but primarily in the basic plant...... science. Scientific and technological developments have allowed great progress in our understanding of plant genetics and molecular physiology, with potentials for improving agricultural production. However, this development has led to a separation of the laboratory-based research from the crop production...

  15. Computer-aided translation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports on a questionnaire survey from 2013 of the uptake and use of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools by Danish translation service providers (TSPs) and discusses how these tools appear to have impacted on the Danish translation industry. According to our results, the uptake...... in Denmark is rather high in general, but limited in the case of machine translation (MT) tools: While most TSPs use translation-memory (TM) software, often in combination with a terminology management system (TMS), only very few have implemented MT, which is criticised for its low quality output, especially...... when Danish is one of the languages, though some also express willingness to consider using MT (more) when output quality improves. Most respondents report that CAT has changed the translation industry, mentioning that the technology facilitates improved productivity and consistency, but also...

  16. Translating Fashion into Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riegels Melchior, Marie; Skov, Lise; Csaba, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    With their association to enterprise and innovation, creative industries have emerged as a legitimate concern in national cultural and economical policy in many countries across the world. In Denmark, the fashion business, in particular, has been hailed as a model for successful (post...... emanate from Denmark and secure growth, jobs and exports even outside the fashion business has taken hold among policymakers, and compelled the government to embrace fashion as a national project. In investigating the emergence and rising stature of Danish fashion, particular at home, we first establish...... a theoretical frame for understanding the cultural economic policy and the motives, principles and strategies behind it. Then – drawing inspiration from Michel Callon’s “sociology of translation” with its moments of translation: problematization, interessement, enrolment and mobilization – we identify...

  17. Semantic Translation and Communicative Translation:A Case Study in My Chinese Translation of Alnwick’s Inspired Heritage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶谋锦

    2013-01-01

      This essay deals with my Chinese translation of a tour brochure and highlights some issues in translation. The translation strategies semantic translation and communicative translation are famous approaches proposed by Peter Newmark in his book Approaches to Translation. He puts forward his text typology and categorizes all text types into three types, i.e. expressive text, informative text and vocative text. In order to solve problems emerging in different types, he presents two dominant translation approaches, namely, semantic translation and communicative translation (Newmark, 2001). These translation methods are regarded as a milestone in translation theory and highly quoted by many scholars. Semantic translation emphasizes the thinking process of the author and represents the origin meanings of the source text. In this case, translator makes little interference with the harmony of the source text. Semantic translation can preserve the characteristics and expression patterns of the source language, forcing readers to follow the thinking pattern of the author. While communicative translation indicates that the influence of translation on target readers should be identical to the effect of original article on source readers. Communicative translation is target-language-orientated and focuses on transference of information. This translation strategy allows translator to reorganize sentences with classical phrases in the target language to make his translation accessible to target readers. Of course, these different translation strategies often com⁃plement with each other, and should be combined together in translation.

  18. Practical Evaluation of Stateful NAT64/DNS64 Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SKOBERNE, N.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available It is often suggested that the approach to IPv6 transition is dual-stack deployment; however, it is not feasible in certain environments. As Network Address Translation -- Protocol Translation (NAT-PT has been deprecated, stateful NAT64 and DNS64 RFCs have been published, supporting only IPv6-to-IPv4 translation scenario. Now the question of usability in the real world arises. In this paper, we systematically test a number of widely used application-layer network protocols to find out how well they traverse Ecdysis, the first open source stateful NAT64 and DNS64 implementation. We practically evaluated 18 popular protocols, among them HTTP, RDP, MSNP, and IMAP, and discuss the shortcomings of such translations that might not be apparent at first sight.

  19. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems.

  20. Functionalist Approaches to Advertisement Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乐

    2009-01-01

    The 1970s saw a development of the Functionalism, with its three representative scholars Katharina Reiss, Hans. Vermeer and Justa Holz Manttari. Katharina Reiss proposed the text type theory; Vermeer brought up the skopostheory and Mantarri translational action theory. The Functional theories are very useful for the translators to adopt a fight translation strategy. In these years, various kinds of advertisement have appeared in people's daily life. They are becoming one important part in our culture. The companies need advertisements to sell their products and the consumers need the advertisement to decide which brand to buy after comparison. This paper will discuss how they are ap-plied to the advertisement translation.

  1. Translation Accommodations Framework for Testing English Language Learners in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    The present framework is developed under contract with the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) as a conceptual and methodological tool for guiding the reasonings and actions of contractors in charge of developing and providing test translation accommodations for English language learners. The framework addresses important challenges in…

  2. Cinema and Choric Connection: "Lost in Translation" as Sensual Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Brian L.; Keeling, Diane Marie

    2011-01-01

    The rise of the new information technologies, and corresponding proliferation of signs, images, and information, has contributed to a growing sense of alienation and dislocation. For many, the contemporary moment is an unending and disorienting sea of sensory-symbolic excesses. "Lost in Translation" is a film addressed to these anxieties. Engaging…

  3. Application of Relevance Translation Theory in Humor Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀丽

    2013-01-01

    This thesis,aiming to investigate the process of English-Chinese translation of humor from the perspective of RT theory(relevance translation theory),endeavors to apply its principles and methods to the re-construction of humor in the target language.

  4. Thick Translation as a New Trend of Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶莉

    2016-01-01

    This paper, based on the development and history of thick translation, is intended to carry out a comparative critic of the interpretations of“thick translation”proposed by different scholars so as to explore the profound meanings and significance of“thick translation”as a new strategy, which has reflected and predicted the new trend of translation studies.

  5. Using example-based machine translation to translate DVD subtitles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Marian

    Audiovisual Translation (AVT), and in particular subtitling, has been recognised as an area that could potentially benefit from the introduction of machine translation (followed by post-editing). In recent years the demands on subtitlers have increased, while the payment to subtitlers and time...

  6. The Translation and the Translator of the Peshitta of Hosea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive examination of the Syriac Peshitta of Hosea (P-Hosea) is the first study of the Peshitta conducted via insights and methods from the discipline of Translation Studies. It uses in particular Andrew Chesterman's Causal Model and Gideon Toury's descriptive approach. Every translator leaves residue of his or her…

  7. Translational Science for Energy and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, James R.; Crans, Debbie C.; Martin, Cheryl; Turner, John; Duggal, Anil R.; Gray, Harry B.

    2016-09-19

    A clear challenge for the coming decades is decreasing the carbon intensity of the global energy supply while simultaneously accommodating a rapid worldwide increase in power demand. Meeting this challenge of providing abundant, clean energy undoubtedly requires synergistic efforts between basic and applied researchers in the chemical sciences to develop and deploy new technologies. Among the available options, solar energy is one of the promising targets because of the high abundance of solar photons over much of the globe. Similarly, decarbonization of the global energy supply will require clean sources of hydrogen to use as reducing equivalents for fuel and chemical feedstocks. In this report, we discuss the importance of translational research -- defined as work that explicitly targets basic discovery as well as technology development -- in the context of photovoltaics and solar fuels. We focus on three representative research programs encompassing translational research in government, industry, and academia. We then discuss more broadly the benefits and challenges of translational research models and offer recommendations for research programs that address societal challenges in the energy sector and beyond.

  8. Nonhuman primate models in translational regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daadi, Marcel M; Barberi, Tiziano; Shi, Qiang; Lanford, Robert E

    2014-12-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs) are similar in size, behavior, physiology, biochemistry, structure and function of organs, and complexity of the immune system. Research on NHPs generates complementary data that bridge translational research from small animal models to humans. NHP models of human disease offer unique opportunities to develop stem cell-based therapeutic interventions that directly address relevant and challenging translational aspects of cell transplantation therapy. These include the use of autologous induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cellular products, issues related to the immune response in autologous and allogeneic setting, pros and cons of delivery techniques in a clinical setting, as well as the safety and efficacy of candidate cell lines. The NHP model allows the assessment of complex physiological, biochemical, behavioral, and imaging end points, with direct relevance to human conditions. At the same time, the value of using primates in scientific research must be carefully evaluated and timed due to expense and the necessity for specialized equipment and highly trained personnel. Often it is more efficient and useful to perform initial proof-of-concept studies for new therapeutics in rodents and/or other species before the pivotal studies in NHPs that may eventually lead to first-in-human trials. In this report, we present how the Southwest National Primate Research Center, one of seven NIH-funded National Primate Research Centers, may help the global community in translating promising technologies to the clinical arena. PMID:25457970

  9. Translational Science for Energy and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKone, James R; Crans, Debbie C; Martin, Cheryl; Turner, John; Duggal, Anil R; Gray, Harry B

    2016-09-19

    A clear challenge for the coming decades is decreasing the carbon intensity of the global energy supply while simultaneously accommodating a rapid worldwide increase in power demand. Meeting this challenge of providing abundant, clean energy undoubtedly requires synergistic efforts between basic and applied researchers in the chemical sciences to develop and deploy new technologies. Among the available options, solar energy is one of the promising targets because of the high abundance of solar photons over much of the globe. Similarly, decarbonization of the global energy supply will require clean sources of hydrogen to use as reducing equivalents for fuel and chemical feedstocks. In this report, we discuss the importance of translational research-defined as work that explicitly targets basic discovery as well as technology development-in the context of photovoltaics and solar fuels. We focus on three representative research programs encompassing translational research in government, industry, and academia. We then discuss more broadly the benefits and challenges of translational research models and offer recommendations for research programs that address societal challenges in the energy sector and beyond. PMID:27606600

  10. Translational Science for Energy and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKone, James R; Crans, Debbie C; Martin, Cheryl; Turner, John; Duggal, Anil R; Gray, Harry B

    2016-09-19

    A clear challenge for the coming decades is decreasing the carbon intensity of the global energy supply while simultaneously accommodating a rapid worldwide increase in power demand. Meeting this challenge of providing abundant, clean energy undoubtedly requires synergistic efforts between basic and applied researchers in the chemical sciences to develop and deploy new technologies. Among the available options, solar energy is one of the promising targets because of the high abundance of solar photons over much of the globe. Similarly, decarbonization of the global energy supply will require clean sources of hydrogen to use as reducing equivalents for fuel and chemical feedstocks. In this report, we discuss the importance of translational research-defined as work that explicitly targets basic discovery as well as technology development-in the context of photovoltaics and solar fuels. We focus on three representative research programs encompassing translational research in government, industry, and academia. We then discuss more broadly the benefits and challenges of translational research models and offer recommendations for research programs that address societal challenges in the energy sector and beyond.

  11. Nonhuman primate models in translational regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daadi, Marcel M; Barberi, Tiziano; Shi, Qiang; Lanford, Robert E

    2014-12-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs) are similar in size, behavior, physiology, biochemistry, structure and function of organs, and complexity of the immune system. Research on NHPs generates complementary data that bridge translational research from small animal models to humans. NHP models of human disease offer unique opportunities to develop stem cell-based therapeutic interventions that directly address relevant and challenging translational aspects of cell transplantation therapy. These include the use of autologous induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cellular products, issues related to the immune response in autologous and allogeneic setting, pros and cons of delivery techniques in a clinical setting, as well as the safety and efficacy of candidate cell lines. The NHP model allows the assessment of complex physiological, biochemical, behavioral, and imaging end points, with direct relevance to human conditions. At the same time, the value of using primates in scientific research must be carefully evaluated and timed due to expense and the necessity for specialized equipment and highly trained personnel. Often it is more efficient and useful to perform initial proof-of-concept studies for new therapeutics in rodents and/or other species before the pivotal studies in NHPs that may eventually lead to first-in-human trials. In this report, we present how the Southwest National Primate Research Center, one of seven NIH-funded National Primate Research Centers, may help the global community in translating promising technologies to the clinical arena.

  12. Comment on "Length-dependent translation of messenger RNA by ribosomes"

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunxin

    2011-01-01

    In recent paper [Phys. Rev. E {\\bf 83}, 042903 (2011)], a simple model for the translation of messenger RNA by ribosomes is provided, and the expression of translational ratio of protein is given. In this comments, varied methods to get this ratio are addressed. Depending on a different method, we find that, roughly speaking, this translational ratio decays exponentially with mRNA length in prokaryotic cell, and reciprocally with mRNA length in eukaryotic cells.

  13. Economic Performance Of the Arabic Book Translation Industry in Arab Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Harabi, Najib

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge has always been at the heart of economic growth and development. It is disseminated chiefly through the different stages of education, R&D, the mass media and the translation industry. In Arab countries there has been a widespread impression that there is a low level of translation activities, which in turn has led to a low output of the translation industry in those countries. This paper addresses this issue; its overall objectives are (1) to describe the economic performance of th...

  14. Translational neural engineering: multiple perspectives on bringing benchtop research into the clinical domain

    OpenAIRE

    Rousche, Patrick; Schneeweis, David M.; Perreault, Eric J.; Jensen, Winnie

    2008-01-01

    A half-day forum to address a wide range of issues related to translational neural engineering was conducted at the annual meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society. Successful practitioners of translational neural engineering from academics, clinical medicine and industry were invited to share a diversity of perspectives and experiences on the translational process. The forum was targeted towards traditional academic researchers who may be interested in the expanded funding opportunities...

  15. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  16. Introduction to IP address management

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Tim

    2010-01-01

    "The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--

  17. Communities Address Barriers to Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Rural areas lag behind urban areas in access to information technologies. Public institutions play a critical role in extending the benefits of information technologies to those who would not otherwise have access. The most successful rural telecommunications plans address barriers to use, such as unawareness of the benefits, technophobia, the…

  18. Which Principles and which Methodology for Specialized Translation? Contrastive Typology (French – Italian of Specialized Discourses: The Example of Translation from the Field of Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis BEGIONI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The few reflections we are to present here are the result of our observations on specialized translations: version, theme, methodology of the translation ensured by us as part of our teaching activity at the Applied Modern Languages unit of our University.

  19. Translation Process of Multilingual Web Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Salomaa, Jani

    2013-01-01

    The main goal for this master’s thesis was to improve Avanade’s capability to manage translation of multilingual web applications. For this purpose I created translation process, synchronization tool, and translation list. The translation process helps Avanade to reduce the time used for managing translation. The synchronization tool automates the process of copying words manually and the translation list provides real time access to all translated items for the customer. The customer can tra...

  20. Translation Strategies of Non-literary Texts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静

    2015-01-01

    Translator's subjectivity is closely related to the choice of the style of the translated texts and translation strategies.This paper presents an analytical study of translation strategies of non-literary texts.It introduces different non-literary texts,and then generalizes some factors influencing the selection of translation strategies.Take these Influencing factors into account,Translators should adopt different translation strategies

  1. Sight Translation and written translation. A comparative Analysis of causes of problems, Strategies and Translation Errors within the PACTE Translation Competence Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Ivars, María Amparo

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative empirical exploratory study of some cognitive aspects of the oral and written translation process within the translation competence construct. This research has a twofold objective: finding some evidence of specific translation competence skills in translation tasks and comparing these data in sight translation and written translation in order to empirically check if sight translation can really be considered an interpreting modality. A sample ...

  2. Translation and Short-Term L2 Vocabulary Retention: Hindrance or Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the role that active translation may have in second language (L2) vocabulary learning. Some research suggests that translation might be an effective cognitive strategy for L2 vocabulary learning. Participants were 191 native French-speaking students enrolled in a TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language) program.The study…

  3. Rescuing the Lost in Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehr, Sinje; Garner, Craig C

    2016-05-01

    The translation of medically relevant academic inventions that could transform public health has been notoriously difficult, stemming largely from cultural differences been academia and industry. New initiatives to kindle academic entrepreneurship and establish stronger public/private partnerships are helping to align these differences and accelerating the translation of promising new therapies. PMID:27153487

  4. Cultural Contexts and Language Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong-mei

    2014-01-01

    According to cognitive linguistics, human language is a process of cognition. Because of the different culture in Eastern and Western, the translation form must adapt to the cultural contexts. This article mainly deals with the differences in intercultural, and discusses the relationship between cultural contexts and language translation.

  5. A Commentary on News Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚雅晴

    2011-01-01

    News language is formal,especially the high register vocabulary it employed to deliver the message unveiled by culturally and politically stamped style which challenges the translator a lot.Nida's formal and dynamic equivalence theory,Bielsa and Bassnett news translation theories and other methods and strategies are introduced to cope with these challenges and get the message across without distortion.

  6. PATRAN-STAGS translator (PATSTAGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Neil

    1990-01-01

    A a computer program used to translate PATRAN finite element model data into Structural Analysis of General Shells (STAGS) input data is presented. The program supports translation of nodal, nodal constraints, element, force, and pressure data. The subroutine UPRESS required for the readings of live pressure data into STAGS is also presented.

  7. Translation as a Psycholinguistic Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasyekin, Serhiy

    2010-01-01

    The article sketches the outlines of a theoretical framework for the analysis of translation of literary texts, viewed as psycho-semiotic phenomenon and based on evaluation of earlier attempts in this direction, and on the results of a psycholinguistic empirical study of translations. Central to this framework is the recent insight that the human…

  8. Optimising Comprehensibility in Interlingual Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbeth Jensen, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    . Action requires understanding, and these texts consequently need to be optimally comprehensible. The aim of this paper is therefore to provide a framework for optimising comprehensibility in translation. In order to do so, the concept of intralingual translation is argued for as a useful starting point...... information on medication and tax information. Such texts are often written by experts and received by lay people, and, in today’s globalised world, they are often translated as well. In these functional texts, the receiver is not a mere recipient of information, but s/he needs to be able to act upon it....... It is argued that Plain Language writing is a type of intralingual translation as it involves rewriting or translating a complex monolingual text into comprehensible language. Based on Plain Language literature, a comprehensibility framework is elaborated, which is subsequently exemplified through...

  9. Revising and editing for translators

    CERN Document Server

    Mossop, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Revising and Editing for Translators provides guidance and learning materials for translation students learning to edit texts written by others, and professional translators wishing to improve their self-revision ability or learning to revise the work of others. Editing is understood as making corrections and improvements to texts, with particular attention to tailoring them to the given readership. Revising is this same task applied to draft translations. The linguistic work of editors and revisers is related to the professional situations in which they work. Mossop offers in-depth coverage of a wide range of topics, including copyediting, style editing, structural editing, checking for consistency, revising procedures and principles, and translation quality assessment. This third edition provides extended coverage of computer aids for revisers, and of the different degrees of revision suited to different texts. The inclusion of suggested activities and exercises, numerous real-world examples, a proposed gra...

  10. Allocation of Cognitive Resources in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    The present study is an empirical investigation of translators' allocation of cognitive resources during the translation process, and it aims at investigating how translators' mental processing resources are put to use during translation. The study bases ts analyses on quantitative eye-tracking a......The present study is an empirical investigation of translators' allocation of cognitive resources during the translation process, and it aims at investigating how translators' mental processing resources are put to use during translation. The study bases ts analyses on quantitative eye......-tracking and key-logging data collected from translation experiments....

  11. Analysis on the German Functionalist Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying

    2013-01-01

    German functionalist approach makes considerable contributions to translation studies for considering translation as an fact of intercultural communication and concentrate on the purpose and function of the target text. It distinctively promoted translation theory against the traditional translation views. The paper analyzes its main ideas ,contribution and criticism of the Ger⁃man Functionalist Translation Theory.

  12. The "Pedagogue as Translator" in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Translation theory has faced criticism from professional translators for adopting an ivory tower stance to the "real world" challenges of translation. This article argues that a case can be made for considering the challenges of translation as it takes place in the school classroom. In support of such an argument the pedagogue as translator is…

  13. On Cultivating Students' Ability to Utilize Automatic Translation Tools in Translation%On Cultivating Students'Ability to Utilize Automatic Translation Tools in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪宇红

    2016-01-01

    The information age has put forward higher demand for the translator not only to possess sound grounding in basic skills of translation, but also to grasp the advanced equipment and modern information technology to assist in their translation work. This paper explores the problems in automatic translation and proposes solutions in translation teaching.

  14. Translating Fashion into Danish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Riegels Melchior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available With their association to enterprise and innovation, creative industries have emerged as a legitimate concern in national cultural and economical policy in many countries across the world. In Denmark, the fashion business, in particular, has been hailed as a model for successful (postindustrial transformation. In this paper, we explore the birth of Danish fashion from the ashes of the country’s clothing manufacturing industry, suggesting that the very notion of Danish fashion is indicative of – and enabled by – a development towards a polycentric fashion system. The intriguing idea that fashion could emanate from Denmark and secure growth, jobs and exports even outside the fashion business has taken hold among policymakers, and compelled the government to embrace fashion as a national project. In investigating the emergence and rising stature of Danish fashion, particular at home, we first establish a theoretical frame for understanding the cultural economic policy and the motives, principles and strategies behind it. Then – drawing inspiration from Michel Callon’s “sociology of translation” with its moments of translation: problematization, interessement, enrolment and mobilization – we identify the actors and analyze their strategic roles and interrelationship through various phases of the development of Danish fashion. Callon’s actor network theory (ANT is based on the principle of “generalized symmetry” – originally using a single repertoire to analyze both society and nature. We adapt this principle to study the realms of market, culture and politics within a common analytical framework. In our analysis, the state responds to industry transformation, interprets it and develops its own agenda. But it can hardly be said to develop policies for the industry. On the contrary, we suggest, fashion is mobilized to lend its luster to the nation, its institutions and politicians.

  15. Strategies for Translating Vocative Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga COJOCARU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the linguistic and cultural elements of vocative texts and the techniques used in translating them by giving some examples of texts that are typically vocative (i.e. advertisements and instructions for use. Semantic and communicative strategies are popular in translation studies and each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages in translating vocative texts. The advantage of semantic translation is that it takes more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text, while communicative translation attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original text in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership. Focus is laid on the strategies used in translating vocative texts, strategies that highlight and introduce a cultural context to the target audience, in order to achieve their overall purpose, that is to sell or persuade the reader to behave in a certain way. Thus, in order to do that, a number of advertisements from the field of cosmetics industry and electronic gadgets were selected for analysis. The aim is to gather insights into vocative text translation and to create new perspectives on this field of research, now considered a process of innovation and diversion, especially in areas as important as economy and marketing.

  16. Translating Romans: some persistent headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. du Toit

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Translating Romans: some persistent headaches Gone are the days when it was axiomatic that expertise in biblical languages automatically qualified one as a Bible translator. In 1949, Ronald Knox, who for nine years conscientiously struggled with translating the Bible for his generation, published a booklet under the title The trials of a translator. At that stage Bible translation as the subject of scientific study was still in its infancy. Since then, research into the intricacies of communicating the biblical message in an authentic but understandable manner, has made significant progress (cf. Roberts, 2009. However, the frustrations of Bible translators, first of all to really understand what the biblical authors wanted to convey to their original addressees, and then to commu-nicate that message to their own targeted readers in a meaningful way, have not disappeared. In fact, the challenge to meet the vary-ing requirements of the multiple kinds of translation that are present-ly in vogue, has only increased.

  17. Addressing passive smoking in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha G Hutchinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A significant number of parents are unaware or unconvinced of the health consequences of passive smoking (PS in children. Physicians could increase parental awareness by giving personal advice. AIM: To evaluate the current practices of three Dutch health professions (paediatricians, youth health care physicians, and family physicians regarding parental counselling for passive smoking (PS in children. METHODS: All physicians (n = 720 representing the three health professions in Limburg, The Netherlands, received an invitation to complete a self-administered electronic questionnaire including questions on their: sex, work experience, personal smoking habits, counselling practices and education regarding PS in children. RESULTS: The response rate was 34%. One tenth (11% of the responding physicians always addressed PS in children, 32% often, 54% occasionally and 4% reported to never attend to it. The three health professions appeared comparable regarding their frequency of parental counselling for PS in children. Addressing PS was more likely when children had respiratory problems. Lack of time was the most frequently mentioned barrier, being very and somewhat applicable for respectively 14% and 43% of the physicians. One fourth of the responders had received postgraduate education about PS. Additionally, 49% of the responders who did not have any education about PS were interested in receiving it. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians working in the paediatric field in Limburg, The Netherlands, could more frequently address PS in children with parents. Lack of time appeared to be the most mentioned barrier and physicians were more likely to counsel parents for PS in children with respiratory complaints/diseases. Finally, a need for more education on parental counselling for PS was expressed.

  18. Characteristics and Translation of Vocabulary in Business English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Song; CAO Fang; GAO Zhi-jun

    2015-01-01

    As world economy stepped into the 21st century, international business activities are going on with increasing frequen⁃cy. Business English has become an indispensable communication language tool in international economy activities. Vocabulary is the minimal independent of applied unit composing meaningful unit, so it is likely to understand sentences well and translate the language accurately and precisely only when one fully understand every word.

  19. Translation Expert (TranslationQ & RevisionQ): Automated translation process with real-time feedback & evaluation/ revision with PIE

    OpenAIRE

    Steurs, Frieda; Segers, Winibert; Kockaert, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Translation Expert (TranslationQ & RevisionQ): Automated translation process with real-time feedback & evaluation/ revision with PIE Winibert Segers, Hendrik Kockaert & Frieda Steurs KU Leuven This paper reports on an experiment working with a new evaluation technique for translator training. Organizing high level translation classes in a master in translation involves intensive assessment of the work delivered by the students. The evaluation has to be precise, professional, and at...

  20. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need. (authors)

  1. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  2. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating. PMID:26420812

  3. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  4. GL8 Conference Welcome Address

    OpenAIRE

    Barton, Fredrick (UNO); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2006-01-01

    On behalf of the University of New Orleans and Chancellor Tim Ryan, on behalf of the City of New Orleans and the State of Louisiana, and for those of you who have traveled here from abroad, on behalf of the United States, I welcome you to the Lindy Boggs Conference Center and wish to all of you a productive meeting and a pleasant visit to our campus and our community. Includes: Conference preprint XA International

  5. Literary Translation: The Experience of Translating Chinua Achebe's "Arrow of God" into French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Almeida, Irene

    1981-01-01

    Uses Achebe's "Arrow of God" as example of difficulty in translating English into French when author and translators are not native speakers of these languages. Suggests inventing French gibberish or use of translator's notes to translate Pidgin English. (BK)

  6. Indicators of Difficulty in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to investigate the correlation between indicators of difficulty observable in translation product and translation process data respectively. It has been claimed that the number of alternative renditions in the target text across a group of subjects translating the same source...... text item indicates the degree of cognitive effort. We identified words with high versus low target text variability across eight subjects and related these to various indicators of difficulty observable in process data from eye-tracking and keystroke logging: number of fixations, gaze time, pauses...

  7. Population genetics of translational robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Claus O; Drummond, D Allan

    2006-05-01

    Recent work has shown that expression level is the main predictor of a gene's evolutionary rate and that more highly expressed genes evolve slower. A possible explanation for this observation is selection for proteins that fold properly despite mistranslation, in short selection for translational robustness. Translational robustness leads to the somewhat paradoxical prediction that highly expressed genes are extremely tolerant to missense substitutions but nevertheless evolve very slowly. Here, we study a simple theoretical model of translational robustness that allows us to gain analytic insight into how this paradoxical behavior arises.

  8. Understanding Discourse Competence in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masduki Masduki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Discourse as a communication event is influenced by topic being communicated, interpersonal relationship between the communicants, and communication channel used in context. Whatever senses created by the communicants is fully related to culture and situation being involved. Participating in conversation, reading, writing, and translating, activates discourse competence, which requires the use of a set of strategy to realize or mobilize all declarative knowledge in the real context of communication. Further, this article highlights the discourse competence and how it is culturally implemented in translation as an activity of transferring messages. The discussion covers the overview of discourse competence, discourse approach, and discourse competence in translation.

  9. Liberalism Lost in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Lise

    2013-01-01

    What happens to the liberal democratic ideals of human security and peacebuilding when they travel to the radically different post-conflict setting of Sierra Leone? Through its peacebuilding strategy the UN has been able to establish new grounds for exercising power. By aiming to secure the peace......, rather than just maintaining it, the claim of neutrality has been replaced with a claim of how to build a state. Based on fieldwork in the United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Sierra Leone, I argue that when human security travels to the field, it gets reinvented in ways that essentially...

  10. Not Lost in Translation: Changing Intervention Delivery Mechanisms in e-Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    This workshop will explore the challenges in translating existing health interventions to new e-health delivery mechanisms. Challenges to be covered include: identifying and retaining the active ingredients of an intervention; and measurement and validation of newly translated interventions. This session will appeal to health researchers and e-health developers. Participants will have an opportunity to work on cases in small groups to foster in-depth discussion and sharing. Following this session, participants will be able to articulate critical issues to be addressed in translating interventions to a new delivery mechanism and share potential solutions to various translation challenges.

  11. The Translator's Turn: in the Cultural Turn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玮玮

    2003-01-01

    @@ Introduction: Douglas Robinson rose to the defense of the " atheoretical" American literary translator in The Translator's Turn (1991). Here, I borrowed the title from him, but I will write my paper in the thought of the translator's role in translating. In his book, Robinson argued that the literary translator embodies an integration of feeling and thought, of intuition and systematization. In analyzing the " turn" that the translator take from the source text to the target text, Robinson offered a " dialogical" model, that is the translator's dialogical engagement with the source language and with the ethic of the target language. Robinson allows for the translator to intervene, subvert, divert, even entertain, emphasizing the creative aspect of literary translation. The translation linguists, scientists, and philosophers have had their chance at translation theory; now it is time, he argued, for the literary translators to have their " turn".

  12. Translation-A Process of Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viola Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Translation is a process that involves transformation and reproduction. This essay discusses some useful techniques of trans-lating practice by introducing a simple model. A few examples of good translation are presented to support explaining the model cleady.

  13. Bowker, L. et al., eds. Unity in diversity? current trends in translation studies. Bowker, L. et al., eds. Unity in diversity? current trends in translation studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Vasconcellos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Unity in Diversity? Current Trends in Translation Studies—a result of the diverse range of phenomena addressed in the Dublin City University Translation Studies (TS Conference (1996—proves to be a timely publication of St. Jerome Publishing at the end of the 20th century. This collection of papers exploring the central and uptodate issue of disciplinary identity in the young academic field of TS is in tune with the present concern in the area, as can be seen in the topic suggested for the international Translation Conference I IATIS Conference:“Disciplinary Identity—Redefining Translation in the 21st Century” (cf. www.iatis.org/content/korea/programme.php, to be held in 2005. Unity in Diversity? Current Trends in Translation Studies—a result of the diverse range of phenomena addressed in the Dublin City University Translation Studies (TS Conference (1996—proves to be a timely publication of St. Jerome Publishing at the end of the 20th century. This collection of papers exploring the central and uptodate issue of disciplinary identity in the young academic field of TS is in tune with the present concern in the area, as can be seen in the topic suggested for the international Translation Conference I IATIS Conference:“Disciplinary Identity—Redefining Translation in the 21st Century” (cf. www.iatis.org/content/korea/programme.php, to be held in 2005.

  14. Adoptive T cell therapy: Addressing challenges in cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Cassian

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adoptive T cell therapy involves the ex vivo selection and expansion of effector cells for the treatment of patients with cancer. In this review, the advantages and limitations of using antigen-specific T cells are discussed in counterpoint to vaccine strategies. Although vaccination strategies represent more readily available reagents, adoptive T cell therapy provides highly selected T cells of defined phenotype, specificity and function that may influence their biological behavior in vivo. Adoptive T cell therapy offers not only translational opportunities but also a means to address fundamental issues in the evolving field of cancer immunotherapy.

  15. Developing a Process-Oriented Translation Test for Assessing English-Arabic Basic Translation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellah, Antar Solhy

    2007-01-01

    The study reviews translation validated tests and proposes a process-oriented translation test for assessing basic translation skills for freshmen English majors at the faculty of Education. The proposed test is developed based on the process approach to translating and translation teaching, and is confined to translation from English to Arabic.…

  16. On Technical Translation-Usability Strategies for Translating Technical Documentation by Jody Byrne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪辉

    2013-01-01

      Numerous books concerning technical translation deal with specific translation skills, or function as a summary of the au⁃thors’own translation experience with few of them devoted to the theorized study on technical translation. Jody Byrne’s book pio⁃neers in theoretical study on technical translation and is of great value to our Chinese technical translation study.

  17. Evaluating Arabic to English Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Laith S. Hadla; Taghreed M. Hailat; Mohammed N. Al-Kabi

    2014-01-01

    Online text machine translation systems are widely used throughout the world freely. Most of these systems use statistical machine translation (SMT) that is based on a corpus full with translation examples to learn from them how to translate correctly. Online text machine translation systems differ widely in their effectiveness, and therefore we have to fairly evaluate their effectiveness. Generally the manual (human) evaluation of machine translation (MT) systems is better than the automatic...

  18. James Joyce and the rhetoric of translation

    OpenAIRE

    McMurren, Blair R.; Tom Paulin

    2002-01-01

    This thesis examines theories of translation which are explicit in the themes and implicit in the rhetorical uses of form in the work of Joyce, with a focus on the French translations of Ulysses and Finnegans Wake produced with his collaboration between 1921 and 1931. Philosophies of translation from Jerome through Benjamin plus work in translation theory by Even-Zohar and Toury inform this study of the ethics both of translating and of being translated in the modernist idiom....

  19. Chinese translation norms for 1429 English words

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Yun; Walter J B van Heuven

    2016-01-01

    We present Chinese translation norms for 1429 English words. Chinese-English bilinguals (N=28) were asked to provide the first Chinese translation that came to mind for 1429 English words. The results revealed that 71% of the English words received more than one correct translation indicating the large amount of translation ambiguity when translating from English to Chinese. The relationship between translation ambiguity and word frequency, concreteness and language proficiency was investigat...

  20. Discussion on Misunderstandings of Translation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莎

    2008-01-01

    Translation is required as a compulsory course for English majors in many universities in China. With the development of globalization, a large number of translators are needed. Therefore, translation teaching is significant for the training of high-qualified translation personnel for the society. The purpose of this study is to give a basic introduction of the misunderstandings existing in translation teaching in China and to offer some advices in hope of promoting translation teaching in China.

  1. Discussion on Misunderstandings of Translation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莎

    2008-01-01

    Translation is required as a compulsory course for English majors in many universities in China.With the development of globalization,a large number of translators are needed.Therefore, translation teaching is significant for the training of high-qualified translation personnel for the society.The purpose of this study is to give a basic introduction of the misunderstandings existing in translation teaching in China and to offer some advices in hope of promoting translation teaching in China.

  2. The ubiquity of conservative translations

    CERN Document Server

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2011-01-01

    We study the notion of conservative translation between logics introduced by Feitosa and D'Ottaviano. We show that classical propositional logic (CPC) is universal in the sense that every finitary consequence relation over a countable set of formulas can be conservatively translated into CPC. The translation is computable if the consequence relation is decidable. More generally, we show that one can take instead of CPC a broad class of logics (extensions of a certain fragment of full Lambek calculus FL) including most nonclassical logics studied in the literature, hence in a sense, (almost) any two reasonable deductive systems can be conservatively translated into each other. We also provide some counterexamples, in particular the paraconsistent logic LP is not universal.

  3. MT In Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志新

    2009-01-01

    In this article the operational principles of MT in business English translation is briefly introduced with an aim to point out that to improve the MT quality machine study is a key factor to work on.

  4. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Legal translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain-specific discourse in a foreign language. The most common type is the bilingual law dictionary covering several or all the sub-fields within the general field of law. However, such law dictionaries tend...... strategies. When learners translate legal texts into a foreign language, it is important that their dictionaries can help them produce texts that conform to the expected style. This style requirement may be met by producing translations that use natural and idiomatic language, and really crafted dictionaries...... may provide the help needed. Beginners and intermediate learners are unlikely to be familiar with the syntactic structures used in legal language and which distinguish it from LGP and other LSPs, especially those structures that are unusual and complex. The optimal legal translation dictionary...

  5. Untrained Forward Observer (UFO) Translator

    OpenAIRE

    King, Regan

    2012-01-01

    MOVES Research & Education Systems Seminar: Presentation; Session 3c: Human Systems and Training (Operational Systems); Moderator: Mike McCauley; Untrained Forward Observer (UFO) Translator; speaker: Capt. Regan R. King

  6. Foregrounding Theory and Fiction Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳

    2014-01-01

    Foregrounding is a concept that originally introduced from pictorial art. The function of foregrounding is to attract the audiences' attention so as to achieve certain expected artistic effects with the rest persons or things backgrounded.For a long time, foregrounding theory has been widely applied to linguistics, stylistics, literary creation and research whereas rarely being employed to translation activities. Not until late 19th century did Ye Zinan proposed that this theory could be applied to translation practice. He only put forward the relevant assumption on foregrounding theory. Based on English linguist Geoffrey Leech's deviation theory and Ye Zinan's assumption on the application of foregrounding theory to translation practice, this paper aims to draw translators' attention to foregrounding factors concealed in literary works, especially in novels, and to provide some basic means for them to render these foregrounding features into the relevant foregrounding expressions in the target language.

  7. Development of Translation Materials to Assess International Students' Mental Health Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalungsooth, Pornthip; Schneller, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    International college students in the United States often face adjustment difficulties; therefore, cultural sensitivity is necessary to help them express their concerns. This article describes the development of translations of international students' common mental health concerns into 7 languages. Suggestions for the use of translated materials…

  8. Population genetics of translational robustness

    OpenAIRE

    Wilke, Claus O; Drummond, D. Allan

    2005-01-01

    Recent work has shown that expression level is the main predictor of a gene’s evolutionary rate, and that more highly expressed genes evolve slower. A possible explanation for this observation is selection for proteins which fold properly despite mistranslation, in short selection for translational robustness. Translational robustness leads to the somewhat paradoxical prediction that highly expressed genes are extremely tolerant to missense substitutions but nevertheless evolve very slo...

  9. A Cultural View on Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜莉莉

    2009-01-01

    The most common difficulty in transhdon studies has traditionally been the dilemma between the historical and synchronic approaches in the analysis and description of the culture of transhdon. Most of works of other culture are read in translation. At the same time,transhtion could provide a way into an analysis for the transmission of culture such as across linguistic boundaries and generations. So readers may know other culture directly or indirectly by translation. The two are interdependent in some extent.

  10. Prefix Code Translation by Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋贤春

    1994-01-01

    This paper introduces a new way of prefix code translation.It helps to finish the whole translation by mapping once (only one comparison instruction is needed for getting the length of prefix code),and returns the original data and the length of prefix code element.The decoding time is only about four times as many as the time accessing original data directly.

  11. Postcolonial studies and translation theory

    OpenAIRE

    Shamma, Tarek

    2009-01-01

    What distinguishes postcolonial approaches to translation is that they examine intercultural encounters in contexts marked by unequal power relations. Herein lie their strengths as well as their weaknesses. Their major contribution has been to illuminate the role of power in the production and reception of translation. But it is not certain that the postcolonial framework can be applied to other interlingual exchanges with minimal inequality of power relations. Moreover, there is a general te...

  12. Style and ideology in translation

    CERN Document Server

    Munday, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, this book investigates the style, or 'voice,' of English language translations of twentieth-century Latin American writing, including fiction, political speeches, and film. Existing models of stylistic analysis, supported at times by computer-assisted analysis, are developed to examine a range of works and writers, selected for their literary, cultural, and ideological importance. The style of the different translators is subjected to a close linguistic investigation within their cultural and ideological framework.

  13. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  14. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  15. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snir, Marc [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Wisniewski, Robert [Intel Corporation; Abraham, Jacob [unknown; Adve, Sarita [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Bagchi, Saurabh [Purdue University; Balaji, Pavan [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Belak, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Bose, Pradip [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center; Cappello, Franck [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Carlson, Bill [unknown; Chien, Andrew [University of Chicago; Coteus, Paul [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center; DeBardeleben, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Diniz, Pedro [University of Southern California; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Erez, Mattan [University of Texas at Austin; Fazzari, Saverio [Booz Allen Hamilton; Geist, Al [ORNL; Gupta, Rinku [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Johnson, Fred [Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), Oak Ridge, TN; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Leyffer, Sven [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Liberty, Dean [AMD; Mitra, Subhasish [Stanford University; Munson, Todd [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Schreiber, Rob [HP Labs; Stearley, Jon [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Van Hensbergen, Eric [ARM

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  16. Symmetry analysis of translational symmetry broken density waves: Application to hexagonal lattices in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venderbos, J. W. F.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we introduce a symmetry classification for electronic density waves which break translational symmetry due to commensurate wave-vector modulations. The symmetry classification builds on the concept of extended point groups: symmetry groups which contain, in addition to the lattice point group, translations that do not map the enlarged unit cell of the density wave to itself, and become "nonsymmorphic"-like elements. Multidimensional representations of the extended point group are associated with degenerate wave vectors. Electronic properties such as (nodal) band degeneracies and topological character can be straightforwardly addressed, and often follow directly. To further flesh out the idea of symmetry, the classification is constructed so as to manifestly distinguish time-reversal invariant charge (i.e., site and bond) order, and time-reversal breaking flux order. For the purpose of this work, we particularize to spin-rotation invariant density waves. As a first example of the application of the classification we consider the density waves of a simple single- and two-orbital square lattice model. The main objective, however, is to apply the classification to two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal lattices, specifically the triangular and the honeycomb lattices. The multicomponent density waves corresponding to the commensurate M -point ordering vectors are worked out in detail. To show that our results generally apply to 2 D hexagonal lattices, we develop a general low-energy SU(3 ) theory of (spinless) saddle-point electrons.

  17. An International and Interdisciplinary View:Translation Studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edwin Gentzler

    2005-01-01

    @@ In his book In Search of a Theory of Translation (1980), Gideon Toury suggested that scholars keep an open mind when defining the object of study for their field. He suggested that scholars study translation phenomena wherever they occur and that the definition for the field include any text "that is regarded as a translation from the intrinsic point of view of the target system" (1980: 73). Because the field had yet to collect a corpus of texts for study, Toury cautioned against preconceived notions of translation and the exclusion of texts because of differing definitions and national traditions. Toury's idea was quite radical at the time, for it challenged traditional definitions and opened the field to many types of texts not considered by the discipline. I want to go even one step further: I suggest there are many texts that some cultures often do not consider as translations but which also need be included in the field's definitions. China and the United States may be two countries where such "hidden"translations occur.

  18. Translational selection in human: More pronounced in housekeeping genes

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Lina

    2014-07-10

    Background: Translational selection is a ubiquitous and significant mechanism to regulate protein expression in prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes. Recent evidence has shown that translational selection is weakly operative in highly expressed genes in human and other vertebrates. However, it remains unclear whether translational selection acts differentially on human genes depending on their expression patterns.Results: Here we report that human housekeeping (HK) genes that are strictly defined as genes that are expressed ubiquitously and consistently in most or all tissues, are under stronger translational selection.Conclusions: These observations clearly show that translational selection is also closely associated with expression pattern. Our results suggest that human HK genes are more efficiently and/or accurately translated into proteins, which will inevitably open up a new understanding of HK genes and the regulation of gene expression.Reviewers: This article was reviewed by Yuan Yuan, Baylor College of Medicine; Han Liang, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (nominated by Dr Laura Landweber) Eugene Koonin, NCBI, NLM, NIH, United States of America Sandor Pongor, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and biotechnology (ICGEB), Italy. © 2014 Ma et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  19. Building Footprints - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Structures/Addresses Framework is a statewide spatial database of structure and address points in the State of Montana. The Montana Structures/Addresses...

  20. Racism and the Conspiracy of Silence: Presidential Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Derald Wing

    2005-01-01

    This presidential address focuses on a specific and daunting assumption about racism that many find disturbing--a belief that no one born and raised in the United States is free from inheriting the racial biases of their forebears. It states explicitly that it is impossible for anyone to not to have racist, sexist, and homophobic attitudes,…

  1. Student Perceptions of Using Games to Address Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Cara M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative evaluative case study was to gain insight into how students perceived the efficacy of using games to address their science literacy concerns. Scientists in the United States are concerned with the lack of science literacy. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 requires proficiency in reading, mathematics, language…

  2. Translating Stem Cell Biology Into Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singeç, Ilyas; Simeonov, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cell research has made extraordinary progress over the last decade. The robustness of nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has created entirely novel opportunities for drug discovery and personalized regenerative medicine. Patient- and disease-specific iPSCs can be expanded indefinitely and differentiated into relevant cell types of different organ systems. As the utilization of iPSCs is becoming a key enabling technology across various scientific disciplines, there are still important challenges that need to be addressed. Here we review the current state and reflect on the issues that the stem cell and translational communities are facing in bringing iPSCs closer to clinical application.

  3. The Mystro system: A comprehensive translator toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, W. R.; Noonan, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Mystro is a system that facilities the construction of compilers, assemblers, code generators, query interpretors, and similar programs. It provides features to encourage the use of iterative enhancement. Mystro was developed in response to the needs of NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and enjoys a number of advantages over similar systems. There are other programs available that can be used in building translators. These typically build parser tables, usually supply the source of a parser and parts of a lexical analyzer, but provide little or no aid for code generation. In general, only the front end of the compiler is addressed. Mystro, on the other hand, emphasizes tools for both ends of a compiler.

  4. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications.

  5. Addressing risk factors for child abuse among high risk pregnant women: design of a randomised controlled trial of the nurse family partnership in Dutch preventive health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejdoubi Jamila

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low socio-economic status combined with other risk factors affects a person's physical and psychosocial health from childhood to adulthood. The societal impact of these problems is huge, and the consequences carry on into the next generation(s. Although several studies show these consequences, only a few actually intervene on these issues. In the United States, the Nurse Family Partnership focuses on high risk pregnant women and their children. The main goal of this program is primary prevention of child abuse. The Netherlands is the first country outside the United States allowed to translate and culturally adapt the Nurse Family Partnership into VoorZorg. The aim of the present study is to assess whether VoorZorg is as effective in the Netherland as in the United States. Methods The study consists of three partly overlapping phases. Phase 1 was the translation and cultural adaptation of Nurse Family Partnership and the design of a two-stage selection procedure. Phase 2 was a pilot study to examine the conditions for implementation. Phase 3 is the randomized controlled trial of VoorZorg compared to the care as usual. Primary outcome measures were smoking cessation during pregnancy and after birth, birth outcomes, child development, child abuse and domestic violence. The secondary outcome measure was the number of risk factors present. Discussion This study shows that the Nurse Family Partnership was successfully translated and culturally adapted into the Dutch health care system and that this program fulfills the needs of high-risk pregnant women. We hypothesize that this program will be effective in addressing risk factors that operate during pregnancy and childhood and compromise fetal and child development. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16131117

  6. Localizing apps a practical guide for translators and translation students

    CERN Document Server

    Roturier, Johann

    2015-01-01

    The software industry has undergone rapid development since the beginning of the twenty-first century. These changes have had a profound impact on translators who, due to the evolving nature of digital content, are under increasing pressure to adapt their ways of working. Localizing Apps looks at these challenges by focusing on the localization of software applications, or apps. In each of the five core chapters, Johann Roturier examines:The role of translation and other linguistic activities in adapting software to the needs of different cultures (localization);The procedures required to prep

  7. Translation Memory System Optimization : How to effectively implement translation memory system optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, Ting-Hey

    2015-01-01

    Translation of technical manuals is expensive, especially when a larger company needs to publish manuals for their whole product range in over 20 different languages. When a text segment (i.e. a phrase, sentence or paragraph) is manually translated, we would like to reuse these translated segments in future translation tasks. A translated segment is stored with its corresponding source language, often called a language pair in a Translation Memory System. A language pair in a Translation Memo...

  8. Comparing spoken and written translation with post-editing in the -> English à Japanese Translation Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Carl, Michael; Lacruz, Isabel; Yamada, Masaru; Aizawa, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Spoken language applications are becoming increasingly operational and are used in many computer applications today. Translation dictation is a mode of translation by which a translator reads a source text and speaks out its translation, instead of typing it. Translation dictation is thus a method of translation situated in between interpretation, where the interpreter hears a text and speaks out the translation (e.g., during conference interpreting) and conventional tran...

  9. Media Translation and Cultural Soft Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段蕾

    2015-01-01

    Media translation is a kind of applied translation,itis the symbol of a country’s development,and the demonstration of its cultural soft power.This essay mainly talks about how does media translation affect a country’s cultural soft power from three forms of media translation-news,movie and television,newspapers and magazines.

  10. Power Relations and Translational Inequality in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianbin, He

    2007-01-01

    Chinese translation to and from Japanese and English verifies the hypothesis that power differentials influence the flow and reception of translations. The Chinese tradition of translation has been characterised by fluency, but some scholars have recently advocated foreignisation for English to Chinese translation, and domestication for Chinese to…

  11. The Role of Semantics in Translation Recognition: Effects of Number of Translations, Dominance of Translations and Semantic Relatedness of Multiple Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxen, Jannika; Lavaur, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of multiple translations of a word on bilingual processing in three translation recognition experiments during which French-English bilinguals had to decide whether two words were translations of each other or not. In the first experiment, words with only one translation were recognized as translations…

  12. Translation Ambiguity in and out of Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Wintner, Shuly; MacWhinney, Brian; Lavie, Alon

    2011-01-01

    We compare translations of single words, made by bilingual speakers in a laboratory setting, with contextualized translation choices of the same items, made by professional translators and extracted from parallel language corpora. The translation choices in both cases show moderate convergence, demonstrating that decontextualized translation…

  13. Daisaku Ikeda and the Culture of Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebert, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Although not functionally multilingual or a translator himself, Daisaku Ikeda has been deeply involved in translation processes, both as a reader and as someone who has produced texts for translation into various languages. This article examines two sources of influence shaping Ikeda's attitude toward translation culture: the flourishing culture…

  14. Translator-computer interaction in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Kristine; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Though we lack empirically-based knowledge of the impact of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools on translation processes, it is generally agreed that all professional translators are now involved in some kind of translator-computer interaction (TCI), using O’Brien’s (2012) term. Taking a TCI...

  15. Addressing verification challenges [International safeguards symposium on addressing verification challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In his welcome address the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Mr. M. ElBaradei, stated that safeguards activities are probably the most difficult task entrusted to an international organization and to determine all the details of a country's nuclear programme is a daunting challenge that raises a number of questions. There is an increase in nuclear power around the globe as a result of shortages of energy and concerns about energy independence and climate change. On the one hand, this is good, because without energy there is no hope for development on the other hand, however, it means that nuclear know-how and nuclear technology will continue to spread to more and more countries. There is also an increase in the number of countries interested in developing nuclear fuel cycle capabilities: sensitive fuel cycle activities, reprocessing and above all uranium enrichment. It even seems that some countries might be hedging their bets in order to have the know-how should they need to develop their own deterrence. Verifying enrichment or reprocessing facilities is quite difficult, and the so-called conversion time is extremely short. Thus, the IAEA is dealing with what is called 'virtual nuclear weapon States'. The IAEA has been talking for a number of years about the need to develop a new international or multinational approach to the fuel cycle in order to avoid a situation with nine nuclear weapon States and another 20 or 30 States having the capacity to develop nuclear weapons in a very short period of time. There is a need to remember that there is a linkage between nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. Furthermore safeguards activities, though fundamentally technical in nature, are carried out in a political charged environment. The security dimension - that is, nuclear terrorism - also presents a new challenge, because State systems of accounting for and control of nuclear material are no longer simply tools for safeguards, but

  16. A Taxonomy of Human Translation Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara; Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2011-01-01

    While the translation profession becomes increasingly technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we outline a method which helps to uncover characteristics of human translation processes. Based o...... on the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis for a felicitous and grounded integration of human machine interaction in translation....

  17. Classroom Interactions in a Cooperative Translation Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui chuan Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available For the past decade, translation learning has become one of the main foci for university language students in Taiwan. However, many studies have shown that translation teachers tend to adopt traditional teaching methods without considering class dynamics and student interactions. This paper therefore looks into the interactions in the researcher’s designed cooperative translation task, the Cooperative Translation Task, to see how these interactions helped or hindered students’ translation learning. A small class of 25 translation students and two translation teachers were participants. Videotaping and interviews were conducted in order to investigate the interaction modes and student participants’ perspectives toward each interaction mode. Six interaction modes were found in this task: within group, between group, translator group and comment-giver group, instructor and students, guest teacher and students, and instructor and guest teacher. Based on the results and participants’ responses, suggested teaching guidelines are provided.Keywords: classroom interaction, interaction mode, Cooperative Translation Task, translation teaching

  18. History and theory of Scripture translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Loba-Mkole

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article argues for the importance of Bible translations through its historical achievements and theoretical frames of reference. The missionary expansion of Christianity owes its very being to translations. The early Christian communities knew the Bible through the LXX translations while churches today still continue to use various translations. Translations shape Scripture interpretations, especially when a given interpretation depends on a particular translation. A particular interpretation can also influence a given translation. The article shows how translation theories have been developed to clarify and how the transaction source-target is culturally handled. The articles discuss some of these “theoretical frames”, namely the functional equivalence, relevance, literary functional equivalence and intercultural mediation. By means of a historical overview and a reflection on Bible translation theories the article aims to focus on the role of Africa in translation history.

  19. Operational Risk, Translation, and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Czarniawska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares a translation of a global (more specifically, European regulation into two local contexts, setting this process in a broader context of the all-pervading risk management. The two countries are Sweden and Poland, both relatively untouched by the current financial crisis, and the regulation is Basel II Accord. In both countries, the translation is shaped by the past history, and the present circumstances. The results show that, in spite of local differences, there is a common belief in quantification of risks as the main remedy and therefore the main way of managing them. Abstract and vague formulations, combined with sophisticated calculation techniques, win over the complications of actual practices. The role of researchers in this process is also examined. A study illustrates also the advantages of translation theory versus diffusion theory of spreading of ideas.

  20. Efficacy versus Toxicity - The Ying and Yang in Translating Nanomedicines

    OpenAIRE

    Shankarappa, Sahadev A.; Koyakutty, Manzoor; Nair, Shantikumar V

    2014-01-01

    Nanomedicine, as a relatively new offshoot of nanotechnology, has presented vast opportunities in biomedical research for developing novel strategies to treat diseases. In the past decade, there has been a significant increase in in vitro and preclinical studies addressing the benefits of nanomedicines. In this commentary, we focus specifically on the efficacy- and toxicity-related translational challenges of nanocarrier-mediated systems, and briefly discuss possible s...

  1. TRANSLATION OF THE HOLY QURAN IN RUSSIAN

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamadzade, Sh

    2013-01-01

    Translation of religious books including «the Holy Koran» has always made translators encounter at the Source Language (SL) comparing Target Language (TL) different practical difficulties. In this regard Russian translators of Koran were no exception. Over the past three centuries more than ten translations of Koran has been published in Russia. Each of them contains special characters, reflecting the philosophy and knowledge of its translator. This article provides an analysis of three trans...

  2. Cultural Identity and Otherness in Literary Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞凌

    2011-01-01

    Culture and language are close bounded.Cultural similarities provide a basis for translation and cultural exchange.It is widely agreed that cultural differences pose the greatest difficulties in translation.Cultural difference can be categorized into cultural blank and cultural conflict.When translating cultural otherness,different translators employ different translating strategies which are determined by translators’ idiosyncrasy,either to preserve or transform cultural images.

  3. Chapter 16: Text Mining for Translational Bioinformatics

    OpenAIRE

    Bretonnel Cohen, K; Hunter, Lawrence E.

    2013-01-01

    Text mining for translational bioinformatics is a new field with tremendous research potential. It is a subfield of biomedical natural language processing that concerns itself directly with the problem of relating basic biomedical research to clinical practice, and vice versa. Applications of text mining fall both into the category of T1 translational research-translating basic science results into new interventions-and T2 translational research, or translational research for public health. P...

  4. A Simple Analysis on Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Yue

    2016-01-01

    With the development of economic globalization, foreign business activities have penetrated into all aspects of the society. Meanwhile business English translation plays an indispensable role in foreign business communication as a bridge. This paper carries out a simple analysis about business English translation based on three aspects: linguistic features of business English, translation methods of business English, criteria in business English translation. Based on the analysis, some feasible suggestions have been proposed for business English translators.

  5. Principles of Fidelity in Dynamic Equivalence Translation for Trainee Translators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘屹

    2011-01-01

    For trainee translators,the question of to what extent equivalence can be achieved between the source text and the target text is always one of the most challenging parts to deal with.The paper tries to provide core principles of fidelity in dynamic equiv

  6. JavaScript DNA translator: DNA-aligned protein translations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William L

    2002-12-01

    There are many instances in molecular biology when it is necessary to identify ORFs in a DNA sequence. While programs exist for displaying protein translations in multiple ORFs in alignment with a DNA sequence, they are often expensive, exist as add-ons to software that must be purchased, or are only compatible with a particular operating system. JavaScript DNA Translator is a shareware application written in JavaScript, a scripting language interpreted by the Netscape Communicator and Internet Explorer Web browsers, which makes it compatible with several different operating systems. While the program uses a familiar Web page interface, it requires no connection to the Internet since calculations are performed on the user's own computer. The program analyzes one or multiple DNA sequences and generates translations in up to six reading frames aligned to a DNA sequence, in addition to displaying translations as separate sequences in FASTA format. ORFs within a reading frame can also be displayed as separate sequences. Flexible formatting options are provided, including the ability to hide ORFs below a minimum size specified by the user. The program is available free of charge at the BioTechniques Software Library (www.Biotechniques.com).

  7. Rhythm as Knowledge-Translation, Knowledge as Rhythm-Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Robinson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores Henri Meschonnic’s conception of rhythm as a vehicle of subjectivization—but specifically of intersubjectization, and thus as a key channel of knowledge transfer or knowledge translation. Because we experience rhythm in time, knowledge-translation that comes to us as rhythm-as-intersubjectivization is experienced serially; because it is a phenomenology of body-becoming-mind, it is experienced kinesthetically-becoming-affectively-becoming-conatively, which is to say, in the model this paper develops, “icotically”—through the collective move toward the normativization of opinion as “truth” or “fact”. Key to knowledge-translation-as-rhythm is the ear, which is the icotic agent of the group in each individual, that which helps us hear style as truth. The first question for knowledge-translation, how many subjects it creates—one for each text (source and target? one for each reader? one for each reading?—is superseded by the icotic take on subjectivization, which collectivizes it, meaning that the exact number is less important than the social entelechies in which subjects participate.

  8. All Majorana Models with Translation Symmetry are Supersymmetric

    CERN Document Server

    Hsieh, Timothy H; Grover, Tarun

    2016-01-01

    We establish results similar to Kramers and Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorems but involving only translation symmetry and for Majorana modes. In particular, we show that all states are at least doubly degenerate in any one and two dimensional array of Majorana modes with translation symmetry, periodic boundary conditions, and an odd number of modes per unit cell. Moreover, we show that all such systems have an underlying N=2 supersymmetry and explicitly construct the generator of the supersymmetry. Furthermore, we show that there cannot be a unique gapped ground state in such one dimensional systems with anti-periodic boundary conditions. These general results are fundamentally a consequence of the fact that translations for Majorana modes are represented projectively, which in turn stems from the anomalous nature of a single Majorana mode.

  9. Translating Nondeterministic Functional Language based on Attribute Grammars into Java

    CERN Document Server

    Umeda, Masanobu; Sone, Hiroaki; Katamine, Keiichi

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge-based systems are suitable for realizing advanced functions that require domain-specific expert knowledge, while knowledge representation languages and their supporting environments are essential for realizing such systems. Although Prolog is useful and effective in realizing such a supporting environment, the language interoperability with other implementation languages, such as Java, is often an important issue in practical application development. This paper describes the techniques for translating a knowledge representation language that is a nondeterministic functional language based on attribute grammars into Java. The translation is based on binarization and the techniques proposed for Prolog to Java translation although the semantics are different from those of Prolog. A continuation unit is introduced to handle continuation efficiently, while the variable and register management on backtracking is simplified by using the single and unidirectional assignment features of variables. An experim...

  10. A syntax-oriented translator

    CERN Document Server

    Ingerman, Peter Zilahy

    1966-01-01

    A Syntax-Oriented Translator focuses on the field of programming and the characteristics and functions of compilers and translators.The book first offers information on the metasyntactic language and the details of a parsing processor. Discussions focus on processing, recovery, and output sections, detailed flow-chart of the parsing processor, parsing form of a grammar, canonical ordering, and the metasyntactic language in general. The text then elaborates on some extensions to the metasyntactic language and metasemantic and metapragmatic language, including punctuation marks and format contro

  11. Translators of the British Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călina Paliciuc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although in lesser measure than the French novel, the English novel in the original was also being circulated at the time in Romania. An indicator for this may be the promptness of commentaries on the novels in the year of their London publication.The press offers the researcher a panoramic view of the way in which the contemporaries of inter-war period perceived the English novel.The most translated authors in Romania in the inter-war period were: Dickens, Wells, Oscar Wilde, Cronin and the most popular novel was Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë, translated by Paul B. Marian.

  12. Electronic Corpora as Translation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Lise; Mousten, Birthe; Jensen, Vigdis

    2012-01-01

    translator who has to get a cross-linguistic overview of a new area or a new line of business. Relevant internet texts can be compiled ‘on the fly’, but internet data needs to be sorted and analyzed for rational use. Today, such sorting and analysis can be made by a low-tech, analytical software tool......Small bilingual text corpora from a source and target language can be important sources of specialized language tracking for translators. A corpus platform can supplement or replace traditional reference works such as dictionaries and encyclopedia, which are rarely sufficient for the professional...

  13. Language and culture in translation

    OpenAIRE

    Tramontana, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of this project is the relationship between language and culture and the relation to the process of translating a text from its original language to a foreign language such as Italian. The text analyzed in this project is a fragment from Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire by J.K Rowling as an example of the attempt to maintain the different cultural background feature in a writing text when translated. The background theories have been collected from three main article...

  14. Translational Influence on Messenger Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mette

    A in the lac operon was measured, demonstrated that Rho dependent transcriptional pre-termination correlated with ribosome translation initiation frequency. It was further shown that Rho terminates RNA polymerases during transcription on messengers normally considered stable, suggesting Rho transcriptional pre......, on messenger stability was examined. Depending on the translation initiation frequency, the chance of an initial ribosome trailing the RNA polymerase get better for better initiation sites, thus protecting transcription from termination by Rho. A polarity assay in which the activity of the downstream lac...

  15. Reengineering the national clinical and translational research enterprise: the strategic plan of the National Clinical and Translational Science Awards Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Steven E; Berglund, Lars; Bernard, Gordon R; Califf, Robert M; Fitzgerald, Garret A; Johnson, Peter C

    2010-03-01

    Advances in human health require the efficient and rapid translation of scientific discoveries into effective clinical treatments; this process, in turn, depends on observational data gathered from patients, communities, and public health research that can be used to guide basic scientific investigation. Such bidirectional translational science, however, faces unprecedented challenges due to the rapid pace of scientific and technological development, as well as the difficulties of negotiating increasingly complex regulatory and commercial environments that overlap the research domain. Further, numerous barriers to translational science have emerged among the nation's academic research centers, including basic structural and cultural impediments to innovation and collaboration, shortages of trained investigators, and inadequate funding.To address these serious and systemic problems, in 2006 the National Institutes of Health created the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program, which aims to catalyze the transformation of biomedical research at a national level, speeding the discovery and development of therapies, fostering collaboration, engaging communities, and training succeeding generations of clinical and translational researchers. The authors report in detail on the planning process, begun in 2008, that was used to engage stakeholders and to identify, refine, and ultimately implement the CTSA program's overarching strategic goals. They also discuss the implications and likely impact of this strategic planning process as it is applied among the nation's academic health centers. PMID:20182119

  16. Literary translation and quality assessment analysis – its significance in translation training

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Beatriz Maria

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight the role of translation quality assessment in translation training so as to develop students’ translation competence and skills to face translation problems. An analysis to assess literary translation quality is proposed before proceeding to discuss its pedagogical implementation.

  17. (Configuring gender in Bible translation: Cultural, translational and gender critical intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Punt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The gendered intersection of cultural studies and Bible translation is under acknowledged. Accounting for gender criticism in translation work requires, besides responsible theory and practice of translation, also attention to interwoven gender critical aspects. After a brief investigation of the intersections between biblical, translation and gender studies, translation in a few Pauline texts with bearing on gender and sexuality are investigated.

  18. On the Translation Strategies in Zhang Guruo Translation of Tess of the D'urbervilles S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏宁

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides readers with an analysis of the translation strategies at different levels in Zhang Guruo' s translated version of Tess of the D' Urbervilles, aiming at enriching the understanding of Zhang Guruo' s translation theory and translation practice which may give some evidence and enlightenment for the further studies on literary translation under the context of culture.

  19. E-lectra: A Bibliography for the Study and Practice of Legal, Court and Official Translation and Interpreting

    OpenAIRE

    Monzó Nebot, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Scientific development presupposes the efficient communication of new findings. The increase in the number of academic journals and publications worldwide burdens schol- ars, also translation scholars, with the responsibility of keeping up to date with ever increasingly scattered relevant literature. On the other hand, legal translation profession- als need to select and find specialised documentation and reference material, which the market addresses not to translators or interpreters but to...

  20. Performance of the Arabic Book Translation Industry in Selected Arab Countries: Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi-Arabia and Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Harabi, Najib

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge has always been at the heart of economic growth and development. It is disseminated chiefly through the different stages of education, R&D, the mass media and the translation industry. In Arab countries there has been a widespread impression that there is a low level of translation activities, which in turn has led to a low output of the translation industry in those countries. This research project addresses this issue; its overall objectives are (1) to describe the economic p...

  1. Evaluating Arabic to English Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith S. Hadla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Online text machine translation systems are widely used throughout the world freely. Most of these systems use statistical machine translation (SMT that is based on a corpus full with translation examples to learn from them how to translate correctly. Online text machine translation systems differ widely in their effectiveness, and therefore we have to fairly evaluate their effectiveness. Generally the manual (human evaluation of machine translation (MT systems is better than the automatic evaluation, but it is not feasible to be used. The distance or similarity of MT candidate output to a set of reference translations are used by many MT evaluation approaches. This study presents a comparison of effectiveness of two free online machine translation systems (Google Translate and Babylon machine translation system to translate Arabic to English. There are many automatic methods used to evaluate different machine translators, one of these methods; Bilingual Evaluation Understudy (BLEU method. BLEU is used to evaluate translation quality of two free online machine translation systems under consideration. A corpus consists of more than 1000 Arabic sentences with two reference English translations for each Arabic sentence is used in this study. This corpus of Arabic sentences and their English translations consists of 4169 Arabic words, where the number of unique Arabic words is 2539. This corpus is released online to be used by researchers. These Arabic sentences are distributed among four basic sentence functions (declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, and imperative. The experimental results show that Google machine translation system is better than Babylon machine translation system in terms of precision of translation from Arabic to English.

  2. Dynamics of Chloroplast Translation during Chloroplast Differentiation in Maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakitchai Chotewutmontri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chloroplast genomes in land plants contain approximately 100 genes, the majority of which reside in polycistronic transcription units derived from cyanobacterial operons. The expression of chloroplast genes is integrated into developmental programs underlying the differentiation of photosynthetic cells from non-photosynthetic progenitors. In C4 plants, the partitioning of photosynthesis between two cell types, bundle sheath and mesophyll, adds an additional layer of complexity. We used ribosome profiling and RNA-seq to generate a comprehensive description of chloroplast gene expression at four stages of chloroplast differentiation, as displayed along the maize seedling leaf blade. The rate of protein output of most genes increases early in development and declines once the photosynthetic apparatus is mature. The developmental dynamics of protein output fall into several patterns. Programmed changes in mRNA abundance make a strong contribution to the developmental shifts in protein output, but output is further adjusted by changes in translational efficiency. RNAs with prioritized translation early in development are largely involved in chloroplast gene expression, whereas those with prioritized translation in photosynthetic tissues are generally involved in photosynthesis. Differential gene expression in bundle sheath and mesophyll chloroplasts results primarily from differences in mRNA abundance, but differences in translational efficiency amplify mRNA-level effects in some instances. In most cases, rates of protein output approximate steady-state protein stoichiometries, implying a limited role for proteolysis in eliminating unassembled or damaged proteins under non-stress conditions. Tuned protein output results from gene-specific trade-offs between translational efficiency and mRNA abundance, both of which span a large dynamic range. Analysis of ribosome footprints at sites of RNA editing showed that the chloroplast translation machinery

  3. Time Translation of Quantum Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura, Roberto; Vanni, Leonardo

    2009-02-01

    Based on the notion of time translation, we develop a formalism to deal with the logic of quantum properties at different times. In our formalism it is possible to enlarge the usual notion of context to include composed properties involving properties at different times. We compare our results with the theory of consistent histories.

  4. Localising, Translating and Stretching Conduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    and translated in and across nexus of practice. In order to do this, conversation analysis (CA) and mediated discourse analysis (MDA) are drawn upon in combination with actor-network theory (ANT) and contemporary theories of space, governmentality and agential realism. I will assume a knowledge of conversation...... illustrate an attempt to do this using an example from a reality TV programme....

  5. Livestock models in translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, James A; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    This issue of the ILAR Journal focuses on livestock models in translational medicine. Livestock models of selected human diseases present important advantages as compared with rodent models for translating fundamental breakthroughs in biology to useful preventatives and therapeutics for humans. Livestock reflect the complexity of applying medical advances in an outbred species. In many cases, the pathogenesis of infectious, metabolic, genetic, and neoplastic diseases in livestock species more closely resembles that in humans than does the pathogenesis of rodent models. Livestock models also provide the advantage of similar organ size and function and the ability to serially sample an animal throughout the study period. Research using livestock models for human disease often benefits not only human health but animal health and food production as well. This issue of the ILAR Journal presents information on translational research using livestock models in two broad areas: microbiology and infectious disease (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, mycobacterial infections, influenza A virus infection, vaccine development and testing, the human microbiota) and metabolic, neoplastic, and genetic disorders (stem cell therapy, male germ line cell biology, pulmonary adenocarcinoma, muscular dystrophy, wound healing). In addition, there is a manuscript devoted to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees' responsibilities for reviewing research using livestock models. Conducting translational research using livestock models requires special facilities and researchers with expertise in livestock. There are many institutions in the world with experienced researchers and facilities designed for livestock research; primarily associated with colleges of agriculture and veterinary medicine or government laboratories. PMID:25991694

  6. Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Mercedes Garcia; Koglin, Arlene; Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé;

    2015-01-01

    of post-editing effort, namely i) temporal (time), ii) cognitive (mental processes) and iii) technical (keyboard activity). For the purposes of this research, TER scores were correlated with two different indicators of post-editing effort as computed in the CRITT Translation Process Database (TPR...

  7. Strategies Employed in Idiom Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛

    2008-01-01

    Idioms which are regarded as the essence of language have drawn great attention from scholars.Most of them just focus Oil its cultural consideration.In this thesis the author intends to make a comprehensive study on practical strategies employed in idiom translation.

  8. Aesthetic Adaptation in Translating Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽艳

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the strategy of adaptation,in particular,the method of naturalizing and historicizing,in the translation of poetry to maintain the aesthetic meaning.Theoretical support from Susan Bassnett,James Holmes and others is applied and example lines from both Chinese and English verses are given.

  9. TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH IN NEUROLOGY: DEMENTIA

    OpenAIRE

    Honig, Lawrence S.

    2012-01-01

    Dementia disorders are characterized by clinicopathological criteria. Molecular understandings of these disorders, based on immunohistochemical studies, biochemical investigations, genetic approaches, and animal models have resulted in advances in diagnosis. Likewise translational research has allowed application of increasing basic scientific knowledge regarding neurodegeneration, to the rational development of new investigational therapies based on current understanding of disease pathogene...

  10. Translating Codex Guidelines Into Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Condex texts include commodity and general standards, as well as texts of an advisory nature. The General Principles for Codex Alimentarius define the ways in which commodity or general standards are accepted: (a) full, (b) with specified deviations, or (c) with a declaration of free distribution. The degree of acceptance partly defines the manner in which these texts are translated into application.

  11. E6 Addressing Scheme and Network Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitry Anatolyevich Zaitsev; Sergey Ivanovich Bolshakov

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes new E6 addressing scheme for the creation of world-wide networks totally constructed on the base of Ethernet technology. Hierarchic E6 addresses with the length of 6 octets are used instead of both Ethernet MAC-addresses and IP-addresses that allows the routing within world-wide networks and cuts overhead of TCP, IP headers; the address space is extended in 16K times regarding IP addresses. Standard Ethernet LLC2 facilities are employed for guaranteed delivery of informati...

  12. ERRORS AND DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATING LEGAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, CHIRILA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the accurate translation of legal texts has become highly important as the mistranslation of a passage in a contract, for example, could lead to lawsuits and loss of money. Consequently, the translation of legal texts to other languages faces many difficulties and only professional translators specialised in legal translation should deal with the translation of legal documents and scholarly writings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze translation from three perspectives: translation quality, errors and difficulties encountered in translating legal texts and consequences of such errors in professional translation. First of all, the paper points out the importance of performing a good and correct translation, which is one of the most important elements to be considered when discussing translation. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of the errors and difficulties in translating texts and of the consequences of errors in professional translation, with applications to the field of law. The paper is also an approach to the differences between languages (English and Romanian that can hinder comprehension for those who have embarked upon the difficult task of translation. The research method that I have used to achieve the objectives of the paper was the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' works.

  13. Genetic Analysis of Chloroplast Translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkan, Alice

    2005-08-15

    The assembly of the photosynthetic apparatus requires the concerted action of hundreds of genes distributed between the two physically separate genomes in the nucleus and chloroplast. Nuclear genes coordinate this process by controlling the expression of chloroplast genes in response to developmental and environmental cues. However, few regulatory factors have been identified. We used mutant phenotypes to identify nuclear genes in maize that modulate chloroplast translation, a key control point in chloroplast gene expression. This project focused on the nuclear gene crp1, required for the translation of two chloroplast mRNAs. CRP1 is related to fungal proteins involved in the translation of mitochondrial mRNAs, and is the founding member of a large gene family in plants, with {approx}450 members. Members of the CRP1 family are defined by a repeated 35 amino acid motif called a ''PPR'' motif. The PPR motif is closely related to the TPR motif, which mediates protein-protein interactions. We and others have speculated that PPR tracts adopt a structure similar to that of TPR tracts, but with a substrate binding surface adapted to bind RNA instead of protein. To understand how CRP1 influences the translation of specific chloroplast mRNAs, we sought proteins that interact with CRP1, and identified the RNAs associated with CRP1 in vivo. We showed that CRP1 is associated in vivo with the mRNAs whose translation it activates. To explore the functions of PPR proteins more generally, we sought mutations in other PPR-encoding genes: mutations in the maize PPR2 and PPR4 were shown to disrupt chloroplast ribosome biogenesis and chloroplast trans-splicing, respectively. These and other results suggest that the nuclear-encoded PPR family plays a major role in modulating the expression of the chloroplast genome in higher plants.

  14. Translator-computer interaction in action:An observational process study of computer-aided translation

    OpenAIRE

    Bundgaard, Kristine; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Though we lack empirically-based knowledge of the impact of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools on translation processes, it is generally agreed that all professional translators are now involved in some kind of translator-computer interaction (TCI), using O’Brien’s (2012) term. Taking a TCI perspective, this paper investigates the relationship between machines and humans in the field of translation, analysing a CAT process in which machine-translation (MT) technology was integrated into a...

  15. Understanding Chinese translation situation and learning from the history of Chinese translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬冬; 韦骥; 常浩

    2009-01-01

    China translation contact and ex-plore the translation of different periods, this formed a different view. As the restrictions of level of awareness on the times, some of them may inevitably one - sided, even error. China translation has a tortuous process of cognition, but its future is to be expected. In this paper, with several important period of development in the history of China translation, Analysis of the development process of translation, comb development clues of understanding the trans-lation.

  16. On the translation skills of English proverbs from the factors affecting the translation of English proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟建

    2016-01-01

    English proverb, the treasure of the English language, is the crystallization of English nation. The thesis introduces several methods to the translation of English proverb. The paper concludes the definition of English proverbs. English proverb has its own characteristics in form and content. This thesis also analyses the factors that affect the translation of English proverb. According to these factors, three translation methods are discussed in this paper, which are word-for-word translation, free translation, and applying translation.

  17. A Study on Liang Shiqiu’s Translation Theory from the Prospective of Translation Sociology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ning

    2015-01-01

    Translation activities, social environment and translators’individual particularities are combined in translation sociolo⁃gy which are provided broader theoretical perspective for translation studies. In this paper, Liang Shiqiu’s translation theory is ana⁃lyzed from the perspective of translation sociology and there should be a new perspective which has expanded in the research of Li⁃ang Shiqiu’s translation theory.

  18. Intercultural Communication and Chinese-English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Yong-ju

    2014-01-01

    Translation is formally a process of language transferring but in essence a process of intercultural communication. Trans-lation serves as a bridge of communication between people from different cultures. Language, culture and communication form the basis of translation. Successful translation requires proficiency in languages and complete understanding two relevant cultures. This paper elaborates on five common cultural obstacles hindering CE translation:cultural differences, cultural conflicts, cultural-loaded words or expressions, cultural defaults, and cultural images and then gives corresponding translation solutions.

  19. The Translation of English News Headlines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xiaona

    2013-01-01

    News headline translation is one of the most important types of news translation. As news headline is strongly purposeful, the translation of it must be achieved by some special methods. The history of news headline translation is almost as long as that of newspapers, but it has not been attached enough attention to. In the last twenty years, Chinese scholars of this field have paid much greater attention to news headline translation. Concerned studies of principles of news headline translation have also been made remarkable progress.

  20. A Novel Approach for TNA Address Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    We present a new scheme to allocate/de-allocate Transport Network Assigned (TN A) address using Link Management Protocol (LMP) and to register/resolution these addresses using Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) for Automatically Switched Optical Network (ASON).

  1. SAVI: The IETF Standard in Address Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Bagnulo, Marcelo; García-Martínez, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    In this article we describe Source Address Validation Implementation (SAVI), a security architecture being standardized by the IETF to prevent source address spoofing within a link. SAVI devices, usually layer 2 switches, create bindings between the IP address of a node and a property of the host¿s network attachment, such as the port through which the packet is received. Bindings are created by monitoring the packet exchange associated with IP address configuration mechanisms such as DHCP, S...

  2. Address allocation to mobile ad hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sakander, Zeeshan

    2006-01-01

    Addressing in MANETs is of significant importance, as a mobile device cannot participate in unicast communications until it is assigned a conflict-free IP address. All routing protocols assume nodes to be configured a priori with a unique IP address. Allocating addresses to mobile nodes is a fundamental and difficult problem. Unlike infrastructure based networks, MANETs support autonomous and spontaneous networking and therefore, should be capable of self-organization and self-configuration. ...

  3. A MEMS Micro-Translation Stage with Long Linear Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Cynthia K.; English, J. M.; Nordin, G. P.; Ashley, P. R.; Abushagur, M. A. G.

    2004-01-01

    A MEMS Micro-Translation Stage (MTS) actuator concept has been developed that is capable of traveling long distances, while maintaining low power, low voltage, and accuracy as required by many applications, including optical coupling. The Micro-Translation Stage (MTS) uses capacitive electrostatic forces in a linear motor application, with stationary stators arranged linearly on both sides of a channel, and matching rotors on a moveable shuttle. This creates a force that allows the shuttle to be pulled along the channel. It is designed to carry 100 micron-sized elements on the top surface, and can travel back and forth in the channel, either in a stepping fashion allowing many interim stops, or it can maintain constant adjustable speeds for a controlled scanning motion. The MTS travel range is limited only by the size of the fabrication wafer. Analytical modeling and simulations were performed based on the fabrication process, to assure the stresses, friction and electrostatic forces were acceptable to allow successful operation of this device. The translation forces were analyzed to be near 0.5 micron N, with a 300 micron N stop-to-stop time of 11.8 ms.

  4. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  5. Translating genomics in cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Yvonne; Bach, Peter B; Offit, Kenneth

    2013-11-01

    There is increasing enthusiasm for genomics and its promise in advancing personalized medicine. Genomic information has been used to personalize health care for decades, spanning the fields of cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, endocrinology, metabolic medicine, and hematology. However, oncology has often been the first test bed for the clinical translation of genomics for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. Notable hereditary cancer examples include testing for mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 in unaffected women to identify those at significantly elevated risk for developing breast and ovarian cancers, and screening patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer for mutations in 4 mismatch repair genes to reduce morbidity and mortality in their relatives. Somatic genomic testing is also increasingly used in oncology, with gene expression profiling of breast tumors and EGFR testing to predict treatment response representing commonly used examples. Health technology assessment provides a rigorous means to inform clinical and policy decision-making through systematic assessment of the evidentiary base, along with precepts of clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and consideration of risks and benefits for health care delivery and society. Although this evaluation is a fundamental step in the translation of any new therapeutic, procedure, or diagnostic test into clinical care, emerging developments may threaten this standard. These include "direct to consumer" genomic risk assessment services and the challenges posed by incidental results generated from next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. This article presents a review of the evidentiary standards and knowledge base supporting the translation of key cancer genomic technologies along the continuum of validity, utility, cost-effectiveness, health service impacts, and ethical and societal issues, and offers future research considerations to guide the responsible introduction of

  6. What Can Contrastive Linguistics Tell Us about Translating Discourse Structure?

    OpenAIRE

    Korzen, Iørn; Gylling, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that translators can greatly benefit from contrastive studies of discourse structure. Cross-linguistic studies of Italian and Danish point to significant typological differences in information packaging in the two languages, especially in their use of deverbalisation. Italian sentences tend to include a larger number of Elementary Discourse Units (EDUs), especially propositions, than Danish. A higher percentage of these is rhetorically backgrounded by means of non-f...

  7. Translational Approaches towards Cancer Gene Therapy: Hurdles and Hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Omidi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Of the cancer gene therapy approaches, gene silencing, suicide/apoptosis inducing gene therapy, immunogene therapy and targeted gene therapy are deemed to sub­stantially control the biological consequences of genomic changes in cancerous cells. Thus, a large number of clinical trials have been conducted against various malignancies. In this review, we will discuss recent translational progresses of gene and cell therapy of cancer. Methods: Essential information on gene therapy of cancer were reviewed and discussed towards their clinical translations. Results: Gene transfer has been rigorously studied in vitro and in vivo, in which some of these gene therapy endeavours have been carried on towards translational investigations and clinical applications. About 65% of gene therapy trials are related to cancer therapy. Some of these trials have been combined with cell therapy to produce personalized medicines such as Sipuleucel-T (Provenge®, marketed by Dendreon, USA for the treatment of asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Conclusion: Translational approach links two diverse boundaries of basic and clinical researches. For successful translation of geno­medicines into clinical applications, it is essential 1 to have the guidelines and standard operating procedures for development and application of the genomedicines specific to clinically relevant biomarker(s; 2 to conduct necessary animal experimental studies to show the “proof of concept” for the proposed genomedicines; 3 to perform an initial clinical investigation; and 4 to initiate extensive clinical trials to address all necessary requirements. In short, translational researches need to be refined to accelerate the geno­medicine development and clinical applications.

  8. Translation techniques for distributed-shared memory programming models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Douglas James

    2005-08-01

    The high performance computing community has experienced an explosive improvement in distributed-shared memory hardware. Driven by increasing real-world problem complexity, this explosion has ushered in vast numbers of new systems. Each new system presents new challenges to programmers and application developers. Part of the challenge is adapting to new architectures with new performance characteristics. Different vendors release systems with widely varying architectures that perform differently in different situations. Furthermore, since vendors need only provide a single performance number (total MFLOPS, typically for a single benchmark), they only have strong incentive initially to optimize the API of their choice. Consequently, only a fraction of the available APIs are well optimized on most systems. This causes issues porting and writing maintainable software, let alone issues for programmers burdened with mastering each new API as it is released. Also, programmers wishing to use a certain machine must choose their API based on the underlying hardware instead of the application. This thesis argues that a flexible, extensible translator for distributed-shared memory APIs can help address some of these issues. For example, a translator might take as input code in one API and output an equivalent program in another. Such a translator could provide instant porting for applications to new systems that do not support the application's library or language natively. While open-source APIs are abundant, they do not perform optimally everywhere. A translator would also allow performance testing using a single base code translated to a number of different APIs. Most significantly, this type of translator frees programmers to select the most appropriate API for a given application based on the application (and developer) itself instead of the underlying hardware.

  9. Translation and Poetry: Preface to Lost in Translation, the collection of poems and translations by Yihai Chen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susan Bassnett

    2010-01-01

    @@ The American poet Robert Frost (1874-1963) suggested that poetry gets lost in translation, an opinion that unfortunately has been widely publicised. This view, of course, is a conceit: not only does poetry NOT always get lost in translation, often it is through translation that poetry flourishes. For translation is one of the principal ways in which a literature can reinvigorate itself, can look outwards at other forms of writing and discover and then develop those forms.

  10. Analysis of mRNA translation states in Arabidopsis over the diurnal cycle by polysome microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missra, Anamika; von Arnim, Albrecht G

    2014-01-01

    Gene regulation at the level of translation occurs in response to environmental perturbation and is increasingly recognized as a factor affecting plant development. Despite extensive knowledge of transcriptional control, very little is known about translational regulation of genes in response to the daily light/dark cycles. Here we describe the experimental layout designed to address how the translation states of genes change at various times during a diurnal cycle in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. We have adopted a strategy combining sucrose-gradient profiling of ribosomes and high-throughput microarray analysis of the ribosome-associated mRNA to investigate the translational landscape of the Arabidopsis genome. This is a powerful technique that can be easily extended to study translation regulation in different genetic backgrounds and under various environmental conditions. PMID:24792050

  11. Theory of Creative Treason and Drama Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-ting

    2015-01-01

    Due to the specific characteristic which is related to stage performance, the academic researches of drama translation have so far been limited. Before the mid 1970s, discussions about drama translation were mainly limited to the study of the trans⁃lated text of drama by applying the prescribed method of comparative analysis in order to explore the equivalence between the translation and the original. While after the mid 1970s, researches on drama translation started to be done by applying the descrip⁃tive method. Some translation theorists and scholars began to study the translated text of drama on the background of target lan⁃guage culture, which had made fruitful achievements. Recently, studies on drama translation mostly paid attention to such issues as the nature of drama translation, the purpose of drama translation, the characteristics of the translated text of drama, performabili⁃ty and orality in drama translation, transformation of dramatic culture and the status of drama translators, etc. By applying Xie Tianzhen’s theory of creative treason, this drama translation can be studied from a new perspective.

  12. The curious case of legal translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cornelius

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the nature and scope of legal translation which is an under-researched area in South Africa. In this article the author predicts that the demand for competent legal translators will increase in the future, evidenced by a recent call by the Department of Justice and Constitutional Development(DoJ&CD, inviting applications for ten positions for “legislative language practitioners”. However, legal translation differs substantially from general translation in the sense that legal translation is subject to heavy restrictions at all levels and legal considerations are of paramount importance in a country such as South Africa, which provides for eleven official languages. Legal translation involves different legal languages, different legal systems and different cultural systems that require specialised knowledge and skills of the translator. The aim of this article is to investigate the core competencies and skills the legal translator must have; to consider the balance between legal competence and translation or linguistic competence; and to propose a discourse-analytical method of source text analysis, developed by Bhatia as a simplification strategy, as this may be a powerful tool in the training of legal translators in South Africa. Recent developments in South Africa relating to the Department of Arts and Culture’s obligation to translate legislation into all official languages, have important consequences for legal translation in general and the training of legal translators in particular.

  13. Italian translation and cultural adaptation of the communication assessment tool in an outpatient surgical clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Scala, Daniela; Menditto, Enrica; Armellino, Mariano Fortunato; Manguso, Francesco; Monetti, Valeria Marina; Orlando, Valentina; Antonino, Antonio; Makoul, Gregory; De Palma, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the study is to translate and cross-culturally adapt, for use in the Italian context, the Communication Assessment Tool (CAT) developed by Makoul and colleagues. Methods The study was performed in the out-patient clinic of the Surgical Department of Cardarelli Hospital in Naples, Italy. It involved a systematic, standardized, multi-step process adhering to internationally accepted and recommended guidelines. Corrections and adjustments to the translation addressed both l...

  14. The cancer translational research informatics platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Kimberly

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the pressing need for the creation of applications that facilitate the aggregation of clinical and molecular data, most current applications are proprietary and lack the necessary compliance with standards that would allow for cross-institutional data exchange. In line with its mission of accelerating research discoveries and improving patient outcomes by linking networks of researchers, physicians, and patients focused on cancer research, caBIG (cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid™ has sponsored the creation of the caTRIP (Cancer Translational Research Informatics Platform tool, with the purpose of aggregating clinical and molecular data in a repository that is user-friendly, easily accessible, as well as compliant with regulatory requirements of privacy and security. Results caTRIP has been developed as an N-tier architecture, with three primary tiers: domain services, the distributed query engine, and the graphical user interface, primarily making use of the caGrid infrastructure to ensure compatibility with other tools currently developed by caBIG. The application interface was designed so that users can construct queries using either the Simple Interface via drop-down menus or the Advanced Interface for more sophisticated searching strategies to using drag-and-drop. Furthermore, the application addresses the security concerns of authentication, authorization, and delegation, as well as an automated honest broker service for deidentifying data. Conclusion Currently being deployed at Duke University and a few other centers, we expect that caTRIP will make a significant contribution to further the development of translational research through the facilitation of its data exchange and storage processes.

  15. Translation Competence and Translation Performance: Lexical, Syntactic and Textual Patterns in Student Translations of a Specialized EU Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Adrienn

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study aiming to reveal the recurring patterns of lexical, syntactic and textual errors in student translations of a specialized EU genre from English into Hungarian. By comparing the student translations to the official translation of the text, this article uncovers the most frequent errors that students made…

  16. Improving IPV6 Addressing Types and Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoun Batiha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available IPv6 protocol is the next candidate protocol after IPv4 protocolthatused foralong time. For this protocoltheaddressing types and address sizeare discussedto list some modifications that could improve itsperformancethrough the internet. Atthe same time, we prove that multicast addressing type is the mostimportant addressing type since it can mimic any other addressing type. Finally,a short studyis developedin order to reduce the current IPv6 address size to haveless overhead in the basic header packet, thisreductionomitsabout 40% of the over all basic IPv6 basic packet overhead.

  17. Translational research on advanced therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardelli, Filippo; Rizza, Paola; Moretti, Franca; Carella, Cintia; Galli, Maria Cristina; Migliaccio, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP) facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues) is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  18. Translational research on advanced therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Belardelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  19. Literary Translation: The Pleasure Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜博妮

    2007-01-01

    Chinese to English literary translation (CELT) has brought enormous reading pleasure to large numbers of people. These readers are not necessarily committed to China or Chinese literature as a cause or profession: they are disinterested readers. Publishers today, such as the Foreign Languages Press, can significantly increase their publication figures and strengthen their impact by going beyond captive readers to reach this wider audience. Guidelines that may lead to such a result can be summed up in the phrase: trust the reader. Readers of literary translations already belong to a limited class: they are risk-takers; they are curious and knowledgeable about other cultures; and they are skilled literary readers in their own language.

  20. Literary Translation and Identity Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabih, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Modern Moroccan literature is without a doubt an excellent example of a transnational literature due to the fact that Moroccan writers write not only in Arabic, but also in other European languages. Despite the fact that Moroccan Jews constitute a community to reckon with in Israel...... and in the diaspora, a very few Moroccan writers have been translated into Hebrew. This paper will investigate the issue of reception of two prominent Moroccan/transnational writers: Taher ben Jelloun´s eight translated novels and Mohammed Choukri´s novel Bread alone and the issue of identity politics vis......-à-vis the Moroccan ethnic minority in Israel, and Arab-Israeli relations. In addition to the growing number of Moroccan authors writing in ex-colonial language, such as French, a new generation of immigrant writers are beginning to shift into writing in Dutch, English, Italian or Spanish. There is however one...

  1. Cultural Intervention in English and Chinese Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Wei-he

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the author defines translation as an act of communication in a cross-cultural context, the main aim of which is to establish communication between members of different cultures in accordance with previously determined communicative target purpose. He then discusses the unavoidable cultural intervention in the process of translation. Cases in aesthetic preference, political involvement and ethical tradition are studied to prove his proposition that translation is not only linguistic transfer, but also cultural transfer, and that "the more inclusive the target culture is, the closer the translation is to the source culture, the more exclusive the target culture is, the closer the translation must be to the target culture." In the last part of the paper, he proposes strategies of translation (especially for the translation between English and Chinese) with which we can tackle the cultural barriers in the process of translation, i.e. distortion,ignoring and coinage.

  2. Authorial and Editorial Voices in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    understanding of the processes through which authors, publishers, editors, directors, and critics can affect translation. Empirical studies from historical and contemporary settings examine forms of collaboration and negotiation, or conflict, with special attention to the multiple voices in theatre translation....

  3. ANALYSING QUALITY OF ENGLISH-HINDI MACHINE TRANSLATION ENGINE OUTPUTS USING BAYSIAN CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Gupta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem for estimating the quality of machine translation outputs which are independent of human intervention and are generally addressed using machine learning techniques.There are various measures through which a machine learns translations quality. Automatic Evaluation metrics produce good co-relation at corpus level but cannot produce the same results at the same segment or sentence level. In this paper 16 features are extracted from the input sentences and their translations and a quality score is obtained based on Bayesian inference produced from training data.

  4. Machine Translation for Chinese-Spanish: Experimenting with online Statistical and Rule-Based Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Centelles Sabater, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Traducció automàtica estadística en xinès-castellà. [ANGLÈS] Due to the overwhelming increment of information in multiple languages, Machine Translation has become an essential application in our lives. Proof of this are the continuous investments made by technology companies to develop new and improved translation systems. However, translation between distant language pairs such as Chinese and Spanish, which are commonly used in both business and daily life, have been seldom addressed fro...

  5. An Assessment Tool Translation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Joan L.; Andres, Patricia L.; Haley, Stephen M; Paddock, Susan M.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2003-01-01

    Policymakers hoped to substitute a new, multi-purpose, functional assessment instrument, the minimum data set post-acute care (MDS-PAC), into the planned prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient rehabilitation hospitals. PPS design requires a large database linking treatment costs with measures of the need for care, so the PPS was designed using the functional independence measure (FIM™) database linked to Medicare hospital claims. An accurate translation from the MDS-PAC items to FIM™-...

  6. Research Methods in Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭芳芳; 常利娜; 李冬媛; 郝继亭

    2008-01-01

    My essay will present an analysis ofthe features of a text that may be parficular]y challenging for translation into Chinese.Though various text-linguistic models can be used to analyze the source text,I would concentrate on the aspects of collocation and idiomaticity.Furthermore,the difficulties encountered as a result of differences in the lexicaI patterning of the source and target languages would be explored

  7. Translating Codex Guidelines Into Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MACONCEPCIONC.Lizada

    2001-01-01

    Condex texts include commodity and general standards,as well as texts of an advisory nature.The General Principles for Codex Alimentarius define the ways in which commodity or general standards are accepted:(a) full,(b) with specified deviations,or(c) with a declaration of free distribution.The degree of acceptance partly defines the manner in which these texts are translated into application.

  8. Translating Codex Guidelines Into Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; CONCEPCION; C.; Lizada

    2001-01-01

    Condex texts include commodity and general standards, as well as texts of an advisory nature. The General Principles for Codex Alimentarius define the ways in which commodity or general standards are accepted: (a) full, (b) with specified deviations, or (c) with a declaration of free distribution. The degree of acceptance partly defines the manner in which these texts are translated into application.……

  9. Expertise and Environment in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Muñoz Martin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The overarching goal of the research team Expertise and Environment in Translation (PETRA, Spanish acronym is to study as many aspects of the translation process as possible under the same scope. PETRA is interested in expertise and its development, considers intuitive problem-solving in translation as related to emergence and construction of meaning, and interprets skills acquisition and development as routine interiorization and improvement of mental efficiency. Characteristic of PETRA's approach are homogeneous research methodologies through internal standards, and theoretical feedback from cognitive linguistics, situated and embodied cognition, and social constructivism. Research methods include pilot testing, subjects' and texts' profiling, test repetition, non-invasive data collection, previous typing period, length and frequency to determine pause relevance, post-test questionnaires, data triangulation, blind product cross-evaluation, statistical and ecological validity checks. Results of Martín de León (2003, Lachat (2003, De Rooze (2003, Gómez (2006 and Conde (2009, and ongoing projects by Castro, Marín, Muñoz, and Perea are summarized.

  10. The translational metaphor in psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Lewis

    2015-02-01

    The translational metaphor in psychoanalysis refers to the traditional method of interpreting or restating the meaning of verbal and behavioral acts of a patient in other, presumably more accurate terms that specify the forces and conflicts underlying symptoms. The analyst translates the clinical phenomenology to explain its true meaning and origin. This model of analytic process has been challenged from different vantage points by authors presenting alternative conceptions of therapeutic action. Although the temptation to find and make interpretations of clinical material is difficult to resist, behaving in this way places the analyst in the position of a teacher or diagnostician, seeking a specific etiology, which has not proven fruitful. Despite its historical appeal, I argue that the translational model is a misleading and anachronistic version of what actually occurs in psychoanalysis. I emphasize instead the capacity of analysis to promote the emergence of new forms of representation, or figuration, from the unconscious, using the work of Lacan, Laplanche, and Modell to exemplify this reformulation, and provide clinical illustrations of how it looks in practice.

  11. XML Translator for Interface Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroson, Elizabeth R.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program defines an XML schema for specifying the interface to a generic FPGA from the perspective of software that will interact with the device. This XML interface description is then translated into header files for C, Verilog, and VHDL. User interface definition input is checked via both the provided XML schema and the translator module to ensure consistency and accuracy. Currently, programming used on both sides of an interface is inconsistent. This makes it hard to find and fix errors. By using a common schema, both sides are forced to use the same structure by using the same framework and toolset. This makes for easy identification of problems, which leads to the ability to formulate a solution. The toolset contains constants that allow a programmer to use each register, and to access each field in the register. Once programming is complete, the translator is run as part of the make process, which ensures that whenever an interface is changed, all of the code that uses the header files describing it is recompiled.

  12. On translation strategies of petroleum technical English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张阳

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the petroleum energy has achieved the prime competitiveness around the world.Therefore,translation of petroleum technical English leaves a significant impact.This paper has studied the characteristics of the words and the discourse with specific instance.It also summarizes some useful methods such as literal translation and free translation.And strategies in dealing with long sentences and passive voice,therefore it will help the translators with petroleum technological English.

  13. The curious case of legal translation

    OpenAIRE

    E. Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the nature and scope of legal translation which is an under-researched area in South Africa. In this article the author predicts that the demand for competent legal translators will increase in the future, evidenced by a recent call by the Department of Justice and Constitutional Development(DoJ&CD), inviting applications for ten positions for “legislative language practitioners”. However, legal translation differs substantially from general translation in the sense ...

  14. English Translation of Chinese Personal Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洁

    2008-01-01

    This paper talks about the translation of personal names from Chinese into English, which is complicated by different factors, including orthographic, phonetic, geographic and social ones. To translate personal names appropriately, a wide range of knowledge is required. Although translation machine is more often used nowadays, it cannot take place of person in the end. Several types of name translation will be talked about in this paper.

  15. Assessment in translation studies : research needs

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Nicole; Hurtado Albir, Amparo

    2001-01-01

    On the whole, most research into assessment in translation only concentrates on one area — evaluation of translations of literary and sacred texts — and other areas are ignored. In fact, this field of research includes two other areas, each with its own characteristics: assessment of professionals at work and assessment of trainee translators.Starting with this presupposition, we describe the three areas and analyze the notion of translation assessment, so as to define the characteristics of ...

  16. Statistical machine translation for automobile marketing texts

    OpenAIRE

    Läubli, Samuel; Fishel, Mark; Weibel, Manuela; Volk, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We describe a project on introducing an in-house statistical machine translation system for marketing texts from the automobile industry with the final aim of replacing manual translation with post-editing, based on the translation system. The focus of the paper is the suitability of such texts for SMT; we present experiments in domain adaptation and decompounding that improve the baseline translation systems, the results of which are evaluated using automatic metrics as well as manual evalua...

  17. Doing Translation History in EEBO and ECCO

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Kristine J.

    2006-01-01

    Burgeoning interest in the history of translation is evident in the recent publication of such works as the ongoing 5-volume Oxford History of Literary Translation into English (Oxford University Press, 2005- ) and the Encyclopedia of Literary Translation Into English (Fitzroy Dearborn, 2000). The fact that massive corpora of English texts are now available as EEBO and ECCO opens up possibilities to take this research to a new level and move it beyond the realm of literary translation where ...

  18. Single-Molecule Analysis of Translational Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov, Alexey; CHEN, JIN; O’Leary, Seán; Tsai, Albert; Puglisi, Joseph D.

    2012-01-01

    Decades of extensive biochemical and biophysical research have outlined the mechanism of translation. Rich structural studies have provided detailed snapshots of the translational machinery at all phases of the translation cycle. However, the relationship between structural dynamics, composition, and function remains unknown. The multistep nature of each stage of the translation cycle results in rapid desynchronization of individual ribosomes, thus hindering elucidation of the underlying mech...

  19. Impact of Deconstruction on Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄浩

    2009-01-01

    Deconstruction theory is a translation theory which is worthy our great attention. This paper expounds the effects of deconstruction theory on translation theory and practice, points out the limitations of the theory, and puts forward the necessity to construct a new translation standard after deconstruction. The ideas and methods it illustrated bring us many new inspirations, which have important reference value and significance to reconstruct Chinese translation theory.

  20. Translating inheritance nets to default logic

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    We give a translation of inheritance nets to normal default theories. To avoid discussions about sceptical and credulous reasoning we only regard unambiguous nets but allow explicit exception links restricting the validity of direct links. Contrary to former translations every link will be translated to a "hard" fact of the corresponding default theory while the defaults only repesent the implicit assumptions made when computing the extension of the net. The translation i...