WorldWideScience

Sample records for address translation unit

  1. On the Unit of Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曼

    2013-01-01

      The unit of translation has been the focus of debate through the history of translation. Barkhudarov suggests six levels of UT, each level could serve as unit of different levels of translation. Many Chinese translators also expressed their opinions on this issue, but there is no settled answer yet. This paper tends to make a distinction between different texts:ordinary and special. Ordinary ones can adopt the UT of paragraph, while special ones should adopt special UTs according to their own characteristics.

  2. CLAUSE AS THE TRANSLATION UNIT IN CHINESE TO ENGLISH TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向阳

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of Halliday' s theory, this paper makes it clear that clause as the translation unit is operational in Chinese to English translation and expounds the application of clause as the translation unit with some examples.

  3. Measuring Cognitive Translation Effort with Activity Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Carl, Michael; Lacruz, Isabel;

    2016-01-01

    and complementarities of both partners. This paper traces cognitive approaches in machine translation back to the mid-1980s and argues that we now have the technologies available that will allow us to eventually arrive at an in-depth understanding of the human translation processes. It illustrates some of the research...... methods in empirical translation process research and suggests ngrams of Activity Units for measuring the translation process....

  4. Modes of address: translation strategies or the black hole Modes of address: translation strategies or the black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Anne Odber de Baubeta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The title of this paper is perhaps deceptively succint: although it indicates the object of study it does not immediately suggest the transdisciplinary nature of its subject matter. Any consideration of the problems posed and the lexical or syntactical options available when one sets out to translate forms of address from one language to another must necessarily involve some awareness not only of issues of translation theory, but also of a series of questions usually discussed under the rubrics of sociolinguistics, pragmatics and discourse analysis. The title of this paper is perhaps deceptively succint: although it indicates the object of study it does not immediately suggest the transdisciplinary nature of its subject matter. Any consideration of the problems posed and the lexical or syntactical options available when one sets out to translate forms of address from one language to another must necessarily involve some awareness not only of issues of translation theory, but also of a series of questions usually discussed under the rubrics of sociolinguistics, pragmatics and discourse analysis.

  5. Equivalent Culture-Anchored Units Translation? The Phraseological Units Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Paweł Jaskot

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Equivalent Culture-Anchored Units Translation? The Phraseological Units Issue This article examines a question that has been of long-standing interest to linguists working in the fields of cross-linguistic phraseology and the translation of idiosyncratic language units, such as phraseological units (PUs. The challenge of translating PUs, which are understood as "patterns sanctioned by a given culture", involves the translation of culturemes. Therefore, a good translator must be able to assess the importance of the elements containing cultural references in the source language while "moving" them to the target language. When translating PUs, it is desirable that interlingual (cross-linguistic equivalence be achieved. The fact that translations of a PU can be very different (the translator can paraphrase the text, creatively change it, or simply eliminate the PU implies that the translational equivalence of PUs must be functional. While a cross-linguistic comparison (and the achievement of translational equivalence of PUs can be made by omitting the form parameter, it is desirable to preserve the extension and semantic structure, the connotative-pragmatic component, and the phrase combinatorics.   Ekwiwalencja jedostek "kulturowo zakotwiczonych"? Kwestia jednostek frazeologicznych Artykuł porusza zagadnienie, które od kilkudziesięciu lat cieszy się zainteresowaniem językoznawców zajmujących się konfrontacją językową frazeologii oraz tłumaczeniem idiosynkratycznych jednostek językowych, takich jak jednostki frazeologiczne (JF. Wyzwaniem podczas tłumaczenia JF, rozumianych jako "wzorce sankcjonowane przez daną kulturę", jawi się konieczność tłumaczenia kulturemów. Tłumacz zatem stoi w obliczu konieczności prawidłowej oceny danego elementu pod względem jego odniesień kulturowych w języku źródłowym podczas przekładania JF na język docelowy. Podczas tłumaczenia JF pożądane jest osiągnięcie międzyjęzykowej (cross

  6. TRANSLATION OF RELIGIOUS-CULTURAL TERMS OF ADDRESS IN THE LUKE’S BIBLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans I Made Brata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses words and phrases used for addressing in the translation ofreligious-cultural terms of address in the Luke’s Bible. Their profiles and attitudes,techniques, methods, and ideologies applied as well as factors leading to and theirimpacts towards the degree of accuracy, readability, and acceptability were qualitativelydescribed.The data were taken from the Luke’s English Bible and their translations intoBalinese. First, the terms of address found in the source text were compared with thosefound in the target text with reference to the appraisal theoretical framework to identifythe social stratifications to which the addressee belongs to, which was then applied toidentify what translation techniques were applied. The formal and dynamic equivalence(de Ward and Nida, 1986: 36, and V diagram of the translation method (New Mark,1988: 45 were employed to show the translation orientations closely related to thetranslation ideology itself.The findings show that: (1 the choice of the linguistic variants in the targetlanguage was influenced by the dimensions of attitude: affect, judgment, andappreciation, either (positive [+], or negative [-] among the participants; (2 there were12 translation techniques applied, two of which were the technique of calque and literal(0.06% which were oriented towards the source language, 0.02% was ‘gray’, and therest, that is, 99.2% was oriented towards the target language. The dominance of thetranslation techniques which were oriented towards the target language shows that therewas a great cultural difference between the source text and the target text; (3 thedominance of the translation communicative method and the domestication ideologyshows that, when the translation process took place, the translator’s orientation wastowards the target reader; (4 the linguistic factor, the religious-cultural difference, andthe translator’s preference led to the translation techniques, methods and

  7. I-TNT: PHONE NUMBER EXPANSION AND TRANSLATION SYSTEM FOR MANAGING INTERCONNECTIVITY ADDRESSING IN SIP PEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. KHUDHER

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Voice over IP (VoIP subscribers is growing vastly in the recent years due to the ever increase in smartphones, 3G, WiFi, etc. This growth leads the VoIP service providers to peer with each other through Session Initiation Protocol (SIP peering for low/free cost of voice communication. Naturally, this growth is not without challenges, especially in phone addressing. This paper proposes an I-TNT (Infrastructure-Phone Number Translation numbering system to expand the range of the existing E.164 numbers and mapping between private and public number at the edge of the signalling path. As a result, I-TNT numbering system is successfully implemented and able to allocate the expanded phone numbers to end-users in one service provider.

  8. Translating Research Into E/PO That Addresses Real Needs in K-12 Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Wil E.; Belbruno, E. A.; Roelofsen Moody, T.

    2009-01-01

    One of the challenges in NASA ROSES E/PO is translating cutting edge research into products for which there is a demonstrated need. Rather than working from the premise that the "research is so cool’ that K-12 students or the public should learn about it, it is key to consult with the target audience to identify what their needs really are. The partnership between NJACE, Innovative Orbital Design, Inc., and Princeton offered a unique opportunity to translate intriguing but theoretical and mathematical research related to low energy orbits into a valuable education product. NJACE worked with educators to identify several needs with an intellectual link to this research: 1) Understanding of Gravity and Newton's Laws, 2) Understanding of Energy and Energy Transformations, 3) Integration of the sciences with math and technology, and 4) Knowledge of NASA's past accomplishments (such as the moon landings). Based on these identified needs, two science units were developed for students in grades 5-12 that integrate astronomy, physics, and the life sciences with math and technology. In addition an engaging public lecture was developed that tells a personal story of the quest for more economic space travel. In the past year, the workshops have been presented on three occasions, reaching over 75 teachers and demand exceeded available space with numerous teachers on waiting lists. The lecture has been presented numerous times at planetariums, museums, amateur astronomy and other clubs. We hope that our partnership will serve as a useful example of how to translate cutting edge research into valuable education products with an identified need. We will provide handouts with links to a website where the products and training can be downloaded in hope that others will help disseminate our product.

  9. Translation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    "Translation" is a life narrative about the ways in which cultural histories shape personal stories, and the capacity of the imagination to develop alternative narratives about oneself and the world. It can also be read a way of addressing the effects of what Ato Quayson calls the global process of postcolonializing. Quaysons critical perspective might be used as an interpretive lens for seeing some of the ways in which  this autobiographical narrative complicates the jargon of race, cl...

  10. Translation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    "Translation" is a life narrative about the ways in which cultural histories shape personal stories, and the capacity of the imagination to develop alternative narratives about oneself and the world. It can also be read a way of addressing the effects of what Ato Quayson calls the global process of postcolonializing. Quaysons critical perspective might be used as an interpretive lens for seeing some of the ways in which  this autobiographical narrative complicates the jargon of race, class, ...

  11. Addressing Trainees’ Diversity Conundrums in Translator Education: Towards a Responsive Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakwe George Mbotake

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the impact of some trainee translators’ background factors on their learning outcomes by highlighting the challenges that diverse classrooms pose for translator trainers. The study demonstrates that psycho-socio-educational and professional background factors such as educational and linguistic backgrounds, prior-work or professional experiences, socio-economic status and home learning environments, perceptions and dispositions towards translation learning, as well as expectations, levels of satisfaction and loyalty provide an explanatory background to the process of translation production and performance of most translation students. The data for this study is drawn from 60 students of the MA Programme in Translation at the Advanced School of Translators and Interpreters (ASTI of the University of Buea in Cameroon. The data reveals that students’ performances vary significantly with these background characteristics. The study posits that responsive pedagogy in translator education can only grow out of an understanding of students’ background, whereby the strengths and weaknesses that students bring to school are identified, nurtured and utilized to promote student achievement.

  12. No culture shock? Addressing the Achilles heel of modern Bible translations

    OpenAIRE

    S. J. Joubert

    2001-01-01

    Modem Bible translations are often more sensitive to the needs of their intended readers than to the right of biblical texts to be heard on their own terms as religious artefacts from the ancient Mediterranean world. Since all biblical documents linguistically embody socio-religious meanings derived from ancient Mediterranean societies, they also need to be experienced as different, even alien, by modem readers. Without an initial culture shock in encountering a Bible translation modem people...

  13. 75 FR 16837 - Public Review of Draft United States Thoroughfare, Landmark, and Postal Address Data Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... public on the FGDC Web site. DATES: Comments on the draft United States Thoroughfare, Landmark, and... principles can be extended to all addresses. Dated: March 18, 2010. Ivan DeLoatch, FGDC Executive...

  14. Stakeholder Meeting: Integrated Knowledge Translation Approach to Address the Caregiver Support Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna M; McMillan, Jacqueline; Jette, Nathalie; Brémault-Phillips, Suzette C; Duggleby, Wendy; Hanson, Heather M; Parmar, Jasneet

    2017-03-01

    Family caregivers are an integral and increasingly overburdened part of the health care system. There is a gap between what research evidence shows is beneficial to caregivers and what is actually provided. Using an integrated knowledge translation approach, a stakeholder meeting was held among researchers, family caregivers, caregiver associations, clinicians, health care administrators, and policy makers. The objectives of the meeting were to review current research evidence and conduct multi-stakeholder dialogue on the potential gaps, facilitators, and barriers to the provision of caregiver supports. A two-day meeting was attended by 123 individuals. Three target populations of family caregivers were identified for discussion: caregivers of seniors with dementia, caregivers in end-of-life care, and caregivers of frail seniors with complex health needs. The results of this meeting can and are being used to inform the development of implementation research endeavours and policies targeted at providing evidence-informed caregiver supports.

  15. English Phraseological Units with an Onomastic Element and their Translation Equivalents in Slovene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbinc, Marjeta

    2016-04-01

    This article presents the findings of the study where 173 English onomastic phraseological units (PUs) were classified according to their translations into Slovene. Four groups were identified. More than 61% of all PUs belongs to the group where the translation equivalent is either descriptive or represented by a one-word equivalent. This group is followed by two groups amounting to 18.50%, i.e., a group where the English PU is translated idiomatically with a proper name and a group where it is translated idiomatically with the same proper name. The smallest group where the English PU istranslated by means of a different proper name amounts to less than 2%. It is evident that non-idiomatic descriptive translation or one-word equivalents exceed idiomatic translations of any kind, and that the majority of PUs in both languages are highly culture-specific, thus posing problems to non-native speakers in comprehension and translation.

  16. Translating Life Course Theory to clinical practice to address health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tina L; Solomon, Barry S

    2014-02-01

    Life Course Theory (LCT) is a framework that explains health and disease across populations and over time and in a powerful way, conceptualizes health and health disparities to guide improvements. It suggests a need to change priorities and paradigms in our healthcare delivery system. In "Rethinking Maternal and Child Health: The Life Course Model as an Organizing Framework," Fine and Kotelchuck identify three areas of rethinking that have relevance to clinical care: (1) recognition of context and the "whole-person, whole-family, whole-community systems approach;" (2) longitudinal approach with "greater emphasis on early ("upstream") determinants of health"; and (3) need for integration and "developing integrated, multi-sector service systems that become lifelong "pipelines" for healthy development". This paper discusses promising clinical practice innovations in these three areas: addressing social influences on health in clinical practice, longitudinal and vertical integration of clinical services and horizontal integration with community services and resources. In addition, barriers and facilitators to implementation are reviewed.

  17. Development and testing of INSPIRE themes Addresses (AD and Administrative Units (AU managed by COSMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Med

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Main content of this article is to describe implementing INSPIRE themes Addresses and Administrative Units in Czech Republic. Themes were implemented by Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre. Implementation contains developing GML files with data and designing its structure, developing and testing of INSPIRE services and preparing metadata for data and services. Besides harmonised INSPIRE themes COSMC manages also non-harmonised themes Cadastral map (KM and Units eXtended (UX.

  18. Product- and Process Units in the CRITT Translation Process Research Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael

    The first version of the "Translation Process Research Database" (TPR DB v1.0) was released In August 2012, containing logging data of more than 400 translation and text production sessions. The current version of the TPR DB, (v1.4), contains data from more than 940 sessions, which represents more...... than 300 hours of text production. The database provides the raw logging data, as well as Tables of pre-processed product- and processing units. The TPR-DB includes various types of simple and composed product and process units that are intended to support the analysis and modelling of human text...... reception, production, and translation processes. In this talk I describe some of the functions and features of the TPR-DB v1.4, and how they can be deployed in empirical human translation process research....

  19. Addressing the Mental Health Problems of Chinese International College Students in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirong Liu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies unique mental health problems experienced by Chinese international students in the United States. The uniqueness of these problems suggests the need to address them independently from other Chinese and international student communities. First, an overview of the common sources of mental health problems and specific stressors these students face is provided. This article then develops culturally sensitive programming recommendations to improve collaborative efforts between health providers, mental health social workers, faculty, and academic staff within universities to serve these students more effectively.

  20. 40 CFR 267.101 - What must I do to address corrective action for solid waste management units?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... action for solid waste management units? 267.101 Section 267.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT Releases from Solid Waste Management Units § 267.101 What must I do to address corrective action for solid waste management units? (a) You must...

  1. Josephson address control unit IC for a 4-bit microcomputer prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosaka, S.; Nakagawa, H.; Kawamura, H.; Okada, Y.; Hamazaki, Y.; Aoyagi, M.; Kurosawa, I.; Shoji, A.; Takada, S.

    1989-03-01

    This paper describes a design and operations of a Josephson address control unit IC (CTRU) used for controlling the instruction sequence of an experimental 4-bit Josephson microcomputer prototype system. The CTRU is composed of three sets of 7 to 10-bit wide registers and combinational logic circuits driven by a two-phase mono-polar power supply. 593 4-Junction-Logic (4JL) gates have been used in the circuit and fabricated by using 2.5um NbN/oxide/NbN junction technology with Mo resistors and SiO/sub 2/ insulations. Experimental operations of the circuit have been successfully tested for all the instructions which control the program sequence of the computer system.

  2. Java芯片系统中的混合地址转换技术研究%HYBRID ADDRESS TRANSLATION TECHNOLOGY IN JAVA CHIP SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈虎; 戴葵; 杨晓东; 胡守仁

    2001-01-01

    Based on the analysis of memory management of JVM(Java VirtualMachine), the concepts of object address, segmented address and physical address are defined. Their relationship in Java Chip system is also presented here. After the discussion of current address translation schemes, a novel address translation technology, which hybridizes the segment scheme and segment-page scheme, is presented. A perfect tradeoff will be gained among the object accessing performance, the memory utilization and the Java chip system simplicity. The hardware architecture to implement address translation and the algorithm to allocate physical memory are presented too. At the end of paper, the performance evaluation of these algorithms is given.%本文首先定义了Java芯片系统中的地址结构:对象地址、段式地址和物理地址.针对现有地址转换方法的不足,提出了一种结合段式和段页式的混合转换方法.该方法使访问对象的速度、存储空间利用率和设备复杂度等方面得到合理的折衷.文中还给出了该方法在Java芯片系统中的硬件实现方法和相关的物理存储空间分配算法,并对其进行了性能评价.

  3. Toward core inter-professional health promotion competencies to address the non-communicable diseases and their risk factors through knowledge translation: Curriculum content assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Elizabeth; Moffat, Marilyn; Skinner, Margot; Dornelas de Andrade, Armele; Myezwa, Hellen; Söderlund, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background To increase the global impact of health promotion related to non-communicable diseases, health professionals need evidence-based core competencies in health assessment and lifestyle behavior change. Assessment of health promotion curricula by health professional programs is a first step. Such program assessment is a means of 1. demonstrating collective commitment across health professionals to prevent non-communicable diseases; 2. addressing the knowledge translation gap between wh...

  4. Addressing the Common Pathway Underlying Hypertension and Diabetes in People Who Are Obese by Maximizing Health: The Ultimate Knowledge Translation Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Dean

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the WHO definition of health, this article examines the alarming discord between the epidemiology of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and obesity and the low profile of noninvasive (nondrug compared with invasive (drug interventions with respect to their prevention, reversal and management. Herein lies the ultimate knowledge translation gap and challenge in 21st century health care. Although lifestyle modification has long appeared in guidelines for medically managing these conditions, this evidence-based strategy is seldom implemented as rigorously as drug prescription. Biomedicine focuses largely on reducing signs and symptoms; the effects of the problem rather than the problem. This article highlights the evidence-based rationale supporting prioritizing the underlying causes and contributing factors for hypertension and T2DM, and, in turn, obesity. We argue that a primary focus on maximizing health could eliminate all three conditions, at best, or, at worst, minimize their severity, complications, and medication needs. To enable such knowledge translation and maximizing health outcome, the health care community needs to practice as an integrated team, and address barriers to effecting maximal health in all patients. Addressing the ultimate knowledge translation gap, by aligning the health care paradigm to 21st century needs, would constitute a major advance.

  5. Functional unit and product functionality—addressing increase in consumption and demand for functionality in sustainability assessment with LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Seung Jin; Kara, Sami; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The static functional unit definition in the current LCA framework has limitations in addressing the changing product functionality and associated environmental impact of constantly evolving product technologies. As a result, it overlooks the changes in consumer behaviour of increased co...... cycle design that helps keep the total environmental impact of the company’s product portfolio within absolute boundaries....

  6. Knowledge translation: An interprofessional approach to integrating a pain consult team within an acute care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Kira; Berall, Anna; Karuza, Jurgis; Senderovich, Helen; Perri, Giulia-Anna; Grossman, Daphna

    2016-11-01

    Management of pain in the frail elderly presents many challenges in both assessment and treatment, due to the presence of multiple co-morbidities, polypharmacy, and cognitive impairment. At Baycrest Health Sciences, a geriatric care centre, pain in its acute care unit had been managed through consultations with the pain team on a case-by-case basis. In an intervention informed by knowledge translation (KT), the pain specialists integrated within the social network of the acute care team for 6 months to disseminate their expertise. A survey was administered to staff on the unit before and after the intervention of the pain team to understand staff perceptions of pain management. Pre- and post-comparisons of the survey responses were analysed by using t-tests. This study provided some evidence for the success of this interprofessional education initiative through changes in staff confidence with respect to pain management. It also showed that embedding the pain team into the acute care team supported the KT process as an effective method of interprofessional team building. Incorporating the pain team into the acute care unit to provide training and ongoing decision support was a feasible strategy for KT and could be replicated in other clinical settings.

  7. Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…

  8. Addressing Child Poverty: How Does the United States Compare With Other Nations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeeding, Timothy; Thévenot, Céline

    2016-04-01

    Poverty during childhood raises a number of policy challenges. The earliest years are critical in terms of future cognitive and emotional development and early health outcomes, and have long-lasting consequences on future health. In this article child poverty in the United States is compared with a set of other developed countries. To the surprise of few, results show that child poverty is high in the United States. But why is poverty so much higher in the United States than in other rich nations? Among child poverty drivers, household composition and parent's labor market participation matter a great deal. But these are not insurmountable problems. Many of these disadvantages can be overcome by appropriate public policies. For example, single mothers have a very high probability of poverty in the United States, but this is not the case in other countries where the provision of work support increases mothers' labor earnings and together with strong public cash support effectively reduces child poverty. In this article we focus on the role and design of public expenditure to understand the functioning of the different national systems and highlight ways for improvements to reduce child poverty in the United States. We compare relative child poverty in the United States with poverty in a set of selected countries. The takeaway is that the United States underinvests in its children and their families and in so doing this leads to high child poverty and poor health and educational outcomes. If a nation like the United States wants to decrease poverty and improve health and life chances for poor children, it must support parental employment and incomes, and invest in children's futures as do other similar nations with less child poverty.

  9. General and Partial Equilibrium Modeling of Sectoral Policies to Address Climate Change in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizer, William; Burtraw, Dallas; Harrington, Winston; Newell, Richard; Sanchirico, James; Toman, Michael

    2003-03-31

    This document provides technical documentation for work using detailed sectoral models to calibrate a general equilibrium analysis of market and non-market sectoral policies to address climate change. Results of this work can be found in the companion paper, "Modeling Costs of Economy-wide versus Sectoral Climate Policies Using Combined Aggregate-Sectoral Model".

  10. Addressing Cultural Diversity: Effects of a Problem-Based Intercultural Learning Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Vera; Krause, Ulrike-Marie

    2015-01-01

    This article explores to what extent a problem-based learning unit in combination with cooperative learning and affectively oriented teaching methods facilitates intercultural learning. As part of the study, students reflected on critical incidents, which display misunderstandings or conflicts that arise as a result of cultural differences. In…

  11. The Shortage of Roman Catholic Priests in the United States Navy Chaplain Corps: Addressing the Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Doubleday Press, 1995 Center for Applied Research in the Apostolate , Statistics for Roman Catholic Priests in the United States, http...2002), iii. 15 Center for Applied Research in the Apostolate , http://cara.georgetown.edu/bulletin/index.htm#faq, accessed 30 DEC 2008

  12. Addressing Value and Belief Systems on Climate Literacy in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    The southeast (SEUS; AL, AR, GA, FL, KY, LA, NC, SC, TN, E. TX) faces the greatest impacts as a result of climate change of any region in the U.S. which presents considerable and costly adaptation challenges. Paradoxically, people in the SEUS hold attitudes and perceptions that are more dismissive of climate change than those of any other region. An additional mismatch exists between the manner in which climate science is generally communicated and the underlying core values and beliefs held by a large segment of people in the SEUS. As a result, people frequently misinterpret and/or distrust information sources, inhibiting efforts to productively discuss and consider climate change and related impacts on human and environmental systems, and possible solutions and outcomes. The Climate Literacy Partnership in the Southeast (CLiPSE) project includes an extensive network of partners throughout the SEUS from faith, agriculture, culturally diverse, leisure, and K-20 educator communities that aim to address this educational need through a shared vision. CLiPSE has conducted a Climate Stewardship Survey (CSS) to determine the knowledge and perceptions of individuals in and beyond the CLiPSE network. The descriptive results of the CSS indicate that religion, predominantly Protestantism, plays a minor role in climate knowledge and perceptions. Likewise, political affiliation plays a minimal role in climate knowledge and perceptions between religions. However, when Protestants were broken out by political affiliation, statistically significant differences (t(30)=2.44, p=0.02) in knowledge related to the causes of climate change exist. Those Protestants affiliated with the Democratic Party (n=206) tended to maintain a statistically significant stronger knowledge of the causes of global climate change than their Republican counterparts. When SEUS educator (n=277) group was only considered, similar trends were evidenced, indicating that strongly held beliefs potentially

  13. Modularized architecture of address generation units suitable for real-time processing MR data on an FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Limin; Wyrwicz, Alice M.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we describe a modular approach to the design of an Address Generation Unit (AGU). The approach consists of development of a generic Address Generation Core (AGC) as a basic building block and the construction of an AGU from the AGCs. We illustrate this concept with AGUs capable of handling 2D- and 3D-structured data, and as well as their setup for executing 2D and 3D FFT algorithms on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The AGUs developed using our proposed method are simple and easily expandable. Furthermore, they can potentially support irregularly structured data which are often generated from the wide variety of pulse sequences in magnetic resonance imaging. Our experimental results show that these AGUs are capable of generating addresses with a user-predefined pattern automatically at the speed of one address per clock cycle and operate at clock rates up to 80 MHz. They can operate concurrently with other processes and thus do not introduce additional operation latencies. Although we focus on applying the developed AGUs to executing 2D and 3D FFT, we expect that the modular design method should have much wider applications.

  14. Modularized architecture of address generation units suitable for real-time processing MR data on an FPGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Limin; Wyrwicz, Alice M

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we describe a modular approach to the design of an Address Generation Unit (AGU). The approach consists of development of a generic Address Generation Core (AGC) as a basic building block and the construction of an AGU from the AGCs. We illustrate this concept with AGUs capable of handling 2D- and 3D-structured data, and as well as their setup for executing 2D and 3D FFT algorithms on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The AGUs developed using our proposed method are simple and easily expandable. Furthermore, they can potentially support irregularly structured data which are often generated from the wide variety of pulse sequences in magnetic resonance imaging. Our experimental results show that these AGUs are capable of generating addresses with a user-predefined pattern automatically at the speed of one address per clock cycle and operate at clock rates up to 80 MHz. They can operate concurrently with other processes and thus do not introduce additional operation latencies. Although we focus on applying the developed AGUs to executing 2D and 3D FFT, we expect that the modular design method should have much wider applications.

  15. 'Renewables-Friendly' Grid Development Strategies: Experience in the United States, Potential Lessons for China (Chinese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-03

    This is a Chinese translation of NREL/TP-6A20-64940. This report aims to help China's reform effort by providing a concise summary of experience in the United States with 'renewables-friendly' grid management, focusing on experiences that might be applicable to China. It focuses on utility-scale renewables and sets aside issues related to distributed generation.

  16. Rewarding Excellent Teaching: The Translation of a Policy Initiative in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rebecca; Gosling, David

    2012-01-01

    The need to provide more significant rewards for "teaching excellence" in order to provide parity of status with research in higher education has often been asserted. This paper examines ways in which the idea of rewarding excellent teaching has been understood and translated within a large teaching and learning initiative that was…

  17. Building Capacity of Occupational Therapy Practitioners to Address the Mental Health Needs of Children and Youth: A Mixed-Methods Study of Knowledge Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Bazyk, Susan; Demirjian, Louise; LaGuardia, Teri; Thompson-Repas, Karen; Conway, Carol; Michaud, Paula

    2015-01-01

    A 6-mo building capacity process designed to promote knowledge translation of a public health approach to mental health among pediatric occupational therapy practitioners empowered change leaders to articulate, advocate for, and implement practice changes.

  18. The paediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (pCAM-ICU: Translation and cognitive debriefing for the German-speaking area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens de Grahl

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To date there are only a few studies published, dealing with delirium in critically ill patients. The problem with these studies is that prevalence rates of delirium could only be estimated because of the lack of validated delirium assessment tools for the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU. The paediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (pCAM-ICU was specifically developed and validated for the detection of delirium in PICU patients. The purpose of this study was the translation of the English pCAM-ICU into German according to international validated guidelines. Methods: The translation process was performed according to the principles of good practice for the translation and cultural adaptation process for patient reported outcomes measures: From three independently created German forward-translation versions one preliminary German version was developed, which was then retranslated to English by a certified, state-approved translator. The back-translated version was submitted to the original author for evaluation. The German translation was evaluated by clinicians and specialists anonymously (German grades in regards to language and content of the translation. Results: The results of the cognitive debriefing revealed good to very good results. After that the translation process was successfully completed and the final version of the German pCAM-ICU was adopted by the expert committee. Conclusion: The German version of the pCAM-ICU is a result of a translation process in accordance with internationally acknowledged guidelines. Particularly, with respect to the excellent results of the cognitive debriefing, we could finalise the translation and cultural adaptation process for the German pCAM-ICU.

  19. Lost in translation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granas, Anne Gerd; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2014-01-01

    completely different meaning. Some dissimilarities reflect different cultural beliefs about medicines. CONCLUSION: When translating questionnaires, bilingual researchers should scrutinize translations across similar languages to address content validity across different countries and languages. PRACTICE...

  20. Building a platform for translational research in chronic noncommunicable diseases to address population health: lessons from NHLBI supported CRONICAS in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Málaga, Germán; Cardenas, María K; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Pesantes, M Amalia; Araya, Ricardo; Boggio, Oscar; Checkley, William; García, Patricia J; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Lescano, Andrés G; Montori, Victor; Pan, William; Rivera-Chira, Maria; Sacksteder, Katherine; Smeeth, Liam; García, Héctor H; Gilman, Robert H

    2015-03-01

    The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence in Chronic Diseases, based at Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, was created in 2009 with support from the U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). The vision of CRONICAS is to build a globally recognized center of excellence conducting quality and innovative research and generating high-impact evidence for health. The center's identity is embedded in its core values: generosity, innovation, integrity, and quality. This review has been structured to describe the development of the CRONICAS Centre, with a focus on highlighting the ongoing translational research projects and capacity-building strategies. The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence is not a risk-averse organization: it benefits from past experiences, including past mistakes, and improves upon them and thus challenges traditional research approaches. This ethos and environment are key to fostering innovation in research.

  1. Translator awareness Translator awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Wilss

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness. If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness.

  2. Active and Reserve Unit Costs: DOD Report to Congress Generally Addressed the Statutory Requirements but Lacks Detail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012, Section 1080A, issued in January 2012, states that such reductions must be balanced with...preparation for future challenges and protection of the broad range of U.S. national security interests. One key to achieving this balance is determining the...addressed the statutory requirements, we used a scorecard methodology in which two analysts independently assessed the extent to which the report’s

  3. Teaching Note--No Peace without Justice: Addressing the United States' War on Drugs in Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Elizabeth A.; Redmond, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The United States' War on Drugs encompasses a body of legislation characterized by punitive approaches to drug control. These policies have resulted in escalating incarceration rates and have extracted a particularly harsh toll on low-income people of color. This article argues that education on the War on Drugs is essential for effective practice…

  4. Addressing Adolescent Depression in Schools: Evaluation of an In-Service Training for School Staff in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carmen R.; Budge, Stephanie L.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated an adolescent depression in-service training for school staff in the United States. A total of 252 school staff (e.g., teachers, principals, counselors) completed assessments prior to and following the in-service and a subsample of these staff participated in focus groups following the in-service and three months later.…

  5. Study protocol: Addressing evidence and context to facilitate transfer and uptake of consultation recording use in oncology: A knowledge translation implementation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruether J Dean

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The time period from diagnosis to the end of treatment is challenging for newly diagnosed cancer patients. Patients have a substantial need for information, decision aids, and psychosocial support. Recordings of initial oncology consultations improve information recall, reduce anxiety, enhance patient satisfaction with communication, and increase patients' perceptions that the essential aspects of their disease and treatment have been addressed during the consultation. Despite the research evidence supporting the provision of consultation recordings, uptake of this intervention into oncology practice has been slow. The primary aim of this project is to conduct an implementation study to explicate the contextual factors, including use of evidence, that facilitate and impede the transfer and uptake of consultation-recording use in a sample of patients newly diagnosed with breast or prostate cancer. Methods Sixteen oncologists from cancer centres in three Canadian cities will participate in this three-phase study. The preimplementation phase will be used to identify and address those factors that are fundamental to facilitating the smooth adoption and delivery of the intervention during the implementation phase. During the implementation phase, breast and prostate cancer patients will receive a recording of their initial oncology consultation to take home. Patient interviews will be conducted in the days following the consultation to gather feedback on the benefits of the intervention. Patients will complete the Digital Recording Use Semi-Structured Interview (DRUSSI and be invited to participate in focus groups in which their experiences with the consultation recording will be explored. Oncologists will receive a summary letter detailing the benefits voiced by their patients. The postimplementation phase includes a conceptual framework development meeting and a seven-point dissemination strategy. Discussion Consultation

  6. Inaugural address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  7. Translations and Translators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nida, Eugene A.

    1979-01-01

    The necessity for stylistic appropriateness in translation as well as correct content is discussed. To acquire this skill, translators must be trained in stylistics through close examination of their own language and must have practice in translating for different audiences at different levels. (PMJ)

  8. Aggregate resource availability in the conterminous United States, including suggestions for addressing shortages, quality, and environmental concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.

    2011-01-01

    One-third of America's major roads are in poor or mediocre condition, and over one-quarter of the bridges are either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. A 70-percent increase in annual aggregate production may be required to upgrade the transportation infrastructure. Natural aggregate is widespread throughout the conterminous United States, but the location of aggregate is determined by geology and is non-negotiable. Natural aggregate is in short supply in the Coastal Plain and Mississippi embayment, Colorado Plateau and Wyoming Basin, glaciated Midwest, High Plains, and the non-glaciated Northern Plains. A variety of techniques have been used to overcome local shortages, such as the use of substitute materials, recycling, and importing high-quality aggregates from more distant locations.

  9. Timing of translation in cross-language qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hudson P O; Black, Amanda M; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2015-01-01

    Although there is increased understanding of language barriers in cross-language studies, the point at which language transformation processes are applied in research is inconsistently reported, or treated as a minor issue. Differences in translation timeframes raise methodological issues related to the material to be translated, as well as for the process of data analysis and interpretation. In this article we address methodological issues related to the timing of translation from Portuguese to English in two international cross-language collaborative research studies involving researchers from Brazil, Canada, and the United States. One study entailed late-phase translation of a research report, whereas the other study involved early phase translation of interview data. The timing of translation in interaction with the object of translation should be considered, in addition to the language, cultural, subject matter, and methodological competencies of research team members.

  10. Translating Words, Translating Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Whitaker

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available What exactly does (or should translation from one language into another try to do? Attempt to convey to readers of the target language (the language into which one is translating something of the strangeness, difference and historicity of the original in the source language (the language from which one is translating? Or must translation try to bridge the gap between source and target language, by rendering the original in a thoroughly contemporary style and diction, as if this were a work being written now for the first time? And related to these the further questions: how closely should a translation render the genre, language, metre, style and content of the original? How far can a translation depart from the original without ceasing to be a translation – in other words, where is one to situate the border between “translation”, “version” and “adaptation”?

  11. A renewed Medication Adherence Alliance call to action: harnessing momentum to address medication nonadherence in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zullig LL

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Leah L Zullig,1,2 Bradi B Granger,3 Hayden B Bosworth,1–4 On behalf of the Medication Adherence Alliance 1Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 2Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Duke University, 3Duke Heart Center Nursing Research Program, School of Nursing, Duke University, 4Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA The problem: Nonadherence to prescription medications is a common and costly problem with multiple contributing factors, spanning the dimensions of individual behavior change, psychology, medicine, and health policy, among others. Addressing the problem of medication nonadherence requires strategic input from key experts in a number of fields.Meeting of experts: The Medication Adherence Alliance is a group of key experts, predominately from the US, in the field of medication nonadherence. Members include representatives from consumer advocacy groups, community health providers, nonprofit groups, the academic community, decision-making government officials, and industry. In 2015, the Medication Adherence Alliance convened to review the current landscape of medication adherence. The group then established three working groups that will develop recommendations for shifting toward solutions-oriented science.Commentary of expert opinion: From the perspective of the Medication Adherence Alliance, the objective of this commentary is to describe changes in the US landscape of medication adherence, framing the evolving field in the context of a recent think tank meeting of experts in the field of medication adherence. Keywords: medication adherence, health planning recommendations, chronic disease

  12. Understanding benefits and addressing misperceptions and barriers to intrauterine device access among populations in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoost J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Jennie Yoost Marshall University Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Huntington, WV, USA Abstract: Three intrauterine devices (IUDs, one copper and two containing the progestin levonorgestrel, are available for use in the United States. IUDs offer higher rates of contraceptive efficacy than nonlong-acting methods, and several studies have demonstrated higher satisfaction rates and continuation rates of any birth control method. This efficacy is not affected by age or parity. The safety of IUDs is well studied, and the risks of pelvic inflammatory disease, perforation, expulsion, and ectopic pregnancy are all of very low incidence. Noncontraceptive benefits include decreased menstrual blood loss, improved dysmenorrhea, improved pelvic pain associated with endometriosis, and protection of the endometrium from hyperplasia. The use of IUDs is accepted in patients with multiple medical problems who may have contraindications to other birth control methods. Yet despite well-published data, concerns and misperceptions still persist, especially among younger populations and nulliparous women. Medical governing bodies advocate for use of IUDs in these populations, as safety and efficacy is unchanged, and IUDs have been shown to decrease unintended pregnancies. Dispersion of accurate information among patients and practitioners is needed to further increase the acceptability and use of IUDs. Keywords: IUD, contraception, levonorgestrel, copper

  13. Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies. [Contains glossary and address list of geothermal project developers and owners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Translating China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    sidney Shapiro, an American-born translator famous for his translation of Chinese literary works, received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Translation by the Translators Association of China on December 2, 2010.

  15. Welcome Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  16. Translating sexual assault prevention from a college campus to a United States military installation: piloting the know-your-power bystander social marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Sharyn J; Stapleton, Jane G

    2012-05-01

    One population that shares both similar and different characteristics with traditional college-age students is the U.S. Military. Similarities include a high concentration of 18- to 26-year-olds dealing with new found independence, peer pressure, and the presence of social norms that support violence and hypermasculinity. Sexual violence is a major public health problem in the United States, and because of the similarities in the age group of college and military populations, the problems regarding sexual violence in both constituencies have been well-documented. In the current pilot study we seek to add to both current knowledge about and promising practices of translating prevention strategies from one target audience to another. We describe how we translated, administered, and evaluated a bystander intervention social marketing campaign focused on sexual assault prevention that had been found to significantly affect attitude change on a college campus for a U.S. Army installation in Europe. In addition to demonstrating the process of translating prevention strategies across target audiences, findings from this pilot study contribute to the evaluation data on the effectiveness of sexual violence prevention strategies implemented with members of the U.S. Military. From our analysis, we see that research participants indicate that the degree to which the images resonate with them and the familiarity of the context (i.e., social self-identification) significantly effect the participants' personal responsibility for reducing sexual assault, confidence in acting as a bystander, and reported engagement as a bystander.

  17. Professional Preparation of Teachers for Rural Schools: Abstracts of Addresses Delivered at a Conference Called by the United States Commissioner of Education, at the Lenox Hotel, Boston, February 25, 1928. Bulletin, 1928, No. 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Katherine M.

    1928-01-01

    This bulletin contains abstracts of the addresses delivered at a conference called by the United States Commissioner of Education to consider problems concerned with the professional preparation of teachers for rural schools. They were prepared from copies of the addresses or abstracts of them furnished by the speakers who prepared or delivered…

  18. Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and ICU Mobility Scale: translation into Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yurika Maria Fogaça; Nawa, Ricardo Kenji; Figueiredo, Thais Borgheti; Martins, Lourdes; Pires-Neto, Ruy Camargo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To translate the Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and the ICU Mobility Scale (IMS) into Portuguese, creating versions that are cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil, and to determine the interobserver agreement and reliability for both versions. Methods: The processes of translation and cross-cultural validation consisted in the following: preparation, translation, reconciliation, synthesis, back-translation, review, approval, and pre-test. The Portuguese-language versions of both instruments were then used by two researchers to evaluate critically ill ICU patients. Weighted kappa statistics and Bland-Altman plots were used in order to verify interobserver agreement for the two instruments. In each of the domains of the instruments, interobserver reliability was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The correlation between the instruments was assessed by Spearman's correlation test. Results: The study sample comprised 103 patients-56 (54%) of whom were male-with a mean age of 52 ± 18 years. The main reason for ICU admission (in 44%) was respiratory failure. Both instruments showed excellent interobserver agreement (κ > 0.90) and reliability (α > 0.90) in all domains. Interobserver bias was low for the IMS and the Perme Score (−0.048 ± 0.350 and −0.06 ± 0.73, respectively). The 95% CIs for the same instruments ranged from −0.73 to 0.64 and −1.50 to 1.36, respectively. There was also a strong positive correlation between the two instruments (r = 0.941; p < 0.001). Conclusions: In their versions adapted for use in Brazil, both instruments showed high interobserver agreement and reliability. PMID:28117473

  19. Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and ICU Mobility Scale: translation into Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurika Maria Fogaça Kawaguchi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To translate the Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and the ICU Mobility Scale (IMS into Portuguese, creating versions that are cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil, and to determine the interobserver agreement and reliability for both versions. Methods: The processes of translation and cross-cultural validation consisted in the following: preparation, translation, reconciliation, synthesis, back-translation, review, approval, and pre-test. The Portuguese-language versions of both instruments were then used by two researchers to evaluate critically ill ICU patients. Weighted kappa statistics and Bland-Altman plots were used in order to verify interobserver agreement for the two instruments. In each of the domains of the instruments, interobserver reliability was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The correlation between the instruments was assessed by Spearman's correlation test. Results: The study sample comprised 103 patients-56 (54% of whom were male-with a mean age of 52 ± 18 years. The main reason for ICU admission (in 44% was respiratory failure. Both instruments showed excellent interobserver agreement ( > 0.90 and reliability ( > 0.90 in all domains. Interobserver bias was low for the IMS and the Perme Score (−0.048 ± 0.350 and −0.06 ± 0.73, respectively. The 95% CIs for the same instruments ranged from −0.73 to 0.64 and −1.50 to 1.36, respectively. There was also a strong positive correlation between the two instruments (r = 0.941; p < 0.001. Conclusions: In their versions adapted for use in Brazil, both instruments showed high interobserver agreement and reliability.

  20. Human Translator and Translation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辰

    2016-01-01

    With the great development of technology, translation technology exerts great influence on human translators because during their translation process, they may use many computer-aided translation tools, such as TRADOS, Snowman, WordFisher and etc. However, they always misunderstand the concept of computer-aided translation, so this thesis managed to providedetails about some translation technology and human translators' strengths so as to help them improve the productivity and the quality of theirtranslation works effectively and efficiently.

  1. Translating Means Translating Meaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕

    2000-01-01

    美国著名翻译理论家尤金·奈达说 :“翻译即译意 (Translating m eans translating m eaning)。”就实质而言 ,翻译即译意。就是把一种语言表达的意义用另一种语言表达出来。翻译分理解与表达两个步骤。理解是翻译的基础 ,表达直接决定译文的成败与优劣 ,两者缺一不可

  2. Letter Report to Address Comments on the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0, March 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-03-17

    The Closure Report (CR) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224, Decon Pad and Septic Systems, was approved by the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on November 01, 2007. The approval letter contained the following two comments: Comment 1--For 06-05-01, 06-17-04, 06-23-01 provide evidence that the 6 inch VCP pipe originating from building CP-2 is no longer active and sealed to prevent possible future contamination. Comment 2--For the area that includes 06-03-01, provide evidence that active lines are no longer feeding the North and South lagoons and have been sealed to prevent possible future contamination. To address these comments, closure documentation was reviewed, and site visits were conducted to locate and document the areas of concern. Additional fieldwork was conducted in March 2008 to seal the lines and openings described in the two comments. Photographs were taken of the closed drains and lines to document that the NDEP comments were adequately addressed and potential inadvertent discharge to the environment has been eliminated. Investigation and closure documentation was reviewed to identify the locations of potential drains, lines, and other features that could receive and/or transmit liquid. Based on the investigation findings and subsequent closure activities, no openings, distribution boxes, or other features (excluding known floor drains at CP-2) that could receive liquid were found at the CP-2 location (Figure 1), and potential manholes for the north and south sewage lagoons were identified for Corrective Action Site (CAS) 06-03-01 (Figure 2). The distribution box identified in Figure 1 was not located during the investigation and was assumed to have been previously removed.

  3. Translation Unit and Translation Studies Scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    翻译单位在国内的讨论由来已久,但以往论述翻译单位的大部分文章在沿用巴尔胡达罗夫概念时却丢弃了其动态性的合理内核,使得相关研究工作进展不够,尤其是文化学派提出文化是翻译单位后,不仅使翻译单位本身的研究陷入混乱,而且对翻译研究的疆界产生强烈冲击。本文从语言、译者、文化角度切入翻译单位,认为翻译单位是动态的连续体,文化是翻译单位的观点助长了目前翻译研究疆界的消解。

  4. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  5. Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of ancillary translation tool, Machine Translation has been paid increasing attention to and received different kinds of study by a great deal of researchers and scholars for a long time. To know the definition of Machine Translation and to analyse its benefits and problems are significant for translators in order to make good use of Machine Translation, and helpful to develop and consummate Machine Translation Systems in the future.

  6. Offshore finfish aquaculture in the United States: An examination of federal laws that could be used to address environmental and occupational public health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; Shukla, Arunima; Lee, Ryan M

    2014-11-19

    Half of the world's edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US) government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production.

  7. Regulatory approaches to obesity prevention: A systematic overview of current laws addressing diet-related risk factors in the European Union and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisnowski, Jana; Handsley, Elizabeth; Street, Jackie M

    2015-06-01

    High prevalence of overweight and obesity remains a significant international public health problem. Law has been identified as a tool for obesity prevention and selected high-profile measures have been reported. However, the nature and extent of enacted legislation internationally are unclear. This research provides an overview of regulatory approaches enacted in the United States, the European Union, and EU Member States since 2004. To this end, relevant databases of primary and secondary legislation were systematically searched to identify and explore laws addressing dietary risk factors for obesity. Across jurisdictions, current regulatory approaches to obesity prevention are limited in reach and scope. Target groups are rarely the general population, but instead sub-populations in government-supported settings. Consumer information provision is preferred over taxation and marketing restrictions other than the regulation of health and nutrition claims. In the EU in particular, product reformulation with industry consent has also emerged as a popular small-scale measure. While consistent and widespread use of law is lacking, governments have employed a range of regulatory measures in the name of obesity prevention, indicating that there is, in principle, political will. Results from this study may serve as a starting point for future research and policy development.

  8. Offshore Finfish Aquaculture in the United States: An Examination of Federal Laws That Could be Used to Address Environmental and Occupational Public Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian P. Fry

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Half of the world’s edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production.

  9. Forms of creativity in translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia V Aranda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2009v1n23p23This paper explores the creative constructs utilized by translators in the reformulation of texts. As translation studies realigns the definition of translation vis-à-vis the original, a number of factors inform translations: the agency and subjectivity of the translator, as well as questions of form, and the more obvious social factors. This discussion addresses the articulation of creativity as a response to specific cases and repositions translation as part of a greater creative project.

  10. An innovative telemedicine knowledge translation program to improve quality of care in intensive care units: protocol for a cluster randomized pragmatic trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Ruxandra

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are challenges to timely adoption of, and ongoing adherence to, evidence-based practices known to improve patient care in the intensive care unit (ICU. Quality improvement initiatives using a collaborative network approach may increase the use of such practices. Our objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel knowledge translation program for increasing the proportion of patients who appropriately receive the following six evidence-based care practices: venous thromboembolism prophylaxis; ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention; spontaneous breathing trials; catheter-related bloodstream infection prevention; decubitus ulcer prevention; and early enteral nutrition. Methods and design We will conduct a pragmatic cluster randomized active control trial in 15 community ICUs and one academic ICU in Ontario, Canada. The intervention is a multifaceted videoconferenced educational and problem-solving forum to organize knowledge translation strategies, including comparative audit and feedback, educational sessions from content experts, and dissemination of algorithms. Fifteen individual ICUs (clusters will be randomized to receive quality improvement interventions targeting one of the best practices during each of six study phases. Each phase lasts four months during the first study year and three months during the second. At the end of each study phase, ICUs are assigned to an intervention for a best practice not yet received according to a random schedule. The primary analysis will use patient-level process-of-care data to measure the intervention's effect on rates of adoption and adherence of each best practice in the targeted ICU clusters versus controls. Discussion This study design evaluates a new system for knowledge translation and quality improvement across six common ICU problems. All participating ICUs receive quality improvement initiatives during every study phase, improving buy-in. This study design

  11. Welcome Address

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@  On behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute, I welcome you to Beijing and to the Third Asian Conference on Food Safety and Nutrition. Many of you will remember the first Asian conference on Food Safety held in Kuala Lumpur in 1990 and the second held in Bangkok in 1994. These meetings have been so successful that ILSI made the commitment to host such a conference periodically in order to provide a forum to share the latest information and to set new goals and priorities.   This year, we have broadened the scope of the agenda to include issues on nutrition. I want to thank all of our co-sponsors and members of the Planning Committee for preparing such a comprehensive and timely program. Some of the issues and challenges facing Asia that will be addressed at this meeting are:

  12. Formal verification of a set of memory management units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, E. Thomas; Levitt, K.; Cohen, Gerald C.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the verification of a set of memory management units (MMU). The verification effort demonstrates the use of hierarchical decomposition and abstract theories. The MMUs can be organized into a complexity hierarchy. Each new level in the hierarchy adds a few significant features or modifications to the lower level MMU. The units described include: (1) a page check translation look-aside module (TLM); (2) a page check TLM with supervisor line; (3) a base bounds MMU; (4) a virtual address translation MMU; and (5) a virtual address translation MMU with memory resident segment table.

  13. Translational Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention...... is given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention....... This creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...

  14. Libros bilingues, traducciones desparpajadas y traducciones pobres: libros en espanol publicados en los Estados Unidos (Bilingual Books, Careless Translations, and Bad Translations: Books in Spanish Published in the United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of providing Spanish-speaking students with high-quality reading materials in Spanish and avoiding materials that have been badly translated into Spanish. Provides an annotated list of 10 books recommended for young children and a Spanish grammar for more advanced readers. Lists 29 badly translated books. Describes a Web…

  15. Translating Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Chevrel

    2007-07-01

    Europe thinks in many languages and Europe is a land of translation. Translation is a means of transmitting culture, a means of making it available to others and an invitation to share. It is a cement which binds Europe together.

  16. Translation Nation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The International Federation of Translators will hold its largest ever world congress in China on the eve of 2008 Olympic Games china’ s position as a powerhouse of the translation industry is to be cemented,

  17. teaching translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bolaños Cuéllar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The advance in cultural-oriented perspectives in Translation Studies has sometimes played down the text linguistic nature of translation. A pilot study in teaching translation was carried out to make students aware of the text linguistic character of translating and help them to improve their translation skills, particularly with an emphasis on self-awareness and self-correcting strategies. The theoretical background is provided by the Dynamic Translation Model (2004, 2005 proposed by the author, with relevant and important contributions taken from Genette’s (1982 transtextuality phenomena (hypertext, hypotext, metatext, paratext, intertext and House and Kasper’s (1981 pragmatic modality markers (downgraders, upgraders. The key conceptual role of equivalence as a defining feature of translation is also dealt with. The textual relationship between Source Language Text (slt is deemed to be pivotal for performing translation and correction tasks in the classroom. Finally, results of the pilot study are discussed and some conclusions are drawn.

  18. Literal Translation and Free Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭佼

    2011-01-01

    @@ Dispute over the method of literal translation and that of free translation had a long history in China, in East Jin Dynasty Daoan(道安314-385),a well-known monk, was the representative of those who firmly advocated literal translation.Since he feared that free translation might not be true to the original, he advocated strict literal translation so as to preserve the true features.Works under his direction were typical of word-for-word translation, in which no alteration was made except accidental changes in word order.

  19. Semantics on Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琦

    2014-01-01

    Semantics is the study of the meanings of words and sentences. While word is the most basic unit in every language and the understanding of the word meaning is the most important problem in translation. Therefore, the analysis of semantics just provides a very direct approach to doing translation. In this paper, I’d like to focus on the three kinds of word meaning in transla- tion, the ambiguities caused by the word meaning and how to deal with such ambiguities.

  20. Opening address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnoli, C.

    1994-01-01

    representation of the mole. Most of you, I presume, are neo-Pythagoreans, and consequently believe that a new definition and, maybe, a new realization of the unit of mass will be based on a number of atoms of silicon, a view which will certainly lead you to cross swords with the "electrical party". The importance of NA is also linked to the considerable and far-reaching return in other scientific and industrial fields. Finally, let me add that, ethically, the work of many persons all over the world and the money and energy they spend in order to add a decimal figure, may be an example of commitment to be given to our students. Last but not least, my warm thanks to the Director of the Istituto di Metrologia "G Colonnetti", where the experiment has been in progress since 1971, and to all the researchers involved in this work. I do hope that the National Council of Research will continue to support this important project. While wishing you a pleasant stay in Turin, I express the hope that our meeting will prove a fruitful opportunity for discussion and exchange of views.

  1. Translation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because artistic translation focuses on reactions, judging the quality of an artistic translation work is one of the most difficult things one can do. We end up having a score of complexity and humanity for each one of the mentioned techniques: Literal translation would be the closest thing we have to the machines world and artistic translation would be the closest thing we have to the purely human world. By creating these classifications and studying the subtleties of each one of them, we are adding degrees of quality to our courses and to translation as a professional field. The main contribution of this paper is then the formalization of such a piece of knowledge. We, however, also lay the foundations for studies of this type.

  2. A Report on Translation of UN Career

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Yanli

    2016-01-01

    This report translates the recruitment advertisement of the United Nations into Chinese. As the translated version serves for massive job-hunters, thus Communicative Translation of Peter Newmark is a good choice since this translation strategy is quite reader-oriented. Furthermore, there are some differences between English and Chinese, so such translation techniques as transformation of voice, amplification and omission will be used. This report made me know that a qualified translator should have a good knowledge of translation theories, learn the differences between English and Chinese and improve translation abilities through continuous practice.

  3. Specialised Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Specialised translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain discourse in a foreign language in connection with translation. The most common type is the business dictionary covering several more or less related subject fields. However, business dictionaries....... The result is that the traditional focus on language system will be extended to usage because the central unit of translation is not the word but the text....... treat one or few fields extensively thereby neglecting the discourse of the other fields. Furthermore, recent research shows that specialised translation is not limited to terms but also concerns domain-specific syntactic structures and genre conventions using various translation strategies. To meet...

  4. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    out by specialised revisers, but by staff translators, who revise the work of colleagues and freelancers on an ad hoc basis. Corrections are mostly given in a peer-to-peer fashion, though the work of freelancers and inexperienced in-house translators is often revised in an authoritative (nonnegotiable......) way. Most respondents and interviewees are worried about increasing pressures on the translation market, which, combined with customers’ general lack of understanding of the translation process, mean that systematic, all-encompassing quality assurance is rarely financially viable....

  5. Knowledge Translation in Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos-Mendez, Ariel; Shademani, Ramesh

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the "know-do gap," present a definition of knowledge translation, and discuss its relative importance in bridging the know-do gap. Some of the underlying causes of the know-do gap are listed, along with ongoing efforts to address them. Knowledge translation is considered a cross-cutting, nonlinear process that involves not only recent…

  6. Preventing and Addressing Homophobic and Transphobic Bullying in Education: A Human Rights-Based Approach Using the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Homophobic and transphobic bullying in schools can have a serious effect on children and young people subjected to it at a crucial moment in their lives. It is an obstacle to the right to education, which is one of the basic universal human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and various United Nations Conventions. This…

  7. A Comparative Study of Chinese and English Address Terms——Comment on Outlaw of the Marsh Translated by Sidney Shapiro%中英文称谓比较研究——评西德里·沙博里翻译的《水浒传》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雅婧

    2010-01-01

    基于权威、礼貌两项翻译原则,对中、英文版的中的称谓进行分析,笔者试图找出翻译者是否成功地以目标语表达文本的内涵.%Through the analysis of address terms based on two principles in both Chinese version and English one, the author tries to find out whether the translator re-express the pragmatic meaning of the source text in target language successfully.

  8. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  9. Addressing Global Warming, Air Pollution, Energy Security, and Jobs with Roadmaps for Changing the All-Purpose Energy Infrastructure of the 50 United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Global warming, air pollution, and energy insecurity are three of the most significant problems facing the world today. This talk discusses the development of technical and economic plans to convert the energy infrastructure of each of the 50 United States to those powered by 100% wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) for all purposes, namely electricity, transportation, industry, and heating/cooling, after energy efficiency measures have been accounted for. The plans call for all new energy to be WWS by 2020, ~80% conversion of existing energy by 2030, and 100% by 2050 through aggressive policy measures and natural transition. Resource availability, footprint and spacing areas required, jobs created versus lost, energy costs, avoided costs from air pollution mortality and morbidity and climate damage, and methods of ensuring reliability of the grid are discussed. Please see http://web.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/WWS-50-USState-plans.html

  10. Word translation entropy in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied...... language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross...

  11. Translating organizational change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2016-01-01

    This paper takes it point of departure in actor-network-theory (ANT). It responds to the Next Management Theory tracks call for papers that address and further develops our understanding of organizational change as translation processes. It moreover addresses a critique of ANT researchers...... in organizational studies for making descriptions of studied empirical phenomena rather than developing theories and giving normative advice about how organizations or organizational change processes may be theorized, analyzed, managed and/or organized better. A new ANT-inspired theory about the characteristics...... of organizations, organizational change and change agents is therefore developed combining ANT with other theories. The relevance of this view is demonstrated in an analysis of a case where a nurse and the leader of a clinic for orthopedic surgery try to translate and thus implement a risk-management and deviation...

  12. Translational Geoscience: Converting Geoscience Innovation into Societal Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffries, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Translational geoscience — which involves the conversion of geoscience discovery into societal, economic, and environmental impacts — has significant potential to generate large benefits but has received little systematic attention or resources. In contrast, translational medicine — which focuses on the conversion of scientific discovery into health improvement — has grown enormously in the past decade and provides useful models for other fields. Elias Zerhouni [1] developed a "new vision" for translational science to "ensure that extraordinary scientific advances of the past decade will be rapidly captured, translated, and disseminated for the benefit of all Americans." According to Francis Collins, "Opportunities to advance the discipline of translational science have never been better. We must move forward now. Science and society cannot afford to do otherwise." On 9 July 2015, the White House issued a memorandum directing U.S. federal agencies to focus on translating research into broader impacts, including commercial products and decision-making frameworks [3]. Natural hazards mitigation is one of many geoscience topics that would benefit from advances in translational science. This paper demonstrates that natural hazards mitigation can benefit from advances in translational science that address such topics as improving emergency preparedness, communicating life-saving information to government officials and citizens, explaining false positives and false negatives, working with multiple stakeholders and organizations across all sectors of the economy and all levels of government, and collaborating across a broad range of disciplines. [1] Zerhouni, EA (2005) New England Journal of Medicine 353(15):1621-1623. [2] Collins, FS (2011) Science Translational Medicine 3(90):1-6. [3] Donovan, S and Holdren, JP (2015) Multi-agency science and technology priorities for the FY 2017 budget. Executive Office of the President of the United States, 5 pp.

  13. Estimating return on investment in translational research: methods and protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazier, Kyle L; Trochim, William M; Dilts, David M; Kirk, Rosalind

    2013-12-01

    Assessing the value of clinical and translational research funding on accelerating the translation of scientific knowledge is a fundamental issue faced by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and its Clinical and Translational Awards (CTSAs). To address this issue, the authors propose a model for measuring the return on investment (ROI) of one key CTSA program, the clinical research unit (CRU). By estimating the economic and social inputs and outputs of this program, this model produces multiple levels of ROI: investigator, program, and institutional estimates. A methodology, or evaluation protocol, is proposed to assess the value of this CTSA function, with specific objectives, methods, descriptions of the data to be collected, and how data are to be filtered, analyzed, and evaluated. This article provides an approach CTSAs could use to assess the economic and social returns on NIH and institutional investments in these critical activities.

  14. Beyond Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the growing scholarship on local development practitioners by re-examining conceptualizations of practitioners as ‘brokers’ strategically translating between ‘travelling’ (development institution) rationalities and ‘placed’ (recipient area) rationalities in relation...... and practice spurred by new challenges deriving from climate change anxiety, the study shows how local practitioners often make local activities fit into travelling development rationalities as a matter of habit, rather than as a conscious strategy. They may therefore cease to ‘translate’ between different...... rationalities. This is shown to have important implications for theory, research and practice concerning disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in which such translation is often expected....

  15. Translational genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kussmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “Translational Genomics” reflects both title and mission of this new journal. “Translational” has traditionally been understood as “applied research” or “development”, different from or even opposed to “basic research”. Recent scientific and societal developments have triggered a re-assessment of the connotation that “translational” and “basic” are either/or activities: translational research nowadays aims at feeding the best science into applications and solutions for human society. We therefore argue here basic science to be challenged and leveraged for its relevance to human health and societal benefits. This more recent approach and attitude are catalyzed by four trends or developments: evidence-based solutions; large-scale, high dimensional data; consumer/patient empowerment; and systems-level understanding.

  16. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  17. Core Skills in the Development of English-Chinese Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔学颖

    2015-01-01

    English to Chinese translation skill is a comprehensive skill that professionals work hard to develop. Most people know that every English learners have general skills on English-Chinese translation. The way we read, understand, absorb, ana-lyze, and transfer information is what makes each translation different. This dissertation addresses the question of what core skills a professional translator should have when performing English to Chinese translation in professional fields. Verbal English and translation are totally two different skill sets. However, in English-Chinese translation, it needs various kinds of skill sets in different aspects in order to achieve a seamless translation.

  18. Theorizing About Translation and Translation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Mukesh

    2012-01-01

    The act of translation between languages and cultures has been going on for centuries, but the act of theorizing about-translation is of recent origin. In the last forty years translation scholars have attempted to understand the process of translation and evaluate its merits giving rise to a whole range of conceptualizing which is now called translation studies. Translation studies , therefore, has grown within important scholastic enclosures of the west attempting to conduct political and i...

  19. THE SPECIFICS OF THE TRANSLATION OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. PASHKOWSKAYA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is about the aspect of translation in the process of foreign language teaching. The main attention is paid to translation of social and political texts such as statements, addresses and speeches of state, party and public figures, all sorts of articles and publications of international, governmental and non-governmental organizations, the number of which is very large in mass media. They contain information of the leading economists on the activities of international financial institutions, reflect the real world of business, and offer a wide range of views and opinions on political events. Socio-political texts in Russian, as well as in foreign languages, not only provide information about various events or problems, but also make special impact on readers. Particular attention is paid to the lexical units which are used in translation of such texts. Such lexical units reflect the evolution of society, define public relationships. They are in continual «movement», replacing or supplementing the existing notation systems by words and abbreviations which reflect the emergence of new facts and concepts in the relevant field of social life. Knowledge of this kind of vocabulary enables students to solve practical problems of translation, summarization and annotation of this kind of literature.

  20. Address Translation Problems in IMS Based Next Generation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs Godor

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of packed based multimedia networks reached a turning point when the ITU-T and the ETSIhave incorporated the IMS to the NGN. With the fast development of mobile communication more and more services andcontent are available. In contrast with fix network telephony both the services and the devices are personalized in the “mobileworld”. Services, known from the Internet - like e-mail, chat, browsing, presence, etc. – are already available via mobiledevices as well. The IMS originally wanted to exploit both the benefits of mobile networks and the fancy services of theInternet. But today it is already more than that. IMS is the core of the next generation telecommunication networks and abasis for fix-mobile convergent services. The fact however that IMS was originally a “mobile” standard, where IPv6 was notoddity generated some problems for the fix networks, where IPv4 is used. In this article I give an overview of these problemsand mention some solutions as well.

  1. Peptide immunotherapy for childhood allergy - addressing translational challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenzie Karen J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergic sensitisation usually begins early in life. The number of allergens a patient is sensitised to can increase over time and the development of additional allergic conditions is increasingly recognised. Targeting allergic disease in childhood is thus likely to be the most efficacious means of reducing the overall burden of allergic disease. Specific immunotherapy involves administering protein allergen to tolerise allergen reactive CD4+ T cells, thought key in driving allergic responses. Yet specific immunotherapy risks allergic reactions including anaphylaxis as a consequence of preformed allergen-specific IgE antibodies binding to the protein, subsequent cross-linking and mast cell degranulation. CD4+ T cells direct their responses to short "immunodominant" peptides within the allergen. Such peptides can be given therapeutically to induce T cell tolerance without facilitating IgE cross-linking. Peptide immunotherapy (PIT offers attractive treatment potential for allergic disease. However, PIT has not yet been shown to be effective in children. This review discusses the immunological mechanisms implicated in PIT and briefly covers outcomes from adult PIT trials. This provides a context for discussion of the challenges for the application of PIT, both generally and more specifically in relation to children.

  2. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  3. On Translation of Ren in The Analects in Terms of Cultural Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qin

    2013-01-01

    In 1980’s, the famous translator and scholar Bassnett proposes a new translation theory, namely cultural translation the-ory, in which Bassnett insists that culture should be taken as the basic unit of translation, which attracts the attentions all over the world. In the thesis, the translation of Ren, one of the main ideas of Confucianism, will be discussed from the perspective of Bassnett’s cultural translation theory. Ren, the essence of The Analects, also the symbol of Chinese traditional culture, is endowed with profound connotation and important status. There are more and more translations of Ren in contemporary era. After com-paring different kinds of translation and cultural translation theory, the most proper way of doing it may be transliterating it to Ren.

  4. Translator's preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamiell, James T

    2013-08-01

    Presents a preface from James T. Lamiell, who translates Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology's Struggle for Existence (Die Psychologie im Kampf ums Dasein), in which Wundt advised against the impending divorce of psychology from philosophy, into English. Lamiell comments that more than a decade into the 21st century, it appears that very few psychologists have any interest at all in work at the interface of psychology and philosophy. He notes that one clear indication of this is that the Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, which is Division 24 of the American Psychological Association (APA), remains one of the smallest of the APA's nearly 60 divisions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. On Feminist Translation Theory and Literary Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄东睿

    2015-01-01

    Feminist translation theory emerged in the late 70s and early 80s of 20th Century. It is the combination of the feminist movement and the“cultural turn”of translation. It was introduced to China in the 1980s, and with the development of the transla⁃tion theory and translation practice, more and more Chinese translators want to study the feminist translation theory from the deep levels.

  6. License Address List

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Address list generated from National Saltwater Angler Registry. Used in conjunction with an address-based sample as per survey design.

  7. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  8. Efficacy of Female Rat Models in Translational Cardiovascular Aging Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Rice

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Aging is a primary risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease as well as cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Aging is a universal process that all humans undergo; however, research in aging is limited by cost and time constraints. Therefore, most research in aging has been done in primates and rodents; however it is unknown how well the effects of aging in rat models translate into humans. To compound the complication of aging gender has also been indicated as a risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system associated with aging and gender for aging research with regard to the applicability of rat derived data for translational application to human aging.

  9. Knowledge translation of research findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimshaw Jeremy M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health. We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting, and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge

  10. Deconstructive Reconsideration of Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳清

    2014-01-01

    This paper is on the deconstructive reconsideration of the definition of translation, the relation of source text and translation, as well as the relation of translator and author. It also points out the differences between tranditioanal concepts of translation and deconstructive reconsideration of translation.

  11. On Becoming a Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2015-01-01

    Douglas Robinson's Becoming a Translator:An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation has been well received around the world.Fusing translation theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating,it is an essential resource for novice and practicing translators.

  12. Translator Studies in Retrospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭勤

    2009-01-01

    The concern about translator has run for thousands of years on which many translators and translation scholars have made comments.A rough examination of the translator within translation studies at home and abroad is expounded in a loosely chronological way as follows.

  13. On Becoming a Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2015-01-01

    Douglas Robinson’s Becoming a Translator:An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation has been well received around the world.Fusing translation theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating,it is an essential resource for novice and practicing translators.

  14. Equivalence in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良杰

    2013-01-01

    There are many researches about translation theories and methods in western translation history. Equivalence in transla⁃tion has always been the central issue for discussion. This paper gives a general review and comment on equivalence in translation in terms of three representative translation theorists and their views about equivalence in translation.

  15. The Peculiar Art of Cultural Formations: Roberto Bolaño and the Translation of Latin American Literature in The United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Pollack

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Les Détectives sauvages de Roberto Bolaño, traduit en anglais en 2007, représente une rupture avec l’esthétique en pleine expansion du réalisme magique et l’appétit du lecteur états-unien pour ce genre. La décision du New York Times de décerner au roman de Bolaño sa plus grande distinction, ainsi que les comptes-rendus enthousiastes que le livre a reçus dans d’autres publications à travers le pays, interrogent inévitablement : comment l’ establishement littéraire des Etats-Unis reconfigure-t-il actuellement ce qu’il juge être « la littérature latino-américaine », et, par extension, comment cette région est-elle représentée à travers la traduction anglaise de ces romans ? Bien que Les Détectives sauvages réorganisent en apparence les coordonnées du roman latino-américain, l’image qui transparaît dans ses pages révèle certaines idées préconçues de l’altérité qui satisfont l’imaginaire des consommateurs de culture états-uniens.Roberto Bolaño’s The Savage Detectives, translated in 2007, represents a break with “boom” aesthetics and the U.S. reader’s appetite for magic realism. The New York Times’s decision to honor Bolaño’s 577-page-long novel with its highest accolade, and the rave reviews the novel received in other publications across the country, necessitate the pondering of how the U.S. literary establishment is presently reconfiguring what it deems “Latin American literature” to be, and, by extension, how it represents the region to itself through literature in English translation. I propose that although The Savage Detectives ostensibly realigns the coordinates of the Latin American novel, the image that is gleaned from its pages foments other (preconceptions of alterity that satisfy the fantasies and collective imagination of U.S. cultural consumers.Los detectives salvajes (1998 de Roberto Bolaño, traducido al inglés en 2007, representa una ruptura con las est

  16. Some Major Steps to Translation and Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hojat Shamami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is an overview of the main issues at the core of theorizing translation practice and the features of a good translator or how to be a good translator and of course what are the Skills to become a Freelance Translator and Translation process. In this world of science and technology there is knowledge explosion every day. This knowledge which is generally written in the English language needs to be transmitted in various languages so that people who do not know how to speak and write the original language can get the knowledge necessary for industrial development and technological innovation to keep up with the rest of the world. To transmit this knowledge effectively, there is a need for competent translators in various languages. Keywords: Translation, Translator, SL, Accommodation, Text

  17. Translation Theory and Translation Studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qin

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a comparative study of "translation theory" and "translation studies" in China and the West. Its focus is to investigate whether there is translation theory in the Chinese tradition. My study begins with an examination of the debate in China over whether there has already existed a system of translation…

  18. Speaking your Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara; Mees, Inger M.; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the translation processes and products of 14 MA students who produced translations from Danish (L1) into English (L2) under different working conditions: (1) written translation, (2) sight translation, and (3) sight translation with a speech recognition (SR) tool. Audio...... output and keystrokes were recorded. Oral and written translation data were examined in order to investigate if task times and translation quality differed in the three modalities. Although task times were found to be highest in written translation, the quality was not consistently better. In addition...

  19. Translational informatics: an industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Michael N

    2012-01-01

    Translational informatics (TI) is extremely important for the pharmaceutical industry, especially as the bar for regulatory approval of new medications is set higher and higher. This paper will explore three specific areas in the drug development lifecycle, from tools developed by precompetitive consortia to standardized clinical data collection to the effective delivery of medications using clinical decision support, in which TI has a major role to play. Advancing TI will require investment in new tools and algorithms, as well as ensuring that translational issues are addressed early in the design process of informatics projects, and also given higher weight in funding or publication decisions. Ultimately, the source of translational tools and differences between academia and industry are secondary, as long as they move towards the shared goal of improving health.

  20. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  1. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  2. Corpora and Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅丽莉

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Recent years have witnessed a significant growth of corpora heat. One of the many fields where corpora have a growing impact is translation, both at a descriptive and a practical level. Chesterman pointed out that the focus of Translation Studies shifted from translation itself to translators, from regulative to descriptive studies, from philosophical to empirical studies (Chesterman, 1998).

  3. Lost in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Zhitao; Chen Wen

    2011-01-01

    IT is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  4. Lost in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The intricacies of language still eludes even the most sophisticated technology IT is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  5. Translators and Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Technology is not yet advanced enough to capture the nuances of language It is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  6. On translation equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石雏凤

    2009-01-01

    Nida's translation theories, especially for his "Dynamic equivalence theory", are highly praised and adopted in Chinese translation circle. Howev-er, there are a lot of criticism and misunderstanding at the same time. This paper explores the issue on translation equivalence so as to benefit our translation studies on both theory and practice level.

  7. FACTORS REGULATING LIBERAL TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚海红

    2012-01-01

    Literal translation and liberal translation are two important methods and both play key roles in translation.However,some textbooks say that most translations are literal translations while others maintain most are liberal ones,besides,some others suggest a combination of the two.This paper focuses on the facts that regulate liberal translation.Because of the differences in culture,society,history,geography,and so on,there exists a great difference between Chinese language and English language,which does naturally lead to the liberal translation.

  8. Cultural Context and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.

  9. Stylistic Requirement for Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Yin-zhen

    2016-01-01

    Stylistic research is subordinate to language use research. The fast maturing modern stylistics has greatly boosted trans-lation studies. Translation has a close relationship with stylistics. Many problems can be solved in translation practice by stylis-tic theories and analysis methods. Based on a brief introduction of stylistics and the relationship between stylistics and transla-tion, this paper will give a specific analysis of the stylistic requirement for translation.

  10. Evaluative Meaning in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Jurko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative meaning is frequently understood as a form of connotation, pertaining to single lexical items. However, the term has recently been applied also to longer stretches of text, spanning several words. The paper generally deals with the latter aspect and provides a corpus-driven analysis of several Slovene and English phrases that may appear semantically neutral, yet turn out to be heavily non-neutral in terms of their semantic properties. After a short introduction of the main approaches to the topic, including its dilemmas, the paper focuses on the L1-into-L2 translation of such strings, with particular emphasis on proper rendering of the evaluative meaning. While further research is warranted into the matter, the work presented here attests to the complex and ubiquitous nature of the Sinclairian extended unit of meaning.

  11. Communicating the Past via Translation: The Manipulation of History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdeon, Roberto A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the connection between translation and narratives of history, with particular attention to Howard Zinn's "A People's History of the United States" and its Spanish version, "La otra historia de los Estados Unidos". It is argued that translation interacts with history in many ways: translation is fundamental to history and, in…

  12. The Probe of Significance of Text Analysis in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莉

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the significance of text analysis in translation in regard to the analysis both inside and outside the "text", discussing the weight of analyzing lexical units and stylistic scales in translation and examining the importance of analyzing the translator's intention, the author's intention and the target language (TL) readership.

  13. Translation-coupling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  14. Translation-coupling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2015-05-19

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  15. Writing Through: Practising Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of

  16. Translation Theory 'Translated': Three Perspectives on Translation in Organizational Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the mo......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings.......Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most...... common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented...

  17. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have...... implications for the curriculum, (3) be pedagogically motivating, and (4) prepare students for employing translation technology in their future practice as translators. In a two-phase study in which 14 MA students translated texts in three modalities (sight, written, and oral translation using an SR program......), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation...

  18. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeman, Daniel J.; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J.

    2012-01-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component “hepatitis c virus” separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such “Ab.IgG”, “DNA”, and “RNA”. We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into 9 languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC’s open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange PMID:22285984

  19. On Advertisement Language Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ya-lu

    2015-01-01

    Advertisement language is a special practical writing with abundant imagination, great creativity and instigation. During translation the diversity in social culture, language and ethnic psychology, etc. will be directly reflected into its effect, presenting both the trouble in business of translators and also significant influences on the business brand. Starting from the features of adver⁃tisement language itself, this paper integrates translation situations and measures from several schools over the latest 20 years, gives typical examples in advertising translation and analyzes from varies perspectives and points out some problems in today ’s ad⁃vertisement translation,aiming to provide some constructive opinions for translation of advertisements.

  20. Translation, Quality and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    The paper investigates the feasibility and some of the possible consequences of applying quality management to translation. It first gives an introduction to two different schools of translation and to (total) quality management. It then examines whether quality management may, in theory......, be applied to translation and goes on to present a case study which involves a firm in the translation industry and which illustrates quality management in practice. The paper shows that applying quality management to translation is feasible and that doing so may translate into sustained growth....

  1. Film Name Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师晓晓

    2014-01-01

    <正>1.Introduction A good translation of the name should convey the information of the film and attract the audience’s desire for going to the cinema.Translation of film names should have business,information,culture,aesthetic features,while a short eye-catching name aims to leave the audience an unforgettable impression.This thesis discusses the translation of English film names from the aspects of the importance of English film name translation,principles for translating English film names and methods of English film name translation.

  2. Translation between representation languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbaalen, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    A capability for translating between representation languages is critical for effective knowledge base reuse. A translation technology for knowledge representation languages based on the use of an interlingua for communicating knowledge is described. The interlingua-based translation process consists of three major steps: translation from the source language into a subset of the interlingua, translation between subsets of the interlingua, and translation from a subset of the interlingua into the target language. The first translation step into the interlingua can typically be specified in the form of a grammar that describes how each top-level form in the source language translates into the interlingua. In cases where the source language does not have a declarative semantics, such a grammar is also a specification of a declarative semantics for the language. A methodology for building translators that is currently under development is described. A 'translator shell' based on this methodology is also under development. The shell has been used to build translators for multiple representation languages and those translators have successfully translated nontrivial knowledge bases.

  3. CATTI英语笔译3级指定教材中参考译文语言质量分析--以第七单元为例%Language Quality Analysis on English Translation of CATTI III Prescribed Textbook-A Case Study of the Seventh Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珊

    2015-01-01

    随着国际交流的深入和中国国际地位的突飞猛进,翻译成为对外交流必不可少的一项活动。全国翻译专业资格(水平)考试作为评定翻译水平的一项重要考试,其指定教材对翻译人才的培养有着直接的影响。该文评析全国翻译专业资格(水平)考试指定教材《英语笔译实务3级》第七单元参考译文中的一些不妥之处并以互联网翻译工具,百科全书查词和双语平行语料检索为辅助尝试改译。旨在促进全国翻译专业资格(水平)考试指定教材参考译文的规范化,使考生在指定教材运用时更轻松。%With international exchanges deepening and China's international status advancing, translation becomes an essential ac⁃tivity. China Accreditation Test for Translators and Interpreters—CATTI, serves as a measure of the level of translation, whose pre⁃scribed textbooks have a direct impact on translators-to-be. This paper exams some language translation inadequacies of the sev⁃enth unit of CATTI III prescribed textbook and assists with Internet translation tools, encyclopedia search words and bilingual par⁃allel corpus for try to retrieve translation. Aimed at promoting the standardization of English translation of CATTI prescribed text⁃book, making it easier for candidates to prepare the exam.

  4. Addressing mathematics & statistics anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Kotecha, Meena

    2015-01-01

    This paper should be of interest to mathematics and statistics educators ranging from pre-university to university education sectors. It will discuss some features of the author’s teaching model developed over her longitudinal study conducted to understand and address mathematics and statistics anxiety, which is one of the main barriers to engaging with these subjects especially in non-specialist undergraduates. It will demonstrate how a range of formative assessments are used to kindle, as w...

  5. Living in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    Exaugural presentation. A retrospect of my personal itinerary from literature, across translation studies to translation process research and a look ahead. In the retrospect, I range over diverse topics, all of which have sprung from my concern with the phenomenon of translation. I reflect on how......, as humans, we generate meaning, interpret meaning, and reformulate or translate meaning. I also reflect on the way computing has influenced research into these phenomena as seen e.g. in my creation of the Translog program and in projects I have been involved in, such as OFT (Translation of Professional...... for global communication purposes, and for improving research into translation, the phenomenon of translation and the world of translation in which we all live....

  6. Translation and Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this article is to consider the issue of quality in translation. Specifically, the question under consideration is whether quality assurance in relation to translation is feasible and, if so, what some of the implications for translation theory, translation practice and the teaching...... of translation would be. To provide a backdrop against which the issue may be discussed, I present an overview of the two areas which seem most likely to hold potential answers, viz., that of translation theory and that of quality management. Section 1. gives a brief outline of some contributions to translation...... theory which would seem likely to be of interest in this connection and section 2. gives a linguist's introduction to the part of the area of quality management which I consider relevant for present purposes. Section 3. is devoted to the case study of a small translation firm which has been certified...

  7. Accommodating Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This is an article in a series illustrating the way scholars in communication have pursued translating their research into practice. The translational nature of communication accommodation theory and examples of its application are the focus of this contribution.

  8. Translating Others, Discovering Himself: Beckett as Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Gribben

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the work of Samuel Beckett in the light of his early work as a translator of the works of other writers.  In his translations for Negro: An Anthology (1934, the Anthology of Mexican Poetry (1958, or commissioned translations for journals such as “This Quarter”, early pre-figurings of Beckett’s own thematic and linguistic concerns abound.  Rarely viewed as more than acts of raising money for himself, Beckett’s acts of translation, examined chronologically, demonstrate a writer discovering his craft, and developing his unique voice, unencumbered by the expectations of originality.  This essay posits that Beckett’s works, with their distinctive voice and characterisation, owe much to the global perspective he gained through translating across cultural, continental divides, as well as experimenting with form, which became a staple of Beckett’s own work.  Without formal training or theoretical grounding in translation, Beckett utilises the act of translation as a means of finding himself, revisiting it as a means of shaping his own unique literary voice.

  9. Translating HOL to Dedukti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Assaf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dedukti is a logical framework based on the lambda-Pi-calculus modulo rewriting, which extends the lambda-Pi-calculus with rewrite rules. In this paper, we show how to translate the proofs of a family of HOL proof assistants to Dedukti. The translation preserves binding, typing, and reduction. We implemented this translation in an automated tool and used it to successfully translate the OpenTheory standard library.

  10. Bssiness Correspondence Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静

    2009-01-01

    It is widely-acknowtedged that business correspondence works as a bridge between the writer and the reader.Taking its characteristics into consideration,this essay illustrates how to do business correspondence translation.Only by abiding by all those fcatures can the translator achieve the aim of translation.

  11. Translation is Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟婧妤

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the art in translation.First,the translation and art are defined and some historic views are illustrated.Then the author lays emphasis on how to convey the artistic information and provides some methods on how to achieve artistic effect in translation.

  12. Metaphor and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    坎曼丽·麦麦提; 朱毅

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the author first analyzed the nature of metaphor and difficulties in metaphor translation, displayed the fac-tors that will influence the translation between English and Chinese metaphors, and then explored the metaphor translation strate-gies by taking some English and Chinese idioms as examples.

  13. Found in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The 18th World Congress of the International Federation of Translators(FIT) is bound to increase China’s international exposure.Shortly before the congress,Guo Xiaoyong,Executive Vice President of the Translators Association of China(TAC),spoke to Beijing Review about his expectations for the event and his evaluation of translation and interpretation services in China.

  14. Using Pragmatic in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井琳

    2013-01-01

    Translating process is coordination of the source language and target language. As the source language and translation language readers are in different cultural background, so their understanding of the environment is different. When the translator express their understanding in the receptor language, he must figure out the best relevance between source language and target language, which can achieve pragmatic equivalence.

  15. OVERVIEW OF TRANSLATION- JAHIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Yuslina Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research tries to contrive Jahiz's stands and ideas in translation which he has discussed in his two books named "Al-Bayan Wal-Tabyeen" and "Al-Haiwan". As it was known this issue of translation was emergence since long period of time, and there was no need toward translation, however, after Arabian and Persian assembled with Greek philosophers had increasingly the need and concerned on Religion Sciences and others, for instances: Mathematics, Medicine, Logic, Engineering, Business and others which were existed during that time. The translation movement had gone by several stages in the different periods and being developed during Abassid period for example, the works of "Hanen Ibn Ishaq" and his own school which the translators had faced difficulties and problems in their translation. To summarize, this research has found a number of results that the "Jahiz" was precedence than others who had stated the conditions of translation before 12th century ago. Besides, these conditions appropriate till nowadays, he had also pointed these conditions cannot be applied in translation of literature texts and holy texts because its might be obliterated the savoir faire. "Jahiz" had looked through this issue seriously, he tried to help translators in this area and he had stated in his famous books the conditions of translation and he had given his ideas toward translation benefited from his previous experience in translation the ancient philosopher's books from Persian to Arabic. Though, the readers could benefit his ideas in translation generally and for the translator specifically, also his books became as a heritage references and cannot be neglected at all in translation work.

  16. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  17. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution.

  18. Automatic Detection of Omissions in Translations

    CERN Document Server

    Melamed, I D

    1996-01-01

    ADOMIT is an algorithm for Automatic Detection of OMIssions in Translations. The algorithm relies solely on geometric analysis of bitext maps and uses no linguistic information. This property allows it to deal equally well with omissions that do not correspond to linguistic units, such as might result from word-processing mishaps. ADOMIT has proven itself by discovering many errors in a hand-constructed gold standard for evaluating bitext mapping algorithms. Quantitative evaluation on simulated omissions showed that, even with today's poor bitext mapping technology, ADOMIT is a valuable quality control tool for translators and translation bureaus.

  19. Lost in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Steffen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    of translated texts. Our results suggest (i) that frame-based classifiers are usable for author attribution of both translated and untranslated texts; (ii) that framebased classifiers generally perform worse than the baseline classifiers for untranslated texts, but (iii) perform as well as, or superior...... to the baseline classifiers on translated texts; (iv) that—contrary to current belief—naïve classifiers based on lexical markers may perform tolerably on translated texts if the combination of author and translator is present in the training set of a classifier....

  20. A Writer, a Translator and a Translator

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Marinčič

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the French translation of the short story Amy by the Slovenian writer Mira Mihelič, made by Elza Jereb for the anthology Nouvelles slovènes (Paris, 1969). The original text, a classical narrative involving some modernist strategies, presents a syntactical feature rather unusual in Slovenian (although typical of the author Mira Mihelič): a very frequent use of participles and participial structures. Elza Jereb’s translation is accurate and precise, preserving not only th...

  1. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  2. Rare diseases research: expanding collaborative translational research opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groft, Stephen C

    2013-07-01

    Extensive public-private partnerships, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the rare diseases community, which is seeing a renewed industry interest in smaller niche markets, have resulted in an increase of interventions for rare diseases. Significant collaborative efforts are required among the pharmaceutical industry, foundations, patient-advocacy groups, academic and government investigators and funding programs, regulatory scientists, and reimbursement agencies to meet the unmet diagnostic and treatment needs for approximately 25 million people in the United States with 7,000 rare diseases. The expanding role and outreach activities of patient-advocacy groups have increased public awareness. In the United States, a rare disease is defined as a disorder or condition with a prevalence of $3.5 billion for rare diseases research, including $750 million for orphan product development activities, nearly 11.4% of the NIH research budget. Several research institutes and centers of the NIH, including the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, have initiated varied translational research efforts to address the absence of preclinical and clinical data required for regulatory review purposes. Clinicians can expect to see significant increases in requests from patients and their families to participate in patient registries and natural history or observational studies to gather specific information from a larger pool of patients on the progression of the disease or response to treatments. An expanding emphasis on rare diseases provides hope for the millions of patients with rare diseases.

  3. Foreignizing Translation and Domesticating Translation of Hong Kong Movie Titles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林慧韵

    2014-01-01

    Generally,the movie title translation strategy would be divided into two:domesticating translation strategy and foreignizing translation strategy.The movie title translation in Hong Kong is chosen to be the material for the analysis of the domesticating translation strategy and foreignizing translation strategy,compared with that of Mainland China.

  4. On Peter Newmark’s Semanic Translation & Communicative Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin; ZHANG Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Peter Newmark has written many preeminent works on translation theory. He classifies the translation texts into differ⁃ent types,and puts forward his great translation methods-communiative translation and semantic translation. This paper is aimed to explain the creative work by Peter Nwmark in the translation theory.

  5. Compiling a Corpus for Teaching Medical Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth de la Teja Bosch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: medical translation has countless documentary sources; the major difficulty lies in knowing how to assess them. The corpus is the ideal tool to perform this activity in a rapid and reliable way, and to define the learning objectives based on text typology and oriented towards professional practice.Objective: to compile an electronic corpus that meets the requirements of the professional practice to perform specialized medical translation. Methods: a pedagogical research was conducted in the province of Cienfuegos. The units of analysis involved records from translators of the Provincial Medical Sciences Information Center and specialized translators in this field, who completed a questionnaire to accurately determine their information needs, conditioning the corpus design criteria. The analysis of a set of texts extracted from highly reputable sources led to the text selection and final compilation. Subsequently, the validation of the corpus as a documentary tool for teaching specialized medical translation was performed. Results: there was a concentration of translation assignments in the topics: malignant tumors, hypertension, heart disease, diabetes mellitus and pneumonias. The predominant text typologies were: evaluative and dissemination of current research, with plenty original articles and reviews. The text corpus design criteria were: unannotated, documented, specialized, monitor and comparable. Conclusions: the corpus is a useful tool to show the lexical, terminological, semantic, discursive and contextual particularities of biomedical communication. It allows defining learning objectives and translation problems. Key words: teaching; translating; medicine

  6. On the 40th Anniversary of the Restoration of the Lawful Seat of the People's Republic of China in the United Nations Keynote Address at the Fourth Lanting Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Hailong

    2011-01-01

    Excellencies,Scholars and experts,Friends from the business commnmunity and the press,Ladies and gentlemen,The theme of this Lanting Forum is China and the United Nations (UN).This is of special significance,because this year marks the 40th anniversary of the restoration of the lawful seat of the People's Republic of China in the UN.

  7. Text Type and Translation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘福娟

    2015-01-01

    Translation strategy and translation standards are undoubtedly the core problems translators are confronted with in translation. There have arisen many kinds of translation strategies in translation history, among which the text type theory is considered an important breakthrough and a significant complement of traditional translation standards. This essay attempts to demonstrate the value of text typology (informative, expressive, and operative) to translation strategy, emphasizing the importance of text types and their communicative functions.

  8. ALinguisticandStylisticAnalysisoftheChineseTranslationofObama’sSpeechattheFirstMeetingoftheStrategicandEconomicDialoguebetweentheUnitedStatesandChina--ThroughtheLensofReiss’sTextTypeTheory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付端凌

    2014-01-01

    AccordingtoReiss’sTextTypetheory,akeypartofthefunctionalistapproachintranslationstudies,thesourcetextcanbeassignedtoatexttypeandtoagenre.Inmakingthisassignment,thetranslatorcandecideonthehierarchyofpostulateswhichhastobeobservedduringtarget-textproduction(Mona,2005).ThisessayintendstoconductalinguisticandstylisticanalysisoftheChinesetranslationofObama’sspeechtoexplorethegeneralapproachofthetranslatorifthereisone),bycomparingtherespectiveresultsofthetwoanalysesfromtheperspectiveofKatharinaReiss’sTextTypetheory.Indoingso,criticaljudgmentswillaccordinglybemadeastowhethersuchanapproachisjustifiableornot.

  9. Engaging basic scientists in translational research: identifying opportunities, overcoming obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hobin Jennifer A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This report is based on the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology’s symposium, “Engaging basic Scientists in Translational Research: Identifying Opportunities, Overcoming Obstacles,” held in Chevy Chase, MD, March 24–25, 2011. Meeting participants examined the benefits of engaging basic scientists in translational research, the challenges to their participation in translational research, and the roles that research institutions, funding organizations, professional societies, and scientific publishers can play to address these challenges.

  10. Translating HIV interventions into practice: community-based organizations' experiences with the diffusion of effective behavioral interventions (DEBIs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret Dolcini, M; Gandelman, Alice A; Vogan, Stacy A; Kong, Carol; Leak, Tia-Nicole; King, A J; Desantis, Linda; O'Leary, Ann

    2010-11-01

    Efficacious behavioral interventions developed to address the spread of HIV/STIs are currently being disseminated in the USA through a national diffusion program (DEBI) spearheaded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Understanding how interventions are translated to real world settings is necessary to further scientific knowledge of this process and to facilitate future translation efforts in public health. Prior studies have begun to elucidate how agencies translate behavioral interventions into practice, but further work is needed. Guided by the ADAPT framework, we examined agencies' assessment, preparation, and implementation of interventions. Our qualitative interview-based study focused on six community-based agencies in California (United States) funded to implement three group-level HIV interventions. Findings showed considerable variation in the extent to which agencies engaged in assessment and broad-based preparation and in the ease with which agencies implemented the interventions. The findings provide insight into the process that agencies undergo in the translation of effective behavioral interventions and illustrate how agencies can inform logic models that guide translation. We also identify relevant dimensions of existing models, including the ADAPT framework and Rogers's (1995, 2005) diffusion of innovations in organizations, that have value for agencies that are translating research to practice.

  11. Struggling with Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    This paper shows empirical how actors have difficulties with translating strategy texts. The paper uses four cases as different examples of what happens, and what might be difficult, when actors translate organizational texts. In order to explore this, it draws on a translation training method from...... translation theory. The study shows that for those who have produced the text, it is difficult to translate a strategy where they have to change the words so others who don’t understand the language in the text can understand it. It also shows that for those who haven’t been a part of the production, it very...... challenge the notion that actors understand all texts and that managers per se can translate a text....

  12. Sign Language to Speech Translation System Using PIC Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunasekaran. K

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in embedded system, provides a space to design and develop a sign language translator system to assist the dumb people. This paper mainly addresses to facilitate dumb person's lifestyle. Dumb people throughout the world use sign language to communicate with others, this is possible for those who has undergone special trainings. Common people also face difficult to understand the gesture language. To overcome these real time issues, this system is developed. Whenever the proposed system senses any sign language, it plays corresponding recorded voice. This reduces the communication gap between dumb and ordinary people. This proposed model consist of four modules, they are sensing unit, processing unit, voice storage unit and wireless communication unit. It is achieved by integrating flux sensor and APR9600 with PIC16F877A. The flux sensors are placed in gloves, which respond to gesture. By using suitable circuit response of the sensor is given to the microcontroller based on the response microcontroller plays the recorded voice using APR9600. A snapshot of the entire system, advantage over existing methods and simulation output of the process is discussed in this work. Thissystem offers high reliability and fast response. This method is more precise on hand movement and different languages can be installed without altering the code in PIC microcontroller.

  13. Relevance Theory in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Jun; Jiang Min

    2008-01-01

    In perspective of relevance theory, translation is regarded as communication. According to relevance theory, communication not only requires encoding, transfer and decoding processes, but also involves inference in addition. As communication, translation decision-making is also based on the human beings' inferential mental faculty. Concentrating on relevance theory, this paper tries to analyze and explain some translation phenomena in two English versions of Cai Gen Tan-My Crude Philosophy of Life.

  14. Transliteration in EST Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新然

    2016-01-01

    Firstly, this paper presents the definition of transliteration and its important position in EST translation. Secondly, in terms of the previous practice and experience in EST translation, four main transliteration techniques are concluded and analyzed. But meanwhile, there are still some negative issues and phenomena. As a result, it is worthy to make good use of the existing transliteration techniques and create more proper ones to remove the obstructions and promote the development of EST translation.

  15. Translation domains in multiferroics

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, D; Leo, N; Jungk, T.; Soergel, E.; Becker, P.; Bohaty, L.; Fiebig, M.

    2010-01-01

    Translation domains differing in the phase but not in the orientation of the corresponding order parameter are resolved in two types of multiferroics. Hexagonal (h-) YMnO$_3$ is a split-order-parameter multiferroic in which commensurate ferroelectric translation domains are resolved by piezoresponse force microscopy whereas MnWO$_4$ is a joint-order-parameter multiferroic in which incommensurate magnetic translation domains are observed by optical second harmonic generation. The pronounced ma...

  16. To Split or to Unify?—A Comparative Study on Functional Equivalence Translation Theory and Relevance Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 孔燕

    2012-01-01

      Functional equivalence, a focus in the translation studies, has been bombarded with numerous criticisms. Mean⁃while, relevance translation theory, proposed by Ernst-August Gutt, offers a united theoretical framework for translation stud⁃ies. The development of the translation theories does not rely on the appearance of a brand-new theory, but on the successful connection among various theories. To split or to unify, it is a question and it will direct the further development of transla⁃tion studies. Analyzing the similarities and differences between these two theories, the author are striving for a unity of them and striking a better way to approach translation studies.

  17. Trusted Translation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Yacine; Serhani, Mohamed Adel; Campbell, Piers; Mathew, Sujith Samuel

    Administering multilingual Web sites and applications reliably, involves interconnected and multipart tasks, where trust in the involved parties and content translation sources is paramount. Published Web sites may reflect content from databases, content management systems and other repositories to manage related Web content. But a Web site mirrored wholly or selectively onto a target language version requires streamlined trusted processes. Traditionally, files are translated and transferred via FTP, e-mail, or other communication means. Similarly, translation instructions are communicated between involved parties through verbal instruction, e-mail, and instruction files lead to a variety of inconsistencies and lack of trust in the translation process. This paper proposes a Web service approach to streamline the translation processes and an integration of trust properties in the proposed translation Web services. Web Services have been instrumental in handling problems inherent to systems integration, allowing web-based systems to converse and communicate data automatically. The OASIS Translation Web Services Technical Committee has released a standard way for Web Services to serve the translation and localization business. This article proposes a framework to centralize translation services at a reputable source providing a workflow and a mechanism to quantify service trust. An implementation of the framework is also described in the context of a localization case study.

  18. Cultural bridge: translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易菲

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers study on the relation between culture and language, language and translation, or culture and translation. Indeed, the three subjects are inseparable. It's incomprehensive to look into just two of them for a linguist. It's more useful for us to study on the relation between them, because we can extend our eyesight and searching scope and propel our translation business. Moreover, studying on them provides a rich material for other fields, such as sociology, translation, cross-cultural communication as well as give other subjects a lead to deep further.

  19. Feminist Translation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩伟

    2008-01-01

    Feminist translation studies have underg one rapid development in China in recent years.However,most of its research rema ins on the inquiry of the influence on the theoretical layer.In this thesis,I tr y to probe carefully into the translation of "Men and Women,Women and the City" done by Zhu Hong in an attempt to find out wh at is the difference that exits in the translation between the Chinese female tr anslators and the western feminist translators.

  20. Stimulating translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim;

    2015-01-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research with...... without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom.......Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research...

  1. Translating the Untranslatable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jie; WANG Ping

    2015-01-01

    Translations contribute to our knowledge and understanding in various fields of daily life, as they open us to a greater awareness of the world in which we live. The deeper we are delved into the meaning of the translation, the more questions are raised, among which, translatable/untranslatable argument strikes the most. In this article, factors including cultural vocabulary va⁃cancy and different image associations leading to temporary untranslatability are presented. Besides, the strategies to change this situation to relatively translatable are given as well.

  2. Translational Genomics of Onion: Challenges of an Enormous Nuclear Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of high throughput DNA sequencing to address important production constraints has been termed “translational genomics”. Classical breeding of onion (Allium cepa) is expensive and slow due to a long generation time and the high costs of crossing with insects. Translational genomics should r...

  3. Quantifying the Efficiency of a Translator: The Effect of Syntactical and Literal Written Translations on Language Comprehension Using the Machine Translation System FALCon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloh, Ian A.; Morton, Jillian; Jantzi, Jennifer K.; Rodriguez, Amy M.; Graham, John

    2008-01-01

    This study introduces a new method of evaluating human comprehension in the context of machine translation using a language translation program known as the FALCon (Forward Area Language Converter). The participants include 48 freshmen from the United States Military Academy enrolled in the General Psychology course, PL100. Results of this study…

  4. 考虑单元划分方式的平动挡墙主动土压力分析%Analysis of active earth pressure of considering translational unit modes for retaining wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅; 侯新平; 李琦

    2015-01-01

    考虑平移模式下刚性挡土墙墙后填土中的土拱效应,分析沿圆弧形拱的切线和割线方向划分微分单元对主动土压力分布的影响。在此基础上,采用二分法求解最优划分方式,得到了作用在挡土墙上的主动土压力公式。与沿切线和割线方法及试验监测结果的对比分析表明:本文方法得到的平移模式下刚性挡墙墙后主动土压力强度小于沿切线划分单元的计算结果,略大于沿割线划分单元的计算值。本文方法得到的刚性挡墙墙后主动土压力分布与模型试验结果吻合最好。%Considering the soil-arching effect of retaining wall backfill of rigid translational mode , the pa-per analyzed the influence of division differential unit on along the arc arch tangent and secant .On above basis,it obtained the formula for the active earth pressure against a rigid retaining wall by means of di -chotomy to the optimum dipartition mode .Through comparing the formula with the theoretical solutions of tangent direction , secant direction and the results of measured test ,the result can be goten that the active earth pressure proposed is smaller than those of tangent direction and larger than those of secant direc -tion.The active earth pressure distribution of rigid wall backfill gotten by the method match best with the physical model test .

  5. Addressing psychiatric comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, G E; McLellan, A T; O'Brien, C P; Luborsky, L

    1991-01-01

    Research studies indicate that addressing psychiatric comorbidity can improve treatment for selected groups of substance-abusing patients. However, the chances for implementing the necessary techniques on a large scale are compromised by the absence of professional input and guidance within programs. This is especially true in public programs, which treat some of the most disadvantaged, disturbed, and socially destructive individuals in the entire mental health system. One starting point for upgrading the level of knowledge and training of staff members who work in this large treatment system could be to develop a better and more authoritative information dissemination network. Such a system exists in medicine; physicians are expected to read appropriate journals and to guide their treatment decisions using the data contained in the journals. Standards of practice and methods for modifying current practice are within the tradition of reading new facts, studying old ones, and comparing treatment outcome under different conditions with what is actually being done. No such general system of information-gathering or -sharing exists, particularly in public treatment programs. One of the most flagrant examples of this "educational shortfall" can be found among those methadone programs that adamantly insist on prescribing no more than 30 to 35 mg/day for all patients, in spite of the overwhelming evidence that these dose levels generally are inadequate. In some cases, program directors are unaware of studies that have shown the relationship between dose and outcome. In other cases, they are aware of the studies but do not modify their practices accordingly. This example of inadequate dosing is offered as an example of one situation that could be improved by adherence to a system of authoritative and systematic information dissemination. Many issues in substance abuse treatment do not lend themselves to information dissemination as readily as that of methadone dosing

  6. Bilinguisme et traduction au Canada. Role sociolinguistique du traducteur. (Bilingualism and Translation in Canada. The Sociolinguistic Role of the Translator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhel, Denis

    This study concerns the problems posed by modes of interlinguistic communication, translation, and individual bilingualism, on which depend the quality of relationships between two ethnic communities belonging to a single political entity. It also addresses a frequent question about the need for translation in a bilingual country like Canada. The…

  7. Influence of Cultural Differences on Advertisement Translation and Trademark Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓玮

    2014-01-01

    Advertisement translation and trademark translation are becoming more and more prevailing and influential under the increasing development of internationalization of business. This paper attempts to analyze the influence of cultural differences on advertisement translation and trademark translation. It finds that advertisement translation and trademark translation are under the impressive influence of the differences between Chinese and Western cultures. This paper aims to stress the cultural differences in advertisement translation and trademark translation and reminds translators of the importance of noticing cultural differences and finding a proper point between foreign cultures and native cultures.

  8. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  9. Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…

  10. Translation between cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Oliveira Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article will question the pertinence of understanding interculturality in terms of translation between cultures. I shall study this hypothesis in two ways : 1 / the cosmopolitan horizon, which the idea of translation may implicate ; 2 / the critique of the premises of unique origin and homogeneity of cultures which this hypothesis makes possible.

  11. Translations and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tresguerres, Romualdo

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the role played by local translational symmetry in the context of gauge theories of fundamental interactions. Translational connections and fields are introduced, with special attention being paid to their universal coupling to other variables, as well as to their contributions to field equations and to conserved quantities.

  12. Creativity, Culture and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Siamak; Wan Yahya, Wan Roselezam; Babaee, Ruzbeh

    2014-01-01

    Some scholars (Bassnett-McGuire, Catford, Brislin) suggest that a good piece of translation should be a strict reflection of the style of the original text while some others (Gui, Newmark, Wilss) consider the original text untranslatable unless it is reproduced. Opposing views by different critics suggest that translation is still a challenging…

  13. Students' Differentiated Translation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, Michael J.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how students translate between mathematical representations is of both practical and theoretical importance. This study examined students' processes in their generation of symbolic and graphic representations of given polynomial functions. The purpose was to investigate how students perform these translations. The result of the study…

  14. Translation as (Global) Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  15. Translational Health Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogowski, Wolf; John, Jürgen; IJzerman, Maarten; Scheffler, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Translational health economics (THE) can be defined as the use of theoretical concepts and empirical methods in health economics to bridge the gap between the decision to fund and use a new health technology in clinical practice (the backend of translational medicine) and the decision to invest into

  16. Staging Ethnographic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Objectifying the cultural diversity of visual fieldmethods - and the analysis of balancing the cultural known and unknown through anthropological analysis (aided by the analytical concept translation (Edwin Ardener 1989))......Objectifying the cultural diversity of visual fieldmethods - and the analysis of balancing the cultural known and unknown through anthropological analysis (aided by the analytical concept translation (Edwin Ardener 1989))...

  17. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge;

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) ha...

  18. Culture Difference and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冬兰

    2012-01-01

    Culture difference is necessary to be paid attention to during the process of translating.Culture difference is caused by different history,regions,customs,religions and the modes of thinking.Having the awareness of the culture difference will make translation more accurate and successful.

  19. Translations toward Connected Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applebaum, Mark; Leikin, Roza

    2010-01-01

    The translation principle allows students to solve problems in different branches of mathematics and thus to develop connectedness in their mathematical knowledge. Successful application of the translation principle depends on the classroom mathematical norms for the development of discussions and the comparison of different solutions to one…

  20. Translation as Literary Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Stefano, B. Follkart

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that literary translation is intrinsically an act of literary criticism. This theory is illustrated by discussion of specific problems in translating Sartre's "La Nausee" and Leonard Forest's "Le pays de la Sagouine," especially the use of verb tense. (MSE)

  1. Address Points, Addressing, Published in 2008, Taylor County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as 'Addressing'. Data by this publisher are often...

  2. The Teaching of Old English in Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuso, Joseph F.

    Advantage should be taken of the increased interest in teaching Old English literature, in translation, at the college and high school levels. The study of "Beowulf" and other Old English literature has proved to be a stimulating experience for students at the United States Air Force Academy and at Georgia College. At the academy, the…

  3. Theory of Test Translation Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…

  4. Translation skills of Business English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu; Lu; He; Yan-ni

    2014-01-01

    With the deepening of economic globalization,business English plays an increasingly vital role.In order to better translate business English,the translator has to adopt some important translation techniques.Thus,emphasis is placed on business English translation skills,such as omission,supplement and word conversion,etc,which provides some practical advice to the translation of business English.

  5. Translation skills of Business English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Lu; He Yan-ni

    2014-01-01

    With the deepening of economic globalization, business English plays an increasingly vital role. In order to better translate business English, the translator has to adopt some important translation techniques. Thus, emphasis is placed on business English translation skills, such as omission, supplement and word conversion, etc, which provides some practical advice to the translation of business English.

  6. On the Tasks of Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓菊

    2012-01-01

      Many linguists, translators, and theorists have been arguing over the approaches on translation. While putting these into use a translator may experience many pleasure and problems as well. The purpose of this article is to discuss the tasks of translation and the way of choosing the proper translation approaches according to the author’s own experience of practice.

  7. Exploring Translations Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pym

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is a translation of the chapter “Descriptions – the intellectual background” serving as a complement to the chapter 5 of the book titled Exploring Translations Studies (2010 by Anthony Pym. The chapter outlines the relationship between Russian Formalism and some of the strands of the Translation Studies which emerged during the 19th century. It brings to the fore works done in Prague (Prague Circle, Bratislava, Leipzig, Holland and Flanders focusing specially on the Tel-Aviv School of Itamar-Even and Gideon Toury, the main forerunners of the Descriptive Translation Studies (DTS. By analyzing this academic context, not only it describes the type of approaches those theorists suggested, but it also discusses the ups and downs of such paradigms problematizing concepts like “translation shifts”, “assumed translations” and “norms”. This translation aims at presenting and sharing Pym’s work as clearly and fluid as the original is, so that it serves as both a historical reference and an introductory text to Translation Studies.

  8. Cultural Considerations in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嫔荣

    2009-01-01

    Language is the expression of human communication through which knowledge, belief, and behavior can be experi-enced, explained, and shared. It influences the way the speakers perceive the world. But as it has been long taken for granted, translation deals only with language. Cultural perspective, however, has never been brought into discussion. This paper first analyses the definitions of translation and culture, and then discusses why we should take culture into consideration and in the end, two translating strategies:domestication and foreignization are introduced.

  9. Cultural Considerations in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嫔荣

    2009-01-01

    Language is the expression of human communication through which knowledge, belief, and behavior can be experi- enced, explained, and shared. It influences the way the speakers perceive the world. But as it has been long taken for granted, translation deals only with language. Cultural perspective, however, has never been brought into discussion. This paper first analyses the definitions of translation and culture, and then discusses why we should take culture into consideration and in the end, two translating strategies: domestication and foreignization are introduced.

  10. Translation, Cultural Translation and the Hegemonic English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Horak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This brief chapter problematizes the hegemonic position of the English language in Cultural Studies, which, in the author's view, can be understood as a moment that stands against a true internationalisation of the project. Following an argu-ment referring to the necessary 'translation' process (here seen as 're-articulation', 'transcoding' or 'transculturation' Stuart Hall has put forward almost two decades ago, the essay, firstly, turns to the notion of 'linguistic translations', and deals, secondly, with what has been coined 'cultural translation'. Discussing approaches developed by Walter Benjamin, Umberto Eco and Homi Bhabha, the complex relationship between the two terms is being investigated. Finally, in a modest attempt to throw some light on this hegemonic structure, central aspects of the output of three important journals (European Journal of Cultural Studies, International Journal of Cultural Studies, Cultural Studies, i. e. an analysis of the linguistic and institutional backgrounds of the authors of the ten most-read and most-cited essays, are presented. Based on these findings I argue that it is not simply the addition of the discursive field (language to the academic space (institution that defines the mecha-nism of exclusion and inclusion. Rather, it is the articulation of both moments, i.e. that of language and that of the institution, which - in various contexts (but in their own very definite ways - can help to develop that structure which at present is still hindering a further, more profound internationalisation of the project that is Cultural Studies.

  11. Translation Strategies of English Metaphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令会

    2010-01-01

    Metaphor is one of the important and forceful figures of speech in English. In practice of translating English metaphors into Chinese, some approaches are available: literal translation, changing metaphor into sim/h, conversion, liberal translation and complement.

  12. Perceived radial translation during centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Correia Grácio, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Linear acceleration generally gives rise to translation perception. Centripetal acceleration during centrifugation, however, has never been reported giving rise to a radial, inward translation perception. OBJECTIVE: To study whether centrifugation can induce a radial translation percepti

  13. Translation and Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Bezerra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the differences betweenscientific and fictional translations, and focus on the second.The fictional translation works with meanings, opens itselfto the plurissignification in the purpose to create a similarity of the dissimilarity; in this process, the translator does nottranslate a language, but what a creative individuality makeswith a language. At last there is an approach to the knowledgeand skills necessaries to a translator of literature: theknowledge of the theories of the literature and of thetranslation, the capacity to preserve the national color ofthe original text and at the same time to respect the arrivallanguage, and the sensibility to his national languagevariations present in the daily and in the literary spheres.

  14. English Translation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莹

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the necessity of adopting interactive approach in college English teaching and proposes that teachers are supposed to mobilize students' intrinsic motivation when following proper translation teaching procedures.

  15. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied...... language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross...

  16. Structural Coupling and Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    society is described as networks binding bits and pieces together. Humans are also themselves networks of skin, bones, enzymes, cells etc. What homogenize the many heterogeneous entities in networks are processes of translations (Schiølin 2010). Translation is never neutral, and is not meant like from...... and translations the social medium of Twitter opens for. The second, but most prioritized, aim of the paper is to present, compare and discuss the two theories: How do they understand what becomes visible in their different optics, which observations become possible in the one or the other – and is it possible...... to compare the semantics of their concepts. The paper first provides an analysis and discussion of language as the mechanism of structural coupling between the levels of psychic and social systems. Then the article provides an analysis and discussion of translation as a transformation process between actors...

  17. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven; Dam, Helle Vrønning

    2017-01-01

    Translation, interpreting and lexicography represent three separate areas of human activity, each of them with its own theories, models and methods and, hence, with its own disciplinary underpinnings. At the same time, all three disciplines are characterized by a marked interdisciplinary dimension...... in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...... disciplines frequently come into touch with each other. This chapter discusses and explores some of the basic aspects of this interrelationship, focusing on the (potential) contribution of lexicography to translation and interpreting and on explaining the basic concepts and methods of the former discipline...

  18. Lost in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Wiebke; Reusswig, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    Lost in Translation? Introducing Planetary Boundaries into Social Systems. Fritz Reusswig, Wiebke Lass Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries by interdisciplinary science efforts is a challenging task—and a risky one, as the 1972 Limits to Growth publication has shown. Even if we may be assured that scientific understanding of underlying processes of the Earth system has significantly improved since then, the challenge of translating these findings into the social systems of the planet remains crucial for any kind of action, and in many respects far more challenging. We would like to conceptualize what could also be termed a problem of coupling social and natural systems as a nested set of social translation processes, well aware of the limited applicability of the language-related translation metaphor. Societies must, first, perceive these boundaries, and they have to understand their relevance. This includes, among many other things, the organization of transdisciplinary scientific cooperation. They will then have to translate this understood perception into possible actions, i.e. strategies for different local bodies, actors, and institutional settings. This implies a lot of 'internal' translation processes, e.g. from the scientific subsystem to the mass media, the political and the economic subsystem. And it implies to develop subsystem-specific schemes of evaluation for these alternatives, e.g. convincing narratives, cost-benefit analyses, or ethical legitimacy considerations. And, finally, societies do have to translate chosen action alternatives into monitoring and evaluation schemes, e.g. for agricultural production or renewable energies. This process includes the continuation of observing and re-analyzing the planetary boundary concept itself, as a re-adjustment of these boundaries in the light of new scientific insights cannot be excluded. Taken all together, societies may well

  19. Strategies of English Translation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Yu; WANG; Jin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract:Translation is an independent discipline(Jean Delisle,1988).With the deepening of translation studies,translation teaching aroused widespread concern among translation academia,and gradually separated from language teaching,being a subj ect with its own obj ectives and a special position.This paper,firstly introduces the obj ectives and content of translation teaching,then points out several common problems in translation teaching.Finally,associated with the basic principles of translation teaching,it analyzes the strategies of English translation teaching.

  20. Lost in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askehave, Inger; Zethsen, Karen Korning

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with an aspect of patient information that differs somewhat from the traditional scope of this journal; namely the linguistic and translational aspects of Patient Information Leaflets (PILs). During the past decade much work has been dedicated to making the English PILs...... as informative and lay-friendly as possible. However, much of the good work is ruined when the PIL is translated. Why is this so and what can be done about it?...

  1. Stylistic Adaptation in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芳

    2011-01-01

    <正>A translation criteria universally accepted is faithfulness, which can be examined from different dimensions of content, form and style.Among these three dimensions,faithfulness in content and form is easier to be noted,while the faithfulness in style is harder to judge.This paper will mainly focus on the study of stylistic features for the purpose of language providing methods to achieve stylistic adaptation in translation.

  2. Translation for language purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the background, subjects, assumptions, procedure, and preliminary results of a small-scale experimental study of L2 translation (Danish into English) and picture verbalization in L2 (English).......The paper describes the background, subjects, assumptions, procedure, and preliminary results of a small-scale experimental study of L2 translation (Danish into English) and picture verbalization in L2 (English)....

  3. Translation dictionaries triangulation

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Probabilistic Translation Dictionaries (PTD) are translation resources that can be obtained automatically from parallel corpora. Although this process is simple, it requires the existence of a parallel corpora for the involved languages. Minoritized languages have a limited amount of available resources. For example, while they can have a few parallel corpora, the number of parallel language-pairs uses to be restricted. We defend that if a minoritized language A has a parallel corpus with a l...

  4. The Translation Of Colors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰

    2012-01-01

    Different nations have different or even opposite perception of color, which results in non-equivalence of color words in mutual translation between Chinese and English. This paper is to discuss non-equivalence of color words between Chinese and English on the two aspects and emphasizes the importance of transmitting cultural message accurately in the mutual translation between Chinese and English. Studying the cultural connotations of the words is of great importance for successful communication.

  5. The earliest translations of Emily Dickinson's poetry in Slovene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Petrič

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the issue of the earliest  translations of Dickinson's poetry in Slovene. Only 6 of the total number of 19 poems, translated into Slovene by Vatro Grill, were published  in his 1979 memoir Med dvema svetovoma (Between Two Worlds. The other 13 poems included in Grill's manuscripts were never published.  In the first  part  of her article,  the author  briefly  surveys  the translations of Dickinson's poetry into Slovene by Mart  Ogen, Aleš  Debeljak, Ivo Svetina and Miklavž Komelj. In the second part, the focus is on_Grill's translation of two poems by Emily Dickinson whereby the translator's ability to capture the meaning of Dickinson's verse is measured against Mart Ogen's translation of the same poems.

  6. When Translation Becomes a Sign of the Last Days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabih, Joshua

    have introduced new religious Christian denominations into the Arab world. In these translations, the issue of the relationship between religion and eschatology is seen to be inscribed within the very conception of translation itself. This paper shall look into Jehovah’s Witnesses’ Arabic Bible...... Translation New World translation of the Holy Scriptures, and address how this messianic evangelical Christian group re-constructs the relationship of religion –universality of one truth and its embodiment in one community of faith – and translation of the Bible as a sign of the last days in harmony...... with with the Gospel of Matthew 24:14 "And this good news of the Kingdom will be preached in all the inhabited earth for a witness to all the nations, and then the end will come." I shall also argue that translating the Bible according to Jehovah’s Witnesses consists of de-culturising the biblical message in order...

  7. CDC's Health Equity Resource Toolkit: disseminating guidance for state practitioners to address obesity disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Gayle Holmes; James, Stephen D; Hawley, Lisa; Corrigan, Bethany; Kramer, Rachel E; Overton, Samantha N; Farris, Rosanne P; Wasilewski, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been on the rise in the United States over the past three decades, and is high. In addition to population-wide trends, it is clear that obesity affects some groups more than others and can be associated with age, income, education, gender, race and ethnicity, and geographic region. To reverse the obesity epidemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) promotes evidence-based and practice-informed strategies to address nutrition and physical activity environments and behaviors. These public health strategies require translation into actionable approaches that can be implemented by state and local entities to address disparities. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention used findings from an expert panel meeting to guide the development and dissemination of the Health Equity Resource Toolkit for State Practitioners Addressing Obesity Disparities (available at http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/health_equity/toolkit.html). The Toolkit helps public health practitioners take a systematic approach to program planning using a health equity lens. The Toolkit provides a six-step process for planning, implementing, and evaluating strategies to address obesity disparities. Each section contains (a) a basic description of the steps of the process and suggested evidence-informed actions to help address obesity disparities, (b) practical tools for carrying out activities to help reduce obesity disparities, and (c) a "real-world" case study of a successful state-level effort to address obesity with a focus on health equity that is particularly relevant to the content in that section. Hyperlinks to additional resources are included throughout.

  8. CDC’s Health Equity Resource Toolkit: Disseminating Guidance for State Practitioners to Address Obesity Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Gayle Holmes; James, Stephen D.; Hawley, Lisa; Corrigan, Bethany; Kramer, Rachel E.; Overton, Samantha N.; Farris, Rosanne P.; Wasilewski, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been on the rise in the United States over the past three decades, and is high. In addition to population-wide trends, it is clear that obesity affects some groups more than others and can be associated with age, income, education, gender, race and ethnicity, and geographic region. To reverse the obesity epidemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) promotes evidence-based and practice-informed strategies to address nutrition and physical activity environments and behaviors. These public health strategies require translation into actionable approaches that can be implemented by state and local entities to address disparities. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention used findings from an expert panel meeting to guide the development and dissemination of the Health Equity Resource Toolkit for State Practitioners Addressing Obesity Disparities (available at http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/health_equity/toolkit.html). The Toolkit helps public health practitioners take a systematic approach to program planning using a health equity lens. The Toolkit provides a six-step process for planning, implementing, and evaluating strategies to address obesity disparities. Each section contains (a) a basic description of the steps of the process and suggested evidence-informed actions to help address obesity disparities, (b) practical tools for carrying out activities to help reduce obesity disparities, and (c) a “real-world” case study of a successful state-level effort to address obesity with a focus on health equity that is particularly relevant to the content in that section. Hyperlinks to additional resources are included throughout. PMID:24962967

  9. Translation Studies: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina García de Toro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly outlines the main schools and approaches that make up the current landscape of Translation Studies. The purpose of this paper is to offer an introduction to translation theory for those who are beginning their studies in this field or whose knowledge of Translation Studies is tangential. The article starts with a few preliminary matters, such as the question of what Translation Studies is and how the discipline has been mapped out. Then it moves on to examine the theoretical considerations that have been developed since the second half of the 20th century, with special attention being paid to the most recent decades. In this section, which is devoted to theoretical considerations, I will review some of the fundamental issues from a theories of equivalence and comparisons between languages; b functionalist theories; c discursive approaches; d polysystem theory, descriptive studies and norms; e cultural studies; f philosophical theories; g latest contributions to the field of Translation Studies; and h interdisciplinary and integrating approaches. Keywords: translation studies, contemporary theories, linguistic approaches, descriptive studies, cultural studies.

  10. Resolution of Unidentified Words in Machine Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a mechanism of resolving unidentified lexical units in text-based machine translation (TBMT). In machine translation system it is unlikely to have a complete MT lexicon and hence there is a need of a mechanism to handle the problem of unidentified words. These unknown words could be abbreviations, names, acronyms and newly introduced terms. We have proposed an algorithm for the resolution of the unidentified words. This algorithm takes discourse unit (primitive discourse) as a unit of analysis and provides real time updates to the lexicon. We have manually applied the algorithm to news paper fragments. Along with anaphora and cataphora1 resolution, many unknown words especially names and abbreviations were updated to the lexicon. Moreover flowchart of the proposed algorithm is also presented.

  11. Anonymous-address-resolution model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-jia SONG; Zhen-zhou JI

    2016-01-01

    Address-resolution protocol (ARP) is an important protocol of data link layers that aims to obtain the corresponding relationship between Internet Protocol (IP) and Media Access Control (MAC) addresses. Traditional ARPs (address-resolution and neighbor-discovery protocols) do not consider the existence of malicious nodes, which reveals destination addresses in the resolution process. Thus, these traditional protocols allow malicious nodes to easily carry out attacks, such as man-in-the-middle attack and denial-of-service attack. To overcome these weaknesses, we propose an anonymous-address-resolution (AS-AR) protocol. AS-AR does not publicize the destination address in the address-resolution process and hides the IP and MAC addresses of the source node. The malicious node cannot obtain the addresses of the destination and the node which initiates the address resolution; thus, it cannot attack. Analyses and experiments show that AS-AR has a higher security level than existing security methods, such as secure-neighbor discovery.

  12. The Impact of Translators' Academic Experience on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge and professional conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' academic experience on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study", a sample of 100 male and…

  13. The Effect of Translators' Emotional Intelligence on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge, professional and psychological conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' Emotional Intelligence on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study," a sample of…

  14. Translation and Language Teaching: Translation as a useful teaching Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Randaccio, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Both language teaching experts and translation theorists have proposed detailed analyses of the advantages and disadvantages of using translation in language teaching. However, in order to make translation a useful teaching resource, they have provided new and challenging insights into the nature of translation itself. Some of the principles among these insights will be outlined and discussed in this paper.

  15. CONTENT-ADDRESSABLE MEMORY SYSTEMS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utility of content -addressable memories (CAM’s) within a general purpose computing system is investigated. Word cells within CAM may be...addressed by the character of all or a part of cell contents . Multimembered sets of word cells may be addressed simultaneously. The distributed logical...capabilities of CAM are extended to allow simultaneous transformation of multimembered sets and to allow communication between neighboring word cells. A

  16. Proper Nouns in Translation: Should They Be Translated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Zarei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The translation of proper nouns is not as easy as that of other parts of speech as this is more challenging for certain reasons. The present article presents a descriptive study of proper nouns in translation, scrutinizing the challenges and exploring the solutions. Building on some scholars’ approach and suggestions from other researchers, the article clarifies the nature and problems of proper nouns in translation; it seeks to answer three questions: 1 Should proper nouns be translated? 2 What are the problems on the way of translation of the proper nouns? 3 How can the translator overcome such problems? Moreover, strategies applied by the researchers to make their translation easier are also discussed. It follows that translating proper nouns is not simple and there is little flexibility about translating proper nouns. Keywords: proper nouns, translation, strategies

  17. Translating Signs, Producing Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Neilson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper moves between two streets: Liverpool Road in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield and Via Sarpi in the Italian city of Milan. What connects these streets is that both have become important sites for businesses in the Chinese diaspora. Moreover, both are streets on which locals have expressed desires for Chinese signs to be translated into the national lingua franca. The paper argues that the cultural politics inherent in this demand for translation cannot be fully understood in the context of national debates about diversity and integration. It is also necessary to consider the emergence of the official Chinese Putonghua as global language, which competes with English but also colonizes dialects and minority languages. In the case of these dual language signs, the space between languages can neither be reduced to a contact zone of minority and majority cultures nor celebrated as a ‘third space’ where the power relations implied by such differences are subverted. At stake is rather a space characterised by what Naoki Sakai calls the schema of co-figuration, which allows the representation of translation as the passage between two equivalents that resemble each other and thus makes possible their determination as conceptually different and comparable. Drawing on arguments about translation and citizenship, the paper critically interrogates the ethos of interchangeability implied by this regime of translation. A closing argument is made for a vision of the common that implies neither civilisational harmony nor the translation of all values into a general equivalent. Primary sources include government reports, internet texts and media stories. These are analyzed using techniques of discourse analysis and interpreted with the help of secondary literature concerning globalisation, language and migration. The disciplinary matrix cuts and mixes between cultural studies, translation studies, citizenship studies, globalization studies and

  18. Reclaiming unused IPv4 addresses

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information).   Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...

  19. 2015 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  20. Lost in translation: what is limiting cardiomyoplasty and can tissue engineering help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, David; Dudley, Samuel C

    2009-09-01

    Heart failure accounts for more deaths in the United States than any other detrimental human pathology. Recently, repairing the heart after seemingly irreversible injury leading to heart failure appears to have come within reach. Cellular cardiomyoplasty, transplanting viable cell alternatives into the diseased myocardium, has emerged as a promising possible solution. Translating this approach from the laboratory to the clinic, however, has been met with several challenges, leaving many questions unanswered. This review assesses the state of investigation of several progenitor cell sources, including induced pluripotent stem cells, embryonic stem cells, bone marrow stem cells, adipose-derived adult stem cells, amniotic fluid stem cells, skeletal muscle progenitors, induced pluripotent stem cells and cardiac progenitors. Several current roadblocks to maximum success are discussed. These include understanding the need for cardiomyocyte differentiation, appreciating the role of paracrine factors, and addressing the low engraftment rates using current techniques. Tissue engineering strategies to address these obstacles and to help maximize cellular cardiomyoplasty success are reviewed.

  1. Translation as Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Gilberthorpe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation of literature is generally understood as a copy of an original. As such, it finds itself compared negatively to the original; judged and found lacking either the style or meaning of the original text it was seeking to translate. However, this paper will explore the relationship between the text and its translation through the work of Jacques Derrida and his neologisms such as the supplement and différance in addition to the work of Walter Benjamin. Through understanding the translation as a supplement, this paper will explore whether the original text was complete in and of itself. Through this and Derrida’s understanding of the play of language, I argue that translation can be understood as the palingenesis of literature, as it is only through translation that literature is reborn and lives on. Moreover, this paper will conclude with an examination of Blanchot’s distinction between the Book and the book in order to argue that literature is in itself a form of translation. Thus, the relationship between translation and literature is one of a cycle of genesis and palingenesis, as translation finds itself at both the beginning and continual rebirth of literature. La traduzione letteraria viene generalmente intesa come la copia di un originale. In quanto tale essa viene considerata negativamente in rapporto a quest’ultimo, giudicata manchevole quanto a stile o contenuto rispetto al testo originale che cerca di tradurre. Questo articolo intende esaminare la relazione tra il testo e la sua traduzione attraverso l’opera di Jacques Derrida e i suoi neologismi, come supplemento e différance, e sulla scorta degli studi di Walter Benjamin. Considerando la traduzione come un supplemento, l’articolo indaga se l’originale sia completo in e di per se stesso. Attraverso questo concetto e la prospettiva di Derrida sul gioco del linguaggio, la tesi sostenuta è che la traduzione possa essere considerata come palingenesi della

  2. Advertisement Translation under Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严妙

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of advertisement translation under skopos theory.It is explained that the nature of advertisement translation under skopos theory is reconstructing the information of the source text to persuade target audience. Three translation strategies are put forward in translating advertisements.

  3. Advertisement Translation under Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严妙

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of advertisement translation under skopos theory.It is explained that the nature of advertisement translation under skopos theory is reconstructing the information of the source text to persuade target audience.Three translation strategies are put forward in translating advertisements.

  4. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  5. Is relevance theory applicable to proverbs’ translation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegulescu Anca-Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation, viewed as a multi-faceted task, can arise different types of difficulties. Proverbs have been considered special patterns, displaying sometimes hidden meanings or suggesting morals issuing from a particular example. These paremic units - the proverbs - conveyed feelings, states of mind, behaviours or ‘metaphorical descriptions of certain situations’(Krikmann. Starting from Savory’s list of pair-wise contradictory translation principles, I intend to prove that the link between different ‘forms’ and their ‘contents’ lies in the principle of relevance when referring to proverbs. Even if relevance theory is not a theory of linguistic structure - and many translation problems imply structural mismatches - relevance theory offers insights about contextual information. Proverbs are seen as texts in themselves. My analysis will target the ethnofields of ‘to buy’ and ‘to sell’ in English proverbs and their Romanian corresponding versions.

  6. Explorations of Corpus Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琳琳

    2014-01-01

    Corpus-based translation studies belong to a new translation study paradigm which rose at the beginning of 1990s. The rise of corpus brings the update of research tools and research methods, and lead to the emerging of Corpus Translation Stud-ies. It is necessary to introduce the theory basis of Translational English Corpus and its application in the translation, especially in the science and technology translation. Besides, it makes an analysis and discussion about the potential of Corpus Translation Stud-ies.

  7. Yan Fu's Thoughts of Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩赵东

    2009-01-01

    Yan Fu was famous translator in Chinese history, and proposed three standards of translation. The theory made great contribution to Chinese translation history. However, with the development of society at present, Yah Fu's theory had been out of date. More and more translators and scholars pay more attention on linguistics to translate appropriately nowadays. It is the aim to analysis this problem in the article and introduces more detailed knowledge to make flourish translation, so that it becomes true that Chinese translation develop step by step.

  8. Translation and Transtextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapodi Zsuzsa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Umberto Eco’s novel The Name of the Rose as a postmodern literary work is extensively based on transtextuality. There are series of quotations from the Bible, Petrus Abelardus, St. Bernard, Petrarch, Conan Doyle, Agatha Christie, Jorge L. Borges, Nietzsche, and other classic authors interwoven into the novel’s narrative. The text is a result of multiple translations, a truly intercultural adventure: Adso, a 14th-century German monk from the Melk monastery provides a Northern Italian travel experience in Latin language, this memoir is translated by the publishing narrator into the Italian language of the 20th century. The characters of the story come from different areas of Europe, as there are monks from England, Spain, Norway, Germany, and other countries. This paper sheds light on the problems that occurred during the novel’s translation.

  9. Engineering in translational medicine

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a broad area of engineering research in translational medicine. Leaders in academic institutions around the world contributed focused chapters on a broad array of topics such as: cell and tissue engineering (6 chapters), genetic and protein engineering (10 chapters), nanoengineering (10 chapters), biomedical instrumentation (4 chapters), and theranostics and other novel approaches (4 chapters). Each chapter is a stand-alone review that summarizes the state-of-the-art of the specific research area. Engineering in Translational Medicine gives readers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of a broad array of related research areas, making this an excellent reference book for scientists and students both new to engineering/translational medicine and currently working in this area.

  10. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  11. CHARACTERISTICS OF ZHANGPEIJI'S PROSE TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽丽

    2015-01-01

    Zhang Peiji has worked hard for over sixty years in the translation fields,which makes his prose translation studied by a lot of scholars. His translation that best shows his translation thought and aesthetic thought is natural, expressive and skilfuly representative of the original's style. Based on Nida's theory of functional equivalence, the thesis makes an analysis of the transformation in Zhang Peiji's prose translation.

  12. Translating VDM to Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    . Traditionally, theorem provers are used to prove that specifications are correct but this process is highly dependent on expert users. Alternatively, model finding has proved to be useful for validation of specifications. The Alloy Analyzer is an automated model finder for checking and visualising Alloy...... specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  13. Translating a wicked problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tietjen, Anne; Jørgensen, Gertrud

    2016-01-01

    In a time of increasing globalisation and urbanisation, shrinking peripheral rural areas have become a truly wicked planning problem in many European countries. Although a problem can be easily perceived and measured by various indicators, the precise definition of the problem is problematic. Based......, place-based and project-oriented process directed at concrete physical outcomes. We frame strategic planning as a translation process where the interaction between human and non-human actors translates a unique, complex and contested situation into an innovated situation. We find that local physical...

  14. Addressing Illegal Immigrants Inside the United States: A Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    20 Ibid., 1–44. 21 Roberto Suro , “Attitudes toward Immigrants and Immigration Policy: Surveys among Latinos in the U.S. and in Mexico,” Pew...February 16, 2007. Suro , Roberto. “Attitudes toward Immigrants and Immigration Policy: Surveys among Latinos in the U.S. and in Mexico.” Pew Hispanic

  15. Chinese Meter in Translating English Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温荣芬

    2009-01-01

    <正>Translation is not easy and poetry translation is troublesome,while meter poetry translation is the most difficult. This paper will focus on the meter in translating English poetry into Chinese. From the review of translation history to

  16. Translation as Adaptation for Language Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laviosa Sara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores, within an ecological perspective on language learning (cf. van Lier 2004, the valuable role that translation as adaptation can play in mediating and making sense of cross-cultural experiences in the multilingual language classroom. The aim is to develop a multilingual pedagogy that includes translation as adaptation as an integral part of the language curriculum in order to foster translingual and transcultural competence, this being the goal of foreign language education in the 21st century (cf. MLA 2007:2. The first part of the paper introduces the theoretical framework that conceptualises translation as being closely related to adaptation. It then analyses salient scenes from Gianni Amelio’s bilingual drama La stella che non c'è/The Missing Star/L'Étoile Imaginaire (2006 filmed in Italy and China and screened in competition as part of the 2006 Venice Film Festival. Moving on from research to pedagogic practice, the final part of the paper outlines a teaching unit that is based on the film and is aimed at undergraduate L1 Chinese learners of Italian and L1 Italian learners of Chinese. The objective of the pedagogic unit is to raise awareness of the transformative power enshrined in linguistic and cultural exchanges mediated by audio-visual translation as an eminent example of adaptation.

  17. Synonymy and translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Franciska; Appelo, Lisette

    1987-01-01

    This paper is meant to give some insight into the interaction between on the one hand theoretical concepts in the field of formal semantics, and on the other hand linguistic research directed towards an application, more specifically, the research in the machine translation project Rosetta. The cent

  18. Grammatical Gender in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordag, Denisa; Pechmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments native speakers of Czech translated bare nouns and gender-marked adjective + noun phrases into German, their second language (L2). In Experiments 1-3 we explored the so-called gender interference effect from first language (L1) as observed in previous picture naming studies (naming latencies were longer when the L1 noun and…

  19. Translational research in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Madhury; Farma, Jeffrey M; Hsu, Cary

    2013-10-01

    Recent breakthroughs in the fundamental understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of melanoma have culminated in new therapies with unquestionable efficacy. Immunotherapy and targeted therapy strategies have completely transformed the contemporary management of advanced melanoma. The translational research behind these developments is discussed, with an emphasis on immune checkpoint blockade and inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.

  20. Translation and Transliteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakaraj, S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Makes a case for using transliteration in order to avoid wholesale translation of new words from the natural sciences and technology into Indian languages. Proposes introduction of the Roman alphabet (in a modified form), so that the Indian languages can accommodate new loans within their own phonetic systems without any substantial changes. (SR)

  1. Not Lost in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Translation is all about one thing and one thing only, and that’s communication. Since people of different nationalities first came into contact with each other, the need to make them- selves understood was at the top of their agenda.

  2. World Federation of Vascular Societies: presidential address

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Henrik Hegaard

    2010-01-01

    The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally imp...... throughout the world. In addition, for introduction of new treatments, training issues and dissemination of science a global organisation like the WFVS is needed.......The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally....... Similar, in order to be able to train with relevant case mix and numbers, and in order always to have both complex open and endovascular skills on call 24 hours per day, 365 days a year, centralisation into larger units is necessary. The WFVS is important simply looking at the huge demographic differences...

  3. Neural Networks Classifier for Data Selection in Statistical Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Peris, Álvaro; Chinea-Rios, Mara; Casacuberta, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We address the data selection problem in statistical machine translation (SMT) as a classification task. The new data selection method is based on a neural network classifier. We present a new method description and empirical results proving that our data selection method provides better translation quality, compared to a state-of-the-art method (i.e., Cross entropy). Moreover, the empirical results reported are coherent across different language pairs.

  4. Fundamentals of Machine Learning for Neural Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Kelleher, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a short introduction to neural networks and how they are used for machine translation and concludes with some discussion on the current research challenges being addressed by neural machine translation (NMT) research. The primary goal of this paper is to give a no-tears introduction to NMT to readers that do not have a computer science or mathematical background. The secondary goal is to provide the reader with a deep enough understanding of NMT that they can appreciate th...

  5. On Collocations and Their Interaction with Parsing and Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Seretan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of automatically processing collocations—a subclass of multi-word expressions characterized by a high degree of morphosyntactic flexibility—in the context of two major applications, namely, syntactic parsing and machine translation. We show that parsing and collocation identification are processes that are interrelated and that benefit from each other, inasmuch as syntactic information is crucial for acquiring collocations from corpora and, vice versa, collocational information can be used to improve parsing performance. Similarly, we focus on the interrelation between collocations and machine translation, highlighting the use of translation information for multilingual collocation identification, as well as the use of collocational knowledge for improving translation. We give a panorama of the existing relevant work, and we parallel the literature surveys with our own experiments involving a symbolic parser and a rule-based translation system. The results show a significant improvement over approaches in which the corresponding tasks are decoupled.

  6. Machine Translation Based on Translation Corresponding Tree Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A representation schema called translation corresponding tree (TCT) has been applied to a Portuguese to Chinese example-based machine translation system. The translation examples are annotated by the representation of the TCT structure. Each TCT describes not only the syntactic structure of the source sentence (i.e., Portuguese in our system) but also the translation correspondences (i.e., Chinese translation). In addition, the TCT nodes describe the corresponding linguistic relationships between the source and target languages. The translation examples can be effectively represented with this annotation schema and organized in the bilingual knowledge database or example base. In the real machine translation process, the target language is synthesized with higher quality by referring to the TCT translation information.

  7. On Translatability of Metaphors and Relevant Translating Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱采真; 张文普

    2012-01-01

    Metaphor is one of the most poetic forms of language.It is widely used in daily life and good translation of it is of great significance.In spite of the cultural and lingual hindrance,to some extent,good translation of metaphors can be achieved because of the similarities between two cultures and the overlaps of two languages.This paper explores translatability of metaphores from cultural and linguistic perspectives as well as specific techniques in terms of metaphor translation.

  8. A Stylistic Study of Translator Based on Western Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the historic development of the stylistic study of translator in light of western translation theory,and analyzes its features on each phase and current emphasis of research,by which knowledge of the development of western theory and translators' style can be shown.After that,we can research its problems existing in the stylistic study of translator based on western theory so than we can provide a panoramic analysis in thisfield.

  9. Lost in Translation: Examining Translation Errors Associated with Mathematical Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Stiff, Lee V.; Bosse, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Translation errors and conceptual misunderstandings made by students translating among graphical, tabular, and symbolic representations of linear functions were examined. The study situated student errors in the context of the "Translation-Verification Model" developed specifically for the purpose of explaining student behavior during the process…

  10. A Study on Translation Strategies in Tourist Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yuan-yuan

    2014-01-01

    Tourist materials play a significant role in publicizing China’s tourism industry in the world. In the current English translation of Chinese tourist materials, some problems exist because of differences in Chinese and English style and expression characteristics. This paper is intended to conduct a preliminary study on the tourist translation and put forward some useful transla-tion strategies.

  11. Translation in Language Teaching: Insights from Professional Translator Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreres, Angeles; Noriega-Sanchez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The past three decades have seen vast changes in attitudes towards translation, both as an academic discipline and as a profession. The insights we have gained in recent years, in particular in the area of professional translator training, call for a reassessment of the role of translation in language teaching. Drawing on research and practices in…

  12. Reengineering Biomedical Translational Research with Engineering Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Mary E; Nayak, Rahul Uday

    2015-08-01

    It is widely accepted that translational research practitioners need to acquire special skills and knowledge that will enable them to anticipate, analyze, and manage a range of ethical issues. While there is a small but growing literature that addresses the ethics of translational research, there is a dearth of scholarship regarding how this might apply to engineers. In this paper we examine engineers as key translators and argue that they are well positioned to ask transformative ethical questions. Asking engineers to both broaden and deepen their consideration of ethics in their work, however, requires a shift in the way ethics is often portrayed and perceived in science and engineering communities. Rather than interpreting ethics as a roadblock to the success of translational research, we suggest that engineers should be encouraged to ask questions about the socio-ethical dimensions of their work. This requires expanding the conceptual framework of engineering beyond its traditional focus on "how" and "what" questions to also include "why" and "who" questions to facilitate the gathering of normative, socially-situated information. Empowering engineers to ask "why" and "who" questions should spur the development of technologies and practices that contribute to improving health outcomes.

  13. On Literal Translation of English Idioms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linli

    2009-01-01

    There are six translation tactics in translating English idioms into Chinese: literal translation, compensatory translation, free translation, explanational translation, borrowing, integrated approach. Each tactic should be reasonably employed in the process of translating, so as to keep the flavor of the original English idioms as well as to…

  14. Translating a wicked problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tietjen, Anne; Jørgensen, Gertrud

    2016-01-01

    In a time of increasing globalisation and urbanisation, shrinking peripheral rural areas have become a truly wicked planning problem in many European countries. Although a problem can be easily perceived and measured by various indicators, the precise definition of the problem is problematic. Based...... on the case of a Danish planning process which was carried out in collaboration with a charitable trust, this paper discusses an emerging strategic planning approach at the municipal level. We use the concept of wicked problems, strategic planning theory and Actor-Network-Theory to study a collaborative......, place-based and project-oriented process directed at concrete physical outcomes. We frame strategic planning as a translation process where the interaction between human and non-human actors translates a unique, complex and contested situation into an innovated situation. We find that local physical...

  15. The mechanism of translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Translation of the genetic code on the ribosome into protein is a process of extraordinary complexity, and understanding its mechanism has remained one of the major challenges even though x-ray structures have been available since 2000. In the past two decades, single-particle cryo-electron microscopy has contributed a major share of information on structure, binding modes, and conformational changes of the ribosome during its work cycle, but the contributions of this technique in the translation field have recently skyrocketed after the introduction of a new recording medium capable of detecting individual electrons. As many examples in the recent literature over the past three years show, the impact of this development on the advancement of knowledge in this field has been transformative and promises to be lasting.

  16. Implementations of translational medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Sonntag Kai-Christian

    2005-01-01

    Abstract New developments in science are rapidly influencing and shaping basic and clinical research and medicine. This has led to the emergence of multiple opportunities and challenges on many levels in the bio-medical and other associated fields. To face these opportunities and challenges, new concepts and strategies are needed. These can be provided by translational research/medicine as an integrative concept based on a multidirectional understanding of research and medicine embedded in a ...

  17. New Historicism in Translation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mohammad Khadem-Nabi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Translation Studies has moved from linguistically oriented approaches to a historicist one. This is evident in many recent publications, and has brought about new trends in Translation Studies as well as in Cultural Studies. This paper is an attempt at summarizing the influence of the historicist approaches on translation. Of specific importance for this paper is New Historicism, which has poststructuralist tendencies.  Keywords: New Historicism, translation studies, cultural studies

  18. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  19. Translational research in retinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira RC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Rubens Camargo Siqueira1,2, Rodrigo Jorge21Rubens Siqueira Research Center, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Retina and Vitreous Section, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Clinical laboratories are strong, integral partners in personalized health care. Laboratory databases hold a vast amount of data on human phenotypes, genotypes, biomarkers, progression of disease, and response to therapy. These structured and unstructured free text data are critical for patient care and a resource for personalized medicine and translational research. Laboratory data are integrated into many electronic medical records that provide “summary reports” and “trending” to visualize longitudinal patient data. Recent advances in ophthalmology such as gene therapy, cell therapy using stem cells, and also retinal prosthesis explore the potential of translational research marking a new era in research into the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases.Keywords: translational, retinal diseases, stem cell, gene therapy

  20. Multiculturalism and Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rebeca PRECUP STIEGELBAUER

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural diversity has emerged as a key concern in recent years, however the implications to this term are very different. A number of people see cultural diversity as fundamentally important and positive, as it points to a sharing of the wealth embodied in each of the world’s cultures and, accordingly, to the links tying us all in processes of exchange and dialogue via translation. On the other hand, for many others, cultural differences are what cause us to lose sight of our shared humanity and as a result are the root of numerous conflicts, since we can get lost in translation. This second finding is today all the more plausible since globalisation has increased the points of interaction and friction between cultures, giving rise to identity-linked tensions, withdrawals and claims, particularly of each one and other, which can become potential sources of dispute. The essential challenge, therefore, would be to propose a coherent vision of cultural diversity, languages and translations and thereby to clarify how, far from being a threat, it can become beneficial to the action of the international community.

  1. Knowledge Translation: Implications for Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Colleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Translation theory originates in the field of applied linguistics and communication. The term knowledge translation has been adopted in health and other fields to refer to the exchange, synthesis, and application of knowledge. The logic model is a circular or iterative loop among various knowledge translation actors (knowledge producers and users)…

  2. On Yao's method of translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Hoede, C.

    2002-01-01

    Machine Translation, i.e., translating one kind of natural language to another kind of natural language by using a computer system, is a very important research branch in Artificial Intelligence. Yao developed a method of translation that he called ``Lexical-Semantic Driven". In his system he introd

  3. Ideological Manipulation in Translation Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张靖

    2011-01-01

    Lefevere's rewriting theory states that translation is a rewriting of the original text,all rewritings reflect a certain ideology and a poetics and as such manipulate literature to function in a given society.Based on this theory,some translation examples are illustrated and analyzed here to show that political and aesthetic ideology will inevitably manipulate translation in different aspects.

  4. Lexical Discourse Analysis in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khotaba, Eissa; Al Tarawneh, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Lexical Discourse very often depend on lexis. Lexical Discourse analysis, however, has not yet been given enough consideration of the phenomenon of translation. This paper investigates lexical discourse analysis in translation from one language to another. This qualitative study comprises 15 text translated by M.A. students at the Department of…

  5. Adaptation in Tourist Publicity Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭娟

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide a preliminary study of adaptation adopted in the translation of tourist publicity and ex-plore the main reasons behind the adaptive techniques on the basis of functionalist theories of translation. It is found that cultural blanks, different linguistic conventions and also the intended functions of tourist publicity may all contribute to adaptation in translation.

  6. The Translator in Cultural Mediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜迎新

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing cross-cultural exchanges, the translator should respect and spread the source culture. It is necessary for translators to employ as much as possible the foreignizing translation to keep the exotic flavor of the source language.A Chi-nese translator’s responsibility is to spread Chinese culture.

  7. Machine Translation Tools - Tools of The Translator's Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this article three of the more common types of translation tools are presented, discussed and critically evaluated. The types of translation tools dealt with in this article are: Fully Automated Machine Translation (or FAMT), Human Aided Machine Translation (or HAMT) and Machine Aided Human...... Translation (or MAHT). The strengths and weaknesses of the different types of tools are discussed and evaluated by means of a number of examples. The article aims at two things: at presenting a sort of state of the art of what is commonly referred to as “machine translation” as well as at providing the reader...... with a sound basis for considering what translation tool (if any) is the most appropriate in order to meet his or her specific translation needs....

  8. The Manipulation of Translator's Ideology in Translating In Liu Village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何霞; 李莎莎

    2014-01-01

    Traditional studies on translation have generally been source-oriented. Since 1980s, translation theorists shifted their eyes on new areas, such as culture, history, and ideology. Andre Lefevere puts forward the theory of rewriting, including such three important factors as ideology, poetics and patronage. This paper focuses on the study of manipulation of ideology over trans-lation of In Liu Village by a famous writer-cum-translator Yu Lihua. Based on the data collected, the present paper argues that during the process of translation, ideology exerts constraints on the translator and influences her in such aspects as the choice of texts, the process of decoding and the choice of translation strategy.

  9. Introduction to IP address management

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Tim

    2010-01-01

    "The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--

  10. Statistical Machine Translation Features with Multitask Tensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, Hendra; Huang, Zhongqiang; Devlin, Jacob; Lamar, Thomas; Zbib, Rabih; Schwartz, Richard; Makhoul, John

    2015-01-01

    We present a three-pronged approach to improving Statistical Machine Translation (SMT), building on recent success in the application of neural networks to SMT. First, we propose new features based on neural networks to model various non-local translation phenomena. Second, we augment the architecture of the neural network with tensor layers that capture important higher-order interaction among the network units. Third, we apply multitask learning to estimate the neural network parameters joi...

  11. Mamma Mia, A Singable Translation!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Stopar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses and analyzes approaches to translating singable texts. It presents a linguistic (prosodic, lexical and structural analysis of the Slovenian translation of the musical Mamma Mia! The aim of the qualitative and quantitative study is to investigate the translation strategies used to produce a singable target text. The results of the analysis suggest that producing a prosodic match is a basic requirement, whereas the lexical, structural and/or poetic characteristics of the source text are subject to changes. Overall, the findings show that the function and the purpose of the translation play a crucial role in the prioritization of translation strategies.

  12. Literal Translation and Free Translation in the Translation of the Bible——Struggles and Compromises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琰; 陈懿

    2008-01-01

    This essay attempts to explore the struggles and compromises of literal translation and free translation in the Bible translation,and comes to the conclusion that the two methods experienced a process from being immature to mature till the final merge of them,which reflected the need of the readers and the social settings of different epochs.

  13. Eye-movements During Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    Translation process research or TPR, the study of the cognitive processes involved in translation, is a relatively new field characterised by small-scale studies with few participants and variables. However, the translation process is characterised by much variation between different translators......, texts, tasks and languages, and larger-scale investigations are therefore highly desirable. To that end, we have publicly released the CRITT TPR database which currently contains data from 845 translation sessions but is continually extended. The database includes information about the source and target...... texts as well as both eye-tracking and keylogging data. Based on this database, I present a large-scale analysis of gaze on the source text based on 91 translators' translations of six different texts from English into four different target languages. I use mixed-effects modelling to compare from...

  14. Translating Shakespeare for the theatre Translating Shakespeare for the theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Déprats

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Translate Shakespeare for the theatre? The question is not purely rhetorical. In his Memoires, Jean Vilar, speaking of his work as an actor, raises the question of whether it is even possible to translate dramatic texts: Macbeth. Whilst learning my part alone at home in the morning, I keep on saying to myself , ‘Never again will I perform translated plays, not even those of Shakespeare.’ Translations either emasculate the original so that the actors may ‘utter’ a French which is straightforward, or at least authentic, or force us to chew up and spit out a stodgy French, weighed down by the burden of the English. My friend Curtis, the translator, can’t help it. Remaining faithful to the original text makes the French prose heavy, but to stray from the original is a crime. So what can we do? (131 This dilemma, so accurately put into words by Vilar, brings us to the question: when translating a Shakespeare play for performance, must we incorporate into our work aims which curtail the usual demands of translation? What is specific about translating for the theatre? Or rather, what demands must a French translation of a dramatic text meet if it is to make performance possible? Translate Shakespeare for the theatre? The question is not purely rhetorical. In his Memoires, Jean Vilar, speaking of his work as an actor, raises the question of whether it is even possible to translate dramatic texts: Macbeth. Whilst learning my part alone at home in the morning, I keep on saying to myself , ‘Never again will I perform translated plays, not even those of Shakespeare.’ Translations either emasculate the original so that the actors may ‘utter’ a French which is straightforward, or at least authentic, or force us to chew up and spit out a stodgy French, weighed down by the burden of the English. My friend Curtis, the translator, can’t help it. Remaining faithful to the original text makes the French prose heavy

  15. On Translatability and Untranslatability in Translation of Chinese Idioms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟建

    2015-01-01

    Translation is a field full of paradoxes.The question of whether or not languages are translatable has been argued for many years in the history of translation.There are many opposite idea on this question,for example,to what degree languages are translatable,and all this problems relating to translatability and untranslatability have always been difficult questions for fur-ther studying.Also,idioms are major components of a language.They are experience and lessons that people learned from years of hard work and life experiences,and they reflect the wisdom of human beings.In a word,when it comes to the translatability and untranslatability of Chinese idioms,there usually exist more obvious problems.Because Chinese idioms have certain ethnic characteristics and distinguishable cultural meanings,and more importantly they are deeply rooted in national culture and soci-ety.This essay first introduced the relationship between Untranslatability and Translatability,and then discussed the features of Chinese idioms,and later this essay mainly discussed the translatability and untranslatability in a translating process from a per-spective of the translation of Chinese idioms.Finally,it gives some practical ways to reduce the untranslatability of Chinese idi-oms.

  16. Process analytical approach to translation and implications for translations teaching Process analytical approach to translation and implications for translations teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Lörscher

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The considerations which will be made in this paper can be located within the newly established field of translation process analysis (cf.Gerloff 1988; Jääskeläinen 1990; Krings 1986; Lörscher 1991; Séguinot 1989; Tirkkonen-Condit 1991. They are based on a research project which I have been carrying out since 1983. The aim of this project is to analyze psycholinguistically translation performance as contained in a corpus of orally produced translations from German into English and vice versa. This is done in order to reconstruct translation strategies. These underlie translation performance, operate within the translation process, and are thus not open to direct inspection. In the first stage of the project, translation processes of advanced foreign language learners were investigated. The considerations which will be made in this paper can be located within the newly established field of translation process analysis (cf.Gerloff 1988; Jääskeläinen 1990; Krings 1986; Lörscher 1991; Séguinot 1989; Tirkkonen-Condit 1991. They are based on a research project which I have been carrying out since 1983. The aim of this project is to analyze psycholinguistically translation performance as contained in a corpus of orally produced translations from German into English and vice versa. This is done in order to reconstruct translation strategies. These underlie translation performance, operate within the translation process, and are thus not open to direct inspection. In the first stage of the project, translation processes of advanced foreign language learners were investigated.

  17. Continuity of Translation Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Athreya, Krishna B

    2010-01-01

    For a Radon measure $\\mu$ on $\\bbR,$ we show that $L^{\\infty}(\\mu)$ is invariant under the group of translation operators $T_t(f)(x) = {$f(x-t)$}\\ (t \\in \\bbR)$ if and only if $\\mu$ is equivalent to Lebesgue measure $m$. We also give necessary and sufficient conditions for $L^p(\\mu),\\1 \\leq p < \\infty,$ to be invariant under the group $\\{T_t\\}$ in terms of the Radon-Nikodym derivative w.r.t. $m$.

  18. Translators: Travellers, Not Tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Rot Gabrovec

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores various representations of culture(s found in contemporary English children’s literature and discusses how they were rendered into Slovene. In the first part, some introductory definitions of culture and approaches to the translation of children’s literature are presented. In the second part, excerpts from selected literary works (for instance, Mary Poppins, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, Matilda, The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time are examined, both from the source and the target texts, with more attention paid to the cultural contexts, and the social changes that possibly influenced the translator’s decisions.

  19. Geocoding Patient Addresses for Biosurveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Karen L; Kenneth D Mandl

    2002-01-01

    New biosurveillance information systems are being developed to detect clusters of disease using temporal and spatial characteristics. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can use patient addresses stored in hospital information systems to assign latitude and longitude coordinates, enabling the detection of spatial clusters. However, inaccuracy can be introduced during the geocoding process and this could have a profound adverse effect on detection sensitivity. In an analysis of three years ...

  20. The translating techniques analyzation of Oliver Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Ran

    2014-01-01

    In order to deeply understanding the translation methods and further improving translation skil s, the article provides notions of Translation methods with examples form the translating version by Mr.Rong from shanghai.

  1. Atomic clusters with addressable complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, David J.

    2017-02-01

    A general formulation for constructing addressable atomic clusters is introduced, based on one or more reference structures. By modifying the well depths in a given interatomic potential in favour of nearest-neighbour interactions that are defined in the reference(s), the potential energy landscape can be biased to make a particular permutational isomer the global minimum. The magnitude of the bias changes the resulting potential energy landscape systematically, providing a framework to produce clusters that should self-organise efficiently into the target structure. These features are illustrated for small systems, where all the relevant local minima and transition states can be identified, and for the low-energy regions of the landscape for larger clusters. For a 55-particle cluster, it is possible to design a target structure from a transition state of the original potential and to retain this structure in a doubly addressable landscape. Disconnectivity graphs based on local minima that have no direct connections to a lower minimum provide a helpful way to visualise the larger databases. These minima correspond to the termini of monotonic sequences, which always proceed downhill in terms of potential energy, and we identify them as a class of biminimum. Multiple copies of the target cluster are treated by adding a repulsive term between particles with the same address to maintain distinguishable targets upon aggregation. By tuning the magnitude of this term, it is possible to create assemblies of the target cluster corresponding to a variety of structures, including rings and chains.

  2. Semantic Interpretation of Phraseological Units in Ukrainian-Polish Electronic Phraseological Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Tymoshuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Interpretation of Phraseological Units in Ukrainian-Polish Electronic Phraseological Dictionary When compiling bi- and multilingual phraseological lexicons it is necessary to address such theoretical issues as the formulation linguistically grounded principles of selection of phraseological units and their translation, semantic interpretation based on differentiation of pictures of the world of the linguistic systems, comprehensive combination of elements of the structure and presentation of various linguistic ambiguities, rational form of dictionary entries and building of user-friendly interface in electronic dictionary systems, etc. The article addresses the principles of Ukrainian-Polish electronic phraseological dictionary, which is one of the first attempts of complex and systematic presentation of Ukrainian and Polish phraseology. The main attention is paid to the lexicographic representation of phraseological units, their semantic characterization and selection problem idiomatic equivalents.

  3. Methodological considerations when translating “burnout”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Squires

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No study has systematically examined how researchers address cross-cultural adaptation of burnout. We conducted an integrative review to examine how researchers had adapted the instruments to the different contexts. We reviewed the Content Validity Indexing scores for the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey from the 12-country comparative nursing workforce study, RN4CAST. In the integrative review, multiple issues related to translation were found in existing studies. In the cross-cultural instrument analysis, 7 out of 22 items on the instrument received an extremely low kappa score. Investigators may need to employ more rigorous cross-cultural adaptation methods when attempting to measure burnout.

  4. A Review of Translation and Gender

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄东睿

    2012-01-01

    Around 1970th, translation theory comes across feminism, thus the feminist translation theory emerged as the times required. The appearance of feminist translation enriches the modern translation theory, and extends the horizon of translation theory. At the same time, feminist translation has its shortcomings, especially in its exaggeration and arbitrariness. This paper explores the similarities between feminism and translation, the contributions and limitations of feminist translation theory.

  5. Application of translation strategies in the translation of trademark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾丽晔

    2014-01-01

    The trademark propaganda is an important means of sel ing goods and way of competition in international market. Cultivating famous brand serves as an important links in opening up the international market. So the importance of a good trademark translation is evident. Through discussing the importance of the Chinese-English trademark translation, the translation of the principles, tactics, errors and trademark translation of cultural taboos, this paper studies initial y several aspects about how to translate the Chinese trademark into English, which is in order to make the translation of the original brand names and the products match perfectly in the sound, shape, meaning, and beauty. Thus, commodity exchanges and cultural exchanges both can be achieved.

  6. Translating the Poet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Scott Valentino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available You want your author to be appreciated, to be read. Yes, why not, to be respected. As a writer at least, if not as a person. And the author’s image, not just the work, is in your hands. That’s the way it works in English at least, where translation tends to be decentralized. I’m not referring to commissions obviously. In that sense translation is like any kind of creative writing – you choose your project, you shape it, you develop it, you pitch and promote it, and you pitch and promote the image of the author that goes with it. So the question: what to do when your author is not an especially attractive character, not a good person, a bad husband, for instance, a bad father?For instance, Eligio Zanini was a bad husband and a bad father. He abandoned his family when two children were small and a third was on the way. He never contacted them again, though he lived just down the road. When his son died in a car accident at the age of seventeen and the parents were supposed to go down to Split to retrieve the body, he didn’t show up, though the boy’s mother, Bianca, held out hope until the last minute. She was devastated by her husband’s departure and carried the wound as if fresh inside her.

  7. A Stylistic Study of Translator Based on Western Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the historic development of the stylistic study of translator in light of western translation theory,and analyzes its features on each phase and current emphasis of research,by which knowledge of the development of western theory and translators’ style can be shown.After that,we can research its problems existing in the stylistic study of translator based on western theory so than we can provide a panoramic analysis in this field.

  8. On Translation Thoughts of American Translator Howard Goldblatt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亚丽; 王亚荣; 李静莹

    2015-01-01

    In 2012,Moyan won the Nobel Prize for literature to which the media and the scholars paid great attention.The transla-tions of his works by Howard Goldblatt were also caught great attention.Howard Goldblatt was believed to help Moyan win the No-bel Prize.Based on this,it is necessary to study translation thoughts of Howard Goldblatt,which will provide some references for Chinese literature translations.

  9. Translation Aestheticsand Communication Theory of Journalism English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曜

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the present translation theories and standards especially in journalism English translation and imply these theories in my issue. Moreover, I will explain how to apply the translation aesthetics and communication theory of translation in the course of journalism English translation activities. So that translation will achieve elegance in English news text and its Chinese version as well.

  10. Quantitative systems pharmacology: a promising approach for translational pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkar, K; Kirouac, D; Parrott, N; Ramanujan, S

    Biopharmaceutical companies have increasingly been exploring Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP) as a potential avenue to address current challenges in drug development. In this paper, we discuss the application of QSP modeling approaches to address challenges in the translational of preclinical findings to the clinic, a high risk area of drug development. Three cases have been highlighted with QSP models utilized to inform different questions in translational pharmacology. In the first, a mechanism based asthma model is used to evaluate efficacy and inform biomarker strategy for a novel bispecific antibody. In the second case study, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway signaling model is used to make translational predictions on clinical response and evaluate novel combination therapies. In the third case study, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model it used to guide administration of oseltamivir in pediatric patients.

  11. Practical Evaluation of Stateful NAT64/DNS64 Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SKOBERNE, N.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available It is often suggested that the approach to IPv6 transition is dual-stack deployment; however, it is not feasible in certain environments. As Network Address Translation -- Protocol Translation (NAT-PT has been deprecated, stateful NAT64 and DNS64 RFCs have been published, supporting only IPv6-to-IPv4 translation scenario. Now the question of usability in the real world arises. In this paper, we systematically test a number of widely used application-layer network protocols to find out how well they traverse Ecdysis, the first open source stateful NAT64 and DNS64 implementation. We practically evaluated 18 popular protocols, among them HTTP, RDP, MSNP, and IMAP, and discuss the shortcomings of such translations that might not be apparent at first sight.

  12. Translation equivalence of demonstrative pronouns in Bulgarian-Slovak parallel texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Translation equivalence of demonstrative pronouns in Bulgarian-Slovak parallel texts In this paper we describe our automatic analysis of several parallel Bulgarian-Slovak texts with the goal to obtain useful information about Slovak translation equivalents of (definite articles and demonstrative pronouns in Bulgarian. Rather than focusing on individual translation equivalents, we present a method for automatic extraction and visualization of the translations. This can serve as a guide for pinpointing interesting features in specific translated documents and could be extended for other parts of speech or otherwise identifiable textual units.

  13. Pseudo-realia in the Romanian Translations of Various Hungarian Institutions and in the Hungarian Translations of Romanian Public Administration Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zopus Andras

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available My presentation addresses an issue translators of Romanian–Hungarian legal and economic texts encounter almost day by day. Each field of translation is special in its kind, but translating legal/economic texts requires an especially accurate knowledge of the acts, laws, and concepts of both the source and target language since this is essential for the translated text to be really a quality, professional, and – last but not least – an intelligible one to the target-language audience, i.e. the customers.

  14. Knowledge for Knowledge Translation: The Role of the Cochrane Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Jeremy M.; Santesso, Nancy; Cumpston, Miranda; Mayhew, Alain; McGowan, Jessie

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge-translation (KT) activities, including continuing education, should be informed by the totality of available research evidence. Systematic reviews are a generic methodology used to synthesize evidence from a broad range of research methods addressing different questions. Over the past decade, there has been a dramatic increase in the…

  15. Cinema and Choric Connection: "Lost in Translation" as Sensual Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Brian L.; Keeling, Diane Marie

    2011-01-01

    The rise of the new information technologies, and corresponding proliferation of signs, images, and information, has contributed to a growing sense of alienation and dislocation. For many, the contemporary moment is an unending and disorienting sea of sensory-symbolic excesses. "Lost in Translation" is a film addressed to these anxieties. Engaging…

  16. Translation Accommodations Framework for Testing English Language Learners in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    The present framework is developed under contract with the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) as a conceptual and methodological tool for guiding the reasonings and actions of contractors in charge of developing and providing test translation accommodations for English language learners. The framework addresses important challenges in…

  17. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  18. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  19. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating.

  20. Advances in Fully-Automatic and Interactive Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Martínez, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents different contributions in the fields of fully-automatic statistical machine translation and interactive statistical machine translation. In the field of statistical machine translation there are three problems that are to be addressed, namely, the modelling problem, the training problem and the search problem. In this thesis we present contributions regarding these three problems. Regarding the modelling problem, an alternative derivation of phrase-based s...

  1. Comment on "Length-dependent translation of messenger RNA by ribosomes"

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunxin

    2011-01-01

    In recent paper [Phys. Rev. E {\\bf 83}, 042903 (2011)], a simple model for the translation of messenger RNA by ribosomes is provided, and the expression of translational ratio of protein is given. In this comments, varied methods to get this ratio are addressed. Depending on a different method, we find that, roughly speaking, this translational ratio decays exponentially with mRNA length in prokaryotic cell, and reciprocally with mRNA length in eukaryotic cells.

  2. Computer-aided translation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports on a questionnaire survey from 2013 of the uptake and use of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools by Danish translation service providers (TSPs) and discusses how these tools appear to have impacted on the Danish translation industry. According to our results, the uptake...... in Denmark is rather high in general, but limited in the case of machine translation (MT) tools: While most TSPs use translation-memory (TM) software, often in combination with a terminology management system (TMS), only very few have implemented MT, which is criticised for its low quality output, especially...... when Danish is one of the languages, though some also express willingness to consider using MT (more) when output quality improves. Most respondents report that CAT has changed the translation industry, mentioning that the technology facilitates improved productivity and consistency, but also...

  3. Addressing the Barriers to Agile Development in DoD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    pmodigliani@mitre.org May 2015 Addressing the Barriers to Agile Development in DoD MITRE Defense Agile Acquisition Guide Naval Postgraduate School’s...COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Addressing the Barriers to Agile Development in DoD 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS

  4. Forms of Address as Discrete Modal Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Paweł Sosnowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Forms of Address as Discrete Modal Operators The category of expressions of politeness includes, among others, forms of address. Forms of address express honorification. Honorification can be defined as a special type of meaning that consists of information about the social and interpersonal relations between the speaker and the addressee, the speaker and the hearer, and the speaker and the protagonist of the predication. As far as their place in the syntactic structure is concerned, forms of address can either be integrated with the other elements of a predication or not. However, they are always part of a predication’s semantic structure. Moreover, forms of address convey the speaker’s attitude to the meaning of the predicate that they want to convey, which consequently means that forms of address also carry a modal element. Modality can be defined as a situation in which an individual is in a particular mental state, i.e. exhibits some kind of attitude to a situation or a type of situations. Forms of address can be categorised as modal operators conveying imperatives, requests, suppositions, etc. The term "operator" can be used for a unit of language when it changes the semantic structure of the predication. My research on honorification is mainly based on contemporary corpora, both monolingual and multilingual. In the present study, I analyse forms of address which carry imperative and optative meanings.   Formy adresatywne jako dyskretne operatory modalne W obrębie wyrażeń realizujących funkcje grzecznościowe znajduje się grupa form adresatywnych. Są one częścią kategorii honoryfikatywności rozumianej jako szczególny rodzaj znaczenia zawartego w treści wypowiedzi, informację o towarzysko-społecznej relacji między nadawcą a odbiorcą, nadawcą a słuchaczem oraz nadawcą a bohaterem wypowiedzi. Gramatycznie formy adresatywne mogą być zarówno zintegrowane, jak i niezintegrowane syntaktycznie z resztą wypowiedzi, ale

  5. [Google translate is not sufficient to overcome language barriers in neonatal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, N; Sponholz, S; König, K; Brodkorb, S; Bührer, C; Roehr, C C

    2013-12-01

    Language barriers hinder the interaction with patients and relatives. The use of language services increases knowledge, satisfaction and the use of medical care and thus improves patient's clinical outcome. The recommended use of professional interpreters (PI) is not always feasible. We tested an online translation tool as an alternative for PI for the transla-tion of standardized sentences from a neonatal doctor-/nurse-relative-interview.Translation of 20 sentences from a German neonatal intensive care unit parent information brochure to English, Portuguese and Arabic, using Google Translate (GT). Assessment of accuracy concerning grammar and content, in a second step simplification of all incorrect sentences, translation by GT and critical re-assessment and evaluation.An average of 42% of the sentences was correctly translated concerning grammar and content. The proportion of incorrectly translated sentences varied between 45-70%. By simpli-fication another 23% were translated correctly.Translations by GT were often incorrect in content and grammar. We suppose that the design of GT, which is a statistical translation engine, might be an explanation for this phenomenon. Presently, GT cannot guarantee unambiguous translations and cannot substitute PIs, only in particular circumstances, the use of GT or similar engines may be justified. For future use of electronic translation services, we suggest to compile a catalogue of sentences containing central information, which can be translated into defined foreign languages without misinterpretation or loss of information.

  6. Which Principles and which Methodology for Specialized Translation? Contrastive Typology (French – Italian of Specialized Discourses: The Example of Translation from the Field of Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis BEGIONI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The few reflections we are to present here are the result of our observations on specialized translations: version, theme, methodology of the translation ensured by us as part of our teaching activity at the Applied Modern Languages unit of our University.

  7. Semantic Translation and Communicative Translation:A Case Study in My Chinese Translation of Alnwick’s Inspired Heritage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶谋锦

    2013-01-01

      This essay deals with my Chinese translation of a tour brochure and highlights some issues in translation. The translation strategies semantic translation and communicative translation are famous approaches proposed by Peter Newmark in his book Approaches to Translation. He puts forward his text typology and categorizes all text types into three types, i.e. expressive text, informative text and vocative text. In order to solve problems emerging in different types, he presents two dominant translation approaches, namely, semantic translation and communicative translation (Newmark, 2001). These translation methods are regarded as a milestone in translation theory and highly quoted by many scholars. Semantic translation emphasizes the thinking process of the author and represents the origin meanings of the source text. In this case, translator makes little interference with the harmony of the source text. Semantic translation can preserve the characteristics and expression patterns of the source language, forcing readers to follow the thinking pattern of the author. While communicative translation indicates that the influence of translation on target readers should be identical to the effect of original article on source readers. Communicative translation is target-language-orientated and focuses on transference of information. This translation strategy allows translator to reorganize sentences with classical phrases in the target language to make his translation accessible to target readers. Of course, these different translation strategies often com⁃plement with each other, and should be combined together in translation.

  8. Translated chemical reaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Matthew D

    2014-05-01

    Many biochemical and industrial applications involve complicated networks of simultaneously occurring chemical reactions. Under the assumption of mass action kinetics, the dynamics of these chemical reaction networks are governed by systems of polynomial ordinary differential equations. The steady states of these mass action systems have been analyzed via a variety of techniques, including stoichiometric network analysis, deficiency theory, and algebraic techniques (e.g., Gröbner bases). In this paper, we present a novel method for characterizing the steady states of mass action systems. Our method explicitly links a network's capacity to permit a particular class of steady states, called toric steady states, to topological properties of a generalized network called a translated chemical reaction network. These networks share their reaction vectors with their source network but are permitted to have different complex stoichiometries and different network topologies. We apply the results to examples drawn from the biochemical literature.

  9. Translational Science for Energy and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, James R.; Crans, Debbie C.; Martin, Cheryl; Turner, John; Duggal, Anil R.; Gray, Harry B.

    2016-09-19

    A clear challenge for the coming decades is decreasing the carbon intensity of the global energy supply while simultaneously accommodating a rapid worldwide increase in power demand. Meeting this challenge of providing abundant, clean energy undoubtedly requires synergistic efforts between basic and applied researchers in the chemical sciences to develop and deploy new technologies. Among the available options, solar energy is one of the promising targets because of the high abundance of solar photons over much of the globe. Similarly, decarbonization of the global energy supply will require clean sources of hydrogen to use as reducing equivalents for fuel and chemical feedstocks. In this report, we discuss the importance of translational research -- defined as work that explicitly targets basic discovery as well as technology development -- in the context of photovoltaics and solar fuels. We focus on three representative research programs encompassing translational research in government, industry, and academia. We then discuss more broadly the benefits and challenges of translational research models and offer recommendations for research programs that address societal challenges in the energy sector and beyond.

  10. Translational Science for Energy and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKone, James R; Crans, Debbie C; Martin, Cheryl; Turner, John; Duggal, Anil R; Gray, Harry B

    2016-09-19

    A clear challenge for the coming decades is decreasing the carbon intensity of the global energy supply while simultaneously accommodating a rapid worldwide increase in power demand. Meeting this challenge of providing abundant, clean energy undoubtedly requires synergistic efforts between basic and applied researchers in the chemical sciences to develop and deploy new technologies. Among the available options, solar energy is one of the promising targets because of the high abundance of solar photons over much of the globe. Similarly, decarbonization of the global energy supply will require clean sources of hydrogen to use as reducing equivalents for fuel and chemical feedstocks. In this report, we discuss the importance of translational research-defined as work that explicitly targets basic discovery as well as technology development-in the context of photovoltaics and solar fuels. We focus on three representative research programs encompassing translational research in government, industry, and academia. We then discuss more broadly the benefits and challenges of translational research models and offer recommendations for research programs that address societal challenges in the energy sector and beyond.

  11. Nonhuman primate models in translational regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daadi, Marcel M; Barberi, Tiziano; Shi, Qiang; Lanford, Robert E

    2014-12-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs) are similar in size, behavior, physiology, biochemistry, structure and function of organs, and complexity of the immune system. Research on NHPs generates complementary data that bridge translational research from small animal models to humans. NHP models of human disease offer unique opportunities to develop stem cell-based therapeutic interventions that directly address relevant and challenging translational aspects of cell transplantation therapy. These include the use of autologous induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cellular products, issues related to the immune response in autologous and allogeneic setting, pros and cons of delivery techniques in a clinical setting, as well as the safety and efficacy of candidate cell lines. The NHP model allows the assessment of complex physiological, biochemical, behavioral, and imaging end points, with direct relevance to human conditions. At the same time, the value of using primates in scientific research must be carefully evaluated and timed due to expense and the necessity for specialized equipment and highly trained personnel. Often it is more efficient and useful to perform initial proof-of-concept studies for new therapeutics in rodents and/or other species before the pivotal studies in NHPs that may eventually lead to first-in-human trials. In this report, we present how the Southwest National Primate Research Center, one of seven NIH-funded National Primate Research Centers, may help the global community in translating promising technologies to the clinical arena.

  12. United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bernow

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an integrated set of policies designed to reduce U.S. carbon emissions over the next four decades. This innovation path also aims to promote environmental quality, particularly by reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants, to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and to induce technological innovation and diffusion in energy production and consumption. The innovation path would reduce economy-wide carbon emissions by 26% below baseline projections for 2010 and by 62% below baseline projections for 2030; this translates into 10% below 1990 levels in 2010 and 45% below 1990 levels in 2030. Emissions of criteria pollutants also would be significantly reduced, as would petroleum imports by the United States. Moreover, the innovation path would yield cumulative net savings for the United States of $218 billion (1993 dollars through 2010, or $19 billion on a leveled annual basis, and would result in 800,000 additional jobs nationwide by 2010. Although the overall findings from the innovation path analysis are robust, the results should be taken as indicative, rather than precisely predictive, owing to uncertainties in future costs, prices, technology performance, and consumer behavior.

  13. Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Mercedes Garcia; Koglin, Arlene; Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    The availability of systems capable of producing fairly accurate translations has increased the popularity of machine translation (MT). The translation industry is steadily incorporating MT in their workflows engaging the human translator to post-edit the raw MT output in order to comply with a set......-DB) *. On the one hand, post-editing temporal effort was measured using FDur values (duration of segment production time excluding keystroke pauses >_ 200 seconds) and KDur values (duration of coherent keyboard activity excluding keystroke pauses >_ 5 seconds). On the other hand, post-editing technical effort...

  14. Functionalist Approaches to Advertisement Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乐

    2009-01-01

    The 1970s saw a development of the Functionalism, with its three representative scholars Katharina Reiss, Hans. Vermeer and Justa Holz Manttari. Katharina Reiss proposed the text type theory; Vermeer brought up the skopostheory and Mantarri translational action theory. The Functional theories are very useful for the translators to adopt a fight translation strategy. In these years, various kinds of advertisement have appeared in people's daily life. They are becoming one important part in our culture. The companies need advertisements to sell their products and the consumers need the advertisement to decide which brand to buy after comparison. This paper will discuss how they are ap-plied to the advertisement translation.

  15. Translation-Memory (TM) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2010-01-01

    of much research. Our paper attempts to find out what we know about the nature, applications and influences of TM technology, including translators' interaction with TMs, and also how we know it. An essential part of the analysis is based on a selection of empirical TM studies, which we assume...... to be representative of the research field as a whole. Our analysis suggests that, while considerable knowledge is available about the technical side of TMs, more research is needed to understand how translators interact with TM technology and how TMs influence translators' cognitive translation processes....

  16. Adding Statistical Machine Translation Adaptation to Computer-Assisted Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    on Telecommunications. Tehran, 2012, 822–826. Bertoldi, N.; Federico, M. Domain Adaptation for Statistical Machine Translation with Monolingual ...for Interactive Machine Translation. ICMI’11. Alicante, Spain: ACM, 2011, 197–200. 14 Haffari, G.; Sarkar, A. Active Learning for Multilingual

  17. Using example-based machine translation to translate DVD subtitles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Marian

    Audiovisual Translation (AVT), and in particular subtitling, has been recognised as an area that could potentially benefit from the introduction of machine translation (followed by post-editing). In recent years the demands on subtitlers have increased, while the payment to subtitlers and time al...

  18. Thick Translation as a New Trend of Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶莉

    2016-01-01

    This paper, based on the development and history of thick translation, is intended to carry out a comparative critic of the interpretations of“thick translation”proposed by different scholars so as to explore the profound meanings and significance of“thick translation”as a new strategy, which has reflected and predicted the new trend of translation studies.

  19. Application of Relevance Translation Theory in Humor Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀丽

    2013-01-01

    This thesis,aiming to investigate the process of English-Chinese translation of humor from the perspective of RT theory(relevance translation theory),endeavors to apply its principles and methods to the re-construction of humor in the target language.

  20. Adoptive T cell therapy: Addressing challenges in cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Cassian

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adoptive T cell therapy involves the ex vivo selection and expansion of effector cells for the treatment of patients with cancer. In this review, the advantages and limitations of using antigen-specific T cells are discussed in counterpoint to vaccine strategies. Although vaccination strategies represent more readily available reagents, adoptive T cell therapy provides highly selected T cells of defined phenotype, specificity and function that may influence their biological behavior in vivo. Adoptive T cell therapy offers not only translational opportunities but also a means to address fundamental issues in the evolving field of cancer immunotherapy.

  1. Knowledge translation: translating research into policy and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Donszelmann Oelke

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper provides a theoretical-reflective study of knowledge translation concepts and their implementation processes for using research evidence in policy and practice.Results: The process of translating research into practice is iterative and dynamic, with fluid boundaries between knowledge creation and action development. Knowledge translation focuses on co-creating knowledge with stakeholders and sharing that knowledge to ensure uptake of relevant research to facilitate informed decisions and changes in policy, practice, and health services delivery. In Brazil, many challenges exist in implementing knowledge translation: lack of awareness, lack of partnerships between researchers and knowledge-users, and low research budgets.Conclusions: An emphasis on knowledge translation has the potential to positively impact health outcomes. Future research in Brazil is needed to study approaches to improve the uptake of research results in the Brazilian context.

  2. Translation Memory and Computer Assisted Translation Tool for Medieval Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Törcsvári Attila

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation memories (TMs, as part of Computer Assisted Translation (CAT tools, support translators reusing portions of formerly translated text. Fencing books are good candidates for using TMs due to the high number of repeated terms. Medieval texts suffer a number of drawbacks that make hard even “simple” rewording to the modern version of the same language. The analyzed difficulties are: lack of systematic spelling, unusual word orders and typos in the original. A hypothesis is made and verified that even simple modernization increases legibility and it is feasible, also it is worthwhile to apply translation memories due to the numerous and even extremely long repeated terms. Therefore, methods and algorithms are presented 1. for automated transcription of medieval texts (when a limited training set is available, and 2. collection of repeated patterns. The efficiency of the algorithms is analyzed for recall and precision.

  3. Indicators of translation competence: Translators' self-concepts and the translation of titles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Ehrensberger-Dow & Gary Massey

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The parallels between writing research and translation process research range from the objects of study (text producers and texts to the methods employed in investigating them. Similarly to writing research, translation studies has recently moved from an almost exclusive focus on products towards considering workplace and cognitive processes and the effects of those processes on the quality of products. In this paper, we outline how the methods common to both fields can be applied to the investigation of translators' understanding of their roles and responsibilities as text producers and their treatment of the specific problem of title translation. The data are drawn from a corpus built up in an longitudinal research project about the relationship of translation competence and the translation process. The multi-method approach we use combines keystroke logging, screenshot recording, eye-tracking, retrospection, and interviews. It allows us to monitor translators at their workplace in as controlled and non-invasive a manner as possible. It also provides rich data that make it possible to infer the practices and metalinguistic awareness that characterize the translation competence of translators with different levels of experience.

  4. Building Footprints - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Structures/Addresses Framework is a statewide spatial database of structure and address points in the State of Montana. The Montana Structures/Addresses...

  5. Translation Strategies of Non-literary Texts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静

    2015-01-01

    Translator's subjectivity is closely related to the choice of the style of the translated texts and translation strategies.This paper presents an analytical study of translation strategies of non-literary texts.It introduces different non-literary texts,and then generalizes some factors influencing the selection of translation strategies.Take these Influencing factors into account,Translators should adopt different translation strategies

  6. Sight Translation and written translation. A comparative Analysis of causes of problems, Strategies and Translation Errors within the PACTE Translation Competence Model

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative empirical exploratory study of some cognitive aspects of the oral and written translation process within the translation competence construct. This research has a twofold objective: finding some evidence of specific translation competence skills in translation tasks and comparing these data in sight translation and written translation in order to empirically check if sight translation can really be considered an interpreting modality. A sample ...

  7. Cultural Contexts and Language Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong-mei

    2014-01-01

    According to cognitive linguistics, human language is a process of cognition. Because of the different culture in Eastern and Western, the translation form must adapt to the cultural contexts. This article mainly deals with the differences in intercultural, and discusses the relationship between cultural contexts and language translation.

  8. Statistical methods in translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Shein-Chung; Tse, Siu-Keung; Lin, Min

    2008-12-01

    This study focuses on strategies and statistical considerations for assessment of translation in language (e.g. translation of case report forms in multinational clinical trials), information (e.g. translation of basic discoveries to the clinic) and technology (e.g. translation of Chinese diagnostic techniques to well-established clinical study endpoints) in pharmaceutical/clinical research and development. However, most of our efforts will be directed to statistical considerations for translation in information. Translational medicine has been defined as bench-to-bedside research, where a basic laboratory discovery becomes applicable to the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of a specific disease, and is brought forth by either a physicianscientist who works at the interface between the research laboratory and patient care, or by a team of basic and clinical science investigators. Statistics plays an important role in translational medicine to ensure that the translational process is accurate and reliable with certain statistical assurance. Statistical inference for the applicability of an animal model to a human model is also discussed. Strategies for selection of clinical study endpoints (e.g. absolute changes, relative changes, or responder-defined, based on either absolute or relative change) are reviewed.

  9. A Commentary on News Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚雅晴

    2011-01-01

    News language is formal,especially the high register vocabulary it employed to deliver the message unveiled by culturally and politically stamped style which challenges the translator a lot.Nida's formal and dynamic equivalence theory,Bielsa and Bassnett news translation theories and other methods and strategies are introduced to cope with these challenges and get the message across without distortion.

  10. Translator: Expert of ‘What’? Translator Training and the Changing/Changeful Identity of the Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem Öner

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to trace the contemporary perceptions/definitions of the translator and translation in Turkey where the translation profession is not a legally regulated profession. (Invisibility of the translator and the scope of his/her expertise are widely debated issues among both the scholars/students of translation and the various players in the world of translation. Although translation is no longer being defined as a mere linguistic activity, reductionist views of translation that equate translation to ‘know’ing a foreign language still continues to prevail. What accompanies the said reductionist view is the claim that a translator can not translate ‘all the texts’ in different fields of expertise, at least not as successfully as the ‘real’ experts of the field who also know a foreign language such as engineer-translators or lawyer-translators who know English. However, recent developments concerning legal translation in plurilingual settings evidence a completely different understanding of translation and the identity/expertise of the translator. In such settings, translators work together with the drafters of the legal texts and are responsible for the source legal texts as well as the target ones, broadening the scope of the ‘expertise’ of the translator in an unprecedented way. In the light of the implications of the said transformation of the identity of the legal translator, this paper argues that the identity/definition of the translator/translation needs to be reconsidered and the results should be reflected onto the translator training programs with the aim of helping students of translation (redefine their identity as real ‘experts’ of the translation field and contributing to the transformation of the perception of translation and the translator.

  11. Revising and editing for translators

    CERN Document Server

    Mossop, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Revising and Editing for Translators provides guidance and learning materials for translation students learning to edit texts written by others, and professional translators wishing to improve their self-revision ability or learning to revise the work of others. Editing is understood as making corrections and improvements to texts, with particular attention to tailoring them to the given readership. Revising is this same task applied to draft translations. The linguistic work of editors and revisers is related to the professional situations in which they work. Mossop offers in-depth coverage of a wide range of topics, including copyediting, style editing, structural editing, checking for consistency, revising procedures and principles, and translation quality assessment. This third edition provides extended coverage of computer aids for revisers, and of the different degrees of revision suited to different texts. The inclusion of suggested activities and exercises, numerous real-world examples, a proposed gra...

  12. Optimising Comprehensibility in Interlingual Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbeth Jensen, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    . It is argued that Plain Language writing is a type of intralingual translation as it involves rewriting or translating a complex monolingual text into comprehensible language. Based on Plain Language literature, a comprehensibility framework is elaborated, which is subsequently exemplified through...... the functional text type of Patient Information Leaflet. Finally, the usefulness of applying the principles of Plain Language and intralingual translation for optimising comprehensibility in interlingual translation is discussed....... information on medication and tax information. Such texts are often written by experts and received by lay people, and, in today’s globalised world, they are often translated as well. In these functional texts, the receiver is not a mere recipient of information, but s/he needs to be able to act upon it...

  13. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications.

  14. The third language: A recurrent textual restriction that translators come across in audiovisual translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montse Corrius Gimbert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available If the process of translating is not at all simple, the process of translating an audiovisual text is still more complex. Apart rom technical problems such as lip synchronisation, there are other factors to be considered such as the use of the language and textual structures deemed appropriate to the channel of communication. Bearing in mind that most of the films we are continually seeing on our screens were and are produced in the United States, there is an increasing need to translate them into the different languages of the world. But sometimes the source audiovisual text contains more than one language, and, thus, a new problem arises: the ranslators face additional difficulties in translating this “third language” (language or dialect into the corresponding target culture. There are many films containing two languages in the original version but in this paper we will focus mainly on three films: Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969, Raid on Rommel (1999 and Blade Runner (1982. This paper aims at briefly illustrating different solutions which may be applied when we come across a “third language”.

  15. Characteristics and Translation of Vocabulary in Business English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Song; CAO Fang; GAO Zhi-jun

    2015-01-01

    As world economy stepped into the 21st century, international business activities are going on with increasing frequen⁃cy. Business English has become an indispensable communication language tool in international economy activities. Vocabulary is the minimal independent of applied unit composing meaningful unit, so it is likely to understand sentences well and translate the language accurately and precisely only when one fully understand every word.

  16. Analysis on the German Functionalist Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying

    2013-01-01

    German functionalist approach makes considerable contributions to translation studies for considering translation as an fact of intercultural communication and concentrate on the purpose and function of the target text. It distinctively promoted translation theory against the traditional translation views. The paper analyzes its main ideas ,contribution and criticism of the Ger⁃man Functionalist Translation Theory.

  17. On Cultivating Students' Ability to Utilize Automatic Translation Tools in Translation%On Cultivating Students'Ability to Utilize Automatic Translation Tools in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪宇红

    2016-01-01

    The information age has put forward higher demand for the translator not only to possess sound grounding in basic skills of translation, but also to grasp the advanced equipment and modern information technology to assist in their translation work. This paper explores the problems in automatic translation and proposes solutions in translation teaching.

  18. The methods to Translating of English Idiom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛媛; 郑庆列

    2008-01-01

    There are many languages including idioms and they are noted for the wealth of idiom.Idiom is an inalienable part of languages.There are mainly five methods while translating English idiom:equal replacement translation,liberal translation,literal tranalation,annotation translation and antithetical couplet and amplification translation.

  19. 论译技%On the Craft of Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马悦然

    2006-01-01

    作者认为,翻译之所以困难,是因为翻译过程涉及的两种语言具有不同的结构形态;理想的译者必须有高超的翻译技巧,并且同时对原文作者和译文读者负责.译者应尽力模仿原文作者,理想的译文必须与原文相像.此外,作者还提议将文学翻译看成是文化交流的重要组成部分.%In the following talk, Professor Malmqvist addresses the topic of the difficulty of translation, arguing that it results from the difference in patterning between the two languages involved in the translational process. He insists that ideally, the translator should be a highly skilled craftsman with a double responsibility toward both the writer of the original text and his own readers. The translator should try his or her very best to imitate the original author, and the translation should strive to be a likeness of the original. He also suggests that literary translation be seen as an important part of cultural communication.

  20. Ethical considerations in tissue engineering research: Case studies in translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Hannah B; McQuilling, John P; King, Nancy M P

    2016-04-15

    Tissue engineering research is a complex process that requires investigators to focus on the relationship between their research and anticipated gains in both knowledge and treatment improvements. The ethical considerations arising from tissue engineering research are similarly complex when addressing the translational progression from bench to bedside, and investigators in the field of tissue engineering act as moral agents at each step of their research along the translational pathway, from early benchwork and preclinical studies to clinical research. This review highlights the ethical considerations and challenges at each stage of research, by comparing issues surrounding two translational tissue engineering technologies: the bioartificial pancreas and a tissue engineered skeletal muscle construct. We present relevant ethical issues and questions to consider at each step along the translational pathway, from the basic science bench to preclinical research to first-in-human clinical trials. Topics at the bench level include maintaining data integrity, appropriate reporting and dissemination of results, and ensuring that studies are designed to yield results suitable for advancing research. Topics in preclinical research include the principle of "modest translational distance" and appropriate animal models. Topics in clinical research include key issues that arise in early-stage clinical trials, including selection of patient-subjects, disclosure of uncertainty, and defining success. The comparison of these two technologies and their ethical issues brings to light many challenges for translational tissue engineering research and provides guidance for investigators engaged in development of any tissue engineering technology.

  1. TRANSLATION AND TRANSFER OF THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANIA PETCOVICI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the challenges of translating economic texts requires, first, an analysis of the economic system itself, its nature, content, forms, etc. The difference between the economic systems of different countries is a major problem in terms of translation, which involves transferring the economic reality of the source language into the economic reality of the target language. This paper will analyze in the first part some examples of terms and concepts considered untranslatable, and in the second part it will discuss some formal and structural elements specific for the economy of the European Union.

  2. Not Lost in Translation: Changing Intervention Delivery Mechanisms in e-Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    This workshop will explore the challenges in translating existing health interventions to new e-health delivery mechanisms. Challenges to be covered include: identifying and retaining the active ingredients of an intervention; and measurement and validation of newly translated interventions. This session will appeal to health researchers and e-health developers. Participants will have an opportunity to work on cases in small groups to foster in-depth discussion and sharing. Following this session, participants will be able to articulate critical issues to be addressed in translating interventions to a new delivery mechanism and share potential solutions to various translation challenges.

  3. Addressing risk factors for child abuse among high risk pregnant women: design of a randomised controlled trial of the nurse family partnership in Dutch preventive health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejdoubi Jamila

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low socio-economic status combined with other risk factors affects a person's physical and psychosocial health from childhood to adulthood. The societal impact of these problems is huge, and the consequences carry on into the next generation(s. Although several studies show these consequences, only a few actually intervene on these issues. In the United States, the Nurse Family Partnership focuses on high risk pregnant women and their children. The main goal of this program is primary prevention of child abuse. The Netherlands is the first country outside the United States allowed to translate and culturally adapt the Nurse Family Partnership into VoorZorg. The aim of the present study is to assess whether VoorZorg is as effective in the Netherland as in the United States. Methods The study consists of three partly overlapping phases. Phase 1 was the translation and cultural adaptation of Nurse Family Partnership and the design of a two-stage selection procedure. Phase 2 was a pilot study to examine the conditions for implementation. Phase 3 is the randomized controlled trial of VoorZorg compared to the care as usual. Primary outcome measures were smoking cessation during pregnancy and after birth, birth outcomes, child development, child abuse and domestic violence. The secondary outcome measure was the number of risk factors present. Discussion This study shows that the Nurse Family Partnership was successfully translated and culturally adapted into the Dutch health care system and that this program fulfills the needs of high-risk pregnant women. We hypothesize that this program will be effective in addressing risk factors that operate during pregnancy and childhood and compromise fetal and child development. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16131117

  4. Bowker, L. et al., eds. Unity in diversity? current trends in translation studies. Bowker, L. et al., eds. Unity in diversity? current trends in translation studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Vasconcellos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Unity in Diversity? Current Trends in Translation Studies—a result of the diverse range of phenomena addressed in the Dublin City University Translation Studies (TS Conference (1996—proves to be a timely publication of St. Jerome Publishing at the end of the 20th century. This collection of papers exploring the central and uptodate issue of disciplinary identity in the young academic field of TS is in tune with the present concern in the area, as can be seen in the topic suggested for the international Translation Conference I IATIS Conference:“Disciplinary Identity—Redefining Translation in the 21st Century” (cf. www.iatis.org/content/korea/programme.php, to be held in 2005. Unity in Diversity? Current Trends in Translation Studies—a result of the diverse range of phenomena addressed in the Dublin City University Translation Studies (TS Conference (1996—proves to be a timely publication of St. Jerome Publishing at the end of the 20th century. This collection of papers exploring the central and uptodate issue of disciplinary identity in the young academic field of TS is in tune with the present concern in the area, as can be seen in the topic suggested for the international Translation Conference I IATIS Conference:“Disciplinary Identity—Redefining Translation in the 21st Century” (cf. www.iatis.org/content/korea/programme.php, to be held in 2005.

  5. Harold Pinter in Slovene Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Hribar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the translation of Harold Pinter’s most notable stylistic peculiarities into Slovene, illustrating its main points with examples taken from his play The Homecoming. The findings demonstrate above all a marked degree of non-observance of the special verbal pattern (special cohesion of the originals, a failure to convey Pinter’s special configuration of meaning (special coherence, and a disregard for internal unifying coincidences. It argues that the Slovene translations of Pinter rely mostly on traditional theories of meaning and of language norms, thus preventing the reproduction of those emotional and psychological actions of Pinter’s characters which are usually not expressed by means of the rhetorical, informative elements of his dialogue, but by its form and sonority, i. e. the length, strength, and level of articulation of verbal expression. This blurs Pinter’s famous logic of emotion, narrows the proverbial openness and conceptual uncertainty of his plays, and limits their potential vitality in translation. Taking into account current drama and theatre translation practices in Slovenia, i.e. the rarity of published drama translation and the dependence on a translated performance text for subsequent theatrical productions, the article argues that in such cases the drama translation should be retrospective, i.e. aiming at a maximum reconstruction of all relevant linguistic, stylistic, and textual properties of the original, leaving expressly subjective interventions in the text to the theatre practitioners.

  6. Translating Romans: some persistent headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. du Toit

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Translating Romans: some persistent headaches Gone are the days when it was axiomatic that expertise in biblical languages automatically qualified one as a Bible translator. In 1949, Ronald Knox, who for nine years conscientiously struggled with translating the Bible for his generation, published a booklet under the title The trials of a translator. At that stage Bible translation as the subject of scientific study was still in its infancy. Since then, research into the intricacies of communicating the biblical message in an authentic but understandable manner, has made significant progress (cf. Roberts, 2009. However, the frustrations of Bible translators, first of all to really understand what the biblical authors wanted to convey to their original addressees, and then to commu-nicate that message to their own targeted readers in a meaningful way, have not disappeared. In fact, the challenge to meet the vary-ing requirements of the multiple kinds of translation that are present-ly in vogue, has only increased.

  7. Strategies for Translating Vocative Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga COJOCARU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the linguistic and cultural elements of vocative texts and the techniques used in translating them by giving some examples of texts that are typically vocative (i.e. advertisements and instructions for use. Semantic and communicative strategies are popular in translation studies and each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages in translating vocative texts. The advantage of semantic translation is that it takes more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text, while communicative translation attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original text in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership. Focus is laid on the strategies used in translating vocative texts, strategies that highlight and introduce a cultural context to the target audience, in order to achieve their overall purpose, that is to sell or persuade the reader to behave in a certain way. Thus, in order to do that, a number of advertisements from the field of cosmetics industry and electronic gadgets were selected for analysis. The aim is to gather insights into vocative text translation and to create new perspectives on this field of research, now considered a process of innovation and diversion, especially in areas as important as economy and marketing.

  8. Translating Fashion into Danish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Riegels Melchior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available With their association to enterprise and innovation, creative industries have emerged as a legitimate concern in national cultural and economical policy in many countries across the world. In Denmark, the fashion business, in particular, has been hailed as a model for successful (postindustrial transformation. In this paper, we explore the birth of Danish fashion from the ashes of the country’s clothing manufacturing industry, suggesting that the very notion of Danish fashion is indicative of – and enabled by – a development towards a polycentric fashion system. The intriguing idea that fashion could emanate from Denmark and secure growth, jobs and exports even outside the fashion business has taken hold among policymakers, and compelled the government to embrace fashion as a national project. In investigating the emergence and rising stature of Danish fashion, particular at home, we first establish a theoretical frame for understanding the cultural economic policy and the motives, principles and strategies behind it. Then – drawing inspiration from Michel Callon’s “sociology of translation” with its moments of translation: problematization, interessement, enrolment and mobilization – we identify the actors and analyze their strategic roles and interrelationship through various phases of the development of Danish fashion. Callon’s actor network theory (ANT is based on the principle of “generalized symmetry” – originally using a single repertoire to analyze both society and nature. We adapt this principle to study the realms of market, culture and politics within a common analytical framework. In our analysis, the state responds to industry transformation, interprets it and develops its own agenda. But it can hardly be said to develop policies for the industry. On the contrary, we suggest, fashion is mobilized to lend its luster to the nation, its institutions and politicians.

  9. Literary Translation: The Experience of Translating Chinua Achebe's "Arrow of God" into French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Almeida, Irene

    1981-01-01

    Uses Achebe's "Arrow of God" as example of difficulty in translating English into French when author and translators are not native speakers of these languages. Suggests inventing French gibberish or use of translator's notes to translate Pidgin English. (BK)

  10. Translating West African Strategy with Airpower Means: A Qualitative Comparison of Tactical Airlift Shaping Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Africa directly affect the global economy. In this context, the United States’ foreign strategy directly corresponds to the protection of American...TRANSLATING WEST AFRICAN STRATEGY WITH AIRPOWER MEANS: A QUALITATIVE COMPARISON OF TACTICAL AIRLIFT SHAPING OPERATIONS A thesis...Translating West African Strategy with Airpower Means: A Qualitative Comparison of Tactical Airlift Shaping Operations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  11. Development of Translation Materials to Assess International Students' Mental Health Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalungsooth, Pornthip; Schneller, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    International college students in the United States often face adjustment difficulties; therefore, cultural sensitivity is necessary to help them express their concerns. This article describes the development of translations of international students' common mental health concerns into 7 languages. Suggestions for the use of translated materials…

  12. Understanding Discourse Competence in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masduki Masduki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Discourse as a communication event is influenced by topic being communicated, interpersonal relationship between the communicants, and communication channel used in context. Whatever senses created by the communicants is fully related to culture and situation being involved. Participating in conversation, reading, writing, and translating, activates discourse competence, which requires the use of a set of strategy to realize or mobilize all declarative knowledge in the real context of communication. Further, this article highlights the discourse competence and how it is culturally implemented in translation as an activity of transferring messages. The discussion covers the overview of discourse competence, discourse approach, and discourse competence in translation.

  13. Population genetics of translational robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Claus O; Drummond, D Allan

    2006-05-01

    Recent work has shown that expression level is the main predictor of a gene's evolutionary rate and that more highly expressed genes evolve slower. A possible explanation for this observation is selection for proteins that fold properly despite mistranslation, in short selection for translational robustness. Translational robustness leads to the somewhat paradoxical prediction that highly expressed genes are extremely tolerant to missense substitutions but nevertheless evolve very slowly. Here, we study a simple theoretical model of translational robustness that allows us to gain analytic insight into how this paradoxical behavior arises.

  14. On automatic machine translation evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka Verdonik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An important task of developing machine translation (MT is evaluating system performance. Automatic measures are most commonly used for this task, as manual evaluation is time-consuming and costly. However, to perform an objective evaluation is not a trivial task. Automatic measures, such as BLEU, TER, NIST, METEOR etc., have their own weaknesses, while manual evaluations are also problematic since they are always to some extent subjective. In this paper we test the influence of a test set on the results of automatic MT evaluation for the subtitling domain. Translating subtitles is a rather specific task for MT, since subtitles are a sort of summarization of spoken text rather than a direct translation of (written text. Additional problem when translating language pair that does not include English, in our example Slovene-Serbian, is that commonly the translations are done from English to Serbian and from English to Slovenian, and not directly, since most of the TV production is originally filmed in English. All this poses additional challenges to MT and consequently to MT evaluation. Automatic evaluation is based on a reference translation, which is usually taken from an existing parallel corpus and marked as a test set. In our experiments, we compare the evaluation results for the same MT system output using three types of test set. In the first round, the test set are 4000 subtitles from the parallel corpus of subtitles SUMAT. These subtitles are not direct translations from Serbian to Slovene or vice versa, but are based on an English original. In the second round, the test set are 1000 subtitles randomly extracted from the first test set and translated anew, from Serbian to Slovenian, based solely on the Serbian written subtitles. In the third round, the test set are the same 1000 subtitles, however this time the Slovene translations were obtained by manually correcting the Slovene MT outputs so that they are correct translations of the

  15. Translation and spaces of reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Scott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses relations between the original and translation in terms of imaginary spaces. Target text is understood here as one of the possible images of the source text, from the perspective which could not be accessible to the original. In accordance with the concept presented here, artistic translation can be not so much reconstructed, as conceptually constructed, in the manner of a cubist object. Acts of creative reading are commented on by the author with examples of his own experimental translations from contemporary French poetry.

  16. The Translator's Turn: in the Cultural Turn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玮玮

    2003-01-01

    @@ Introduction: Douglas Robinson rose to the defense of the " atheoretical" American literary translator in The Translator's Turn (1991). Here, I borrowed the title from him, but I will write my paper in the thought of the translator's role in translating. In his book, Robinson argued that the literary translator embodies an integration of feeling and thought, of intuition and systematization. In analyzing the " turn" that the translator take from the source text to the target text, Robinson offered a " dialogical" model, that is the translator's dialogical engagement with the source language and with the ethic of the target language. Robinson allows for the translator to intervene, subvert, divert, even entertain, emphasizing the creative aspect of literary translation. The translation linguists, scientists, and philosophers have had their chance at translation theory; now it is time, he argued, for the literary translators to have their " turn".

  17. Translation-A Process of Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viola Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Translation is a process that involves transformation and reproduction. This essay discusses some useful techniques of trans-lating practice by introducing a simple model. A few examples of good translation are presented to support explaining the model cleady.

  18. Translation of Conversational Implicature and the Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Grice introduced the theory of conversational implicature which is essential in translation, especially in conversation translation of fictions. Four most commonly-seen and effective strategies of translating the conversational implicature are going to discussed.

  19. Sucrose dependent translational dynamics in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, M.

    2011-01-01

    Sucrose dependent translational dynamics Gene expression is regulated at several different levels starting from chromatin remodeling and transcription in the nucleus to translation and post-translational modifications in the cytosol. Depending on the gene and circumstances, different regulatory mech

  20. On Technical Translation-Usability Strategies for Translating Technical Documentation by Jody Byrne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪辉

    2013-01-01

      Numerous books concerning technical translation deal with specific translation skills, or function as a summary of the au⁃thors’own translation experience with few of them devoted to the theorized study on technical translation. Jody Byrne’s book pio⁃neers in theoretical study on technical translation and is of great value to our Chinese technical translation study.

  1. Translation of Idioms in Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹丹

    2009-01-01

    <正>This paper explains two approaches to the translation of idioms in Chinese literature: free translation and literal translation.Chinese idioms,in its broad sense including set phrases,proverbs and two-part allegorical,have the specific features and rich in their content.By analyzing the basic principles of translation,we can better understand how to make full use of various translation methods,which can lay a good foundation for the translation of Chinese idioms.

  2. Discussion on Misunderstandings of Translation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莎

    2008-01-01

    Translation is required as a compulsory course for English majors in many universities in China.With the development of globalization,a large number of translators are needed.Therefore, translation teaching is significant for the training of high-qualified translation personnel for the society.The purpose of this study is to give a basic introduction of the misunderstandings existing in translation teaching in China and to offer some advices in hope of promoting translation teaching in China.

  3. Discussion on Misunderstandings of Translation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莎

    2008-01-01

    Translation is required as a compulsory course for English majors in many universities in China. With the development of globalization, a large number of translators are needed. Therefore, translation teaching is significant for the training of high-qualified translation personnel for the society. The purpose of this study is to give a basic introduction of the misunderstandings existing in translation teaching in China and to offer some advices in hope of promoting translation teaching in China.

  4. MT In Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志新

    2009-01-01

    In this article the operational principles of MT in business English translation is briefly introduced with an aim to point out that to improve the MT quality machine study is a key factor to work on.

  5. Approaches to translational plant science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Christensen, Brian; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Translational science deals with the dilemma between basic research and the practical application of scientific results. In translational plant science, focus is on the relationship between agricultural crop production and basic science in various research fields, but primarily in the basic plant...... science. Scientific and technological developments have allowed great progress in our understanding of plant genetics and molecular physiology, with potentials for improving agricultural production. However, this development has led to a separation of the laboratory-based research from the crop production...... is lessened. In our opinion, implementation of translational plant science is a necessity in order to solve the agricultural challenges of producing food and materials in the future. We suggest an approach to translational plant science forcing scientists to think beyond their own area and to consider higher...

  6. Foregrounding Theory and Fiction Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳

    2014-01-01

    Foregrounding is a concept that originally introduced from pictorial art. The function of foregrounding is to attract the audiences' attention so as to achieve certain expected artistic effects with the rest persons or things backgrounded.For a long time, foregrounding theory has been widely applied to linguistics, stylistics, literary creation and research whereas rarely being employed to translation activities. Not until late 19th century did Ye Zinan proposed that this theory could be applied to translation practice. He only put forward the relevant assumption on foregrounding theory. Based on English linguist Geoffrey Leech's deviation theory and Ye Zinan's assumption on the application of foregrounding theory to translation practice, this paper aims to draw translators' attention to foregrounding factors concealed in literary works, especially in novels, and to provide some basic means for them to render these foregrounding features into the relevant foregrounding expressions in the target language.

  7. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    . Lexicographers should therefore design their dictionaries so that they contain intra-lingual or contrastive descriptions of the relevant genre conventions. As illustrated in Nielsen (2000) whether the best solution is to retain the genre conventions found in the SL text or to adopt the conventions used in TL...... to treat one or few sub-fields extensively at the expense of the other sub-fields. Furthermore, Nord (2005), among others, shows that translation is not limited to terms but also concerns syntactic structures and genre conventions in the two cultures concerned and involves the use of various translation...... are used across sub-genres within the legal genre, e.g. contracts and statutes, so translators are likely to meet them relatively often and need to know how to translate them. Examples of relevant syntactic constructions are pre-modified syntagmas with a noun as the head word, and the use of inversion...

  8. Translational selection in human: More pronounced in housekeeping genes

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Lina

    2014-07-10

    Background: Translational selection is a ubiquitous and significant mechanism to regulate protein expression in prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes. Recent evidence has shown that translational selection is weakly operative in highly expressed genes in human and other vertebrates. However, it remains unclear whether translational selection acts differentially on human genes depending on their expression patterns.Results: Here we report that human housekeeping (HK) genes that are strictly defined as genes that are expressed ubiquitously and consistently in most or all tissues, are under stronger translational selection.Conclusions: These observations clearly show that translational selection is also closely associated with expression pattern. Our results suggest that human HK genes are more efficiently and/or accurately translated into proteins, which will inevitably open up a new understanding of HK genes and the regulation of gene expression.Reviewers: This article was reviewed by Yuan Yuan, Baylor College of Medicine; Han Liang, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (nominated by Dr Laura Landweber) Eugene Koonin, NCBI, NLM, NIH, United States of America Sandor Pongor, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and biotechnology (ICGEB), Italy. © 2014 Ma et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  9. An International and Interdisciplinary View:Translation Studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edwin Gentzler

    2005-01-01

    @@ In his book In Search of a Theory of Translation (1980), Gideon Toury suggested that scholars keep an open mind when defining the object of study for their field. He suggested that scholars study translation phenomena wherever they occur and that the definition for the field include any text "that is regarded as a translation from the intrinsic point of view of the target system" (1980: 73). Because the field had yet to collect a corpus of texts for study, Toury cautioned against preconceived notions of translation and the exclusion of texts because of differing definitions and national traditions. Toury's idea was quite radical at the time, for it challenged traditional definitions and opened the field to many types of texts not considered by the discipline. I want to go even one step further: I suggest there are many texts that some cultures often do not consider as translations but which also need be included in the field's definitions. China and the United States may be two countries where such "hidden"translations occur.

  10. GAO Jian's Theoretical Thoughts in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区沛仪

    2016-01-01

    As an experienced translator and theorist, GAO Jian has translated numerous English works into Chinese and pub-lished a series of theoretical thoughts concerning the most fundamental problems in translation studies. He has formed a unique style in translation and proposed some theoretical concepts with great expertise. Gao represents the translators'spirit of the time. His theories are highly comprehensive and pragmatic. His discussion of translatability of style, relativity and the Language Characteristics Theory reflect the academic thinking among translators in China, which inspires many young translators and the-orists.

  11. A Tentative Analysis of Translatability and Untranslatability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐越

    2014-01-01

    Translation is a field full of paradoxes. During the long history of their intensive debate, translatability and untranslatability have experienced ebb and flow of people’ s preferences. On the one hand, language should be translatable; on the other hand, owing to the existence of certain differences, language is sometimes not completely translatable. Translatability and untranslatability inseparably exist side by side. The thesis casts an overview of translatability study both at home and abroad, inquires into the bases of translatability and un-translatability from the perspective of functional equivalence, and presents a dialectical analysis of the relationship between the two.

  12. A Cultural View on Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜莉莉

    2009-01-01

    The most common difficulty in transhdon studies has traditionally been the dilemma between the historical and synchronic approaches in the analysis and description of the culture of transhdon. Most of works of other culture are read in translation. At the same time,transhtion could provide a way into an analysis for the transmission of culture such as across linguistic boundaries and generations. So readers may know other culture directly or indirectly by translation. The two are interdependent in some extent.

  13. Population genetics of translational robustness

    OpenAIRE

    Wilke, Claus O; Drummond, D. Allan

    2005-01-01

    Recent work has shown that expression level is the main predictor of a gene’s evolutionary rate, and that more highly expressed genes evolve slower. A possible explanation for this observation is selection for proteins which fold properly despite mistranslation, in short selection for translational robustness. Translational robustness leads to the somewhat paradoxical prediction that highly expressed genes are extremely tolerant to missense substitutions but nevertheless evolve very slo...

  14. Translating Linguistic Jokes for Dubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ALEKSANDROVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has attempted to establish the possible ways of translating linguistic jokes whendubbing. The study is also intended to identify the most problematic cases of screen translation andthe factors which cause these problems. In order to support such an approach a corpus of 7American and British films has been compiled, including as many as 16 as their various dubbingtranslations into Russian. In the films, almost 12 instances of original linguistic jokes have beenidentified.

  15. Style and ideology in translation

    CERN Document Server

    Munday, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, this book investigates the style, or 'voice,' of English language translations of twentieth-century Latin American writing, including fiction, political speeches, and film. Existing models of stylistic analysis, supported at times by computer-assisted analysis, are developed to examine a range of works and writers, selected for their literary, cultural, and ideological importance. The style of the different translators is subjected to a close linguistic investigation within their cultural and ideological framework.

  16. Indeterminacy of translation and impaired intersubjectivity in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönknecht, Peter; Mundt, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Impaired intersubjectivity in schizophrenia has been subject to debate in clinical psychiatry and psychotherapy. In this paper, we will discuss recent perspectives on disordered intersubjectivity among the core symptoms of schizophrenic psychoses. Based on symptoms crucial for communication deficits in schizophrenia, we address indeterminacy of translation as a potential default in the therapeutic setting. The concept of indeterminacy of translation reviewed here assumes that no reference for translation of languages is given, but principles to substitute this non-referring space of unknown terms are to be demonstrated: firstly, a maxim of indulgence which requires that as many true considerations as possible have to be achieved by the final interpretation of a proposition, and secondly, a coherence which is given when the considerations are deductable and not contradictory. Indulgence and coherence are hypothesized as reflecting an approximation process of reconstructing intersubjectivity in conditions where it is severely disturbed such as schizophrenia.

  17. Predicting Post-Editor Profiles from the Translation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Karan; Orrego-Carmona, David; Gonzales, Ashleigh Rhea

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation is to predict post-editor profiles based on user behaviour and demographics using machine learning techniques to gain a better understanding of post-editor styles. Our study extracts process unit features from the CasMaCat LS14 database from the CRITT...... of translation process features. The classification and clustering of participants resulting from our study suggest this type of exploration could be used as a tool to develop new translation tool features or customization possibilities....

  18. The Complexities of Translating Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Bassnett

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers some of the long-standing debates about translating poetry, and explores the strategies used to bring about creative transposition through a series of examples, including translations from Persian, Korean and Welsh. The author drawsupon her own experiences both as a translator and translation scholar, also as one of the judges of the prestigious Stephen Spender poetry in translation prize for the last decade. The essay argues that the translator of a poem is both its rewriter and its recreator, and highlights the organic metaphor used by poets such as Percy Bysse Shelley proposing that the translation of poetry necessarily involves transplantation into new soil. The essay concludes by pointing out that the two crucial elements in translating poetry are joyfulness and playfulness, which gives the lie to the old negative idea of poetry being what is lost in translation.The translation of poetry is therefore a creative act, since it results in the blossoming of a new poem in a new language.Il saggio prende in esame una parte del dibatto di lunga data sulla traduzione della poesia e analizza le strategie utilizzate per trasporre la creatività attraverso una serie di esempi, tra i quali anche versioni dal persiano, coreano e gallese. L’autrice attinge allapropria esperienza di traduttrice e di studiosa della traduzione, anche in qualità di giudice nel corso dell’ultimo decennio del prestigioso premio per la traduzione poetica Stephen Spender. L’articolo sostiene che il traduttore di poesia è  contemporaneamente ri-scrittore e ri-creatore della stessa, e sottolinea la metafora biologica impiegata da poeti quali Percy Bysse Shelley secondo la quale la traduzione di poesia implica necessariamente il trapianto in un nuovo terreno. Il saggio si conclude mostrando come i due elementi cruciali nella traduzione di poesia siano la gioiosità e la giocosità, le quali sconfessano l’antica concezione della poesia come di

  19. Translating Stem Cell Biology Into Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singeç, Ilyas; Simeonov, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cell research has made extraordinary progress over the last decade. The robustness of nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has created entirely novel opportunities for drug discovery and personalized regenerative medicine. Patient- and disease-specific iPSCs can be expanded indefinitely and differentiated into relevant cell types of different organ systems. As the utilization of iPSCs is becoming a key enabling technology across various scientific disciplines, there are still important challenges that need to be addressed. Here we review the current state and reflect on the issues that the stem cell and translational communities are facing in bringing iPSCs closer to clinical application.

  20. 77 FR 48429 - Commission Address Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION 29 CFR Parts 2700, 2701, 2702, 2704, 2705, 2706 Commission Address Change AGENCY... to inform the public of the address change. DATES: This final rule will take effect on August 27... because the amendments are of a minor and administrative nature dealing with only a change in address....

  1. Localizing apps a practical guide for translators and translation students

    CERN Document Server

    Roturier, Johann

    2015-01-01

    The software industry has undergone rapid development since the beginning of the twenty-first century. These changes have had a profound impact on translators who, due to the evolving nature of digital content, are under increasing pressure to adapt their ways of working. Localizing Apps looks at these challenges by focusing on the localization of software applications, or apps. In each of the five core chapters, Johann Roturier examines:The role of translation and other linguistic activities in adapting software to the needs of different cultures (localization);The procedures required to prep

  2. Domestication and Foreignization in Poetry Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉双

    2011-01-01

    Translation, especially the poetry translation, is very important in the process of language learning, so methods of translation seem to be more and more important in those days. This paper will provide you the method of how to translate poetry naturally

  3. On Features of EST and Its Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易高燕

    2009-01-01

    The study of translation has always been emphasizing the translation of literature, therefore, the translation of EST (English for science and technology), which is a special style or genre of English, doesn't get enough attention yet. This thesis attempts to discuss the translation of English for science and technology, and its features.

  4. Translator-computer interaction in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Kristine; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Though we lack empirically-based knowledge of the impact of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools on translation processes, it is generally agreed that all professional translators are now involved in some kind of translator-computer interaction (TCI), using O’Brien’s (2012) term. Taking a TCI...

  5. Power Relations and Translational Inequality in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianbin, He

    2007-01-01

    Chinese translation to and from Japanese and English verifies the hypothesis that power differentials influence the flow and reception of translations. The Chinese tradition of translation has been characterised by fluency, but some scholars have recently advocated foreignisation for English to Chinese translation, and domestication for Chinese to…

  6. The Role of Semantics in Translation Recognition: Effects of Number of Translations, Dominance of Translations and Semantic Relatedness of Multiple Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxen, Jannika; Lavaur, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of multiple translations of a word on bilingual processing in three translation recognition experiments during which French-English bilinguals had to decide whether two words were translations of each other or not. In the first experiment, words with only one translation were recognized as translations…

  7. Daisaku Ikeda and the Culture of Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebert, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Although not functionally multilingual or a translator himself, Daisaku Ikeda has been deeply involved in translation processes, both as a reader and as someone who has produced texts for translation into various languages. This article examines two sources of influence shaping Ikeda's attitude toward translation culture: the flourishing culture…

  8. Translation Ambiguity in and out of Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Wintner, Shuly; MacWhinney, Brian; Lavie, Alon

    2011-01-01

    We compare translations of single words, made by bilingual speakers in a laboratory setting, with contextualized translation choices of the same items, made by professional translators and extracted from parallel language corpora. The translation choices in both cases show moderate convergence, demonstrating that decontextualized translation…

  9. Media Translation and Cultural Soft Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段蕾

    2015-01-01

    Media translation is a kind of applied translation,itis the symbol of a country’s development,and the demonstration of its cultural soft power.This essay mainly talks about how does media translation affect a country’s cultural soft power from three forms of media translation-news,movie and television,newspapers and magazines.

  10. Allocation of Cognitive Resources in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    The present study is an empirical investigation of translators' allocation of cognitive resources during the translation process, and it aims at investigating how translators' mental processing resources are put to use during translation. The study bases ts analyses on quantitative eye-tracking...

  11. A WiFi public address system for disaster management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Nicholas; Palmer, Douglas A; Lenert, Leslie A

    2006-01-01

    The WiFi Bullhorn is designed to assist emergency workers in the event of a disaster situation by offering a rapidly configurable wireless of public address system for disaster sites. The current configuration plays either pre recorded or custom recorded messages and utilizes 802.11b networks for communication. Units can be position anywhere wireless coverage exists to help manage crowds or to recall first responders from dangerous areas.

  12. Application of‘Division’in E-C Translation of Long and Complex At-tributive Clauses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Cen

    2016-01-01

    The attributive clause plays a significant role in E-C translation. Due to the stylistic difference in Chinese and English (Chinese is paratactic while English is hypotactic), complex English attributive clauses cannot be translated literally as awkward-ness may occur. One possible approach to coping with the problem is the adoption of‘Division’in translating long English at-tributive clauses. This essay provides three steps in translating complex English attributive clauses into Chinese (clarifying mean-ing units, restructuring and polishing) and the accompanied techniques such as amplification and omission to make the transla-tion more readable and natural to Chinese readers.

  13. All Majorana Models with Translation Symmetry are Supersymmetric

    CERN Document Server

    Hsieh, Timothy H; Grover, Tarun

    2016-01-01

    We establish results similar to Kramers and Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorems but involving only translation symmetry and for Majorana modes. In particular, we show that all states are at least doubly degenerate in any one and two dimensional array of Majorana modes with translation symmetry, periodic boundary conditions, and an odd number of modes per unit cell. Moreover, we show that all such systems have an underlying N=2 supersymmetry and explicitly construct the generator of the supersymmetry. Furthermore, we show that there cannot be a unique gapped ground state in such one dimensional systems with anti-periodic boundary conditions. These general results are fundamentally a consequence of the fact that translations for Majorana modes are represented projectively, which in turn stems from the anomalous nature of a single Majorana mode.

  14. All Majorana Models with Translation Symmetry are Supersymmetric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Timothy H.; Halász, Gábor B.; Grover, Tarun

    2016-10-01

    We establish results similar to Kramers and Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorems but involving only translation symmetry and for Majorana modes. In particular, we show that all states are at least doubly degenerate in any one- and two-dimensional array of Majorana modes with translation symmetry, periodic boundary conditions, and an odd number of modes per unit cell. Moreover, we show that all such systems have an underlying N =2 supersymmetry and explicitly construct the generator of the supersymmetry. Furthermore, we establish that there cannot be a unique gapped ground state in such one-dimensional systems with antiperiodic boundary conditions. These general results are fundamentally a consequence of the fact that translations for Majorana modes are represented projectively, which in turn stems from the anomalous nature of a single Majorana mode. An experimental signature of the degeneracy arising from supersymmetry is a zero-bias peak in tunneling conductance.

  15. Translating Nondeterministic Functional Language based on Attribute Grammars into Java

    CERN Document Server

    Umeda, Masanobu; Sone, Hiroaki; Katamine, Keiichi

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge-based systems are suitable for realizing advanced functions that require domain-specific expert knowledge, while knowledge representation languages and their supporting environments are essential for realizing such systems. Although Prolog is useful and effective in realizing such a supporting environment, the language interoperability with other implementation languages, such as Java, is often an important issue in practical application development. This paper describes the techniques for translating a knowledge representation language that is a nondeterministic functional language based on attribute grammars into Java. The translation is based on binarization and the techniques proposed for Prolog to Java translation although the semantics are different from those of Prolog. A continuation unit is introduced to handle continuation efficiently, while the variable and register management on backtracking is simplified by using the single and unidirectional assignment features of variables. An experim...

  16. A Taxonomy of Human Translation Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara; Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2011-01-01

    While the translation profession becomes increasingly technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we outline a method which helps to uncover characteristics of human translation processes. Based o...... on the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis for a felicitous and grounded integration of human machine interaction in translation....

  17. History and theory of Scripture translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Loba-Mkole

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article argues for the importance of Bible translations through its historical achievements and theoretical frames of reference. The missionary expansion of Christianity owes its very being to translations. The early Christian communities knew the Bible through the LXX translations while churches today still continue to use various translations. Translations shape Scripture interpretations, especially when a given interpretation depends on a particular translation. A particular interpretation can also influence a given translation. The article shows how translation theories have been developed to clarify and how the transaction source-target is culturally handled. The articles discuss some of these “theoretical frames”, namely the functional equivalence, relevance, literary functional equivalence and intercultural mediation. By means of a historical overview and a reflection on Bible translation theories the article aims to focus on the role of Africa in translation history.

  18. On the Notion of Equivalence in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to translations, varies cultures are allowed to exchange with one another. One the one hand, this has been promoting the studies of translation. On the other hand, this poses huge challenges on translators, because it is hard to define what is a good target translation when a source text is translated. There is a variety of standards to evaluate the quality of a translation, among which equivalence seems to be the most controversial one. On the analysis of studies on equivalence, this essay discusses the role of equivalence in the practice of translating with illustrations of Chinese-English and English-Chinese translation. Indeed, to translate a source text into a target one is based on the equivalence among languages. However, in the process of translating, it can be adjusted to some extent for the sake of the acceptability in the target culture.

  19. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  20. Indicators of Difficulty in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to investigate the correlation between indicators of difficulty observable in translation product and translation process data respectively. It has been claimed that the number of alternative renditions in the target text across a group of subjects translating the same source...... and self-corrections. We found highly significant correlations between product and process data: high target text variability across subjects correlated with high fixation counts, long gaze time and long pauses. High variability in the target text was also associated with more self-corrections, but we...... text item indicates the degree of cognitive effort. We identified words with high versus low target text variability across eight subjects and related these to various indicators of difficulty observable in process data from eye-tracking and keystroke logging: number of fixations, gaze time, pauses...

  1. A Simple Analysis on Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Yue

    2016-01-01

    With the development of economic globalization, foreign business activities have penetrated into all aspects of the society. Meanwhile business English translation plays an indispensable role in foreign business communication as a bridge. This paper carries out a simple analysis about business English translation based on three aspects: linguistic features of business English, translation methods of business English, criteria in business English translation. Based on the analysis, some feasible suggestions have been proposed for business English translators.

  2. Publishing translated works: Examining the process

    OpenAIRE

    Garby, Taisha Mary

    2015-01-01

    Greystone Books Ltd., based in Vancouver, publishes many translated works. This report is intended to examine the benefits of publishing translated works and compare that to publishing original English language works. This report will analyze two translated works: Gut: The Inside Story of Our Body’s Most Underrated Organ by Giulia Enders, which was translated from German to English, and 1000 Lashes: Because I Say What I Think by Raif Badawi, which was translated from Arabic to English. Greyst...

  3. Review of A Textbook of Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王存娟

    2016-01-01

    In recent years,firstly,we are lack of original transla-tion books;secondly,there are more and more graduate students who are studying translation.Thus,we need to import foreign translation study books,like A Textbook of Translation,in order to have better understanding of this book and Peter Newmark’ideas of translation, there is a need to conduct a brief review of this book.

  4. Cultural Identity and Otherness in Literary Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞凌

    2011-01-01

    Culture and language are close bounded.Cultural similarities provide a basis for translation and cultural exchange.It is widely agreed that cultural differences pose the greatest difficulties in translation.Cultural difference can be categorized into cultural blank and cultural conflict.When translating cultural otherness,different translators employ different translating strategies which are determined by translators’ idiosyncrasy,either to preserve or transform cultural images.

  5. Diglossia in Literary Translation: Accommodation into Translation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zughoul, Muhammad Raji; El-Badarien, Mohammed Nasser

    Sociolinguistic research on varieties of language and language variation, along with the necessity for meeting "equivalence" in terms of the appropriateness of the variety to the context have been well recognized in the formulation of a translation theory. However, the treatment of variation has always been restricted to dialect and has not…

  6. Principles of Fidelity in Dynamic Equivalence Translation for Trainee Translators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘屹

    2011-01-01

    For trainee translators,the question of to what extent equivalence can be achieved between the source text and the target text is always one of the most challenging parts to deal with.The paper tries to provide core principles of fidelity in dynamic equiv

  7. Translation Technologies: A Dilemma between Translation Industry and Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakul, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Today, physical and virtual borders are shrinking thanks to technology whose footprints are greater and faster than one can imagine. Beyond the shadow of a doubt, technology is associated with the areas for which it offers solutions such as education technologies, health technologies and translation technologies. Nowadays using translation…

  8. JavaScript DNA translator: DNA-aligned protein translations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William L

    2002-12-01

    There are many instances in molecular biology when it is necessary to identify ORFs in a DNA sequence. While programs exist for displaying protein translations in multiple ORFs in alignment with a DNA sequence, they are often expensive, exist as add-ons to software that must be purchased, or are only compatible with a particular operating system. JavaScript DNA Translator is a shareware application written in JavaScript, a scripting language interpreted by the Netscape Communicator and Internet Explorer Web browsers, which makes it compatible with several different operating systems. While the program uses a familiar Web page interface, it requires no connection to the Internet since calculations are performed on the user's own computer. The program analyzes one or multiple DNA sequences and generates translations in up to six reading frames aligned to a DNA sequence, in addition to displaying translations as separate sequences in FASTA format. ORFs within a reading frame can also be displayed as separate sequences. Flexible formatting options are provided, including the ability to hide ORFs below a minimum size specified by the user. The program is available free of charge at the BioTechniques Software Library (www.Biotechniques.com).

  9. Broadening the translational immunology landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peakman, M

    2012-12-01

    It is just over 5 years since Clinical and Experimental Immunology came under the direction of a new team of Editors and made a concerted effort to refresh its approach to promoting clinical and applied immunology through its pages. There were two major objectives: to foster papers in a field which, at the time, we loosely termed 'translational immunology'; and to create a forum for the presentation and discussion of immunology that is relevant to clinicians operating in this space. So, how are we doing with these endeavours? This brief paper aims to summarize some of the key learning points and successes and highlight areas in which translational gaps remain.

  10. Immunocapture strategies in translational proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredolini, Claudia; Byström, Sanna; Pin, Elisa; Edfors, Fredrik; Tamburro, Davide; Iglesias, Maria Jesus; Häggmark, Anna; Hong, Mun-Gwan; Uhlen, Mathias; Nilsson, Peter; Schwenk, Jochen M

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at clinical studies of human diseases, antibody-assisted assays have been applied to biomarker discovery and toward a streamlined translation from patient profiling to assays supporting personalized treatments. In recent years, integrated strategies to couple and combine antibodies with mass spectrometry-based proteomic efforts have emerged, allowing for novel possibilities in basic and clinical research. Described in this review are some of the field's current and emerging immunocapture approaches from an affinity proteomics perspective. Discussed are some of their advantages, pitfalls and opportunities for the next phase in clinical and translational proteomics.

  11. A syntax-oriented translator

    CERN Document Server

    Ingerman, Peter Zilahy

    1966-01-01

    A Syntax-Oriented Translator focuses on the field of programming and the characteristics and functions of compilers and translators.The book first offers information on the metasyntactic language and the details of a parsing processor. Discussions focus on processing, recovery, and output sections, detailed flow-chart of the parsing processor, parsing form of a grammar, canonical ordering, and the metasyntactic language in general. The text then elaborates on some extensions to the metasyntactic language and metasemantic and metapragmatic language, including punctuation marks and format contro

  12. Literary translation and quality assessment analysis – its significance in translation training

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight the role of translation quality assessment in translation training so as to develop students’ translation competence and skills to face translation problems. An analysis to assess literary translation quality is proposed before proceeding to discuss its pedagogical implementation.

  13. On the Translation Strategies in Zhang Guruo Translation of Tess of the D'urbervilles S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏宁

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides readers with an analysis of the translation strategies at different levels in Zhang Guruo' s translated version of Tess of the D' Urbervilles, aiming at enriching the understanding of Zhang Guruo' s translation theory and translation practice which may give some evidence and enlightenment for the further studies on literary translation under the context of culture.

  14. Dynamics of Chloroplast Translation during Chloroplast Differentiation in Maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakitchai Chotewutmontri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chloroplast genomes in land plants contain approximately 100 genes, the majority of which reside in polycistronic transcription units derived from cyanobacterial operons. The expression of chloroplast genes is integrated into developmental programs underlying the differentiation of photosynthetic cells from non-photosynthetic progenitors. In C4 plants, the partitioning of photosynthesis between two cell types, bundle sheath and mesophyll, adds an additional layer of complexity. We used ribosome profiling and RNA-seq to generate a comprehensive description of chloroplast gene expression at four stages of chloroplast differentiation, as displayed along the maize seedling leaf blade. The rate of protein output of most genes increases early in development and declines once the photosynthetic apparatus is mature. The developmental dynamics of protein output fall into several patterns. Programmed changes in mRNA abundance make a strong contribution to the developmental shifts in protein output, but output is further adjusted by changes in translational efficiency. RNAs with prioritized translation early in development are largely involved in chloroplast gene expression, whereas those with prioritized translation in photosynthetic tissues are generally involved in photosynthesis. Differential gene expression in bundle sheath and mesophyll chloroplasts results primarily from differences in mRNA abundance, but differences in translational efficiency amplify mRNA-level effects in some instances. In most cases, rates of protein output approximate steady-state protein stoichiometries, implying a limited role for proteolysis in eliminating unassembled or damaged proteins under non-stress conditions. Tuned protein output results from gene-specific trade-offs between translational efficiency and mRNA abundance, both of which span a large dynamic range. Analysis of ribosome footprints at sites of RNA editing showed that the chloroplast translation machinery

  15. Dynamics of Chloroplast Translation during Chloroplast Differentiation in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotewutmontri, Prakitchai; Barkan, Alice

    2016-07-01

    Chloroplast genomes in land plants contain approximately 100 genes, the majority of which reside in polycistronic transcription units derived from cyanobacterial operons. The expression of chloroplast genes is integrated into developmental programs underlying the differentiation of photosynthetic cells from non-photosynthetic progenitors. In C4 plants, the partitioning of photosynthesis between two cell types, bundle sheath and mesophyll, adds an additional layer of complexity. We used ribosome profiling and RNA-seq to generate a comprehensive description of chloroplast gene expression at four stages of chloroplast differentiation, as displayed along the maize seedling leaf blade. The rate of protein output of most genes increases early in development and declines once the photosynthetic apparatus is mature. The developmental dynamics of protein output fall into several patterns. Programmed changes in mRNA abundance make a strong contribution to the developmental shifts in protein output, but output is further adjusted by changes in translational efficiency. RNAs with prioritized translation early in development are largely involved in chloroplast gene expression, whereas those with prioritized translation in photosynthetic tissues are generally involved in photosynthesis. Differential gene expression in bundle sheath and mesophyll chloroplasts results primarily from differences in mRNA abundance, but differences in translational efficiency amplify mRNA-level effects in some instances. In most cases, rates of protein output approximate steady-state protein stoichiometries, implying a limited role for proteolysis in eliminating unassembled or damaged proteins under non-stress conditions. Tuned protein output results from gene-specific trade-offs between translational efficiency and mRNA abundance, both of which span a large dynamic range. Analysis of ribosome footprints at sites of RNA editing showed that the chloroplast translation machinery does not generally

  16. ADDRESSING THE SPECTRE OF CYBER TERRORISM: A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia Cassim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the definition of cyber terrorism and terrorist use of the Internet. The article evaluates cyber terrorist threats facing countries such as the United States of America, the United Kingdom, India and South Africa. The article also examines measures introduced by the respective governments in these countries to counteract cyber terrorist threats. Finally, the article will propose a way forward to counteract such possible threats in the future.The face of terrorism is changing. The convergence of the physical and virtual worlds has resulted in the creation of a “new threat” called cyber terrorism. Cyber terrorism is one of the recognised cyber crimes. The absence of suitable legal frameworks to address cyber terrorism at national and regional levels, the lack of adequate safeguards, the lack of cyber security strategies and the pre-occupation of countries with internal factors have all contributed to the creation of an environment that can be easily infiltrated by cyber terrorists. The horrific events of 9/11 provided the impetus for many countries to introduce anti-terrorist legislation. The United States of America, United Kingdom, India and South Africa have introduced legislation to address the threat of cyber terrorism.

  17. Evaluating Arabic to English Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith S. Hadla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Online text machine translation systems are widely used throughout the world freely. Most of these systems use statistical machine translation (SMT that is based on a corpus full with translation examples to learn from them how to translate correctly. Online text machine translation systems differ widely in their effectiveness, and therefore we have to fairly evaluate their effectiveness. Generally the manual (human evaluation of machine translation (MT systems is better than the automatic evaluation, but it is not feasible to be used. The distance or similarity of MT candidate output to a set of reference translations are used by many MT evaluation approaches. This study presents a comparison of effectiveness of two free online machine translation systems (Google Translate and Babylon machine translation system to translate Arabic to English. There are many automatic methods used to evaluate different machine translators, one of these methods; Bilingual Evaluation Understudy (BLEU method. BLEU is used to evaluate translation quality of two free online machine translation systems under consideration. A corpus consists of more than 1000 Arabic sentences with two reference English translations for each Arabic sentence is used in this study. This corpus of Arabic sentences and their English translations consists of 4169 Arabic words, where the number of unique Arabic words is 2539. This corpus is released online to be used by researchers. These Arabic sentences are distributed among four basic sentence functions (declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, and imperative. The experimental results show that Google machine translation system is better than Babylon machine translation system in terms of precision of translation from Arabic to English.

  18. Inferring rules of Escherichia coli translational efficiency using an artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Koya; Saito, Rintaro; Kikuchi, Shinichi; Tomita, Masaru

    2007-01-01

    Although the machinery for translation initiation in Escherichia coli is very complicated, the translational efficiency has been reported to be predictable from upstream oligonucleotide sequences. Conventional models have difficulties in their generalization ability and prediction nonlinearity and in their ability to deal with a variety of input attributions. To address these issues, we employed structural learning by artificial neural networks to infer general rules for translational efficiency. The correlation between translational activities measured by biological experiments and those predicted by our method in the test data was significant (r=0.78), and our method uncovered underlying rules of translational activities and sequence patterns from the obtained skeleton structure. The significant rules for predicting translational efficiency were (1) G- and A-rich oligonucleotide sequences, resembling the Shine-Dalgarno sequence, at positions -10 to -7; (2) first base A in the initiation codon; (3) transport/binding or amino acid metabolism gene function; (4) high binding energy between mRNA and 16S rRNA at positions -15 to -5. An additional inferred novel rule was that C at position -1 increases translational efficiency. When our model was applied to the entire genomic sequence of E. coli, translational activities of genes for metabolism and translational were significantly high.

  19. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution.

  20. IP Address Management Principles and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    This book will be the first covering the subject of IP address management (IPAM). The practice of IPAM includes the application of network management disciplines to IP address space and associated network services, namely DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) and DNS (Domain Name System). The consequence of inaccurately configuring DHCP is that end users may not be able to obtain IP addresses to access the network. Without proper DNS configuration, usability of the network will greatly suffer as the name-to-address lookup process may fail. Imagine having to navigate to a website or send a

  1. Aesthetic Adaptation in Translating Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽艳

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the strategy of adaptation,in particular,the method of naturalizing and historicizing,in the translation of poetry to maintain the aesthetic meaning.Theoretical support from Susan Bassnett,James Holmes and others is applied and example lines from both Chinese and English verses are given.

  2. Knowledge Translation in Rehabilitation Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kurt; Brown, Pat; Harniss, Mark; Schomer, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The process and importance of Knowledge Translation (KT) for the field of rehabilitation counseling is described. One element of the KT process, systematic reviews of the literature, is described along with several strategies for grading evidence. Practicing clinicians, as do consumers, encounter a number of barriers to using primary source…

  3. Time Translation of Quantum Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura, Roberto; Vanni, Leonardo

    2009-02-01

    Based on the notion of time translation, we develop a formalism to deal with the logic of quantum properties at different times. In our formalism it is possible to enlarge the usual notion of context to include composed properties involving properties at different times. We compare our results with the theory of consistent histories.

  4. Translating Codex Guidelines Into Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Condex texts include commodity and general standards, as well as texts of an advisory nature. The General Principles for Codex Alimentarius define the ways in which commodity or general standards are accepted: (a) full, (b) with specified deviations, or (c) with a declaration of free distribution. The degree of acceptance partly defines the manner in which these texts are translated into application.

  5. Parsing statistical machine translation output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Monz, C.; Vetulani, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increasing research into the use of syntax during statistical machine translation, the incorporation of syntax into language models has seen limited success. We present a study of the discriminative abilities of generative syntax-based language models, over and above standard n-gram models,

  6. English Advertisement and Its Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昭苑; 段海生

    2005-01-01

    The English advertisement is a lively and distinctive field. What are the features of English ads at a linguistic dimension and how to translate them well into Chinese? All this is given a careful discussion and a detailed study in this paper.

  7. Semiotic web for translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaprasad, Arkalgud; Kashyap, Vipul

    2008-11-06

    The semiotic web for translational medicine generalizes the concept of the semantic web. We present the functions of the semiotic web as a simple ontology with three dimensions, namely: (a) the four steps of semiotics, (b) the two processes in semiotics, and (c) the four types of research. The resulting 32 combinations represent all its functions.

  8. Translational Research and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Borrowing the term "translational research" (TR) from medicine, along with some of the ideas and practices that define it, holds promise as a way of linking research more closely to the practice of youth development. However, doing so entails substantial adaptation. TR is more than a new name for applied research. It comprehends the…

  9. The Importance of Background knowledge in Translating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZongHairong HuoRui

    2012-01-01

      Abstract]Nowadays,the undertaking of translation develops so rapidly in our country.More and more people are engaged in the career of translation.At the same time,unpleasant translated essays appear.In this paper,the author wants to make a main introduction about translation.Then list the problems when translating.At last,the author specifies the ways about how to solve the problems.From all the author’s ideas and examples,it’s not difficult to discover that the related knowledge in translating are very important.So in order to make contribution to the undertaking of the nation’s translation,the translators should try to enlarge their field of vision,know more about the related knowledge and then translate the original works successfully.

  10. ERRORS AND DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATING LEGAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, CHIRILA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the accurate translation of legal texts has become highly important as the mistranslation of a passage in a contract, for example, could lead to lawsuits and loss of money. Consequently, the translation of legal texts to other languages faces many difficulties and only professional translators specialised in legal translation should deal with the translation of legal documents and scholarly writings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze translation from three perspectives: translation quality, errors and difficulties encountered in translating legal texts and consequences of such errors in professional translation. First of all, the paper points out the importance of performing a good and correct translation, which is one of the most important elements to be considered when discussing translation. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of the errors and difficulties in translating texts and of the consequences of errors in professional translation, with applications to the field of law. The paper is also an approach to the differences between languages (English and Romanian that can hinder comprehension for those who have embarked upon the difficult task of translation. The research method that I have used to achieve the objectives of the paper was the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' works.

  11. Genetic Analysis of Chloroplast Translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkan, Alice

    2005-08-15

    The assembly of the photosynthetic apparatus requires the concerted action of hundreds of genes distributed between the two physically separate genomes in the nucleus and chloroplast. Nuclear genes coordinate this process by controlling the expression of chloroplast genes in response to developmental and environmental cues. However, few regulatory factors have been identified. We used mutant phenotypes to identify nuclear genes in maize that modulate chloroplast translation, a key control point in chloroplast gene expression. This project focused on the nuclear gene crp1, required for the translation of two chloroplast mRNAs. CRP1 is related to fungal proteins involved in the translation of mitochondrial mRNAs, and is the founding member of a large gene family in plants, with {approx}450 members. Members of the CRP1 family are defined by a repeated 35 amino acid motif called a ''PPR'' motif. The PPR motif is closely related to the TPR motif, which mediates protein-protein interactions. We and others have speculated that PPR tracts adopt a structure similar to that of TPR tracts, but with a substrate binding surface adapted to bind RNA instead of protein. To understand how CRP1 influences the translation of specific chloroplast mRNAs, we sought proteins that interact with CRP1, and identified the RNAs associated with CRP1 in vivo. We showed that CRP1 is associated in vivo with the mRNAs whose translation it activates. To explore the functions of PPR proteins more generally, we sought mutations in other PPR-encoding genes: mutations in the maize PPR2 and PPR4 were shown to disrupt chloroplast ribosome biogenesis and chloroplast trans-splicing, respectively. These and other results suggest that the nuclear-encoded PPR family plays a major role in modulating the expression of the chloroplast genome in higher plants.

  12. Literal Translation using Google Translate in Translating the Text from French to English in Digital Tourism Brochure Bienvenue Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rila Hilma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Translation is basically change of form. The form from which the translation is made will be called the source language and the form into which it is to be changed will be called the receptor language. Translation consists of transferring the meaning of the source language into the receptor language. Translating is not an easy job to do because many things to be considered to do this activity because translation means determining the meaning of a text, then reconstructing this same meaning using the appropriate structure and form in the receptor language. Translation is basically divided by two types of translation, one is literal and the other is idiomatic. Literal translation is really strict to the structure and form then often can not well express the true meaning of source language. Idiomatic translation makes every effort to communicate the meaning of the source language text in the natural forms of the receptor language. Then the most popular translation machine, Google Translate, in this study shows the results of translation which remain odd, unnatural, and nonsensical because the unsuccessful of message delivery, which is notably the typically error of literal translation.

  13. Analysing Quality of English-Hindi Machine Translation Engine outputs using Baysian Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Gupta; Nisheeth Joshi; Iti Mathur

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the problem for estimating the quality of machine translation outputs which are independent of human intervention and are generally addressed using machine learning techniques.There are various measures through which a machine learns translations quality. Automatic Evaluation metrics produce good co-relation at corpus level but cannot produce the same results at the same segment or sentence level. In this paper 16 features are extracted from the input sentence...

  14. A New Method of Chinese Address Extraction Based on Address Tree Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANG Mengjun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Address is a spatial location encoding method of individual geographical area. In China, address planning is relatively backward due to the rapid development of the city, resulting in the presence of large number of non-standard address. The space constrain relationship of standard address model is analyzed in this paper and a new method of standard address extraction based on the tree model is proposed, which regards topological relationship as consistent criteria of space constraints. With this method, standard address can be extracted and errors can be excluded from non-standard address. Results indicate that higher math rate can be obtained with this method.

  15. Transfer of manufacturing units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing and unfolding relocation of activities is one of the major trends, that calls for attention in the domain of operations management. In particular, prescriptive models outlining: stages of the process, where to locate, and how to establish the new facilities have been studied, while th...... and dilemmas to be addressed when transferring manufacturing units....

  16. Understanding Chinese translation situation and learning from the history of Chinese translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬冬; 韦骥; 常浩

    2009-01-01

    China translation contact and ex-plore the translation of different periods, this formed a different view. As the restrictions of level of awareness on the times, some of them may inevitably one - sided, even error. China translation has a tortuous process of cognition, but its future is to be expected. In this paper, with several important period of development in the history of China translation, Analysis of the development process of translation, comb development clues of understanding the trans-lation.

  17. A Study on Liang Shiqiu’s Translation Theory from the Prospective of Translation Sociology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ning

    2015-01-01

    Translation activities, social environment and translators’individual particularities are combined in translation sociolo⁃gy which are provided broader theoretical perspective for translation studies. In this paper, Liang Shiqiu’s translation theory is ana⁃lyzed from the perspective of translation sociology and there should be a new perspective which has expanded in the research of Li⁃ang Shiqiu’s translation theory.

  18. On the translation skills of English proverbs from the factors affecting the translation of English proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟建

    2016-01-01

    English proverb, the treasure of the English language, is the crystallization of English nation. The thesis introduces several methods to the translation of English proverb. The paper concludes the definition of English proverbs. English proverb has its own characteristics in form and content. This thesis also analyses the factors that affect the translation of English proverb. According to these factors, three translation methods are discussed in this paper, which are word-for-word translation, free translation, and applying translation.

  19. Evidence of Parallel Processing During Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard; Sjørup, Annette Camilla

    2014-01-01

    conclude that translation is a parallel process and that literal translation is likely to be a universal initial default strategy in translation. This conclusion is strengthened by the fact that all three experiments were relatively naturalistic, due to the combination of remote eye tracking and mixed......Three eye tracking experiments test the hypothesis that translation involves parallel rather than sequential processing of the source and target texts. In Experiment 1, a group of professional translators translated texts from their native language Danish into English. The texts included both...

  20. Phraseological comptence and the translation of phrasemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallsteinsdóttir, Erla

    2011-01-01

    In this article, that is based on my contribution to the workshop Multilingual phraseology and translation, I’ll focus on the aspects and the role of language competence in the translation of phrasemes, i.a. the phraseological competence. At first, I’ll describe the context of language competence...... in translation. Secondly, I’ll define and illustrate some aspects of the phraseological competence that are relevant in the act of translating, and finally, I’ll discuss the difference between phraseology in system and the conception of the translation as a text in relation to the praseological competence...... as an integral part in the act of translating phrasemes....

  1. Intercultural Communication and Chinese-English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Yong-ju

    2014-01-01

    Translation is formally a process of language transferring but in essence a process of intercultural communication. Trans-lation serves as a bridge of communication between people from different cultures. Language, culture and communication form the basis of translation. Successful translation requires proficiency in languages and complete understanding two relevant cultures. This paper elaborates on five common cultural obstacles hindering CE translation:cultural differences, cultural conflicts, cultural-loaded words or expressions, cultural defaults, and cultural images and then gives corresponding translation solutions.

  2. The Translation of English News Headlines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xiaona

    2013-01-01

    News headline translation is one of the most important types of news translation. As news headline is strongly purposeful, the translation of it must be achieved by some special methods. The history of news headline translation is almost as long as that of newspapers, but it has not been attached enough attention to. In the last twenty years, Chinese scholars of this field have paid much greater attention to news headline translation. Concerned studies of principles of news headline translation have also been made remarkable progress.

  3. On the Translation Methods of Biblical Idioms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜丽芬

    2016-01-01

    Biblical idioms are widely used in daily communication in English-speaking countries. In order to prevent cross-cultural communication barriers, it is important for non-native English speakers to understand the background information of biblical idioms, such as religious stories. Biblical idioms can be classified into two categories: phrases originated from Christian stories and quotations extracted from the Bible. Different biblical idioms requires different translation methods. Three main translation methods, literal translation, free translation, and corresponding translation, are discussed in this paper with detailed case analysis. The three translation methods have their own advantages and are applied in different circumstances.

  4. Translational Approaches towards Cancer Gene Therapy: Hurdles and Hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Omidi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Of the cancer gene therapy approaches, gene silencing, suicide/apoptosis inducing gene therapy, immunogene therapy and targeted gene therapy are deemed to sub­stantially control the biological consequences of genomic changes in cancerous cells. Thus, a large number of clinical trials have been conducted against various malignancies. In this review, we will discuss recent translational progresses of gene and cell therapy of cancer. Methods: Essential information on gene therapy of cancer were reviewed and discussed towards their clinical translations. Results: Gene transfer has been rigorously studied in vitro and in vivo, in which some of these gene therapy endeavours have been carried on towards translational investigations and clinical applications. About 65% of gene therapy trials are related to cancer therapy. Some of these trials have been combined with cell therapy to produce personalized medicines such as Sipuleucel-T (Provenge®, marketed by Dendreon, USA for the treatment of asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Conclusion: Translational approach links two diverse boundaries of basic and clinical researches. For successful translation of geno­medicines into clinical applications, it is essential 1 to have the guidelines and standard operating procedures for development and application of the genomedicines specific to clinically relevant biomarker(s; 2 to conduct necessary animal experimental studies to show the “proof of concept” for the proposed genomedicines; 3 to perform an initial clinical investigation; and 4 to initiate extensive clinical trials to address all necessary requirements. In short, translational researches need to be refined to accelerate the geno­medicine development and clinical applications.

  5. Translation techniques for distributed-shared memory programming models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Douglas James

    2005-08-01

    The high performance computing community has experienced an explosive improvement in distributed-shared memory hardware. Driven by increasing real-world problem complexity, this explosion has ushered in vast numbers of new systems. Each new system presents new challenges to programmers and application developers. Part of the challenge is adapting to new architectures with new performance characteristics. Different vendors release systems with widely varying architectures that perform differently in different situations. Furthermore, since vendors need only provide a single performance number (total MFLOPS, typically for a single benchmark), they only have strong incentive initially to optimize the API of their choice. Consequently, only a fraction of the available APIs are well optimized on most systems. This causes issues porting and writing maintainable software, let alone issues for programmers burdened with mastering each new API as it is released. Also, programmers wishing to use a certain machine must choose their API based on the underlying hardware instead of the application. This thesis argues that a flexible, extensible translator for distributed-shared memory APIs can help address some of these issues. For example, a translator might take as input code in one API and output an equivalent program in another. Such a translator could provide instant porting for applications to new systems that do not support the application's library or language natively. While open-source APIs are abundant, they do not perform optimally everywhere. A translator would also allow performance testing using a single base code translated to a number of different APIs. Most significantly, this type of translator frees programmers to select the most appropriate API for a given application based on the application (and developer) itself instead of the underlying hardware.

  6. Translation techniques for distributed-shared memory programming models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Douglas James [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The high performance computing community has experienced an explosive improvement in distributed-shared memory hardware. Driven by increasing real-world problem complexity, this explosion has ushered in vast numbers of new systems. Each new system presents new challenges to programmers and application developers. Part of the challenge is adapting to new architectures with new performance characteristics. Different vendors release systems with widely varying architectures that perform differently in different situations. Furthermore, since vendors need only provide a single performance number (total MFLOPS, typically for a single benchmark), they only have strong incentive initially to optimize the API of their choice. Consequently, only a fraction of the available APIs are well optimized on most systems. This causes issues porting and writing maintainable software, let alone issues for programmers burdened with mastering each new API as it is released. Also, programmers wishing to use a certain machine must choose their API based on the underlying hardware instead of the application. This thesis argues that a flexible, extensible translator for distributed-shared memory APIs can help address some of these issues. For example, a translator might take as input code in one API and output an equivalent program in another. Such a translator could provide instant porting for applications to new systems that do not support the application's library or language natively. While open-source APIs are abundant, they do not perform optimally everywhere. A translator would also allow performance testing using a single base code translated to a number of different APIs. Most significantly, this type of translator frees programmers to select the most appropriate API for a given application based on the application (and developer) itself instead of the underlying hardware.

  7. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  8. Image compression using address-vector quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu

    1990-12-01

    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  9. A Novel Approach for TNA Address Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Wang; Yaohui Jin; Weishen Hu; Shenli Zhu

    2003-01-01

    We present a new scheme to allocate/de- allocate Transport Network Assigned (TNA) address using Link ManagementProtocol (LMP) and to register/resolution these addresses using Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) forAutomatically Switched Optical Network (ASON).

  10. State of industry, environment, human resources addressed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yergin, D.; Brookes, W.; DeArment, R.

    1991-07-01

    The article is based on three addresses to the AMC Coal Convention '91. Yergin examines the impact of the Gulf crisis on the world energy market. Brookes is sceptical about the 'green industry' and calls for better scientific evidence. DeArment addresses the MSAA's Job Safety Analysis program and other health and safety matters.

  11. The cancer translational research informatics platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Kimberly

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the pressing need for the creation of applications that facilitate the aggregation of clinical and molecular data, most current applications are proprietary and lack the necessary compliance with standards that would allow for cross-institutional data exchange. In line with its mission of accelerating research discoveries and improving patient outcomes by linking networks of researchers, physicians, and patients focused on cancer research, caBIG (cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid™ has sponsored the creation of the caTRIP (Cancer Translational Research Informatics Platform tool, with the purpose of aggregating clinical and molecular data in a repository that is user-friendly, easily accessible, as well as compliant with regulatory requirements of privacy and security. Results caTRIP has been developed as an N-tier architecture, with three primary tiers: domain services, the distributed query engine, and the graphical user interface, primarily making use of the caGrid infrastructure to ensure compatibility with other tools currently developed by caBIG. The application interface was designed so that users can construct queries using either the Simple Interface via drop-down menus or the Advanced Interface for more sophisticated searching strategies to using drag-and-drop. Furthermore, the application addresses the security concerns of authentication, authorization, and delegation, as well as an automated honest broker service for deidentifying data. Conclusion Currently being deployed at Duke University and a few other centers, we expect that caTRIP will make a significant contribution to further the development of translational research through the facilitation of its data exchange and storage processes.

  12. Pope John Paul II's Address to Black Catholics: A Motive Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Jean M.

    Pope John Paul's visit to the United States in 1987 provided many opportunities for the analysis of papal rhetoric. The Pope's address to black Catholics in America may be of particular interest to those focusing on the study of intercultural or interracial communication. This address did not garner as much media attention as did some of the…

  13. 37 CFR 1.472 - Changes in person, name, or address of applicants and inventors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changes in person, name, or address of applicants and inventors. 1.472 Section 1.472 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... inventors. All requests for a change in person, name or address of applicants and inventor be sent to...

  14. Translation and Poetry: Preface to Lost in Translation, the collection of poems and translations by Yihai Chen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susan Bassnett

    2010-01-01

    @@ The American poet Robert Frost (1874-1963) suggested that poetry gets lost in translation, an opinion that unfortunately has been widely publicised. This view, of course, is a conceit: not only does poetry NOT always get lost in translation, often it is through translation that poetry flourishes. For translation is one of the principal ways in which a literature can reinvigorate itself, can look outwards at other forms of writing and discover and then develop those forms.

  15. Theory of Creative Treason and Drama Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-ting

    2015-01-01

    Due to the specific characteristic which is related to stage performance, the academic researches of drama translation have so far been limited. Before the mid 1970s, discussions about drama translation were mainly limited to the study of the trans⁃lated text of drama by applying the prescribed method of comparative analysis in order to explore the equivalence between the translation and the original. While after the mid 1970s, researches on drama translation started to be done by applying the descrip⁃tive method. Some translation theorists and scholars began to study the translated text of drama on the background of target lan⁃guage culture, which had made fruitful achievements. Recently, studies on drama translation mostly paid attention to such issues as the nature of drama translation, the purpose of drama translation, the characteristics of the translated text of drama, performabili⁃ty and orality in drama translation, transformation of dramatic culture and the status of drama translators, etc. By applying Xie Tianzhen’s theory of creative treason, this drama translation can be studied from a new perspective.

  16. The curious case of legal translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cornelius

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the nature and scope of legal translation which is an under-researched area in South Africa. In this article the author predicts that the demand for competent legal translators will increase in the future, evidenced by a recent call by the Department of Justice and Constitutional Development(DoJ&CD, inviting applications for ten positions for “legislative language practitioners”. However, legal translation differs substantially from general translation in the sense that legal translation is subject to heavy restrictions at all levels and legal considerations are of paramount importance in a country such as South Africa, which provides for eleven official languages. Legal translation involves different legal languages, different legal systems and different cultural systems that require specialised knowledge and skills of the translator. The aim of this article is to investigate the core competencies and skills the legal translator must have; to consider the balance between legal competence and translation or linguistic competence; and to propose a discourse-analytical method of source text analysis, developed by Bhatia as a simplification strategy, as this may be a powerful tool in the training of legal translators in South Africa. Recent developments in South Africa relating to the Department of Arts and Culture’s obligation to translate legislation into all official languages, have important consequences for legal translation in general and the training of legal translators in particular.

  17. Translating genomics in cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Yvonne; Bach, Peter B; Offit, Kenneth

    2013-11-01

    There is increasing enthusiasm for genomics and its promise in advancing personalized medicine. Genomic information has been used to personalize health care for decades, spanning the fields of cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, endocrinology, metabolic medicine, and hematology. However, oncology has often been the first test bed for the clinical translation of genomics for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. Notable hereditary cancer examples include testing for mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 in unaffected women to identify those at significantly elevated risk for developing breast and ovarian cancers, and screening patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer for mutations in 4 mismatch repair genes to reduce morbidity and mortality in their relatives. Somatic genomic testing is also increasingly used in oncology, with gene expression profiling of breast tumors and EGFR testing to predict treatment response representing commonly used examples. Health technology assessment provides a rigorous means to inform clinical and policy decision-making through systematic assessment of the evidentiary base, along with precepts of clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and consideration of risks and benefits for health care delivery and society. Although this evaluation is a fundamental step in the translation of any new therapeutic, procedure, or diagnostic test into clinical care, emerging developments may threaten this standard. These include "direct to consumer" genomic risk assessment services and the challenges posed by incidental results generated from next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. This article presents a review of the evidentiary standards and knowledge base supporting the translation of key cancer genomic technologies along the continuum of validity, utility, cost-effectiveness, health service impacts, and ethical and societal issues, and offers future research considerations to guide the responsible introduction of

  18. Translation Competence and Translation Performance: Lexical, Syntactic and Textual Patterns in Student Translations of a Specialized EU Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Adrienn

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study aiming to reveal the recurring patterns of lexical, syntactic and textual errors in student translations of a specialized EU genre from English into Hungarian. By comparing the student translations to the official translation of the text, this article uncovers the most frequent errors that students made…

  19. Learning to Translate: A Statistical and Computational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Turchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an extensive experimental study of Phrase-based Statistical Machine Translation, from the point of view of its learning capabilities. Very accurate Learning Curves are obtained, using high-performance computing, and extrapolations of the projected performance of the system under different conditions are provided. Our experiments confirm existing and mostly unpublished beliefs about the learning capabilities of statistical machine translation systems. We also provide insight into the way statistical machine translation learns from data, including the respective influence of translation and language models, the impact of phrase length on performance, and various unlearning and perturbation analyses. Our results support and illustrate the fact that performance improves by a constant amount for each doubling of the data, across different language pairs, and different systems. This fundamental limitation seems to be a direct consequence of Zipf law governing textual data. Although the rate of improvement may depend on both the data and the estimation method, it is unlikely that the general shape of the learning curve will change without major changes in the modeling and inference phases. Possible research directions that address this issue include the integration of linguistic rules or the development of active learning procedures.

  20. An Analysis of Diplomatic Vagueness and Its Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Xing-juan

    2015-01-01

    Diplomatic language is of vital importance in current affairs and international relationship. Many studies have been made worldwide, and exciting breakthroughs, especially those in the field of social intercourse, foreign affairs negotiation, artificial intelligence and answering to sensitive questions, have been achieved through its application. They are, however, limited to oral and written practice in speeches, addresses, negotiations and treaties between diplomats and government leaders in dealing with the political foreign affairs. This paper makes an analysis of Chinese diplomatic language, especially focuses on the pragmatic goals of the diplomatic vagueness, and then proposes some translation strategies. Firstly, it notes the definition of“vagueness”, which gives the premise of diplomatic vagueness. Secondly, the pragmatic goals are analyzed and several communicative affect of this cer⁃tain kind of language phenomenon. Then, the author notes the famous“functional equivalence”rule by Nida, which settle solid theoretical foundation for the research. Some cases are researched and translation strategies are proposed. It attempts to give some enlightenment to the study of communicative and translation skills in foreign affairs, also, how to be a better translator and inter⁃preter in this aspect.

  1. Translation research: from accurate diagnosis to appropriate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pass Harvey I

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review article focuses on the various aspects of translational research, where research on human subjects can ultimately enhance the diagnosis and treatment of future patients. While we will use specific examples relating to the asbestos related cancer mesothelioma, it should be stressed that the general approach outlined throughout this review is readily applicable to other diseases with an underlying molecular basis. Through the integration of molecular-based technologies, systematic tissue procurement and medical informatics, we now have the ability to identify clinically applicable "genotype"-"phenotype" associations across cohorts of patients that can rapidly be translated into useful diagnostic and treatment strategies. This review will touch on the various steps in the translational pipeline, and highlight some of the most essential elements as well as possible roadblocks that can impact success of the program. Critical issues with regard to Institutional Review Board (IRB and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA compliance, data standardization, sample procurement, quality control (QC, quality assurance (QA, data analysis, preclinical models and clinical trials are addressed. The various facets of the translational pipeline have been incorporated into a fully integrated computational system, appropriately named Dx2Tx. This system readily allows for the identification of new diagnostic tests, the discovery of biomarkers and drugable targets, and prediction of optimal treatments based upon the underlying molecular basis of the disease.

  2. On the Methods of Technology Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹雁

    2007-01-01

    Technology article has the characteristics as clearness, accurateness, conciseness and strictness. Therefore, more attention should be paid in translating the technology articles. This paper analyzes the methods used usually in technology articles translation.

  3. Are Literary Translators (STill) Lone Wolves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how much the traditional image of the solitary literary translator still holds true. Changes in professional associations and modes of communication are influencing how translators communicate and collaborate with other translators. This paper presents the results of a questio......This paper examines how much the traditional image of the solitary literary translator still holds true. Changes in professional associations and modes of communication are influencing how translators communicate and collaborate with other translators. This paper presents the results...... of a questionnaire on collaboration within literary translation in Scandinavia. Concepts from Community Studies, such as generalized reciprocity, interpersonal trust and active participation, are employed to discuss whether literary translators feel like members of a community, lone wolves, or simply lonely....

  4. Cultural Intervention in English and Chinese Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Wei-he

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the author defines translation as an act of communication in a cross-cultural context, the main aim of which is to establish communication between members of different cultures in accordance with previously determined communicative target purpose. He then discusses the unavoidable cultural intervention in the process of translation. Cases in aesthetic preference, political involvement and ethical tradition are studied to prove his proposition that translation is not only linguistic transfer, but also cultural transfer, and that "the more inclusive the target culture is, the closer the translation is to the source culture, the more exclusive the target culture is, the closer the translation must be to the target culture." In the last part of the paper, he proposes strategies of translation (especially for the translation between English and Chinese) with which we can tackle the cultural barriers in the process of translation, i.e. distortion,ignoring and coinage.

  5. The Challenges of Technical Translation: Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Buzarna-Tihenea (Galbeaza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide an analysis of the textile industry vocabulary, in order tohighlight the variety of the terms used to describe the respective field and to emphasize thedifficulties that hinder the translation of a specialized text. Firstly, this paper briefly tackles severalgeneral elements related to the translation process, such as the definition of translation, thedifference between general and specialized translation, translation methods and techniques. Thesecond part of our study is focused on the difficulties triggered by the specialized translation fromthe field of textile manufacture and industry. For the purpose of our analysis, we tackled the issuesraised by the application of several direct translation techniques, such as, borrowing, calque, andliteral translation, described in the first part of the study.

  6. Freedom and culture in Maphalla’s translation of Kipling’s ‘If’ into Sesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Seema

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A translation is generally regarded as a transportation of the message from one text into another such that, in prototypical cases, the content of the original or source text is preserved in the target text. Any translation reflects language and cultural contact. It is the effect of a mapping of one language onto another and of one culture onto another. In both cases, it involves a selection of counterparts. Traditionally, translation is thought of as establishing equivalence between the original text and the translated one. This article explores the notion of equivalence and the closely linked but conflicting principles of fidelity and freedom in translation theory and practice. The issues involved in practical translation stem from a critical selective combination of freedom or fidelity on the part of the translator. Manipulation of either may lead to certain problems. Kipling’s poem ‘If’ is a didactic poem meant to give encouragement. It serves as a motivation as manifest in several traits of a good leader. Maphalla took the initiative to translate Kipling’s poem ‘If’ into Sesotho. This article addresses the idea that the translator’s task is not only to convey Kipling’s ideas but also to render his style in such a way as to make the translation road smooth to a native speaker of the target language, which in this case is Sesotho. This article also advocates greater freedom for the translator, based on Derridean theory that offers the translator more freedom.

  7. Address forms in Chinese audit opinions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziye; Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Although forms of address are widely used in textual and other types of disclosure,empirical evidence of their effects is rare.China provides a unique setting in which to test the economic consequences of the forms of address used in audit reports.From 2003 to 2011,about 60%of auditors surveyed addressed their clients by their real names in audit opinions,while the others used honorifics.Based on a sample of Chinese audit opinions,I report the following findings.First,the announcement of an audit opinion that uses the client’s real name elicits a greater market response than the announcement of an opinion featuring an honorific form of address.Second,the effects of real-name forms of address are stronger in firms with weak board governance.Third,the association between audit fees and audit risk factors,such as loss-making,is stronger in firms that are addressed by their real names in audit reports.I conclude from these findings that the forms of address used in audit opinions may reveal private information on audit quality.The results of this study are consistent with the power-solidarity effect described by sociolinguists.

  8. Electronic Corpora as Translation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Lise; Mousten, Birthe; Jensen, Vigdis

    2012-01-01

    Small bilingual text corpora from a source and target language can be important sources of specialized language tracking for translators. A corpus platform can supplement or replace traditional reference works such as dictionaries and encyclopedia, which are rarely sufficient for the professional...... translator who has to get a cross-linguistic overview of a new area or a new line of business. Relevant internet texts can be compiled ‘on the fly’, but internet data needs to be sorted and analyzed for rational use. Today, such sorting and analysis can be made by a low-tech, analytical software tool....... This article demonstrates how strategic steps of compiling and retrieving linguistic data by means of specific search strategies can be used to make electronic corpora an efficient tool in translators’ daily work with fields that involve new terminology, but where the skills requested to work correspond...

  9. Translational research on advanced therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardelli, Filippo; Rizza, Paola; Moretti, Franca; Carella, Cintia; Galli, Maria Cristina; Migliaccio, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP) facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues) is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  10. Literary Translation: The Pleasure Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜博妮

    2007-01-01

    Chinese to English literary translation (CELT) has brought enormous reading pleasure to large numbers of people. These readers are not necessarily committed to China or Chinese literature as a cause or profession: they are disinterested readers. Publishers today, such as the Foreign Languages Press, can significantly increase their publication figures and strengthen their impact by going beyond captive readers to reach this wider audience. Guidelines that may lead to such a result can be summed up in the phrase: trust the reader. Readers of literary translations already belong to a limited class: they are risk-takers; they are curious and knowledgeable about other cultures; and they are skilled literary readers in their own language.

  11. Translational research on advanced therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Belardelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  12. Translation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    [53] Aspendos, as you know, is an old and famous town in Pamphylia, chockfull of the most precious statues. I am not going to say that this or that statue was taken away from there. I am saying this: that you, Verres, did not leave a single statue in Aspendos; all were loaded up and carried away from the shrines, from the public places, openly, with everybody looking on, on wagons. And even that lyre-player of Aspendos, about whom you have often heard what is a proverbial expression among the...

  13. Project-specific Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Linguistic Data Consortium’s Reflex Pack for Less Commonly Taught Languages (LCTL) (7). The corpora labeled Sada -e-Azadi (SeA) (11) and Afghan Recovery...Linguistics, Philadelphia, PA, 2002, 311–318. 11. Sada -e Azadi. http://www.sada-e-azadi.net (accessed 2011). 12. Stolcke, A. SRILM - An Extensible...Translation Center QAMO Qamoosuna (dictionaries) RH Ranger Handbook SCFG Synchronous Context Free Grammar SeA Sada -e-Azadi SME subject matter expert SMT

  14. Translating Codex Guidelines Into Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MACONCEPCIONC.Lizada

    2001-01-01

    Condex texts include commodity and general standards,as well as texts of an advisory nature.The General Principles for Codex Alimentarius define the ways in which commodity or general standards are accepted:(a) full,(b) with specified deviations,or(c) with a declaration of free distribution.The degree of acceptance partly defines the manner in which these texts are translated into application.

  15. Translating Codex Guidelines Into Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; CONCEPCION; C.; Lizada

    2001-01-01

    Condex texts include commodity and general standards, as well as texts of an advisory nature. The General Principles for Codex Alimentarius define the ways in which commodity or general standards are accepted: (a) full, (b) with specified deviations, or (c) with a declaration of free distribution. The degree of acceptance partly defines the manner in which these texts are translated into application.……

  16. Literary Translation and Identity Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabih, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    particular group of Moroccan Jewish authors in Isreal that either continue writing in French or shifted completely into writing in Hebrew. Due to the increasing influence of this Moroccan-Israeli writers in the cultural and literary Israeli landscape, the issue of the Moroccan Jewish identity has in recent...... years contributed to a change with regard to the perception of Arabic literary works, their selection for translation, readers’ expectations....

  17. Latin America: Close The Back Door! Does United States Southern Command’s (USSC) FY03-05 Theater Security Cooperation Strategic Guidance (TSCSG) Sufficiently Address and Mitigate the Growing Threat Posed by Terrorists and Terrorist Organizations Resident in USSC’s Area of Responsibility (AOR)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-16

    turmoil. It is known for institutional corruption, weak economies, abject poverty, extensive underemployment as well as unemployment, overpopulation ...poverty, extensive underemployment as well as unemployment, overpopulation , social discord, non-democratic governments, military involvement in civil...American foreign policy by providing oil to Cuba, by opposing ‘Plan Colombia ,’ which includes $1.3 billion in United States counternarcotics aid for

  18. Local address and emergency contact details

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The HR Department would like to remind members of the personnel that they are responsible for ensuring that their personal data concerning local address and preferred emergency contact details remains valid and up-to-date.   Both are easily accessible via the links below: Local address: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/LocalAddressChange   Emergency contacts: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/EC   Please take a few minutes to check your details and modify if necessary. Thank you in advance. HR Department Head Office

  19. The Temple Translator’s Workstation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    allows both translator/analysts and monolingual analysts to use the machine- translation function for assessing the relevance of a translated...using a multilingual editor (Figure2). Source documents and their translations are managed using the Tipster Document Manager developed at CRL...an English morphological generator [Penman 88]. • A multilingual document editor (the Tipster Editor for Documents developed at CRL under the

  20. On translation strategies of petroleum technical English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张阳

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the petroleum energy has achieved the prime competitiveness around the world.Therefore,translation of petroleum technical English leaves a significant impact.This paper has studied the characteristics of the words and the discourse with specific instance.It also summarizes some useful methods such as literal translation and free translation.And strategies in dealing with long sentences and passive voice,therefore it will help the translators with petroleum technological English.