WorldWideScience

Sample records for address scientific challenges

  1. Addressing Emerging Risks: Scientific and Regulatory Challenges Associated with Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Tammy R; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Cormier, Stephania A; Dellinger, Barry; Reams, Margaret

    2016-06-08

    Airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) are often generated through widely-used thermal processes such as the combustion of fuels or the thermal decomposition of waste. Residents near Superfund sites are exposed to PM through the inhalation of windblown dust, ingestion of soil and sediments, and inhalation of emissions from the on-site thermal treatment of contaminated soils. Epidemiological evidence supports a link between exposure to airborne PM and an increased risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. It is well-known that during combustion processes, incomplete combustion can lead to the production of organic pollutants that can adsorb to the surface of PM. Recent studies have demonstrated that their interaction with metal centers can lead to the generation of a surface stabilized metal-radical complex capable of redox cycling to produce ROS. Moreover, these free radicals can persist in the environment, hence their designation as Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFR). EPFR has been demonstrated in both ambient air PM2.5 (diameter < 2.5 µm) and in PM from a variety of combustion sources. Thus, low-temperature, thermal treatment of soils can potentially increase the concentration of EPFR in areas in and around Superfund sites. In this review, we will outline the evidence to date supporting EPFR formation and its environmental significance. Furthermore, we will address the lack of methodologies for specifically addressing its risk assessment and challenges associated with regulating this new, emerging contaminant.

  2. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  3. USGS Science: Addressing Our Nation's Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Tania M.

    2009-01-01

    With 6.6 billion people already living on Earth, and that number increasing every day, human influence on our planet is ever more apparent. Changes to the natural world combined with increasing human demands threaten our health and safety, our national security, our economy, and our quality of life. As a planet and a Nation, we face unprecedented challenges: loss of critical and unique ecosystems, the effects of climate change, increasing demand for limited energy and mineral resources, increasing vulnerability to natural hazards, the effects of emerging diseases on wildlife and human health, and growing needs for clean water. The time to respond to these challenges is now, but policymakers and decisionmakers face difficult choices. With competing priorities to balance, and potentially serious - perhaps irreversible - consequences at stake, our leaders need reliable scientific information to guide their decisions. As the Nation's earth and natural science agency, the USGS monitors and conducts scientific research on natural hazards and resources and how these elements and human activities influence our environment. Because the challenges we face are complex, the science needed to better understand and deal with these challenges must reflect the complex interplay among natural and human systems. With world-class expertise in biology, geology, geography, hydrology, geospatial information, and remote sensing, the USGS is uniquely capable of conducting the comprehensive scientific research needed to better understand the interdependent interactions of Earth's systems. Every day, the USGS helps decisionmakers to minimize loss of life and property, manage our natural resources, and protect and enhance our quality of life. This brochure provides examples of the challenges we face and how USGS science helps decisionmakers to address these challenges.

  4. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  5. GEOSS: Addressing Big Data Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Ochiai, O.

    2014-12-01

    In the sector of Earth Observation, the explosion of data is due to many factors including: new satellite constellations, the increased capabilities of sensor technologies, social media, crowdsourcing, and the need for multidisciplinary and collaborative research to face Global Changes. In this area, there are many expectations and concerns about Big Data. Vendors have attempted to use this term for their commercial purposes. It is necessary to understand whether Big Data is a radical shift or an incremental change for the existing digital infrastructures. This presentation tries to explore and discuss the impact of Big Data challenges and new capabilities on the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and particularly on its common digital infrastructure called GCI. GEOSS is a global and flexible network of content providers allowing decision makers to access an extraordinary range of data and information at their desk. The impact of the Big Data dimensionalities (commonly known as 'V' axes: volume, variety, velocity, veracity, visualization) on GEOSS is discussed. The main solutions and experimentation developed by GEOSS along these axes are introduced and analyzed. GEOSS is a pioneering framework for global and multidisciplinary data sharing in the Earth Observation realm; its experience on Big Data is valuable for the many lessons learned.

  6. Scientific data management challenges, technology and deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Rotem, Doron

    2010-01-01

    Dealing with the volume, complexity, and diversity of data currently being generated by scientific experiments and simulations often causes scientists to waste productive time. Scientific Data Management: Challenges, Technology, and Deployment describes cutting-edge technologies and solutions for managing and analyzing vast amounts of data, helping scientists focus on their scientific goals. The book begins with coverage of efficient storage systems, discussing how to write and read large volumes of data without slowing the simulation, analysis, or visualization processes. It then focuses on the efficient data movement and management of storage spaces and explores emerging database systems for scientific data. The book also addresses how to best organize data for analysis purposes, how to effectively conduct searches over large datasets, how to successfully automate multistep scientific process workflows, and how to automatically collect metadata and lineage information. This book provides a comprehensive u...

  7. Addressing contrasting cognitive models in scientific collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diviacco, P.

    2012-04-01

    If the social aspects of scientific communities and their internal dynamics is starting to be recognized and acknowledged in the everyday lives of scientists, it is rather difficult for them to find tools that could support their activities consistently with this perspective. Issues span from gathering researchers to mutual awareness, from information sharing to building meaning, with the last one being particularly critical in research fields as the geo-sciences, that deal with the reconstruction of unique, often non-reproducible, and contingent processes. Reasoning here is, in fact, mainly abductive, allowing multiple and concurrent explanations for the same phenomenon to coexist. Scientists bias one hypothesis over another not only on strictly logical but also on sociological motivations. Following a vision, scientists tend to evolve and isolate themselves from other scientists creating communities characterized by different cognitive models, so that after some time these become incompatible and scientists stop understanding each other. We address these problems as a communication issue so that the classic distinction into three levels (syntactic, semantic and pragmatic) can be used. At the syntactic level, we highlight non-technical obstacles that condition interoperability and data availability and transparency. At the semantic level, possible incompatibilities of cognitive models are particularly evident, so that using ontologies, cross-domain reconciliation should be applied. This is a very difficult task to perform since the projection of knowledge by scientists, in the designated community, is political and thus can create a lot of tension. The strategy we propose to overcome these issues pertains to pragmatics, in the sense that it is intended to acknowledge the cultural and personal factors each partner brings into the collaboration and is based on the idea that meaning should remain a flexible and contingent representation of possibly divergent views

  8. Promoting inclusive approaches to address urbanisation challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Promoting inclusive approaches to address urbanisation challenges in Kigali. ... Kigali has embarked on a rapid urbanisation and modernisation process. ... housing for the majority of urban residents remains a challenge which continues to impact on both the population's living conditions and sustainable urban planning.

  9. Content addressable memories in scientific instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotto, I. de; Golinelli, S.

    1975-01-01

    The content-addressable-memory feature of a new system designed in these laboratories for non-destructive testing of nuclear reactor pressure vessels based on acoustic emission analysis is presented. The content addressable memory is divided into two parts: the first selects the most frequent events among incoming ones (FES: Frequent Event Selection memory), the second stores the frequent events singled out (FEM: Frequent Event Memory). The statistical behaviour of FES is analyzed, and experimental results are compared with theoretical ones; the model presented proved to be a useful tool in dimensioning the instrument store capacity. (Auth.)

  10. Scientific Challenges for Understanding the Quantum Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-10-16

    A workshop titled "Scientific Challenges for Understanding the Quantum Universe" was held December 9-11, 2008, at the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center-National Accelerator Laboratory. The primary purpose of the meeting was to examine how computing at the extreme scale can contribute to meeting forefront scientific challenges in particle physics, particle astrophysics and cosmology. The workshop was organized around five research areas with associated panels. Three of these, "High Energy Theoretical Physics," "Accelerator Simulation," and "Experimental Particle Physics," addressed research of the Office of High Energy Physics’ Energy and Intensity Frontiers, while the"Cosmology and Astrophysics Simulation" and "Astrophysics Data Handling, Archiving, and Mining" panels were associated with the Cosmic Frontier.

  11. Opportunities and challenges of using technology to address health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Brian M; Bernhardt, Jay M; Fleisher, Linda; Green, Bernard Lee

    2014-03-01

    During a panel presentation at the American Association for Cancer Research Cancer Health Disparities Conference titled 'Opportunities and challenges of using technology to address health disparities', the latest scientific advances in the application and utilization of mobile technology and/or mobile-health (mHealth) interventions to address cancer health disparities were discussed. The session included: an examination of overall population trends in the uptake of technology and the potential of addressing health disparities through such media; an exploration of the conceptual issues and challenges in the construction of mHealth interventions to address disparate and underserved populations; and a presentation of pilot study findings on the acceptability and feasibility of using mHealth interventions to address prostate cancer disparities among African-American men.

  12. Scientific foundations of addressing risk in complex and dynamic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotan, T.O.; Storseth, F.; Albrechtsen, E.

    2011-01-01

    Development, deployment and application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and digital infrastructure continue with unabated intensity in the petroleum-related activity on the Norwegian shelf. This development towards what is denoted Integrated Operations (IO) creates new ways of organizing work, new work processes and increased automation, e.g. closer collaboration offshore-onshore, cooperation across organizational and geographical borders. This creates new challenges for managing risk. Although there are different versions of IO today, we argue that it is possible to identify and study generic properties within such IO manifestations. The current paper focus on the potential complexity of IO in the generic sense, and some scientific implications in terms of addressing risk. The paper uses the century-old metaphor of 'wildness in wait' to engage the wide field of complexity theory in a productive way to address systemic properties of risk. The paper further uses the Cynefin sensemaking framework in order to identify and address the crucial distinction between directed (resultant) and un-directed (emergent) order. The paper finally discusses the importance of seeing risk assessment as a social knowledge practice.

  13. HEP technologies to address medical imaging challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Developments in detector technologies aimed at solving challenges in present and future CERN experiments, particularly at the LHC, have triggered exceptional advances in the performance of medical imaging devices, allowing for a spectacular progress in in-vivo molecular imaging procedures, which are opening the way for tailored therapies of major diseases. This talk will briefly review the recent history of this prime example of technology transfer from HEP experiments to society, will describe the technical challenges being addressed by some ongoing projects, and will present a few new ideas for further developments and their foreseeable impact.

  14. Verifying disarmament: scientific, technological and political challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-25

    There is growing interest in, and hopes for, nuclear disarmament in governments and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) around the world. If a nuclear-weapon-free world is to be achievable, verification and compliance will be critical. VerifYing disarmament would have unprecedented scientific, technological and political challenges. Verification would have to address warheads, components, materials, testing, facilities, delivery capabilities, virtual capabilities from existing or shutdown nuclear weapon and existing nuclear energy programs and material and weapon production and related capabilities. Moreover, it would likely have far more stringent requirements. The verification of dismantlement or elimination of nuclear warheads and components is widely recognized as the most pressing problem. There has been considerable research and development done in the United States and elsewhere on warhead and dismantlement transparency and verification since the early 1990s. However, we do not today know how to verifY low numbers or zero. We need to develop the needed verification tools and systems approaches that would allow us to meet this complex set of challenges. There is a real opportunity to explore verification options and, given any realistic time frame for disarmament, there is considerable scope to invest resources at the national and international levels to undertake research, development and demonstrations in an effort to address the anticipated and perhaps unanticipated verification challenges of disarmament now andfor the next decades. Cooperative approaches have the greatest possibility for success.

  15. Addressing data access challenges in seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabant, C. M.; Ahern, T.; Weertman, B.; Benson, R. B.; Van Fossen, M.; Weekly, R. T.; Casey, R. E.; Suleiman, Y. Y.; Stults, M.

    2016-12-01

    The development of web services at the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) over the last 6 years represents the most significant enhancement of data access ever introduced at the DMC. These web services have allowed the us to focus our internal operations around a single, consistent data access layer while facilitating development of a new generation of tools and methods for researchers to conduct their work. This effort led the DMC to propose standardized web service interfaces within the International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN), enabling other seismological data centers to offer data using compatible interfaces. With this new foundation, we now turn our attention to more advanced data access challenges. In particular, we will present the status of two developments intending to address 1) access to data of consistent quality for science and 2) discovery and access of data from multiple data centers. To address the challenge of requesting high or consistent quality data we will introduce our Research-Ready Data Sets (RRDS) initiative. The purpose of the RRDS project is to reduce the time a researcher spends culling and otherwise identifying data appropriate for given study. RRDS will provide users with additional criteria related to data quality that can be specified when requesting data. Leveraging the data quality measurements provided by our MUSTANG system, these criteria will include ambient noise, completeness, dead channel identification and more. To address the challenge of seismological data discovery and access, we have built and continue to improve the IRIS Federator. The Federator takes advantage of the FDSN-standard web services at various data centers to help a user locate specific channels, wherever they may be offered globally. The search interface provides results that are pre-formatted requests, ready for submission to each data center that serves that data. These two developments are aimed squarely at reducing the time

  16. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Scott P.; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Denison, R. Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B.; Strauss, Sharon Y.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens and pests that evolve too quickly, and the second from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution, or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development. PMID:25213376

  17. Neurocognitive Impairment: Addressing Couple and Family Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, John S

    2017-12-01

    Conditions involving neurocognitive impairment pose enormous challenges to couples and families. However, research and practice tend to focus narrowly on immediate issues for individual caregivers and their dyadic relationship with the affected member. A broad family systems approach with attention to family processes over time is needed in training, practice, and research. In this paper, Rolland's Family Systems Illness model provides a guiding framework to consider the interaction of different psychosocial types of neurocognitive conditions and their evolution over time with individual, couple, and family life-course development. Discussion addresses key family and couple issues with mild-to-severe cognitive impairment and progressive dementias, including: communication, multigenerational legacies, threatened future neurocognitive disability, ambiguous loss, decisional capacity, reaching limits, placement decisions, issues for adult children and spousal caregivers, and the transformation of intimate bonds. Principles and guidelines are offered to help couples and families master complex challenges, deepen bonds, and forge positive pathways ahead. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  18. Scientific challenges underlying production document processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saund, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The Field of Document Recognition is bipolar. On one end lies the excellent work of academic institutions engaging in original research on scientifically interesting topics. On the other end lies the document recognition industry which services needs for high-volume data capture for transaction and back-office applications. These realms seldom meet, yet the need is great to address technical hurdles for practical problems using modern approaches from the Document Recognition, Computer Vision, and Machine Learning disciplines. We reflect on three categories of problems we have encountered which are both scientifically challenging and of high practical value. These are Doctype Classification, Functional Role Labeling, and Document Sets. Doctype Classification asks, "What is the type of page I am looking at?" Functional Role Labeling asks, "What is the status of text and graphical elements in a model of document structure?" Document Sets asks, "How are pages and their contents related to one another?" Each of these has ad hoc engineering approaches that provide 40-80% solutions, and each of them begs for a deeply grounded formulation both to provide understanding and to attain the remaining 20-60% of practical value. The practical need is not purely technical but also depends on the user experience in application setup and configuration, and in collection and groundtruthing of sample documents. The challenge therefore extends beyond the science behind document image recognition and into user interface and user experience design.

  19. Addressing big data issues in Scientific Data Infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; Membrey, P.; Grosso, P.; de Laat, C.; Smari, W.W.; Fox, G.C.

    2013-01-01

    Big Data are becoming a new technology focus both in science and in industry. This paper discusses the challenges that are imposed by Big Data on the modern and future Scientific Data Infrastructure (SDI). The paper discusses a nature and definition of Big Data that include such features as Volume,

  20. Addressing Unconscious Bias: Steps toward an Inclusive Scientific Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Abigail

    2011-01-01

    In this talk I will outline the nature of unconscious bias, as it operates to exclude or marginalize some participants in the scientific community. I will show how bias results from non-conscious expectations about certain groups of people, including scientists and astronomers. I will outline scientific research in psychology, sociology and economics that has identified the impact these expectations have on interpersonal judgments that are at the heart of assessment of individuals' qualifications. This research helps us understand not only how bias operates within a single instance of evaluation, but how evaluation bias can accumulate over a career if not checked, creating an appearance of confirmation of biased expectations. Some research has focused on how best to interrupt and mitigate unconscious bias, and many institutions--including the University of Michigan--have identified strategic interventions at key points of institutional decision-making (particularly hiring, annual review, and promotion) that can make a difference. The NSF ADVANCE Institutional Transformation program encouraged institutions to draw on the social science literature to create experimental approaches to addressing unconscious bias. I will outline four approaches to intervention that have arisen through the ADVANCE program: (1) systematic education that increases awareness among decisionmakers of how evaluation bias operates; (2) development of practices that mitigate the operation of bias even when it is out of conscious awareness; (3) creation of institutional policies that routinize and sanction these practices; and (4) holding leaders accountable for these implementation of these new practices and policies. Although I will focus on ways to address unconscious bias within scientific institutions (colleges and universities, laboratories and research centers, etc.), I will close by considering how scientific organizations can address unconscious bias and contribute to creating an

  1. Authorship for scientific papers: the new challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carla Costa; Martrucelli, Cristina Ribeiro Nabuco; Rossilho, Marilisa de Melo Freire; Denardin, Odilon Victor Porto

    2010-01-01

    The dissemination of the practice of collaborative authorship (coauthorship) in Brazil and in the international scientific community has been accompanied by an increasing occurrence of frauds, manipulations and other deviations in the assignment of responsibility for a scientific paper. This article discusses the criteria for authorship attribution, the reasons for the growing indices of coauthorship and the challenges to determine authorship in electronic journals. Through literature review and case study (bibliographic search in scientific database), it shows ways to avoid that "misbehaviors" related to the authorship attribution affect the credibility of science.

  2. Addressing South Africa’s urban challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne M. Rogerson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is among the most urbanized countries in Africa and has an urban population that is growing rapidly. The country’s urban challenges sometimes are considered as distinctive and separate to those of rest of Africa because of the apartheid legacy of a fragmented and racially splintered urban landscape. Nevertheless, 20 years after democratic transition the issues that confront its cities increasingly exhibit a set of sustainability challenges that typify those problems of many other fast-growing African urban areas. This introduction locates the collection of articles as a contribution to the expanding corpus of scholarship on urban South Africa.

  3. Ability of institutions to address new challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Cashore; G. Galloway; F. Cubbage; D. Humphreys; P. Katila; K. Levin; A. Maryudi; C. McDermott; Kathleen McGinley

    2010-01-01

    What types of institutional configurations hold the most promise in fostering efforts for long-term amelioration of enduring environmental, social, and economic challenges facing the world’s forests? This chapter presents, and applies an analytical framework with which to review research findings and analyses that shed light on what appear to be the most promising...

  4. Challenges faced by multidisplinary new investigators on addressing grand challenges in global health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The grand challenges approach aims to spark innovative and transformative strategies to overcome barriers to significant global health issues. Grand Challenges Canada endorses an ‘Integrated Innovation™’ approach that focuses on the intersection of scientific/technological, social and business innovation. In this article we explore themes emerging from a dialogue between the authors, who are multidisciplinary recipients of the ‘Rising Stars in Global Health’ award from Grand Challenges Canada, regarding benefits of engaging in integrated innovation research, and recommendations for how this approach may develop in the future. Discussion Our dialogue followed a semi-structured interview format that addressed three topics: 1) reflections on applying an Integrated Innovation™ approach for global health; 2) thoughts on participation in the Grand Challenges 2012 meeting; and 3) authors’ visions of Grand Challenges Canada and the Grand Challenge movement towards 2020. The dialogue was transcribed verbatim and we used thematic analysis techniques to identify, analyze and report themes in the data. Benefits of working using the Grand Challenges approach centered on two themes: a) the potential for scientific breakthrough and b) building interdisciplinary collaborations and a community of scholars. Challenges and opportunities for Grand Challenges in moving forward included: a) capacity building, particularly regarding Integrated Innovation™ and scale-up planning; b) interdisciplinary and international mentorship for new investigators; and c) potential for future commercialization. Conclusions Our discussion highlighted that Integrated Innovation™ offers the opportunity to develop new theories, methods and approaches to global health while simultaneously fostering a collaborative spirit grounded in international, interdisciplinary collaborations. However, the arguable over-emphasis on corporatization poses a major challenge for new investigators

  5. Challenges faced by multidisplinary new investigators on addressing grand challenges in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen; Dimaras, Helen; Fortin, Anny; Ramón-García, Santiago

    2014-04-15

    The grand challenges approach aims to spark innovative and transformative strategies to overcome barriers to significant global health issues. Grand Challenges Canada endorses an 'Integrated Innovation™' approach that focuses on the intersection of scientific/technological, social and business innovation. In this article we explore themes emerging from a dialogue between the authors, who are multidisciplinary recipients of the 'Rising Stars in Global Health' award from Grand Challenges Canada, regarding benefits of engaging in integrated innovation research, and recommendations for how this approach may develop in the future. Our dialogue followed a semi-structured interview format that addressed three topics: 1) reflections on applying an Integrated Innovation™ approach for global health; 2) thoughts on participation in the Grand Challenges 2012 meeting; and 3) authors' visions of Grand Challenges Canada and the Grand Challenge movement towards 2020. The dialogue was transcribed verbatim and we used thematic analysis techniques to identify, analyze and report themes in the data. Benefits of working using the Grand Challenges approach centered on two themes: a) the potential for scientific breakthrough and b) building interdisciplinary collaborations and a community of scholars. Challenges and opportunities for Grand Challenges in moving forward included: a) capacity building, particularly regarding Integrated Innovation™ and scale-up planning; b) interdisciplinary and international mentorship for new investigators; and c) potential for future commercialization. Our discussion highlighted that Integrated Innovation™ offers the opportunity to develop new theories, methods and approaches to global health while simultaneously fostering a collaborative spirit grounded in international, interdisciplinary collaborations. However, the arguable over-emphasis on corporatization poses a major challenge for new investigators. We propose a more balanced way forward

  6. ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CHALLENGES WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the status and application of Computational Fluid Dynamics )CFD) models to address environmental engineering challenges for more detailed understanding of air pollutant source emissions, atmospheric dispersion and resulting human exposure. CFD simulations ...

  7. Cooperation of international Research Infrastructures to address environmental global challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet García, Francisco J.; Suárez-Muñoz, María; Conchubhair, Diarmuid O.; Dohna, Tina; Lo Bue, Nadia

    2017-04-01

    participating RIs regarding each GC. Moreover, it is expected that the outcomes of this work will encourage and promote project participants and stakeholders, as well as the general public to take action with regard to the challenges and solutions outlined by the GC descriptions. This task of describing GCs is an open initiative: all input is welcome. To input with any suggestions, please send an email to info@coop-plus.eu. This contribution presents the preliminary results obtained during the description of the selected GC's under the point of view of RIs: - Template used to describe all GC in a standardized way. It contains several sections regarding topics such as: rationale of the challenge, identification of scientific/technical/social needs, role of RIs in the GC, tasks to be done (data collection, experimental research, modelling, dissemination), etc. - Configuration of working teams designed to describe the GCs. Each GC has a person in charge who is responsible of coordinating the writing process. The working team is composed by scientists experts in each challenge, experts in thematic RIs (within EU and abroad), policy makers and other stakeholders. The results obtained by this description task will be published in a special issue in a Geoscience journal. The writing teams are expected to become project consortia willing to participate in specific calls to address GCs.

  8. Complex plasmas scientific challenges and technological opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Jose; Becker, Kurt; Thomsen, Hauke

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the reader with an introduction to the physics of complex plasmas, a discussion of the specific scientific and technical challenges they present, and an overview of their potential technological applications. Complex plasmas differ from conventional high-temperature plasmas in several ways: they may contain additional species, including nanometer- to micrometer-sized particles, negative ions, molecules and radicals, and they may exhibit strong correlations or quantum effects. This book introduces the classical and quantum mechanical approaches used to describe and simulate complex plasmas. It also covers some key experimental techniques used in the analysis of these plasmas, including calorimetric probe methods, IR absorption techniques and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The final part of the book reviews the emerging applications of microcavity and microchannel plasmas, the synthesis and assembly of nanomaterials through plasma electrochemistry, the large-scale generation of ozone using mi...

  9. Fostering Scientific Literacy: Establishing Social Relevance via the Grand Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyford, M. E.; Myers, J. D.; Buss, A.

    2010-12-01

    Numerous studies and polls suggest the general public’s understanding of science and scientific literacy remain woefully inadequate despite repeated calls for improvement over the last 150 years. This inability to improve scientific literacy significantly is a complex problem likely driven by a number of factors. However, we argue that past calls and efforts for improving scientific literacy have failed to: 1) articulate a truly meaningful justification for society to foster a scientifically literate public; 2) provide a rationale that motivates individuals of diverse backgrounds to become scientifically literate; 3) consider the impact of personal perspective, e.g. values, beliefs, attitudes, etc., on learning; and 4) offer a relevant and manageable framework in which to define scientific literacy. For instance, past calls for improving scientific literacy, e.g. the U.S. is behind the Soviets in the space race, U.S students rank below country X in math and science, etc., have lacked justification, personal motivation and a comprehensive framework for defining scientific literacy. In these cases, the primary justification for improving science education and scientific literacy was to regain international dominance in the space race or to advance global standing according to test results. These types of calls also articulate short-term goals that are rendered moot once they have been achieved. At the same time, teaching practices have commonly failed to consider the perspectives students bring to the classroom. Many STEM faculty do not address issues of personal perspective through ignorance or the desire to avoid controversial subjects, e g. evolution, climate change. We propose that the ‘grand challenges’ (e.g., energy, climate change, antibacterial resistance, water, etc.) humankind currently faces provides a compelling framework for developing courses and curricula well-suited for improving scientific literacy. A grand challenge paradigm offers four

  10. Scientific challenges of bioethanol production in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Henrique V.; Lopes, Mario Lucio [Fermentec, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Castro Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Buckeridge, Marcos S. [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, INCT do Bioetanol (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, INCT do Bioetanol (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2011-09-15

    Bioethanol (fuel alcohol) has been produced by industrial alcoholic fermentation processes in Brazil since the beginning of the twentieth century. Currently, 432 mills and distilleries crush about 625 million tons of sugarcane per crop, producing about 27 billion liters of ethanol and 38.7 million tons of sugar. The production of bioethanol from sugarcane represents a major large-scale technology capable of producing biofuel efficiently and economically, providing viable substitutes to gasoline. The combination of immobilization of CO{sub 2} by sugarcane crops by photosynthesis into biomass together with alcoholic fermentation of this biomass has allowed production of a clean and high-quality liquid fuel that contains 93% of the original energy found in sugar. Over the last 30 years, several innovations have been introduced to Brazilian alcohol distilleries resulting in the improvement of plant efficiency and economic competitiveness. Currently, the main scientific challenges are to develop new technologies for bioethanol production from first and second generation feedstocks that exhibit positive energy balances and appropriately meet environmental sustainability criteria. This review focuses on these aspects and provides special emphasis on the selection of new yeast strains, genetic breeding, and recombinant DNA technology, as applied to bioethanol production processes. (orig.)

  11. New challenges for Sportis Scientific Technical Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Arufe Giráldez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the publishing of this issue we want to advance two major events, the first of which is to inform the Sportis Magazine will from September 1, part of official scientific journal of the University of A Coruña, with this integration It aims to improve the dissemination of the journal in the most prestigious data bases of international level and contribute to the visibility of the University of A Coruña as committed to research in school sports college, psychomotor and Physical Education.The second story that we want to give is that the November 5-7 will be held at the Faculty of Education at the University of A Coruna, the V World Congress of Sports, Physical Education and Psychomotor School. You can participate by presenting a communication, poster or virtual poster, the best papers will be invited to publish their work as research article in the following issues of the magazine. Disponéis more information on the web www.sportis.es.In this third and final issue of the year, we beat record of article, in part due to the increase in the number of items received, a total of 10 works by experts and professionals from different countries will be published. Some of the issues addressed are: first aid teacher training, the attitude toward students with disabilities, futsal, using accelerometers, bodyboard training in young, innovative proposals such as the teaching unit based Hypopressive method, aquatic motor skills, study of sports organizations, studies involving different experts from different countries, analysis of skills in physical education ... Undoubtedly an interesting number to enjoy a good coffee or tea and gain greater technical and scientific knowledge.All equipment Sportis want is your pleasure this new publication and invite you to submit your work for future issues.Receive a warm greeting,Prof. Dr. Victor Arufe GiráldezChief Editor Sportis. International Journal of School Sports, Physical Education and Psychomotor

  12. Addressing the Sanitation Challenge in Poor Urban Areas (East ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Addressing the Sanitation Challenge in Poor Urban Areas (East Africa). The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the global burden of disease could be reduced by up to 15% by improving water, sanitation and hygiene. Until recently, however, little attention has been paid to sanitation by national governments ...

  13. Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) can play an important role in helping communities prepare for and adapt to the effects of climate change. Various projects can attest to the potential of using emerging technologies such as mobile phones and ...

  14. Addressing the growing international challenge of cancer: a multinational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varmus, Harold; Kumar, Harpal S

    2013-03-06

    Leaders in cancer research and policy from 15 economically diverse countries met at the U.S. National Institutes of Health in November 2012 to discuss opportunities to reduce cancer incidence and mortality, improve cancer care, and increase our understanding of disease pathophysiology. Here, we present recommendations that the participants believe will enable faster progress in addressing the growing international challenge of cancer.

  15. Scientific and technical challenges of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vira, J.

    1996-01-01

    In spite of considerable spending on research and technical development, the management of nuclear wastes continues to be a difficult issue in public decision making. The nuclear industry says that it has safe solutions for the ultimate disposal of nuclear wastes, but the message has not really got through to the public at large. Although communications problems reflect the general stigmatization of nuclear power, there are obvious issues in safety and performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal which evade scientific resolution. Any scientist is concerned for his personal credibility must respect the rules and limits of scientific practice, but the intriguing question is whether he would not do better to address the layman's worries about radioactive substances? The discussion in this paper points out the intricacies of the distinction between scientific proof and judgement, with emphasis on safety assessment for nuclear waste disposal. Who are the final arbitrators? In a democratic society it is probably those who vote.Building confidence in expert judgements is a challenge for waste managers and scientists. The media may create their own 'experts', whose only necessary credential is the trust of their audience, but scientific judgements must stand the test of time.'Confidence building' is currently a key word on the whole nuclear waste management scene, and confidence in science and scientists is certainly needed for any progress towards practical implementation of plans. The means for building confidence in the decision-making process are probably different from those applied for science and scientists. (author)

  16. Molecular Science Computing Facility Scientific Challenges: Linking Across Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, Wibe A.; Windus, Theresa L.

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to define the evolving science drivers for performing environmental molecular research at the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) and to provide guidance associated with the next-generation high-performance computing center that must be developed at EMSL's Molecular Science Computing Facility (MSCF) in order to address this critical research. The MSCF is the pre-eminent computing facility?supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER)?tailored to provide the fastest time-to-solution for current computational challenges in chemistry and biology, as well as providing the means for broad research in the molecular and environmental sciences. The MSCF provides integral resources and expertise to emerging EMSL Scientific Grand Challenges and Collaborative Access Teams that are designed to leverage the multiple integrated research capabilities of EMSL, thereby creating a synergy between computation and experiment to address environmental molecular science challenges critical to DOE and the nation.

  17. Is it possible to give scientific solutions to Grand Challenges? On the idea of grand challenges for life science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathiou, Sophia

    2016-04-01

    This paper argues that challenges that are grand in scope such as "lifelong health and wellbeing", "climate action", or "food security" cannot be addressed through scientific research only. Indeed scientific research could inhibit addressing such challenges if scientific analysis constrains the multiple possible understandings of these challenges into already available scientific categories and concepts without translating between these and everyday concerns. This argument builds on work in philosophy of science and race to postulate a process through which non-scientific notions become part of science. My aim is to make this process available to scrutiny: what I call founding everyday ideas in science is both culturally and epistemologically conditioned. Founding transforms a common idea into one or more scientifically relevant ones, which can be articulated into descriptively thicker and evaluatively deflated terms and enable operationalisation and measurement. The risk of founding however is that it can invisibilise or exclude from realms of scientific scrutiny interpretations that are deemed irrelevant, uninteresting or nonsensical in the domain in question-but which may remain salient for addressing grand-in-scope challenges. The paper considers concepts of "wellbeing" in development economics versus in gerontology to illustrate this process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adequately Addressing Pediatric Obesity: Challenges Faced by Primary Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreve, Marilou; Scott, Allison; Vowell Johnson, Kelly

    2017-07-01

    To assess the challenges primary care providers encounter when providing counseling for pediatric patients identified as obese. A survey assessed the current challenges and barriers to the screening and treatment of pediatric obesity for providers in northwest Arkansas who provide care to families. The survey consisted of 15 Likert scale questions and 4 open-ended questions. Time, resources, comfort, and cultural issues were reported by providers as the biggest barriers in screening and the treatment of pediatric obesity. All providers reported lack of time as a barrier to providing the care needed for obese children. Cultural barriers of both the provider and client were identified as factors, which negatively affect the care and treatment of obese children. Primary care providers continue to experience challenges when addressing pediatric obesity. In this study, a lack of adequate time to address obesity was identified as the most significant current barrier and may likely be tied to physician resources. Although reimbursement for obesity is increasing, the level of reimbursement does not support the time or the resources needed to treat patients. Many providers reported their patients' cultural view of obesity influenced how they counsel their patients. Increasing providers' knowledge concerning differences in how weight is viewed or valued may assist them in the assessment and care of obese pediatric patients. The challenges identified in previous research continue to limit providers when addressing obesity. Although progress has been made regarding knowledge of guidelines, continuing effort is needed to tackle the remaining challenges. This will allow for earlier identification and intervention, resulting in improved outcomes in pediatric obesity.

  19. Scientific Culture Measures: Challenges and New Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Cerezo, J.L.; Muñoz van den Eynde, A

    2016-07-01

    Since mid-twentieth century, efforts to promote scientific and technological development and engage the public in R&D process are increasing. Among those efforts, since the 1970s first in United States and then in United Kingdom and Europe, governments have funded surveys aimed at understanding the public attitudes toward science, scientists, and science policy. The Science and Engineering Indicators series of the National Science Foundation, or the European Community through its Special Eurobarometer on Europeans, science and technology, have shaped the research, measures and indicators of public understanding of science surveys. Examples are, at international level, surveys like Scientific Culture in IberoAmerican Countries (2009, FECYT-OEI-RICYT), or the International Study on Scientific Culture (2012, BBVA Foundation); and at national level, surveys like Social Perception of Science and Technology (2002-2014) series, or the recent Perception, Interest, Knowledge, and Actions (PIKA) Survey (2014), both funded by Spanish Government through its Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology (FECYT). (Author)

  20. Possible Role of Green Chemistry in Addressing Environmenal Plastic Debris: Scientific, Economic and Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayha, K. M.

    2016-02-01

    Plastics have revolutionized modern life, replacing other raw materials in a vast array of products, due to their ease in molding and shaping, as well as superior recalcitrance to wearing and aging. However, this functional benefit makes plastic one of the most problematic pollutants, since they accumulate as environmental debris for decades and possibly for centuries. Rightfully so, programs addressing plastic debris typically involve efforts to reduce consumption, reuse plastic products and recycle them when usefulness is complete. However, some of these options can be problematic for certain applications, as well as in countries that lack efficient municipal solid waste or recycling facilities. The principles of Green Chemistry were developed to help scientists design chemical products that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances. These principles have also been applied to developing sustainable or greener polymers for use in consumer plastics. For instance, the EPA's Green Chemistry Program awards the Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards each year, with a large percentage of awards having gone to developments in greener polymers. Many of these advancements involve the development of sustainable bio-based, more degradable or more recyclable polymers that deliver significant environmental benefits. This presentation is meant to address what role the development of truly greener polymers might have in addressing environmental plastic debris in parallel with efforts to reduce, reuse and recycle. The intention is to evaluate the issues posed by traditional polymer types, address the ultimate goals of alternative polymer development and evaluate research on current alternative polymer technologies, in order to objectively assess their usefulness in addressing environmental plastic debris accumulation. In addition, the scientific, policy and market issues that may be impeding accurate development, evaluation and implementation of

  1. Innovative sanitation approaches could address multiple development challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Kim; Otoo, Miriam; Nolasco, Marcelo

    2018-02-01

    Globally, more than 60% of the human population live without safely managed sanitation services or even lack access to basic sanitation facilities. In addition, most of the wastewater produced in the world is discharged without proper treatment. Integrated approaches are needed to address these issues and curb the resulting adverse impacts on public health and the environment, and associated societal economic losses. The United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development provides an important framework towards more sustainable sanitation development, in terms of both safe sanitation access and wastewater management. Innovative solutions that treat and enable productive safe use of water, and facilitate recovery of nutrients and organic matter from waste resources are booming. Some examples of trends are decentralized solutions, separation of waste flows, low-or no-flushing toilets, and converting faecal sludge to energy. These alternative technologies show huge potential to address many development challenges, contributing to multiple sustainable development goals but achieving upscaling has proved to be a major challenge. A paradigm shift to 'treatment for reuse' instead of 'treatment for disposal' is already taking place in the wastewater sector. Nevertheless, a better understanding of driving forces and enabling environments, new organizational models based on more service-oriented sanitation provision, and highlighting potential multiple societal benefits to attract investments from new sectors are identified areas that need further attention.

  2. KEOPS: Scientific Challenges and Technical Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valat, B.; Gori, P.-M.; Schmider, F.-X.; Lopez, B.; Vakili, F.

    The recent site testing pointed out the potential of DomeC for Next Generation Optical Interferometer. KEOPS (Kilo parsec Explorer Optical Planet Search) is proposed in a context which also considere the post VLTI perspectives. This interferometer will be composed of 36 telescopes with a maximal baseline of 1 km. This instrument will open new horizons: stellar imaging, circumstellar environment studies, extra solar planet detection, Earth like planet search. The possibility of observations in double field mode takes advantage of the large isopistonic angle to give acces to faint object (see Elhalkouj 2006). It allows active galactic nuclei and cosmological observations. The achievement of that project implies different steps. The first one could be MYKERINOS, proposed by LUAN. This prototype interferometer, composed to 3 telescopes of 40 cm, demonstrate technological feasibility, complete the specific site characterisation and contribute to validate the scientific program objectives.

  3. The Data Issue: Opportunities and Challenges for Scientific Publishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, F.; Irving, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Using the recent report for the 'Opportunities in Data Exchange' Project produced by - and for - researchers, libraries/data centres and publishers (and which is based on a broad range of studies, questionnaires and evidence) we have defined current practices and expectations, and the gaps and dilemmas involved in producing data and datasets, and then analysed their relationship to formal publications. As a result, we identified potential opportunities to evolve scientific insights to be more useful and re-useful: with consequent implications for custodianship and long-term data management. We also defined a number of key incentives and barriers towards achieving these objectives. As a case study, the earth and environmental sciences have come under particularly close scrutiny with respect to data-ownership and -sharing arrangements, sometimes with damaging results to the discipline's reputation. These issues, along with considerable technological challenges, have to be handled effectively in order to best support all the users along the data chain. To that end, we show that key stakeholders - among them scientific publishers - need to have a clear idea of how to progress data-intensive derived information, which we demonstrate is often not the case. Towards bridging this knowledge gap, we have compiled a roadmap of next steps and key issues to be acknowledged and addressed by the scientific publishing community. These include: engaging directly with researchers, policy-makers, funding bodies and direct competitors to build innovative partnerships and enhance impact; providing technological and training investment and developing alongside the emerging discipline of 'data scientist': the 'data publisher'. This individual/company will need to combine a close understanding of researchers' priorities, together with market, legal and technical opportunities and restrictions.

  4. Addressing the challenges of patient-centred design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen LaBat

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Patient-centred design is a relatively new term, but a longstanding concept in clinical practice. This discussion looks at patient-centred design and explores the relationships of patient-centred design to universal design, user-centred design and the newer human-centred design. It also explores why interdisciplinary approaches are needed for patient-centred design and how interdisciplinary collaboration works to address the challenges of patient centred design. Successful patient-centred solutions can grow from collaborations which include shared visions, understanding of both the nature and degree of variation in the patient,materials, and the designed solution, clear regular communication among all parties with careful definition of terms, and respect for the inherent cultures of all disciplines involved.

  5. Scientific Solutions to Nuclear Waste Environmental Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Bradley R.

    2014-01-01

    The Hidden Cost of Nuclear Weapons The Cold War arms race drove an intense plutonium production program in the U.S. This campaign produced approximately 100 tons of plutonium over 40 years. The epicenter of plutonium production in the United States was the Hanford site, a 586 square mile reservation owned by the Department of Energy and located on the Colombia River in Southeastern Washington. Plutonium synthesis relied on nuclear reactors to convert uranium to plutonium within the reactor fuel rods. After a sufficient amount of conversion occurred, the rods were removed from the reactor and allowed to cool. They were then dissolved in an acid bath and chemically processed to separate and purify plutonium from the rest of the constituents in the used reactor fuel. The acidic waste was then neutralized using sodium hydroxide and the resulting mixture of liquids and precipitates (small insoluble particles) was stored in huge underground waste tanks. The byproducts of the U.S. plutonium production campaign include over 53 million gallons of high-level radioactive waste stored in 177 large underground tanks at Hanford and another 34 million gallons stored at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. This legacy nuclear waste represents one of the largest environmental clean-up challenges facing the world today. The nuclear waste in the Hanford tanks is a mixture of liquids and precipitates that have settled into sludge. Some of these tanks are now over 60 years old and a small number of them are leaking radioactive waste into the ground and contaminating the environment. The solution to this nuclear waste challenge is to convert the mixture of solids and liquids into a durable material that won't disperse into the environment and create hazards to the biosphere. What makes this difficult is the fact that the radioactive half-lives of some of the radionuclides in the waste are thousands to millions of years long. (The half-life of a radioactive substance is the amount

  6. Addressing the Challenges of Palliative Care for Homeless Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, Evelyn; Albright, Karen; Dischinger, Hannah; Weber, Mary; Jones, Jacqueline; O'Toole, Thomas P

    2018-03-01

    Veterans who nearing the end of life (EOL) in unstable housing are not adequately served by current palliative care or homeless programs. Multidisciplinary focus groups, interviews with community and Veterans Affairs (VA) leaders and with 29 homeless veterans were conducted in five cities. A forum of national palliative and homelessness care leaders (n=5) and representatives from each focus group (n=10), then convened. The forum used Nominal Group Process to suggest improvements in EOL care for veterans without homes. Modified Delphi Process was used to consolidate and prioritize recommendations during two subsequent tele-video conferences. Qualitative content analysis drew on meeting transcripts and field notes. The Forum developed 12 recommendations to address the following barriers: (1) Declining health often makes independent living or plans to abstain impossible, but housing programs usually require functional independence and sobriety. (2) Managing symptoms within the homelessness context is challenging. (3) Discontinuities within and between systems restrict care. (4) VA regulations challenge collaboration with community providers. (5) Veterans with unstable housing who are at EOL and those who care for them must compete nationally for prioritization of their care. Care of veterans at EOL without homes may be substantially improved through policy changes to facilitate access to appropriate housing and care; better dissemination of existing policy; cross-discipline and cross-system education; facilitated communication among VA, community, homeless and EOL providers; and pilot testing of VA group homes or palliative care facilities that employ harm reduction strategies.

  7. Scientific and social challenges for the management of fire-prone wildland-urban interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, A Malcolm; Stephens, Scott L

    2009-01-01

    At their worst, fires at the rural-urban or wildland-urban interface cause tragic loss of human lives and homes, but mitigating these fire effects through management elicits many social and scientific challenges. This paper addresses four interconnected management challenges posed by socially disastrous landscape fires. The issues concern various assets (particularly houses, human life and biodiversity), fuel treatments, and fire and human behaviours. The topics considered are: 'asset protection zones'; 'defensible space' and urban fire spread in relation to house ignition and loss; 'stay-or-go' policy and the prediction of time available for safe egress and the possible conflict between the creation of defensible space and wildland management objectives. The first scientific challenge is to model the effective width of an asset protection zone of an urban area. The second is to consider the effect of vegetation around a house, potentially defensible space, on fire arrival at the structure. The third scientific challenge is to present stakeholders with accurate information on rates of spread, and where the fire front is located, so as to allow them to plan safe egress or preparation time in their particular circumstances. The fourth scientific challenge is to be able to predict the effects of fires on wildland species composition. Associated with each scientific challenge is a social challenge: for the first two scientific challenges the social challenge is to co-ordinate fuel management within and between the urban and rural or wildland sides of the interface. For the third scientific challenge, the social challenge is to be aware of, and appropriately use, fire danger information so that the potential for safe egress from a home can be estimated most accurately. Finally, the fourth social challenge is to for local residents of wildland-urban interfaces with an interest in biodiversity conservation to understand the effects of fire regimes on biodiversity, thereby

  8. Addressing Earth Science Data Access Challenges through User Experience Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, S. N.; Banks, B.; Kendall, J.; Lee, C. M.; Irwin, D.; Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Capacity Building Program (Earth Science Division, Applied Sciences Program) works to enhance end-user capabilities to employ Earth observation and Earth science (EO/ES) data in decision-making. Open data access and user-tailored data delivery strategies are critical elements towards this end. User Experience (UX) and User Interface (UI) research methods can offer important contributions towards addressing data access challenges, particularly at the interface of science application/product development and product transition to end-users. This presentation focuses on developing nation contexts and describes methods, results, and lessons learned from two recent UX/UI efforts conducted in collaboration with NASA: the SERVIRglobal.net redesign project and the U.S. Water Partnership (USWP) Portal development effort. SERVIR, a collaborative venture among NASA, USAID, and global partners, seeks to improve environmental management and climate change response by helping governments and other stakeholders integrate EO and geospatial technologies into decision-making. The USWP, a collaboration among U.S. public and private sectors, harnesses U.S.-based resources and expertise to address water challenges in developing nations. SERVIR's study, conducted from 2010-2012, assessed and tested user needs, preferences, and online experiences to generate a more user-friendly online data portal at SERVIRglobal.net. The portal provides a central access interface to data and products from SERVIR's network of hubs in East Africa, the Hindu Kush Himalayas, and Mesoamerica. The second study, conducted by the USWP Secretariat and funded by the U.S. Department of State, seeks to match U.S.-based water information resources with developing nation stakeholder needs. The USWP study utilizes a multi-pronged approach to identify key design requirements and to understand the existing water data portal landscape. Adopting UX methods allows data distributors to design customized UIs that

  9. Scientific and Computational Challenges of the Fusion Simulation Program (FSP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, William M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights the scientific and computational challenges facing the Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) a major national initiative in the United States with the primary objective being to enable scientific discovery of important new plasma phenomena with associated understanding that emerges only upon integration. This requires developing a predictive integrated simulation capability for magnetically-confined fusion plasmas that are properly validated against experiments in regimes relevant for producing practical fusion energy. It is expected to provide a suite of advanced modeling tools for reliably predicting fusion device behavior with comprehensive and targeted science-based simulations of nonlinearly-coupled phenomena in the core plasma, edge plasma, and wall region on time and space scales required for fusion energy production. As such, it will strive to embody the most current theoretical and experimental understanding of magnetic fusion plasmas and to provide a living framework for the simulation of such plasmas as the associated physics understanding continues to advance over the next several decades. Substantive progress on answering the outstanding scientific questions in the field will drive the FSP toward its ultimate goal of developing the ability to predict the behavior of plasma discharges in toroidal magnetic fusion devices with high physics fidelity on all relevant time and space scales. From a computational perspective, this will demand computing resources in the petascale range and beyond together with the associated multi-core algorithmic formulation needed to address burning plasma issues relevant to ITER - a multibillion dollar collaborative experiment involving seven international partners representing over half the world's population. Even more powerful exascale platforms will be needed to meet the future challenges of designing a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO). Analogous to other major applied physics modeling projects (e

  10. Scientific and Computational Challenges of the Fusion Simulation Program (FSP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William M. Tang

    2011-02-09

    This paper highlights the scientific and computational challenges facing the Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) a major national initiative in the United States with the primary objective being to enable scientific discovery of important new plasma phenomena with associated understanding that emerges only upon integration. This requires developing a predictive integrated simulation capability for magnetically-confined fusion plasmas that are properly validated against experiments in regimes relevant for producing practical fusion energy. It is expected to provide a suite of advanced modeling tools for reliably predicting fusion device behavior with comprehensive and targeted science-based simulations of nonlinearly-coupled phenomena in the core plasma, edge plasma, and wall region on time and space scales required for fusion energy production. As such, it will strive to embody the most current theoretical and experimental understanding of magnetic fusion plasmas and to provide a living framework for the simulation of such plasmas as the associated physics understanding continues to advance over the next several decades. Substantive progress on answering the outstanding scientific questions in the field will drive the FSP toward its ultimate goal of developing the ability to predict the behavior of plasma discharges in toroidal magnetic fusion devices with high physics fidelity on all relevant time and space scales. From a computational perspective, this will demand computing resources in the petascale range and beyond together with the associated multi-core algorithmic formulation needed to address burning plasma issues relevant to ITER - a multibillion dollar collaborative experiment involving seven international partners representing over half the world's population. Even more powerful exascale platforms will be needed to meet the future challenges of designing a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO). Analogous to other major applied physics modeling projects (e

  11. Challenges facing the marketing of scientific and research institutes

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Sojkin

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the challenges that scientific research institutions face in terms of their marketing, which have been divided into two groups of those associated with internal marketing and those linked to external marketing. The most significant and important determinants that constitute challenges to both internal and external marketing were described. The key aspects of each of the identified challenges were indicated, as was their impact on the implementation of the marketing polic...

  12. Challenges facing the marketing of scientific and research institutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Sojkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the challenges that scientific research institutions face in terms of their marketing, which have been divided into two groups of those associated with internal marketing and those linked to external marketing. The most significant and important determinants that constitute challenges to both internal and external marketing were described. The key aspects of each of the identified challenges were indicated, as was their impact on the implementation of the marketing policy at institutions.

  13. Addressing challenges for youths with mobility devices in winter conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Ernesto; Lindsay, Sally; Edwards, Geoffrey; Howell, Lori; Vincent, Claude; Yantzi, Nicole; Gauthier, Véronique

    2018-01-01

    Winter-related research about the experience of navigating in the urban context has mostly focused on the elderly population with physical disabilities. The aim of this project was to explore potential design solutions to enhance young people's mobility devices and the built environment to improve accessibility and participation in winter. A multi-method qualitative design process included the following steps: (1) in-depth interviews; (2) photo elicitation; (3) individual co-design sessions; and (4) group co-design sessions (i.e., focus group). The participants were 13 youths (nine males and four females), aged 12-21, who used a wheelchair (12 power chair users and one manual wheelchair), for some with their parents, others without their parents, according to the parents' willingness to participate or not in the study (n = 13). The first two authors conducted group co-design sessions with mechanical engineers and therapists/clinicians in two Canadian cities to discuss the feasibility of the designs. Results (findings): The youths and their parents reported different winter-related challenges and proposed specific design solutions to enhance their participation and inclusion in winter activities. Seven of these designs were presented at two group co-design sessions of therapists/clinicians and engineers. Two designs were found to be feasible: (1) a traction device for wheelchairs in snow and (2) a mat made of rollers to clean snow and dirt from tires. The results of this research highlight the frustrations and challenges youths who use wheelchairs encounter in winter and a need for new solutions to ensure greater accessibility in winter. Therapists/clinicians and designers should address winter-related accessibility problems in areas with abundant snow. Implications for Rehabilitation Several studies show that current urban contexts do not necessarily respond accurately to the needs of individuals with limited mobility. Winter-related research about the

  14. Addressing Open Water Data Challenges in the Bureau of Reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, L. D.; Danner, A.; Nagode, J.; Rocha, J.; Poulton, S.; Anderson, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation is largest wholesaler of water in the United States. Located in the 17 western states, Reclamation serves water to 31 million people, provides irrigated water to 20 percent of Western farmers, and is the second largest producer of hydroelectric power in the United States. Through these activities, Reclamation generates large amounts of water and water-related data, describing reservoirs and river system conditions, hydropower, environmental compliance activities, infrastructure assets, and other aspects of Reclamation's mission activities. Reclamation aims to make water and water-related data sets more easily found, accessed, and used in decision-making activities in order to benefit the public, private sector, and research communities. Historically, there has not been an integrated, bureau-wide system to store data in machine-readable formats; nor a system to permit centralized browsing, open access, and web-services. Reclamation began addressing these limitations by developing the Reclamation Water Information System (RWIS), released in Spring 2017 (https://water.usbr.gov/). A bureau-wide team contributed to RWIS development, including water data stewards, database administrators, and information technology (IT) specialists. The first RWIS release publishes reservoir time series data from Reclamation's five regions and includes a map interface for sites identification, a query interface for data discovery and access, and web-services for automated retrieval. As RWIS enhancement continues, the development team is developing a companion system - the Reclamation Information Sharing Environment (RISE) - to provide access to the other data subjects and types (geospatial, documents). While RWIS and RISE are promising starts, Reclamation continues to face challenges in addressing open water data goals: making data consolidation and open publishing a value-added activity for programs that publish data locally, going beyond providing open access

  15. Biodiversity data provision and decision-making - addressing the challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Despot-Belmonte

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs are measurements required for study, reporting, and management of biodiversity change. They are being developed to support consistency, from the collection to the reporting of biodiversity data at the national, regional and global scales. However, "EBV stakeholders" need to strike a balance between 'doing innovative research' and 'having positive impact' on biodiversity management decisions. This paper reports on a workshop entitled Identifying joint pathways to address the challenges of biodiversity data provision and decision-making and presents the main workshop’s output, a “researcher’s brief” entitled Guiding principles for promoting the application of EBVs for current and future needs of decision-makers. These guiding principles are: Speak with a common voice; Clearly define what is an EBV and how it relates to indicators; Engage beyond the research world; Be realistic about what can be done now and later; Define criteria for good EBVs; Use EBV as a clearing house; Convey the limitations of EBVs; Clarify what impact EBVs should have; Be salient, credible, legitimate, iterative; Don't put an EBV skin on everything you do; Don't create too many EBVs; and Don't reduce EBVs to building blocks of indicators. This brief is of relevance to the wider GEO BON (Group on Earth Observation Biodoversity Observation Network community, and in particular those scientists/researchers interested in the application of EBVs.

  16. Scientific Challenges in the Risk Assessment of Food Contact Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muncke, Jane; Backhaus, Thomas; Geueke, Birgit; Maffini, Maricel V; Martin, Olwenn Viviane; Myers, John Peterson; Soto, Ana M; Trasande, Leonardo; Trier, Xenia; Scheringer, Martin

    2017-09-11

    Food contact articles (FCAs) are manufactured from food contact materials (FCMs) that include plastics, paper, metal, glass, and printing inks. Chemicals can migrate from FCAs into food during storage, processing, and transportation. Food contact materials' safety is evaluated using chemical risk assessment (RA). Several challenges to the RA of FCAs exist. We review regulatory requirements for RA of FCMs in the United States and Europe, identify gaps in RA, and highlight opportunities for improving the protection of public health. We intend to initiate a discussion in the wider scientific community to enhance the safety of food contact articles. Based on our evaluation of the evidence, we conclude that current regulations are insufficient for addressing chemical exposures from FCAs. RA currently focuses on monomers and additives used in the manufacture of products, but it does not cover all substances formed in the production processes. Several factors hamper effective RA for many FCMs, including a lack of information on chemical identity, inadequate assessment of hazardous properties, and missing exposure data. Companies make decisions about the safety of some food contact chemicals (FCCs) without review by public authorities. Some chemical migration limits cannot be enforced because analytical standards are unavailable. We think that exposures to hazardous substances migrating from FCAs require more attention. We recommend a ) limiting the number and types of chemicals authorized for manufacture and b ) developing novel approaches for assessing the safety of chemicals in FCAs, including unidentified chemicals that form during or after production. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP644.

  17. CERN openlab Whitepaper on Future IT Challenges in Scientific Research

    CERN Document Server

    Di Meglio, Alberto; Purcell, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This whitepaper describes the major IT challenges in scientific research at CERN and several other European and international research laboratories and projects. Each challenge is exemplified through a set of concrete use cases drawn from the requirements of large-scale scientific programs. The paper is based on contributions from many researchers and IT experts of the participating laboratories and also input from the existing CERN openlab industrial sponsors. The views expressed in this document are those of the individual contributors and do not necessarily reflect the view of their organisations and/or affiliates.

  18. Scientific and computational challenges of the fusion simulation project (FSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W. M.

    2008-07-01

    This paper highlights the scientific and computational challenges facing the Fusion Simulation Project (FSP). The primary objective is to develop advanced software designed to use leadership-class computers for carrying out multiscale physics simulations to provide information vital to delivering a realistic integrated fusion simulation model with unprecedented physics fidelity. This multiphysics capability will be unprecedented in that in the current FES applications domain, the largest-scale codes are used to carry out first-principles simulations of mostly individual phenomena in realistic 3D geometry while the integrated models are much smaller-scale, lower-dimensionality codes with significant empirical elements used for modeling and designing experiments. The FSP is expected to be the most up-to-date embodiment of the theoretical and experimental understanding of magnetically confined thermonuclear plasmas and to provide a living framework for the simulation of such plasmas as the associated physics understanding continues to advance over the next several decades. Substantive progress on answering the outstanding scientific questions in the field will drive the FSP toward its ultimate goal of developing a reliable ability to predict the behavior of plasma discharges in toroidal magnetic fusion devices on all relevant time and space scales. From a computational perspective, the fusion energy science application goal to produce high-fidelity, whole-device modeling capabilities will demand computing resources in the petascale range and beyond, together with the associated multicore algorithmic formulation needed to address burning plasma issues relevant to ITER — a multibillion dollar collaborative device involving seven international partners representing over half the world's population. Even more powerful exascale platforms will be needed to meet the future challenges of designing a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO). Analogous to other major applied

  19. Scientific and computational challenges of the fusion simulation project (FSP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, W M

    2008-01-01

    This paper highlights the scientific and computational challenges facing the Fusion Simulation Project (FSP). The primary objective is to develop advanced software designed to use leadership-class computers for carrying out multiscale physics simulations to provide information vital to delivering a realistic integrated fusion simulation model with unprecedented physics fidelity. This multiphysics capability will be unprecedented in that in the current FES applications domain, the largest-scale codes are used to carry out first-principles simulations of mostly individual phenomena in realistic 3D geometry while the integrated models are much smaller-scale, lower-dimensionality codes with significant empirical elements used for modeling and designing experiments. The FSP is expected to be the most up-to-date embodiment of the theoretical and experimental understanding of magnetically confined thermonuclear plasmas and to provide a living framework for the simulation of such plasmas as the associated physics understanding continues to advance over the next several decades. Substantive progress on answering the outstanding scientific questions in the field will drive the FSP toward its ultimate goal of developing a reliable ability to predict the behavior of plasma discharges in toroidal magnetic fusion devices on all relevant time and space scales. From a computational perspective, the fusion energy science application goal to produce high-fidelity, whole-device modeling capabilities will demand computing resources in the petascale range and beyond, together with the associated multicore algorithmic formulation needed to address burning plasma issues relevant to ITER - a multibillion dollar collaborative device involving seven international partners representing over half the world's population. Even more powerful exascale platforms will be needed to meet the future challenges of designing a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO). Analogous to other major applied physics

  20. Scientific and Pragmatic Challenges for Bridging Education and Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Sashank; McCandliss, Bruce D.; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    Educational neuroscience is an emerging effort to integrate neuroscience methods, particularly functional neuroimaging, with behavioral methods to address issues of learning and instruction. This article consolidates common concerns about connecting education and neuroscience. One set of concerns is scientific: in-principle differences in methods,…

  1. Challenges of Teaching Science to Address Global Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Halim, Lilia

    2015-01-01

    For a liveable condition in this post- industrial era, it would depend on our ability to understand and use the science and technology advancement in a responsible manner. Water pollution and global warming phenomena are outcomes of scientific and technological advancement that has been mismanaged. One way to achieve global sustainability is through science education and the development of a scientific literate citizen. This paper, based on the literature and research work in science educatio...

  2. Scientific challenges in the field of invasive alien plant management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines scientific challenges in the field of invasion alien plant management in South Africa. Overview of the Working for Water program, Issues of research funding, and Biological control research. It also includes some of the papers...

  3. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  4. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  5. Addressing complex challenges using a co-innovation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijssen, Jessica; Srinivasan, M.S.; Dirks, Sarah; Fielke, Simon; Jongmans, C.T.; Agnew, Natasha; Klerkx, Laurens; Pinxterhuis, Ina; Moore, John; Edwards, Paul; Brazendale, Rob; Botha, Neels; Turner, James A.

    2017-01-01

    Co-innovation can be effective for complex challenges – involving interactions amongst multiple stakeholders, viewpoints, perceptions, practices and interests across programmes, sectors and national systems. Approaches to challenges in the primary sector have tended to be linear, where tools and

  6. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  7. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  8. Managing a scarce resource: addressing critical health workforce challenges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans. P.; Dussault, G.; Batenburg, R.; Frich, J.; Olivers, R.; Sermeus, W.

    2013-01-01

    With health care services significantly changing, the challenge is to initiate innovative, situational and integrated workforce forecasting and planning. Many health systems require a shift in mindset to move to the planning of skill mixes for health care professionals. This implies great challenges

  9. The challenge of integrated rangeland monitoring: synthesis address

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to balance biodiversity conservation with sustainable development, though widely agreed upon, is elusive in practice. Human societies are increasingly disconnected from the ecosystems which support them. The loosening connection and growing scientific acceptance that ecosystems are complex, dynamic, ...

  10. Scientific and academic journals in the Philippines: status and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Mae Tecson-Mendoza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As of July 2015, 28 Philippine scientific journals out of 777 Philippine scholarly journals are listed in the master journal lists of Thomson Reuters (TR, Scopus, or both. Of these scientific journals, thirteen are published by universities, two by government institutions, ten by professional organizations and three by private for-profit or non-profit organizations. Nineteen of these journals are over 25 years old, with the Philippine Journal of Science and the Philippine Agricultural Scientist being the oldest at 108 and 103 years in publication, respectively. Scientific journals in the Philippines, like other countries in Asia, face various increasing challenges. Among these challenges are getting listed in the master journal lists and citation databases of TR, Scopus, or both; obtaining funding; reaching a wider readership; attaining higher impact factors; competing for papers; and increased submission of manuscripts from outside the country. To promote the improvement of local journals, the National Academy of Science and Technology Philippines has given outstanding publication awards for scientific papers published in local journals for the past two decades. The Philippine Commission on Higher Education has accredited local journals that are included in either TR and Scopus journal master lists, and provides monetary incentives to accredited journals. Training workshops on scientific article writing and editorial management are conducted for researchers and editors by universities and professional and government organizations. A network of Philippine science editors has been formed to work together to upgrade and modernize selected journals to international standards.

  11. Expanding the Role for Psychology in Addressing Environmental Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clayton, Susan; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Swim, Janet; Bonnes, Mirilia; Steg, Linda; Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Carrico, Amanda

    Environmental challenges, though daunting, present an important area for psychologists to apply their knowledge. Psychological theories, research methods, and interventions are essential for examining the questions about human impacts, tendencies, and capacities that are integral to constructing

  12. A Canadian Effort to Address Fractions Teaching and Learning Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearley, Shelley; Bruce, Catherine D.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching and learning fraction concepts provides challenges in primary schools all over the world. In this article, Shelley Yearley and Catherine Bruce describe a fractions-based research project conducted in Ontario, Canada.

  13. Teaching Digital Natives: Promoting Information Literacy and Addressing Instructional Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    Technology must be used as a teaching and learning tool to help students succeed. However, educators must be proactive in identifying some of the pitfalls of technology, such as information illiteracy. The phenomenological study covers how English instructors from Indianapolis, who teach first year students, address information literacy and the…

  14. West and Central Africa — Addressing new challenges | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-25

    Jan 25, 2011 ... In urban Senegal, for example, IDRC-supported research addressing the use of contaminated wastewater in food production involved many players, including the mayor, individual householders, and the people who grow and sell fruits and vegetables. For people in this community on the peri-urban fringe ...

  15. Oral health in Libya: addressing the future challenges | Peeran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Libya is a vast country situated in North Africa, having a relatively better functioning economy with a scanty population. This article is the first known attempt to review the current state of oral health care in Libya and to explore the present trends and future challenges. Libyan health system, oral health care, and human ...

  16. Addressing HIV/AIDS challenges in Uganda: does social capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, the success is attributed to the policy which allowed many actors to participate in the fight against the disease. The primary focus of this article is to map the process of social capital generation by NGOs and how social capital benefits enhance mitigation of HIV/AIDS challenges in Uganda. The key to social capital ...

  17. Can pervasive sensing address current challenges in global healthcare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Atallah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Important challenges facing global healthcare include the increase in the number of people affected by escalating healthcare costs, chronic and infectious diseases, the need for better and more affordable elderly care and expanding urbanisation combined with air and water pollution. Recent advances in pervasive sensing technologies have led to miniaturised sensor networks that can be worn or integrated within the living environment without affecting a person’s daily patterns. These sensors promise to change healthcare from snapshot measurements of physiological parameters to continuous monitoring enabling clinicians to provide guidance on a daily basis. This article surveys several of the solutions provided by these sensor platforms from elderly care to neonatal monitoring and environmental mapping. Some of the opportunities available and the challenges facing the adoption of such technologies in large-scale epidemiological studies are also discussed.

  18. Consensus Statement on Electronic Health Predictive Analytics: A Guiding Framework to Address Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasingham, Ruben; Audet, Anne-Marie J; Bates, David W; Glenn Cohen, I; Entwistle, Martin; Escobar, G J; Liu, Vincent; Etheredge, Lynn; Lo, Bernard; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Ram, Sudha; Saria, Suchi; Schilling, Lisa M; Shahi, Anand; Stewart, Walter F; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Xie, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The recent explosion in available electronic health record (EHR) data is motivating a rapid expansion of electronic health care predictive analytic (e-HPA) applications, defined as the use of electronic algorithms that forecast clinical events in real time with the intent to improve patient outcomes and reduce costs. There is an urgent need for a systematic framework to guide the development and application of e-HPA to ensure that the field develops in a scientifically sound, ethical, and efficient manner. Building upon earlier frameworks of model development and utilization, we identify the emerging opportunities and challenges of e-HPA, propose a framework that enables us to realize these opportunities, address these challenges, and motivate e-HPA stakeholders to both adopt and continuously refine the framework as the applications of e-HPA emerge. To achieve these objectives, 17 experts with diverse expertise including methodology, ethics, legal, regulation, and health care delivery systems were assembled to identify emerging opportunities and challenges of e-HPA and to propose a framework to guide the development and application of e-HPA. The framework proposed by the panel includes three key domains where e-HPA differs qualitatively from earlier generations of models and algorithms (Data Barriers, Transparency, and ETHICS) and areas where current frameworks are insufficient to address the emerging opportunities and challenges of e-HPA (Regulation and Certification; and Education and Training). The following list of recommendations summarizes the key points of the framework: Data Barriers: Establish mechanisms within the scientific community to support data sharing for predictive model development and testing.Transparency: Set standards around e-HPA validation based on principles of scientific transparency and reproducibility. Develop both individual-centered and society-centered risk-benefit approaches to evaluate e-HPA.Regulation and Certification: Construct a

  19. South Channel Dam Rehabilitation Project - Successfully Addressing Dam Rehabilitation Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Graeser, M. D.; Jensen, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    The Post Falls South Channel Dam is located on the Spokane River in Post Falls, Idaho. The concrete gravity dam was constructed in 1906 and was recently rehabilitated. The rehabilitation project included several design elements; the primary objectives were the replacement of the six spillway gates and hoists and significant rehabilitation of the concrete. The South Channel Dam rehabilitation encountered several challenges due to the age and condition of the existing structure, the large scale...

  20. Scientific Grand Challenges: Crosscutting Technologies for Computing at the Exascale - February 2-4, 2010, Washington, D.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-02-06

    The goal of the "Scientific Grand Challenges - Crosscutting Technologies for Computing at the Exascale" workshop in February 2010, jointly sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research and the National Nuclear Security Administration, was to identify the elements of a research and development agenda that will address these challenges and create a comprehensive exascale computing environment. This exascale computing environment will enable the science applications identified in the eight previously held Scientific Grand Challenges Workshop Series.

  1. Adoptive T cell therapy: Addressing challenges in cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Cassian

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adoptive T cell therapy involves the ex vivo selection and expansion of effector cells for the treatment of patients with cancer. In this review, the advantages and limitations of using antigen-specific T cells are discussed in counterpoint to vaccine strategies. Although vaccination strategies represent more readily available reagents, adoptive T cell therapy provides highly selected T cells of defined phenotype, specificity and function that may influence their biological behavior in vivo. Adoptive T cell therapy offers not only translational opportunities but also a means to address fundamental issues in the evolving field of cancer immunotherapy.

  2. Expanding the role for psychology in addressing environmental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Susan; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Swim, Janet; Bonnes, Mirilia; Steg, Linda; Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Carrico, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    Environmental challenges, though daunting, present an important area for psychologists to apply their knowledge. Psychological theories, research methods, and interventions are essential for examining the questions about human impacts, tendencies, and capacities that are integral to constructing effective responses to these challenges. Although a great deal of relevant research has been done, there is scope for psychologists to be more extensively involved. Following a brief review of existing research, we outline some important new directions. We also highlight 2 key divergences, arguing that psychological research needs to expand beyond a traditional, theory-based and decontextualized approach to environmental issues to incorporate a contextualized or "place-based" approach and a willingness to collaborate in interdisciplinary research teams that focus on specific environmental problems. Suggestions for promoting such interdisciplinary collaborations are reviewed. We encourage psychologists to expand their engagement with important environmental issues through multiple research approaches in order to further their understanding of human behavior, contributions to human well-being, and relevance to other disciplines and to society. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Scientific networking to address the causes, timing, emplacement mechanisms, and consequences of the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlenghi, Angelo; Lofi, Johanna; Aloisi, Vanni; Flecker, Rachel

    2017-04-01

    The origin of the Mediterranean salt giant is linked to an extraordinary event in the geological history of the Mediterranean region, commonly referred to as the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). After 45 years of intense yet disunited research efforts, the international scientific community at large faces a unique opportunity to access the deep and marginal basins Messinian depositional successions in the Mediterranean through scientific drilling, namely through the Integrated Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) and the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP). Scientific activity to promote scientific drilling offshore and onshore is in progress under the broad umbrella of the Uncovering a Salt Giant' IODP Multi-Platform Drilling proposal, that has generated the Deep-Sea Records of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (DREAM) site-specific pre-proposal for riserless drilling on Messinian marginal basins and the related ICDP-IODP amphibious initiative Investigating Miocene Mediterranean- Atlantic gateway exchange (IMMAGE). Scientific networking has begun to establish a broad cross-disciplinary research community embracing geology, geophysics, geochemistry, microbiology, and paleoclimatology. Formal networking activities represent an opportunity for the scientific community to share objectives, data, expertise and tools with industry since there is considerable interest in oil and gas exploration, and consequent hazards, targeting the Mediterranean's deep salt deposits. With the acronym MEDSALT, we have established two networks working in close cooperation: (1) COST Action CA15103 Uncovering the Mediterranean salt giant (MEDSALT) (https://medsalt.eu/) is a 4-year long network established in May 2016 comprising scientific institutions from 28 states. This COST Action will provide an opportunity to develop further our knowledge of salt rock formation addressing four overarching scientific questions: a) What are the causes, timing and emplacement mechanisms of the

  4. Addressing Global Environmental Challenges through Interdisciplinary Biogeochemical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Our planet is dynamic; energy and matter constantly move between the hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere on time scales from seconds to millenia. These tight interactions - including those between organisms and their physical environment - are what make Earth habitable. However, as Rachel Carson wrote, 'Only within the moment of time represented by the present century has one species - man - acquired significant power to alter the nature of this world'. Globalization and explosive population growth have generated far-reaching environmental problems on a scale that humanity has never faced before. Fortunately, our species has also developed an unprecedented ability to provide science-based solutions. Since processes impacting the environment involve complex biological, physical, chemical and geological interactions and feedbacks, they require the integration of expertise from all these scientific disciplines as well as input from policy makers, social scientists, and economists. This talk presents four examples of current interdisciplinary research projects conducted in my lab, each one related to a theme from one of Carson's books (Under the Sea-wind, The Sea Around Us, The Edge of the Sea, and Silent Spring). These projects, and others like them, provide hope that we can move toward a sustainable relationship with the natural world by encouraging the best scientists to conduct interdisciplinary research with direct applications for environmental management and stewardship.

  5. Addresses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Point features representing locations of all street addresses in Orange County, NC including Chapel Hill, NC. Data maintained by Orange County, the Town of Chapel...

  6. Addressing urban health. A challenge into the next millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Slums and squatter settlements have proliferated in urban Bangladesh. Indeed, rapid urban population growth in Bangladesh has overwhelmed the existing infrastructure. Many people live in extremely poor conditions which make it difficult for them to maintain healthy living conditions. Extending health care and other basic services to the urban poor has become a priority concern for the government, nongovernmental organizations, and donor agencies. The International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, has been involved in urban health research since the early 1980s. Some of the center's activities over the years are described, followed by sections on assessing the health and nutrition problems of mothers and children, access to and use of health services among the urban poor, addressing the urban environment, and operations research to improve maternal and child health and family planning service delivery.

  7. Recent Advancement in Cellulose based Nanocomposite for Addressing Environmental Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Islam, Mazhar; Wajid Ullah, Muhammad; Khan, Shaukat; Kamal, Tahseen; Ul-Islam, Salman; Shah, Nasrullah; Park, Joong Kon

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose being the most abundant polymer has been widely utilized in multiple applications. Its impressive nanofibril arrangement has provoked its applications in numerous fields. Recent trends have been shifted to produce composites of nanocellulose for numerous applications among which the most important ones are its use in medical and environmental prospective. This review has basically focused the development of nanocellulose composites and its applications in resolving environmental hazards. We have reviewed large number of research and review articles from famous journals using a focused review question. The quality of retrieved papers was assessed through standard tools. The contents from reviewed articles were described in scientific way. We included 85 papers including research and review articles and patents in this review. 18 papers introduced the theme of current review. More than 10 papers were used to describe the approaches used for synthesizing cellullose nanocomposites. Composite synthesis strategies included the in situ addition, ex situ penetration, solution mixing, and solvent casting etc. Around 60 manuscripts including 6 patents were used to demonstrate various applications of nanocellulose composites. Nanocellulose based materials offer several applications in the development of antimicrobial filters, air and water filters, filters for removal of heavy metals, pollutant sensors as well as applications in catalysis and energy sectors. Such products are more efficient, robust, reliable, and environment-friendly. This review gives a comprehensive picture of ongoing research and development on environmental remediation by nanotechnology. We hope that the contents reviewed herein will catch the reader's interest and will provide interesting background to extend future research activities regarding cellulose based materials.

  8. Addressing Grand Challenges in Earth Observation Science: The Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, W.; Fröhlich, J.; Wotawa, G.; Stowasser, R.; Staudinger, M.; Hoffmann, C.; Walli, A.; Federspiel, C.; Aspetsberger, M.; Atzberger, C.; Briese, C.; Notarnicola, C.; Zebisch, M.; Boresch, A.; Enenkel, M.; Kidd, R.; von Beringe, A.; Hasenauer, S.; Naeimi, V.; Mücke, W.

    2014-09-01

    Earth observation is entering a new era where the increasing availability of free and open global satellite data sets combined with the computing power offered by modern information technologies opens up the possibility to process high-resolution data sets at global scale and short repeat intervals in a fully automatic fashion. This will not only boost the availability of higher level earth observation data in purely quantitative terms, but can also be expected to trigger a step change in the quality and usability of earth observation data. However, the technical, scientific, and organisational challenges that need to be overcome to arrive at this point are significant. First of all, Petabyte-scale data centres are needed for storing and processing complete satellite data records. Second, innovative processing chains that allow fully automatic processing of the satellite data from the raw sensor records to higher-level geophysical products need to be developed. Last but not least, new models of cooperation between public and private actors need to be found in order to live up to the first two challenges. This paper offers a discussion of how the Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring (EODC) - a catalyser for an open and international cooperation of public and private organisations - will address these three grand challenges with the aim to foster the use of earth observation for monitoring of global water resources.

  9. Strategies to Address Common Challenges When Teaching in an Active Learning Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Christina I.; Gorman, Kristen S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides practical strategies for addressing common challenges that arise for teachers in active learning classrooms. Our strategies come from instructors with experience teaching in these environments.

  10. Addressing climate change: lessons from Paris, challenges for Marrakech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaram, Dhanasree

    2016-02-01

    Dhanasree Jayaram, Project Associate in the Manipal Advanced Research Group of Manipal University (Karnataka, India), and author of 'Breaking out of the Green House: Indian Leadership in Times of Environmental Change (2012)' answers the following questions regarding the Paris agreement reach during COP21: - What is your assessment of the Paris agreement reach during COP21? - What is the most positive/negative aspect? - Is the agreement legally binding according to you? - What was the main 'redline' for the Indian government in the negotiations? - Is the Indian government satisfied by the content of the agreement? - Some people say that what happened outside the COP21 but during the week (Indian Solar Alliance, New Chinese Funds, Divest-Invest campaign, Electricity for Africa, activism of civil society, etc.), is more important that what happened inside. Do you share this opinion? - Are you optimistic regarding the gap between the 1.5 deg. C limit and the current level of the INDC? - What do you think about the position of the OPEC countries? - What are the main progresses proposed by the agreement regarding the financial dimension? - What are the main challenges for the COP22 in Morocco? What are the next big steps?

  11. Addressing the Challenge: Cataloguing Electronic Books in Academic Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Zhao

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective ‐ This paper explores the various issues and challenges arising from e‐book cataloguing experienced at the University of Windsor’s Leddy Library and the Ontario Council of University Libraries (OCUL. This discussion uses an evidence based approach to identify and resolve issues relevant to academic libraries as well as to consortia. With the ever rising popularity of e‐books within academic libraries, cataloguing librarians are actively seeking more effective methods of managing this new electronic medium, including the development of new cataloguing policies and procedures. This paper will explore the various issues and challenges surrounding e‐book cataloguing and processing within academic libraries, and will identify new policies and procedures that may be used to effectively assist in e‐book management.Methods ‐ This paper presents a case study of e‐book cataloguing practices undertaken by a Canadian academic library and the consortium with which it is affiliated. Towards this end, the University of Windsor’s Leddy Library will be the prime focus of this study, with its establishment of a new e‐book MARC records database. The research is based on the results of the e‐book MARC project undertaken by the Leddy Library and the Ontario Council of University Libraries (OCUL.Through analysis of various suppliers’ MARC records and the actual implementation of the e‐book MARC project, the authors developed and evaluated a new approach to e‐book cataloguing for use in academic libraries.Results ‐ This practice‐based approach towards the development of a new method of e‐book cataloguing required continual modification and examination of e‐book MARC records within the target library. The Leddy Library’s e‐book MARC project provided an excellent opportunity to test the library’s existing cataloguing standards and procedures for print format, while at the same time, identifying related e‐books issues

  12. Painting the world REDD: addressing scientific barriers to monitoring emissions from tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P.

    2011-06-01

    stumbling blocks actually starts with the scientific community, which needs not only to develop highly accurate deforestation, degradation and carbon emission monitoring methods, but also to make those methods available to national governments and the supporting organizations orbiting those governments. This 'giving away' of the methods starts, but does not end, with the training provided by the scientific experts on the use of the monitoring tools. This effort must also involve a commitment to sustained support and capacity building until non-expert monitoring and reporting becomes routine. The scientific community must also make clear what is operational and what is research. Operational does not necessarily mean less accurate. Rather, achieving both operational status and high accuracy requires innovation. While an innovative, but one-time or infrequent, mapping of forest cover or carbon stocks has been the most common scientific contribution to REDD+, it alone does not constitute operational monitoring. However, it can contribute to a portfolio of techniques and products that must come together to form an operational monitoring and modeling approach. Australia's National Carbon Accounting System (NCAS; www.climatechange.gov.au/) is one such approach, and there are others developing (www.csr.ufmg.br/simamazonia/). Importantly, carbon accounting models can meet the REDD+ challenge, but only if the observations—the measurements—are high quality, high resolution, and synoptic in geographic scale (Asner 2009). Is there hope, and if so, is it based on real and present scientific progress? Real progress is being made, but much of the innovation has not landed in the reports provided by and for the UN and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Yet this innovation is breaking serious barriers that extend and/or replace traditional forest inventory techniques, that use the latest satellite and aircraft technology on a cost-effective and repeated basis, and which

  13. COOP+ project: Promoting the cooperation among international Research Infrastructures to address global environmental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet-García, Francisco; Materia, Paola; Kutsch, Werner; de Lucas, Jesús Marco; Tjulin, Anders

    2016-04-01

    (LifeWatch) with international counterparts (NEON, TERN, AMISR/SRI, CGSM, OOI, INPA/LBA, IMOS, OCN, AMERIFLUX, etc.) and to leverage international scientific cooperation and data exchange with non-EU countries. During the time span of COOP+ (March 2016 to July 2018), we will address several important questions regarding RIs: What could be the contribution of international RIs to address cross-disciplinary global challenges like modelling and understanding the carbon cycle? Is it feasible to join the knowledge gathered in Arctic research with marine science outputs into comprehensive global models? What collaboration approaches could be implemented to foster the cooperation among RIs? What is the role of local observatories (bottom-up) in this cooperation framework? This contribution will describe COOP+ project using the concept of global challenge. We will describe several possible case study that could be addressed by a network of international RIs.

  14. Scientific and Technological Challenges of Diagnosing Burning Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, R. L.

    2009-05-01

    Research in magnetically confined fusion is now approaching a major milestone which is in evaluating and controlling burning plasma conditions. This milestone will be first met in the ITER experiment, presently being built in Cadarache, France through an international partnership, which includes China, the European Union, India, Japan, South Korea, Russia and the United States. In order to achieve its mission of achieving burning plasma conditions, and possibly ignition, a comprehensive set of scientific instruments (diagnostics) is being planned. That set represents the culmination of more than 50 years of development and research. More than 40 plasma parameters will be measured, including many which will be directly controlled. Some of these measurements will be done for the first time, such as probing the production, distribution and behavior of fusion produced, i.e. alpha particles, a key element in sustaining the fusion reaction process. These measurements will need to be done in a hostile environment, where a large nuclear radiation field, substantial direct particle flux, long pulse length and lack of direct access will bring severe constraints. Furthermore, the needs of the experiment will demand high reliability, low maintenance and the ability to retain a good calibration over a long period of time. We will review the challenges of the task and the opportunities for scientific breakthroughs from these state-of-the-art diagnostics instruments, as they pertain to the specific context of burning plasma conditions, together with examples of where these measurements will directly impact our scientific understanding and ability to control these conditions.

  15. EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES. Actions Needed to Address the Challenges of Responding to Zika Virus Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Actions Needed to Address the Challenges of Responding to Zika Virus Disease Outbreaks Report to...Congressional Requesters May 2017 GAO-17-445 United States Government Accountability Office United States Government Accountability Office...Highlights of GAO-17-445, a report to congressional requesters. May 2017 EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Actions Needed to Address the Challenges of

  16. Functional MRI-based lie detection: scientific and societal challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Martha J; Hutchinson, J Benjamin; Phelps, Elizabeth A; Wagner, Anthony D

    2014-02-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI)-based lie detection has been marketed as a tool for enhancing personnel selection, strengthening national security and protecting personal reputations, and at least three US courts have been asked to admit the results of lie detection scans as evidence during trials. How well does fMRI-based lie detection perform, and how should the courts, and society more generally, respond? Here, we address various questions — some of which are based on a meta-analysis of published studies — concerning the scientific state of the art in fMRI-based lie detection and its legal status, and discuss broader ethical and societal implications. We close with three general policy recommendations.

  17. Mars 2001 Mission: Addressing Scientific Questions Regarding the Characteristics and Origin of Local Bedrock and Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, R. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Weitz, C. M.; Marshall, J.; Squyres, S. W.; Christensen, P. R.; Meloy, T.; Smith, P.

    1999-09-01

    The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Mission will carry instruments on the orbiter, lander and rover that will support synergistic observations and experiments to address important scientific questions regarding the local bedrock and soils. The martian surface is covered in varying degrees by fine materials less than a few mms in size. Viking and Pathfinder images of the surface indicate that soils at those sites are composed of fine particles. Wheel tracks from the Sojourner rover suggest that soil deposits are composed of particles 100 microns and soils are dominated by wom away through prolonged transport over the eons? Were they never generated to begin with? Or are they simply less easy to identify because do they not form distinctive geomorphic features such as dunes or uniform mantles that tend to assume superposition in the soil structure?

  18. Journal hijacking: A new challenge for medical scientific community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Kolahi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and scientific communities have encountered a horrible event named journal hijacking. In this paper, we present the unethical and criminal practices of journal hijacking. A hijacked journal is a legitimate scientific journal that offers print-only version, for which a bogus website has been created by a malicious third party fake publisher for the purpose of fraudulently offering research scientists the chance to rapidly publish their paper online with publication fee. Journal hijackers are dominant in analyzing the behaviors of researchers and journalism worldwide. They find the email addresses of authors from the websites of commercial and non-peer-reviewed journals. During last few years, more than one hundred of hijacked journals have been observed unbelievably. Whoever they are, it is apparent that they have the knowledge required to design a website, manage an open access e-journal, and they are skilled to hide their characteristics on the World Wide Web. They are aware that many of authors are in urgent need to publish their work in well-known prestigious journals. The goal of an anti-journal hijacking strategy should be to disseminate knowledge about such scams and to train authors so they will have the basic skills required to avoid fake publishers and hijacked journals.

  19. Scientific Challenges in the Risk Assessment of Food Contact Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muncke, Jane; Backhaus, Thomas; Geueke, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Food contact articles (FCAs) are manufactured from food contact materials (FCMs) that include plastics, paper, metal, glass, and printing inks. Chemicals can migrate from FCAs into food during storage, processing, and transportation. Food contact materials' safety is evaluated using chemical risk...... formed in the production processes. Several factors hamper effective RA for many FCMs, including a lack of information on chemical identity, inadequate assessment of hazardous properties, and missing exposure data. Companies make decisions about the safety of some food contact chemicals (FCCs) without...... assessment (RA). Several challenges to the RA of FCAs exist. We review regulatory requirements for RA of FCMs in the United States and Europe, identify gaps in RA, and highlight opportunities for improving the protection of public health. We intend to initiate a discussion in the wider scientific community...

  20. COOP+ project: Promoting the cooperation of international Research Infrastructures to address global environmental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet-García, F.; Järvi, L.; Asmi, A.; Suárez-Muñoz, M.

    2016-12-01

    Humanity must face enormous environmental challenges including biodiversity decline, climate change, ocean acidification, sea level rise and overpopulation. The research infrastructures (RIs) created in the last decades worldwide cover a wide range of spatial and thematic scales and collect information about the functioning of Earth ecosystems. However, we need to go one step forward: understand and simulate the functioning of the Earth as a complex system in a global change scenario. Cooperation among international RIs as well as multidisciplinary work are mandatory to achieve this challenging objective. COOP+ (EU Horizon 2020 project) aims to strengthen the links and coordination of European environmental RIs with their international counterparts. COOP+ will create cooperation threads among international research infrastructures using environmental Global Challenges (GCs) as thematic guidelines. These GCs are polyhedral and sometimes wicked problems that threaten the sustainability of our modern societies from a social and environmental perspective. This contribution describes how COOP+ uses GCs as guidelines to foster cooperation among RIs. First we have created an open survey to collect ideas about GCs within the different scientific communities. We present the structure of this survey as well as the preliminary information that it contains. The survey will be accepting responses during the project life (September 2018). We also describe the structure of a template that will be used to collaboratively characterize some selected GCs under the point of view of RIs. The main idea is to assess how RIs can be useful to address global environmental problems. We encourage all scientists related to RIs communities to participate in this process.

  1. Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terblanche, Deon; Jalkanen, Liisa

    2013-04-01

    counterparts. The urban environment also provides numerous opportunities. One example being the better use of weather and environmental predictions to proactively optimize the functioning of the urban environment in terms of the use of energy, goods and services. Another is the providing of air quality forecasting services to benefit the health of the population. To address the challenges and opportunities facing megacities and large urban complexes, WMO has established the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Urban Research Meteorology and Environment (GURME). Air pollution questions in urban areas, in particular megacities, is the main focus, building observational and modelling capabilities in developing countries through pilot projects and transfer of scientific expertise. GURME contributes to improving capabilities to handle meteorological and related features of air pollution by addressing end-to-end aspects of air quality, linking observational capabilities with the needs of chemical weather prediction, with the goal of providing high quality air quality services. Using examples from around the world but with specific reference to Africa, the unique challenges and opportunities related to megacities and large urban complexes, as perceived by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) are highlighted.

  2. Enabling a new Paradigm to Address Big Data and Open Science Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, Mohan; Fisher, Ward

    2017-04-01

    Data are not only the lifeblood of the geosciences but they have become the currency of the modern world in science and society. Rapid advances in computing, communi¬cations, and observational technologies — along with concomitant advances in high-resolution modeling, ensemble and coupled-systems predictions of the Earth system — are revolutionizing nearly every aspect of our field. Modern data volumes from high-resolution ensemble prediction/projection/simulation systems and next-generation remote-sensing systems like hyper-spectral satellite sensors and phased-array radars are staggering. For example, CMIP efforts alone will generate many petabytes of climate projection data for use in assessments of climate change. And NOAA's National Climatic Data Center projects that it will archive over 350 petabytes by 2030. For researchers and educators, this deluge and the increasing complexity of data brings challenges along with the opportunities for discovery and scientific breakthroughs. The potential for big data to transform the geosciences is enormous, but realizing the next frontier depends on effectively managing, analyzing, and exploiting these heterogeneous data sources, extracting knowledge and useful information from heterogeneous data sources in ways that were previously impossible, to enable discoveries and gain new insights. At the same time, there is a growing focus on the area of "Reproducibility or Replicability in Science" that has implications for Open Science. The advent of cloud computing has opened new avenues for not only addressing both big data and Open Science challenges to accelerate scientific discoveries. However, to successfully leverage the enormous potential of cloud technologies, it will require the data providers and the scientific communities to develop new paradigms to enable next-generation workflows and transform the conduct of science. Making data readily available is a necessary but not a sufficient condition. Data providers

  3. Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-03-07

    AMO is developing advanced technologies that cut energy use and carbon emissions in some of the most energy-intensive processes within U.S. manufacturing. The brochure describes the AMO R&D projects that address these challenges.

  4. The challenge of increasing scientific and technological manpower in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulintornprasert, Usanee

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study is to examine the responses of Thai educators and other stakeholders in each organization. They are facing the challenge of increasing scientific and technological manpower for the future of scientific and technological capabilities in Thailand. A dramaturgy analysis procedure serves as the framework for the study. This framework provides a tool to help comprehend, describe, communicate, and transform the character and process of the remedy of the S&T manpower shortage. Namely, Burke's five elements are useful in this process. The scene is the setting of the performance, which refers to the current situation of Thailand's science and technology capability. The act displays various problems that take place in the setting. The agent means the groups of people who are involved in the S&T manpower development process and their roles to accelerate S&T manpower development strategies. The agency describes the projects that support those strategies, and the purpose is the reason or motive for the above-mentioned strategies. Findings and conclusions. Through the dramaturgical analysis on the basis of data collection, the conclusions of this study can be shown as the following items. First, the bureaucratic system is the barrier. As a result, the solution should be conducted both top-bottom and bottom-top performance. Second, the government should consider developing S&T strategies as a long-term plan. Third, the current science curricula should be revised. Fourth, universities should fully support and encourage faculty to conduct research along with teaching. Fifth, the quality of education should be improved. Sixth, "new blood" should be inserted in educational institutions. Last, but not least, the existing S&T curricula should be aimed at the international standard.

  5. Using Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Practices to Address Scientific Misunderstandings Around Complex Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    The new NGSS provide an important opportunity for scientists to develop curriculum that links the practice of science to research-based data in order to improve understanding in areas of science that are both complex and confusing. Our curriculum focuses in particular on the fate and transport of anthropogenic radionuclides. Radioactivity, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic, is highly debated and largely misunderstood, and for large sections of the population is a source of scientific misunderstanding. Developed as part of the international GEOTRACES project which focuses on identifying ocean processes and quantifying fluxes that control the distributions of selected trace elements and isotopes in the ocean, and on establishing the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions, the curriculum topic fits nicely into the applied focus of NGSS with both environmental and topical relevance. Our curriculum design focuses on small group discussion driven by questions, yet unlike more traditional curriculum pieces these are not questions posed to the students, rather they are questions posed by the students to facilitate their deeper understanding. Our curriculum design challenges the traditional question/answer memorization approach to instruction as we strive to develop an educational approach that supports the practice of science as well as the NGSS Cross Cutting Concepts and the Science & Engineering Practices. Our goal is for students to develop a methodology they can employ when faced with a complex scientific issue. Through background readings and team discussions they identify what type of information is important for them to know and where to find a reliable source for that information. Framing their discovery around key questions such as "What type of radioactive decay are we dealing with?", "What is the potential half-life of the isotope?", and "What are the pathways of transport of radioactivity?" allows students to evaluate a

  6. Planetary Atmosphere and Surfaces Chamber (PASC: A Platform to Address Various Challenges in Astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mateo-Marti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of planetary environments of astrobiological interest has become a major challenge. Because of the obvious technical and economical limitations on in situ planetary exploration, laboratory simulations are one of the most feasible research options to make advances both in planetary science and in developing a consistent description of the origin of life. With this objective in mind, we applied vacuum technology to the design of versatile vacuum chambers devoted to the simulation of planetary atmospheres’ conditions. These vacuum chambers are able to simulate atmospheres and surface temperatures representative of the majority of planetary objects, and they are especially appropriate for studying the physical, chemical and biological changes induced in a particular sample by in situ irradiation or physical parameters in a controlled environment. Vacuum chambers are a promising potential tool in several scientific and technological fields, such as engineering, chemistry, geology and biology. They also offer the possibility of discriminating between the effects of individual physical parameters and selected combinations thereof. The implementation of our vacuum chambers in combination with analytical techniques was specifically developed to make feasible the in situ physico-chemical characterization of samples. Many wide-ranging applications in astrobiology are detailed herein to provide an understanding of the potential and flexibility of these experimental systems. Instruments and engineering technology for space applications could take advantage of our environment-simulation chambers for sensor calibration. Our systems also provide the opportunity to gain a greater understanding of the chemical reactivity of molecules on surfaces under different environments, thereby leading to a greater understanding of interface processes in prebiotic chemical reactions and facilitating studies of UV photostability and photochemistry on surfaces

  7. Towards addressing transient learning challenges in undergraduate physics: an example from electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredlund, T.; Linder, C.; Airey, J.

    2015-09-01

    In this article we characterize transient learning challenges as learning challenges that arise out of teaching situations rather than conflicts with prior knowledge. We propose that these learning challenges can be identified by paying careful attention to the representations that students produce. Once a transient learning challenge has been identified, teachers can create interventions to address it. By illustration, we argue that an appropriate way to design such interventions is to create variation around the disciplinary-relevant aspects associated with the transient learning challenge.

  8. Scientific English: a program for addressing linguistic barriers of international research trainees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Carrie; Chang, Shine; Pagel, Walter

    2011-03-01

    Within the international research environment, English is indisputably the lingua franca, and thus, the majority of the world's scientists must adapt to a second language. Linguistic barriers in science affect not only researchers' career paths but institutional productivity and efficiency as well. To address these barriers, we designed and piloted a specialized course, Scientific English. The pedagogical approach is based on English for specific purposes methodology in which curriculum and content are driven by the types of daily language used and interactions which occur in the participants' occupation, in this case, cancer research. The 11-week program was organized into three sections: presentation skill, meeting and discussion skills, and writing skills. Effectiveness of the course was measured by the number of participants able to produce the presentations and written products with a score of at least 75 of 100 possible points. From January to December 2008, participant scores averaged 90.4 for presentation and 86.8 for written products. The authors provide insights and recommendations on the development and delivery of the program.

  9. Addressing the Grand Challenge of atmospheric carbon dioxide: geologic sequestration vs. biological recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Ben J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract On February 15, 2008, the National Academy of Engineering unveiled their list of 14 Grand Challenges for Engineering. Building off of tremendous advancements in the past century, these challenges were selected for their role in assuring a sustainable existence for the rapidly increasing global community. It is no accident that the first five Challenges on the list involve the development of sustainable energy sources and management of environmental resources. While the focus of this review is to address the single Grand Challenge of "develop carbon sequestration methods", is will soon be clear that several other Challenges are intrinsically tied to it through the principles of sustainability. How does the realm of biological engineering play a role in addressing these Grand Challenges?

  10. The challenges of integrating scientific literacy into the functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The basic understanding of science that should be possessed by everyone not only professionals in science is called scientific literacy. This paper focuses on the need to integrate scientific literacy into the functional literacy programme in Nigeria. Ability to read and write alone without scientific literacy will make learners to ...

  11. Addressing challenges and needs in patient education targeting hardly reached patients with chronic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varming, Annemarie; Torenholt, Rikke; Møller, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    Some patients do not benefit from participation in patient education due to reasons related to disease burden, literacy, and socioeconomic challenges. In this communication, we address more specifically both the challenges that these hardly reached patients face in relation to patient education...... programs and the challenges educators face when conducting patient education with hardly reached patients. We define principles for the format and content of dialogue tools to better support this patient group within the population of individuals with diabetes....

  12. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbers, C. F.

    1987-09-01

    Ladies and gentlemen, it is indeed a great privilege and pleasure for me to present the opening address at this, the 17th International Congress on High Speed Photograpy and Photonics. Before turning to the business of the Congress, I would like to briefly introduce you to South Africa: its scientific past and its research challenges for the future.

  13. Biological approaches for addressing the grand challenge of providing access to clean drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) recently published a document presenting "Grand Challenges for Engineering". This list was proposed by leading engineers and scientists from around the world at the request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). Fourteen topics were selected for these grand challenges, and at least seven can be addressed using the tools and methods of biological engineering. Here we describe how biological engineers can address the challenge of providing access to clean drinking water. This issue must be addressed in part by removing or inactivating microbial and chemical contaminants in order to properly deliver water safe for human consumption. Despite many advances in technologies this challenge is expanding due to increased pressure on fresh water supplies and to new opportunities for growth of potentially pathogenic organisms. PMID:21453515

  14. Use of new scientific developments in regulatory risk assessments: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona, Jose V

    2013-07-01

    Since the 1990s, science based ecological risk assessments constitute an essential tool for supporting decision making in the regulatory context. Using the European REACH Regulation as example, this article presents the challenges and opportunities for new scientific developments within the area of chemical control and environmental protection. These challenges can be sorted out in 3 main related topics (sets). In the short term, the challenges are directly associated with the regulatory requirements, required for facilitating a scientifically sound implementation of the different obligations for industry and authorities. It is important to mention that although the actual tools are different due to the regulatory requirements, the basic needs are still the same as those addressed in the early 1990s: understanding the ecological relevance of the predicted effects, including the uncertainty, and facilitating the link with the socio-economic assessment. The second set of challenges covers the opportunities for getting an added value from the regulatory efforts. The information compiled through REACH registration and notification processes is analyzed as source for new integrative developments for assessing the combined chemical risk at the regional level. Finally, the article discusses the challenge of inverting the process and developing risk assessment methods focusing on the receptor, the individual or ecosystem, instead of on the stressor or source. These approaches were limited in the past due to the lack of information, but the identification and dissemination of standard information, including uses, manufacturing sites, physical-chemical, environmental, ecotoxicological, and toxicological properties as well as operational conditions and risk management measures for thousands of chemicals, combined by the knowledge gathered through large scale monitoring programs and spatial information systems is generating new opportunities. The challenge is liking

  15. The importance of fungi and mycology for addressing major global challenges*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Lene

    2014-12-01

    In the new bioeconomy, fungi play a very important role in addressing major global challenges, being instrumental for improved resource efficiency, making renewable substitutes for products from fossil resources, upgrading waste streams to valuable food and feed ingredients, counteracting life-style diseases and antibiotic resistance through strengthening the gut biota, making crop plants more robust to survive climate change conditions, and functioning as host organisms for production of new biological drugs. This range of new uses of fungi all stand on the shoulders of the efforts of mycologists over generations: the scientific discipline mycology has built comprehensive understanding within fungal biodiversity, classification, evolution, genetics, physiology, ecology, pathogenesis, and nutrition. Applied mycology could not make progress without this platform. To unfold the full potentials of what fungi can do for both environment and man we need to strengthen the field of mycology on a global scale. The current mission statement gives an overview of where we are, what needs to be done, what obstacles to overcome, and which potentials are within reach. It further provides a vision for how mycology can be strengthened: The time is right to make the world aware of the immense importance of fungi and mycology for sustainable global development, where land, water and biological materials are used in a more efficient and more sustainable manner. This is an opportunity for profiling mycology by narrating the role played by fungi in the bioeconomy. Greater awareness and appreciation of the role of fungi can be used to build support for mycology around the world. Support will attract more talent to our field of study, empower mycologists around the world to generate more funds for necessary basic research, and strengthen the global mycology network. The use of fungi for unlocking the full potentials of the bioeconomy relies on such progress. The fungal kingdom can be an

  16. Addressing the Dynamics of Science in Curricular Reform for Scientific Literacy: The Case of Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijck, Michiel

    2010-01-01

    Science education reform must anticipate the scientific literacy required by the next generation of citizens. Particularly, this counts for rapidly emerging and evolving scientific disciplines such as genomics. Taking this discipline as a case, such anticipation is becoming increasingly problematic in today's knowledge societies in which the…

  17. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

    2013-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials

  18. Addressing Challenging Behaviors in Head Start: A Closer Look at Program Policies and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesenberry, Amanda C.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, Head Start policies and procedures related to child guidance and addressing challenging behaviors were examined. Data were gathered from six Head Start programs in the Midwest, through interviews and document analysis. The findings provide a glimpse into how Head Start programs support children's social and emotional competence and…

  19. Grid-Integrated Distributed Solar: Addressing Challenges for Operations and Planning, Greening the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, Michael; Miller, Mackay; Katz, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document introduces a brief overview of common technical impacts of PV on distribution systems and operations, as well as emerging strategies for successfully addressing some of the priority issues.

  20. 75 FR 57006 - Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges to Smart Grid Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Commissions studying smart grid and smart meter applications in pilots? In conducting pilots, what best... right to opt out of receiving and paying for smart grid technologies or programs like meters, in home... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges to Smart Grid Implementation...

  1. Addressing the Challenges Encountered during a Developmental Evaluation: Implications for Evaluation Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poth, Cheryl-Anne; Pinto, Dorothy; Howery, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This article describes three challenges encountered during a developmental evaluation and explains how these were addressed from the evaluators' perspective. The evaluation was conducted to support the implementation of a three-year educational technology leadership project funded by the Alberta provincial government. The developmental evaluation…

  2. Defense Weather Satellites: DOD Faces Acquisition Challenges for Addressing Capability Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-07

    DEFENSE WEATHER SATELLITES DOD Faces Acquisition Challenges for Addressing Capability Needs Statement of Cristina T...Environment, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, House of Representatives July 2016 DEFENSE WEATHER SATELLITES DOD Faces Acquisition...data from European satellites . As a result, the AOA did not fully assess solutions for these high priority capabilities. GAO reported that DOD was

  3. Addressing the challenges in using qualitative data in qualitative comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Block, Debora; Vis, B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses an issue that so far has received relatively little attention in methodological discussions about Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), namely the challenges researchers face when using qualitative data in QCA analyses. Building on a literature review of 22 empirical studies

  4. Addressing the Challenges and Needs of English-Speaking Caribbean Immigrant Students: Guidelines for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Stephaney; Bryan, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Caribbean students are among the distinct immigrant groups in U.S. public schools with particular needs to be addressed by school counselors. This article discusses the challenges Caribbean immigrant students face that create obstacles to their academic and personal/social success. Guidelines for school counselors are outlined, which can be used…

  5. nanoHUB.org: Experiences and Challenges in Software Sustainability for a Large Scientific Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Zentner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The science gateway nanoHUB.org, funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF, serves a large scientific community dedicated to research and education in nanotechnology with community-contributed simulation codes as well as a vast repository of other materials such as recorded presentations, teaching materials, and workshops and courses. Nearly 330,000 users annually access over 4400 items of content on nanoHUB, including 343 simulation tools. Arguably the largest nanotechnology facility in the world, nanoHUB has led the way not only in providing open access to scientific code in the nanotechnology community, but also in lowering barriers to the use of that code, by providing a platform where developers are able to easily and quickly deploy code written in a variety of languages with user-friendly graphical user interfaces and where users can run the latest versions of codes transparently on the grid or other powerful resources without ever having to download or update code. Being a leader in open access code deployment provides nanoHUB with opportunities and challenges as it meets the current and future needs of its community. This paper discusses the experiences of nanoHUB in addressing and adapting to the changing landscape of scientific software in ways that best serve its community and meet the needs of the largest portion of its user base.

  6. Scientific issues and emerging challenges for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Scientific knowledge is constantly evolving as more advanced technologies become available and more in-depth research is carried out. Given the potential implications that new findings could have on policy decisions, in 1998 the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) performed a survey of state-of-the-art research in radiological protection science. This study suggested that, while the current system of radiological protection was well under-pinned by scientific understanding, growing knowledge in several areas could seriously impact policy and regulation. Ten years later, the CRPPH has again performed a survey of state-of-the-art research which reiterates and clarifies its earlier conclusions. This report summarises the results of this latest CRPPH assessment of radiological protection science. Specifically, it explains that knowledge of non-targeted and delayed effects, as well as of individual sensitivity, have been significantly refined over the past ten years. Although at this point there is still no scientific certainty in these areas, based on the most recent studies and results, the report strongly suggests that policy makers and regulatory authorities should consider possible impacts that could arise from research in the next few years. Further, the report identifies research areas that should be supported to more definitively answer scientific questions having the most direct impacts on policy choices. (author)

  7. Addressing Energy System Modelling Challenges: The Contribution of the Open Energy Modelling Framework (oemof)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilpert, Simon; Günther, Stephan; Kaldemeyer, Cord

    2017-01-01

    complexity of energy systems and high uncertainties on different levels. In addition, interdisciplinary modelling is necessary for getting insight in mechanisms of an integrated world. At the same time models need to meet scientific standards as public acceptance becomes increasingly important......The process of modelling energy systems is accompanied by challenges inherently connected with mathematical modelling. However, due to modern realities in the 21st century, existing challenges are gaining in magnitude and are supplemented with new ones. Modellers are confronted with a rising....... In this intricate environment model application as well as result communication and interpretation is also getting more difficult. In this paper we present the open energy modelling framework (oemof) as a novel approach for energy system modelling and derive its contribution to existing challenges. Therefore, based...

  8. Global challenges keynote address in memoriam to colleagues lost in the Malaysia airlines 17 crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Catherine A

    2016-01-01

    Six colleagues working in the HIV field were killed when their flight en route to Kuala Lumpur was shot down over the Ukraine. This report is drawn from the in memoriam keynote opening address given at the 12th International AIDS Impact conference in Amsterdam in 2015. It highlights their tangible and valued roles in the HIV response and looks forward to the road ahead. It describes the ways in which we can build on their legacy to address current global challenges in HIV prevention and treatment and to mobilise the intensified, focused resources that are needed to turn the HIV epidemic on its head.

  9. The importance of fungi and mycology for addressing major global challenges*

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Lene

    2014-01-01

    In the new bioeconomy, fungi play a very important role in addressing major global challenges, being instrumental for improved resource efficiency, making renewable substitutes for products from fossil resources, upgrading waste streams to valuable food and feed ingredients, counteracting life-style diseases and antibiotic resistance through strengthening the gut biota, making crop plants more robust to survive climate change conditions, and functioning as host organisms for production of new...

  10. Scientific Opinion addressing the state of the science on risk assessment of plant protection products for in-soil organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA PPR Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues); Ockleford, Colin; Adriaanse, Paulien

    2017-01-01

    and scientific developments. Proposals are made for specific protection goals for in-soil organisms being key drivers for relevant ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes such as nutrient cycling, soil structure, pest control and biodiversity. Considering the time-scales and biological processes related...... exposure routes for in-soil organisms and the potential direct and indirect effects is proposed. In order to address species recovery and long-term impacts of PPPs, the use of population models is also proposed....

  11. Challenges Addressing Unmet Need for Contraception: Voices of Family Planning Service Providers in Rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraka, Jitihada; Rusibamayila, Asinath; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Baynes, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Provider perspectives have been overlooked in efforts to address the challenges of unmet need for family planning (FP). This qualitative study was undertaken in Tanzania, using 22 key informant interviews and 4 focus group discussions. The research documents perceptions of healthcare managers and providers in a rural district on the barriers to meeting latent demand for contraception. Social-ecological theory is used to interpret the findings, illustrating how service capability is determined by the social, structural and organizational environment. Providers' efforts to address unmet need for FP services are constrained by unstable reproductive preferences, low educational attainment, and misconceptions about contraceptive side effects. Societal and organizational factors--such as gender dynamics, economic conditions, religious and cultural norms, and supply chain bottlenecks, respectively--also contribute to an adverse environment for meeting needs for care. Challenges that healthcare providers face interact and produce an effect which hinders efforts to address unmet need. Interventions to address this are not sufficient unless the supply of services is combined with systems strengthening and social engagement strategies in a way that reflects the multi-layered, social institutional problems.

  12. English for Scientific Purposes (EScP): Technology, Trends, and Future Challenges for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gi-Zen; Chiu, Wan-Yu; Lin, Chih-Chung; Barrett, Neil E.

    2014-12-01

    To date, the concept of English for Specific Purposes has brought about a great impact on English language learning across various disciplines, including those in science education. Hence, this review paper aimed to address current English language learning in the science disciplines through the practice of computer-assisted language learning to identify the use of learning technologies in science-based literacy. In the literature review, the researchers found that science-based literacy instruction shares many pedagogical aims with English language teaching in terms of reading, writing, listening and speaking, allowing it to be classified as English for Scientific Purposes (EScP). To answer the research questions, the researchers conducted the survey by extracting related articles and teaching examples from the Web of Science. In the search procedure, the researchers used the keywords science OR scientific AND technolog* OR comput* in ten selected journals of social science citation index. Only articles which are specified as journal articles rather than other document types were included. After compiling the corpora, the researchers compared the trends, methodologies and results of EScP instruction in science education. The implications of this study include the opportunities, advantages and challenges for EScP instruction in science education to further develop better educational approaches, adopt new technologies, as well as offer some directions for researchers to conduct future studies.

  13. Invited review: ruminating conscientiously: scientific and socio-ethical challenges for US dairy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croney, C C; Anthony, R

    2011-02-01

    Despite the predominantly positive depictions of dairy production, public concern about farm animal production practices in the United States is currently higher than at any point in recent history. Many standard industry practices, including some used by the US dairy industries, are increasingly challenged not just on scientific grounds, but also on ethical grounds. Concerns include the environmental impacts and sustainability of modern farm animal production practices, food safety and security, and the increasingly complex issue of animal welfare. As the impetus increases to achieve broad stakeholder engagement in discussions of US food policy, understanding and addressing the ethical concerns associated with contemporary dairy production is critically important to ensure the industry's autonomy and long-term viability. Animal welfare assessment or accountability tools such as the Ethical Matrix or Campbell's Ethics Assessment Process can provide a structured, transparent method of making appropriate ethical choices about the care and welfare of farm animals that are also scientifically grounded. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Scientific Grand Challenges: Forefront Questions in Nuclear Science and the Role of High Performance Computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-01-01

    This report is an account of the deliberations and conclusions of the workshop on 'Forefront Questions in Nuclear Science and the Role of High Performance Computing' held January 26-28, 2009, co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Physics (ONP) and the DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing (ASCR). Representatives from the national and international nuclear physics communities, as well as from the high performance computing community, participated. The purpose of this workshop was to (1) identify forefront scientific challenges in nuclear physics and then determine which-if any-of these could be aided by high performance computing at the extreme scale; (2) establish how and why new high performance computing capabilities could address issues at the frontiers of nuclear science; (3) provide nuclear physicists the opportunity to influence the development of high performance computing; and (4) provide the nuclear physics community with plans for development of future high performance computing capability by DOE ASCR.

  15. Scientific Grand Challenges: Forefront Questions in Nuclear Science and the Role of High Performance Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-10-01

    This report is an account of the deliberations and conclusions of the workshop on "Forefront Questions in Nuclear Science and the Role of High Performance Computing" held January 26-28, 2009, co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Physics (ONP) and the DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing (ASCR). Representatives from the national and international nuclear physics communities, as well as from the high performance computing community, participated. The purpose of this workshop was to 1) identify forefront scientific challenges in nuclear physics and then determine which-if any-of these could be aided by high performance computing at the extreme scale; 2) establish how and why new high performance computing capabilities could address issues at the frontiers of nuclear science; 3) provide nuclear physicists the opportunity to influence the development of high performance computing; and 4) provide the nuclear physics community with plans for development of future high performance computing capability by DOE ASCR.

  16. Current eugenics: A brand new challenge for scientific disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de las Mercedes O´Lery

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Until now, the parameters that distinguish the current eugenic practices form those encased in classic eugenics have been the private, individual and therapeutic characteristics of the first as opposed to the collective, coercive and improvement nature of the second. However, the present ethical debate over biotechnologies (particularly, criticism of liberal eugenics by such authors as Jürgen Habermas has given rise to the need to consider, in the future, genetic treatment as an object of the redistribution in order to avoid the discrimination implied in the impossibility of access to such treatment. The present paper attempts to show that this pretension would lead to the future dissolution of those very characteristics of current eugenics that distinguish it from the classic form. we therefore propose an epistemological analysis of present and/or future scientific practices in order to redefine those parameters that prevent their identification with the eugenic movement of the past century.

  17. Wood Species Identification, A Challenge of Scientific Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina TIMAR

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood species identification is an important step in the scientific approach of conservation of the wooden cultural heritage. The paper refers to the microscopic identification of the wooden species for two artisanal objects, investigated for conservation purposes. A previous macroscopic analysis of these objects, after thorough cleaning of the surfaces offered some basic information on the possible wood species involved, but due to the degradation of the support this was not conclusive for some elements of these objects, so that relevant samples were taken out, prepared and investigated. The identified wooden species were: poplar (Populus spp, sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus, fir and beech (Fagus sylvatica. This identification was based on the microscopic keys of wood identification, reference microscopic slides of the respective wood species and microscopic measurements followed by data processing employing the ImageJ software.

  18. Health needs and public health functions addressed in scientific publications in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benie-Bi, J; Cambon, L; Grimaud, O; Kivits, J; Alla, F

    2013-09-01

    To describe the reporting of public health research in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa (FSA). A bibliometric research study of scientific public health publications in FSA, which includes 24 countries and approximately 260 million people. Two researchers analysed original articles published in 2007 in the medical or social sciences fields and indexed in Scopus. At least one co-author of articles had to be based in FSA. The analysis focused on research field, public health function (WHO classification), FSA country author's affiliation, language, journal type and global burden of disease (WHO classification). Of 1047 articles retrieved by the search, 212 were from the public health field. The number of articles per country varied from 0 to 36. Public health functions examined were health service research (24.5%), health monitoring (27.4%), prevention (15%) and legislation (0.5%). The distribution of health needs described in the articles was close to that of the WHO data for Africa for 2004: infectious and parasitic diseases (70% vs 54%), maternal and perinatal conditions (15% vs 17%), non-communicable diseases (15.6% vs 21%), and injuries (0.5% vs 8%). The areas reported in published articles from sub-Saharan Africa reflect the health needs distribution in Africa; however, the number of publications is low, particularly for prevention. In light of the current focus on evidence-based public health, this study questions whether the international scientific community adequately considers the expertise and perspectives of African researchers and professionals. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Water challenges of the future; how scientific understanding can help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, G.

    2012-04-01

    Demands for water resources are diverse and are increasing as human populations grow and become more concentrated in urban areas and as economies develop. Water is essential for many uses including the basic human needs of food and the maintenance of good health, for many industries and the creation of electrical energy and as vital for the sustenance of the natural ecosystems on which all life is dependent. At the same time threats from water - floods, droughts - are increasing with these extreme events becoming more common and more intense in many regions of the world and as more people locate in flood- and drought-prone regions. In general, the challenges for water managers are thus becoming greater; managers not only are having to make increasingly difficult decisions regarding allocation of water resources between competing uses as demand outstrips supply, but they also have to take measures to protect societies from the ravages of extreme events. The intensity of the challenges facing water managers is not uniform throughout the world - many nations in the less developed world experiencing far greater problems than most highly developed nations - but the trend towards greater challenges is clear. Decision-makers, whether at the international, national, provincial or local level benefit from reliable information on water resources. They need information on the availability in quantity and quality of water from a variety of sources - surface waters, aquifers or from artificial sources such as re-cycling of wastewater and desalination techniques. Managers also need reliable predictions on water availability for the various uses to which water is put - such predictions are needed on time scales from weeks to decades to inform decision-making. Predictions are also needed on the probabilities of occurrence of extreme events. Thus hydrological scientists developing predictive models and working within a fast-changing world have much to contribute to the needs of

  20. Guide for health professionals addressing oral care for individuals in oncological treatment based on scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Caroline Gomes; Medeiros-Filho, João Batista; Ferreira, Meire Coelho

    2018-02-22

    Oncological treatment can cause changes in the oral cavity compromising oral functions. The aim of the study was, based on a systematic review, to draft a guide directed at the team of health professionals involved in the oral care of oncological patients. A systematic search of the literature was performed for articles published between 2000 and April 2017. Searches were made of electronic databases and hand search. The inclusion criteria were systematic reviews of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and RCTs published in English, involving pediatric and adult oncological patients and focused on the prevention and treatment of oral complications as well as studies addressing the maintenance of oral health. Among the 1237 studies identified, 129 were pre-selected and 54 were selected to form the basis for the clinical guide. The studies analyzed stress the need for oral assessments as well as preventive and curative actions prior to oncological treatment. To minimize the severity of oral problems, the studies emphasize daily oral care, the treatment of xerostomia with saliva substitute and hydration, and low-level laser therapy, nystatin, acyclovir, respectively, for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis, oral candidiasis, and infection by herpes simplex virus. Thus, the guide produced addresses oral assessments and professional and home care before, during, and after oncological treatment. The guide drafted has the function of assisting health professionals involved in the oral care of patients with cancer, enabling the prevention or treatment of oral complications stemming from oncological treatment.

  1. A roadmap for smart city services to address challenges faced by small businesses in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydn du Plessis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Small businesses are an important part of the South African economy, yet they have high rates of failure. Several contributing factors have previously been identified through literature, including regulatory compliance, skills shortages and lack of government support. Globally, there has been an increased interest in smart cities and the variety of services they offer. These technologies were investigated to establish what role, if any, they could play in alleviating the challenges that small businesses face. Aim: Identify the relative impact of each of these challenges on the small-business and the relative value of each of the smart city services in order to determine which services would have the largest impact in addressing the challenges. Method: This research used these factors and identified which challenges had the largest time and financial impact on small businesses and investigated ways in which a variety of smart city services could be leveraged to address these challenges. Using a multi-criteria decision analysis technique, 44 small-business owners participated in the research. Weighted results for the impact of each of the challenges and the value of each of the services were obtained. Results: Through the subsequent analysis of the results, it was found that small businesses face many challenges because of lack of government and entrepreneurial support, as well as widespread corruption. Similarly, the small-business owners identified that educational material, small-business support portals and eGovernment systems would be the most valuable services that a smart city could offer them. Various sources of literature were used to identify these smart city services and link them to the business challenges that they may be able to mitigate. The infrastructural prerequisites for each of the services were also investigated to identify dependencies and potential problems in their deployment. Conclusion: The various

  2. ASCO's Community Research Forum: addressing challenges of community-based research from the grass roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Nicholas; Lilenbaum, Rogerio; Hurley, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    ASCO's Community Research Forum is a solution-oriented venue for community research sites to overcome barriers to conducting clinical trials. The key objectives of the Forum are to (1) convene community-based researchers to identify challenges to conducting research that ASCO can address, (2) develop solution-oriented projects to address these challenges to facilitate clinical trial participation in community research settings, and (3) shape ASCO programs and policies to support members engaged in community research. The Community Research Forum holds an annual in-person meeting that convenes physician investigators, research administrators, research nurses, and clinical research associates from community-based research programs and practices. To meet identified needs, the Community Research Forum has developed the ASCO Clinical Trial Workload Assessment Tool and the ASCO Research Program Quality Assessment Tool. Both of these tools will be available to the public in 2014. The Forum is currently exploring the concept and potential metrics of a research certification program to formally assess community-based research programs, and to identify gaps and areas to improve the program in order to meet quality standards. The Community Research Forum's website aims to serve as a go-to resource for community-based physician investigators and research staff. The Community Research Forum will continue to provide a forum for community-based researchers to network, share challenges, and develop initiatives that provide solutions and facilitate the conduct of clinical trials.

  3. Addressing the Big-Earth-Data Variety Challenge with the Hierarchical Triangular Mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilee, Michael L.; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Clune, Thomas; Oloso, Amidu; Brown, Paul G.; Yu, Honfeng

    2016-01-01

    We have implemented an updated Hierarchical Triangular Mesh (HTM) as the basis for a unified data model and an indexing scheme for geoscience data to address the variety challenge of Big Earth Data. We observe that, in the absence of variety, the volume challenge of Big Data is relatively easily addressable with parallel processing. The more important challenge in achieving optimal value with a Big Data solution for Earth Science (ES) data analysis, however, is being able to achieve good scalability with variety. With HTM unifying at least the three popular data models, i.e. Grid, Swath, and Point, used by current ES data products, data preparation time for integrative analysis of diverse datasets can be drastically reduced and better variety scaling can be achieved. In addition, since HTM is also an indexing scheme, when it is used to index all ES datasets, data placement alignment (or co-location) on the shared nothing architecture, which most Big Data systems are based on, is guaranteed and better performance is ensured. Moreover, our updated HTM encoding turns most geospatial set operations into integer interval operations, gaining further performance advantages.

  4. Moving beyond regression techniques in cardiovascular risk prediction: applying machine learning to address analytic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin A; Navar, Ann Marie; Carter, Rickey E

    2017-06-14

    Risk prediction plays an important role in clinical cardiology research. Traditionally, most risk models have been based on regression models. While useful and robust, these statistical methods are limited to using a small number of predictors which operate in the same way on everyone, and uniformly throughout their range. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the use of machine-learning methods for development of risk prediction models. Typically presented as black box approaches, most machine-learning methods are aimed at solving particular challenges that arise in data analysis that are not well addressed by typical regression approaches. To illustrate these challenges, as well as how different methods can address them, we consider trying to predicting mortality after diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. We use data derived from our institution's electronic health record and abstract data on 13 regularly measured laboratory markers. We walk through different challenges that arise in modelling these data and then introduce different machine-learning approaches. Finally, we discuss general issues in the application of machine-learning methods including tuning parameters, loss functions, variable importance, and missing data. Overall, this review serves as an introduction for those working on risk modelling to approach the diffuse field of machine learning. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  5. Soft Robotics: from scientific challenges to technological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, C.

    2016-05-01

    Soft robotics is a recent and rapidly growing field of research, which aims at unveiling the principles for building robots that include soft materials and compliance in the interaction with the environment, so as to exploit so-called embodied intelligence and negotiate natural environment more effectively. Using soft materials for building robots poses new technological challenges: the technologies for actuating soft materials, for embedding sensors into soft robot parts, for controlling soft robots are among the main ones. This is stimulating research in many disciplines and many countries, such that a wide community is gathering around initiatives like the IEEE TAS TC on Soft Robotics and the RoboSoft CA - A Coordination Action for Soft Robotics, funded by the European Commission. Though still in its early stages of development, soft robotics is finding its way in a variety of applications, where safe contact is a main issue, in the biomedical field, as well as in exploration tasks and in the manufacturing industry. And though the development of the enabling technologies is still a priority, a fruitful loop is growing between basic research and application-oriented research in soft robotics.

  6. Computational brain connectivity mapping: A core health and scientific challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deriche, Rachid

    2016-10-01

    One third of the burden of all the diseases in Europe is due to problems caused by diseases affecting brain. Although exceptional progress have been obtained for exploring the brain during the past decades, it is still terra-incognita and calls for specific efforts in research to better understand its architecture and functioning. To take up this great challenge of modern science and to solve the limited view of the brain provided just by one imaging modality, this article advocates the idea developed in my research group of a global approach involving new generation of models for brain connectivity mapping and strong interactions between structural and functional connectivities. Capitalizing on the strengths of integrated and complementary non invasive imaging modalities such as diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) and Electro & Magneto-Encephalography (EEG & MEG) will contribute to achieve new frontiers for identifying and characterizing structural and functional brain connectivities and to provide a detailed mapping of the brain connectivity, both in space and time. Thus leading to an added clinical value for high impact diseases with new perspectives in computational neuro-imaging and cognitive neuroscience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tropical wetlands and REDD+: Three unique scientific challenges for policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Friess

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The carbon sequestration and storage value of terrestrial habitats is now increasingly appreciated, and is the basis for Payment for Ecosystem Service (PES policies such as REDD+. Tropical wetlands may be suitable for inclusion in such schemes because of the disproportionately large volume of carbon they are able to store. However, tropical wetlands offer a number of unique challenges for carbon management and policy compared to terrestrial forest systems: 1 Tropical wetlands are dynamic and subject to a wide range of physical and ecological processes that affect their long-term carbon storage potential – thus, such systems can quickly become a carbon source instead of a sink; 2 Carbon dynamics in tropical wetlands often operate over longer time-scales than are currently covered by REDD+ payments; and 3 Much of the carbon in a tropical wetland is stored in the soil, so monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV needs to adequately encapsulate the entire ecosystem and not just the vegetative component. This paper discusses these physical and biological concepts, and highlights key legal, management and policy questions that must be considered when constructing a policy framework to conserve these crucial ecosystems.

  8. How can present and future satellite missions support scientific studies that address ocean acidification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Joseph; Vandemark, Douglas; Jonsson, Bror; Balch, William; Chakraborty, Sumit; Lohrenz, Steven; Chapron, Bertrand; Hales, Burke; Mannino, Antonio; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Reul, Nicolas; Signorini, Sergio; Wanninkhof, Rik; Yates, Kimberly K.

    2016-01-01

    Space-based observations offer unique capabilities for studying spatial and temporal dynamics of the upper ocean inorganic carbon cycle and, in turn, supporting research tied to ocean acidification (OA). Satellite sensors measuring sea surface temperature, color, salinity, wind, waves, currents, and sea level enable a fuller understanding of a range of physical, chemical, and biological phenomena that drive regional OA dynamics as well as the potentially varied impacts of carbon cycle change on a broad range of ecosystems. Here, we update and expand on previous work that addresses the benefits of space-based assets for OA and carbonate system studies. Carbonate chemistry and the key processes controlling surface ocean OA variability are reviewed. Synthesis of present satellite data streams and their utility in this arena are discussed, as are opportunities on the horizon for using new satellite sensors with increased spectral, temporal, and/or spatial resolution. We outline applications that include the ability to track the biochemically dynamic nature of water masses, to map coral reefs at higher resolution, to discern functional phytoplankton groups and their relationships to acid perturbations, and to track processes that contribute to acid variation near the land-ocean interface.

  9. Addressing the Analytic Challenges of Cross-Sectional Pediatric Pneumonia Etiology Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitt, Laura L; Feikin, Daniel R; Scott, J Anthony G; Zeger, Scott L; Murdoch, David R; O'Brien, Katherine L; Deloria Knoll, Maria

    2017-06-15

    Despite tremendous advances in diagnostic laboratory technology, identifying the pathogen(s) causing pneumonia remains challenging because the infected lung tissue cannot usually be sampled for testing. Consequently, to obtain information about pneumonia etiology, clinicians and researchers test specimens distant to the site of infection. These tests may lack sensitivity (eg, blood culture, which is only positive in a small proportion of children with pneumonia) and/or specificity (eg, detection of pathogens in upper respiratory tract specimens, which may indicate asymptomatic carriage or a less severe syndrome, such as upper respiratory infection). While highly sensitive nucleic acid detection methods and testing of multiple specimens improve sensitivity, multiple pathogens are often detected and this adds complexity to the interpretation as the etiologic significance of results may be unclear (ie, the pneumonia may be caused by none, one, some, or all of the pathogens detected). Some of these challenges can be addressed by adjusting positivity rates to account for poor sensitivity or incorporating test results from controls without pneumonia to account for poor specificity. However, no classical analytic methods can account for measurement error (ie, sensitivity and specificity) for multiple specimen types and integrate the results of measurements for multiple pathogens to produce an accurate understanding of etiology. We describe the major analytic challenges in determining pneumonia etiology and review how the common analytical approaches (eg, descriptive, case-control, attributable fraction, latent class analysis) address some but not all challenges. We demonstrate how these limitations necessitate a new, integrated analytical approach to pneumonia etiology data. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  10. Summary: Addressing the Interactional Challenges of Moving Collaborative Adaptive Management From Theory to Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathi K. Beratan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Translating the attractive concept of collaborative adaptive management (CAM into practice has proven very difficult. The papers included in this Special Feature explore why this is true and suggest how the challenges might be addressed. This summary highlights common themes, major challenges, and implications for research and practice. Many of the included papers emphasize the central importance of collaboration and stakeholder engagement as a response to complexity and uncertainty. Collectively, the papers make the case that a lack of knowledge about how to manage the human dynamics of comanagement poses a major challenge to implementing CAM. Human activities are the primary drivers of system change in most natural resource management systems, so attention to human dynamics is essential for developing useful change hypotheses and leading indicators that can provide useful and timely feedback for adaptive management. Institutions need to evolve to support adaptive and collaborative management processes. This will require thoughtful design of CAM processes, along with commitment of sufficient time and resources. Implementation challenges should be considered as a major focus for research rather than as simply barriers to progress. More effective ways of capturing practitioners' experiential knowledge are required to improve the practice of CAM. This Special Feature suggests that the concept of a CAM practitioners' journal has promise, but realization of that promise will require careful attention to the needs of and constraints on practitioners.

  11. Enterprise collaboration systems: addressing adoption challenges and the shaping of sociotechnical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Greeven

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the adoption challenges organizations encounter when they introduce enterprise collaboration systems (ECS and the measures that can be used, i.e. actions that can be taken, to address these challenges. The aim of the article is to provide an overview of the multitude of different ECS adoption challenges and measures, and based on these, to lay the theoretical and analytical basis for studying the shaping of such complex sociotechnical systems. For this purpose, a qualitative meta-analysis of the academic literature and interviews with companies were conducted, which resulted in a collection of ECS challenges and measures classified and analyzed with regard to their specific spatiotemporal aspects. Drawing on the results of this study, research imperatives, which include the call for studying ECS over multiple time frames and settings, are presented. These will be examined in greater depth as part of our wider, multidisciplinary research program that focuses on enterprise collaboration systems use in the emerging digital workplace.

  12. MO-FG-BRB-03: Addressing the Cancer Challenge: International Cancer Experts Corps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, N.

    2015-01-01

    corresponding potential benefits of addressing this challenge. To describe what radiation therapy infrastructure, in terms of facilities, equipment and personnel, will be required to address this challenge. To describe models of addressing personnel and infrastructure mobilization and capacity building within regions where significant cancer treatment disparities exist

  13. Scientific and technical challenges on the road towards fusion electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donné, A. J. H.; Federici, G.; Litaudon, X.; McDonald, D. C.

    2017-10-01

    The goal of the European Fusion Roadmap is to deliver fusion electricity to the grid early in the second half of this century. It breaks the quest for fusion energy into eight missions, and for each of them it describes a research and development programme to address all the open technical gaps in physics and technology and estimates the required resources. It points out the needs to intensify industrial involvement and to seek all opportunities for collaboration outside Europe. The roadmap covers three periods: the short term, which runs parallel to the European Research Framework Programme Horizon 2020, the medium term and the long term. ITER is the key facility of the roadmap as it is expected to achieve most of the important milestones on the path to fusion power. Thus, the vast majority of present resources are dedicated to ITER and its accompanying experiments. The medium term is focussed on taking ITER into operation and bringing it to full power, as well as on preparing the construction of a demonstration power plant DEMO, which will for the first time demonstrate fusion electricity to the grid around the middle of this century. Building and operating DEMO is the subject of the last roadmap phase: the long term. Clearly, the Fusion Roadmap is tightly connected to the ITER schedule. Three key milestones are the first operation of ITER, the start of the DT operation in ITER and reaching the full performance at which the thermal fusion power is 10 times the power put in to the plasma. The Engineering Design Activity of DEMO needs to start a few years after the first ITER plasma, while the start of the construction phase will be a few years after ITER reaches full performance. In this way ITER can give viable input to the design and development of DEMO. Because the neutron fluence in DEMO will be much higher than in ITER, it is important to develop and validate materials that can handle these very high neutron loads. For the testing of the materials, a

  14. Trends in scientific activity addressing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: a bibliometric study covering the period 1973–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iribarren-Maestro Isabel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to analyse the trends in scientific research on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies by applying bibliometric tools to the scientific literature published between 1973 and 2002. Methods The data for the study were obtained from Medline database, in order to determine the volume of scientific output in the above period, the countries involved, the type of document and the trends in the subject matters addressed. The period 1973–2002 was divided in three sub-periods. Results We observed a significant growth in scientific production. The percentage of increase is 871.7 from 1973 to 2002. This is more evident since 1991 and particularly in the 1996–2001 period. The countries found to have the highest output were the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, France and Germany. The evolution in the subject matters was almost constant in the three sub-periods in which the study was divided. In the first and second sub-periods, the subject matters of greatest interest were more general, i.e Nervous system or Nervous system diseases, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Scrapie, and Chemicals and Drugs, but in the last sub-period, some changes were observed because the Prion-related matters had the greatest presence. Collaboration among authors is small from 1973 to 1992, but increases notably in the third sub-period, and also the number of authors and clusters formed. Some of the authors, like Gajdusek or Prusiner, appear in the whole period. Conclusion The study reveals a very high increase in scientific production. It is related also with the beginnings of research on bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, with the establishment of progressive collaboration relationships and a reflection of public health concerns about this problem.

  15. Water Availability for the Western United States - Key Scientific Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark Theodore; Woosley, Lloyd H.

    2005-01-01

    In the Western United States, the availability of water has become a serious concern for many communities and rural areas. Near population centers, surface-water supplies are fully appropriated, and many communities are dependent upon ground water drawn from storage, which is an unsustainable strategy. Water of acceptable quality is increasingly hard to find because local sources are allocated to prior uses, depleted by overpumping, or diminished by drought stress. Some of the inherent characteristics of the West add complexity to the task of securing water supplies. The Western States, including the arid Southwest, have the most rapid population growth in the United States. The climate varies widely in the West, but it is best known for its low precipitation, aridity, and drought. There is evidence that the climate is warming, which will have consequences for Western water supplies, such as increased minimum streamflow and earlier snowmelt events in snow-dominated basins. The potential for departures from average climatic conditions threatens to disrupt society and local to regional economies. The appropriative rights doctrine governs the management of water in most Western States, although some aspects of the riparian doctrine are being incorporated. The 'use it or lose it' provisions of Western water law discourage conservation and make the reallocation of water to instream environmental uses more difficult. The hydrologic sciences have defined the interconnectedness of ground water and surface water, yet these resources are still administered separately by most States. The definition of water availability has been expanded to include sustaining riparian ecosystems and individual endangered species, which are disproportionately represented in the Western States. Federal reserved rights, common in the West because of the large amount of Federal land, exist with quite senior priority dates whether or not water is currently being used. A major challenge for water

  16. Challenges for a local service agency to address domestic violence -a case study from rural Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, Elli Nur; Emmelin, Maria; Eriksson, Malin

    2014-08-15

    Since the launch of a Zero Tolerance Policy in Indonesia, several policies to address domestic violence have been enacted. The obligation of local governments to establish service units for women survivors of domestic violence is one of them. Since domestic violence is a sensitive and complex issue in Indonesia it is important to understand how governmentally regulated services function in practice. This case study aimed to explore challenges faced by a local service agency in managing service provision for women survivors of domestic violence in rural Indonesia. Data from one focus group discussion (12 participants), four individual interviews, six short narratives, two days of participant observation, as well as archive reviews were collected. All data were analyzed using Grounded Theory Situational Analysis. The major challenge faced by the local agency was the low priority that was given them by the local authorities, mirrored also in low involvement by the assigned volunteers in the daily service. The study also identified a gap between the socio-cultural arena and the law & policy arena that needs to be bridged to avoid that the two arenas address domestic violence in a contradictory way. Budget allocation to support the sustainability of the daily routines of service agencies has to be given priority. There is also a need for careful considerations regarding the composition of personnel involved within daily management of service agencies addressing domestic violence. To bridge the gap between the legal systems and traditional cultural values, culturally adjusted alternative justice systems could be developed to increase women's access to legal support.

  17. EPA Leadership on Science, Innovation, and Decision Support Tools for Addressing Current and Future Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Alan D; Ferster, Aaron; Summers, Kevin

    2017-10-16

    When the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established nearly 50 years ago, the nation faced serious threats to its air, land, and water, which in turn impacted human health. These threats were effectively addressed by the creation of EPA (in 1970) and many subsequent landmark environmental legislations which in turn significantly reduced threats to the Nation's environment and public health. A key element of historic legislation is research aimed at dealing with current and future problems. Today we face national and global challenges that go beyond classic media-specific (air, land, water) environmental legislation and require an integrated paradigm of action and engagement based on (1) innovation based on science and technology, (2) stakeholder engagement and collaboration, and (3) public education and support. This three-pronged approach recognizes that current environmental problems, include social as well as physical and environmental factors, are best addressed through collaborative problem solving, the application of innovation in science and technology, and multiple stakeholder engagement. To achieve that goal, EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) is working directly with states and local communities to develop and apply a suite of accessible decision support tools (DST) that aim to improve environmental conditions, protect human health, enhance economic opportunity, and advance a resilient and sustainability society. This paper showcases joint EPA and state actions to develop tools and approaches that not only meet current environmental and public health challenges, but do so in a way that advances sustainable, healthy, and resilient communities well into the future. EPA's future plans should build on current work but aim to effectively respond to growing external pressures. Growing pressures from megatrends are a major challenge for the new Administration and for cities and states across the country. The recent hurricanes hitting

  18. Formulating the American Geophysical Union's Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics Policy: Challenges and lessons learned: Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Linda C.; Townsend, Randy

    2017-01-01

    Creating an ethics policy for a large, diverse geosciences organization is a challenge, especially in the midst of the current contentious dialogue in the media related to such issues as climate change, sustaining natural resources, and responding to natural hazards. In 2011, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) took on this challenge, creating an Ethics Task Force to update their ethics policies to better support their new Strategic Plan and respond to the changing scientific research environment. Dialogue with AGU members and others during the course of creating the new policy unveiled some of the following issues to be addressed. Scientific results and individual scientists are coming under intense political and public scrutiny, with the efficacy of the science being questioned. In some cases, scientists are asked to take sides and/or provide opinions on issues beyond their research, impacting their objectivity. Pressure related to competition for funding and the need to publish high quality and quantities of papers has led to recent high profile plagiarism, data fabrication, and conflict of interest cases. The complexities of a continuously advancing digital environment for conducting, reviewing, and publishing science has raised concerns over the ease of plagiarism, fabrication, falsification, inappropriate peer review, and the need for better accessibility of data and methods. Finally, students and scientists need consistent education and encouragement on the importance of ethics and integrity in scientific research. The new AGU Scientific Integrity and Ethics Policy tries to address these issues and provides an inspirational code of conduct to encourage a responsible, positive, open, and honest scientific research environment.

  19. Leveraging Big Data Tools and Technologies: Addressing the Challenges of the Water Quality Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Ponce Romero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The water utility sector is subject to stringent legislation, seeking to address both the evolution of practices within the chemical/pharmaceutical industry, and the safeguarding of environmental protection, and which is informed by stakeholder views. Growing public environmental awareness is balanced by fair apportionment of liability within-sector. This highly complex and dynamic context poses challenges for water utilities seeking to manage the diverse chemicals arising from disparate sources reaching Wastewater Treatment Plants, including residential, commercial, and industrial points of origin, and diffuse sources including agricultural and hard surface water run-off. Effluents contain broad ranges of organic and inorganic compounds, herbicides, pesticides, phosphorus, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals of emerging concern. These potential pollutants can be in dissolved form, or arise in association with organic matter, the associated risks posing significant environmental challenges. This paper examines how the adoption of new Big Data tools and computational technologies can offer great advantage to the water utility sector in addressing this challenge. Big Data approaches facilitate improved understanding and insight of these challenges, by industry, regulator, and public alike. We discuss how Big Data approaches can be used to improve the outputs of tools currently in use by the water industry, such as SAGIS (Source Apportionment GIS system, helping to reveal new relationships between chemicals, the environment, and human health, and in turn provide better understanding of contaminants in wastewater (origin, pathways, and persistence. We highlight how the sector can draw upon Big Data tools to add value to legacy datasets, such as the Chemicals Investigation Programme in the UK, combined with contemporary data sources, extending the lifespan of data, focusing monitoring strategies, and helping users adapt and plan more efficiently. Despite

  20. Disaster response and people experiencing homelessness: Addressing challenges of a population with limited resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Bryan; Smith, Mary-Elise

    2015-01-01

    In this article the authors provide an overview of some issues that inhibit disaster planning and response for people experiencing homelessness and discuss the planning process conducted for this population in Worcester, MA. People experiencing homelessness face numerous challenges in preparing for disasters both natural and human caused. Similarly, providers attempting to aid these individuals must recognize and overcome various factors that hamper efforts to provide assistance. People experiencing homelessness lack the general resources many in the United States take for granted, including food, shelter, communication methods, and transportation. The population also has an increased prevalence of medical and psychiatric conditions. These factors amplify the typical difficulties in preparedness, communication, sheltering, and training for disasters. With these principles in mind, the authors reviewed the literature for best practices, identified potential stakeholders, and developed an annex to help address organization and delivery of care to those experiencing homelessness during a disaster.

  1. The Challenges and Potential of Nuclear Energy for Addressing Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Son H.; Edmonds, James A.

    2007-10-24

    The response to climate change and the stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations has major implications for the global energy system. Stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations requires a peak and an indefinite decline of global CO2 emissions. Nuclear energy, along with other technologies, has the potential to contribute to the growing demand for energy without emitting CO2. Nuclear energy is of particular interest because of its global prevalence and its current significant contribution, nearly 20%, to the world’s electricity supply. We have investigated the value of nuclear energy in addressing climate change, and have explored the potential challenges for the rapid and large-scale expansion of nuclear energy as a response to climate change. The scope of this study is long-term and the modeling time frame extends out a century because the nature of nuclear energy and climate change dictate that perspective. Our results indicate that the value of the nuclear technology option for addressing climate change is denominated in trillions of dollars. Several-fold increases to the value of the nuclear option can be expected if there is limited availability of competing carbon-free technologies, particularly fossil-fuel based technologies that can capture and sequester carbon. Challenges for the expanded global use of nuclear energy include the global capacity for nuclear construction, proliferation, uranium availability, and waste disposal. While the economic costs of nuclear fuel and power are important, non-economic issues transcend the issues of costs. In this regard, advanced nuclear technologies and new vision for the global use of nuclear energy are important considerations for the future of nuclear power and climate change.

  2. Coach strategies for addressing psychosocial challenges during the return to sport from injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlog, Leslie; Dionigi, Rylee

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine coach strategies for addressing athletes' psychosocial challenges in returning to sport following injury rehabilitation. Qualitative interviews with eight elite coaches from the Western Australian Institute of Sport (WAIS) in Perth, Australia revealed that coaches facilitated athletes' return to sport from injury through a variety of means, but did not typically provide systematic forms of assistance. Coaches commented that the idiosyncratic nature of the injury experience meant that they needed to apply strategies consistent with athletes' particular psychosocial needs. Such strategies included: (a) coordination of a "team approach" to rehabilitation; (b) fostering open communication with athletes and treatment team members; (c) social support; (d) positive thinking and goal setting; and (e) role models. Analysis of these strategies revealed that coaches attempted to address competence, autonomy, and relatedness needs in facilitating athletes' return from injury. These findings suggest that self-determination theory may be a valuable approach for examining coach forms of assistance regarding athletes' return to competition following injury. Findings are discussed in relation to injury literature and self-determination theory. Suggestions for future research are also presented.

  3. CAWR: Two institutions join forces in a cluster by addressing the grand challenges of water research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeckel, Greta; Braeckevelt, Mareike

    2017-04-01

    The Center for Advanced Water Research (CAWR) brings together the water competences of two German research institutions: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ and the Technische Universität Dresden (TUD). Highly qualified scientists are jointly tackling some of the key challenges in the water sector in an outstanding breadth of research topics and at the same time with a profound disciplinary expertise. Our mission is: "Save water for humans and environment", because water in a good quality and adequate quantity is a fundamental basis of life for humankind and the environment. In many global challenges, such as food or energy security, human health and ecosystems, flood defence and droughts or the provision of drinking water and sanitation systems, water is becoming a very critical element for a sustainable society in Germany, in Europe and worldwide. The CAWR focusses its work on the fields of research, education & training as well as transfer. The CAWR was established in 2013. Over 3 years the activities within the three pillars and the six thematic priority research fields ( 1) Understanding processes: water cycle and water quality, 2): Water quantity and scarcity in the regional context, 3): Urban Water Systems, 4): Methods of data collection and information processing, 5): Societal and climate change, 6): Water governance) were presented within: • the scientific community (newsletters, publication highlights, workshops with different new formats, conferences) • to national and international stakeholders from policy, industry and society (workshops, opinion papers) • public media (TV, radio stations, Newspapers, brochures, videoclips via youtube…) This PICO presentation by Greta Jäckel (scientific management of CAWR) should show which tools for the presentation of research results are useful and which influence they have on different target groups. A bunch of examples for effective and also less successful instruments to present important

  4. Addressing challenges for future strategic-level emergency management: reframing, networking, and capacity-building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosomworth, Karyn; Owen, Christine; Curnin, Steven

    2017-04-01

    The mounting frequency and intensity of natural hazards, alongside growing interdependencies between social-technical and ecological systems, are placing increased pressure on emergency management. This is particularly true at the strategic level of emergency management, which involves planning for and managing non-routine, high-consequence events. Drawing on the literature, a survey, and interviews and workshops with Australia's senior emergency managers, this paper presents an analysis of five core challenges that these pressures are creating for strategic-level emergency management. It argues that emphasising 'emergency management' as a primary adaptation strategy is a retrograde step that ignores the importance of addressing socio-political drivers of vulnerabilities. Three key suggestions are presented that could assist the country's strategic-level emergency management in tackling these challenges: (i) reframe emergency management as a component of disaster risk reduction rather than them being one and the same; (ii) adopt a network governance approach; and (iii) further develop the capacities of strategic-level emergency managers. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  5. Addressing China's grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-02-01

    China's increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies.

  6. Technological challenges of addressing new and more complex migrating products from novel food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Ian C; Haighton, Lois A; Lynch, Barry S; Tafazoli, Shahrzad

    2009-12-01

    The risk assessment of migration products resulting from packaging material has and continues to pose a difficult challenge. In most jurisdictions, there are regulatory requirements for the approval or notification of food contact substances that will be used in packaging. These processes generally require risk assessment to ensure safety concerns are addressed. The science of assessing food contact materials was instrumental in the development of the concept of Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern procedures. While the risk assessment process is in place, the technology of food packaging continues to evolve to include new initiatives, such as the inclusion of antimicrobial substances or enzyme systems to prevent spoilage, use of plastic packaging intended to remain on foods as they are being cooked, to the introduction of more rigid, stable and reusable materials, and active packaging to extend the shelf-life of food. Each new technology brings with it the potential for exposure to new and possibly novel substances as a result of migration, interaction with other chemical packaging components, or, in the case of plastics now used in direct cooking of products, degradation products formed during heating. Furthermore, the presence of trace levels of certain chemicals from packaging that were once accepted as being of low risk based on traditional toxicology studies are being challenged on the basis of reports of adverse effects, particularly with respect to endocrine disruption, alleged to occur at very low doses. A recent example is the case of bisphenol A. The way forward to assess new packaging technologies and reports of very low dose effects in non-standard studies of food contact substances is likely to remain controversial. However, the risk assessment paradigm is sufficiently robust and flexible to be adapted to meet these challenges. The use of the Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern concepts may

  7. Large system change challenges: addressing complex critical issues in linked physical and social domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Steve; Cornell, Sarah; Hsueh, Joe; Ozer, Ceren; McLachlan, Milla; Birney, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Most action to address contemporary complex challenges, including the urgent issues of global sustainability, occurs piecemeal and without meaningful guidance from leading complex change knowledge and methods. The potential benefit of using such knowledge is greater efficacy of effort and investment. However, this knowledge and its associated tools and methods are under-utilized because understanding about them is low, fragmented between diverse knowledge traditions, and often requires shifts in mindsets and skills from expert-led to participant-based action. We have been engaged in diverse action-oriented research efforts in Large System Change for sustainability. For us, "large" systems can be characterized as large-scale systems - up to global - with many components, of many kinds (physical, biological, institutional, cultural/conceptual), operating at multiple levels, driven by multiple forces, and presenting major challenges for people involved. We see change of such systems as complex challenges, in contrast with simple or complicated problems, or chaotic situations. In other words, issues and sub-systems have unclear boundaries, interact with each other, and are often contradictory; dynamics are non-linear; issues are not "controllable", and "solutions" are "emergent" and often paradoxical. Since choices are opportunity-, power- and value-driven, these social, institutional and cultural factors need to be made explicit in any actionable theory of change. Our emerging network is sharing and building a knowledge base of experience, heuristics, and theories of change from multiple disciplines and practice domains. We will present our views on focal issues for the development of the field of large system change, which include processes of goal-setting and alignment; leverage of systemic transitions and transformation; and the role of choice in influencing critical change processes, when only some sub-systems or levels of the system behave in purposeful ways

  8. Ethics in occupational health: deliberations of an international workgroup addressing challenges in an African context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Leslie; Tangwa, Godfrey; Matchaba-Hove, Reginald; Mkhize, Nhlanhla; Nwabueze, Remi; Nyika, Aceme; Westerholm, Peter

    2014-06-23

    International codes of ethics play an important role in guiding professional practice in developing countries. In the occupational health setting, codes developed by international agencies have substantial import on protecting working populations from harm. This is particularly so under globalisation which has transformed processes of production in fundamental ways across the globe. As part of the process of revising the Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health, an Africa Working Group addressed key challenges for the relevance and cogency of an ethical code in occupational health for an African context through an iterative consultative process. Firstly, even in the absence of strong legal systems of enforcement, and notwithstanding the value of legal institutionalisation of ethical codes, guidelines alone may offer advantageous routes to enhancing ethical practice in occupational health. Secondly, globalisation has particularly impacted on health and safety at workplaces in Africa, challenging occupational health professionals to be sensitive to, and actively redress imbalance of power. Thirdly, the different ways in which vulnerability is exemplified in the workplace in Africa often places the occupational health professional in invidious positions of Dual Loyalty. Fourth, the particular cultural emphasis in traditional African societies on collective responsibilities within the community impacts directly on how consent should be sought in occupational health practice, and how stigma should be dealt with, balancing individual autonomy with ideas of personhood that are more collective as in the African philosophy of ubuntu. To address stigma, practitioners need to be additionally sensitive to how power imbalances at the workplace intersect with traditional cultural norms related to solidarity. Lastly, particularly in the African context, the inseparability of workplace and community means that efforts to address workplace hazards demand

  9. Ethics in occupational health: deliberations of an international workgroup addressing challenges in an African context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background International codes of ethics play an important role in guiding professional practice in developing countries. In the occupational health setting, codes developed by international agencies have substantial import on protecting working populations from harm. This is particularly so under globalisation which has transformed processes of production in fundamental ways across the globe. As part of the process of revising the Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health, an Africa Working Group addressed key challenges for the relevance and cogency of an ethical code in occupational health for an African context through an iterative consultative process. Discussion Firstly, even in the absence of strong legal systems of enforcement, and notwithstanding the value of legal institutionalisation of ethical codes, guidelines alone may offer advantageous routes to enhancing ethical practice in occupational health. Secondly, globalisation has particularly impacted on health and safety at workplaces in Africa, challenging occupational health professionals to be sensitive to, and actively redress imbalance of power. Thirdly, the different ways in which vulnerability is exemplified in the workplace in Africa often places the occupational health professional in invidious positions of Dual Loyalty. Fourth, the particular cultural emphasis in traditional African societies on collective responsibilities within the community impacts directly on how consent should be sought in occupational health practice, and how stigma should be dealt with, balancing individual autonomy with ideas of personhood that are more collective as in the African philosophy of ubuntu. To address stigma, practitioners need to be additionally sensitive to how power imbalances at the workplace intersect with traditional cultural norms related to solidarity. Lastly, particularly in the African context, the inseparability of workplace and community means that efforts to address

  10. A proposed reductionist solution to address the methodological challenges of inconsistent reflexology maps and poor experimental controls in reflexology research: a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jenny; Thomson, Patricia; Lauder, William; Leslie, Stephen J

    2013-03-01

    Reflexology is a complex massage intervention, based on the concept that specific areas of the feet (reflex points) correspond to individual internal organs within the body. Reflexologists trained in the popular Ingham reflexology method claim that massage to these points, using massage techniques unique to reflexology, stimulates an increase in blood supply to the corresponding organ. Reflexology researchers face two key methodological challenges that need to be addressed if a specific treatment-related hemodynamic effect is to be scientifically demonstrated. The first is the problem of inconsistent reflexology foot maps; the second is the issue of poor experimental controls. This article proposes a potential experimental solution that we believe can address both methodological challenges and in doing so, allow any specific hemodynamic treatment effect unique to reflexology to experimentally reveal itself.

  11. Queering Methodologies: Challenging Scientific Constraint in the Appreciation of Queer and Trans Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative studies require a queer perspective to challenge stagnant forms of scientific discourse. This paper argues for a deconstruction of hegemonic qualitative practices in order to appreciate and listen to queer and trans subjects when employing qualitative research and methodologies. I focus on qualitative methods from an audiovisual…

  12. The Human Resources Challenge to Community Based Rehabilitation: The Need for a Scientific, Systematic and Coordinated Global Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilish McAuliffe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The World Report on Disability highlights some of the major challenges in the path to realisation of the rights of persons with disabilities as per the United Nations Convention. While the recently published guidelines on Community Based Rehabilitation show the way to address these challenges, effective implementation would require not only higher levels of investment in human resources, but also a significantly newer and different skill-set for the additional personnel.  The authors suggest that a scientifically sophisticated, systematic and coordinated research programme, with global reach and participation, is needed for the establishment of a useful and robust evidence-base for Community Based Rehabilitation interventions. It is also suggested that the development of a new cadre of rehabilitation workers could be a key component of the programme, and could help to alleviate the extant crisis in human resources for health in many low-income countries.

  13. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Toni A.

    2014-01-01

    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed

  14. Upscaling the Use of Fallout Radionuclides in Soil Erosion and Sediment Budget Investigations: Addressing the Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.E. Walling

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of fallout radionuclides in soil erosion investigations and related sediment budget studies has provided a widely used tool for improving understanding of soil erosion and sediment transfer processes. However, most studies using fallout radionuclides undertaken to date have focussed on small areas. This focus on small areas reflects both the issues addressed and practical constraints associated with sample collection and analysis. Increasing acceptance of the important role of fine sediment in degrading aquatic habitats and in the transfer and fate of nutrients and contaminants within terrestrial and fluvial systems has emphasised the need to consider larger areas and the catchment or regional scale. The need to upscale existing approaches to the use of fallout radionuclides to larger areas represents an important challenge. This contribution provides a brief review of existing and potential approaches to upscaling the use of fallout radionuclides and presents two examples where such approaches have been successfully applied. These involve a national scale assessment of soil erosion rates in England and Wales based on 137Cs measurements and an investigation of the sediment budgets of three small/intermediate-size catchments in southern Italy.

  15. Challenges of scientific knowledge visualization in publication productivity of the university academic staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabanova Natalia N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that a person, an author particularly, faces the challenges of visualization in the cognitive process. The aim of this study is to consider the forms of thinking process and the changes happened in education process and in scientific activity. It was noted that the challenges connected with information perceiving during the work with the text occur in the process of creating academic papers as well. We conclude that the topical field of visualization covers not only the educative process assuming information transfer from person to person (model “teacher-student”, but the process of scientific activity. Applying the methods of visualization in publication activity is the factor for effective communication in social and cultural space that provides the opportunity for academic society to recognize results. We offer possible ways to promote scientific papers via online resources such as scientific social networks and tools of media corporations. The scientific social network ResearchGate and Thomson Reuters media corporation product as an online tool “Researcher ID” placed at the bibliographic database Web of Science TM Core Collection are used as the examples. We state that information technology allows authors to promote the results of their studies around the world.

  16. Design Guidelines to Address Global Challenges: Lessons from Global Action Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Steve Waddell

    2012-01-01

    Traditional organizations appear to be incapable of adequately addressing critical global issues such as war, climate change, and economic inequality. Addressing these issues suggests the need for organizational innovation to develop global social contracts. Successful innovation must address four integration imperatives: (1) integrate effort and resources across organizational sectors (business, government, civil society) and sense-making, (2) create successful individual to global aggregati...

  17. Scientific Grand Challenges: Challenges in Climate Change Science and the Role of Computing at the Extreme Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Johnson, Gary M.; Washington, Warren M.

    2009-07-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) in partnership with the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) held a workshop on the challenges in climate change science and the role of computing at the extreme scale, November 6-7, 2008, in Bethesda, Maryland. At the workshop, participants identified the scientific challenges facing the field of climate science and outlined the research directions of highest priority that should be pursued to meet these challenges. Representatives from the national and international climate change research community as well as representatives from the high-performance computing community attended the workshop. This group represented a broad mix of expertise. Of the 99 participants, 6 were from international institutions. Before the workshop, each of the four panels prepared a white paper, which provided the starting place for the workshop discussions. These four panels of workshop attendees devoted to their efforts the following themes: Model Development and Integrated Assessment; Algorithms and Computational Environment; Decadal Predictability and Prediction; Data, Visualization, and Computing Productivity. The recommendations of the panels are summarized in the body of this report.

  18. Addressing Data Analysis Challenges in Gravitational Wave Searches Using the Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerathunga, Thilina Shihan

    2017-08-01

    Gravitational waves are a fundamental prediction of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. The first experimental proof of their existence was provided by the Nobel Prize winning discovery by Taylor and Hulse of orbital decay in a binary pulsar system. The first detection of gravitational waves incident on earth from an astrophysical source was announced in 2016 by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, launching the new era of gravitational wave (GW) astronomy. The signal detected was from the merger of two black holes, which is an example of sources called Compact Binary Coalescences (CBCs). Data analysis strategies used in the search for CBC signals are derivatives of the Maximum-Likelihood (ML) method. The ML method applied to data from a network of geographically distributed GW detectors--called fully coherent network analysis--is currently the best approach for estimating source location and GW polarization waveforms. However, in the case of CBCs, especially for lower mass systems (O(1M solar masses)) such as double neutron star binaries, fully coherent network analysis is computationally expensive. The ML method requires locating the global maximum of the likelihood function over a nine dimensional parameter space, where the computation of the likelihood at each point requires correlations involving O(104) to O(106) samples between the data and the corresponding candidate signal waveform template. Approximations, such as semi-coherent coincidence searches, are currently used to circumvent the computational barrier but incur a concomitant loss in sensitivity. We explored the effectiveness of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), a well-known algorithm in the field of swarm intelligence, in addressing the fully coherent network analysis problem. As an example, we used a four-detector network consisting of the two LIGO detectors at Hanford and Livingston, Virgo and Kagra, all having initial LIGO noise power spectral densities, and show that PSO can locate the global

  19. Academic Research Library as Broker in Addressing Interoperability Challenges for the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P., II

    2015-12-01

    Data capture is an important process in the research lifecycle. Complete descriptive and representative information of the data or database is necessary during data collection whether in the field or in the research lab. The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Public Access Plan (2015) mandates the need for federally funded projects to make their research data more openly available. Developing, implementing, and integrating metadata workflows into to the research process of the data lifecycle facilitates improved data access while also addressing interoperability challenges for the geosciences such as data description and representation. Lack of metadata or data curation can contribute to (1) semantic, (2) ontology, and (3) data integration issues within and across disciplinary domains and projects. Some researchers of EarthCube funded projects have identified these issues as gaps. These gaps can contribute to interoperability data access, discovery, and integration issues between domain-specific and general data repositories. Academic Research Libraries have expertise in providing long-term discovery and access through the use of metadata standards and provision of access to research data, datasets, and publications via institutional repositories. Metadata crosswalks, open archival information systems (OAIS), trusted-repositories, data seal of approval, persistent URL, linking data, objects, resources, and publications in institutional repositories and digital content management systems are common components in the library discipline. These components contribute to a library perspective on data access and discovery that can benefit the geosciences. The USGS Community for Data Integration (CDI) has developed the Science Support Framework (SSF) for data management and integration within its community of practice for contribution to improved understanding of the Earth's physical and biological systems. The USGS CDI SSF can be used as a reference model to map to Earth

  20. Addressing challenges in bar-code scanning of large-volume infusion bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Kirthana; Heelon, Mark; Kerr, Gary; Higgins, Thomas L

    2011-08-01

    A hospital pharmacy's efforts to identify and address challenges with bedside scanning of bar codes on large-volume parenteral (LVP) infusion bags are described. Bar-code-assisted medication administration (BCMA) has been shown to reduce medication errors and improve patient safety. After the pilot implementation of a BCMA system and point-of-care scanning procedures at a medical center's intensive care unit, it was noted that nurses' attempted bedside scans of certain LVP bags for product identification purposes often were not successful. An investigation and root-cause analysis, including observation of nurses' scanning technique by a multidisciplinary team, determined that the scanning failures stemmed from the placement of two bar-code imprints-one with the product identification code and another, larger imprint with the expiration date and lot number-adjacently on the LVP bags. The nursing staff was educated on a modified scanning technique, which resulted in significantly improved success rates in the scanning of the most commonly used LVP bags. Representatives of the LVP bag manufacturer met with hospital staff to discuss the problem and corrective measures. As part of a subsequent infusion bag redesign, the manufacturer discontinued the use of the bar-code imprint implicated in the scanning failures. Failures in scanning LVP bags were traced to problematic placement of bar-code imprints on the bags. Interdisciplinary collaboration, consultation with the bag manufacturer, and education of the nursing and pharmacy staff resulted in a reduction in scanning failures and the manufacturer's removal of one of the bar codes from its LVP bags.

  1. Key challenges of offshore wind power: Three essays addressing public acceptance, stakeholder conflict, and wildlife impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Alison Waterbury

    Society is facing a pressing need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to limit anthropogenic climate change, which has far reaching implications for humans and the environment. Transforming the energy infrastructure to carbon-free sources is one solution to curb greenhouse gas emissions, but this transformation has been slow to materialize in many places, such as the United States (U.S.). Offshore wind energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources available, which can be deployed in large-scale developments in many parts of the world. Yet, offshore wind has faced many challenges, which are more social and regulatory than technical. This dissertation addresses social and regulatory issues surrounding offshore wind development through three stand-alone essays, which, in combination, address a decision-making framework of where to locate offshore wind turbines, by minimizing effects on people and wildlife. The challenges to offshore wind that are addressed by this dissertation include (1) understanding underlying factors that drive support for or opposition to offshore wind energy; (2) conflict with existing ocean uses and users; and (3) public concern and regulatory processes related to wildlife impacts. The first paper identifies unique factors that drive public opinion of proposed offshore wind projects in nearby coastal communities. Wind energy development on land has faced local opposition for reasons such as effects on cultural landscapes and wildlife, which can be instrumental in whether or not and the speed with which a project moves ahead toward completion. Factors leading to support for, or opposition to, offshore wind energy are not well known, particularly for developments that are near-shore and in-view of coastal communities. Results are presented from a survey of 699 residents (35.5% response rate) completed in 2013 in greater Atlantic City, New Jersey and coastal Delaware, United States, where near-shore wind demonstration projects had

  2. Strategies to Address English Language Writing Challenges Faced by International Graduate Students in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Ravichandran, Swathi; Kretovics, Mark; Kirby, Kara; Ghosh, Ankita

    2017-01-01

    Since 2000, there has been a 72% increase in the number of international students attending US institutions of higher education. The increase, specifically of international graduate students, has brought to light the writing challenges experienced by this population of students. This study explored specific writing challenges experienced by international graduate students and determined strategies to alleviate these challenges. Interviews were conducted with 15 international...

  3. Addressing the Challenges of Multi-Domain Data Integration with the SemantEco Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, E. W.; Seyed, P.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Data integration across multiple domains will continue to be a challenge with the proliferation of big data in the sciences. Data origination issues and how data are manipulated are critical to enable scientists to understand and consume disparate datasets as research becomes more multidisciplinary. We present the SemantEco framework as an exemplar for designing an integrative portal for data discovery, exploration, and interpretation that uses best practice W3C Recommendations. We use the Resource Description Framework (RDF) with extensible ontologies described in the Web Ontology Language (OWL) to provide graph-based data representation. Furthermore, SemantEco ingests data via the software package csv2rdf4lod, which generates data provenance using the W3C provenance recommendation (PROV). Our presentation will discuss benefits and challenges of semantic integration, their effect on runtime performance, and how the SemantEco framework assisted in identifying performance issues and improved query performance across multiple domains by an order of magnitude. SemantEco benefits from a semantic approach that provides an 'open world', which allows data to incrementally change just as it does in the real world. SemantEco modules may load new ontologies and data using the W3C's SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language via HTTP. Modules may also provide user interface elements for applications and query capabilities to support new use cases. Modules can associate with domains, which are first-class objects in SemantEco. This enables SemantEco to perform integration and reasoning both within and across domains on module-provided data. The SemantEco framework has been used to construct a web portal for environmental and ecological data. The portal includes water and air quality data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and species observation counts for birds and fish from the Avian Knowledge Network and the Santa Barbara Long Term

  4. HIV/AIDS vaccines for Africa: scientific opportunities, challenges and strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin'ombe, Nyasha; Ruhanya, Vurayai

    2015-01-01

    More than decades have already elapsed since human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was identified as the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The HIV has since spread to all parts of the world with devastating effects. In sub-saharan Africa, the HIV/AIDS epidemic has reached unprecedented proportions. Safe, effective and affordable HIV/AIDS vaccines for Africans are therefore urgently needed to contain this public health problem. Although, there are challenges, there are also scientific opportunities and strategies that can be exploited in the development of HIV/AIDS vaccines for Africa. The recent RV144 Phase III trial in Thailand has demonstrated that it is possible to develop a vaccine that can potentially elicit modest protective immunity against HIV infection. The main objective of this review is to outline the key scientific opportunities, challenges and strategies in HIV/AIDS vaccine development in Africa. PMID:26185576

  5. [Challenge and opportunity of entry to WTO brings to scientific and technological periodical].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yun-Mei

    2004-11-01

    After our country enters WTO, confronted with the direct influence in big international market opening, editorial department will face fierce competition. Selecting the superior and eliminate the inferior will test every publishing house and every magazine directly. In order to improve the competition level, author has analyzed the current situation of China's periodical development, and then explored the scientific and technological periodical opportunity and challenge faced under the new situation.

  6. Biological network extraction from scientific literature: state of the art and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Liakata, Maria; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2014-09-01

    Networks of molecular interactions explain complex biological processes, and all known information on molecular events is contained in a number of public repositories including the scientific literature. Metabolic and signalling pathways are often viewed separately, even though both types are composed of interactions involving proteins and other chemical entities. It is necessary to be able to combine data from all available resources to judge the functionality, complexity and completeness of any given network overall, but especially the full integration of relevant information from the scientific literature is still an ongoing and complex task. Currently, the text-mining research community is steadily moving towards processing the full body of the scientific literature by making use of rich linguistic features such as full text parsing, to extract biological interactions. The next step will be to combine these with information from scientific databases to support hypothesis generation for the discovery of new knowledge and the extension of biological networks. The generation of comprehensive networks requires technologies such as entity grounding, coordination resolution and co-reference resolution, which are not fully solved and are required to further improve the quality of results. Here, we analyse the state of the art for the extraction of network information from the scientific literature and the evaluation of extraction methods against reference corpora, discuss challenges involved and identify directions for future research. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The scientific study of inspiration in the creative process: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleynick, Victoria C; Thrash, Todd M; LeFew, Michael C; Moldovan, Emil G; Kieffaber, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Inspiration is a motivational state that compels individuals to bring ideas into fruition. Creators have long argued that inspiration is important to the creative process, but until recently, scientists have not investigated this claim. In this article, we review challenges to the study of creative inspiration, as well as solutions to these challenges afforded by theoretical and empirical work on inspiration over the past decade. First, we discuss the problem of definitional ambiguity, which has been addressed through an integrative process of construct conceptualization. Second, we discuss the challenge of how to operationalize inspiration. This challenge has been overcome by the development and validation of the Inspiration Scale (IS), which may be used to assess trait or state inspiration. Third, we address ambiguity regarding how inspiration differs from related concepts (creativity, insight, positive affect) by discussing discriminant validity. Next, we discuss the preconception that inspiration is less important than "perspiration" (effort), and we review empirical evidence that inspiration and effort both play important-but different-roles in the creative process. Finally, with many challenges overcome, we argue that the foundation is now set for a new generation of research focused on neural underpinnings. We discuss potential challenges to and opportunities for the neuroscientific study of inspiration. A better understanding of the biological basis of inspiration will illuminate the process through which creative ideas "fire the soul," such that individuals are compelled to transform ideas into products and solutions that may benefit society.

  8. Intellectual and Technological Development of Regions: Challenges and Ways to Address them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stepanovich Bochko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the issues of intellectual and technological development of the country and regions. The author shows that growing number of employees with higher education is not accompanied by a proportionate increase in the technology level of the economy. This is due to the change of the purpose of higher education. Gradually, the higher education has become a tool ensuring a common cultural level of the population. The author analyses major reasons for a weak contribution of an increasing number of employees with higher education to the technological growth. Professional researchers and employees from various types of industries should be considered as producers of intellectual and technological development. I suggest calling them the generators of intelligent technologies. The author’s interpretation of the concept of «scientific and research education» implies not only the development of creative abilities, but also the understanding of the causes and consequences of natural and social processes as well as critical reflection on these processes. Scientific and research education is emerging directly from research activity. The support of scientific and research education keeps in the society the desire of scientific breakthroughs. The author has revealed the negative tendencies in science. They are related to a considerable decrease in research and development as well as to the withdrawal of the Russian business from the sphere of scientific research. I conclude that there is an urgent need to invest into science. This will result in scientific and technological progress, which would develop the society and increase the productivity of social activities.

  9. Getting People Involved: The Benefit of Intellectual Capital Management for Addressing HR Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pook, Katja

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the benefits of intellectual capital assessment for facing current challenges of human resources work and organizational development. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes findings of studies on challenges in HR work and maps them with features of intellectual capital assessment methods. It is thus a…

  10. Strategies to Address English Language Writing Challenges Faced by International Graduate Students in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Swathi; Kretovics, Mark; Kirby, Kara; Ghosh, Ankita

    2017-01-01

    Since 2000, there has been a 72% increase in the number of international students attending US institutions of higher education. The increase, specifically of international graduate students, has brought to light the writing challenges experienced by this population of students. This study explored specific writing challenges experienced by…

  11. Strategies for Helping Parents of Young Children Address Challenging Behaviors in the Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Zhen; Lieberman-Betz, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Challenging behavior can be defined as any repeated pattern of behavior, or perception of behavior, that interferes with or is at risk of interfering with optimal learning or engagement in prosocial interactions with peers and adults. It is generally accepted in young children that challenging behaviors serve some sort of communicative purpose--to…

  12. Teaching Elementary Children with Autism: Addressing Teacher Challenges and Preparation Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Ruth; Ingram, Rebecca; Bowron, Rhonda; Oliver, Jan; Lyons, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' perception of self-efficacy may have a significant impact on their ability to accept the challenges inherent in including children with autism in their classrooms. The Nominal Group Technique (NGT) was used to identify perceived challenges and needs of 31 graduate students in a university course of which 14 of the 23 students were…

  13. Design Guidelines to Address Global Challenges: Lessons from Global Action Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Waddell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional organizations appear to be incapable of adequately addressing critical global issues such as war, climate change, and economic inequality. Addressing these issues suggests the need for organizational innovation to develop global social contracts. Successful innovation must address four integration imperatives: (1 integrate effort and resources across organizational sectors (business, government, civil society and sense-making, (2 create successful individual to global aggregations, (3 integrate the short and long term, and (4 integrate major issue areas. A new type of organization, Global Action Networks, aims for this integration. Based upon analysis of this new type of organization, five design principles for global social contract organizations are proposed.

  14. Addressing the main challenges of energy security in the twenty-first century – Contributions of the conferences on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovska, Natasa; Duić, Neven; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Guzović, Zvonimir; Piacentino, Antonio; Schlör, Holger; Lund, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and fossil fuel reserve depletion both pose challenges for energy security and for wellbeing in general. The top ten among them include: Decarbonising the world economy; Enhancing the energy efficiency and energy savings in buildings; Advancing the energy technologies; Moving towards energy systems based on variable renewables; Electrifying the transport and some industrial processes; Liberalizing and extending the energy markets; Integrating energy sectors to Smart Energy Systems; Making the cities and communities smart; Diversifying the energy sources; and Building more biorefineries. Presenting the contributions of selected conference papers published in the special issues of leading scientific journals (including all the papers from the current Energy special issue), this review demonstrates the capacity of the Conferences on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems for generation of knowledge which could serve as the centrepiece of a pertinent response to those challenges. - Highlights: • Top ten challenges of energy security in the twenty-first century identified. • Selected SDEWES contributions analysed against the identified challenges. • The role of SDEWES as knowledge generator towards addressing the identified challenges credibly demonstrated.

  15. A Holistic Approach towards Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for Addressing Education Challenges in Asia and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Sungsup; Chin, Brian; Lim, Cher Ping

    2016-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) offers opportunities for governments to address key education challenges of quality, equity, and efficiency. While governments and educational institutions in developed countries may have taken up these opportunities, many developing countries in Asia and the Pacific region have often missed them out.…

  16. An assessment of open source promotion in addressing ICT acceptance challenges in Tanzania

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kinyondo, J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is regarded as an enabler of social and economic development. Due to various challenges, ICT has not been accepted and used effectively to assist with the socio-economic development in Tanzania...

  17. Ethical challenges in FASD prevention: Scientific uncertainty, stigma, and respect for women's autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizzo, Natalie; Racine, Eric

    2017-11-09

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading form of neurodevelopmental delay in Canada, affecting an estimated 3000 babies per year. FASD involves a range of disabilities that entail significant costs to affected individuals, families, and society. Exposure to alcohol in utero is a necessary factor for FASD development, and this has led to FASD being described as "completely preventable". However, there are significant ethical challenges associated with FASD prevention. These challenges revolve around 1) what should be communicated about the risks of alcohol consumption during pregnancy, given some ongoing scientific uncertainty about the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure, and 2) how to communicate these risks, given the potential for stigma against women who give birth to children with FASD as well as against children and adults with FASD. In this paper, we share initial thoughts on how primary care physicians can tackle this complex challenge. First, we recommend honest disclosure of scientific evidence to women and the tailoring of information offered to pregnant women. Second, we propose a contextualized, patient-centred, compassionate approach to ensure that appropriate advice is given to patients in a supportive, non-stigmatizing way.

  18. The role and challenges of the food industry in addressing chronic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehoe Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary Increasingly, food companies play an important role in stemming the rising burden of nutrition-related chronic diseases. Concrete actions taken by these companies include global public commitments to address food reformulation, consumer information, responsible marketing, promotion of healthy lifestyles, and public-private partnerships. These actions are reviewed together with eleven specific PepsiCo goals and commitments that address products, the marketplace, and communities at large. Interim progress on these goals and commitments are discussed as well as constraints hampering faster progress. Further disease prevention depends on increasing implementation of private-public initiatives.

  19. Radical Embodied Cognitive Neuroscience: Addressing Grand Challenges of the Mind Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis H Favela

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming ever more accepted that investigations of mind span the brain, body, and environment. To broaden the scope of what is relevant in such investigations is to increase the amount of data scientists must reckon with. Thus, a major challenge facing scientists who study the mind is how to make big data intelligible both within and between fields. One way to face this challenge is to structure the data within a framework and to make it intelligible by means of a common theory. Radical embodied cognitive neuroscience can function as such a framework, with dynamical systems theory as its methodology, and self-organized criticality as its theory.

  20. Addressing Complex Challenges through Adaptive Leadership: A Promising Approach to Collaborative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Tenneisha; Squires, Vicki

    2017-01-01

    Organizations are faced with solving increasingly complex problems. Addressing these issues requires effective leadership that can facilitate a collaborative problem solving approach where multiple perspectives are leveraged. In this conceptual paper, we critique the effectiveness of earlier leadership models in tackling complex organizational…

  1. A Problem-Solving Approach to Addressing Current Global Challenges in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Judith D.; Aspin, David N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper begins with an analysis of global problems shaping education, particularly as they impact upon learning and life chances. In addressing these problems a range of philosophical positions and controversies are considered, including: traditional romantic and institutional views of schooling; and more recent maximalist, neo-liberal,…

  2. EPA leadership on Science, Innovation, and Decision Support Tools for Addressing Current and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    When the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established nearly 50 years ago, the nation faced serious threats to its air, land, and water, which in turn impacted human health. These threats were effectively addressed by the creation of EPA (in 1970) and many subsequen...

  3. Global challenges keynote address in memoriam to colleagues lost in the Malaysia airlines 17 crash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hankins, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Six colleagues working in the HIV field were killed when their flight en route to Kuala Lumpur was shot down over the Ukraine. This report is drawn from the in memoriam keynote opening address given at the 12th International AIDS Impact conference in Amsterdam in 2015. It highlights their tangible

  4. ORD-State Cooperation is Essential to Help States Address Contemporary Environmental Public Health Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Cascio’s presentation “ORD-State Cooperation is Essential to Help States Address Contemporary Environmental Public Health Challenges” at ORD’s State Coordination Team Meeting will highlight the role that ORD science and technical expertise in helping t...

  5. Managing flood risks in the Mekong Delta: How to address emerging challenges under climate change and socioeconomic developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Long Phi; Biesbroek, Robbert; Tri, Van Pham Dang; Kummu, Matti; van Vliet, Michelle T H; Leemans, Rik; Kabat, Pavel; Ludwig, Fulco

    2018-02-24

    Climate change and accelerating socioeconomic developments increasingly challenge flood-risk management in the Vietnamese Mekong River Delta-a typical large, economically dynamic and highly vulnerable delta. This study identifies and addresses the emerging challenges for flood-risk management. Furthermore, we identify and analyse response solutions, focusing on meaningful configurations of the individual solutions and how they can be tailored to specific challenges using expert surveys, content analysis techniques and statistical inferences. Our findings show that the challenges for flood-risk management are diverse, but critical challenges predominantly arise from the current governance and institutional settings. The top-three challenges include weak collaboration, conflicting management objectives and low responsiveness to new issues. We identified 114 reported solutions and developed six flood management strategies that are tailored to specific challenges. We conclude that the current technology-centric flood management approach is insufficient given the rapid socioecological changes. This approach therefore should be adapted towards a more balanced management configuration where technical and infrastructural measures are combined with institutional and governance resolutions. Insights from this study contribute to the emerging repertoire of contemporary flood management solutions, especially through their configurations and tailoring to specific challenges.

  6. In search of biomarkers for autism: scientific, social and ethical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Pat; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Bolton, Patrick; Singh, Ilina

    2011-09-20

    There is widespread hope that the discovery of valid biomarkers for autism will both reveal the causes of autism and enable earlier and more targeted methods for diagnosis and intervention. However, growing enthusiasm about recent advances in this area of autism research needs to be tempered by an awareness of the major scientific challenges and the important social and ethical concerns arising from the development of biomarkers and their clinical application. Collaborative approaches involving scientists and other stakeholders must combine the search for valid, clinically useful autism biomarkers with efforts to ensure that individuals with autism and their families are treated with respect and understanding.

  7. Government of Egypt, Japan and the World Bank Jointly Address Unemployment Challenges Facing Marginalized Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Iqbal

    2010-01-01

    Egypt is facing an unprecedented 'youth bulge' with approximately 60 percent of the population below the age of 30 and more unemployed youth being added every year to the labor force. However, the current youth bulge has not been fully seized as an opportunity for the country's development. Rather, it has resulted in numerous challenges, namely resource constraints to accessing education a...

  8. Government Information Focus. The Digital Divide: Understanding and Addressing the Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Christopher P.

    This report discusses the challenges of the Digital Divide. Part I examines the issues concerning access as it relates to schools, communities, free Internet service providers, and broadband. Part II defines technological literacy and how it pertains to the Digital Divide debate. Part III examines those who are affected by the divide and…

  9. A Promising Approach to Addressing America's Biggest Challenges. Needle-Moving Community Collaboratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolin, Michele; Schmitz, Paul; Seldon, Willa

    2012-01-01

    Communities face powerful challenges--a high-school dropout epidemic, youth unemployment, teen pregnancy--that require powerful solutions. In a climate of increasingly constrained resources, those solutions must help communities to achieve more with less. A new kind of community collaborative--an approach that aspires to significant,…

  10. Building and Sustaining Complex Systems: Addressing Common Challenges to Implementing Intensive Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Maurice; Zumeta, Rebecca O.; Gandhi, Allison G.; Gersten, Russell

    2014-01-01

    School and district personnel have identified common challenges in implementing individualized, intensive interventions for students with severe, persistent learning and behavioral needs. The National Center on Intensive Intervention has worked with scores of local educators--including district administrators, building principals, special and…

  11. Addressing Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Challenges through Play: Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschland, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests what many parents and early care and education staff already know: Significant numbers of young children are struggling with social, emotional, and behavioral challenges that negatively impact their functioning as family members, friends, and learners. This article explores how caregivers can foster developmental mastery and…

  12. We Are All In This Together: Supporting Children's Social Emotional Development and Addressing Challenging Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise

    2007-01-01

    Many families of children with challenging behaviors have experienced multiple changes in child care because of their child's behavior. While this is disruptive for families, it has even more serious consequences for children. For these children, consistency and continuity is critical to their long term outcomes. In order to build the capacity of…

  13. Addressing challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of rare genetic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boycott, Kym M; Ardigó, Diego

    2018-03-01

    The past 5 years have seen an unprecedented rate of discovery of genes that cause rare diseases and with it a commensurate increase in the number of diagnosable but nevertheless untreatable disorders. Here, we discuss the increasing opportunity for diagnosis and therapy of rare diseases and how to tackle the associated challenges.

  14. SIR JOHN CRAWFORD MEMORIAL ADDRESS: Agriculture: The challenges of the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Beddington, Sir John

    2012-01-01

    The Sir John Crawford Memorial Address has been presented since 1985, in honour of the distinguished Australian civil servant, educator and agriculturalist in whose name the Crawford Fund was established. Sir John Crawford was a remarkable Australian who contributed at the highest levels, and was a passionate supporter of international agricultural research for development. This talk draws attention to four current and interrelated trends that suggest the world will be rather different by 202...

  15. The adequacy of the current social plan to address retrenchment challenges in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulane Ngele

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the Social Plan Guidelines is to manage large-scale retrenchments and ameliorate their effects on employees. In this study a comprehensive literature review and two case studies were conducted to review the theoretical and practical application of the Social Plan. The research findings identified various challenges that inhibit the effective management of retrenchments. These challenges were analysed and interpreted and a new model to effectively manage retrenchments was developed. The new model is centred on a company’s business plan; the concept is a participative performance-driven governance approach between management and employees focusing on business results. The new model suggests that the employment relations management and corporate social investment of an organisation be utilised as vehicles to manage retrenchments effectively.

  16. Toward a Predictive Understanding of Earth's Microbiomes to Address 21st Century Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, Martin J; Cardon, Zoe G; Cho, Mildred K; Dangl, Jeffrey L; Donohue, Timothy J; Green, Jessica L; Knight, Rob; Maxon, Mary E; Northen, Trent R; Pollard, Katherine S; Brodie, Eoin L

    2016-05-13

    Microorganisms have shaped our planet and its inhabitants for over 3.5 billion years. Humankind has had a profound influence on the biosphere, manifested as global climate and land use changes, and extensive urbanization in response to a growing population. The challenges we face to supply food, energy, and clean water while maintaining and improving the health of our population and ecosystems are significant. Given the extensive influence of microorganisms across our biosphere, we propose that a coordinated, cross-disciplinary effort is required to understand, predict, and harness microbiome function. From the parallelization of gene function testing to precision manipulation of genes, communities, and model ecosystems and development of novel analytical and simulation approaches, we outline strategies to move microbiome research into an era of causality. These efforts will improve prediction of ecosystem response and enable the development of new, responsible, microbiome-based solutions to significant challenges of our time. Copyright © 2016 Blaser et al.

  17. Toward a Predictive Understanding of Earth’s Microbiomes to Address 21st Century Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, Martin J.; Cardon, Zoe G.; Cho, Mildred K.; Dangl, Jeffrey L.; Green, Jessica L.; Knight, Rob; Maxon, Mary E.; Northen, Trent R.; Pollard, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microorganisms have shaped our planet and its inhabitants for over 3.5 billion years. Humankind has had a profound influence on the biosphere, manifested as global climate and land use changes, and extensive urbanization in response to a growing population. The challenges we face to supply food, energy, and clean water while maintaining and improving the health of our population and ecosystems are significant. Given the extensive influence of microorganisms across our biosphere, we propose that a coordinated, cross-disciplinary effort is required to understand, predict, and harness microbiome function. From the parallelization of gene function testing to precision manipulation of genes, communities, and model ecosystems and development of novel analytical and simulation approaches, we outline strategies to move microbiome research into an era of causality. These efforts will improve prediction of ecosystem response and enable the development of new, responsible, microbiome-based solutions to significant challenges of our time. PMID:27178263

  18. Toward a Predictive Understanding of Earth’s Microbiomes to Address 21st Century Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Blaser

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have shaped our planet and its inhabitants for over 3.5 billion years. Humankind has had a profound influence on the biosphere, manifested as global climate and land use changes, and extensive urbanization in response to a growing population. The challenges we face to supply food, energy, and clean water while maintaining and improving the health of our population and ecosystems are significant. Given the extensive influence of microorganisms across our biosphere, we propose that a coordinated, cross-disciplinary effort is required to understand, predict, and harness microbiome function. From the parallelization of gene function testing to precision manipulation of genes, communities, and model ecosystems and development of novel analytical and simulation approaches, we outline strategies to move microbiome research into an era of causality. These efforts will improve prediction of ecosystem response and enable the development of new, responsible, microbiome-based solutions to significant challenges of our time.

  19. New generation of Sour Service Drill Pipe allows addressing highly sour field challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Thomazic A.; Rodrigues R.; Thebault F.; Mauries S.; Flores V.; Lambet E.

    2013-01-01

    Drill pipes are commonly produced by assembling pipe and tool joints through friction welding. The weld, as a result of this process, presents some challenges for preserving corrosion resistance due to some metallurgical factors such as heterogeneous microstructure, different chemical compositions between the tool joint and the pipe body and heterogeneous mechanical properties close to the welded line. Hence a new drill pipe configuration have been developed including modified chemical compos...

  20. A DHS Skunkworks Project: Defining and Addressing Homeland Security Grand Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    million and one scotch and wine IOUs to Uncle Jay and Aunt Barb for their warm and endless hospitality . Finally, I would like to express my gratitude to...original inspiration for these challenges. To catalyze a new industry of space tourism , Diamandis launched the $10 million XPRIZE. Following high...that space tourism could be a reality beyond the pages of science fiction. It was through these lenses that Diamandis recognized the market failures of

  1. Addressing the challenge of community reentry among released inmates with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, Jacques; Hoge, Stephen K; Penn, Joseph V

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to discuss the formidable challenges to community reentry and reintegration faced by U.S. prison inmates with serious mental illness and to describe various strategies for improving transitional services for these individuals. We review epidemiologic data supporting the high prevalence of severe mental illness in U.S. prisons as well as the historical factors underlying the criminalization of the mentally ill. The importance and challenges of providing adequate psychiatric care for mentally ill prisoners during their incarceration are discussed. We also review the numerous psychosocial and economic challenges confronting these individuals upon their release from prison, such as unemployment and vulnerability to homelessness, as well as specific barriers they may encounter in attempting to access community-based mental health services. We follow with a discussion of some of the more promising strategies for improving the transition of the mentally ill from prison to the community. In the final sections, we review the evidence for a relationship between serious mental illness and recidivism and briefly discuss emerging alternatives to incarceration of the mentally ill.

  2. Understanding the Conceptual and Language Challenges Encountered by Grade 4 Students When Writing Scientific Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Lay Hoon

    2016-06-01

    This study is an attempt to examine the use of linguistic resources by primary science students so as to understand the conceptual and language demands encountered by them when constructing written explanations. The students' written explanations and the instructional language (whole-class discussion and textbook) employed over the topic, the life cycle of plants, in four grade 4 classrooms (age 10) taught by three teachers constitute the data for this study. Students' written explanations were subjected to a combination of content and linguistic analysis. The linguistic analysis was conducted using selected analytical tools from the systemic functional linguistics framework. A diversity of linguistic resources and meanings were identified from the students' explanations, which reveal the extent to which the students were able to employ linguistic resources to construct written scientific explanations and the challenges involved. Both content and linguistic analyses also illuminate patterns of language use that are significant for realising scientific meanings. Finally, a comparison is made in the use of linguistic resources between the students' explanations and the instructional language to highlight possible links. This comparison reveals that the teachers' expectations of the students' written explanations were seldom reflected in their oral questioning or made explicit during the instruction. The findings of this study suggest that a focus on conceptual development is not sufficient in itself to foster students' ability to construct explanations. Pedagogical implications involving the support needed by primary students to construct scientific explanations are discussed.

  3. The political and scientific challenges in evaluating compulsory drug treatment centers in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Thu; Nguyen, Nhu; Le, Giang; Shanahan, Marian; Ali, Robert; Ritter, Alison

    2017-01-11

    In Vietnam, like many countries in Southeast Asia, the commonly used approach of center-based compulsory drug treatment (CCT) has been criticized on human rights ground. Meanwhile, community-based voluntary methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been implemented for nearly a decade with promising results. Reform-minded leaders have been seeking empirical evidence of the costs and effectiveness associated with these two main treatment modalities. Conducting evaluations of these treatments, especially where randomization is not ethical, presents challenges. The aim of this paper is to discuss political challenges and methodological issues when conducting cost-effectiveness studies within the context of a non-democratic Southeast Asian country. A retrospective analysis of the political and scientific challenges that were experienced in the study design, sample size determination, government approval and ethics approvals, participant recruitment, data collection, and determination of sources, and quantification of cost and effectiveness data was undertaken. As a consequence of the non-randomized design, analysis of patient characteristics for both treatment types was undertaken to identify the magnitude of baseline group differences. Concordance between self-reported heroin use and urine drug testing was undertaken to determine the reliability of self-report data in a politically challenging environment. We demonstrate that conducting research around compulsory treatment in a non-democratic society is feasible, yet it is politically challenging and requires navigation between science and politics. We also demonstrate that engagement with the government decision makers in the research conception, implementation, and dissemination of the results increases the likelihood of research evidence being considered for change in a contentious drug policy area. Local empirical evidence on the comparative cost-effectiveness of CCT and MMT in a Southeast Asian setting is

  4. The fourth scientific conference 'Higher education and effective business management - challenges of sustainable regional development'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko R. Stopić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The First Scientific Conference 'Higher Education and effective business management- challenges of sustainable regional development' was held on 20-21 December, 2006, in Užice, Republic of Serbia. More than 90 papers were presented. The number of authors and coauthors was 150. The Second Scientific Conference 'Economy development and effective business management - challenges of sustainable regional development' - was held upon the initiative of the management of the High Business Technical School of Užice on the occasion of its 30th anniversary It was held on 21-22 January 2007, in Užice, Republic of Serbia. Eighty papers were presented at the Conference. The number of authors and coauthors was 140. After that, the management of the High Business Technical School of Užice decided, for the first time, to organize an International Conference. The first International Conference 'Science and Higher Education in Function of Sustainable Development'. SED 2008 was held on 17-18 September, 2008, in Užice, Serbia. Ninety papers were presented on the Conference. The number of authors and coauthors was 150. The second International Conference 'Science and Higher Education in Function of Sustainable Development'. SED 2009 was held on 14-15 September 2009, in Užice, Serbia. More than 80 papers were presented. The number of authors and co-authors exceeded 100.

  5. DOE Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Subcommittee (ASCAC) Report: Top Ten Exascale Research Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Robert [University of Southern California, Information Sciences Institute; Ang, James [Sandia National Laboratories; Bergman, Keren [Columbia University; Borkar, Shekhar [Intel; Carlson, William [Institute for Defense Analyses; Carrington, Laura [University of California, San Diego; Chiu, George [IBM; Colwell, Robert [DARPA; Dally, William [NVIDIA; Dongarra, Jack [University of Tennessee; Geist, Al [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Haring, Rud [IBM; Hittinger, Jeffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Hoisie, Adolfy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Klein, Dean Micron; Kogge, Peter [University of Notre Dame; Lethin, Richard [Reservoir Labs; Sarkar, Vivek [Rice University; Schreiber, Robert [Hewlett Packard; Shalf, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Sterling, Thomas [Indiana University; Stevens, Rick [Argonne National Laboratory; Bashor, Jon [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Brightwell, Ron [Sandia National Laboratories; Coteus, Paul [IBM; Debenedictus, Erik [Sandia National Laboratories; Hiller, Jon [Science and Technology Associates; Kim, K. H. [IBM; Langston, Harper [Reservoir Labs; Murphy, Richard Micron; Webster, Clayton [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Wild, Stefan [Argonne National Laboratory; Grider, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ross, Rob [Argonne National Laboratory; Leyffer, Sven [Argonne National Laboratory; Laros III, James [Sandia National Laboratories

    2014-02-10

    Exascale computing systems are essential for the scientific fields that will transform the 21st century global economy, including energy, biotechnology, nanotechnology, and materials science. Progress in these fields is predicated on the ability to perform advanced scientific and engineering simulations, and analyze the deluge of data. On July 29, 2013, ASCAC was charged by Patricia Dehmer, the Acting Director of the Office of Science, to assemble a subcommittee to provide advice on exascale computing. This subcommittee was directed to return a list of no more than ten technical approaches (hardware and software) that will enable the development of a system that achieves the Department's goals for exascale computing. Numerous reports over the past few years have documented the technical challenges and the non¬-viability of simply scaling existing computer designs to reach exascale. The technical challenges revolve around energy consumption, memory performance, resilience, extreme concurrency, and big data. Drawing from these reports and more recent experience, this ASCAC subcommittee has identified the top ten computing technology advancements that are critical to making a capable, economically viable, exascale system.

  6. Ethics issues in scientific data and service provision: evidence and challenges for the European Plate Observing System (EPOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Massimo; Freda, Carmela; Haslinger, Florian; Consortium, Epos

    2016-04-01

    Addressing Ethics issues is nowadays a relevant challenge for any initiative, program or project dealing with scientific data and products provision, access to services for scientific purposes and communication with different stakeholders, including society. This is corroborated by the evidence that Ethics has very high priority in EU funded research. Indeed, all the activities carried out under Horizon 2020 must comply with ethical principles and national, Union and international legislation. This implies that "For all activities funded by the European Union, Ethics is an integral part of research from beginning to end, and ethical compliance is seen as pivotal to achieve real research excellence." Here, we present the experience of EPOS, a public pan-European research infrastructure. EPOS aims at integrating data, data products, services and software (DDSS) for solid Earth science generated and provided by monitoring networks, observing systems and facilities belonging to European countries. EPOS fosters the integrated use of multidisciplinary solid Earth data to improve the understanding of physical and chemical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis as well as those driving tectonics and surface dynamics. The EPOS integration plan will make significant contributions to understanding and mitigating geo-hazards, yielding data for hazard assessment, data products for engaging different stakeholders, and services for training, education and communication to society. Numerous national research infrastructures engaged in EPOS are deployed for the monitoring of areas prone to geo-hazards and for the surveillance of the national territory including areas used for exploiting geo-resources. The EPOS community is therefore already trained to provide services to public (civil defence agencies, local and national authorities) and private (petroleum industry, mining industry, geothermal companies, aviation security) stakeholders. Our ability to

  7. On Discerning Critical Elements, Relationships and Shifts in Attaining Scientific Terms: The Challenge of Polysemy/Homonymy and Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromdahl, Helge R.

    2012-01-01

    Words with well-known meaning in colloquial language often make up an educational challenge when introduced as terms with formal scientific meaning. New connections must be established between the word, already constrained by existing meaning and reference, and the intended formal scientific meaning and reference. A two-dimensional…

  8. The questions of scientific literacy and the challenges for contemporary science teaching: An ecological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung

    This study began with questions about how science education can bring forth humanity and ethics to reflect increasing concerns about controversial issues of science and technology in contemporary society. Discussing and highlighting binary epistemological assumptions in science education, the study suggests embodied science learning with human subjectivity and integrity between knowledge and practice. The study questions (a) students' understandings of the relationships between STSE and their everyday lifeworld and (b) the challenges of cultivating scientific literacy through STSE teaching. In seeking to understand something about the pedagogical enactment of embodied scientific literacy that emphasizes the harmony of children's knowledges and their lifeworlds, this study employs a mindful pedagogy of hermeneutics. The intro- and intra-dialogical modes of hermeneutic understanding investigate the pedagogical relationship of parts (research texts of students, curriculum, and social milieu) and the whole (STSE teaching in contemporary time and place). The research was conducted with 86 Korean 6 graders at a public school in Seoul, Korea in 2003. Mixed methods were utilized for data collection including a survey questionnaire, a drawing activity, interviews, children's reflective writing, and classroom teaching and observation. The research findings suggest the challenges and possibilities of STSE teaching as follows: (a) children's separated knowledge from everyday practice and living, (b) children's conflicting ideas between ecological/ethical aspects and modernist values, (c) possibilities of embodied knowing in children's practice, and (d) teachers' pedagogical dilemmas in STSE teaching based on the researcher's experiences and reflection throughout teaching practice. As further discussion, this study suggests an ecological paradigm for science curriculum and teaching as a potential framework to cultivate participatory scientific literacy for citizenship in

  9. International conference on challenges faced by technical and scientific support organizations in enhancing nuclear safety. Contributed papers and presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the IAEA has conducted a series of major conferences that have addressed topical issues and strategies critical to nuclear safety for consideration by the world's nuclear regulators. More recently, the IAEA organized the International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems - Facing Safety and Security Challenges, held in Moscow in 2006. The Moscow conference was the first of its kind, because it brought together senior regulators of nuclear safety, radiation safety and security from around the world to discuss how to improve regulatory effectiveness with the objective of improving the protection of the public and the users of nuclear and radioactive material. The International Conference on Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety was held in Aix-en-Provence, France, from 23 to 27 April 2007. This conference, again, was the first of its kind, because it was the first to address technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs), the role they play in supporting either the national regulatory bodies or the industry in making optimum safety decisions and the challenges they face in providing this support. This conference provided a forum for the TSOs to discuss these and other issues with the organizations to which they provide this support - that is, the regulators and the operators/industry - as well as with other stakeholders such as research organizations and public authorities. This conference can also be considered to have a link to the Moscow conference. The Moscow conference concluded that effective regulation of nuclear safety is vital for the safe use of nuclear energy and associated technologies, both now and in the future, and is an essential prerequisite for establishing an effective Global Nuclear Safety Regime. The Moscow conference also highlighted the importance of continued and improved international cooperation in the area of nuclear safety. These

  10. Strategies to increase demand for maternal health services in resource-limited settings: challenges to be addressed.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Elmusharaf, Khalifa

    2015-09-01

    Universal health access will not be achieved unless women are cared for in their own communities and are empowered to take decisions about their own health in a supportive environment. This will only be achieved by community-based demand side interventions for maternal health access. In this review article, we highlight three common strategies to increase demand-side barriers to maternal healthcare access and identify the main challenges that still need to be addressed for these strategies to be effective.

  11. Addressing the urban pipeline challenge for the physician workforce: the Sophie Davis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Stanford A

    2004-12-01

    The convergence of numerous trends indicates that a physician shortage by 2020 is likely. There is a 25% growth in the overall population, but that of the college-age sector is increasing by only 5%. The numbers of African Americans and Latinos in that sector will increase more than will members of other population groups; these two groups are most affected by the uneven quality of science education in urban high schools. Challenges to create a pipeline of a large, diverse, and qualified pool of medical school applicants are great, and are influenced by the actual and perceived cost of medical school tuition and the competition from other professions. Since 1973, the Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, a seven-year joint BS/MD program, has expanded access to medical school education for talented inner-city youths, including minorities and those with limited financial resources. Students receive a BS degree and their first two years of medical school education and, upon successful completion of the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1, transfer to one of five cooperating medical schools in New York State that confer the terminal MD degree. Sophie Davis integrates medical studies in the baccalaureate program, using actual performance in medical studies as a predictor of success. Of the more than 1,400 of its graduates, 25% are African American, 8% are Latino, 28% are Asian American, and 39% are white. Over 25% of its current student body comes from federally defined low-income families, and almost three-quarters qualify for New York State financial aid. The Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education is a model that offers a partial response to those factors that will challenge the achievement of an adequate supply of physicians for our urban communities. The author describes the model in detail and explains how it helps talented but unevenly educated students rise to the challenge of a medical education.

  12. Addressing challenges in communicating adaptation practices to smallholder farmers in Kenya through a radio intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Nyawira Mwaniki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Farmers in Africa are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change due to their high dependency on climate-sensitive natural resources. Kenyan farmers are faced with limited public agricultural extension services, narrowing their sources of useful information including adaptive strategies that would help them cope with the impacts of climate change. Radio can be an effective extension tool with the ability to reach many farmers in their local language. This study investigated the potential of radio in influencing the utilization of climate change information by farmers in Kilifi County, located along the Kenyan coast. Education and communication about climate change was undertaken using radio to make available and understandable information to different social and cultural groups. This study revealed that radio can effectively complement other agricultural extension methods and has the potential to engage farmers on climate change issues and motivate them to take action, if appropriate approaches are used. Although very few farmers (33% reported to have listened to the programs, a high percentage (82% of those who did implemented the recommended strategies and technologies they heard. The major challenges reported by farmers to accessing the radio programs were lack of a radio and unsuitable program timing. An additional reported challenge was the inability to store or record the programs resulting in farmers relying on their own recollection when implementing strategies. Further research should explore the use of social learning approaches that encourage group rather than individual listenership (such as community listening clubs and community-based radio schools to overcome these challenges.

  13. Addressing challenges in single species assessments via a simple state-space assessment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders

    Single-species and age-structured fish stock assessments still remains the main tool for managing fish stocks. A simple state-space assessment model is presented as an alternative to (semi) deterministic procedures and the full parametric statistical catch at age models. It offers a solution...... to some of the key challenges of these models. Compared to the deterministic procedures it solves a list of problems originating from falsely assuming that age classified catches are known without errors and allows quantification of uncertainties of estimated quantities of interest. Compared to full...

  14. New generation of Sour Service Drill Pipe allows addressing highly sour field challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomazic A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Drill pipes are commonly produced by assembling pipe and tool joints through friction welding. The weld, as a result of this process, presents some challenges for preserving corrosion resistance due to some metallurgical factors such as heterogeneous microstructure, different chemical compositions between the tool joint and the pipe body and heterogeneous mechanical properties close to the welded line. Hence a new drill pipe configuration have been developed including modified chemical composition and modified manufacturing process. These modifications allow for the improvement of mechanical properties performance and corrosion resistance in the welded zone.

  15. Addressing the Challenges of Multi-touchpoint Experience Design for Mobile Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Xiangang; Law, Effie Lai-Chong; Clemmensen, Torkil

    The quality of user experience relies heavily on the consistence and integration of multiple touch points along the journey of purchasing and using mobile services. The challenges caused by fragmented and distributed touch points might be well tackled by providing context-awareness design (CAD......). By analyzing the context of using mobile music services we come up with a framework of CAD. CAD can sense the differences of contexts behind multiple touch points, understand the meaning underneath, predict upcoming possible actions, give advice to users and offer customized and adaptive services....

  16. Cancer Core Europe: a consortium to address the cancer care-cancer research continuum challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermont, Alexander M M; Caldas, Carlos; Ringborg, Ulrik; Medema, René; Tabernero, Josep; Wiestler, Otmar

    2014-11-01

    European cancer research for a transformative initiative by creating a consortium of six leading excellent comprehensive cancer centres that will work together to address the cancer care-cancer research continuum. Prerequisites for joint translational and clinical research programs are very demanding. These require the creation of a virtual single 'e-hospital' and a powerful translational platform, inter-compatible clinical molecular profiling laboratories with a robust underlying computational biology pipeline, standardised functional and molecular imaging, commonly agreed Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for liquid and tissue biopsy procurement, storage and processing, for molecular diagnostics, 'omics', functional genetics, immune-monitoring and other assessments. Importantly also it requires a culture of data collection and data storage that provides complete longitudinal data sets to allow for: effective data sharing and common database building, and to achieve a level of completeness of data that is required for conducting outcome research, taking into account our current understanding of cancers as communities of evolving clones. Cutting edge basic research and technology development serve as an important driving force for innovative translational and clinical studies. Given the excellent track records of the six participants in these areas, Cancer Core Europe will be able to support the full spectrum of research required to address the cancer research- cancer care continuum. Cancer Core Europe also constitutes a unique environment to train the next generation of talents in innovative translational and clinical oncology. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Strategies to increase demand for maternal health services in resource-limited settings: challenges to be addressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmusharaf, Khalifa; Byrne, Elaine; O'Donovan, Diarmuid

    2015-09-08

    Universal health access will not be achieved unless women are cared for in their own communities and are empowered to take decisions about their own health in a supportive environment. This will only be achieved by community-based demand side interventions for maternal health access. In this review article, we highlight three common strategies to increase demand-side barriers to maternal healthcare access and identify the main challenges that still need to be addressed for these strategies to be effective. Common demand side strategies can be grouped into three categories:(i) Financial incentives/subsidies; (ii) Enhancing patient transfer, and; (iii) Community involvement. The main challenges in assessing the effectiveness or efficacy of these interventions or strategies are the lack of quality evidence on their outcome and impact and interventions not integrated into existing health or community systems. However, what is highlighted in this review and overlooked in most of the published literature on this topic is the lack of knowledge about the context in which these strategies are to be implemented. We suggest three challenges that need to be addressed to create a supportive environment in which these demand-side strategies can effectively improve access to maternal health services. These include: addressing decision-making norms, engaging in intergenerational dialogue, and designing contextually appropriate communication strategies.

  18. Addressing current challenges in cancer immunotherapy with mathematical and computational modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstorum, Anna; Vella, Anthony T; Adler, Adam J; Laubenbacher, Reinhard C

    2017-06-01

    The goal of cancer immunotherapy is to boost a patient's immune response to a tumour. Yet, the design of an effective immunotherapy is complicated by various factors, including a potentially immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment, immune-modulating effects of conventional treatments and therapy-related toxicities. These complexities can be incorporated into mathematical and computational models of cancer immunotherapy that can then be used to aid in rational therapy design. In this review, we survey modelling approaches under the umbrella of the major challenges facing immunotherapy development, which encompass tumour classification, optimal treatment scheduling and combination therapy design. Although overlapping, each challenge has presented unique opportunities for modellers to make contributions using analytical and numerical analysis of model outcomes, as well as optimization algorithms. We discuss several examples of models that have grown in complexity as more biological information has become available, showcasing how model development is a dynamic process interlinked with the rapid advances in tumour-immune biology. We conclude the review with recommendations for modellers both with respect to methodology and biological direction that might help keep modellers at the forefront of cancer immunotherapy development. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Strategies for Integrated Analysis of Genetic, Epigenetic, and Gene Expression Variation in Cancer: Addressing the Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Louise Bruun; Andersen, Lars; Makalic, Enes

    2016-01-01

    The development and progression of cancer, a collection of diseases with complex genetic architectures, is facilitated by the interplay of multiple etiological factors. This complexity challenges the traditional single-platform study design and calls for an integrated approach to data analysis. H......—making the assessment of disease risk against a composite genomic factor possible. The focus of this review is to provide an overview and introduction to the main strategies and to discuss where there is a need for further development.......The development and progression of cancer, a collection of diseases with complex genetic architectures, is facilitated by the interplay of multiple etiological factors. This complexity challenges the traditional single-platform study design and calls for an integrated approach to data analysis....... However, integration of heterogeneous measurements of biological variation is a non-trivial exercise due to the diversity of the human genome and the variety of output data formats and genome coverage obtained from the commonly used molecular platforms. This review article will provide an introduction...

  20. Scientific Drilling in the Arctic Ocean: A challenge for the next decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.; Coakley, B.

    2009-04-01

    Nansen Arctic Drilling Program as well as by sponsorships from British Petroleum, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil, Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, StatoilHydro, and Shell International. The major targets of the workshop were: (1) to bring together an international group of Arctic scientists, young scientists and ocean drilling scientists to learn and exchange ideas, experience and enthusiasm about the Arctic Ocean; (2) to develop a scientific drilling strategy to investigate the tectonic and paleoceanographic history of the Arctic Ocean and its role in influencing the global climate system; (3) to summarize the technical needs, opportunities, and limitations of drilling in the Arctic; (4) to define scientific and drilling targets for specific IODP-type campaigns in Arctic Ocean key areas to be finalized in the development of drilling proposals. Following overview presentations about the history of the Arctic Ocean, legacy of high-latitude ocean drilling, existing site-survey database, technical needs for high-latitude drilling, possibilities of collaboration with industry, and the process of developing ocean-drilling legs through IODP, the main part of the workshop was spent in thematic and regional break-out groups discussing the particular questions to be addressed by drilling and the particular targets for Arctic scientific drilling. Within the working groups, key scientific questions (related to the overall themes paleoceanography, tectonic evolution, petrology/geochemistry of basement, and gas hydrates) and strategies for reaching the overall goals were discussed and - as one of the main results - core groups for further developing drilling proposals were formed. Based on discussions at this workshop, approximately ten new pre-proposals are planned to be submitted to IODP for the April 01- 2009 deadline. We hope that the development of new scientific objectives through the pre-proposal process will help reshape plans for scientific ocean drilling beyond 2013 and direct

  1. Addressing water challenges on the North China Plain with hydroeconomic optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Grith; Davidsen, Claus; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    With its diverse environment and large population, China is facing water resource challenges, both in terms of quantity and quality. The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the world’s most densely populated areas and one of the highly water stressed regions of China. It counts for 15% of the Chinese...... GDP, from both industry and agriculture. The high water demand for especially irrigation has caused decade long groundwater depletion, ecosystem deterioration and high pollution loads in the region. To alleviate the water crisis of Northern China the South-North Water Transfer Project has been....... This enables the representation of links and interactions between the water resources system and the power system of Northern China. The multi-reservoir LP model is formulated as a flow path based optimization, which tracks each water delivery from supplier to receiver. This is useful for the exploration...

  2. Replicating a self-affirmation intervention to address gender differences: Successes and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost-Smith, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Ito, Tiffany A.; Miyake, Akira

    2012-02-01

    We previously reported on the success of a psychological intervention implemented to reduce gender differences in achievement in an introductory college physics course. In this prior study, we found that the gender gap on exams and the FMCE among students who completed two 15-minute self-affirmation writing exercises was significantly reduced compared to the gender gap among students who completed neutral writing exercises. In a follow-up study we replicated the self-affirmation intervention in a later semester of the same course, with the same instructor. In this paper, we report the details and preliminary results of the replication study, where we find similar patterns along exams and course grades, but do not observe these patterns along the FMCE. We begin to investigate the critical features of replicating educational interventions, finding that replicating educational interventions is challenging, complex, and involves potentially subtle factors, some of which we explore and others that require further research.

  3. Addressing HIV/AIDS challenges in Uganda: does social capital generation by NGOs matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriisa, Roberts Kabeba; Jamil, Ishtiaq

    2011-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has had devastating impacts in many countries, Uganda in particular. However, Uganda is depicted as one of the most successful countries in fighting HIV/AIDS. Among others, Uganda's success story is attributed to the open general environment which allows open discussions surrounding HIV/AIDS when other countries such as South Africa and Kenya denied the existence of the disease in their countries. In addition, the success is attributed to the policy which allowed many actors to participate in the fight against the disease. The primary focus of this article is to map the process of social capital generation by NGOs and how social capital benefits enhance mitigation of HIV/AIDS challenges in Uganda. The key to social capital is nurturing relationships. In this regard, HIV/AIDS NGOs play a central role in the way individuals, groups and communities interact, and how various kinds of social relations are forged with people living with HIV/AIDS and especially for those who are HIV infected. NGOs' success in reducing the number of HIV/AIDS cases in Uganda is based on their abilities to generate social capital. This involves inclusion and building social networks and empowerment at the individual and community levels, and disseminating information to reduce social stigma as well as discrimination. We used a mixed-method strategy to collect data for this study. We used a structured questionnaire having quantitative and qualitative question sets which focused on different social capital measurement indicators. We used observations and in-depth face-to-face interviews. A major finding of the study is that the ways individuals and groups are connected and interact with each other are important mechanisms for alleviating HIV/AIDS challenges in Uganda.

  4. Are we ready to accept the challenge? Addressing the shortcomings of contemporary qualitative health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Sofie Rosenlund; Traulsen, Janine M

    Qualitative approaches represent an important contributor to health care research. However, several researchers argue that contemporary qualitative research does not live up to its full potential. By presenting a snapshot of contemporary qualitative research in the field of social and administrative pharmacy, this study challenges contributors to the field by asking: Are we ready to accept the challenge and take qualitative research one step further? The purpose of this study was to initiate a constructive dialogue on the need for increased transparency in qualitative data analysis, including explicitly reflecting upon theoretical perspectives affecting the research process. Content analysis was used to evaluate levels of theoretical visibility and analysis transparency in selected qualitative research articles published in Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy between January 2014 and January 2015. In 14 out of 21 assessed papers, the use of theory was found to be Seemingly Absent (lowest level of theory use), and the data analyses did not include any interpretive endeavors. Only two papers consistently applied theory throughout the entire study and clearly took the data analyses from a descriptive to an interpretive level. It was found that the aim of the majority of assessed papers was to change or modify a given practice, which however, resulted in a lack of both theoretical underpinnings and analysis transparency. This study takes the standpoint that theory and high-quality analysis go hand-in-hand. Based on the content analysis, articles that were deemed to be high in quality were explicit about the theoretical framework of their study and transparent in how they analyzed their data. It was found that theory contributed to the transparency of how the data were analyzed and interpreted. Two ways of improving contemporary qualitative research in the field of social and administrative pharmacy are discussed: engaging with social theory and establishing

  5. Implementing Peer Learning in Clinical Education: A Framework to Address Challenges In the "Real World".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Joanna Hong Meng; Canny, Benedict J; Haines, Terry P; Molloy, Elizabeth K

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: Peer learning has many benefits and can assist students in gaining the educational skills required in future years when they become teachers themselves. Peer learning may be particularly useful in clinical learning environments, where students report feeling marginalized, overwhelmed, and unsupported. Educational interventions often fail in the workplace environment, as they are often conceived in the "ideal" rather than the complex, messy real world. This work sought to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing peer learning activities in a clinical curriculum. Previous peer learning research results and a matrix of empirically derived peer learning activities were presented to local clinical education experts to generate discussion around the realities of implementing such activities. Potential barriers and limitations of and strategies for implementing peer learning in clinical education were the focus of the individual interviews. Thematic analysis of the data identified three key considerations for real-world implementation of peer learning: culture, epistemic authority, and the primacy of patient-centered care. Strategies for peer learning implementation were also developed from themes within the data, focusing on developing a culture of safety in which peer learning could be undertaken, engaging both educators and students, and establishing expectations for the use of peer learning. Insights: This study identified considerations and strategies for the implementation of peer learning activities, which took into account both educator and student roles. Reported challenges were reflective of those identified within the literature. The resultant framework may aid others in anticipating implementation challenges. Further work is required to test the framework's application in other contexts and its effect on learner outcomes.

  6. submitter CERN openlab white paper on future ICT challenges in scientific research

    CERN Document Server

    Di Meglio, Alberto; Purcell, Andrew; Rademakers, Fons

    Throughout its 16-year history, CERN openlab has worked to develop and test new ICT technologies and techniques that help to make the ground-breaking physics discoveries at CERN possible. CERN openlab runs in three-year phases, with around 20 projects — addressing a wide range of IT topics — being run in its current, fifth phase. With CERN openlab’s sixth three-year phase set to begin at the start of 2018, work has been carried out throughout the first half of 2017 to identify key areas for future collaboration. A series of workshops and discussions was held to discuss the ICT challenges faced by the LHC research community — and other ‘big science’ projects over the coming years. This white paper is the culmination of these investigations, and sets out specific challenges that are ripe for tackling through collaborative R&D; projects.

  7. Customizing NASA's Earth Science Research Products for addressing MENA Water Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    As projected by IPCC 2007 report, by the end of this century the Middle East North Mrica (MENA) region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C rise in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation. This poses a serious problem for this geographic zone especially when majority of the hydrological consumption is for the agriculture sector and the remaining amount is for domestic consumption. In late 2011, the World Bank, USAID and NASA have joined hands to establishing integrated, modem, up to date NASA developed capabilities for various countries in the MENA region for addressing water resource issues and adapting to climate change impacts for improved decision making for societal benefits. The main focus of this undertaking is to address the most pressing societal issues which can be modeled and solved by utilizing NASA Earth Science remote sensing data products and hydrological models. The remote sensing data from space is one of the best ways to study such complex issues and further feed into the decision support systems. NASA's fleet of Earth Observing satellites offer a great vantage point from space to look at the globe and provide vital signs necessary to maintain healthy and sustainable ecosystem. NASA has over fifteen satellites and thirty instruments operating on these space borne platforms and generating over 2000 different science products on a daily basis. Some of these products are soil moisture, global precipitation, aerosols, cloud cover, normalized difference vegetation index, land cover/use, ocean altimetry, ocean salinity, sea surface winds, sea surface temperature, ozone and atmospheric gasses, ice and snow measurements, and many more. All of the data products, models and research results are distributed via the Internet freely through out the world. This project will utilize several NASA models such as global Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) to generate hydrological states and fluxes in near real time. These LDAS products

  8. Addressing challenges in the production and analysis of illumina sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Martin; Heyn, Patricia; Kelso, Janet

    2011-07-29

    Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to generate large amounts of sequence data very rapidly and at substantially lower cost than capillary sequencing. These new technologies have specific characteristics and limitations that require either consideration during project design, or which must be addressed during data analysis. Specialist skills, both at the laboratory and the computational stages of project design and analysis, are crucial to the generation of high quality data from these new platforms. The Illumina sequencers (including the Genome Analyzers I/II/IIe/IIx and the new HiScan and HiSeq) represent a widely used platform providing parallel readout of several hundred million immobilized sequences using fluorescent-dye reversible-terminator chemistry. Sequencing library quality, sample handling, instrument settings and sequencing chemistry have a strong impact on sequencing run quality. The presence of adapter chimeras and adapter sequences at the end of short-insert molecules, as well as increased error rates and short read lengths complicate many computational analyses. We discuss here some of the factors that influence the frequency and severity of these problems and provide solutions for circumventing these. Further, we present a set of general principles for good analysis practice that enable problems with sequencing runs to be identified and dealt with.

  9. Addressing challenges in the production and analysis of illumina sequencing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelso Janet

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to generate large amounts of sequence data very rapidly and at substantially lower cost than capillary sequencing. These new technologies have specific characteristics and limitations that require either consideration during project design, or which must be addressed during data analysis. Specialist skills, both at the laboratory and the computational stages of project design and analysis, are crucial to the generation of high quality data from these new platforms. The Illumina sequencers (including the Genome Analyzers I/II/IIe/IIx and the new HiScan and HiSeq represent a widely used platform providing parallel readout of several hundred million immobilized sequences using fluorescent-dye reversible-terminator chemistry. Sequencing library quality, sample handling, instrument settings and sequencing chemistry have a strong impact on sequencing run quality. The presence of adapter chimeras and adapter sequences at the end of short-insert molecules, as well as increased error rates and short read lengths complicate many computational analyses. We discuss here some of the factors that influence the frequency and severity of these problems and provide solutions for circumventing these. Further, we present a set of general principles for good analysis practice that enable problems with sequencing runs to be identified and dealt with.

  10. PM₂.₅ opened a door to public participation addressing environmental challenges in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ganlin

    2015-02-01

    China has long been regarded as a centralized society where the public has little influence on decision-making. Such a top-down management scheme is perceived as a major obstacle to address complicated environment issues. The recent public campaign in China to urge creation of a nationwide PM₂.₅ monitoring network and mitigation plan provides an unprecedented case of how the public participated and influenced policy-making in a centralized society. This paper reviews key incidents in the campaign chronologically. Here we identify information technology, public awareness of air quality's health impacts and the fact air quality affects everyone as public goods as the major factors promoting public participation. This case demonstrates that public participation can happen in a centralized, top-down society such as China. Continued environmental deterioration may stimulate similar campaigns for other issues. We anticipate this essay to be a starting point for more studies on how environmental issues stimulate incremental social change by making people involved in decision-making process, especially in societies where they are rarely able to do so. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Medical mycology and fungal immunology: new research perspectives addressing a major world health challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Neil A R; Netea, Mihai G

    2016-12-05

    Fungi cause more than a billion skin infections, more than 100 million mucosal infections, 10 million serious allergies and more than a million deaths each year. Global mortality owing to fungal infections is greater than for malaria and breast cancer and is equivalent to that owing to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. These statistics evidence fungal infections as a major threat to human health and a major burden to healthcare budgets worldwide. Those patients who are at greatest risk of life-threatening fungal infections include those who have weakened immunity or have suffered trauma or other predisposing infections such as HIV. To address these global threats to human health, more research is urgently needed to understand the immunopathology of fungal disease and human disease susceptibility in order to augment the advances being made in fungal diagnostics and drug development. Here, we highlight some recent advances in basic research in medical mycology and fungal immunology that are beginning to inform clinical decisions and options for personalized medicine, vaccine development and adjunct immunotherapies.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Authors.

  12. Addressing the social determinants of health at the local level: Opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, E; Helgesen, M K; Hagen, S; Torp, S

    2018-02-01

    The gradient in health inequalities reflects a relationship between health and social circumstance, demonstrating that health worsens as you move down the socio-economic scale. For more than a decade, the Norwegian National government has developed policies to reduce social inequalities in health by levelling the social gradient. The adoption of the Public Health Act in 2012 was a further movement towards a comprehensive policy. The main aim of the act is to reduce social health inequalities by adopting a Health in All Policies approach. The municipalities are regarded key in the implementation of the act. The SODEMIFA project aimed to study the development of the new public health policy, with a particular emphasis on its implementation in municipalities. In the SODEMIFA project, a mixed-methods approach was applied, and the data consisted of surveys as well as qualitative interviews. The informants were policymakers at the national and local level. Our findings indicate that the municipalities had a rather vague understanding of the concept of health inequalities, and even more so, the concept of the social gradient in health. The most common understanding was that policy to reduce social inequalities concerned disadvantaged groups. Accordingly, policies and measures would be directed at these groups, rather than addressing the social gradient. A movement towards an increased understanding and adoption of the new, comprehensive public health policy was observed. However, to continue this process, both local and national levels must stay committed to the principles of the act.

  13. Nuclear Energy's Role in the 21. Century: Addressing the Challenge of Financing. Conference Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, Rakan; Borovas, George; Burkart, Alex; Gorn, Janet; Cho, Carl; Duncan, Aleshia; ); Gadomski, Chris; Ha, Jaejoo; ); Keppler, Jan Horst; ); Kuchinov, Vladimir; Lipman, Dan; Mathieson, John; McGinnis, Ed; Murphy, Paul; Mussler, Robert; Paillere, Henri; ); Reilly, Fiona; Sadayasu, Motomitsu; Schapiro, Regine; Shropshire, David; ); Duncan, Aleshia; Kmiec, Weronika; Grosch, Gisela; Lundell, Charlotta; Pham Van, Andree; Vuillaume; Allen Hamilton, Booz; Barkatullah, Nadira; Rollat, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    In May 2016, the International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation (IFNEC) held a conference in cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) on 'Nuclear Energy's Role in the 21. Century: Addressing the Challenge of Financing'. This conference brought together over 150 stakeholders from more than 30 countries, including government representatives and members of the nuclear and finance communities, as well as experts from the NEA and the OECD. Conference participants discussed the primary challenges faced by the markets, including how to secure financing for new nuclear projects, as well as approaches and solutions to such challenges. Through multiple expert presentations, moderated sessions and scenario discussions, participants acquired a better understanding of the unique challenges, approaches and techniques involved in financing new nuclear power plants. Throughout the conference, experts set the stage to understand why financing new NPPs is so difficult and complex. The following are the key challenges identified through discussions: - unstable electricity prices in a liberalized market; - electricity market designs that do not provide investment signals for low-carbon technologies; - insufficient carbon pricing to promote nuclear investments; - explicit governmental support for renewables; - uncertain and changing political support; - poor social and political perception of safety; - historical new nuclear project budget and schedule overruns; - long-term nature of capital investments. Final recommendations for consideration Conclusions were reached through discussions and debate on how to best address the aforementioned challenges. Although not all of these challenges can be resolved, there are methods to address the risks involved and to build the confidence necessary for investment. The key recommendations from the conference for financing new NPPs include: - conduct electricity market reform to level the playing field across all

  14. Vision for cross-layer optimization to address the dual challenges of energy and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Heather M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dehon, Andre [U. PENN; Carter, Nicholas P [INTEL

    2009-01-01

    We are rapidly approaching an inflection point where the conventional target of producing perfect, identical transistors that operate without upset can no longer be maintained while continuing to reduce the energy per operation. With power requirements already limiting chip performance, continuing to demand perfect, upset-free transistors would mean the end of scaling benefits. The big challenges in device variability and reliability are driven by uncommon tails in distributions, infrequent upsets, one-size-fits-all technology requirements, and a lack of information about the context of each operation. Solutions co-designed across traditional layer boundaries in our system stack can change the game, allowing architecture and software (a) to compensate for uncommon variation, environments, and events, (b) to pass down invariants and requirements for the computation, and (c) to monitor the health of collections of deVices. Cross-layer codesign provides a path to continue extracting benefits from further scaled technologies despite the fact that they may be less predictable and more variable. While some limited multi-layer mitigation strategies do exist, to move forward redefining traditional layer abstractions and developing a framework that facilitates cross-layer collaboration is necessary.

  15. Strategies for integrated analysis of genetic, epigenetic and gene expression variation in cancer: addressing the challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Bruun Thingholm

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development and progression of cancer, a collection of diseases with complex genetic architectures, is facilitated by the interplay of multiple etiological factors. This complexity challenges the traditional single-platform study design and calls for an integrated approach to data analysis. However, integration of heterogeneous measurements of biological variation is a non-trivial exercise due to the diversity of the human genome and the variety of output data formats and genome coverage obtained from the commonly used molecular platforms. This review article will provide an introduction to integration strategies used for analyzing genetic risk factors for cancer. We critically examine the ability of these strategies to handle the complexity of the human genome and also accommodate information about the biological and functional interactions between the elements that have been measured – making the assessment of disease risk against a composite genomic factor possible. The focus of this review is to provide an overview and introduction to the main strategies and to discuss where there is a need for further development.

  16. Pedagogy in Speaking: Challenges Addressed by Teacher-Student in the ESL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kawser Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Teaching speaking is perhaps one of the major challenges for teachers teaching in English as a Second Language (ESL classroom environment. Like writing, speaking is not linear and easy approach to ensure the best utilization among learners.  Since speaking is a real life event and face to face conversation, it needs more sophisticated care, practice oriented session for the students and effective means to implement it in the ESL situation. Even language experts often grope to outline effective and mediocre way to help learners have a good understanding in speaking.  This paper attempts to delineate the focal points where teachers and students face problems in teaching and learning speaking. It immensely chalks out with methodological study, qualitative data analysis and the underlining factors ESL teachers face enormously in the pedagogy of speaking for second language learners. My paper will outline the pedagogical tenets of speaking in the realistic non-native set ups and diagnose the impediments faced by learners when they are supposed to speak and by teachers when they teach speaking for their students.

  17. The Challenges Facing the Multilateral Trading System in Addressing Global Public Policy Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bellmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite a record-breaking 14.5 per cent increase in world merchandise exports, the effects of the financial crisis and global recession are still hampering faster economic recovery. Relatively high oil prices combined with persistent unemployment and measures designed to reduce budget deficits have undermined short-term growth prospects. While South–South trade continues to explode, trade imbalances – i.e. the gap between exports and imports – widened in 2010 compared to 2009 (though smaller than pre-crisis levels. Meanwhile, trade negotiations under the Doha Round have reached an impasse, generating uncertainties about the future of the World Trade Organization (WTO as a negotiating forum. Under these circumstances, should the system rethink its decision-making process founded upon the predominance of member states, the principle of consensus and the notion of single undertaking, as some critics have suggested? And, if so, how could such a reform agenda be initiated at the WTO? Moreover, beyond the negotiating function of the WTO, the paralysis of the system also raises urgent questions about the ability of the system to respond to pressing challenges of our times, such as trade and climate change, or food security and price volatility.

  18. Technical Reference Suite Addressing Challenges of Providing Assurance for Fault Management Architectural Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Rhonda; Whitman, Gerek

    2016-01-01

    Research into complexities of software systems Fault Management (FM) and how architectural design decisions affect safety, preservation of assets, and maintenance of desired system functionality has coalesced into a technical reference (TR) suite that advances the provision of safety and mission assurance. The NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) Program, with Software Assurance Research Program support, extracted FM architectures across the IV&V portfolio to evaluate robustness, assess visibility for validation and test, and define software assurance methods applied to the architectures and designs. This investigation spanned IV&V projects with seven different primary developers, a wide range of sizes and complexities, and encompassed Deep Space Robotic, Human Spaceflight, and Earth Orbiter mission FM architectures. The initiative continues with an expansion of the TR suite to include Launch Vehicles, adding the benefit of investigating differences intrinsic to model-based FM architectures and insight into complexities of FM within an Agile software development environment, in order to improve awareness of how nontraditional processes affect FM architectural design and system health management. The identification of particular FM architectures, visibility, and associated IV&V techniques provides a TR suite that enables greater assurance that critical software systems will adequately protect against faults and respond to adverse conditions. Additionally, the role FM has with regard to strengthened security requirements, with potential to advance overall asset protection of flight software systems, is being addressed with the development of an adverse conditions database encompassing flight software vulnerabilities. Capitalizing on the established framework, this TR suite provides assurance capability for a variety of FM architectures and varied development approaches. Research results are being disseminated across NASA, other agencies, and the

  19. Implementing the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive: Scientific challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Alice; Borja, Angel; Solidoro, Cosimo; Grégoire, Marilaure

    2015-10-01

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD; EC, 2008) is an ambitious European policy instrument that aims to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) in the 5,720,000 km2 of European seas by 2020, using an Ecosystem Approach. GES is to be assessed using 11 descriptors and up to 56 indicators (European Commission, 2010), and the goal is for clean, healthy and productive seas that are the basis for marine-based development, known as Blue-Growth. The MSFD is one of many policy instruments, such as the Water Framework Directive, the Common Fisheries Policy and the Habitats Directive that, together, should result in "Healthy Oceans and Productive Ecosystems - HOPE". Researchers working together with stakeholders such as the Member States environmental agencies, the European Environmental Agency, and the Regional Sea Conventions, are to provide the scientific knowledge basis for the implementation of the MSFD. This represents both a fascinating challenge and a stimulating opportunity.

  20. UHR-Q-TOF Analysis Can Address Common Challenges in Targeted and Untargeted Metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, G.; Krug, D.; Muller, R.; Barsch, A.

    2011-01-01

    Here, we present an ESI-UHR-Q-TOF based analysis of myxobacterial secondary metabolites, which permits to solve several challenges frequently encountered in metabolite profiling studies. Myxobacteria are promising producers of natural products exhibiting potent biological activities, and several myxobacterial metabolites are currently under investigation as potential leads for novel drugs. However, the myxobacteria are also a striking example for the divergence between the genetic capacity for the production of secondary metabolites and the number of compounds that could be characterised to date. Wild type and mutant strains were analyzed concerning the production patterns of known metabolites and with regard to the discovery of new metabolites. Sample throughput: Since mass accuracy and resolution of TOF instruments are independent of the acquisition rate, they are perfectly suited for a coupling to UHPLC separations. These hyphenations enable a reduction of analysis time in combination with a high chromatographic resolution and therefore permit an increased sample throughput. The UHR-TOF analysis revealed that an acquisition rate of up to 20Hz did not compromise the achieved mass accuracy or resolution. Targeted and untargeted metabolite profiling: Acquisition of full scan accurate mass spectra enable the targeted screening for known compounds e.g. from the class of DKxanthenes based on very selective high resolution EIC (hrEIC) traces with small mass windows of 1.0–0.5mDa. A comparison of several datasets following a “comprehensive feature extraction” combined with a statistical analysis permits an untargeted discovery of novel biomarkers using the same data files as for the targeted analysis. Identification: Even a mass accuracy of 0.1ppm is not sufficient for an unambiguous formula identification for m/z values above 500. A combination of accurate mass data and isotopic pattern information in MS and MS/MS spectra can extend this m/z range for reliable

  1. Challenging the reported disadvantages of e-questionnaires and addressing methodological issues of online data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Louise

    2012-01-01

    To review the advantages and disadvantages of e-questionnaires, and question whether or not reported disadvantages remain valid or can be limited or circumvented. The internet is likely to become the dominant medium for survey distribution, yet nurses and midwives have been slow to use online technology for research involving questionnaires. Relatively little is known about optimal methods of harnessing the internet's potential in health studies. A small e-questionnaire of health workers. The Medline and Maternity and Infant Care databases were searched for articles containing the words 'web', 'online', or 'internet' and 'survey' or 'questionnaire'. The search was restricted to articles in English published since 2000. The reference lists of retrieved articles were also searched. Reported disadvantages of online data collection, such as sample bias, psychometric distortions, 'technophobia' and lower response rates are discussed and challenged. The author reports her experience of conducting a survey with an e-questionnaire to contribute to the limited body of knowledge in this area, and suggests how to maximise the quantity and quality of responses to e-questionnaires. E-questionnaires offer the researcher an inexpensive, quick and convenient way to collect data. Many of the reported disadvantages of the medium are no longer valid. The science of conducting the perfect e-survey is emerging. However, the lessons learned in the author's study, together with other research, seem to suggest that satisfactory response rates and data quality can be achieved in a relatively short time if certain tactics are used. To get the best results from e-questionnaires, it is suggested that the questionnaire recipients should be targeted carefully and that the value of their potential contribution to the project should be emphasised. E-questionnaires should be convenient, quick and easy to access, and be set out in a way that encourages full and complete responses.

  2. Challenges and Opportunities for Tribal Waters: Addressing Disparities in Safe Public Drinking Water on the Crow Reservation in Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John T; Kindness, Larry; Realbird, James; Eggers, Margaret J; Camper, Anne K

    2018-03-21

    Disparities in access to safe public drinking water are increasingly being recognized as contributing to health disparities and environmental injustice for vulnerable communities in the United States. As the Co-Directors of the Apsaálooke Water and Wastewater Authority (AWWWA) for the Crow Tribe, with our academic partners, we present here the multiple and complex challenges we have addressed in improving and maintaining tribal water and wastewater infrastructure, including the identification of diverse funding sources for infrastructure construction, the need for many kinds of specialized expertise and long-term stability of project personnel, ratepayer difficulty in paying for services, an ongoing legacy of inadequate infrastructure planning, and lack of water quality research capacity. As a tribal entity, the AWWWA faces additional challenges, including the complex jurisdictional issues affecting all phases of our work, lack of authority to create water districts, and additional legal and regulatory gaps-especially with regards to environmental protection. Despite these obstacles, the AWWWA and Crow Tribe have successfully upgraded much of the local water and wastewater infrastructure. We find that ensuring safe public drinking water for tribal and other disadvantaged U.S. communities will require comprehensive, community-engaged approaches across a broad range of stakeholders to successfully address these complex legal, regulatory, policy, community capacity, and financial challenges.

  3. Science and Theatre Education: A Cross-disciplinary Approach of Scientific Ideas Addressed to Student Teachers of Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tselfes, Vasilis; Paroussi, Antigoni

    2009-09-01

    There is, in Greece, an ongoing attempt to breach the boundaries established between the different teaching-learning subjects of compulsory education. In this context, we are interested in exploring to what degree the teaching and learning of ideas from the sciences’ “internal life” (Hacking, in: Pickering (ed) Science as practice and culture, 1992) benefits from creatively coming into contact with theatrical education as part of the corresponding curriculum subject. To this end, 57 students of the Early Childhood Education Department of the University of Athens were called to study extracts from Galileo’s Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, Ptolemaic and Copernican, to focus on a subject that the Dialogue’s “interlocutors” forcefully disagree about and to theatrically represent (using shadow theatre techniques) what they considered as being the central idea of this clash of opinions. The results indicate that this attempt leads to a satisfactory understanding of ideas relating to the content and methodology of the natural sciences. At the same time, theatrical education avails itself of the representation of scientific ideas and avoids the clichés and hackneyed techniques that the (often) simplistic choices available in the educational context of early childhood education tend towards. The basic reasons for both facets of this success are: (a) Genuine scientific texts force the students to approach them with seriousness, and all the more so if these recount the manner in which scientific ideas are produced and are embedded in the historical and social context of the age that created them; (b) The theatrical framework, which essentially guides the students’ activities, allows (if not obliges) them to approach scientific issues creatively; in other words, it allows them to create something related to science and recognize it as theirs; and, (c) Both the narrative texts describing processes of “science making” (Bruner, J Sci Educ

  4. Addressing the challenges of standalone multi-core simulations in molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaya, R. O.; Terblans, J. J.

    2017-07-01

    Computational modelling in material science involves mathematical abstractions of force fields between particles with the aim to postulate, develop and understand materials by simulation. The aggregated pairwise interactions of the material's particles lead to a deduction of its macroscopic behaviours. For practically meaningful macroscopic scales, a large amount of data are generated, leading to vast execution times. Simulation times of hours, days or weeks for moderately sized problems are not uncommon. The reduction of simulation times, improved result accuracy and the associated software and hardware engineering challenges are the main motivations for many of the ongoing researches in the computational sciences. This contribution is concerned mainly with simulations that can be done on a "standalone" computer based on Message Passing Interfaces (MPI), parallel code running on hardware platforms with wide specifications, such as single/multi- processor, multi-core machines with minimal reconfiguration for upward scaling of computational power. The widely available, documented and standardized MPI library provides this functionality through the MPI_Comm_size (), MPI_Comm_rank () and MPI_Reduce () functions. A survey of the literature shows that relatively little is written with respect to the efficient extraction of the inherent computational power in a cluster. In this work, we discuss the main avenues available to tap into this extra power without compromising computational accuracy. We also present methods to overcome the high inertia encountered in single-node-based computational molecular dynamics. We begin by surveying the current state of the art and discuss what it takes to achieve parallelism, efficiency and enhanced computational accuracy through program threads and message passing interfaces. Several code illustrations are given. The pros and cons of writing raw code as opposed to using heuristic, third-party code are also discussed. The growing trend

  5. Ecological Momentary Assessment in Behavioral Research: Addressing Technological and Human Participant Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lora E; Shiffman, Saul; Music, Edvin; Styn, Mindi A; Kriska, Andrea; Smailagic, Asim; Siewiorek, Daniel; Ewing, Linda J; Chasens, Eileen; French, Brian; Mancino, Juliet; Mendez, Dara; Strollo, Patrick; Rathbun, Stephen L

    2017-03-15

    completing EMA surveys was high, with 88.3% (66,978/75,888) completion of random assessments and around 90% (23,411/25,929 and 23,343/26,010) completion of time-contingent assessments, despite the duration of EMA data collection and challenges with implementation. This work informed us of the necessary preliminary steps to plan and prepare a longitudinal study using smartphone technology and the critical elements to ensure participant engagement in the potentially burdensome protocol, which spanned 12 months. While this was a technology-supported and -programmed study, it required close oversight to ensure all elements were functioning correctly, particularly once human participants became involved.

  6. Orchestrating classroom change to engage children in the process of scientific reasoning: Challenges for teachers and strategies for success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Melissa J.

    Science curricula should reflect the nature of science as experienced by its practitioners (Hacking, 1992; Harding & Hare, 2000; Latour, 1987; Pickering, 1992). Contemporary literature depicts scientific research laboratories as social spaces, where intellectual debate plays a significant role in discovery. However, this is not the way science instruction is conducted in most science classrooms. Tharp and Gallimore (1988) argue that pedagogical methods have not changed in The United States in over one hundred years. Driver, Leach, Millar, and Scott (1996) suggest that in order for students to understand the scientific process, teachers must focus on the "actual work of scientists and illustrate the internal social relations within science" (p. 146). In light of the widespread appeals for change, why does the traditional classroom structure persist? The aim of the present study is to address the issue of classroom change to support students as they engage in the practice of posing questions and constructing scientific explanations complete with peer review. Although theoretical perspectives clearly support designing classroom environments in which the language of conjecture and evidence is the norm, translating these ideas into classroom practice has not been as successful. The original intent of the current study was to explore how students in one intact fifth grade class, positioned as specialists who each had access to one component of a problem with the responsibility of teaching that component to their peers, would differ from students in a second intact fifth grade class, who did not assume this role. The students were compared in terms of the predictions made and the types of evidence presented to support claims. The data indicated that the students did not engage in discussions as anticipated. In fact, the children from both classes approached the problem as a search for the correct answer. Very little evaluation of evidence or debate took place. Given that

  7. Next biotech plants: new traits, crops, developers and technologies for addressing global challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricroch, Agnès E; Hénard-Damave, Marie-Cécile

    2016-08-01

    Most of the genetically modified (GM) plants currently commercialized encompass a handful of crop species (soybean, corn, cotton and canola) with agronomic characters (traits) directed against some biotic stresses (pest resistance, herbicide tolerance or both) and created by multinational companies. The same crops with agronomic traits already on the market today will continue to be commercialized, but there will be also a wider range of species with combined traits. The timeframe anticipated for market release of the next biotech plants will not only depend on science progress in research and development (R&D) in laboratories and fields, but also primarily on how demanding regulatory requirements are in countries where marketing approvals are pending. Regulatory constraints, including environmental and health impact assessments, have increased significantly in the past decades, delaying approvals and increasing their costs. This has sometimes discouraged public research entities and small and medium size plant breeding companies from using biotechnology and given preference to other technologies, not as stringently regulated. Nevertheless, R&D programs are flourishing in developing countries, boosted by the necessity to meet the global challenges that are food security of a booming world population while mitigating climate change impacts. Biotechnology is an instrument at the service of these imperatives and a wide variety of plants are currently tested for their high yield despite biotic and abiotic stresses. Many plants with higher water or nitrogen use efficiency, tolerant to cold, salinity or water submergence are being developed. Food security is not only a question of quantity but also of quality of agricultural and food products, to be available and accessible for the ones who need it the most. Many biotech plants (especially staple food) are therefore being developed with nutritional traits, such as biofortification in vitamins and metals. The main

  8. Regional initiatives to address the challenges of tuberculosis in children: perspectives from the Asia-Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Graham

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention is being given to the challenges of management and prevention of tuberculosis in children and adolescents. There have been a number of recent important milestones achieved at the global level to address this previously neglected disease. There is now a need to increase activities and build partnerships at the regional and national levels in order to address the wide policy-practice gaps for implementation, and to take the key steps outlined in the Roadmap for Child Tuberculosis published in 2013. In this article, we provide the rationale and suggest strategies illustrated with examples to improve diagnosis, management, outcomes and prevention for children with tuberculosis in the Asia-Pacific region, with an emphasis on the need for greatly improved recording and reporting. Effective collaboration with community engagement between the child health sector, the National Tuberculosis control Programmes, community-based services and the communities themselves are essential.

  9. Regional initiatives to address the challenges of tuberculosis in children: perspectives from the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Stephen M; Grzemska, Malgorzata; Brands, Annemieke; Nguyen, Huong; Amini, James; Triasih, Rina; Talukder, Khurshid; Ahmed, Shakil; Amanullah, Farhana; Kumar, Blessina; Tufail, Pervaiz; Detjen, Anne; Marais, Ben; Hennig, Cornelia; Islam, Tauhid

    2015-03-01

    Increasing attention is being given to the challenges of management and prevention of tuberculosis in children and adolescents. There have been a number of recent important milestones achieved at the global level to address this previously neglected disease. There is now a need to increase activities and build partnerships at the regional and national levels in order to address the wide policy-practice gaps for implementation, and to take the key steps outlined in the Roadmap for Child Tuberculosis published in 2013. In this article, we provide the rationale and suggest strategies illustrated with examples to improve diagnosis, management, outcomes and prevention for children with tuberculosis in the Asia-Pacific region, with an emphasis on the need for greatly improved recording and reporting. Effective collaboration with community engagement between the child health sector, the National Tuberculosis control Programmes, community-based services and the communities themselves are essential. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Human brain MRI at 500 MHz, scientific perspectives and technological challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihan, Denis; Schild, Thierry

    2017-03-01

    The understanding of the human brain is one of the main scientific challenges of the 21st century. In the early 2000s the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission launched a program to conceive and build a ‘human brain explorer’, the first human MRI scanner operating at 11.7 T. This scanner was envisioned to be part of the ambitious French-German project Iseult, bridging together industrial and academic partners to push the limits of molecular neuroimaging, from mouse to man, using ultra-high field MRI. In this article we provide a summary of the main neuroscience and medical targets of the Iseult project, mainly to acquire within timescales compatible with human tolerances images at a scale of 100 μm at which everything remains to discover, and to create new approaches to develop new imaging biomarkers for specific neurological and psychiatric disorders. The system specifications, the technological challenges, in terms of magnet design, winding technology, cryogenics, quench protection, stability control, and the solutions which have been chosen to overcome them and build this outstanding instrument are provided. Lines of the research and development which will be necessary to fully exploit the potential of this and other UHF MRI scanners are also outlined.

  11. Drug Delivery Innovations to Address Global Health Challenges for Pediatric and Geriatric Populations (Through Improvements in Patient Compliance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Joshua

    2017-11-01

    Despite significant advances in pharmaceutical and biotechnological drug discovery, the global population is plagued with many challenging diseases. These are further compounded by anticipated explosion in an ageing population, which presents several problems such as polypharmacy, dysphagia, and neurologic conditions, resulting in noncompliance and disease complications. For antibiotics, poor compliance, can result in development of drug-resistant infections which can be fatal. Furthermore, children, especially, in developing countries die unnecessarily from easily treatable diseases (e.g., malaria), due to poor compliance arising from bitter taste and inability to swallow currently available medication. Although some of these challenges require the discovery of new drug compounds, a significant number can be resolved by employing pharmaceutics approaches to reduce the incidence of poor patient compliance. Such solutions are expected to make swallowing easier and reduce the need to swallow several solid medications, which is difficult for vulnerable pediatric and geriatric patients. This commentary will explore the current state of the art in the use of drug delivery innovations to overcome some of these challenges, taking cues from relevant regulatory agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration, the European Medicines Agency, World Health Organization, and the peer-reviewed scientific and clinical literature. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Scientific Opinion addressing the state of the science on risk assessment of plant protection products for non-target arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA PPR Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues); Topping, Christopher John

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Food Safety Authority, the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues developed an opinion on the science to support the development of a risk assessment scheme of plant protection products for non-target arthropods. The current risk assessment...... scheme is reviewed, taking into consideration recent workshops and progress in science. Proposals are made for specific protection goals which aim to protect important ecosystem services such as food web support, pest control and biodiversity. In order to address recovery and source–sink population...

  13. Addressing Global Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    CBS Maritime offers first-rate management teaching and interdisciplinary research developed in close dialogue with industry.......CBS Maritime offers first-rate management teaching and interdisciplinary research developed in close dialogue with industry....

  14. Addressing the terawatt challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesborg, Peter C. K.; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    The energy infrastructure for fossil fuels is well-established, accounting for approximately 87% of the 16 TW of power consumed globally. For renewable and sustainable energy conversion technologies to play a relevant role at the terrestrial scale, they must be able to scale to the TW level...

  15. Lessons learned and present day challenges of addressing 20th century radiation legacies of Russia and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengel, M.T.; Kristofzski, J.G.; Schubert, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly enriched uranium and defense plutonium as well as processing of high-level wastes are among the most challenging issues of addressing radiation legacy of the 20th century. USA and Russia are the two primary countries that have to deal with the challenge and where most of the fissile materials to be processed are concentrated, nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are stored, and multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities are located. In the US, CH2M HILL is managing two of the most important nuclear projects being conducted by the US Department of Energy at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and at the DOE Hanford Site (177 underground tanks at this site contain 60 percent of the United States' high-level radioactive wastes). Within the framework of the Russian Federal special program 'Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Materials Management, Utilization and Disposal for 1996-2005' works were carried out on the Karachai lake covering with soil, highly active radwaste vitrification and fractionation at the 'Mayak' combine. Currently there is a discussion of launching joint Russian-American initiatives including comparative studies of environmental and public health impacts from high-level waste vitrification and plutonium stabilization processes in Russia and high-level waste removal from tanks in the USA and of continuing comprehensive research with the RADSITE project (USA, European Union, Japan, China and India) using coordinated approaches in 2000-2003. This paper presents comparative studies, technical approaches, and regulatory strategies to address the challenges of managing and closing highly enriched uranium, plutonium, and high level waste sites. (author)

  16. Combining scientific and societal challenges: a water supply case study from the Koster Islands, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Roland; Ekström, Linda Louise; Ljungkvist, Andreas; Granberg, Maria; Merisalu, Johanna; Pokorny, Sebastian; Banzhaf, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    hydrology constitutes a boundary condition, other concerns, e.g., legal and economic, weigh high. Our research group was asked to provide an objective, neutral assessment of the islands' water availability under present and future scenario conditions. We performed a large measurement campaign over an entire hydrological year involving measurements of groundwater quality and quantity, water balance, and recharge calculations, as well as online surveys and interviews. The conditions on the archipelago are complex, and many scientific challenges are present. Our investigation is embedded in a larger project that looks at various dimensions of the problem. However, it appears that the question of groundwater availability and its spatial and temporal distribution is crucial. Water is abundant, but not always at the right place at the right time. Decentralized solutions are possible, but continuing with the current system is not. This provides a great challenge for our objectivity and neutrality, especially when communicating complex results of the investigation in appropriate and meaningful ways. Thus, the Koster Islands are not only a microcosm for Swedish coastal groundwater problems, but also for a wider range of issues combining scientific and societal challenges. 1. Lewis J, Sjöström J, Höök M, Sundström B. The Swedish model for groundwater policy: legal foundations, decision-making and practical application. Hydrogeol J. 2013;21(4):751-60.

  17. Human biology-based drug safety evaluation: scientific rationale, current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, J Gerry

    2017-05-01

    Animal toxicity studies used to assess the safety of new candidate pharmaceuticals prior to their progression into human clinical trials are unable to assess the risk of non-pharmacologically mediated idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions (ADRs), the most frequent of which are drug-induced liver injury and cardiotoxicity. Idiosyncratic ADRs occur only infrequently and in certain susceptible humans, but are caused by many hundreds of different drugs and may lead to serious illness. Areas covered: Idiosyncratic ADRs are initiated by drug-related chemical insults, which cause toxicity due to susceptibility factors that manifest only in certain patients. The chemical insults can be detected using in vitro assays. These enable useful discrimination between drugs that cause high versus low levels of idiosyncratic ADR concern. Especially promising assays, which have been described recently in peer-reviewed scientific literature, are highlighted. Expert opinion: Effective interpretation of in vitro toxicity data requires integration of endpoints from multiple assays, which each address different mechanisms, and must also take account of human systemic and tissue drug exposure in vivo. Widespread acceptance and use of such assays has been hampered by the lack of correlation between idiosyncratic human ADR risk and toxicities observed in vivo in animals.

  18. Professional cluster management by a small scientific team: challenges, solutions and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Vitor V.A.; Santos, Andre A.C. dos; Cunha, Renan O., E-mail: vitors@cdtn.br, E-mail: aacs@cdtn.br, E-mail: roc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The specification, configuration and management of a professional computer cluster are specialized tasks usually hold by well trained teams, often full-time hired computer scientists. However, in many situations and for widely different reasons, these very specific technical tasks must be carried on by no other than the user itself. This is the situation at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - and in many nuclear research and educational centres in developing countries - where the scientists are the users of the cluster but also the technical team responsible to keep the system running. This paper presents the process of planning and installing the whole operating system and scientific software of a professional cluster aimed to be used in the nuclear engineering eld from the point of view of its users. The drawbacks of lack of expertise and technical skills to manage such type of technology are opposed to the advantages of freedom to chose the solutions which best t to the problems to be solved. The details of selected methods or technologies chosen for addressing a specific matter are presented together with other possible options, offering a broader view of the whole process of cluster's configuration. Specificities of dealing with closed, restricted and open software, common in the nuclear engineering eld, are also put in perspective. The ideas and solutions presented in this paper can be a valuable reference to other research teams found in a similar situation: being scientists and its own technical staff at the same time. (author)

  19. Professional cluster management by a small scientific team: challenges, solutions and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Vitor V.A.; Santos, Andre A.C. dos; Cunha, Renan O.

    2017-01-01

    The specification, configuration and management of a professional computer cluster are specialized tasks usually hold by well trained teams, often full-time hired computer scientists. However, in many situations and for widely different reasons, these very specific technical tasks must be carried on by no other than the user itself. This is the situation at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - and in many nuclear research and educational centres in developing countries - where the scientists are the users of the cluster but also the technical team responsible to keep the system running. This paper presents the process of planning and installing the whole operating system and scientific software of a professional cluster aimed to be used in the nuclear engineering eld from the point of view of its users. The drawbacks of lack of expertise and technical skills to manage such type of technology are opposed to the advantages of freedom to chose the solutions which best t to the problems to be solved. The details of selected methods or technologies chosen for addressing a specific matter are presented together with other possible options, offering a broader view of the whole process of cluster's configuration. Specificities of dealing with closed, restricted and open software, common in the nuclear engineering eld, are also put in perspective. The ideas and solutions presented in this paper can be a valuable reference to other research teams found in a similar situation: being scientists and its own technical staff at the same time. (author)

  20. The RA nuclear research reactor at VINCA Institute as an engineering and scientific challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesarovic, M.

    1997-01-01

    The RA nuclear research at the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences is the largest nuclear research facility in Yugoslavia and belongs to that generation of research reactors which have had an important contribution to nuclear technology development. As these older reactors were generally not built to specific nuclear standards, new safety systems had to be installed at the RA reactor for a renewal of its operating licence in 1984 and it was shut down, after 25 years of operation. Although all the required and several additional systems were built for the restart of the RA reactor, a disruption of foreign delivery of new control equipment caused its conversion to a 'dormant' facility, and it is still out of operation. Therefore, the future status of the RA reactor presents an engineering and scientific challenge to the engineers and scientists from Yugoslavia and other countries that may be interested to participate. To attract their attention on the subject, principal features of the RA reactor and its present status are described in detail, based on a recent engineering economic and safety evaluation. A comparative review of the world research reactors is also presented.(author)

  1. Makerere University College of Health Sciences’ role in addressing challenges in health service provision at Mulago National Referral Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekandi Juliet

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mulago National Referral Hospital (MNRH, Uganda’s primary tertiary and teaching hospital, and Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS have a close collaborative relationship. MakCHS students complete clinical rotations at MNRH, and MakCHS faculty partner with Mulago staff in clinical care and research. In 2009, as part of a strategic planning process, MakCHS undertook a qualitative study to examine care and service provision at MNRH, identify challenges, gaps, and solutions, and explore how MakCHS could contribute to improving care and service delivery at MNRH. Methods Key informant interviews (n=23 and focus group discussions (n=7 were conducted with nurses, doctors, administrators, clinical officers and other key stakeholders. Interviews and focus groups were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim, and findings were analyzed through collaborative thematic analysis. Results Challenges to care and service delivery at MNRH included resource constraints (staff, space, equipment, and supplies, staff inadequacies (knowledge, motivation, and professionalism, overcrowding, a poorly functioning referral system, limited quality assurance, and a cumbersome procurement system. There were also insufficiencies in the teaching of professionalism and communication skills to students, and patient care challenges that included lack of access to specialized services, risk of infections, and inappropriate medications. Suggestions for how MakCHS could contribute to addressing these challenges included strengthening referral systems and peripheral health center capacity, and establishing quality assurance mechanisms. The College could also strengthen the teaching of professionalism, communication and leadership skills to students, and monitor student training and develop courses that contribute to continuous professional development. Additionally, the College could provide in-service education for providers on professionalism

  2. More than 10 million steps in the right direction: results from the first American Heart Association scientific sessions walking challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Robert A; Arena, Ross; Després, Jean-Pierre; Ciarochi, Amy; Croll, Elizabeth; Bloch, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the Global Congress theme at the American Heart Association (AHA) Annual Scientific Sessions was Physical Activity (PA). As a key component of the Congress, iHealth working in collaboration with AHA provided a Bluetooth-enabled wireless PA and sleep tracker to up to 2,000 Scientific Sessions attendees. Approximately 1850 Scientific Sessions attendees registered for, received a PA tracker and participated in the Walking Challenge. More than 10 million steps were walked by participants (10,703,504) during the 2.5 days of the Walking Challenge. This translates into almost 6000 miles walked (5976.3 miles) and 656,716 calories burned by participants during the Challenge. The Global Congress of PA held at Scientific Sessions 2013 not only extensively reviewed the science of PA as a powerful/independent and, most importantly, modifiable cardiovascular risk factor, but it also provided evidence from a fun and entertaining challenge that PA as a risk behavior can be assessed and targeted. We just took 10 million steps in the right direction. Join us and make your steps count! Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. PUBLICATION OF SCIENTIFIC PERIODICALS AT UNIVERSITIES:NEW CHALLENGES, PARTICIPANTS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. О. Kolesnykova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Publication of scientific periodicals in the Universities is very important and necessary element in the infrastructure of scientific communication. The aim of the article is: 1 providing a new model of publication system of the University scientific periodicals (on the example of Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan – DNURT; 2 studying the peculiarities of the «Library publishing» model (Library Publishing and library as a new participant in the publication of world scientific periodicals of the University; 3 description of the developed software automation typesetting of scientific articles and their integration into international databases of scientific and technical information. Methodology. The scientists investigated: 1 the system of publication of scientific periodicals at DNURT; 2 integration system of electronic versions of periodicals and individual articles of scientists from DNURT into the world scientific databases; 3 publishing activity of the scientific and technical library of the University. Findings. The authors proved the need for the fast updates in each higher education institution of Ukrainian management system of scientific periodicals and the creation of the periodicals development concept. The conditions for the occurrence of positive changes in the publishing process in Universities were determined and named as a new participant in these processes – University library. The list of new tasks inherent in the scientific periodicals of the Universities was presented. The software product «Digital designer» was created as a new applied information technology solution to extend the functionality of the basic system information of the publication according to its editorial policy. Originality. The scientists studied the transformation process of the organizational structure of scientific periodicals publishing in the Universities of Ukraine and the world

  4. New Methods to Address Old Challenges: The Use of Administrative Data for Longitudinal Replication Studies of Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurren, Emily; Stewart, Anna; Dennison, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Administrative data are crucial to the “big data” revolution of social science and have played an important role in the development of child maltreatment research. These data are also of value to administrators, policy makers, and clinicians. The focus of this paper is the use of administrative data to produce and replicate longitudinal studies of child maltreatment. Child protection administrative data have several advantages. They are often population-based, and allow longitudinal examination of child maltreatment and complex multi-level analyses. They also allow comparison across subgroups and minority groups, remove burden from individuals to disclose traumatic experiences, and can be less biased than retrospective recall. Finally, they can be linked to data from other agencies to explore comorbidity and outcomes, and are comparatively cost and time effective. The benefits and challenges associated with the use of administrative data for longitudinal child maltreatment research become magnified when these data are used to produce replications. Techniques to address challenges and support future replication efforts include developing a biographical understanding of the systems from which the data are drawn, using multiple data sources to contextualize the data and research results, recognizing and adopting various approaches to replication, and documenting all data coding and manipulation processes. These techniques are illustrated in this paper via a case study of previous replication work. PMID:28914775

  5. Network Function Virtualization (NFV) based architecture to address connectivity, interoperability and manageability challenges in Internet of Things (IoT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseeb, Shariq; Hashim, Aisha Hassan A.; Khalifa, Othman O.; Faris Ismail, Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    IoT aims to interconnect sensors and actuators built into devices (also known as Things) in order for them to share data and control each other to improve existing processes for making people’s life better. IoT aims to connect between all physical devices like fridges, cars, utilities, buildings and cities so that they can take advantage of small pieces of information collected by each one of these devices and derive more complex decisions. However, these devices are heterogeneous in nature because of various vendor support, connectivity options and protocol suit. Heterogeneity of such devices makes it difficult for them to leverage on each other’s capabilities in the traditional IoT architecture. This paper highlights the effects of heterogeneity challenges on connectivity, interoperability, management in greater details. It also surveys some of the existing solutions adopted in the core network to solve the challenges of massive IoT deployments. Finally, the paper proposes a new architecture based on NFV to address the problems.

  6. Gene Editing of Microalgae: Scientific Progress and Regulatory Challenges in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    It is abundantly clear that the development of gene editing technologies, represents a potentially powerful force for good with regard to human and animal health and addressing the challenges we continue to face in a growing global population. This now includes the development of approaches to modify microalgal strains for potential improvements in productivity, robustness, harvestability, processability, nutritional composition, and application. The rapid emergence and ongoing developments in this area demand a timely review and revision of the current definitions and regulations around genetically modified organisms (GMOs), particularly within Europe. Current practices within the EU provide exemptions from the GMO directives for organisms, including crop plants and micro-organisms that are produced through chemical or UV/radiation mutagenesis. However, organisms generated through gene editing, including microalgae, where only genetic changes in native genes are made, remain currently under the GMO umbrella; they are, as such, excluded from practical and commercial opportunities in the EU. In this review, we will review the advances that are being made in the area of gene editing in microalgae and the impact of regulation on commercial advances in this area with consideration to the current regulatory framework as it relates to GMOs including GM microalgae in Europe. PMID:29509719

  7. Gene Editing of Microalgae: Scientific Progress and Regulatory Challenges in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Spicer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It is abundantly clear that the development of gene editing technologies, represents a potentially powerful force for good with regard to human and animal health and addressing the challenges we continue to face in a growing global population. This now includes the development of approaches to modify microalgal strains for potential improvements in productivity, robustness, harvestability, processability, nutritional composition, and application. The rapid emergence and ongoing developments in this area demand a timely review and revision of the current definitions and regulations around genetically modified organisms (GMOs, particularly within Europe. Current practices within the EU provide exemptions from the GMO directives for organisms, including crop plants and micro-organisms that are produced through chemical or UV/radiation mutagenesis. However, organisms generated through gene editing, including microalgae, where only genetic changes in native genes are made, remain currently under the GMO umbrella; they are, as such, excluded from practical and commercial opportunities in the EU. In this review, we will review the advances that are being made in the area of gene editing in microalgae and the impact of regulation on commercial advances in this area with consideration to the current regulatory framework as it relates to GMOs including GM microalgae in Europe.

  8. Gene Editing of Microalgae: Scientific Progress and Regulatory Challenges in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Andrew; Molnar, Attila

    2018-03-06

    It is abundantly clear that the development of gene editing technologies, represents a potentially powerful force for good with regard to human and animal health and addressing the challenges we continue to face in a growing global population. This now includes the development of approaches to modify microalgal strains for potential improvements in productivity, robustness, harvestability, processability, nutritional composition, and application. The rapid emergence and ongoing developments in this area demand a timely review and revision of the current definitions and regulations around genetically modified organisms (GMOs), particularly within Europe. Current practices within the EU provide exemptions from the GMO directives for organisms, including crop plants and micro-organisms that are produced through chemical or UV/radiation mutagenesis. However, organisms generated through gene editing, including microalgae, where only genetic changes in native genes are made, remain currently under the GMO umbrella; they are, as such, excluded from practical and commercial opportunities in the EU. In this review, we will review the advances that are being made in the area of gene editing in microalgae and the impact of regulation on commercial advances in this area with consideration to the current regulatory framework as it relates to GMOs including GM microalgae in Europe.

  9. Infopreneurs in service of rural enterprise and economic development: Addressing the critical challenges of scalability and sustainability in support of service extension in developing (rural) economies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rensburg, JR

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available years’ work of ongoing research in a Living Lab fashion to understand and address the two critical challenges of scalability and sustainability in the utilisation of technology (primarily Information and Communication Technologies – ICTs) as enablers...

  10. In silico regenerative medicine: how computational tools allow regulatory and financial challenges to be addressed in a volatile market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geris, L; Guyot, Y; Schrooten, J; Papantoniou, I

    2016-04-06

    The cell therapy market is a highly volatile one, due to the use of disruptive technologies, the current economic situation and the small size of the market. In such a market, companies as well as academic research institutes are in need of tools to advance their understanding and, at the same time, reduce their R&D costs, increase product quality and productivity, and reduce the time to market. An additional difficulty is the regulatory path that needs to be followed, which is challenging in the case of cell-based therapeutic products and should rely on the implementation of quality by design (QbD) principles. In silico modelling is a tool that allows the above-mentioned challenges to be addressed in the field of regenerative medicine. This review discusses such in silico models and focuses more specifically on the bioprocess. Three (clusters of) examples related to this subject are discussed. The first example comes from the pharmaceutical engineering field where QbD principles and their implementation through the use of in silico models are both a regulatory and economic necessity. The second example is related to the production of red blood cells. The described in silico model is mainly used to investigate the manufacturing process of the cell-therapeutic product, and pays special attention to the economic viability of the process. Finally, we describe the set-up of a model capturing essential events in the development of a tissue-engineered combination product in the context of bone tissue engineering. For each of the examples, a short introduction to some economic aspects is given, followed by a description of the in silico tool or tools that have been developed to allow the implementation of QbD principles and optimal design.

  11. Biaxial tension of fibrous tissue: using finite element methods to address experimental challenges arising from boundary conditions and anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Nathan T; Cortes, Daniel H; Vresilovic, Edward J; Elliott, Dawn M

    2013-02-01

    Planar biaxial tension remains a critical loading modality for fibrous soft tissue and is widely used to characterize tissue mechanical response, evaluate treatments, develop constitutive formulas, and obtain material properties for use in finite element studies. Although the application of tension on all edges of the test specimen represents the in situ environment, there remains a need to address the interpretation of experimental results. Unlike uniaxial tension, in biaxial tension the applied forces at the loading clamps do not transmit fully to the region of interest (ROI), which may lead to improper material characterization if not accounted for. In this study, we reviewed the tensile biaxial literature over the last ten years, noting experimental and analysis challenges. In response to these challenges, we used finite element simulations to quantify load transmission from the clamps to the ROI in biaxial tension and to formulate a correction factor that can be used to determine ROI stresses. Additionally, the impact of sample geometry, material anisotropy, and tissue orientation on the correction factor were determined. Large stress concentrations were evident in both square and cruciform geometries and for all levels of anisotropy. In general, stress concentrations were greater for the square geometry than the cruciform geometry. For both square and cruciform geometries, materials with fibers aligned parallel to the loading axes reduced stress concentrations compared to the isotropic tissue, resulting in more of the applied load being transferred to the ROI. In contrast, fiber-reinforced specimens oriented such that the fibers aligned at an angle to the loading axes produced very large stress concentrations across the clamps and shielding in the ROI. A correction factor technique was introduced that can be used to calculate the stresses in the ROI from the measured experimental loads at the clamps. Application of a correction factor to experimental biaxial

  12. Nature-Based Solutions in the EU: Innovating with nature to address social, economic and environmental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faivre, Nicolas; Fritz, Marco; Freitas, Tiago; de Boissezon, Birgit; Vandewoestijne, Sofie

    2017-11-01

    Contemporary societies are facing a broad range of challenges, from pressures on human health and well-being to natural capital depletion, and the security of food, water and energy. These challenges are deeply intertwined with global processes, such as climate change and with local events such as natural disasters. The EU's research & innovation (R&I) policy is now seeking to address these challenges from a new perspective, with Nature-Based Solutions, and turn them into innovation opportunities that optimise the synergies between nature, society and the economy. Nature-Based Solutions can be an opportunity for innovation, and are here promoted by both policymakers and practitioners as a cost-effective way of creating a greener, more sustainable, and more competitive economy. Since 2013, the European Commission has devoted particular attention to Nature-Based Solutions through consultations and dialogues that sought to make the concept of these solutions more concrete and to define the concept's place within the spectrum of ecosystem-based approaches. In 2014, the Commission launched an expert group, which conducted further analysis, and made recommendations to help increase the use of Nature-Based Solutions and bring nature back into cities. In 2015, a survey was conducted on citizens' views and perceptions of 'Nature in Cities' to provide further insight for future work. Based on these elements and on results from running EU projects, the Commission has developed an R&I agenda for Nature-Based Solutions and has published targeted calls for proposals for large-scale demonstration projects in this field in 2016 and 2017. Additional R&I actions at EU level that promote systemic Nature-Based Solutions and their benefits to cities and territories are planned with the aim to improve the implementation capacity and evidence base for deploying Nature-Based Solutions and developing corresponding future markets. They are also expected to foster an interdisciplinary R

  13. Addressing capability computing challenges of high-resolution global climate modelling at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaj, Valentine; Norman, Matthew; Evans, Katherine; Taylor, Mark; Worley, Patrick; Hack, James; Mayer, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    During 2013, high-resolution climate model simulations accounted for over 100 million "core hours" using Titan at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). The suite of climate modeling experiments, primarily using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) at nearly 0.25 degree horizontal resolution, generated over a petabyte of data and nearly 100,000 files, ranging in sizes from 20 MB to over 100 GB. Effective utilization of leadership class resources requires careful planning and preparation. The application software, such as CESM, need to be ported, optimized and benchmarked for the target platform in order to meet the computational readiness requirements. The model configuration needs to be "tuned and balanced" for the experiments. This can be a complicated and resource intensive process, especially for high-resolution configurations using complex physics. The volume of I/O also increases with resolution; and new strategies may be required to manage I/O especially for large checkpoint and restart files that may require more frequent output for resiliency. It is also essential to monitor the application performance during the course of the simulation exercises. Finally, the large volume of data needs to be analyzed to derive the scientific results; and appropriate data and information delivered to the stakeholders. Titan is currently the largest supercomputer available for open science. The computational resources, in terms of "titan core hours" are allocated primarily via the Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) and ASCR Leadership Computing Challenge (ALCC) programs, both sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. Titan is a Cray XK7 system, capable of a theoretical peak performance of over 27 PFlop/s, consists of 18,688 compute nodes, with a NVIDIA Kepler K20 GPU and a 16-core AMD Opteron CPU in every node, for a total of 299,008 Opteron cores and 18,688 GPUs offering a cumulative 560

  14. Organization for rare diseases India (ORDI) - addressing the challenges and opportunities for the Indian rare diseases' community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasimha, Harsha Karur; Shirol, Prasannakumar Basayya; Ramamoorthy, Preveen; Hegde, Madhuri; Barde, Sangeeta; Chandru, Vijay; Ravinandan, M E; Ramchandran, Ramani; Haldar, Kasturi; Lin, Jimmy C; Babar, Imran A; Girisha, Katta M; Srinivasan, Sudha; Navaneetham, Duraiswamy; Battu, Rajani; Devarakonda, Rajashree; Kini, Usha; Vijayachandra, Kinnimulki; Verma, Ishwar C

    2014-08-13

    In order to address the unmet needs and create opportunities that benefit patients with rare disease in India, a group of volunteers created a not-for-profit organization named Organization for Rare Diseases India (ORDI; www.ordindia.org). ORDI plans to represent the collective voice and advocate the needs of patients with rare diseases and other stakeholders in India. The ORDI team members come from diverse backgrounds such as genetics, molecular diagnostics, drug development, bioinformatics, communications, information technology, patient advocacy and public service. ORDI builds on the lessons learned from numerous similar organizations in the USA, European Union and disease-specific rare disease foundations in India. In this review, we provide a background on the landscape of rare diseases and the organizations that are active in this area globally and in India. We discuss the unique challenges in tackling rare diseases in India, and highlight the unmet needs of the key stakeholders of rare diseases. Finally, we define the vision, mission, goals and objectives of ORDI, identify the key developments in the health care context in India and welcome community feedback and comments on our approach.

  15. Antioxidant Tocols as Radiation Countermeasures (Challenges to be Addressed to Use Tocols as Radiation Countermeasures in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujwani Nukala

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Radiation countermeasures fall under three categories, radiation protectors, radiation mitigators, and radiation therapeutics. Radiation protectors are agents that are administered before radiation exposure to protect from radiation-induced injuries by numerous mechanisms, including scavenging free radicals that are generated by initial radiochemical events. Radiation mitigators are agents that are administered after the exposure of radiation but before the onset of symptoms by accelerating the recovery and repair from radiation-induced injuries. Whereas radiation therapeutic agents administered after the onset of symptoms act by regenerating the tissues that are injured by radiation. Vitamin E is an antioxidant that neutralizes free radicals generated by radiation exposure by donating H atoms. The vitamin E family consists of eight different vitamers, including four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. Though alpha-tocopherol was extensively studied in the past, tocotrienols have recently gained attention as radiation countermeasures. Despite several studies performed on tocotrienols, there is no clear evidence on the factors that are responsible for their superior radiation protection properties over tocopherols. Their absorption and bioavailability are also not well understood. In this review, we discuss tocopherol’s and tocotrienol’s efficacy as radiation countermeasures and identify the challenges to be addressed to develop them into radiation countermeasures for human use in the event of radiological emergencies.

  16. Big Data Science: Opportunities and Challenges to Address Minority Health and Health Disparities in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinzhi; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Bourne, Philip E; Peprah, Emmanuel; Duru, O Kenrik; Breen, Nancy; Berrigan, David; Wood, Fred; Jackson, James S; Wong, David W S; Denny, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Addressing minority health and health disparities has been a missing piece of the puzzle in Big Data science. This article focuses on three priority opportunities that Big Data science may offer to the reduction of health and health care disparities. One opportunity is to incorporate standardized information on demographic and social determinants in electronic health records in order to target ways to improve quality of care for the most disadvantaged populations over time. A second opportunity is to enhance public health surveillance by linking geographical variables and social determinants of health for geographically defined populations to clinical data and health outcomes. Third and most importantly, Big Data science may lead to a better understanding of the etiology of health disparities and understanding of minority health in order to guide intervention development. However, the promise of Big Data needs to be considered in light of significant challenges that threaten to widen health disparities. Care must be taken to incorporate diverse populations to realize the potential benefits. Specific recommendations include investing in data collection on small sample populations, building a diverse workforce pipeline for data science, actively seeking to reduce digital divides, developing novel ways to assure digital data privacy for small populations, and promoting widespread data sharing to benefit under-resourced minority-serving institutions and minority researchers. With deliberate efforts, Big Data presents a dramatic opportunity for reducing health disparities but without active engagement, it risks further widening them.

  17. Big Data Science: Opportunities and Challenges to Address Minority Health and Health Disparities in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinzhi; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Bourne, Philip E.; Peprah, Emmanuel; Duru, O. Kenrik; Breen, Nancy; Berrigan, David; Wood, Fred; Jackson, James S.; Wong, David W.S.; Denny, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Addressing minority health and health disparities has been a missing piece of the puzzle in Big Data science. This article focuses on three priority opportunities that Big Data science may offer to the reduction of health and health care disparities. One opportunity is to incorporate standardized information on demographic and social determinants in electronic health records in order to target ways to improve quality of care for the most disadvantaged populations over time. A second opportunity is to enhance public health surveillance by linking geographical variables and social determinants of health for geographically defined populations to clinical data and health outcomes. Third and most importantly, Big Data science may lead to a better understanding of the etiology of health disparities and understanding of minority health in order to guide intervention development. However, the promise of Big Data needs to be considered in light of significant challenges that threaten to widen health disparities. Care must be taken to incorporate diverse populations to realize the potential benefits. Specific recommendations include investing in data collection on small sample populations, building a diverse workforce pipeline for data science, actively seeking to reduce digital divides, developing novel ways to assure digital data privacy for small populations, and promoting widespread data sharing to benefit under-resourced minority-serving institutions and minority researchers. With deliberate efforts, Big Data presents a dramatic opportunity for reducing health disparities but without active engagement, it risks further widening them. PMID:28439179

  18. Addressing Challenges to Enhance the Bioactives of Withania somnifera through Organ, Tissue, and Cell Culture Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pritika; Guleri, Rupam; Angurala, Amrita; Kaur, Kuldeep; Kaur, Kulwinder; Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu

    2017-01-01

    Withania somnifera is a highly valued medicinal plant in traditional home medicine and is known for a wide range of bioactivities. Its commercial cultivation is adversely affected by poor seed viability and germination. Infestation by various pests and pathogens, survival under unfavourable environmental conditions, narrow genetic base, and meager information regarding biosynthesis of secondary metabolites are some of the other existing challenges in the crop. Biotechnological interventions through organ, tissue, and cell culture provide promising options for addressing some of these issues. In vitro propagation facilitates conservation and sustainable utilization of the existing germplasms and broadening the genetic base. It would also provide means for efficient and rapid mass propagation of elite chemotypes and generating uniform plant material round the year for experimentation and industrial applications. The potential of in vitro cell/organ cultures for the production of therapeutically valuable compounds and their large-scale production in bioreactors has received significant attention in recent years. In vitro culture system further provides distinct advantage for studying various cellular and molecular processes leading to secondary metabolite accumulation and their regulation. Engineering plants through genetic transformation and development of hairy root culture system are powerful strategies for modulation of secondary metabolites. The present review highlights the developments and sketches current scenario in this field. PMID:28299323

  19. Addressing Challenges to Enhance the Bioactives ofWithania somniferathrough Organ, Tissue, and Cell Culture Based Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pritika; Guleri, Rupam; Angurala, Amrita; Kaur, Kuldeep; Kaur, Kulwinder; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu; Pati, Pratap Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Withania somnifera is a highly valued medicinal plant in traditional home medicine and is known for a wide range of bioactivities. Its commercial cultivation is adversely affected by poor seed viability and germination. Infestation by various pests and pathogens, survival under unfavourable environmental conditions, narrow genetic base, and meager information regarding biosynthesis of secondary metabolites are some of the other existing challenges in the crop. Biotechnological interventions through organ, tissue, and cell culture provide promising options for addressing some of these issues. In vitro propagation facilitates conservation and sustainable utilization of the existing germplasms and broadening the genetic base. It would also provide means for efficient and rapid mass propagation of elite chemotypes and generating uniform plant material round the year for experimentation and industrial applications. The potential of in vitro cell/organ cultures for the production of therapeutically valuable compounds and their large-scale production in bioreactors has received significant attention in recent years. In vitro culture system further provides distinct advantage for studying various cellular and molecular processes leading to secondary metabolite accumulation and their regulation. Engineering plants through genetic transformation and development of hairy root culture system are powerful strategies for modulation of secondary metabolites. The present review highlights the developments and sketches current scenario in this field.

  20. The quality of information in electronic scientific publications on the Internet: challenges and proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo SABBATINI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work analises the main questions and hurdles involved in the adoption of a electronic scientific publication system, those related to the scientific community practices and rules of conduct. We emphasize the quality certification through peer review, interity and legitimiy maintenance and privacity preservation in the digital environment. Furthermore, we analise the academic community own perception of electronic journals available in Internet and its impacts in tenure and prommotion processes.

  1. On Discerning Critical Elements, Relationships and Shifts in Attaining Scientific Terms: The Challenge of Polysemy/Homonymy and Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömdahl, Helge R.

    2011-01-01

    Words with well-known meaning in colloquial language often make up an educational challenge when introduced as terms with formal scientific meaning. New connections must be established between the word, already constrained by existing meaning and reference, and the intended formal scientific meaning and reference. A two-dimensional semantic/semiotic analysing schema (acronym 2-D SAS) has been developed to clarify a given word/term in a structured mode both according to non-formal senses and referents and formal scientific meaning and referents. The schema is constructed on ideas from semantics, semiotics and history and philosophy of science. The approach is supposed to be a contribution to make a fine-gained analysis of the structure and dynamics of conceptual change. The role of referents and referent change in conceptual change is highlighted by analysing the character of the recurrent mix-up of the terms heat and temperature among students at different educational levels.

  2. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrich, E.W.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: It is an honour for me to make this opening address on behalf of the European Commission which has cooperated with the International Atomic Energy Agency in organizing this Conference, and in particular on behalf of Hans Forsstroem from the Directorate-General, Research, who will arrive only later this week. Protection of the environment is, and will continue to be, an important consideration in the development and application of soundly based radiation protection standards. Current standards rest largely on the premise that, in protecting man, the environment is afforded an adequate level of protection. While this premise is broadly accepted by the radiation protection profession, it has come under increasing challenge in recent years. This challenge has not arisen because of any observable damage to the environment while operating within current standards. Rather, it has different origins including: - The robustness of the premise that protection of man affords protection of the environment, in particular the extent to which it is based on value judgements as opposed to rigorous scientific argument; - The more explicit inclusion of protection of the environment into national legislation on radiation protection and the need to demonstrate compliance; - A desire to achieve greater comparability between radiation and other pollutants. These trends were recognized by the Commission in the late 1990s and, as a result, the topic of protection of the environment was included as an important element of the European Union's 5th Research Framework Programme. Community support has been given to the FASSET project about which we will hear much during this Conference. This multinational project is providing much of the scientific basis underpinning and informing ongoing discussions on the development of a system of protection for the environment. Much, however, remains to be done to establish a well conceived and practicable system for protection of the environment

  3. 6th Annual Scientific Meeting on Challenges of Quality Assurance in Radiation Medicine. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Thai Medical Physicist Society was officially founded in the year 2001 with the purpose of the promotion of the cooperation and communication between medical physicists in Thailand. The main purpose is to organize the Scientific Conferences, Meetings or Courses with other scientific organizations. There are currently about 150 members of Society. This meeting was prepared in cooperation with Naresuan University, to bring a meeting of the highest scientific and educational quality. 9 Invited lectures, 2 workshops and 3 Proffered paper sessions of 25 presentations are arranged. While attending the meeting, the participants will have the best opportunity to learn and share new information and recent advance of medical physics, radiology and other relevant fields through lectures, symposium, workshop from distinguished invited speakers, oral presentations and commercial exhibition of advanced products.

  4. How the Social-Ecological Systems Concept Can Guide Transdisciplinary Research and Implementation: Addressing Water Challenges in Central Northern Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Liehr

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research aimed at contributing to the further development of integrated water resources management needs to tackle complex challenges at the interface of nature and society. A case study in the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin in Namibia has shown how semi-arid conditions coinciding with high population density and urbanisation present a risk to people’s livelihoods and ecosystem health. In order to increase water security and promote sustainable water management, there is a requirement for problem-oriented research approaches combined with a new way of thinking about water in order to generate evidence-based, adapted solutions. Transdisciplinary research in particular addresses this issue by focusing on the problems that arise when society interacts with nature. This article presents the implementation of a transdisciplinary research approach in the above-mentioned case study. The concept of social-ecological systems (SES plays a key role in operationalising the transdisciplinary research process. Application of the SES concept helps to outline the problem by defining the epistemic object, as well as structure the research process itself in terms of formulating research questions and developing the research design. It is argued here that the SES concept is not merely useful, but also necessary for guiding transdisciplinary sustainability research and implementation. The study from Namibia clearly demonstrates that the introduction of technological innovations such as rainwater and floodwater harvesting plants requires a social-ecological perspective. In particular this means considering questions around knowledge, practices and institutions related to water resources management and includes various societal innovations alongside technologies on the agenda.

  5. Addressing the challenges of using ferromagnetic electrodes in the magnetic tunnel junction-based molecular spintronics devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Pawan; Friebe, Edward; Baker, Collin

    2015-01-01

    Addressing the challenges of using high-Curie temperature ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes is critical for molecular spintronics devices (MSDs) research. Two FM electrodes simultaneously chemically bonded with a thiol-functionalized molecule can produce novel MSDs to exploring new quantum mechanical phenomenon and computer technologies. For developing a commercially viable MSD, it is crucial to developing a device fabrication scheme that carefully considers FM electrodes’ susceptibility to oxidation, chemical etching, and stress-induced deformations during fabrication and usage. This paper studies NiFe, an alloy extensively used in present-day memory devices and high-temperature engineering applications, as a candidate FM electrode for the fabrication of MSDs. Our spectroscopic reflectance studies show that NiFe oxidized aggressively after heating beyond ∼90 °C. The NiFe surfaces, aged for several months or heated for several minutes below ∼90 °C, exhibited remarkable electrochemical activity and were found suitable for chemical bonding with the thiol-functionalized molecular device elements. NiFe also demonstrated excellent etching resistance against commonly used solvents and lithography related chemicals. Additionally, NiFe mitigated the adverse effects of mechanical stress by subsiding the stress-induced deformities. A magnetic tunnel junction-based MSD approach was designed by carefully considering the merits and limitations of NiFe. The device fabrication protocol considers the safe temperature limit to avoiding irreversible surface oxidation, the effect of mechanical stresses, surface roughness, and chemical etching. This paper provides foundational experimental insights in realizing a versatile MSD allowing a wide range of transport and magnetic studies

  6. Scientific and regulatory challenges in evaluating clinical trial protocols for HIV-1/AIDS vaccines - A review from a regulatory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Rebecca L; Zhou, TieQun; Knezevic, Ivana

    2016-03-01

    Clinical development of prophylactic HIV/AIDS vaccines presents many scientific challenges that result in challenges for regulators reviewing clinical trial applications (CTAs). The World Health Organization (WHO) has the responsibility to provide technical support to these regulators. The search for an HIV/AIDS vaccine will only succeed through well-designed, -conducted and -controlled human efficacy studies reviewed and approved by regulators in countries worldwide, particularly in countries where the epidemic has hit hardest, such as in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. This review summarizes the current candidates in development and focuses on challenges regulators face when reviewing CTAs, such as the evolving landscape of "standard of prevention," trials in adolescents, adaptive trial designs, correlates of protection and their analysis, and access to successful vaccines. There are many unknowns in the field of HIV/AIDS vaccine development and often, there is not a clear right or wrong approach because of the scientific challenges described in this review. Consequently, regulators should not feel that decisions need be made in isolation, when there are many available international collaborative efforts and opportunities to seek expert advice. The WHO provides many such opportunities and support to regulators across the globe. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Pre-service teachers and socio-scientific inquiry : Opportunities and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, M.C.P.J.; van Harskamp, M.; Verhoeff, R.P.; Postma, P.A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a teacher training program aiming to enable pre-service teachers to engage secondary education students in Socio-Scientific Inquiry-Based Learning (SSIBL). In SSIBL – an approach developed within the European project PARRISE – students formulate questions about

  8. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianko, L.

    1993-01-01

    This short talk was the opening remarks to the attendees at this conference, presented by the Scientific Secretary, IWG-LMNPP, of the IAEA. This meeting is an effort to aid research on problems related to the general area of nuclear plant aging and life management. In particular it addresses fracture properties of reactor materials and components, both as installed, and at end of service condition. A major concern is relating measurements made on laboratory samples to properties displayed by actual reactor components

  9. Expanding the Annual Irrigation Maps (AIM) Product to the entire High Plains Aquifer (HPA): Addressing the Challenges of Cotton and Deficit-Irrigated Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J. R.; Deines, J. M.; Kendall, A. D.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    The High Plains Aquifer (HPA) is the most extensively irrigated aquifer in the continental United States and is the largest major aquifer in North America with an area of 500,000 km2. Increased demand for agricultural products has led to expanded irrigation extent, but brought with it declining groundwater levels that have made irrigation unsustainable in some locations. Understanding these irrigation dynamics and mapping irrigated areas through time are essential for future sustainable agricultural practices and hydrological modeling. Map products using remote sensing have only recently been able to track annual dynamics at relatively high spatial resolution (30 m) for a large portion of the northern HPA. However follow-on efforts to expand these maps to the entire HPA have met with difficulty due to the challenge of distinguishing irrigation in crop types that are commonly deficit- or partially-irrigated. Expanding these maps to the full HPA requires addressing unique features of partially irrigated fields and irrigated cotton, a major water user in the southern HPA. Working in Google Earth Engine, we used all available Landsat imagery to generate annual time series of vegetation indices. We combined this information with climate covariables, planting dates, and crop specific training data to algorithmically separate fully irrigated, partially irrigated, and non-irrigated field locations. The classification scheme was then applied to produce annual maps of irrigation across the entire HPA. The extensive use of ancillary data and the "greenness" time series for the algorithmic classification generally increased accuracy relative to previous efforts. High-accuracy, representative map products of irrigation extent capable of detecting crop type and irrigation intensity within aquifers will be an essential tool to monitor the sustainability of global aquifers and to provide a scientific bases for political and economic decisions affecting those aquifers.

  10. English for Scientific Purposes (EScP): Technology, Trends, and Future Challenges for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gi-Zen; Chiu, Wan-Yu; Lin, Chih-Chung; Barrett, Neil E.

    2014-01-01

    To date, the concept of English for Specific Purposes has brought about a great impact on English language learning across various disciplines, including those in science education. Hence, this review paper aimed to address current English language learning in the science disciplines through the practice of computer-assisted language learning to…

  11. Exploring corporate eco-modernism: Challenging corporate rhetoric and scientific discourses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Welford, Richard

    2000-01-01

    in shaping a new corporate environmentalism and, ten years on, we argue that it is time to step back and critically assess the nature and scope of corporate actions and scientific research within the field of corporate environmental management. This paper starts from the assertions that: (i) disturbing......Despite the fact that since the early 1970s environmental problems have been recognised as legitimate phenomena, they have not really attracted serious attention among industrialists and management theorists until the beginning of the 1990s. During the last ten years industry has been central...

  12. Scientific and Technical Challenges in Thermal Transport and Thermoelectric Materials and Devices

    KAUST Repository

    O'Dwyer, Colm

    2017-01-19

    This paper considers the state-of-the-art and open scientific and technological questions in thermoelectric materials and devices, from phonon engineering and scattering methods, to new and complex materials and their thermoelectric behavior. The paper also describes recent approaches to create structural and compositional material systems designed to enhance the thermoelectric figure of merit and power factors. We also summarize and contextualize recent advances in the use of superlattice structures and porosity or roughness to influence phonon scattering mechanisms and detail some advances in integrated thermoelectric materials for generators and coolers for thermally stable photonic devices.

  13. Key Challenges and Future Directions for Educational Research on Scientific Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J. Bryan; McNeill, Katherine L.; González-Howard, María; Close, Kevin; Evans, Mat

    2018-01-01

    At the 2015 "NARST: A Worldwide Organization for Improving Science Teaching and Learning Through Research" Annual International Conference, a group of scholars held an extended pre-conference workshop to discuss key challenges and future directions faced by argumentation researchers around the world. This wide-ranging group of…

  14. Imaging polarimetry for the characterisation of exoplanets and protoplanetary discs : scientific and technical challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juan Ovelar, Maria de

    2013-01-01

    The study of exoplanets and the protoplanetary discs in which they form is a very challenging task. In this thesis we present several studies in which we investigate the potential of imaging polarimetry at visible and near-infrared wavelengths to reveal the characteristics of these objects and

  15. Addressing ethical challenges in the Genetics Substudy of the National Eye Survey of Trinidad and Tobago (GSNESTT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allana N. Roach

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: This paper outlines an ethical framework for the conduct of population-based genetics and genomics research in Trinidad and Tobago; highlights common issues arising in the field and strategies to address these.

  16. Continuing medical education: a challenge to the Italian Scientific Societies of Laboratory Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebani, Mario

    2002-05-21

    In the modern health service, it is no longer acceptable for any clinician or other professional to abstain from continuing education after qualification. This is particularly true in the field of laboratory medicine because of the dramatic changes that have occurred in the organization, number and types of tests, and role of medical laboratories. In Italy, a program for continuing education in medicine (Educazione Continua in Medicina (ECM)) has recently been promoted by the National Government. Continuing education (CE) in laboratory medicine should include all educational activities that are pertinent to a person's professional skills, activities, interests, and growth. Continuing education can take many forms. In particular, a variety of programs are available that enable employees to improve their knowledge and skills while reducing their travel and absence from the laboratory. The present paper describes the recent redefinition of the mission, aims and structure of the Scientific Division of the Italian Society of Clinical Biochemistry and Clinical Molecular Biology (SIBioC) and the role it plays in making available to all associates a program for continuing education in the field of Laboratory Medicine. The activation of a national program for continuing education in medicine (ECM) in Italy provides a great opportunity for all professionals of the healthcare sector and for laboratorians, in particular. This educational project offers an unrivalled opportunity for the Italian Scientific Societies of Laboratory Medicine to weave quality improvement into their relationships with associates, thus reappraising their missions and goals.

  17. The contribution of youth work to address the challenges young people are facing, in particular the transition from education to employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louw, Arnt Vestergaard

    The findings of the expert group detail the role of youth work and its specific contribution to addressing the challenges young people face, in particular the transition from education to employment. In this context, youth work is defined as 'actions directed towards young people regarding...

  18. Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries

  19. Industry, university and government partnership to address research, education and human resource challenges for nuclear industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Technology. Each of the above six NSERC-UNENE Industrial Research Chairs are tenured positions, funded at 2.0 M dollars or more for first five years. The Chairs may be subsequently renewed. A large number of graduate students are already enrolled with Professors Holt, Jiang and Pandey. In anticipation of receiving Ontario Council of Graduate Studies accreditation for the course-based M. Eng. Degree in Nuclear Engineering, the following courses have already been offered to a typical class of 20 students: Reactor Physics; Nuclear Plant Systems and Operations; Nuclear Reactor Safety Design; Thermal Hydraulics. In addition to these, courses to be offered in near future include: Engineering Risk Analysis; Reactor Chemistry and Corrosion; Nuclear Materials; Control, Instrumentation and Electrical Power Systems; Nuclear Waste Management; Fuel Management; Health Physics/Radiation Protection; Power Plant Thermodynamics; Codes, Standards and Jurisdictions; and Business Management. M.Eng. Courses are delivered in flexible format to suit distant faculty and part-time students. UNENE, an industry driven partnership of nuclear industry, universities and governments, created to address the future challenge of research, education and human resources in Canada, has made an impressive start. (author)

  20. Coastal aquifers: Scientific advances in the face of global environmental challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Vincent E. A.; Werner, Adrian D.

    2017-08-01

    Coastal aquifers embody the subsurface transition between terrestrial and marine systems, and form the almost invisible pathway for tremendous volumes of freshwater that flow to the ocean. Changing conditions of the earth's landscapes and oceans can disrupt the fragile natural equilibrium between fresh and saltwater that exists in coastal zones. Among these, over-abstraction of groundwater is considered the leading man-made cause of seawater intrusion. Moreover, many of the world's largest urban settings, where sources of contamination are profuse, have been built over the freshwater in coastal aquifers. Thus, coastal aquifers are important receptors of human impacts to water on Earth (Michael et al., 2017). This Special Issue on 'Investigation and Management of Coastal Aquifers' contains current scientific advances on the topic, dealing with the storage and quality of water, affected by stressors ranging in scale from point source contamination to global climate change.

  1. Opportunities and Challenges of Linking Scientific Core Samples to the Geoscience Data Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noren, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Core samples generated in scientific drilling and coring are critical for the advancement of the Earth Sciences. The scientific themes enabled by analysis of these samples are diverse, and include plate tectonics, ocean circulation, Earth-life system interactions (paleoclimate, paleobiology, paleoanthropology), Critical Zone processes, geothermal systems, deep biosphere, and many others, and substantial resources are invested in their collection and analysis. Linking core samples to researchers, datasets, publications, and funding agencies through registration of globally unique identifiers such as International Geo Sample Numbers (IGSNs) offers great potential for advancing several frontiers. These include maximizing sample discoverability, access, reuse, and return on investment; a means for credit to researchers; and documentation of project outputs to funding agencies. Thousands of kilometers of core samples and billions of derivative subsamples have been generated through thousands of investigators' projects, yet the vast majority of these samples are curated at only a small number of facilities. These numbers, combined with the substantial similarity in sample types, make core samples a compelling target for IGSN implementation. However, differences between core sample communities and other geoscience disciplines continue to create barriers to implementation. Core samples involve parent-child relationships spanning 8 or more generations, an exponential increase in sample numbers between levels in the hierarchy, concepts related to depth/position in the sample, requirements for associating data derived from core scanning and lithologic description with data derived from subsample analysis, and publications based on tens of thousands of co-registered scan data points and thousands of analyses of subsamples. These characteristics require specialized resources for accurate and consistent assignment of IGSNs, and a community of practice to establish norms

  2. Scientific challenges in thermosphere-ionosphere forecasting – conclusions from the October 2014 NASA JPL community workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannucci Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in forecasting space weather in the thermosphere and ionosphere (T-I led to a community workshop held at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in October, 2014. The workshop focus was “Scientific Challenges in Thermosphere-Ionosphere Forecasting” to emphasize that forecasting presumes a sufficiently advanced state of scientific knowledge, yet one that is still evolving. The purpose of the workshop, and this topical issue that arose from the workshop, was to discuss research frontiers that will lead to improved space weather forecasts. Three areas are discussed in some detail in this paper: (1 the role of lower atmosphere forcing in the response of the T-I to geomagnetic disturbances; (2 the significant deposition of energy at polar latitudes during geomagnetic disturbances; and (3 recent developments in understanding the propagation of coronal mass ejections through the heliosphere and prospects for forecasting the north-south component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF using observations at the Lagrangian L5 point. We describe other research presented at the workshop that appears in the topical issue. The possibility of establishing a “positive feedback loop” where improved scientific knowledge leads to improved forecasts is described (Siscoe 2006, Space Weather, 4, S01003; Mannucci 2012, Space Weather, 10, S07003.

  3. Research ethics in the dynamic of scientific field: challenges in the building of guidelines for social sciences and humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Iara Coelho Zito; Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães

    2015-09-01

    The development of guidelines on research ethics for social science and humanities (SSH) takes place in the scientific field, marked by disputes aimed at the establishment of hegemonic scientific standard. In Brazil, the National Health Council is responsible for approving these guidelines, which involve certain specificities. Based on the authors' experience in the SSH Working Group of the National Commission on Research Ethics (GT CHS / CONEP), this article presents the process of development of guidelines for SSH, and some its challenges: the distance between the statutory guarantee and the effective execution of guidelines; the biomedical hegemony and the marginal position of the SSH in the CEP / CONEP system; the inadequacy of the current resolution facing the research features in CHS; the use of the concept of risk in guidelines aimed at SSH in the health area. Some interfaces and tensions in the debate between scientific merit and ethical evaluation are also discussed. The analysis highlights important impasses and difficulties regarding inter-paradigmatic dialogue in health research, considered the characteristics of the different traditions, the CONEP's heavily relying on the positivist perspective and the defense of that paradigm hegemony.

  4. Autoria em artigos científicos: os novos desafios Authorship for scientific papers: the new challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Costa Garcia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A disseminação da prática de coautoria no Brasil e na comunidade internacional tem sido acompanhada pelo aumento no registro de fraudes, manipulações e outros desvios ao definir a responsabilidade por um trabalho científico. Este artigo discorre sobre os critérios utilizados para atribuição da autoria, as razões para o crescimento dos índices de coautoria e os desafios para estabelecer a autoria em periódicos eletrônicos. Por meio de revisão bibliográfica e estudo de caso (a partir de levantamento de base de dados, aponta caminhos para evitar que "desvios de comportamento" quanto à atribuição de autoria abalem a credibilidade da ciência.The dissemination of the practice of collaborative authorship (coauthorship in Brazil and in the international scientific community has been accompanied by an increasing occurrence of frauds, manipulations and other deviations in the assignment of responsibility for a scientific paper. This article discusses the criteria for authorship attribution, the reasons for the growing indices of coauthorship and the challenges to determine authorship in electronic journals. Through literature review and case study (bibliographic search in scientific database, it shows ways to avoid that "misbehaviors" related to the authorship attribution affect the credibility of science.

  5. Sustainable Ammonia Synthesis – Exploring the scientific challenges associated with discovering alternative, sustainable processes for ammonia production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nørskov, Jens [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); ; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Chen, Jingguang [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Miranda, Raul [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science; Fitzsimmons, Tim [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science; Stack, Robert [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science

    2016-02-18

    Ammonia (NH3) is essential to all life on our planet. Until about 100 years ago, NH3 produced by reduction of dinitrogen (N2) in air came almost exclusively from bacteria containing the enzyme nitrogenase.. DOE convened a roundtable of experts on February 18, 2016. Participants in the Roundtable discussions concluded that the scientific basis for sustainable processes for ammonia synthesis is currently lacking, and it needs to be enhanced substantially before it can form the foundation for alternative processes. The Roundtable Panel identified an overarching grand challenge and several additional scientific grand challenges and research opportunities: -Discovery of active, selective, scalable, long-lived catalysts for sustainable ammonia synthesis. -Development of relatively low pressure (<10 atm) and relatively low temperature (<200 C) thermal processes. -Integration of knowledge from nature (enzyme catalysis), molecular/homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. -Development of electrochemical and photochemical routes for N2 reduction based on proton and electron transfer -Development of biochemical routes to N2 reduction -Development of chemical looping (solar thermochemical) approaches -Identification of descriptors of catalytic activity using a combination of theory and experiments -Characterization of surface adsorbates and catalyst structures (chemical, physical and electronic) under conditions relevant to ammonia synthesis.

  6. Affordances and Challenges of Using Argument as a Connective Discourse for Scientific Practices to Teach Climate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen-Barrie, A.; Wolfson, J.

    2015-12-01

    An important goal of science education is to support development of citizens to participate in public debate and make informed decisions relevant to their lives and their worlds. The NGSS (Next Generation Science Standards) suggest engaging students in science classrooms in argumentation as a practice to help enhance the quality of evidence based decision making. In this multi-case study, we explored the use of written argumentation in eight secondary school science classrooms during a lesson on the relationship between ocean temperature and its CO2 holding capacity. All teachers of these classrooms were trained during a day long NSF funded Climate Literacy Workshop on the basic concepts of climate science, scientific practices and implementation of an activity called "It's a Gassy World". The data of the current study involved students' written arguments, teachers' written reflections on the implementation of the activity as well as field notes from the Climate Literacy Workshop. A qualitative discourse analysis of the data was used to find common themes around affordances and challenges of argument as a connective discourse for scientific practices to teach climate change. The findings show that participating in written argumentation process encouraged students to discuss their experimental design and use data interpretation for their evidences. However, the results also indicated the following challenges: a) teachers themselves need support in connecting their evidence to their claims, b) arguing a socioscientific issue creates a sensitive environment c) conceptual quality of an argument needs to be strengthen through background in courses other than science, and d) graphing skills (or lack of) can interfere with constructing scientifically accurate claims. This study has implications in effectively teaching climate change through argumentation, and thus creating opportunities for practicing authentic climate science research in K-12 classrooms.

  7. The many facets of extragalactic radio surveys: towards new scientific challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Radio continuum surveys are a powerful tool to detect large number of objects over a wide range of redshifts and obtain information on the intensity, polarization and distribution properties of radio sources across the sky. They are essential to answer to fundamental questions of modern astrophysics. Radio astronomy is in the midst of a transformation. Developments in high-speed digital signal processing and broad-band optical fibre links between antennas have enabled significant upgrades of the existing radio facilities (e-MERLIN, JVLA, ATCA-CABB, eEVN, APERTIF), and are leading to next-generation radio telescopes (LOFAR, MWA, ASKAP, MeerKAT). All these efforts will ultimately lead to the realization of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), which, owing to advances in sensitivity, field-of-view, frequency range and spectral resolution, will yield transformational science in many astrophysical research fields. The purpose of this meeting is to explore new scientific perspectives offered by modern radio surveys, focusing on synergies allowed by multi-frequency, multi-resolution observations. We will bring together researchers working on wide aspects of the physics and evolution of extra-galactic radio sources, from star-forming galaxies to AGNs and clusters of galaxies, including their role as cosmological probes. The organization of this conference has been inspired by the recent celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Northern Cross Radio Telescope in Medicina (BO), whose pioneering B2 and B3 surveys provided a significant contribution to radio astronomical studies for many decades afterwards. The conference was organized by the Istituto di Radioastronomia (INAF), and was held at the CNR Research Area in Bologna, on 20-23 October 2015. This Conference has received support from the following bodies and funding agencies: National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), ASTRON, RadioNet3 (through the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research

  8. Selection of sustainability indicators for health services in challenging environments: balancing scientific approach with political engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Karl; Girois, Susan

    2013-06-01

    Sustainability evaluation has become a key component of international health. However, evaluators have faced a number of challenges linked to the lack of consensus on the meaning of the concept of "sustainability". This paper aims to describe a methodology, the Sustainability Analysis Process, based on several conceptual frameworks and tested in five different countries in the physical rehabilitation sector. The methodology consists of five successive steps: (i) overview of the context; (ii) system boundary; (iii) consensus vision of sustainability, and derivation of stakeholder perspectives; (iv) selection of sustainability indicators and characterization and analysis of local system sustainability; and (v) verification and modification. The paper also discusses the place of the evaluator and researcher in the process: the methodology aims to help evaluators objectively measure the level of sustainability of a health system with the challenge of dealing with a subjective notion, the concept of sustainability, and a diversity of actors. The Sustainability Analysis Process also aims to capture the dynamics of systems by repeating the process on a regular basis. The methodology highlights the need for evaluators build consensus amongst stakeholders on a common vision of the future of a health system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Implementing a Public Health Approach to Addressing Mental Health Needs in a University Setting: Lessons and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcover, Jason; Mays, Sally; McCarthy, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The mental health needs of college students are placing increasing demands on counseling center resources, and traditional outreach efforts may be outdated or incomplete. The public health model provides an approach for reaching more students, decreasing stigma, and addressing mental health concerns before they reach crisis levels. Implementing a…

  10. A scientific defence of religion and the religious accommodation of science? Contextual challenges and paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel W. du Toit

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Few human phenomena in our time are as controversial or confusing as religion. People seem to live in two worlds: a mythical and a scientific one. They talk about either of these worlds in isolation but cannot reconcile the underlying presuppositions. Believers are less naïve than the ‘new atheists’ suppose, and atheists do not come without their quota of superstition and belief. Midway between the two opposites is a burgeoning, secular new spirituality that has assumed many forms in recent years. The groups are often marked by some form of naturalism, which try to accommodate science. The premise in this article is that religion, being a product of normal evolutionary processes, is ‘natural’. This implies that cultural evolution is ongoing and supports the thesis that religion (in this case Western Christianity is making a major transition. As for science, I briefly outline the role of metaphysics. That is because science often has to invoke metaphysical constructs to make sense of the bigger picture. Following Aristotle, the metaphysical dimension of science is a blank page which every era fills with its own interpretation. In that sense, it is ‘more than’ just empiricism, verifiability, and it is accompanied by some metaphysical baggage. At this metaphysical level, the traditional dominance of causality makes way for emergence.

  11. Global environmental change and human population health: a conceptual and scientific challenge for epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, A J

    1993-02-01

    A large and rapidly growing human population, resource intensive industrial practices, and land exhausting agriculture has overloaded the carrying capacity of the planet's natural systems. Evidence of overloading include global warming, soil degradation and topsoil loss, decreasing stratospheric ozone, depletion of groundwater, reduced genetic and ecosystem diversity, and acidification of water and soils. These global environmental changes threaten human health in qualitatively different way than the way conventional environmental pollutants do. The risks arising from these changes stem from impairment of productivity (soils, forests, oceans, biodiversity) or stability (climate, sea level, ultraviolet, filtration). Epidemiologist must adopt an ecological model to identify, study, and to quantify the health effects of ecological disturbances. The health effects from these disturbances include those caused by atmospheric changes, by reduced agricultural yield, and by uncontrolled growth of urban populations. The UN recognizes that scientific disciplines and human capabilities to evaluate and provide sound guidance cannot keep pace with the fast rate of ecological change. Thus, rather than empirical evidence, interdisciplinary research, using modeling and forecasting to assess health effects, is needed to provide decision makers with the best available estimates.

  12. Scientific perspectivism: A philosopher of science's response to the challenge of big data biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callebaut, Werner

    2012-03-01

    Big data biology-bioinformatics, computational biology, systems biology (including 'omics'), and synthetic biology-raises a number of issues for the philosophy of science. This article deals with several such: Is data-intensive biology a new kind of science, presumably post-reductionistic? To what extent is big data biology data-driven? Can data 'speak for themselves?' I discuss these issues by way of a reflection on Carl Woese's worry that "a society that permits biology to become an engineering discipline, that allows that science to slip into the role of changing the living world without trying to understand it, is a danger to itself." And I argue that scientific perspectivism, a philosophical stance represented prominently by Giere, Van Fraassen, and Wimsatt, according to which science cannot as a matter of principle transcend our human perspective, provides the best resources currently at our disposal to tackle many of the philosophical issues implied in the modeling of complex, multilevel/multiscale phenomena. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Power to the People: Addressing Big Data Challenges in Neuroscience by Creating a New Cadre of Citizen Neuroscientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskams, Jane; Popović, Zoran

    2016-11-02

    Global neuroscience projects are producing big data at an unprecedented rate that informatic and artificial intelligence (AI) analytics simply cannot handle. Online games, like Foldit, Eterna, and Eyewire-and now a new neuroscience game, Mozak-are fueling a people-powered research science (PPRS) revolution, creating a global community of "new experts" that over time synergize with computational efforts to accelerate scientific progress, empowering us to use our collective cerebral talents to drive our understanding of our brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Addressing the Challenges of a New Digital Technologies Curriculum: MOOCs as a Scalable Solution for Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, Rebecca; Falkner, Katrina; Falkner, Nickolas

    2014-01-01

    England and Australia have introduced new learning areas, teaching computer science to children from the first year of school. This is a significant milestone that also raises a number of big challenges: the preparation of teachers and the development of resources" at a national scale." Curriculum change is not easy for teachers, in any…

  15. Implementing a Culturally Attuned Functional Behavioural Assessment to Understand and Address Challenging Behaviours Demonstrated by Students from Diverse Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Gerardo; Wong-Lo, Mickie; Short, Maureen; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2014-01-01

    As the US student population continues to become increasingly diverse, educators have encountered difficulties in distinguishing between cultural differences and genuine disability indicators. This concern is clearly evident in assisting students from diverse backgrounds who demonstrate chronic challenging behaviours. Past practices (e.g.…

  16. The Forensic Curator: Digital Forensics as a Solution to Addressing the Curatorial Challenges Posed by Personal Digital Archives

    OpenAIRE

    Gareth Knight

    2012-01-01

    The growth of computing technology during the previous three decades has resulted in a large amount of content being created in digital form. As their creators retire or pass away, an increasing number of personal data collections, in the form of digital media and complete computer systems, are being offered to the academic institutional archive. For the digital curator or archivist, the handling and processing of such digital material represents a considerable challenge, requiring developmen...

  17. Addressing the challenges to health sector decentralization in Nepal: an inquiry into the policy and implementation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, R; Ratanawijitrasin, S; Srithamrongsawat, S

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the status and explore the challenges to decentralization policy implementation in Nepal. Thirty seven key informants rich in experience and knowledge, seven focus group discussions, observation of six health facilities and analysis of about 25 key policy documents provided the data for this study. The study identified the challenges to the implementation of decentralization reforms in the public health sector as: (i) centralised and weak management and programming practices of the government; (ii) weak legal and institutional framework; (iii) conflicting policy objectives; (iv) lack of implementation strategy; (v) poor financial and human resource management system; (vi) lack of adequate preparation for managing the reform; (vii) weak capacity at all levels; (viii) political instability. It was revealed that the implementation of the policy in Nepal was extremely poor as many of the important policy measures were either never initiated or they were only partially implemented. The challenges lie both at - policy design and implementation phase. Clear policy objectives, appropriate structure, sound planning, financing and human resources policy, adequate capacity, responsive information system, defined service packages, active participation of stakeholders and a conducive socio-political environment are considered imperative for successful implementation of the policy. Preparation for managing reform implementation at national and district levels is prerequisite for decentralization to work. Pushing for decentralization in a politically fragile environment may rather lead to further fragmentation, instead of strengthening government legitimacy.

  18. Blind tests of methods for InSight Mars mission: Open scientific challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, John; Ceylan, Savas; Giardini, Domenico; Khan, Amir; van Driel, Martin; Böse, Maren; Euchner, Fabian; Garcia, Raphael F.; Drilleau, Mélanie; Lognonné, Philippe; Panning, Mark; Banerdt, Bruce

    2017-04-01

    The Marsquake Service (MQS) will be the ground segment service within the InSight mission to Mars, which will deploy a single seismic station on Elysium Planitia in November 2018. The main tasks of the MQS are the identification and characterisation of seismicity, and managing the Martian seismic event catalogue. In advance of the mission, we have developed a series of single station event location methods that rely on a priori 1D and 3D structural models. In coordination with the Mars Structural Service, we expect to use iterative inversion techniques to revise these structural models and event locations. In order to seek methodological advancements and test our current approaches, we have designed a blind test case using Martian synthetics combined with realistic noise models for the Martian surface. We invite all scientific parties that are interested in single station approaches and in exploring the Martian time-series to participate and contribute to our blind test. We anticipate the test will can improve currently developed location and structural inversion techniques, and also allow us explore new single station techniques for moment tensor and magnitude determination. The waveforms for our test case are computed employing AxiSEM and Instaseis for a randomly selected 1D background model and event catalogue that is statistically consistent with our current expectation of Martian seismicity. Realistic seismic surface noise is superimposed to generate a continuous time-series spanning 6 months. The event catalog includes impacts as well as Martian quakes. The temporal distribution of the seismicity in the timeseries, as well as the true structural model, are not be known to any participating parties including MQS till the end of competition. We provide our internal tools such as event location codes, suite of background models, seismic phase travel times, in order to support researchers who are willing to use/improve our current methods. Following the deadline

  19. How Do We Ensure Research and Scientific Integrity? A Diverse Panel Discusses the Critical Components and Challenges of Crafting and Implementing Effective Scientific Integrity Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkheiser, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    10 Years of Scientific Integrity Policy at the U.S. Geological Survey The U.S. Geological Survey implemented its first scientific integrity policy in January 2007. Following the 2009 and 2010 executive memoranda aimed at creating scientific integrity policies throughout the federal government, USGS' policy served as a template to inform the U.S. Department of Interior's policy set forth in January 2011. Scientific integrity policy at the USGS and DOI continues to evolve as best practices come to the fore and the broader Federal scientific integrity community evolves in its understanding of a vital and expanding endeavor. We find that scientific integrity is best served by: formal and informal mechanisms through which to resolve scientific integrity issues; a well-communicated and enforceable code of scientific conduct that is accessible to multiple audiences; an unfailing commitment to the code on the part of all parties; awareness through mandatory training; robust protection to encourage whistleblowers to come forward; and outreach with the scientific integrity community to foster consistency and share experiences.

  20. From Within Host Dynamics to the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease: Scientific Overview and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Juan B.; Galinski, Mary R.; Cantrell, Stephen; Voit, Eberhard O.

    2015-01-01

    Since their earliest days, humans have been struggling with infectious diseases. Caused by viruses, bacteria, protozoa, or even higher organisms like worms, these diseases depend critically on numerous intricate interactions between parasites and hosts, and while we have learned much about these interactions, many details are still obscure. It is evident that the combined host-parasite dynamics constitutes a complex system that involves components and processes at multiple scales of time, space, and biological organization. At one end of this hierarchy we know of individual molecules that play crucial roles for the survival of a parasite or for the response and survival of its host. At the other end, one realizes that the spread of infectious diseases by far exceeds specific locales and, due to today's easy travel of hosts carrying a multitude of organisms, can quickly reach global proportions. The community of mathematical modelers has been addressing specific aspects of infectious diseases for a long time. Most of these efforts have focused on one or two select scales of a multi-level disease and used quite different computational approaches. This restriction to a molecular, physiological, or epidemiological level was prudent, as it has produced solid pillars of a foundation from which it might eventually be possible to launch comprehensive, multi-scale modeling efforts that make full use of the recent advances in biology and, in particular, the various high-throughput methodologies accompanying the emerging –omics revolution. This special issue contains contributions from biologists and modelers, most of whom presented and discussed their work at the workshop From within Host Dynamics to the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, which was held at the Mathematical Biosciences Institute at Ohio State University in April 2014. These contributions highlight some of the forays into a deeper understanding of the dynamics between parasites and their hosts, and the

  1. Challenges and Opportunities in Developing the Hawaiian Scientific and Technical Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In searching for dark skies, persistently clear weather, and minimal atmospheric interference, astronomical observing sites are generally located in remote, mountainous locations, and usually far from large communities. Such locations often have weak economies, and shallow workforce pools in the technical and administrative areas generally needed by the observatories. This leads to a problem, and an opportunity, for both the observatories and their local communities. Importing employees from far away locations is costly, leads to high turnover, and deprives the community of economic benefits and the sense of fealty with the observatories that would naturally result if local people occupied these comparatively good paying jobs. While by no means unique, the observatories on Mauna Kea Hawai`i are a clear example of this dual dilemma. This presentation will report findings from a model workforce needs assessment survey of all the Mauna Kea observatories, which has establish likely annual staffing requirements in several categories of technological and administrative support, including the educational entrance requirements. Results indicated that through 2023, 80% of observatory job openings on Hawai`i Island will be in technology and administration. Furthermore, the vast majority of these jobs will require only a two-year or four-year college degree in a relevant field as an entrance requirement. Efforts to realign the existing resources to better meet these common needs will be discussed, including the highly successful partnership between County of Hawai`i Workforce Development Board, the Mauna Kea observatories, the local K-12 systems, Hawai`i Community College, the University of Hawai`i Hilo, and a number of informal education and workplace experience programs. This collaboration has resulted in no fewer than three, interlocked, community programs have stepped up to meet this challenge to the benefit of both the local community and the observatories.

  2. Current status and future perspectives of electron interactions with molecules, clusters, surfaces, and interfaces [Workshop on Fundamental challenges in electron-driven chemistry; Workshop on Electron-driven processes: Scientific challenges and technological opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Kurt H.; McCurdy, C. William; Orlando, Thomas M.; Rescigno, Thomas N.

    2000-09-01

    This report is based largely on presentations and discussions at two workshops and contributions from workshop participants. The workshop on Fundamental Challenges in Electron-Driven Chemistry was held in Berkeley, October 9-10, 1998, and addressed questions regarding theory, computation, and simulation. The workshop on Electron-Driven Processes: Scientific Challenges and Technological Opportunities was held at Stevens Institute of Technology, March 16-17, 2000, and focused largely on experiments. Electron-molecule and electron-atom collisions initiate and drive almost all the relevant chemical processes associated with radiation chemistry, environmental chemistry, stability of waste repositories, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, plasma processing of materials for microelectronic devices and other applications, and novel light sources for research purposes (e.g. excimer lamps in the extreme ultraviolet) and in everyday lighting applications. The life sciences are a rapidly advancing field where the important role of electron-driven processes is only now beginning to be recognized. Many of the applications of electron-initiated chemical processes require results in the near term. A large-scale, multidisciplinary and collaborative effort should be mounted to solve these problems in a timely way so that their solution will have the needed impact on the urgent questions of understanding the physico-chemical processes initiated and driven by electron interactions.

  3. The challenges forensic nurses face when their patient is comatose: addressing the needs of our most vulnerable patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce-Weeks, Jennifer; Campbell, Polly

    2008-01-01

    Since 1996, the American Nurses Association has recognized forensic nursing as a formal specialty. Despite this recognition, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners and Emergency Department nurses struggle with incorporating evidence collection into the care they give the unconscious or comatose patient they suspect has been sexually assaulted. Through case example, this article provides an abbreviated review of the circumstances under which these patients present for care, current challenges, and barriers in upholding the standard of forensic nursing care, as well as proposed interventions for the practicing forensic nurse.

  4. Addressing the challenges of improving primary care quality in Uzbekistan: a qualitative study of chronic heart failure management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedov, Mohir; Green, Judith; Azimov, Ravshan; Avezova, Guloyim; Inakov, Sherzod; Mamatkulov, Bahrom

    2013-08-01

    Uzbekistan has a well-developed primary care system, with universal access to care, but faces challenges in improving the quality of clinical care provided. This study aimed to identify barriers to quality improvement by focusing on one common condition, Chronic Heart Failure (CHF), for which there are evidence-based international guidelines for management. To identify the challenges to improving the quality of care for CHF in line with such guidelines we took a qualitative approach, interviewing 15 physicians and 30 patients in detail about their experiences of CHF management. Despite recent improvements to the training of primary care physicians, their access to up-to-date information was limited, and they were disproportionately reliant on information from pharmaceutical companies. The main barriers to implementing international standards of care were: reluctance of physicians (and patients) to abandon ineffective interventions; enduring, system-wide incentives for clinically unnecessary hospitalization; and the lack of structural support for evidence-based health services improvement. Patients were in general positive about adherence to medications, but faced some problems in affording drugs and hospital care. Future interventions to strengthen primary care should be implemented with evaluations of their impact on the processes and outcomes of care for chronic conditions.

  5. Addressing the main challenges of energy security in the twenty-first century – Contributions of the conferences on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovska, Natasa; Duić, Neven; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and fossil fuel reserve depletion both pose challenges for energy security and for wellbeing in general. The top ten among them include: Decarbonising the world economy; Enhancing the energy efficiency and energy savings in buildings; Advancing the energy technologies; Moving towards...... biorefineries. Presenting the contributions of selected conference papers published in the special issues of leading scientific journals (including all the papers from the current Energy special issue), this review demonstrates the capacity of the Conferences on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water...

  6. Addressing Health Literacy Challenges With a Cutting-Edge Infectious Disease Curriculum for the High School Biology Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacque, Berri; Koch-Weser, Susan; Faux, Russell; Meiri, Karina

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the secondary analysis of evaluation data from an innovative high school biology curriculum focused on infectious disease (ID) to examine the health literacy implications of teaching claims evaluation, data interpretation, and risk assessment skills in the context of 21st-Century health science. The curriculum was implemented between 2010 and 2013 in Biology II classes held in four public high schools (three in Massachusetts and one in Ohio), plus a private school in Virginia. A quasi-experimental design was used in which student participants (n = 273) were compared to an age-matched, nonparticipant, peer group (N = 125). Participants in each school setting demonstrated increases in conceptual content knowledge (Cohen's d > 1.89) as well as in understanding how to apply scientific principles to health claims evaluation and risk assessment (Cohen's d > 1.76) and in self-efficacy toward learning about ID (Cohen's d > 2.27). Participants also displayed enhanced communication about ID within their social networks relative to the comparison group (p biology classrooms is effective at fostering both the skills and self-efficacy pertinent to health literacy learning in diverse populations. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  7. The \\"Age\\" of Opportunity: European Efforts Seek to Address the Challenges of an Aging Population and Also Create Opportunities for Economic Growth and Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jim

    2017-01-01

    For the last ten years, Peter Wintlev-Jensen has been immersed in one of the greatest challenges the world will have to address in the decades ahead-the unprecedented aging of the population not only in Europe but also across the globe. This trend is reshaping consumer spending, challenging established economic models, driving the development of new industry and service sectors, and forcing a rethinking of key policy areas within health and social care. To quantify the challenge from a U.K. perspective, a recent report from the nonprofit organization Age UK showed that the country now has more people 60 or over than under 18 and more pensioners than children under 16. Just as striking, the number of people over 65 will rise almost 50% by 2030.

  8. Supports for libraries'restoration from the Great East Japan Earthquake : Challenges we address at Miyagi Prefectural Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Shinichiro

    This article overviews the situations of damage and reconstruction of mainly public libraries in Miyagi Prefecture about 9 months after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Serious damage of library buildings was due not only to the tsunami or seismic sea wave but to violent shaking, the latter less reported by the media. We at the Miyagi Prefectural Library implemented reconstruction assistance for regional public libraries in both direct and indirect ways. Among them, we report in detail on the support we offered until the Minami-sanriku Town Library reopened its service. We highlight a prefectural library's role, acting between supporters and those supportees, to consider the necessity of middle organizations. We clarify what challenges we face and examine how best to provide assistance in case of large-scale disasters.

  9. The Forensic Curator: Digital Forensics as a Solution to Addressing the Curatorial Challenges Posed by Personal Digital Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Knight

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of computing technology during the previous three decades has resulted in a large amount of content being created in digital form. As their creators retire or pass away, an increasing number of personal data collections, in the form of digital media and complete computer systems, are being offered to the academic institutional archive. For the digital curator or archivist, the handling and processing of such digital material represents a considerable challenge, requiring development of new processes and procedures. This paper outlines how digital forensic methods, developed by the law enforcement and legal community, may be applied by academic digital archives. It goes on to describe the strategic and practical decisions that should be made to introduce forensic methods within an existing curatorial infrastructure and how different techniques, such as forensic hashing, timeline analysis and data carving, may be used to collect information of a greater breadth and scope than may be gathered through manual activities.

  10. Across the Atlantic cooperation to address international challenges in eHealth and health IT: managing toward a common goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Charles P; Iakovidis, Ilias; Debenedetti, Laurent; Lorenzi, Nancy M

    2009-11-01

    Countries on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean have invested in health information and communication technologies. Since eHealth challenges cross borders a European Union-United States of America conference on public policies relating to health IT and eHealth was held October 20-21, 2008 in Paris, France. The conference was organized around the four themes: (1) privacy and security, (2) health IT interoperability, (3) deployment and adoption of health IT, and (4) Public Private Collaborative Governance. The four key themes framed the discussion over the two days of plenary sessions and workshops. Key findings of the conference were organized along the four themes. (1) Privacy and security: Patients' access to their own data and key elements of a patient identification management framework were discussed. (2) Health IT interoperability: Three significant and common interoperability challenges emerged: (a) the need to establish common or compatible standards and clear guidelines for their implementation, (b) the desirability for shared certification criteria and (c) the need for greater awareness of the importance of interoperability. (3) Deployment and adoption of health IT: Three major areas of need emerged: (a) a shared knowledge base and assessment framework, (b) public-private collaboration and (c) and effective organizational change strategies. (4) Public Private Collaborative Governance: Sharing and communication are central to success in this area. Nations can learn from one another about ways to develop harmonious, effective partnerships. Three areas that were identified as highest priority for collaboration included: (1) health data security, (2) developing effective strategies to ensure healthcare professionals' acceptance of health IT tools, and (3) interoperability.

  11. Report on the INMM Workshop on preparing for nuclear arms reductions to address technical transparency and verification challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Lewis, P.

    2013-01-01

    In May 2011, a workshop was held to develop broader awareness of the technical and operational challenges that could be used to enhance effective transparency and/or verification in the medium to long-term. Building confidence in a broader multi-lateral engagement scenario adds even greater challenges than the traditional bi-lateral approaches. The multi-disciplinary group that attended included decision-makers needing to understand present and possible future technical capabilities, and the technical community needing clearer definition of possible requirements and operational constraints. In additional to traditional presentations, the group conducted an exercise to stimulate new perspectives on verification requirements for a scenario based on nuclear arms reductions at very low numbers of nuclear weapons. The workshop participants were divided into two groups and asked to explore the political and technical requirements needed for States to move towards significant arms reductions. Using a technique called 'back-casting' participants were asked to imagine a world without nuclear weapons and describe what would be needed to achieve levels of one thousand, one hundred, ten, and ultimately zero weapons in the world. Most participants agreed that a strong political commitment will be necessary and that complete disarmament will only be possible if states are convinced that nuclear weapons serve no purpose. Both groups believed that a time period of greater instability would be encountered when moving from 1000 to 100 nuclear weapons and that it would be imperative to accelerate quickly through this period. The group discussed the need to have an international body monitor the disarmament process to maintain legitimacy for the international community. One possibility could be the development of an intergovernmental panel on verification and disarmament to monitor and facilitate disarmament. The groups recognized the problem of fissile material disposition after

  12. Determining the efficacy of national strategies aimed at addressing the challenges facing health personnel working in rural areas in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Mburu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shortages of Human Resources for Health (HRH in rural areas are often driven by poor working and living conditions, inadequate salaries and benefits, lack of training and career development opportunities amongst others. The South African government has adopted a human resource strategy for the health sector in 2011 aimed at addressing these challenges.Aim: This study reviews the challenges faced by health personnel against government strategies aimed at attracting and retaining health personnel in these underserved areas.Setting: The study was conducted in six primary health care service sites in the Hlabisa sub-district of Umkhanyakude, located in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.Methods: The study population comprised 25 health workers including 11 professional nurses, 4 staff nurses and 10 doctors (4 medical doctors, 3 foreign medical doctors and 3 doctors undertaking community service. Qualitative data were collected from semi-structured interviews and analysed using thematic analysis.Results: Government initiatives including the rural allowance, deployment of foreign medical doctors and the presence of health personnel undertaking their community service in rural areas are positively viewed by health personnel working in rural health facilities. However, poor living and working conditions, together with inadequate personal development opportunities, remain unresolved challenges. It is these challenges that will continue to dissuade experienced health personnel from remaining in these underserved areas.Conclusion: South Africa’s HRH strategy for the Health Sector 2012/13–2015/16 had highlighted the key challenges raised by respondents and identified strategies aimed at addressing these challenges. Implementation of these strategies is key to improving both living and working conditions, and providing health personnel with opportunities for further development will require inter-ministerial collaboration if the HRH 2030

  13. Determining the efficacy of national strategies aimed at addressing the challenges facing health personnel working in rural areas in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mburu, Grace; George, Gavin

    2017-07-31

    Shortages of Human Resources for Health (HRH) in rural areas are often driven by poor working and living conditions, inadequate salaries and benefits, lack of training and career development opportunities amongst others. The South African government has adopted a human resource strategy for the health sector in 2011 aimed at addressing these challenges. This study reviews the challenges faced by health personnel against government strategies aimed at attracting and retaining health personnel in these underserved areas. The study was conducted in six primary health care service sites in the Hlabisa sub-district of Umkhanyakude, located in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study population comprised 25 health workers including 11 professional nurses, 4 staff nurses and 10 doctors (4 medical doctors, 3 foreign medical doctors and 3 doctors undertaking community service). Qualitative data were collected from semi-structured interviews and analysed using thematic analysis. Government initiatives including the rural allowance, deployment of foreign medical doctors and the presence of health personnel undertaking their community service in rural areas are positively viewed by health personnel working in rural health facilities. However, poor living and working conditions, together with inadequate personal development opportunities, remain unresolved challenges. It is these challenges that will continue to dissuade experienced health personnel from remaining in these underserved areas. South Africa's HRH strategy for the Health Sector 2012/13-2015/16 had highlighted the key challenges raised by respondents and identified strategies aimed at addressing these challenges. Implementation of these strategies is key to improving both living and working conditions, and providing health personnel with opportunities for further development will require inter-ministerial collaboration if the HRH 2030 objectives are to be realised.

  14. Multiple-level stakeholder engagement in malaria clinical trials: addressing the challenges of conducting clinical research in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtove, George; Kimani, Joshua; Kisinza, William; Makenga, Geofrey; Mangesho, Peter; Duparc, Stephan; Nakalembe, Miriam; Phiri, Kamija S; Orrico, Russell; Rojo, Ricardo; Vandenbroucke, Pol

    2018-03-22

    Multinational clinical trials are logistically complex and require close coordination between various stakeholders. They must comply with global clinical standards and are accountable to multiple regulatory and ethical bodies. In resource-limited settings, it is challenging to understand how to apply global clinical standards to international, national, and local factors in clinical trials, making multiple-level stakeholder engagement an important element in the successful conduct of these clinical trials. During the planning and implementation of a large multinational clinical trial for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in resource-limited areas of sub-Saharan Africa, we encountered numerous challenges, which required implementation of a range of engagement measures to ensure compliance with global clinical and regulatory standards. These challenges included coordination with ongoing global malaria efforts, heterogeneity in national regulatory structures, sub-optimal healthcare infrastructure, local practices and beliefs, and perspectives that view healthcare providers with undue trust or suspicion. In addition to engagement with international bodies, such as the World Health Organization, the Malaria in Pregnancy Consortium, the Steve Biko Centre for Bioethics, and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, in order to address the challenges just described, Pfizer Inc. and Medicines for Malaria Venture (the "Sponsoring Entities" for these studies) and investigators liaised with national- and district-level stakeholders such as health ministers and regional/local community health workers. Community engagement measures undertaken by investigators included local meetings with community leaders to explain the research aims and answer questions and concerns voiced by the community. The investigators also engaged with family members of prospective trial participants in order to be sensitive to local practices and beliefs. Engagement

  15. Addressing verification challenges, 16 October 2006, Vienna, Austria, Symposium on International Safeguards (16-20 October 2006)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2006-01-01

    In his talk about Verification Challenges Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the IAEA, welcomed the participants of the Symposium on International Safeguards. He stated that safeguards is probably the most difficult task entrusted to an international organization and that a major increase in nuclear energy around the globe is expected which means that nuclear know-how is spread to more and more countries and can be applied to both peaceful purposes and also non-peaceful purposes. More and more countries want to go in for the nuclear fuel cycle including sensitive fuel cycle activities like enrichment and reprocessing, they become so-called 'virtual nuclear weapons States. There is the need to develop a new international or multinational approach to the fuel cycle so as to avoid ending up with not just nine nuclear weapon States but another 20 or 30 States which have the capacity to develop nuclear weapons in a very short span of time. He stressed the important linkage between disarmament and non-proliferation and remembered the audience that safeguards, although very much a technical activity, operates in a politically charged environment. The IAEA's job is to make sure that countries with comprehensive safeguards are conducting all their activities exclusively for peaceful purposes. The ability to discover possible undeclared activities is a key challenge the IAEA is facing. He mentioned that the IAEA does not get all the information they would need, for example the IAEA does not get systematic information from the Nuclear Suppliers Group on exports and imports. Without the Additional Protocol the IAEA is also hampered in its ability to detect undeclared activities, e.g in the R and D activities that do not directly involve nuclear material. Another key issue are financial resources. Transparency measures in certain situations are under considerations including interviewing people, having access to documents, things that are not strictly required by the

  16. Addressing the challenges of a new digital technologies curriculum: MOOCs as a scalable solution for teacher professional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Vivian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available England and Australia have introduced new learning areas, teaching computer science to children from the first year of school. This is a significant milestone that also raises a number of big challenges: the preparation of teachers and the development of resources at a national scale. Curriculum change is not easy for teachers, in any context, and to ensure teachers are supported, scaled solutions are required. One educational approach that has gained traction for delivering content to large-scale audiences are massively open online courses (MOOCs; however, little is known about what constitutes effective MOOC design, particularly within professional development contexts. To prepare teachers in Australia, we decided to ride the wave of MOOCs, developing a MOOC to deliver free computing content and pedagogy to teachers with the integration of social media to support knowledge exchange and resource building. The MOOC was designed to meet teacher needs, allowing for flexibility, ad-hoc interactions, support and the open sharing of resources. In this paper, we describe the process of developing our initiative, participant engagement and experiences, so that others encountering similar changes and reforms may learn from our experience.

  17. A Biodiversity Indicators Dashboard: Addressing Challenges to Monitoring Progress towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets Using Disaggregated Global Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuemei; Smyth, Regan L.; Young, Bruce E.; Brooks, Thomas M.; Sánchez de Lozada, Alexandra; Bubb, Philip; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Larsen, Frank W.; Hamilton, Healy; Hansen, Matthew C.; Turner, Will R.

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the imperiled status of biodiversity and its benefit to human well-being, the world's governments committed in 2010 to take effective and urgent action to halt biodiversity loss through the Convention on Biological Diversity's “Aichi Targets”. These targets, and many conservation programs, require monitoring to assess progress toward specific goals. However, comprehensive and easily understood information on biodiversity trends at appropriate spatial scales is often not available to the policy makers, managers, and scientists who require it. We surveyed conservation stakeholders in three geographically diverse regions of critical biodiversity concern (the Tropical Andes, the African Great Lakes, and the Greater Mekong) and found high demand for biodiversity indicator information but uneven availability. To begin to address this need, we present a biodiversity “dashboard” – a visualization of biodiversity indicators designed to enable tracking of biodiversity and conservation performance data in a clear, user-friendly format. This builds on previous, more conceptual, indicator work to create an operationalized online interface communicating multiple indicators at multiple spatial scales. We structured this dashboard around the Pressure-State-Response-Benefit framework, selecting four indicators to measure pressure on biodiversity (deforestation rate), state of species (Red List Index), conservation response (protection of key biodiversity areas), and benefits to human populations (freshwater provision). Disaggregating global data, we present dashboard maps and graphics for the three regions surveyed and their component countries. These visualizations provide charts showing regional and national trends and lay the foundation for a web-enabled, interactive biodiversity indicators dashboard. This new tool can help track progress toward the Aichi Targets, support national monitoring and reporting, and inform outcome-based policy-making for the

  18. A biodiversity indicators dashboard: addressing challenges to monitoring progress towards the Aichi biodiversity targets using disaggregated global data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuemei; Smyth, Regan L; Young, Bruce E; Brooks, Thomas M; Sánchez de Lozada, Alexandra; Bubb, Philip; Butchart, Stuart H M; Larsen, Frank W; Hamilton, Healy; Hansen, Matthew C; Turner, Will R

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the imperiled status of biodiversity and its benefit to human well-being, the world's governments committed in 2010 to take effective and urgent action to halt biodiversity loss through the Convention on Biological Diversity's "Aichi Targets". These targets, and many conservation programs, require monitoring to assess progress toward specific goals. However, comprehensive and easily understood information on biodiversity trends at appropriate spatial scales is often not available to the policy makers, managers, and scientists who require it. We surveyed conservation stakeholders in three geographically diverse regions of critical biodiversity concern (the Tropical Andes, the African Great Lakes, and the Greater Mekong) and found high demand for biodiversity indicator information but uneven availability. To begin to address this need, we present a biodiversity "dashboard"--a visualization of biodiversity indicators designed to enable tracking of biodiversity and conservation performance data in a clear, user-friendly format. This builds on previous, more conceptual, indicator work to create an operationalized online interface communicating multiple indicators at multiple spatial scales. We structured this dashboard around the Pressure-State-Response-Benefit framework, selecting four indicators to measure pressure on biodiversity (deforestation rate), state of species (Red List Index), conservation response (protection of key biodiversity areas), and benefits to human populations (freshwater provision). Disaggregating global data, we present dashboard maps and graphics for the three regions surveyed and their component countries. These visualizations provide charts showing regional and national trends and lay the foundation for a web-enabled, interactive biodiversity indicators dashboard. This new tool can help track progress toward the Aichi Targets, support national monitoring and reporting, and inform outcome-based policy-making for the protection of

  19. A biodiversity indicators dashboard: addressing challenges to monitoring progress towards the Aichi biodiversity targets using disaggregated global data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Han

    Full Text Available Recognizing the imperiled status of biodiversity and its benefit to human well-being, the world's governments committed in 2010 to take effective and urgent action to halt biodiversity loss through the Convention on Biological Diversity's "Aichi Targets". These targets, and many conservation programs, require monitoring to assess progress toward specific goals. However, comprehensive and easily understood information on biodiversity trends at appropriate spatial scales is often not available to the policy makers, managers, and scientists who require it. We surveyed conservation stakeholders in three geographically diverse regions of critical biodiversity concern (the Tropical Andes, the African Great Lakes, and the Greater Mekong and found high demand for biodiversity indicator information but uneven availability. To begin to address this need, we present a biodiversity "dashboard"--a visualization of biodiversity indicators designed to enable tracking of biodiversity and conservation performance data in a clear, user-friendly format. This builds on previous, more conceptual, indicator work to create an operationalized online interface communicating multiple indicators at multiple spatial scales. We structured this dashboard around the Pressure-State-Response-Benefit framework, selecting four indicators to measure pressure on biodiversity (deforestation rate, state of species (Red List Index, conservation response (protection of key biodiversity areas, and benefits to human populations (freshwater provision. Disaggregating global data, we present dashboard maps and graphics for the three regions surveyed and their component countries. These visualizations provide charts showing regional and national trends and lay the foundation for a web-enabled, interactive biodiversity indicators dashboard. This new tool can help track progress toward the Aichi Targets, support national monitoring and reporting, and inform outcome-based policy-making for the

  20. Initiative Addresses Subsurface Energy and Environment Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Majer, Ernest L.; Wang, Joseph S. Y.; Colwell, Frederick; Redden, George

    2006-01-01

    Members of the geoscience community are cooperating in conceptualizing fundamental, crosscutting research to address major obstacles to solving energy and environmental problems related to the subsurface, through the SECUREarth initiative, which began in 2004. Addressing problems, such as reliable nuclear waste storage and safe carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration, are critical to maintaining an economical and safe energy supply and clean environment. A recent workshop in Golden, Colo., helped to further the development of the SECUREarth (Scientific Energy/Environmental Crosscutting Underground Research for Urgent Solutions to Secure the Earth's Future) initiative by identifying the key scientific challenges in the geosciences, as well as to target possible approaches for overcoming roadblocks.

  1. Electronic coarse graining enhances the predictive power of molecular simulation allowing challenges in water physics to be addressed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipcigan, Flaviu S., E-mail: flaviu.cipcigan@ed.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Peter Guthrie Tait Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FD (United Kingdom); National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Sokhan, Vlad P. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Crain, Jason [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Peter Guthrie Tait Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FD (United Kingdom); National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Martyna, Glenn J. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    One key factor that limits the predictive power of molecular dynamics simulations is the accuracy and transferability of the input force field. Force fields are challenged by heterogeneous environments, where electronic responses give rise to biologically important forces such as many-body polarisation and dispersion. The importance of polarisation in the condensed phase was recognised early on, as described by Cochran in 1959 [Philosophical Magazine 4 (1959) 1082–1086] [32]. Currently in molecular simulation, dispersion forces are treated at the two-body level and in the dipole limit, although the importance of three-body terms in the condensed phase was demonstrated by Barker in the 1980s [Phys. Rev. Lett. 57 (1986) 230–233] [72]. One approach for treating both polarisation and dispersion on an equal basis is to coarse grain the electrons surrounding a molecular moiety to a single quantum harmonic oscillator (cf. Hirschfelder, Curtiss and Bird 1954 [The Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids (1954)] [37]). The approach, when solved in strong coupling beyond the dipole limit, gives a description of long-range forces that includes two- and many-body terms to all orders. In the last decade, the tools necessary to implement the strong coupling limit have been developed, culminating in a transferable model of water with excellent predictive power across the phase diagram. Transferability arises since the environment automatically identifies the important long range interactions, rather than the modeler through a limited set of expressions. Here, we discuss the role of electronic coarse-graining in predictive multiscale materials modelling and describe the first implementation of the method in a general purpose molecular dynamics software: QDO-MD. - Highlights: • Electronic coarse graining unites many-body dispersion and polarisation beyond the dipole limit. • It consists of replacing the electrons of a molecule using a quantum harmonic oscillator, called a

  2. Strengthening the role of universities in addressing sustainability challenges: the Mitchell Center for Sustainability Solutions as an institutional experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D. Hart

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As the magnitude, complexity, and urgency of many sustainability problems increase, there is a growing need for universities to contribute more effectively to problem solving. Drawing upon prior research on social-ecological systems, knowledge-action connections, and organizational innovation, we developed an integrated conceptual framework for strengthening the capacity of universities to help society understand and respond to a wide range of sustainability challenges. Based on experiences gained in creating the Senator George J. Mitchell Center for Sustainability Solutions (Mitchell Center, we tested this framework by evaluating the experiences of interdisciplinary research teams involved in place-based, solutions-oriented research projects at the scale of a single region (i.e., the state of Maine, USA. We employed a multiple-case-study approach examining the experiences of three interdisciplinary research teams working on tidal energy development, adaptation to climate change, and forest vulnerability to an invasive insect. Drawing upon documents, observations, interviews, and other data sources, three common patterns emerged across these cases that were associated with more effective problem-solving strategies. First, an emphasis on local places and short-term dynamics in social-ecological systems research provides more frequent opportunities for learning while doing. Second, iterative stakeholder engagement and inclusive forms of knowledge co-production can generate substantial returns on investment, especially when researchers are dedicated to a shared process of problem identification and they avoid framing solutions too narrowly. Although these practices are time consuming, they can be accelerated by leveraging existing stakeholder relationships. Third, efforts to mobilize interdisciplinary expertise and link knowledge with action are facilitated by an organizational culture that emphasizes mutual respect, adaptability, and solutions

  3. Hybrid regimes of knowledge? Challenges for constructing scientific evidence in the context of the GMO-debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böschen, Stefan

    2009-07-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been a remarkable shift of attention to the scientific and political fundamentals of the precautionary principle. The application of this principle has become a main strategy of coping with the different forms and problems related to non-knowledge. Thus, societies are increasingly confronted with the challenging and hitherto unresolved problem of political and technological decision-making under conditions of diverging framings of non-knowledge. At present, there seems to be no generally accepted scientific or institutional approach. This is why the fundamental question of how different scientific actors define and construct evidence is not answered yet. Hence, this paper is based on the consideration that the conflicts in risk policy concerning genetically modified organisms (GMO) depend on the unresolved conflicts about the diverging scientific strategies and structures of evidence-making between the epistemic cultures involved. Thus, this study investigates two questions: (1) do the epistemic strategies of evidence-making differ systematically with the scientific actors involved in the GMO-debate? (2) What consequences emerge considering institutionalized procedures of decision-making? This article is based on a secondary analysis of findings and perspectives reported in the literature and on the methods of qualitative social empirical research, i.e., interviews with experts. A total number of 34 interviews were conducted to explore the different strategies of handling non-knowledge and constructing evidence. Actors from science, administration, business and NGOs were interviewed. In this way, typical epistemic cultures can be described. An epistemic culture is the constellation of methodological strategies, theoretical assumptions and practical-experimental settings which define in every speciality the ways how we know what we know. There are two main results. Firstly, it was worked out that the epistemic cultures involved

  4. Scientific research in front of energy challenges - Committee of prospective on energy of the Academy of Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candel, Sebastien; Tissot, Bernard; Andre, Jean-Claude; Balian, Roger; Brechet, Yves; Brezin, Edouard; Cesarsky, Catherine; Rebut, Paul-Henri; Jacquinot, Jean; Combarnous, Michel; Pouchard, Michel; Courtillot, Vincent; Jaupart, Claude; Duplessy, Jean-Claude; Laval, Guy; Encrenaz, Pierre; Pironneau, Olivier; Fontecave, Marc; Joliot, Pierre; Guillaumont, Robert; Henry, Claude; Pelegrin, Marc; Roux, Didier; Salencon, Jean; Tarascon, Jean-Marie; Bamberger, Yves; Clement, Daniel; Moisan, Francois; Montagne, Xavier; Singh, Satish

    2012-01-01

    This report proposes a contribution to the debate on energy, mainly from the point of view of researches to be undertaken to face the successive challenges which will appear within the next decades. The authors starts from the acknowledgement of constraints which are acting on the development of the energy sector: increase of CO 2 emissions leading to an increase of CO 2 in the atmosphere, scarcity of fossil resources, project financing, increased demand of energy (notably electricity), environmental issues, reactions from society, and European and international context. After an overview of the status and perspectives of renewable energies, the report addresses that of fossil energies (shale gas, hydrates of natural gas), nuclear energy (evolution, fourth generation reactors, the ITER project and thermonuclear fusion), vectors and storage (electricity grids, role of hydrogen, energy storage, CO 2 valorization), energy management and saving (energy management in housing and office buildings, proximity mobility of people and goods), and the energy for tomorrow's aeronautics (future characteristics of air transport, aeronautic fuels, oil perspectives and kerosene availability). Appendices address research and development in energy at the international level, the fuel cycle for fast breeders, fusion-fission hybrid reactors, ageing of PWR nuclear power plants, characteristics of lignocellulosic plants)

  5. Software Engineering Support of the Third Round of Scientific Grand Challenge Investigations: Earth System Modeling Software Framework Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Bryan; Zhou, Shu-Jia; Higgins, Glenn; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    One of the most significant challenges in large-scale climate modeling, as well as in high-performance computing in other scientific fields, is that of effectively integrating many software models from multiple contributors. A software framework facilitates the integration task, both in the development and runtime stages of the simulation. Effective software frameworks reduce the programming burden for the investigators, freeing them to focus more on the science and less on the parallel communication implementation. while maintaining high performance across numerous supercomputer and workstation architectures. This document surveys numerous software frameworks for potential use in Earth science modeling. Several frameworks are evaluated in depth, including Parallel Object-Oriented Methods and Applications (POOMA), Cactus (from (he relativistic physics community), Overture, Goddard Earth Modeling System (GEMS), the National Center for Atmospheric Research Flux Coupler, and UCLA/UCB Distributed Data Broker (DDB). Frameworks evaluated in less detail include ROOT, Parallel Application Workspace (PAWS), and Advanced Large-Scale Integrated Computational Environment (ALICE). A host of other frameworks and related tools are referenced in this context. The frameworks are evaluated individually and also compared with each other.

  6. Improving the Pipeline of Women in STEM Fields: Addressing Challenges in Instruction, Engagement, and Evaluation of an Aerospace Workshop Series for Girl Scouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealfon, C. D.; Plummer, J. D.

    2012-08-01

    The Women in Aerospace and Technology Project (WATP) is a collaborative effort between the Girl Scouts of Eastern Pennsylvania, the American Helicopter Museum, Boeing Rotorcraft, Sikorsky Global Helicopters, Drexel University, West Chester University, and Arcadia University. The program aims to increase the representation of women in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) fields; the evaluation team identified a secondary goal to assess growth in participants' understanding of scientific inquiry. Girls, grades 4-12, were invited to join Girl Scout troops formed at the American Helicopter Museum to participate in a series of eight workshops on the physics and engineering of flight. Five college women majoring in physics and engineering were recruited as mentors for the girls. Lessons were written by local aerospace industry partners (including Boeing and Sikorsky); the mentors then taught the lessons and activities during the workshops. To evaluate the impact of this project, we collected data to answer two research questions: 1) In what ways does the program impact participants' attitudes towards science and interest in pursuing science as a career? 2) In what ways does the program impact participants' understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry? In this article we summarize results from two sources of data: before and after survey of attitudes about science and end-of-workshop informal questionnaires. Across the seven months of data collection, two challenges became apparent. First, our assessment goals, focusing on scientific interest and inquiry, seemed misaligned with the workshop curricula, which emphasized engineering and design. Secondly, there was little connection among activities within workshops and across the program.

  7. The Crossroads between Biology and Mathematics: The Scientific Method as the Basics of Scientific Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsai, Istvan; Kampis, George

    2010-01-01

    Biology is changing and becoming more quantitative. Research is creating new challenges that need to be addressed in education as well. New educational initiatives focus on combining laboratory procedures with mathematical skills, yet it seems that most curricula center on a single relationship between scientific knowledge and scientific method:…

  8. Address the Major Societal Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubichler, Manfred

    In his famous historical account about the origins of molecular biology Gunther Stent introduced a three phase sequence that turns out to be characteristic for many newly emerging paradigms within science. New ideas, according to Stent, follow a sequence of romantic, dogmatic, and academic phases. One can easily see that complex systems science followed this path. The question now is whether we are in an extended academic phase of gradually expanding both theoretical and practical knowledge, or whether we are entering a new transformation of complex systems science that might well bring about a new romantic phase. I would argue that complexity science, indeed, is at the dawn of a new period - let's call it complexity 3.0. The last academic phase has seen the application of complex systems ideas and methods in a variety of different domains. It has been to a large extent business as usual...

  9. Preparing undergraduates for the future of scientific collaboration: Benefits, challenges and technological solutions in Distributed REU Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenthal, M.; Anagnos, T.

    2012-12-01

    As research problems increasingly require multi-disciplinary approaches they naturally foster scientific collaborations between geographically distributed colleagues. This increasing trend in scientific research, the rapid evolution of communication technology, cognitive research into distance education, and the current generation of undergraduate students' eagerness to embrace and use technology, increases the relevance of distributed REU sites. Like traditional REU sites that host a cohort of students in one geographic location, distributed REU sites also seek to attract, nurture, and retain students in a STEM career pipeline. Distributed REU sites are unique in that some or all of the interns are geographically distributed during the research period. This arrangement allows the REU site to capitalize on distributed scientific resources such as field sites, research facilities, or human capital. At their core, distributed REU sites are fundamentally constructed of elements that have proven to be effective components of any undergraduate research experience. They also strive to develop and employ specialized programming that leverages collaboration tools through a cyberinfrastructure to enable interns to develop meaningful social and academic relationships with one another. Since 2006 the IRIS Consortium and NEES have facilitated separate, NSF funded, distributed REU Sites. Implementation and evaluations of these programs have revealed a number of successes and benefits. Longitudinal tracking indicates that distributed REU Sites are at least as successful as traditional sites in attracting, nurturing, and retaining students in a STEM career pipeline. A distributed arrangement also offers benefits over a traditional REU site, such as the flexibility to place interns at a variety of institutions with mentors making only an annual commitment to participate. This ensures that all mentors are eager to participate and are concerned with their intern's growth. It also

  10. Development of a practical toolkit using participatory action research to address health inequalities through NGOs in the UK: Challenges and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirewa, Blessing

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to develop a practical toolkit to support non-government organizations (NGOs) in tackling health inequalities in the UK and to highlight the challenges and lessons learned. A mixed qualitative methodology within an action research framework was conducted. Semi-structured questionnaires, focus group interviews and discussions with an expert reference group aimed to identify the important themes and produce the toolkit content. A practical guide of information materials for NGOs working on addressing health inequalities was subsequently developed and successfully piloted. The experience of using participatory action research revealed a number of lessons and challenges. The key challenges were lack of training and experience in conducting action research, costs and insufficient resources, slow and time-consuming process, lack of commitment from marginalized groups, and differences in emphasis of goals and vision among participants. The main lessons learned were importance of effective leadership and project management skills, importance of integrating researchers and the researched as equal partners, creation and nurturing of trust, importance of evaluating and piloting processes, importance of engaging with marginalized groups, and use of evidence base in decision making. The lessons and challenges enumerating herein are of value to researchers aiming to implement participatory action research in developing checklists, tools, practical guidance and frameworks, and they offer important areas to consider before starting such projects. In addition, this offers an insight into how the dynamics of participatory action research methodology evolved in the development of the toolkit. Future research and initiatives in this area should focus on ways to improve the toolkit and make it more relevant to a wider community, and methods for evaluating the impact of the toolkit on practice.

  11. Challenges of linking scientific knowledge to river basin management policy: AquaTerra as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, A.; Rijnveld, M.

    2007-01-01

    The EU Project AquaTerra generates knowledge about the river-soil-sediment-groundwater system and delivers scientific information of value for river basin management. In this article, the use and ignorance of scientific knowledge in decision making is explored by a theoretical review. We elaborate

  12. PREFACE: The IARU International Scientific Congress on Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions (10-12 March, Copenhagen, Denmark)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to make the main results from the Congress on Climate Change: Global Risk, Challenges and Decisions available to the public as early as possible, the steering committee decided to publish all talks and posters presented at the Congress in this unique collection of abstracts, in time for the conference Further to the abstract collection the Congress will publish two more products in the near future as described in the following; a synthesis report with the main conclusions, and a book aimed at an academic audience 1 Two Products from the Congress Two products are being produced based on the presentations and discussions at the Congress The first product will be a synthesis report of the main conclusions from the Congress The synthesis report will be ready in June 2009 The synthesis has the purpose of explaining the current state of understanding man-made climate change and what we can do about it to the non-scientist, ie politicians, media and interested citizens The synthesis will build on the messages presented to the Danish Prime Minister, Mr Anders Fogh Rasmussen, host of the COP15, at the closing session of the Congress These six messages were drafted by the Writing Team (see below) based on input from the session chairs and a reading of the 1600+ abstracts submitted to the Congress The second product is a book aimed at an academic audience The book will include more detailed scientific results from all of the sessions and will be published by Cambridge University Press in 2010 It will be an extension and elaboration of the synthesis report Who's writing the Synthesis Report and the Book? A Writing Team consisting of 12 internationally respected scientists from all continents is responsible for developing both products When the synthesis report has been drafted by the Writing Team, it will be discussed in the Scientific Steering Committee of the Congress and reviewed by the Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) and a group of experts identified

  13. DNA-based prediction of human externally visible characteristics in forensics: motivations, scientific challenges, and ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Manfred; Schneider, Peter M

    2009-06-01

    There will always be criminal cases, where the evidence DNA sample will not match either a suspect's DNA profile, or any in a criminal DNA database. In the absence of DNA-based mass intelligence screenings, including familial searching (both of which may be restricted by legislation), there is only one option to potentially avoid or retrospectively solve "cold cases": the DNA-based prediction of human externally visible characteristics of an unknown person based on the crime scene sample left behind. Predictive DNA markers are expected to be available for some group-specific appearance traits in the near future; although it is unlikely that we will soon be able to understand the biological complexity of individual-specific appearance. In suspect-less cases reliable DNA-based prediction of broader externally visible characteristics from crime scene samples are expected to reduce the potential pool of suspects by allowing police investigations to concentrate on specific groups of people. Here, we aim to describe the forensic motivations for DNA-based prediction of human externally visible traits as well as the scientific challenges of finding predictive DNA markers, and will discuss examples with promising (e.g. sex, eye color and hair color), as well as less promising expectations (e.g. adult body height), in the foreseen future. Despite the complex ethical and legal implications arising from DNA-based prediction of externally visible characteristics, we argue that their use does not lead to a violation of privacy. We suggest that likelihood-based results, rather than DNA data itself, should be provided to the police for investigative purposes avoiding data protection issues. Furthermore, we note that the risk of exacerbating social pressure on minority groups due to DNA-based prediction of externally visible traits in crime cases may be reduced rather than increased compared to a conventional eyewitness testimony. A firm legal basis will need to be established for

  14. Scientific millenarianism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Today, for the first time, scientific concerns are seriously being addressed that span future times--hundreds, even thousands, or more years in the future. One is witnessing what the author calls scientific millenarianism. Are such concerns for the distant future exercises in futility, or are they real issues that, to the everlasting gratitude of future generations, this generation has identified, warned about and even suggested how to cope with in the distant future? Can the four potential catastrophes--bolide impact, CO 2 warming, radioactive wastes and thermonuclear war--be avoided by technical fixes, institutional responses, religion, or by doing nothing? These are the questions addressed in this paper

  15. Performance-based incentives may be appropriate to address challenges to delivery of prevention of vertical transmission of HIV services in rural Mozambique: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Roseanne C; de Sousa, Octávio; Rivera, Jacqueline; Olson, Rebecca; Pinault, Delphine; Young, Sera L

    2016-10-07

    in record and referral systems and better integrating community-based health workers into the health system. Concerns about the implementation of incentives included neglect of non-incentivized tasks and distorted motivation among colleagues. We found that highly motivated health workers encountered severe opportunity challenges in their PVT mandate. PBIs have the potential to address key barriers that facility- and community-based health workers encounter when delivering PVT services, specifically by building upon existing intrinsic motivation and leveraging highly valued social recognition. We recommend a controlled intervention to monitor incentives' effects on worker motivation and non-incentivized tasks to generate insights about the feasibility of PBIs to improve the delivery of PVT services.

  16. Addressing challenges of training a new generation of clinician-innovators through an interdisciplinary medical technology design program: Bench-to-Bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Patrick D; Elder, Craig T; D'Ambrosio, Troy; Langell, John T

    2015-01-01

    Graduate medical education has traditionally focused on training future physicians to be outstanding clinicians with basic and clinical science research skills. This focus has resulted in substantial knowledge gains, but a modest return on investment based on direct improvements in clinical care. In today's shifting healthcare landscape, a number of important challenges must be overcome to not only improve the delivery of healthcare, but to prepare future physicians to think outside the box, focus on and create healthcare innovations, and navigate the complex legal, business and regulatory hurdles of bringing innovation to the bedside. We created an interdisciplinary and experiential medical technology design competition to address these challenges and train medical students interested in moving new and innovative clinical solutions to the forefront of medicine. Medical students were partnered with business, law, design and engineering students to form interdisciplinary teams focused on developing solutions to unmet clinical needs. Over the course of six months teams were provided access to clinical and industry mentors, $500 prototyping funds, development facilities, and non-mandatory didactic lectures in ideation, design, intellectual property, FDA regulatory requirements, prototyping, market analysis, business plan development and capital acquisition. After four years of implementation, the program has supported 396 participants, seen the development of 91 novel medical devices, and launched the formation of 24 new companies. From our perspective, medical education programs that develop innovation training programs and shift incentives from purely traditional basic and clinical science research to also include high-risk innovation will see increased student engagement in improving healthcare delivery and an increase in the quality and quantity of innovative solutions to medical problems being brought to market.

  17. Networks of scientific information and the Challenges for science popularization: case study in SIEO Network - Specialized Information System in Dentistry Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia veronica Costa Ramos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Contemporary studies about science have highlighted the deep social roots that both knowledge and scientific practices have. At the same time, arises the awareness that the popularization of science is fundamental to scientific knowledge, may become an essential component of the culture of the citizens in general, providing the integration cultural, social and economic.Objective: To study the potential role of cooperative networks of information in the popularization of science, considering several organizational challenges (infrastructure, human resources, senior management commitment that a SIEO network would have to operate in this new context.Methodology: It is based on an exploratory study guided the model of collaborative network of information that used a qualitative research as guide as well as a documentary research combined with a case study.Results: Results show that, although the network is prepared in terms of organizational and operational structure and quality of their collections, the lack of financial resources and qualified staff for the generation of specific materials to disseminate scientific and actions towards the popularization of science inhibits the possibilities of immediate use of this potential. It also showed that organizational culture is still somewhat flexible to the interaction with the most popular segments of society.Conclusion: Concludes that the fact cited, demands actions of mediation in service to this user, whether by language of information retrieval which allow establish equivalences between specialized language and ordinary language, whether other more appropriate forms of representation of scientific information, aimed at scientific dissemination.

  18. Some challenges and issues in managing, and preserving access to, long-lived collections of digital scientific and technical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W L Anderson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One goal of the Committee on Data for Science and Technology is to solicit information about, promote discussion of, and support action on the many issues related to scientific and technical data preservation, archiving, and access. This brief paper describes four broad categories of issues that help to organize discussion, learning, and action regarding the work needed to support the long-term preservation of, and access to, scientific and technical data. In each category, some specific issues and areas of concern are described.

  19. Challenges of linking scientific knowledge to river basin management policy: AquaTerra as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slob, A.F.L.; Rijnveld, M.; Chapman, A.S.; Strosser, P.

    2007-01-01

    The EU Project AquaTerra generates knowledge about the river-soil-sediment-groundwater system and delivers scientific information of value for river basin management. In this article, the use and ignorance of scientific knowledge in decision making is explored by a theoretical review. We elaborate on the 'two-communities theory', which explains the problems of the policy-science interface by relating and comparing the different cultures, contexts, and languages of researchers and policy makers. Within AquaTerra, the EUPOL subproject examines the policy-science interface with the aim of achieving a good connection between the scientific output of the project and EU policies. We have found two major barriers, namely language and resources, as well as two types of relevant relationships: those between different research communities and those between researchers and policy makers. - Using scientific output in River Basin Management requires researchers and policy makers to acknowledge the multiple rationalities and different viewpoints that are brought in by the variety of stakeholders involved

  20. Can thermostable vaccines help address cold-chain challenges? Results from stakeholder interviews in six low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Debra D; Lorenson, Tina; Bartholomew, Kate; Villadiego, Shirley

    2016-02-10

    This study captures the perspectives of stakeholders at multiple levels of the vaccine supply chain regarding their assessment of challenges with storing vaccines within recommended temperature ranges and their perceptions on the benefits of having vaccines with improved stability, including the potential short-term storage and transport of vaccines in a controlled-temperature chain. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 158 immunization stakeholders in six countries. Interviewees included national decision-makers and advisors involved in vaccine purchasing decisions, national Expanded Programme on Immunization managers, and health and logistics personnel at national, subnational, and health facility levels. Challenges with both heat and freeze-exposure of vaccines were recognized in all countries, with heat-exposure being a greater concern. Conditions leading to freeze-exposure including ice build-up due to poor refrigerator performance and improper icepack conditioning were reported by 53% and 28% of participants, respectively. Respondents were interested in vaccine products with improved heat/freeze-stability characteristics. The majority of those involved in vaccine purchasing indicated they would be willing to pay a US$0.05 premium per dose for a freeze-stable pentavalent vaccine (68%) or a heat-stable rotavirus vaccine (59%), although most (53%) preferred not to pay the premium for a heat-stable pentavalent vaccine if the increased stability required changing from a liquid to a lyophilized product. Most respondents (73%) were also interested in vaccines labeled for short-term use in a controlled-temperature chain. The majority (115/158) recognized the flexibility this would provide during outreach or should cold-chain breaks occur. Respondents were also aware that possible confusion might arise and additional training would be required if handling conditions were changed for some, but not all vaccines. Participating immunization stakeholders

  1. [Scientific communication in the age of globalization. Trends, challenges and initial solutions for dentistry in German-speaking countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedbichler, Michael; Friedbichler, Ingrid; Türp, Jens Christoph

    2008-01-01

    In a world which is shrinking at a dramatic pace the need for international communication is constantly rising. In this global setting, the English language has increasingly become the "lingua franca" in which most scientific exchange takes place among professionals worldwide. The present paper investigates the impact of the all-pervasive role of English on the language of medicine and dentistry in the German-speaking countries as well as recent efforts to overcome some of the major obstacles associated with international communication. Possible approaches how non-anglophone dental communities can participate in scientific communication worldwide without starving their own language are assessed. The authors demonstrate that there is no alternative to bilingual competence in professional contexts and emphasize the need for strategies to promote bilingualism in scientific communication. Integrating bilingual language training at dental schools and in continuing education seems indispensable. A survey of bilingual models at medical and dental schools in other countries reveals significant deficits at German-speaking universities in this field. Promising new bilingual approaches in dental journals, lexicography, and other terminology resources are discussed, particularly the so-called KWiC-Web concept, a new semi-bilingual language guide to dental English, which helps German-speaking dental professionals to acquire and master the relevant language skills.

  2. Innovative approaches to the Management of Irradiated Nuclear Graphite Wastes: Addressing the Challenges through International Collaboration with Project 'GRAPA'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, A.J.; Ojovan, M.; O'Sullivan, P.; )

    2017-01-01

    There exists more than 250.000 tonnes of irradiated (and therefore radioactive) nuclear graphite (i-graphite) in the world, primarily as a result of the development of graphite-moderated power-reactor systems, initially for defence and subsequently for commercial purposes. Only a very small number of such plants have been dismantled and, for most cases, the final destiny of the irradiated graphite remains unresolved. Future high-temperature reactor programmes, such as the Chinese HTR-PM development, will produce more graphite and carbonaceous wastes from both structural components and the fuel pebbles (which are approximately 96% carbonaceous), the latter producing a continuous stream of so-called 'operational waste'. The problem of dismantling irradiated graphite reactor stacks, possibly distorted through neutron damage and in some cases degraded further by radiation-chemical attack by gaseous coolants, and then finding the appropriate treatments and final destiny of the material, has exercised both the European Union and the International Atomic Energy Agency for more than 25 years, seeking to address the different issues and available disposal solutions in different IAEA Member States. An IAEA collaborative research programme on treatment options has recently been completed, and an active group of international specialists in this area has now been established as part of the IAEA International Decommissioning Network under the envelope of Project 'GRAPA' (Irradiated Graphite Processing Approaches), which includes representatives from Belgium, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Lithuania, Rep. of Korea, Romania, Spain, Switzerland, Ukraine and the Russian Federation with direct responsibilities for various parts of the decommissioning and graphite-disposal process in a variety of reactor designs. Interest has also been expressed by colleagues from Sweden and Japan. Work is in progress on a number of topic areas where weaknesses in the

  3. Homoeconomico-politicus, Scientific Consciousness, and the Defense of Fundamental Values in the Context of the Climate Change Crisis: The Challenge of Scientific Responsibility for the Future of Economic and Political Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P Nagan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The general framework of this paper is to focus on the evolution of scientific consciousness and the dramatic technological developments it has generated, which have vital and highly consequential consequences for social organization on a global basis. The central fact about the current technological revolution is the enormous challenges it provides for political and economic decision-making. The political and economic choices are often merged in a symbiotic wave of challenges. In politics, we have understood the background and challenges that confront homopoliticus. These challenges are even more pronounced as challenges for homoeconomicus. In short, homoeconomico-politicus is both an observer and a participator in the challenges of dramatic technological change. What ties these two concepts together is that they are fed by a form of scientific consciousness. Dramatic forces of change, now unleashed, literally require new paradigms of political and economic thinking to inform wise policy makers about sensible political and economic choices. Both economics and politics are dramatically interrelated and shaped by the philosophy of science known as Logical Positivism. The problem with this approach is that it demands a form of scientific objectivity that rigorously excludes the study of values in the science of politics and economics. But the broader level of scientific consciousness would virtually require that these disciplines adequately account for the value implications of their work. These generalized comments may be an appropriate introduction to a deeper understanding of the impact of technological changes on the organization of political economy at all levels of social organization from the local to the global. One of the issues that we seek to underscore in this paper is a better understanding of the idea of economic consciousness. It would seem to be obvious that economic consciousness influences economic theory and practice. In this

  4. Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwitters, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The design of new and upgrades of existing high energy particle accelerators is reviewed in light of the current knowledge of the standard model determined from existing and past machines and funding factors. Current financing of science will delay determining unknowns, such as CP violation, proton decay, neutrino properties, and dark matter. Three options are given: (1) obtain more funding, (2) downsize scientific personnel as are private enterprises or (3) develop new technology which will reduce the high cost of building current designs of high energy accelerators. (AIP) copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  5. Proceeding of the Fourth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Technology of Nuclear Fuel Cycle facing the Challenge of Energy Need on the 21-st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suripto, A.; Sajuti, D.; Aiman, S.; Yuwono, I.; Fathurrachman; Suwarno, H.; Suwardi; Amini, S.; Widjaksana

    1999-03-01

    The proceeding contains papers presented in the Fourth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Element Cycle with theme of Technology of Nuclear Fuel Cycle facing the Challenge of Energy Need on the 21 s t Century, held on 1-2 December in Jakarta, Indonesia. These papers were divided by three groups that are technology of exploration, processing, purification and analysis of nuclear materials; technology of nuclear fuel elements and structures; and technology of waste management, safety and management of nuclear fuel cycle. There are 36 papers indexed individually. (ID)

  6. inaugral address

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to the Environment crisis'. Much of the formal work in the development of environmental education was spearheaded by international agencies such as the United Nations Educational,. Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) and the United Nations Environment. Programme (UNEP) internationally. This formal work ...

  7. Software Engineering Support of the Third Round of Scientific Grand Challenge Investigations: An Earth Modeling System Software Framework Strawman Design that Integrates Cactus and UCLA/UCB Distributed Data Broker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Bryan; Zhou, Shu-Jia; Higgins, Glenn

    2002-01-01

    One of the most significant challenges in large-scale climate modeling, as well as in high-performance computing in other scientific fields, is that of effectively integrating many software models from multiple contributors. A software framework facilitates the integration task. both in the development and runtime stages of the simulation. Effective software frameworks reduce the programming burden for the investigators, freeing them to focus more on the science and less on the parallel communication implementation, while maintaining high performance across numerous supercomputer and workstation architectures. This document proposes a strawman framework design for the climate community based on the integration of Cactus, from the relativistic physics community, and UCLA/UCB Distributed Data Broker (DDB) from the climate community. This design is the result of an extensive survey of climate models and frameworks in the climate community as well as frameworks from many other scientific communities. The design addresses fundamental development and runtime needs using Cactus, a framework with interfaces for FORTRAN and C-based languages, and high-performance model communication needs using DDB. This document also specifically explores object-oriented design issues in the context of climate modeling as well as climate modeling issues in terms of object-oriented design.

  8. Addressing challenges of clinical trials in acute pain: The Pain Management of Vaso-occlusive Crisis in Children and Young Adults with Sickle Cell Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottage, Kerri A; Hankins, Jane S; Faughnan, Lane G; James, Dustin M; Richardson, Julie; Christensen, Robbin; Kang, Guolian; Smeltzer, Matthew; Cancio, Maria I; Wang, Winfred C; Anghelescu, Doralina L

    2016-08-01

    Neuropathic pain is a known component of vaso-occlusive pain in sickle cell disease; however, drugs targeting neuropathic pain have not been studied in this population. Trials of acute pain are complicated by the need to obtain consent, to randomize participants expeditiously while optimally treating pain. We describe the challenges in designing and implementing the Pain Management of Vaso-occlusive Crisis in Children and Young Adults with Sickle Cell Disease Study (NCT01954927), a phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of gabapentin for vaso-occlusive crisis. In the Pain Management of Vaso-occlusive Crisis in Children and Young Adults with Sickle Cell Disease Study, we aim to assess the analgesic effect of gabapentin during vaso-occlusive crisis. Difficulties we identified included avoiding delay of notification of study staff of potential participants which we resolved by automated notification. Concern for rapid randomization and drug dispensation was addressed through careful planning with an investigational pharmacy and a single liquid formulation. We considered obtaining consent during well-visits to avoid the time constraints with acute presentations, but the large number of patients and limited duration that consent is valid made this impractical. In all, 79% of caregivers/children approached have agreed to participate. The trial is currently active, and enrollment is at 45.8% of that targeted (76 of 166) and expected to continue for two more years. Maintaining staff availability after-hours remains problematic, with 8% of screened patients missed for lack of available staff. Lessons learned in designing a trial to expedite procedures in the acute pain setting include (1) building study evaluations upon a standard-of-care backbone; (2) implementing a simple study design to facilitate consent and data capture; (3) assuring ample, well-trained study staff; and (4) utilizing technology to automate procedures

  9. A non-pharmacologic approach to address challenging behaviors of Veterans with dementia: description of the tailored activity program-VA randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitlin, Laura N; Mann, William C; Vogel, W Bruce; Arthur, Paul B

    2013-09-23

    Behavioral symptoms accompanying dementia are associated with increased health care costs, reduced quality of life and daily functioning, heightened family caregiver burden, and nursing home placement. Standard care typically involves pharmacologic agents, but these are, at best, modestly effective, carry serious risks, including mortality, and do not address behavioral symptoms families consider most distressful and which may prompt nursing home placement. Given dementia's devastating effects and the absence of an imminent cure, the Veterans Administration has supported the development and testing of new approaches to manage challenging behaviors at home. The Tailored Activity Program - Veterans Administration is a Phase III efficacy trial designed to reduce behavioral symptoms in Veterans with dementia living with their caregivers in the community. The study uses a randomized two-group parallel design with 160 diverse Veterans and caregivers. The experimental group receives a transformative patient-centric intervention designed to reduce the burden of behavioral symptoms in Veterans with dementia. An occupational therapist conducts an assessment to identify a Veteran's preserved capabilities, deficit areas, previous roles, habits, and interests to develop activities tailored to the Veteran. Family caregivers are then trained to incorporate activities into daily care. The attention-control group receives bi-monthly telephone contact where education on topics relevant to dementia is provided to caregivers. Key outcomes include reduced frequency and severity of behavioral symptoms using the 12-item Neuropsychiatric Inventory (primary endpoint), reduced caregiver burden, enhanced skill acquisition, efficacy using activities, and time spent providing care at 4 months; and long-term effects (8 months) on the Veteran's quality of life and frequency and severity of behavioral symptoms, and caregiver use of activities. The programs' impact of Veterans Administration cost

  10. Scientific and technological capabilities in health-related areas: opportunities, challenges, and interactions with the industrial sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Marco Antonio; Britto, Jorge

    2016-11-03

    Characterization of the scientific and technological infrastructure in health and its interactions with the industrial sector provides key elements for understanding the dynamics of innovation in health. This study conducts an exploratory analysis of the potentialities and limitations associated with scientific and technological capabilities in the health area in Brazil and the different links between the scientific and industrial sectors in health. The analysis points to important growth in internationally indexed research output, especially in certain areas such as pharmaceutics, public health, genetics, morphology, physiology, and microbiology. There has also been important growth in research groups that interact with the industrial sector in selected areas of health. The study highlights the importance of building more solid and permanent bridges between companies, research institutions, and the health system, linking the knowledge developed in research institutions to the dynamics of the industrial sector in health. Resumo: A caracterização da infraestrutura científica e tecnológica na área da saúde e das suas formas de articulação com a base produtiva representam elementos centrais na compreensão da dinâmica de inovação em saúde. Este estudo faz uma análise exploratória sobre as potencialidades e limitações associadas às capacitações científicas e tecnológicas na área da saúde no Brasil e as formas de articulação entre a base científica e a base produtiva em saúde. A análise aponta para o crescimento expressivo da produção bibliográfica com circulação internacional no campo da saúde, particularmente em determinadas áreas como farmácia, saúde coletiva, genética, morfologia, fisiologia e microbiologia. Além disso, observa-se um crescimento expressivo dos grupos de pesquisa com relacionamentos com o setor produtivo em áreas selecionadas da saúde. Destaca-se a importância da construção de pontes mais sólidas e

  11. Challenging 'Derivative' Explanations of Scientific Racism: The Case of Dr. J.C. de Man (1818-1909

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douwe Schipper

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the historiography of late nineteenth-century sciences of race. A key aspect of this historiography is the idea that sciences of race were designed specifically to justify preexisting ideas about race. This aspect is defined as the ‘derivative explanation of scientific racism’. I critique this explanation by focusing on one specific science of race, craniometry, and using one particular craniometrist, Dr. J.C. de Man (1818–1909, as a case study. I argue, first, that historians of the derivative explanation cause confusion because they apply current racial language in their characterization of craniometry of the past; second, that they overlook the emerging ideal of objectivity in science; third, that they tend to reduce social motivations for practicing science to being racial by definition.

  12. Luncheon address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdeswell, E.

    1991-01-01

    Public policy responses to climate change are discussed from a global viewpoint. The public policy issue is one of unprecedented scope and complexity, and concerns the interaction of two vast and complex systems: the physical planetary system, and the human economic system. Decision making is required in the face of uncertainty, and scientific knowledge is lagging behind policy issues. Continuing world development is going to drastically change the balance of global population, trade, and economic power. Environmental quality performance requirements should be set with a great deal of attention paid to how they will affect the process of innovation, and must encourage demand for emerging technologies, products and services. Effective solutions can come only from effective international agreement. Governments, citizens and industry must become partners in action, and improved education and communication is required. Science, public policy and social consensus must converge, as climate change is not merely a scientific or technical problem, but is also a social and political problem

  13. PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Your Excellency. Honoured Guests. Members of the Association. It is my duty and pleasure to thank H.E. Lij. Endalkatchew Makonnen for the fine address with which he has opened this First National Conference of the EAEA. He has pointedly reminded us that though. Engineers and Architects play a key role, develop-.

  14. Vaccinations in migrants and refugees: a challenge for European health systems. A systematic review of current scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mipatrini, Daniele; Stefanelli, Paola; Severoni, Santino; Rezza, Giovanni

    2017-03-01

    The decline of immunization rates in countries of origin of migrants and refugees, along with risky conditions during the journey to Europe, may threaten migrants' health. We performed a systematic review of the scientific literature in order to assess the frequency of vaccine preventable diseases, and vaccination coverage among migrants and refugees in Europe. To this end, Medline and Cochrane databases were considered. After the screening and the selection process, 58 papers were included in the review. We focused on the following vaccine-preventable diseases: hepatitis B, measles, rubella, mumps, tetanus, poliomyelitis, pertussis, diphtheria, meningitis, and varicella. The results were presented as a qualitative synthesis. In summary, several studies highlighted that migrants and refugees have lower immunization rates compared to European-born individuals. Firstly, this is due to low vaccination coverage in the country of origin. Then, several problems may limit migrants' access to vaccination in Europe: (i) migrants are used to move around the continent, and many vaccines require multiple doses at regular times; (ii) information on the immunization status of migrants is often lacking; (iii) hosting countries face severe economic crises; (iv) migrants often refuse registration with medical authorities for fear of legal consequences and (v) the lack of coordination among public health authorities of neighboring countries may determine either duplications or lack of vaccine administration. Possible strategies to overcome these problems include tailoring immunization services on the specific needs of the target population, developing strong communication campaigns, developing vaccination registers, and promoting collaboration among public health authorities of European Countries.

  15. The Nishino Breathing Method and Ki-energy (Life-energy: A Challenge to Traditional Scientific Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Ohnishi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The breathing method, which was developed and is being taught by Kozo Nishino, a Japanese Ki-expert, is for raising the levels of Ki-energy (life-energy or the vitality of an individual. It is neither a therapy nor a healing technique. However, many of his students have experienced an improvement in their health, and in some cases, they were able to overcome health problems by themselves. Since this is an interesting subject from the standpoint of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, we have been collaborating with Nishino to conduct a scientific investigation of his Ki-energy. We found that Nishino's Ki-energy can inhibit cell division of cancer cells, protect isolated mitochondria from heat deterioration and reduce lipid peroxidation in heat-treated mitochondria. Although Ki-energy may consist of several different energy forms, we found that at least one of them is near-infrared radiation between the wavelength range of 0.8 and 2.7 µm. Another interesting observation at his school is the Taiki-practice (paired Ki-practice. During this practice, Nishino can ‘move’ his students without any physical contact. Many of them run, jump or roll on the floor when they receive his Ki-energy. We studied this and propose that ‘information’ is conveyed through the air between two individuals by Ki-energy. This may be called a five sense-independent, life-to-life communication by Ki. All of our results suggest that we should re-evaluate the Cartesian dualism (separation of mind and body which has been a fundamental principle of modern science for the past three centuries.

  16. Convocation address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, R

    1996-07-01

    By means of this graduation address at the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) in Bombay, the Chancellor of Urdu University voiced his concerns about overpopulation in India. During the speaker's tenure as Health Minister of Maharashtra, he implemented a sterilization incentive program that resulted in the state's having the best family planning (FP) statistics in India for almost 10 years. The incentive program, however, was misused by overenthusiastic officials in other states, with the result that the FP program was renamed the Family Welfare Programme. Population is growing in India because of improvements in health care, but the population education necessary to change fertility will require more time than the seriousness of the population problem allows. In the longterm, poverty and illiteracy must be addressed to control population. In the meanwhile, the graduate program at the IIPS should be expanded to include an undergraduate program, marriage age laws should be enforced, and misconceptions about religious objections to FP must be addressed. India can not afford to use the measures forwarded by developed countries to control population growth. India must integrate population control efforts with the provision of health care because if population continues to grow in the face of reduced infant mortality and longer life expectancy, future generations will be forced to live in a state of poverty and economic degradation.

  17. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magwood, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    Overall state of energy needs and production with special emphasis on increasing consumption and global climate challenge induce increasing efficiency in the broad sense, i.e. increasing the energy efficiency of homes, business, transportation, industry; increasing the efficiency of how energy is delivered to consumers and increasing the efficiency of electricity generation. Being a part of the solution for overall efficiency challenges, past increases in nuclear power plant reliability and availability have kept nuclear power in the race but they have not yet assured survival. There would be limited future for nuclear power unless existing plants prove that the technology is economically competitive. This could be done because it helps attaining healthier global environment. Successful cooperation across all sectors of society and across all oceans of the world would lead to first maintaining the nuclear energy option, and then expanding its application in the future, the potential of nuclear energy would be fully realized to the benefit of all the world

  18. Challenges Faced by Regulators and Technical, Scientific and Support Organizations (TSOs) in Enhancing Nuclear Safety and Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travers, W.D.

    2011-01-01

    Renewed interest in new reactor build programmes, not only in countries with already established nuclear programmes but also in many other countries with limited or no workforce experienced in the design, licensing, construction and operation of nuclear power plants, has resulted in a need for technical, scientific and support organizations (TSOs) to support regulatory bodies in carrying out their mandated responsibilities. The primary function of a regulatory body, such as the Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation (FANR) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), is to regulate the safe use of nuclear facilities and radioactive material for peaceful civilian purposes. In so doing, the regulatory body needs to provide a clear and focused approach to: safety, security and safeguards for licensing; inspection and enforcement of reactor design; construction; commissioning; operation; decommissioning; nuclear waste management activities; and the use, possession or transfer of special nuclear materials and activities within the country. Accomplishing this goal requires a highly educated, multidisciplinary, diverse workforce with significant work experience. Recognizing that it takes several decades and a lot of resources to achieve self-sufficiency, many countries, particularly emergent nuclear countries, would have to rely on TSOs to start their programmes and to carry out their oversight responsibilities. Towards that end, FANR is working closely with international counterparts, the International Atomic Energy Agency and TSOs to exchange information, expertise, industry experience and ongoing research to ensure that high levels of safety, security and safeguards are established and maintained in reactor design and operation throughout the life of the facility, and that special nuclear material within the UAE is properly documented and controlled, is not stolen, lost or diverted to any illicit or non-peaceful activities, and does not pose unreasonable radiological risk due

  19. Standards for Radiation Effects Testing: Ensuring Scientific Rigor in the Face of Budget Realities and Modern Device Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, J M.

    2015-01-01

    An overview is presented of the space radiation environment and its effects on electrical, electronic, and electromechanical parts. Relevant test standards and guidelines are listed. Test standards and guidelines are necessary to ensure best practices, minimize and bound systematic and random errors, and to ensure comparable results from different testers and vendors. Test standards are by their nature static but exist in a dynamic environment of advancing technology and radiation effects research. New technologies, failure mechanisms, and advancement in our understanding of known failure mechanisms drive the revision or development of test standards. Changes to standards must be weighed against their impact on cost and existing part qualifications. There must be consensus on new best practices. The complexity of some new technologies exceeds the scope of existing test standards and may require development of a guideline specific to the technology. Examples are given to illuminate the value and limitations of key radiation test standards as well as the challenges in keeping these standards up to date.

  20. PREDON Scientific Data Preservation 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, C.; Kraml, S.; Surace, C.; Chateigner, D.; Libourel, T.; Laurent, A.; Lin, Y.; Schaming, M.; Benbernou, S.; Lebbah, M.; Boucon, D.; Cérin, C.; Azzag, H.; Mouron, P.; Nief, J.-Y.; Coutin, S.; Beckmann, V.

    Scientific data collected with modern sensors or dedicated detectors exceed very often the perimeter of the initial scientific design. These data are obtained more and more frequently with large material and human efforts. A large class of scientific experiments are in fact unique because of their large scale, with very small chances to be repeated and to superseded by new experiments in the same domain: for instance high energy physics and astrophysics experiments involve multi-annual developments and a simple duplication of efforts in order to reproduce old data is simply not affordable. Other scientific experiments are in fact unique by nature: earth science, medical sciences etc. since the collected data is "time-stamped" and thereby non-reproducible by new experiments or observations. In addition, scientific data collection increased dramatically in the recent years, participating to the so-called "data deluge" and inviting for common reflection in the context of "big data" investigations. The new knowledge obtained using these data should be preserved long term such that the access and the re-use are made possible and lead to an enhancement of the initial investment. Data observatories, based on open access policies and coupled with multi-disciplinary techniques for indexing and mining may lead to truly new paradigms in science. It is therefore of outmost importance to pursue a coherent and vigorous approach to preserve the scientific data at long term. The preservation remains nevertheless a challenge due to the complexity of the data structure, the fragility of the custom-made software environments as well as the lack of rigorous approaches in workflows and algorithms. To address this challenge, the PREDON project has been initiated in France in 2012 within the MASTODONS program: a Big Data scientific challenge, initiated and supported by the Interdisciplinary Mission of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS). PREDON is a study group formed by

  1. Scientific Grand Challenges: Discovery In Basic Energy Sciences: The Role of Computing at the Extreme Scale - August 13-15, 2009, Washington, D.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galli, Giulia [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Workshop Chair; Dunning, Thom [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Workshop Chair

    2009-08-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) and Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) workshop in August 2009 on extreme-scale computing provided a forum for more than 130 researchers to explore the needs and opportunities that will arise due to expected dramatic advances in computing power over the next decade. This scientific community firmly believes that the development of advanced theoretical tools within chemistry, physics, and materials science—combined with the development of efficient computational techniques and algorithms—has the potential to revolutionize the discovery process for materials and molecules with desirable properties. Doing so is necessary to meet the energy and environmental challenges of the 21st century as described in various DOE BES Basic Research Needs reports. Furthermore, computational modeling and simulation are a crucial complement to experimental studies, particularly when quantum mechanical processes controlling energy production, transformations, and storage are not directly observable and/or controllable. Many processes related to the Earth’s climate and subsurface need better modeling capabilities at the molecular level, which will be enabled by extreme-scale computing.

  2. Addressing governance challenges in the provision of animal health services: A review of the literature and empirical application transaction cost theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilukor, John; Birner, Regina; Nielsen, Thea

    2015-11-01

    Providing adequate animal health services to smallholder farmers in developing countries has remained a challenge, in spite of various reform efforts during the past decades. The focuses of the past reforms were on market failures to decide what the public sector, the private sector, and the "third sector" (the community-based sector) should do with regard to providing animal health services. However, such frameworks have paid limited attention to the governance challenges inherent in the provision of animal health services. This paper presents a framework for analyzing institutional arrangements for providing animal health services that focus not only on market failures, but also on governance challenges, such as elite capture, and absenteeism of staff. As an analytical basis, Williamson's discriminating alignment hypothesis is applied to assess the cost-effectiveness of different institutional arrangements for animal health services in view of both market failures and governance challenges. This framework is used to generate testable hypotheses on the appropriateness of different institutional arrangements for providing animal health services, depending on context-specific circumstances. Data from Uganda and Kenya on clinical veterinary services is used to provide an empirical test of these hypotheses and to demonstrate application of Williamson's transaction cost theory to veterinary service delivery. The paper concludes that strong public sector involvement, especially in building and strengthening a synergistic relation-based referral arrangement between paraprofessionals and veterinarians is imperative in improving animal health service delivery in developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Introducing perennial biomass crops into agricultural landscapes to address water quality challenges and provide other environmental services: Integrating perennial bioenergy crops into agricultural landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacho, J. F. [Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Negri, M. C. [Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Zumpf, C. R. [Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Campbell, P. [Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA

    2017-11-29

    The world is faced with a difficult multiple challenge of meeting nutritional, energy, and other basic needs, under a limited land and water budget, of between 9 and 10 billion people in the next three decades, mitigating impacts of climate change, and making agricultural production resilient. More productivity is expected from agricultural lands, but intensification of production could further impact the integrity of our finite surface water and groundwater resources. Integrating perennial bioenergy crops in agricultural lands could provide biomass for biofuel and potential improvements on the sustainability of commodity crop production. This article provides an overview of ways in which research has shown that perennial bioenergy grasses and short rotation woody crops can be incorporated into agricultural production systems with reduced indirect land use change, while increasing water quality benefits. Current challenges and opportunities as well as future directions are also highlighted.

  4. Inaugural address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  5. Presidential address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, L

    1984-01-01

    Stressed in this address is the crucial stage of the population boom, peeculiar to developing countries. The phenomenal rise in India's population, over the last 10 years, is particularly emphasized as it may thwart attempts for socioeconnomic development. Population and development are congruent concerns which need to be pursued simultaneously, and family planning must be accorded the highest priority in national efforts. In its attempts to curb its population explosion, India has witnessed significant progress in health and family welfare work in its march towards the goal of health for all. Recently, the focus has been on primary health care with its emphasis on prevention against risk of disease. The key element of the goal of health for all is the provision of primary health care to all, especially those who are poor. The new 20-Point Programme of India pinpoints areas of special thrust which show immediate tangible results in health and family welfare and the increase of primary health care facilities. Family planning is discussed as a people's movement in which the government's role is that of educator in contraceptive methodds so the people can be motivated to choose, on their own, anyone of them. Trained government personnel, service facilities and contraceptive supplies are being promoted for that goal. The energies of all social, political, religious and cultural organizations have to be channelled and utilized in the process of educating the people and making them adopt the small family norm. Graduates are urged to utilize their knowledge in the service of their country.

  6. Addressing Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sosa Elízaga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The global sociology currently faces one of its greatest challenges: to contribute to the debate about the most serious problem which all societies have faced in recent years. The rising inequality has led to many initiatives for reflection, discussion and evaluation of public policies in order to combat poverty. Particularly, the fact that the Millennium Goals are supposed to accomplish their significance by 2015 provides the International Sociological Association (ISA the unique opportunity to contribute to those goals through their own analyses and proposals. Over many years, the ISA has promoted the integrated debate of its members on issues related to inequalities: from different perspectives such as education, health, social movements, public policies, gender problems and violence, among others. The overlapping and accumulation of inequalities has been, so to speak, the natural environment from which the ISA can take part in this international debate. This article identifies the work lines approved in the Association Program Committee Meeting held in Mexico in 2011, in the process of theAssociation’s Congress in Yokohama in 2014.

  7. Convocation address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatowar, P S

    1993-07-01

    The Union Deputy Minister of Health and Family Welfare in India addressed the 35th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay in 1993. Officials in developing countries have been concerned about population growth for more than 30 years and have instituted policies to reduce population growth. In the 1960s, population growth in developing countries was around 2.5%, but today it is about 2%. Despite this decline, the world will have 1 billion more individuals by the year 2001. 95% of these new people will be born in developing countries. India's population size is so great that India does not have the time to wait for development to reduce population growth. Population needs to be viewed as an integrated part of overall development, since it is linked to poverty, illiteracy, environmental damage, gender issues, and reproductive health. Despite a large population size, India has made some important advancements in health and family planning. For example, India has reduced population growth (to 2.14% annually between 1981-1991), infant mortality, and its birth rate. It has increased the contraceptive use rate and life expectancy. Its southern states have been more successful at achieving demographic goals than have the northern states. India needs to implement efforts to improve living conditions, to change attitudes and perceptions about small families and contraception, and to promote family planning acceptance earlier among young couples. Improvement of living conditions is especially important in India, since almost 33% of the people live in poverty. India needs to invest in nutrition, health, and education. The mass media and nongovernmental organizations need to create population awareness and demand for family planning services. Improvement in women's status accelerates fertility decline, as has happened in Kerala State. The government needs to facilitate generation of jobs. Community participation is needed for India to achieve

  8. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs

  9. Addressing challenges to human health in the Anthropocene epoch-an overview of the findings of the Rockefeller/Lancet Commission on Planetary Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Andy

    The report of the Rockefeller Foundation/Lancet Commission on Planetary Health described how human health directly depends upon the environment. It takes a broad perspective not only acknowledging climate change as the most important global environmental threat to health but also recognizing other impacts, including dramatic loss of tropical forests, land degradation, loss of biodiversity, declining freshwater resources, ocean acidification, and over-exploitation of fisheries. All pose challenges to human health gains, leading to the concept of planetary health-that the human condition is tied to natural systems. The Planetary Health Commission report highlights several major concerns arising from environmental change including impacts on food availability and quality, increases in natural disasters and population displacement, and newly emerging diseases, e.g. from zoonotic infections. Three challenges emerge from the report: the first is imagination, or conceptual challenges-better metrics are needed to assess human progress within the context of environmental change; the second is a lack of relevant knowledge, requiring more research on the inter-linkages between environmental change and health and on the effectiveness of potential solutions; and the third is implementation of solutions, ensuring that the science is translated into policy and practice. There are many opportunities to promote planetary health including developing sustainable and healthy cities, encouraging more resilient health systems and disaster preparedness, reducing food waste, preserving ecosystems, and redirecting harmful subsidies in food, agriculture, fishery and energy sectors. Many current trends are driven by inequitable, inefficient, and unsustainable patterns of resource consumption and technological development, coupled with population growth, but solutions lie within reach. Prosperity must be redefined as an enhancement of the quality of life and the delivery of improved health

  10. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunch, R.P.A.

    1992-01-01

    Good morning ladies and gentlemen. I am truly honored to be your keynote speaker at the first International Oil Spill R ampersand D Forum. This Forum is cosponsored by the Coast Guard, on behalf of the OPA 90 Interagency Coordinating Committee on Oil Spill Research, and the International Maritime Organization. The fact that IMO is jointly sponsoring the Forum truly reflects the global nature of our concerns for the marine environment. I was asked to speak to you today because of my purview over the entire Coast Guard R ampersand D Program, a significant portion of which is oil spill related. Our environmental awareness was renewed on March 24, 1990 when the tankship Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and caused the largest vessel related oil spill in U.S. history. During the next 15 months there were three other large oil spills that threatened the U.S. shorelines. The U.S. flag tank vessel American Trader suffered a three foot diameter hole in a cargo tank near Huntington Beach California; the Mega Borg, a Norwegian flag tank vessel, exploded and caught fire off the coast of Texas in the Gulf of Mexico; and the Greek flag tanker World Prodigy ran aground in Narragensett Bay near Rhode Island. Each spill presented a unique set of challenges to our response operations. Despite intense response and cleanup actions, which included excellent international cooperation for the Exxon Valdez spill, it was apparent that existing world-wide catastrophic spill response capabilities could easily be exceeded and that there was no international mechanism which promoted and facilitated cooperations

  11. Back to the basics: Identifying and addressing underlying challenges in achieving high quality and relevant health statistics for indigenous populations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smylie, Janet; Firestone, Michelle

    Canada is known internationally for excellence in both the quality and public policy relevance of its health and social statistics. There is a double standard however with respect to the relevance and quality of statistics for Indigenous populations in Canada. Indigenous specific health and social statistics gathering is informed by unique ethical, rights-based, policy and practice imperatives regarding the need for Indigenous participation and leadership in Indigenous data processes throughout the spectrum of indicator development, data collection, management, analysis and use. We demonstrate how current Indigenous data quality challenges including misclassification errors and non-response bias systematically contribute to a significant underestimate of inequities in health determinants, health status, and health care access between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Canada. The major quality challenge underlying these errors and biases is the lack of Indigenous specific identifiers that are consistent and relevant in major health and social data sources. The recent removal of an Indigenous identity question from the Canadian census has resulted in further deterioration of an already suboptimal system. A revision of core health data sources to include relevant, consistent, and inclusive Indigenous self-identification is urgently required. These changes need to be carried out in partnership with Indigenous peoples and their representative and governing organizations.

  12. Welcome Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  13. Challenges of the Scientific Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitch, Eugene

    1973-01-01

    The author, who was working on this article at the time of his death, expresses his views on the energy crisis and the problems of environmental pollution associated with it. In his estimation, both problems are products of the population explosion. (Editor/JR)

  14. Developing cognitive behaviour therapy training in India: Using the Kolb learning cycle to address challenges in applying transcultural models of mental health and mental health training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Andrew; Virudhagirinathan, B S; Santosham, Sangita; Begum, Faiz Jahan

    2014-10-01

    Although mental health workers in India across all major professional groups have identified an unmet need for training in cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), the uncritical export of models of mental health, therapy provision and training to low- and middle-income countries is a problematic process. This paper describes the context for the first stand-alone CBT training programme in India, based in Chennai. This paper includes an evaluation of the first phase of the training and information from trainees regarding the quality and applicability of the training to their working context. The paper provides an overview of some of the critiques that are pertinent to this process and considers the way that the Kolb learning cycle can be used as a framework within training to go some way to addressing these difficulties.

  15. A produção científica do J Vasc Bras: conquistas e desafios The scientific production of J Vasc Bras: achievements and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Costa-Val

    2008-03-01

    O: Apesar de jovem, o J Vasc Bras vem galgando obstáculos e cumprindo seu papel, seja como órgão oficial da SBACV, seja como revista científica. Suas conquistas permitem deduzir que o mesmo está no caminho certo; entretanto, ainda existem desafios a vencer, particularmente em relação aos próprios autores nacionais, os quais, sem dúvida, foram e sempre serão parte de todas as conquistas. Mais do que estimular, a palavra de ordem é crescer, e de forma conjunta.BACKGROUND: As a successor of Cirurgia Vascular e Angiologia, the Brazilian Vascular Journal (J Vasc Bras is the official scientific organ of Sociedade Brasileira de Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular (SBACV and has been making progress and achievements throughout the years. However, these achievements lead to a full commitment able to maintain a high quality standard and imply continuous challenges, not only to achieve new conquests, but also to sustain them. OBJECTIVE: To critically evaluate all J Vasc Bras publications in printed and/or electronic versions between 2002 and 2007. METHODS: It is a systematic review of all J Vasc Bras publications, both printed and electronic, released in the aforementioned period. The papers were subdivided into 12 categories and evaluated considering five aspects: a type of publication; b large thematic area; c level of scientific evidence; d references; e country of origin of references. SPSStm version 13.0 and Microsoft Excel tm were used for statistical analysis. There is no conflict of interest in this study. RESULTS: A total of 26 issues and nearly 400 manuscripts were evaluated, regarding all levels of scientific evidence, comprehending editorials, original and review articles, consensus and/or scientific forums, case reports, letters to the editor and final paper abstracts. The texts dealt with all large thematic areas of angiology and vascular surgery, besides bioethics, sociology, philosophy and technological innovations. However, despite a progressive paradigm shift

  16. Addressing Challenges and Scalability in the Synthesis of Thin Uniform Metal Shells on Large Metal Nanoparticle Cores: Case Study of Ag-Pt Core-Shell Nanocubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Umar; Linic, Suljo

    2017-12-13

    Bimetallic nanoparticles in which a metal is coated with an ultrathin (∼1 nm) layer of a second metal are often desired for their unique chemical and physical properties. Current synthesis methods for producing such core-shell nanostructures often require incremental addition of a shell metal precursor which is rapidly reduced onto metal cores. A major shortcoming of this approach is that it necessitates precise concentrations of chemical reagents, making it difficult to perform at large scales. To address this issue, we considered an approach whereby the reduction of the shell metal precursor was controlled through in situ chemical modification of the precursor. We used this approach to develop a highly scalable synthesis for coating atomic layers of Pt onto Ag nanocubes. We show that Ag-Pt core-shell nanostructures are synthesized in high yields and that these structures effectively combine the optical properties of the plasmonic Ag nanocube core with the surface properties of the thin Pt shell. Additionally, we demonstrate the scalability of the synthesis by performing a 10 times scale-up.

  17. The challenge of reducing scientific complexity for different target groups (without losing the essence) - experiences from interdisciplinary audio-visual media production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezel, Bernd; Broschkowski, Ephraim; Kropp, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    The Climate Media Factory originates from an interdisciplinary media lab run by the Film and Television University "Konrad Wolf" Potsdam-Babelsberg (HFF) and the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK). Climate scientists, authors, producers and media scholars work together to develop media products on climate change and sustainability. We strive towards communicating scientific content via different media platforms reconciling the communication needs of scientists and the audience's need to understand the complexity of topics that are relevant in their everyday life. By presenting four audio-visual examples, that have been designed for very different target groups, we show (i) the interdisciplinary challenges during the production process and the lessons learnt and (ii) possibilities to reach the required degree of simplification without the need for dumbing down the content. "We know enough about climate change" is a short animated film that was produced for the German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ) for training programs and conferences on adaptation in the target countries including Indonesia, Tunisia and Mexico. "Earthbook" is a short animation produced for "The Year of Science" to raise awareness for the topics of sustainability among digital natives. "What is Climate Engineering?". Produced for the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS) the film is meant for an informed and interested public. "Wimmelwelt Energie!" is a prototype of an iPad application for children from 4-6 years of age to help them learn about different forms of energy and related greenhouse gas emissions.

  18. Continental scientific drilling program. [Los Alamos, New Mexico, July 17-21, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The dynamics, structure, evolution, and genesis of the continents offer a major scientific challenge. At the same time, society faces many problems that require information about the continental crust for solution. A workshop on continental drilling for scientific purposes addressed the questions of how to maximize the scientific value of current and planned efforts of federal agencies and industry and how to supplement these efforts with holes drilled solely for scientific purpoes. Four panels addressed the scientific and associated societal problems relating to basement structures and deep continental basins, thermal regimes, mineral resources, and earthuqakes. These panels identified the main problems in each area that could be solved by information obtained from drill holes. A fifth panel considered needs for technological developments. The importance of a communications and coordinating mechanism to maximize the scientific results was noted. To this end, a Continental Scientific Drilling Program is outlined, including two advisory and guiding committees, one concerned with scientific objectives, the other with operations. (RWR)

  19. KEYNOTE ADDRESS OF THE SEVENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE HEALTH OF CHINESE IN NORTH AMERICA: Health Status of Chinese Americans: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Moon S.

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE. This paper is based on the author's keynote address given at the Seventh International Conference on the Health Problems of Chinese in North America. METHODS. The author/speaker reviewed the literature related to Chinese American health problems within the context of the broader demographic and aggregated health data reported on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. FINDINGS. In addition to background demographic statistics provided on Chinese Americans, the author/speaker focused on two categories of diseases: (1) communicable diseases; and (2) chronic diseases because of the greater availability of data on these categories. Communicable diseases from which Chinese Americans appear to suffer disproportionally are tuberculosis and hepatitis B. Infection with the hepatitis B virus also makes Chinese Americans much more susceptible to chronic liver diseases including cancer. Chinese also suffer disproportionally more from nasopharyngeal cancer; because of higher than average adult male smoking rates, these men can be expected to suffer disproportionally from a future epidemic of lung cancer cases. Unhealthy acculturation patterns in food consumption point towards changing profiles of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as well as higher rates of dietary related cancers. OBSERVATIONS. Rather than conclusions, observations of the current health status of Chinese Americans were offered. Four measures that organizations such as the Chinese medical societies and Chinese American health professionals can pursue to advance the health status of Chinese Americans, particularly in the area of heaslth policy, are: (1) voting; (2) collecting data on health status; (3) writing for professional journals; and (4) being active in policy development. KEY WORDS. Chinese Americans; health status; tuberculosis; hepatits B; cancer; diet; acculturation; smoking

  20. Can Health 2.0 Address Critical Healthcare Challenges? Insights from the Case of How Online Social Networks Can Assist in Combatting the Obesity Epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Hacker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the serious concerns in healthcare in this 21st century is obesity. While the causes of obesity are multifaceted, social networks have been identified as one of the most important dimensions of people's social environment that may influence the adoption of many behaviours, including health-promoting behaviours. In this article, we examine the possibility of harnessing the appeal of online social networks to address the obesity epidemic currently plaguing society. Specifically, a design science research methodology is adopted to design, implement and test the Health 2.0 application called “Calorie Cruncher”. The application is designed specifically to explore the influence of online social networks on individual’s health-related behaviour. In this regard, pilot data collected based on qualitative interviews indicate that online social networks may influence health-related behaviours in several ways. Firstly, they can influence people’s norms and value system that have an impact on their health-related behaviours. Secondly, social control and pressure of social connections may also shape health-related behaviours, and operate implicitly when people make food selection decisions. Thirdly, social relationships may provide emotional support. Our study has implications for research and practice. From a theoretical perspective, the article inductively identifies three factors that influence specific types of health outcomes in the context of obesity. From a practical perspective, the study underscores the benefits of adopting a design science methodology to design and implement a technology solution for a healthcare issue as well as the key role for online social media to assist with health and wellness management and maintenance.

  1. Addressing challenges in scaling up TB and HIV treatment integration in rural primary healthcare clinics in South Africa (SUTHI): a cluster randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kogieleum; Gengiah, Santhanalakshmi; Yende-Zuma, Nonhlanhla; Padayatchi, Nesri; Barker, Pierre; Nunn, Andrew; Subrayen, Priashni; Abdool Karim, Salim S

    2017-11-13

    A large and compelling clinical evidence base has shown that integrated TB and HIV services leads to reduction in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- and tuberculosis (TB)-associated mortality and morbidity. Despite official policies and guidelines recommending TB and HIV care integration, its poor implementation has resulted in TB and HIV remaining the commonest causes of death in several countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including South Africa. This study aims to reduce mortality due to TB-HIV co-infection through a quality improvement strategy for scaling up of TB and HIV treatment integration in rural primary healthcare clinics in South Africa. The study is designed as an open-label cluster randomized controlled trial. Sixteen clinic supervisors who oversee 40 primary health care (PHC) clinics in two rural districts of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa will be randomized to either the control group (provision of standard government guidance for TB-HIV integration) or the intervention group (provision of standard government guidance with active enhancement of TB-HIV care integration through a quality improvement approach). The primary outcome is all-cause mortality among TB-HIV patients. Secondary outcomes include time to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among TB-HIV co-infected patients, as well as TB and HIV treatment outcomes at 12 months. In addition, factors that may affect the intervention, such as conditions in the clinic and staff availability, will be closely monitored and documented. This study has the potential to address the gap between the establishment of TB-HIV care integration policies and guidelines and their implementation in the provision of integrated care in PHC clinics. If successful, an evidence-based intervention comprising change ideas, tools, and approaches for quality improvement could inform the future rapid scale up, implementation, and sustainability of improved TB-HIV integration across sub-Sahara Africa and other resource

  2. A Bibliometric Framework for Identifying “Princes” Who Wake up the “Sleeping Beauty” in Challenge-type Scientific Discoveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Du

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper develops and validates a bibliometric framework for identifying the “princes” (PR who wake up the “sleeping beauty” (SB in challenge-type scientific discoveries, so as to figure out the awakening mechanisms, and promote potentially valuable but not readily accepted innovative research. (A PR is a research study. Design/methodology/approach: We propose that PR candidates must meet the following four criteria: (1 be published near the time when the SB began to attract a lot of citations; (2 be highly cited papers themselves; (3 receive a substantial number of co-citations with the SB; and (4 within the challenge-type discoveries which contradict established theories, the “pulling effect” of the PR on the SB must be strong. We test the usefulness of the bibliometric framework through a case study of a key publication by the 2014 chemistry Nobel laureate Stefan W. Hell, who negated Ernst Abbe's diffraction limit theory, one of the most prominent paradigms in the natural sciences. Findings: The first-ranked candidate PR article identified by the bibliometric framework is in line with historical facts. An SB may need one or more PRs and even “retinues” to be “awakened.” Documents with potential awakening functionality tend to be published in prestigious multidisciplinary journals with higher impact and wider scope than the journals publishing SBs. Research limitations: The above framework is only applicable to transformative innovations, and the conclusions are drawn from the analysis of one typical SB and her awakening process. Therefore the generality of our work might be limited. Practical implications: Publications belonging to so-called transformative research, even when less frequently cited, should be given special attention as early as possible, because they may suddenly attract many citations after a period of sleep, as reflected in our case study. Originality/value: The definition of PR(s as the first

  3. Addressing the challenge of high-priced prescription drugs in the era of precision medicine: A systematic review of drug life cycles, therapeutic drug markets and regulatory frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronde, Toon van der; Uyl-de Groot, Carin A; Pieters, Toine

    2017-01-01

    Recent public outcry has highlighted the rising cost of prescription drugs worldwide, which in several disease areas outpaces other health care expenditures and results in a suboptimal global availability of essential medicines. A systematic review of Pubmed, the Financial Times, the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal and the Guardian was performed to identify articles related to the pricing of medicines. Changes in drug life cycles have dramatically affected patent medicine markets, which have long been considered a self-evident and self-sustainable source of income for highly profitable drug companies. Market failure in combination with high merger and acquisition activity in the sector have allowed price increases for even off-patent drugs. With market interventions and the introduction of QALY measures in health care, governments have tried to influence drug prices, but often encounter unintended consequences. Patent reform legislation, reference pricing, outcome-based pricing and incentivizing physicians and pharmacists to prescribe low-cost drugs are among the most promising short-term policy options. Due to the lack of systematic research on the effectiveness of policy measures, an increasing number of ad hoc decisions have been made with counterproductive effects on the availability of essential drugs. Future challenges demand new policies, for which recommendations are offered. A fertile ground for high-priced drugs has been created by changes in drug life-cycle dynamics, the unintended effects of patent legislation, government policy measures and orphan drug programs. There is an urgent need for regulatory reform to curtail prices and safeguard equitable access to innovative medicines.

  4. How to ensure that the results of climate risk analysis make a difference? - Experience from applied research addressing the challenges of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderbauer, Stefan; Zebisch, Marc; Becker, Daniel; Pedoth, Lydia; Renner, Kathrin; Kienberger, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Changing climate conditions may have beneficial or adverse effects on the social-ecological systems we are living in. In any case, the possible effects result from complex and interlinked physical and social processes embedded in these systems. Traditional research addresses these bio-physical and societal issues in a separate way. Therefore, in general, studies on risks related to climate change are still mono-disciplinary in nature with an increasing amount of work following a multi-disciplinary approach. The quality and usefulness of the results of such research for policy or decision making in practice may further be limited by study designs that do not acknowledge appropriately the significance of integrating or at least mixing qualitative and quantitative information and knowledge. Finally, the acceptance of study results - particularly when containing some kind of assessments - is often endangered by insufficient and / or late involvement of stakeholders and users. The above mentioned limitations have often been brought up in the recent past. However, despite that a certain consensus could be achieved in the last years recognising the need to tackle these issues, little progress has been made in terms of implementation within the context of (research) studies. This paper elaborates in detail on reasons that hamper the application of - interdisciplinary (i.e. natural and social science), - trans-disciplinary (i.e. co-production of knowledge) and - integrative (i.e. combining qualitative and quantitative approaches) work. It is based on the experience gained through a number of applied climate change vulnerability studies carried out within the context of various GIZ-financed development cooperation projects, a consultancy project for the German Environment Agency as well as the workshop series INQUIMUS, which tackles particularly the issues of mixing qualitative and quantitative research approaches. Potentials and constraints of possible attempts for

  5. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... section Back to section menu It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work ... It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural Planning ahead Addressing breastfeeding myths Overcoming challenges Common questions ...

  6. Lost in Translation: Piloting a Novel Framework to Assess the Challenges in Translating Scientific Uncertainty From Empirical Findings to WHO Policy Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Benmarhnia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Calls for evidence-informed public health policy, with implicit promises of greater program effectiveness, have intensified recently. The methods to produce such policies are not self-evident, requiring a conciliation of values and norms between policy-makers and evidence producers. In particular, the translation of uncertainty from empirical research findings, particularly issues of statistical variability and generalizability, is a persistent challenge because of the incremental nature of research and the iterative cycle of advancing knowledge and implementation. This paper aims to assess how the concept of uncertainty is considered and acknowledged in World Health Organization (WHO policy recommendations and guidelines. Methods We selected four WHO policy statements published between 2008-2013 regarding maternal and child nutrient supplementation, infant feeding, heat action plans, and malaria control to represent topics with a spectrum of available evidence bases. Each of these four statements was analyzed using a novel framework to assess the treatment of statistical variability and generalizability. Results WHO currently provides substantial guidance on addressing statistical variability through GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation ratings for precision and consistency in their guideline documents. Accordingly, our analysis showed that policy-informing questions were addressed by systematic reviews and representations of statistical variability (eg, with numeric confidence intervals. In contrast, the presentation of contextual or “background” evidence regarding etiology or disease burden showed little consideration for this variability. Moreover, generalizability or “indirectness” was uniformly neglected, with little explicit consideration of study settings or subgroups. Conclusion In this paper, we found that non-uniform treatment of statistical variability and generalizability

  7. Lost in Translation: Piloting a Novel Framework to Assess the Challenges in Translating Scientific Uncertainty From Empirical Findings to WHO Policy Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmarhnia, Tarik; Huang, Jonathan Y; Jones, Catherine M

    2017-03-01

    Calls for evidence-informed public health policy, with implicit promises of greater program effectiveness, have intensified recently. The methods to produce such policies are not self-evident, requiring a conciliation of values and norms between policy-makers and evidence producers. In particular, the translation of uncertainty from empirical research findings, particularly issues of statistical variability and generalizability, is a persistent challenge because of the incremental nature of research and the iterative cycle of advancing knowledge and implementation. This paper aims to assess how the concept of uncertainty is considered and acknowledged in World Health Organization (WHO) policy recommendations and guidelines. We selected four WHO policy statements published between 2008-2013 regarding maternal and child nutrient supplementation, infant feeding, heat action plans, and malaria control to represent topics with a spectrum of available evidence bases. Each of these four statements was analyzed using a novel framework to assess the treatment of statistical variability and generalizability. WHO currently provides substantial guidance on addressing statistical variability through GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) ratings for precision and consistency in their guideline documents. Accordingly, our analysis showed that policy-informing questions were addressed by systematic reviews and representations of statistical variability (eg, with numeric confidence intervals). In contrast, the presentation of contextual or "background" evidence regarding etiology or disease burden showed little consideration for this variability. Moreover, generalizability or "indirectness" was uniformly neglected, with little explicit consideration of study settings or subgroups. In this paper, we found that non-uniform treatment of statistical variability and generalizability factors that may contribute to uncertainty regarding recommendations

  8. Addressing Security Challenges in Pervasive Computing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-10

    Conference on Engineering of Complex Computer Systems, Auckland , New Zealand, July 2007. 5. Kyriakos Anastasakis, Behzad Bordbar, Geri Georg and...meet the requirements of pervasive computing applications. Our first contribution involves extending existing access control models to incorpo- rate ...come up with a defense strategy that guarantees complete system safety under closed world assumption (that is no zero day attack). However, owing to

  9. Nutrient density: addressing the challenge of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-10-30

    Obesity rates are increasing worldwide. Potential reasons include excessive consumption of sugary beverages and energy-dense foods instead of more nutrient-rich options. On a per kJ basis, energy-dense grains, added sugars and fats cost less, whereas lean meats, seafood, leafy greens and whole fruit generally cost more. Given that consumer food choices are often driven by price, the observed social inequities in diet quality and health can be explained, in part, by nutrition economics. Achieving a nutrient-rich diet at an affordable cost has become progressively more difficult within the constraints of global food supply. However, given the necessary metrics and educational tools, it may be possible to eat better for less. New metrics of nutrient density help consumers identify foods, processed and unprocessed, that are nutrient-rich, affordable and appealing. Affordability metrics, created by adding food prices to food composition data, permit calculations of both kJ and nutrients per penny, allowing for new studies on the economic drivers of food choice. Merging dietary intake data with local or national food prices permits the estimation of individual-level diet costs. New metrics of nutrient balance can help identify those food patterns that provide optimal nutritional value. Behavioural factors, including cooking at home, have been associated with nutrition resilience, defined as healthier diets at lower cost. Studies of the energy and nutrient costs of the global food supply and diverse food patterns will permit a better understanding of the socioeconomic determinants of health. Dietary advice ought to be accompanied by economic feasibility studies.

  10. Addressing Africa's youth employment challenge | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-12-16

    Dec 16, 2015 ... Read the full paper, Youth employment in sub-Saharan Africa: Taking stock of the evidence and knowledge gaps (PDF, 825 KB); For a visual representation of the key findings see the infographic poster (PDF, 309 KB). Preparing youth for productive employment in Rwanda. Boosting youth employment ...

  11. Communication on urban resilience to extreme weather: challenges and achievements in the dialogue between the international scientific community and local stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicari, Rosa; Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The frequency and damages caused by pluvial floods in European cities are expected to increase as a consequence of climate change and urban development. New solutions are needed at local level to cope with extreme storm events and to reduce risks and costs on populations and infrastructures, in particular in disadvantaged urban areas. The HM&Co team (LEESU & Chair 'Hydrology for Resilient Cities' sponsored by Veolia) aims to develop resilient urban systems with the help of innovative technologies, tools and practices based in particular on the use of high-resolution data, simulations, forecasts and management. Indeed, the availability of fine-scale rainfall data, due to the improved reliability of recent low-cost weather radars, opens up prospects for new forms of local urban flood risk management, which requires exchange of information with local actors and their full cooperation with researchers. This demands a large collaboration ranging from regional to international levels, e.g. the RadX@IdF project (Regional Council of Paris Region), the RainGain project (EU Interreg programme) and Blue Green Dream project (Climate-KIC programme), TOMACS (World Meteorological Organisation). These research projects and programmes include awareness raising and capacity building activities aimed to stimulate cooperation between scientists, professionals (e.g. water managers, urban planners) and beneficiaries (e.g. concerned citizens, policy makers). A dialogue between these actors is indeed needed to bring together the know-how from different countries and areas of expertise, avoid fragmentation and link it to the needs of the local stakeholders. Without this "conductive environment", research results risk to remain unexploited. After a general description of the background communication needs, this presentation will illustrate the outreach practices that are carried out by the HM&Co team. The major challenges will be also discussed, some examples are: narrating research

  12. National Institutes of Health addresses the science of diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valantine, Hannah A; Collins, Francis S

    2015-10-06

    The US biomedical research workforce does not currently mirror the nation's population demographically, despite numerous attempts to increase diversity. This imbalance is limiting the promise of our biomedical enterprise for building knowledge and improving the nation's health. Beyond ensuring fairness in scientific workforce representation, recruiting and retaining a diverse set of minds and approaches is vital to harnessing the complete intellectual capital of the nation. The complexity inherent in diversifying the research workforce underscores the need for a rigorous scientific approach, consistent with the ways we address the challenges of science discovery and translation to human health. Herein, we identify four cross-cutting diversity challenges ripe for scientific exploration and opportunity: research evidence for diversity's impact on the quality and outputs of science; evidence-based approaches to recruitment and training; individual and institutional barriers to workforce diversity; and a national strategy for eliminating barriers to career transition, with scientifically based approaches for scaling and dissemination. Evidence-based data for each of these challenges should provide an integrated, stepwise approach to programs that enhance diversity rapidly within the biomedical research workforce.

  13. Dates of publication of the Zoology parts of the Report of the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger During the Years 1873-76.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Martyn E Y; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2013-01-01

    The dates of publication and exact titles of the 83 parts of the Zoology of the Report of the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger During the Years 1873-76 are presented. Exact dates of publication for 71 of these parts have been determined using notices of their publication in contemporary publications. The dates of publication of the two Narrative volumes of the voyage of the H.M.S. Challenger (which contain available indications of new names) are also determined.

  14. Scientific challenges and opportunities in developing novel vaccines for the emerging and developing markets: New Technologies in Emerging Markets, October 16th-18th 2012, World Vaccine Congress, Lyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, Sonali

    2013-04-01

    Vaccines have had a major role in enhancing the quality of life and increasing life expectancy. Despite these successes and the development of new vaccine technologies, there remain multiple infectious diseases including AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis that require effective prophylactic vaccines. New and traditional technologies have a role in the development and delivery of the new vaccine candidates. The scientific challenges, opportunities and funding models for developing vaccines for low resource settings are highlighted here.

  15. Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damevski, Kostadin [Virginia State Univ., Petersburg, VA (United States)

    2009-03-30

    A resounding success of the Scientific Discover through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program is that high-performance computational science is now universally recognized as a critical aspect of scientific discovery [71], complementing both theoretical and experimental research. As scientific communities prepare to exploit unprecedened computing capabilities of emerging leadership-class machines for multi-model simulations at the extreme scale [72], it is more important than ever to address the technical and social challenges of geographically distributed teams that combine expertise in domain science, applied mathematics, and computer science to build robust and flexible codes that can incorporate changes over time. The Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) tackles these issues by exploiting component-based software development to facilitate collaborative hig-performance scientific computing.

  16. Address Points - Allegheny County Address Points 201601

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This dataset contains Address Points in Allegheny County. The Address Points were created by GDR for the Allegheny County CAD project, October 2008. Data is updated...

  17. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  18. Metaphors in scientific and technical languages: challenges and perspective Metáforas em linguagens técnicas e científicas: desafios e perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Bocorny Finatto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show, in a summarized way, how different studies on metaphor can positively converge to a cognitive-linguistic perception of this phenomenon. This perception surpasses a merely stylistic vision of the metaphor. The paper also reports the research that was done by Huang (2005 about metaphors in scientific texts of Medicine, which is related to the topic of AIDS. The results and difficulties of Huang's research have given examples in the treatment of the theme of metaphor in Terminology and in studies of scientific texts. It is concluded that metaphor is one of the phenomena that make part of the technical and scientific communication and, because of the complexity in approaching such topic, it must also be investigated in Terminology.O objetivo deste artigo é mostrar, de um modo conciso, como diferentes estudos sobre metáfora podem convergir, positivamente, para uma percepção lingüístico-cognitiva do fenômeno, a qual supera uma visão meramente estilística. Relata-se, com destaque, a pesquisa de Huang (2005 sobre a metáfora no texto científico de Medicina que trata sobre AIDS. Essa pesquisa, em seus resultados e dificuldades, serve como um exemplo para o tratamento da metáfora em Terminologia e em estudos do texto especializado. O artigo conclui que a metáfora é um dos fenômenos que integram a comunicação técnico-científica e que, a despeito da complexidade de sua abordagem, deve ser investigado também em estudos de Terminologia.

  19. Allegheny County Addressing Landmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  20. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  1. Scientific news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1994-01-01

    The Rijksherbarium/Hortus Botanicus acquired funds through NWO (Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research) to participate in a 7-year interdisciplinary cooperative programme of Indonesian and Dutch scientific institutions aiming at research in Irian Jaya, Cenderawasih province (the Bird’s

  2. Research initiatives for plug-and-play scientific computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInnes, Lois Curfman; Dahlgren, Tamara; Nieplocha, Jarek; Bernholdt, David; Allan, Ben; Armstrong, Rob; Chavarria, Daniel; Elwasif, Wael; Gorton, Ian; Kenny, Joe; Krishan, Manoj; Malony, Allen; Norris, Boyana; Ray, Jaideep; Shende, Sameer

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces three component technology initiatives within the SciDAC Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) that address ever-increasing productivity challenges in creating, managing, and applying simulation software to scientific discovery. By leveraging the Common Component Architecture (CCA), a new component standard for high-performance scientific computing, these initiatives tackle difficulties at different but related levels in the development of component-based scientific software: (1) deploying applications on massively parallel and heterogeneous architectures, (2) investigating new approaches to the runtime enforcement of behavioral semantics, and (3) developing tools to facilitate dynamic composition, substitution, and reconfiguration of component implementations and parameters, so that application scientists can explore tradeoffs among factors such as accuracy, reliability, and performance

  3. An emerging view of scientific collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hara, Noriko; Solomon, Paul; Kim, Seung Lye

    2003-01-01

    Collaboration is often a critical aspect of scientific research, which is dominated by complex problems, rapidly changing technology, dynamic growth of knowledge, and highly specialized areas of expertise. An individual scientist can seldom provide all of the expertise and resources necessary...... to address complex research problems. This paper describes collaboration among a group of scientists, and considers how their experiences are socially shaped. The scientists were members of a newly formed distributed, multi-disciplinary academic research center that was organized into four multi......-disciplinary research groups. Each group had 14 to 34 members, including faculty, postdoctoral fellows and students, at four geographically dispersed universities. To investigate challenges that emerge in establishing scientific collaboration, data were collected about members' previous and current collaborative...

  4. Cancer in developing countries - Facing the challenge, 20 September 2010, Vienna, Austria, 13th Scientific Forum during the 54th Session of the IAEA General Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Ladies and Gentlemen, It is a great pleasure for me to welcome you to the 2010 IAEA Scientific Forum, devoted to cancer in developing countries. I am delighted that we have been able to secure the participation of so many top cancer specialists, scientists and experts from all over the world, as well as distinguished representatives from government, the private sector and leading foundations. I am grateful to Dr Margaret Chan, Director General of the World Health Organization - our key partner in the fight against cancer - for participating by video message. We are especially honoured by the presence of the First Ladies of Egypt and Mongolia, both of whom have been outstanding advocates on behalf of cancer patients. Your support for this Scientific Forum means a lot and I thank you most warmly. During my first year as Director General of the IAEA, I have had an opportunity to visit cancer treatment centres in a number of Member States. In Egypt, I was inspired by my visit to the Children's Cancer Hospital in Cairo. The hospital was established through the good will and generosity of the people of Egypt and the selfless energy and commitment of its founders. I was particularly touched by the way in which the young patients help each other. Children who have already been through a treatment provide reassurance to others who are about to undergo it for the first time. At St Mary's Hospital in Seoul, I saw not only world-class medical care being offered to cancer patients. I was also impressed by the generosity of the Korean people, who have contributed more than $50,000 to the IAEA's cancer programme through a unique system of small donations. That money is raised through collection boxes in St Mary's Hospital and many other locations. The lesson for all of us here is obvious: we too need to work together, to share our experience, expertise and knowledge with each other and to pool our resources to ensure that cancer patients in developing countries gain

  5. Publishing Platform for Scientific Software - Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitzsch, Martin; Fritzsch, Bernadette; Reusser, Dominik; Brembs, Björn; Deinzer, Gernot; Loewe, Peter; Fenner, Martin; van Edig, Xenia; Bertelmann, Roland; Pampel, Heinz; Klump, Jens; Wächter, Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Scientific software has become an indispensable commodity for the production, processing and analysis of empirical data but also for modelling and simulation of complex processes. Software has a significant influence on the quality of research results. For strengthening the recognition of the academic performance of scientific software development, for increasing its visibility and for promoting the reproducibility of research results, concepts for the publication of scientific software have to be developed, tested, evaluated, and then transferred into operations. For this, the publication and citability of scientific software have to fulfil scientific criteria by means of defined processes and the use of persistent identifiers, similar to data publications. The SciForge project is addressing these challenges. Based on interviews a blueprint for a scientific software publishing platform and a systematic implementation plan has been designed. In addition, the potential of journals, software repositories and persistent identifiers have been evaluated to improve the publication and dissemination of reusable software solutions. It is important that procedures for publishing software as well as methods and tools for software engineering are reflected in the architecture of the platform, in order to improve the quality of the software and the results of research. In addition, it is necessary to work continuously on improving specific conditions that promote the adoption and sustainable utilization of scientific software publications. Among others, this would include policies for the development and publication of scientific software in the institutions but also policies for establishing the necessary competencies and skills of scientists and IT personnel. To implement the concepts developed in SciForge a combined bottom-up / top-down approach is considered that will be implemented in parallel in different scientific domains, e.g. in earth sciences, climate research and

  6. Exploring interoperability: The advancements and challenges of improving data discovery, access, and visualization of scientific data through the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS). (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J.; Lynge, J.; Hackathorn, E.; MacDermaid, C.; Pierce, R.; Smith, J.

    2013-12-01

    Interoperability is a complex subject and often leads to different definitions in different environments. An interoperable framework of web services can improve the user experience by providing an interface for interaction with data regardless of it's format or physical location. This in itself improves accessibility to data, fosters data exploration and use, and provides a framework for new tools and applications. With an interoperable system you have: -- Data ready for action. Services model facilitates agile response to events. Services can be combined or reused quickly, upgraded or modified independently. -- Any data available through an interoperable framework can be operated on or combined with other data. Integrating standardized formats and access. -- New and existing systems have access to wide variety of data. Any new data added is easily incorporated with minimal changes required. The possibilities are limitless. The NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS) at the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) is continuing research into an interoperable framework of layered services designed to facilitate the discovery, access, integration, visualization, and understanding of all NOAA (past, present, and future) data. An underlying philosophy of NEIS is to take advantage of existing off-the-shelf technologies and standards to minimize development of custom code allowing everyone to take advantage of the framework to meet these goals above. This framework, while built by NOAA are not limited to NOAA data or applications. Any other data available through similar services or applications that understand these standards can work interchangeably. Two major challenges are under active research at ESRL are data discoverability and fast access to big data. This presentation will provide an update on development of NEIS, including these challenges, the findings, and recommendations on what is needed for an interoperable system, as well as ongoing research activities

  7. Pumped Storage Power plants, Challenges and opportunities - Some conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viollet, Pierre-Louis; Roult, Didier; Mathex, Bruno; Ouaabi, Aziz; Louis, Frederic; Petitjean, Alain; Capuozzo, Vincent; Mazzouji, Farid; Prestat, Bruno; Nekrassov, Andrei; Caignaert, Guy; Vidil, Roland; Guilbaud, Claude; Metais, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    This document briefly synthesizes a conference which addressed the development of pumped storage power plants in the world, and social, economic, technical and scientific challenges related to this development which is closely related to the development of intermittent renewable energies (wind and solar energy). Current developments in different countries (Germany, Portugal, Switzerland, Norway, France and China) are evoked

  8. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  9. Test Driven Development of Scientific Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Test-Driven Development (TDD), a software development process that promises many advantages for developer productivity and software reliability, has become widely accepted among professional software engineers. As the name suggests, TDD practitioners alternate between writing short automated tests and producing code that passes those tests. Although this overly simplified description will undoubtedly sound prohibitively burdensome to many uninitiated developers, the advent of powerful unit-testing frameworks greatly reduces the effort required to produce and routinely execute suites of tests. By testimony, many developers find TDD to be addicting after only a few days of exposure, and find it unthinkable to return to previous practices.After a brief overview of the TDD process and my experience in applying the methodology for development activities at Goddard, I will delve more deeply into some of the challenges that are posed by numerical and scientific software as well as tools and implementation approaches that should address those challenges.

  10. Industrial Arts and the Challenge of an Urban Society. Representative Addresses and Proceedings of the American Industrial Arts Association Annual Conference (35th, Atlantic City, N.J. 1973).

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Industrial Arts Association, Washington, DC.

    General session addresses focus on urban society and its impact on environment, government, and education with special emphasis on the industrial arts. Seventeen speeches within the AIA divisions of ACESIA, ACIAS, ACIATE, and AIACSA are included. Representative addresses from the major group and special interest sessions deal with the following…

  11. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, Giulio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation-that is, the competitiveness of its research system-and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is that the scientific domains playing the role of "markers" of national scientific competitiveness are those not necessarily of high technological requirements, but rather addressing the most "sophisticated" needs of the society.

  12. Scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kobylarek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article tackles the problem of models of communication in science. The formal division of communication processes into oral and written does not resolve the problem of attitude. The author defines successful communication as a win-win game, based on the respect and equality of the partners, regardless of their position in the world of science. The core characteristics of the process of scientific communication are indicated , such as openness, fairness, support, and creation. The task of creating the right atmosphere for science communication belongs to moderators, who should not allow privilege and differentiation of position to affect scientific communication processes.

  13. Scientific meetings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    One of the main aims of the IAEA is to foster the exchange of scientific and technical information and one of the main ways of doing this is to convene international scientific meetings. They range from large international conferences bringing together several hundred scientists, smaller symposia attended by an average of 150 to 250 participants and seminars designed to instruct rather than inform, to smaller panels and study groups of 10 to 30 experts brought together to advise on a particular programme or to develop a set of regulations. The topics of these meetings cover every part of the Agency's activities and form a backbone of many of its programmes. (author)

  14. Desafíos y esperanzas de un procedimiento científico terapéutico: hemodiálisis arteriovenosa continua Challenges and Hopes of a scientific therapeutic procedure: Continuous Hemodialisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Elena Yera Loyola

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio sobre las interacciones entre el contexto sociocultural, la ciencia y la tecnología en el surgimiento y desarrollo de un novedoso procedimiento científico terapéutico: La Hemodiálisis Arteriovenosa continua, así como los posibles impactos sociales, económicos y científicos que traería consigo la aplicación de esta nueva tecnología, se concluye que el desarrollo científico tecnológico alcanzado alrededor de la segunda guerra mundial, así como la alta mortalidad en heridos con Insuficiencia renal aguda jugaron un importante papel en el surgimiento de la hemodiálisis. Las ventajas económicas que ofrece la aplicación de este proceder hace muy útil su aplicación en Cuba y otros países en vías de desarrollo que no tienen acceso a las caras tecnologías capitalistas. El modelo cubano de construcción del socialismo con una visión amplia en ciencia, tecnología y sociedad, ofrece respuestas efectivas al desafío científico tecnológico que hoy enfrentan los países subdesarrolladosA study on the interactions among the sociocultural context, science and technology in the emergence and development of a novel therapeutic scientific procedure: Continuous Arteriovenous Hemodyalisis is carried out, as well as the possible social, economic and scientific impacts of the application of this new technology. It is concluded that the technological-scientific development reached around the Second World War, as well as the high mortality among wounded soldiers with acute renal insufficiency played an important role in the emergence of hemodialysis. The economic advantages that the application of this procedure offers makes very useful its application in Cuba and other developing countries that don't have access to expensive capitalist technologies. The Cuban pattern for the construction of socialism, with its wide vision of science, technology and society, offers effective answers to the technological-scientific challenge

  15. Scientific Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Justification for this approach stems, first, from the sheer cost of trying to test at all levels. More significant is the fact that system-level tests are...specific impulses have been well worth the price until recently, when large production runs of small rockets (Scouts) and the sheer size of boosters in the...length: about 12 meters. Energy in unwanted oscillations is dissipated as heat in the damping spring. 348 SCIENTIFIC SATELLITES S/-- Piano Wire Silicone

  16. Scientific integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlo, Domenico Franco; Vahakangas, Kirsi; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental health research is a relatively new scientific area with much interdisciplinary collaboration. Regardless of which human population is included in field studies (e.g., general population, working population, children, elderly, vulnerable sub-groups, etc.) their conduct must guarantee...... consent was obtained.Integrity is central to environmental health research searching for causal relations. It requires open communication and trust and any violation (i.e., research misconduct, including fabrication or falsification of data, plagiarism, conflicting interests, etc.) may endanger...

  17. Scientific Crossbreeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Rolf

    This thesis presents an alternative approach to the analysis of interdisciplinarity. One of the basic reasons for developing an alternative method for evaluation of interdisciplinary activities is that epistemic issues are insufficiently dealt with in the existing literature on the topic. To deve......This thesis presents an alternative approach to the analysis of interdisciplinarity. One of the basic reasons for developing an alternative method for evaluation of interdisciplinary activities is that epistemic issues are insufficiently dealt with in the existing literature on the topic....... To develop a more adequate way of capturing what is at stake in interdisciplinarity, I suggest drawing inspiration from the contemporary philosophical literature on scientific representation. The development of a representation based approach to the analysis of interdisciplinarity, and the discussion...... of the concept of “scientific discipline” and disciplinary difference. This chapter provides reasons to assume that conventional scientific taxonomies do not provide a good basis for analysing epistemic aspects of interdisciplinary science. On this background it is argued that the concept of “approaches...

  18. The NRPB future scientific programme (2002-2007)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed summary of the work planned for the lifetime of the Corporate Plan (2002-2007). Some of the work relates to new technologies, other work arises from challenges to accepted standards or because of new information from research. The Scientific Programme is set in the context of NRPB effort in the international arena to develop and address radiation issues and standards. This work pervades and influences aspects of the work programme in all of the scientific areas. The globally recognised expertise of NRPB can influence developments to ensure UK concerns are addressed and the UK research programmes meshes with international and collaborative research. The Scientific Programme is in line with the role of NRPB, our stated methods of working and the priorities identified by the 1999-2000 Strategic Review, Government Departments, Devolved Administrations and Agencies and the views of Board members. The future Scientific Programme spans the three principal functions of advice, research and the provision of technical services and draws on expertise from across the organisation. The Department of Health is responsible for ministerial approval of the Corporate Plan and Scientific Programme. (author)

  19. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops......, and gives examples of the unique challenges faced by the SME food industry....

  20. Accelerating scientific discovery : 2007 annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckman, P.; Dave, P.; Drugan, C.

    2008-11-14

    As a gateway for scientific discovery, the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) works hand in hand with the world's best computational scientists to advance research in a diverse span of scientific domains, ranging from chemistry, applied mathematics, and materials science to engineering physics and life sciences. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science, researchers are using the IBM Blue Gene/L supercomputer at the ALCF to study and explore key scientific problems that underlie important challenges facing our society. For instance, a research team at the University of California-San Diego/ SDSC is studying the molecular basis of Parkinson's disease. The researchers plan to use the knowledge they gain to discover new drugs to treat the disease and to identify risk factors for other diseases that are equally prevalent. Likewise, scientists from Pratt & Whitney are using the Blue Gene to understand the complex processes within aircraft engines. Expanding our understanding of jet engine combustors is the secret to improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions. Lessons learned from the scientific simulations of jet engine combustors have already led Pratt & Whitney to newer designs with unprecedented reductions in emissions, noise, and cost of ownership. ALCF staff members provide in-depth expertise and assistance to those using the Blue Gene/L and optimizing user applications. Both the Catalyst and Applications Performance Engineering and Data Analytics (APEDA) teams support the users projects. In addition to working with scientists running experiments on the Blue Gene/L, we have become a nexus for the broader global community. In partnership with the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory, we have created an environment where the world's most challenging computational science problems can be addressed. Our expertise in high-end scientific computing enables us to provide

  1. Scientific Opportunities to Reduce Risk in Nuclear Process Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredt, Paul R.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Poloski, Adam P.; Vienna, John D.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Hobbs, David; Wilmarth, B.; Mcilwain, Michael; Subramanian, K.; Krahn, Steve; Machara, N.

    2009-01-01

    Cleaning up the nation's nuclear weapons complex remains as one of the most technologically challenging and financially costly problems facing the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Safety, cost, and technological challenges have often delayed progress in retrieval, processing, and final disposition of high-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and challenging materials. Some of the issues result from the difficulty and complexity of the technological issues; others have programmatic bases, such as strategies that may provide undue focus on near-term goals or difficulty in developing and maintaining stakeholder confidence in the proposed solutions. We propose that independent basic fundamental science research, addressing the full cleanup life-cycle, offers an opportunity to help address these challenges by providing (1) scientific insight into the fundamental mechanisms involved in currently selected processing and disposal options, (2) a rational path to the development of alternative technologies should the primary options fail, (3) confidence that models that predict long-term performance of different disposal options are based upon the best available science, and (4) fundamental science discovery that enables transformational solutions to revolutionize the current baseline processes. Over the last 3 years, DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) has experienced a fundamental shift in philosophy. The mission focus of driving to closure has been replaced by one of enabling the long-term needs of DOE and the nation. Resolving new challenges, such as the disposition of DOE spent nuclear fuel, have been added to EM's responsibilities. In addition, the schedules for addressing several elements of the cleanup mission have been extended. As a result, EM's mission is no longer focused only on driving the current baselines to closure. Meeting the mission will require fundamental advances over at least a 30-year window if not longer as new challenges are added. The

  2. Center for Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostadin, Damevski [Virginia State Univ., Petersburg, VA (United States)

    2015-01-25

    A resounding success of the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program is that high-performance computational science is now universally recognized as a critical aspect of scientific discovery [71], complementing both theoretical and experimental research. As scientific communities prepare to exploit unprecedented computing capabilities of emerging leadership-class machines for multi-model simulations at the extreme scale [72], it is more important than ever to address the technical and social challenges of geographically distributed teams that combine expertise in domain science, applied mathematics, and computer science to build robust and flexible codes that can incorporate changes over time. The Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS)1 tackles these these issues by exploiting component-based software development to facilitate collaborative high-performance scientific computing.

  3. Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) Consolidated Progress Report July 2006 - March 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernholdt, D E; McInnes, L C; Govindaraju, M; Bramley, R; Epperly, T; Kohl, J A; Nieplocha, J; Armstrong, R; Shasharina, S; Sussman, A L; Sottile, M; Damevski, K

    2009-04-14

    A resounding success of the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program is that high-performance computational science is now universally recognized as a critical aspect of scientific discovery [71], complementing both theoretical and experimental research. As scientific communities prepare to exploit unprecedented computing capabilities of emerging leadership-class machines for multi-model simulations at the extreme scale [72], it is more important than ever to address the technical and social challenges of geographically distributed teams that combine expertise in domain science, applied mathematics, and computer science to build robust and flexible codes that can incorporate changes over time. The Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) tackles these issues by exploiting component-based software development to facilitate collaborative high-performance scientific computing.

  4. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  5. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Us Blog Popular topics Vision and mission Leadership Programs and activities In your community Funding opportunities Internships and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural Planning ahead Addressing breastfeeding myths ...

  6. Testing Scientific Software: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanewala, Upulee; Bieman, James M

    2014-10-01

    Scientific software plays an important role in critical decision making, for example making weather predictions based on climate models, and computation of evidence for research publications. Recently, scientists have had to retract publications due to errors caused by software faults. Systematic testing can identify such faults in code. This study aims to identify specific challenges, proposed solutions, and unsolved problems faced when testing scientific software. We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevant literature. We identified 62 studies that provided relevant information about testing scientific software. We found that challenges faced when testing scientific software fall into two main categories: (1) testing challenges that occur due to characteristics of scientific software such as oracle problems and (2) testing challenges that occur due to cultural differences between scientists and the software engineering community such as viewing the code and the model that it implements as inseparable entities. In addition, we identified methods to potentially overcome these challenges and their limitations. Finally we describe unsolved challenges and how software engineering researchers and practitioners can help to overcome them. Scientific software presents special challenges for testing. Specifically, cultural differences between scientist developers and software engineers, along with the characteristics of the scientific software make testing more difficult. Existing techniques such as code clone detection can help to improve the testing process. Software engineers should consider special challenges posed by scientific software such as oracle problems when developing testing techniques.

  7. Virtual reality: scientific and technological challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durlach, Nathaniel I; Mavor, Anne S

    .... This volume discusses all aspects of creating a system that will allow human operators to see, hear, smell, taste, move about, give commands, respond to conditions, and manipulate objects effectively...

  8. Virtual reality: scientific and technological challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durlach, Nathaniel I; Mavor, Anne S

    ... and Development Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1995 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as...

  9. Virtual reality: scientific and technological challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durlach, Nathaniel I; Mavor, Anne S

    ... in a real or virtual environment. The committee of computer scientists, engineers, and psychologists on the leading edge of SE development explores the potential applications of SE in the areas of manufacturing, medicine, education...

  10. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  11. Exploring HPCS languages in scientific computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R F; Alam, S R; Almeida, V F d; Bernholdt, D E; Elwasif, W R; Kuehn, J A; Poole, S W; Shet, A G

    2008-01-01

    As computers scale up dramatically to tens and hundreds of thousands of cores, develop deeper computational and memory hierarchies, and increased heterogeneity, developers of scientific software are increasingly challenged to express complex parallel simulations effectively and efficiently. In this paper, we explore the three languages developed under the DARPA High-Productivity Computing Systems (HPCS) program to help address these concerns: Chapel, Fortress, and X10. These languages provide a variety of features not found in currently popular HPC programming environments and make it easier to express powerful computational constructs, leading to new ways of thinking about parallel programming. Though the languages and their implementations are not yet mature enough for a comprehensive evaluation, we discuss some of the important features, and provide examples of how they can be used in scientific computing. We believe that these characteristics will be important to the future of high-performance scientific computing, whether the ultimate language of choice is one of the HPCS languages or something else

  12. Exploring HPCS languages in scientific computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, R. F.; Alam, S. R.; Almeida, V. F. d.; Bernholdt, D. E.; Elwasif, W. R.; Kuehn, J. A.; Poole, S. W.; Shet, A. G.

    2008-07-01

    As computers scale up dramatically to tens and hundreds of thousands of cores, develop deeper computational and memory hierarchies, and increased heterogeneity, developers of scientific software are increasingly challenged to express complex parallel simulations effectively and efficiently. In this paper, we explore the three languages developed under the DARPA High-Productivity Computing Systems (HPCS) program to help address these concerns: Chapel, Fortress, and X10. These languages provide a variety of features not found in currently popular HPC programming environments and make it easier to express powerful computational constructs, leading to new ways of thinking about parallel programming. Though the languages and their implementations are not yet mature enough for a comprehensive evaluation, we discuss some of the important features, and provide examples of how they can be used in scientific computing. We believe that these characteristics will be important to the future of high-performance scientific computing, whether the ultimate language of choice is one of the HPCS languages or something else.

  13. Scientific Eschatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H

    2005-03-18

    The future evolution of the universe suggested by the cosmological model proposed earlier at this meeting by the authors is explored. The fundamental role played by the positive ''cosmological constant'' is emphasized. Dyson's 1979 paper entitled ''Time Without End'' is briefly reviewed. His most optimistic scenario requires that the universe be geometrically open and that biology is structural in the sense that the current complexity of human society can be reproduced by scaling up its (quantum mechanical) structure to arbitrary size. If the recently measured ''cosmological constant'' is indeed a fundamental constant of nature, then Dyson's scenario is, for various reasons, ruled out by the finite (De Sitter) horizon due to exponential expansion of the resulting space. However, the finite temperature of that horizon does open other interesting options. If, as is suggested by the cosmology under consideration, the current exponential expansion of the universe is due to a phase transition which fixes a physical boundary condition during the early radiation dominated era, the behavior of the universe after the relevant scale factor crosses the De Sitter radius opens up still other possibilities. The relevance of Martin Rees' apocalyptic eschatology recently presented in his book ''Our Final Hour'' is mentioned. It is concluded that even for the far future, whether or not cultural and scientific descendants of the current epoch will play a role in it, an understanding (sadly, currently lacking) of community and political evolution and control is essential for a preliminary treatment of what could be even vaguely called scientific eschatology.

  14. GRACEnet: addressing policy needs through coordinated cross-location research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawson, Michael D.; Walthall, Charles W.; Shafer, Steven R.; Liebig, Mark; Franzluebbers, Alan J.; Follett, Ronald F.

    2012-01-01

    GRACEnet (Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network) was conceived to build upon ongoing USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) research to improve soil productivity, while addressing the challenges and opportunities of interest in C sequestration from a climate change perspective. The vision for GRACEnet was and remains: Knowledge and information used to implement scientifically based agricultural management practices from the field to national policy scales on C sequestration, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and environmental benefits. The national focus of GRACEnet uses a standardized approach by ARS laboratories and university and land manager (e.g. farmer and rancher) cooperators to assess C sequestration and GHG emission from different crop and grassland systems. Since 2002, GRACEnet has significantly expanded GHG mitigation science and delivered usable information to agricultural research and policy organizations. Recent developments suggest GRACEnet will have international impact by contributing leadership and technical guidance for the Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases.

  15. Addressing voice recording replications for tracking Parkinson's disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Lizbeth; Pérez, Carlos J; Martín, Jacinto

    2017-03-01

    Tracking Parkinson's disease symptom severity by using characteristics automatically extracted from voice recordings is a very interesting and challenging problem. In this context, voice features are automatically extracted from multiple voice recordings from the same subjects. In principle, for each subject, the features should be identical at a concrete time, but the imperfections in technology and the own biological variability result in nonidentical replicated features. The involved within-subject variability must be addressed since replicated measurements from voice recordings can not be directly used in independence-based pattern recognition methods as they have been routinely used through the scientific literature. Besides, the time plays a key role in the experimental design. In this paper, for the first time, a Bayesian linear regression approach suitable to handle replicated measurements and time is proposed. Moreover, a version favoring the best predictors and penalizing the worst ones is also presented. Computational difficulties have been avoided by developing Gibbs sampling-based approaches.

  16. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  17. Addressing Social Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  18. Sesotho Address Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akindele, Dele Femi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Address forms constitute an integral part of Basotho sociolinguistic etiquette. They are regarded as a kind of emotional capital that may be invested in putting others at ease. They are indicators of deference, politeness and markers of social distance. (Fasold 1990, Akindele 1990, 1991, 1993 This paper examines the address forms used by the Basotho people. It analyzes and discusses the various types and the factors determining their use. The discussion of address forms in Sesotho focuses on First Name, Title plus First Name, Title plus Last Name, Nickname, Multiple Names, and Teknonym. Drawing data from semi-literate and literate urban and rural population of Maseru district of Lesotho, it was found that the commonest form of address used by the Basotho people is title plus first name. e.g. ntate Thabo (father Thabo, 'm'e Puleng (mother Puleng, ausi Maneo (sister Maneo, abuti Mahao (brother Mahao. It is used by close relations, associates, and familiar people in both formal and informal situations.

  19. Addressivity in Cogenerative Dialogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one…

  20. 75 FR 47316 - Centennial Challenges 2010 Strong Tether Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ..., 2010. ADDRESSES: 2010 Strong Tether Challenge will be conducted at the 2010 Space Elevator Conference... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2010 Strong Tether Challenge AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice is...

  1. Tsunami Data and Scientific Data Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos, N. P.; Dunbar, P. K.; Gusiakov, V. K.; Kong, L. S. L.; Aliaga, B.; Yamamoto, M.; Stroker, K. J.

    2016-12-01

    Free and open access to data and information fosters scientific progress and can build bridges between nations even when political relationships are strained. Data and information held by one stakeholder may be vital for promoting research of another. As an emerging field of inquiry, data diplomacy explores how data-sharing helps create and support positive relationships between countries to enable the use of data for societal and humanitarian benefit. Tsunami has arguably been the only natural hazard that has been addressed so effectively at an international scale and illustrates the success of scientific data diplomacy. Tsunami mitigation requires international scientific cooperation in both tsunami science and technology development. This requires not only international agreements, but working-level relationships between scientists from countries that may have different political and economic policies. For example, following the Pacific wide tsunami of 1960 that killed two thousand people in Chile and then, up to a day later, hundreds in Hawaii, Japan, and the Philippines; delegates from twelve countries met to discuss and draft the requirements for an international tsunami warning system. The Pacific Tsunami Warning System led to the development of local, regional, and global tsunami databases and catalogs. For example, scientists at NOAA/NCEI and the Tsunami Laboratory/Russian Academy of Sciences have collaborated on their tsunami catalogs that are now routinely accessed by scientists and the public around the world. These data support decision-making during tsunami events, are used in developing inundation and evacuation maps, and hazard assessments. This presentation will include additional examples of agreements for data-sharing between countries, as well as challenges in standardization and consistency among the tsunami research community. Tsunami data and scientific data diplomacy have ultimately improved understanding of tsunami and associated impacts.

  2. Scientific Data Management Center for Enabling Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vouk, Mladen A.

    2013-01-15

    data management technologies to DOE application scientists in astrophysics, climate, fusion, and biology. Equally important, it established collaborations with these scientists to better understand their science as well as their forthcoming data management and data analytics challenges. Building on our early successes, we have greatly enhanced, robustified, and deployed our technology to these communities. In some cases, we identified new needs that have been addressed in order to simplify the use of our technology by scientists. This report summarizes our work so far in SciDAC-2. Our approach is to employ an evolutionary development and deployment process: from research through prototypes to deployment and infrastructure. Accordingly, we have organized our activities in three layers that abstract the end-to-end data flow described above. We labeled the layers (from bottom to top): a) Storage Efficient Access (SEA), b) Data Mining and Analysis (DMA), c) Scientific Process Automation (SPA). The SEA layer is immediately on top of hardware, operating systems, file systems, and mass storage systems, and provides parallel data access technology, and transparent access to archival storage. The DMA layer, which builds on the functionality of the SEA layer, consists of indexing, feature identification, and parallel statistical analysis technology. The SPA layer, which is on top of the DMA layer, provides the ability to compose scientific workflows from the components in the DMA layer as well as application specific modules. NCSU work performed under this contract was primarily at the SPA layer.

  3. Building Bridges through Scientific Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-01-01

    Getting together to exchange ideas, forge collaborations, and disseminate knowledge is a long-standing tradition of scientific communities. How conferences are serving the community, what their current challenges are, and what is in store for the future of conferences are the topics covered...

  4. Minimizing System Noise Effects For Extreme-Scale Scientific Simulation Through Function Delegation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, Jack J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville; Bosilca, George [University of Tennessee, Knoxville

    2013-06-11

    The primary goal of the Minimizing System Noise Effects For Extreme-Scale Scientific Simulation through Function Delegation project is to eliminate or at best strongly minimize the impact of the noise introduced by the operating system, during large scale parallel applications runs. Collective communication operations are a basic building block for parallel programing models and scientific applications. These operations often dominate execution time of applications and tend to limit their scalability. In order to address this challenge, we evaluated different strategies to adapt the collective communications underlying topologies to the hardware architecture in order to provide increased levels of performance to the parallel applications.

  5. Challenges facing European agriculture and possible biotechnological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricroch, Agnès; Harwood, Wendy; Svobodová, Zdeňka; Sági, László; Hundleby, Penelope; Badea, Elena Marcela; Rosca, Ioan; Cruz, Gabriela; Salema Fevereiro, Manuel Pedro; Marfà Riera, Victoria; Jansson, Stefan; Morandini, Piero; Bojinov, Bojin; Cetiner, Selim; Custers, René; Schrader, Uwe; Jacobsen, Hans-Joerg; Martin-Laffon, Jacqueline; Boisron, Audrey; Kuntz, Marcel

    2016-10-01

    Agriculture faces many challenges to maximize yields while it is required to operate in an environmentally sustainable manner. In the present study, we analyze the major agricultural challenges identified by European farmers (primarily related to biotic stresses) in 13 countries, namely Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, UK and Turkey, for nine major crops (barley, beet, grapevine, maize, oilseed rape, olive, potato, sunflower and wheat). Most biotic stresses (BSs) are related to fungi or insects, but viral diseases, bacterial diseases and even parasitic plants have an important impact on yield and harvest quality. We examine how these challenges have been addressed by public and private research sectors, using either conventional breeding, marker-assisted selection, transgenesis, cisgenesis, RNAi technology or mutagenesis. Both national surveys and scientific literature analysis followed by text mining were employed to evaluate genetic engineering (GE) and non-GE approaches. This is the first report of text mining of the scientific literature on plant breeding and agricultural biotechnology research. For the nine major crops in Europe, 128 BS challenges were identified with 40% of these addressed neither in the scientific literature nor in recent European public research programs. We found evidence that the private sector was addressing only a few of these "neglected" challenges. Consequently, there are considerable gaps between farmer's needs and current breeding and biotechnology research. We also provide evidence that the current political situation in certain European countries is an impediment to GE research in order to address these agricultural challenges in the future. This study should also contribute to the decision-making process on future pertinent international consortia to fill the identified research gaps.

  6. PRESIDENT’S ADDRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Kubínová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dear colleagues, Let me wish you and our Image Analysis & Stereology Journal all the best in 2016. It is great honour for me to be in charge of the International Society for Stereology (ISS. I would like to thank Eric Pirard for all his tremendous work and effort he has put into ISS activities in past years, together with all members of the ISS Board. I am glad Eric is willing to help me with ISS as „Immediate Past President“. I also rely on close collaboration with Ida Eržen and Marko Kreft, the Editors-in-Chief of Image Analysis & Stereology (IAS, IAS Editorial Board and future ISS Board. I appreciate long-term cooperation between the Image Analysis & Stereology Journal and the International Society for Stereology and I am looking forward to broaden our relationships in the future. As a President of ISS I plan to evoke new activities which would help to make ISS vivid and useful to scientific community. We are planning new courses on stereology, image analysis and related topics run in cooperation with ISS with reduced fee for ISS members, competion for the best PhD thesis using stereology and/or image analysis, ISS history mapping, etc. I welcome your further suggestions and comments. I would like to cordially invite you to become members of the International Society for Stereology (http://stereologysociety.org/membership.html and to take part in new activities organized by ISS, such as:Special Session „3D Image Analysis and Stereology in Fluorescence Microscopy“ at ISBI 2016 (in Prague, see http://biomedicalimaging.org/2016/?page_id=768.Round table discussion on „Stereology and 3D image analysis in microscopy“ to be held at the 16th European Microscopy Congress in Lyon (EMC 2016, see http://www.emc2016.fr/en/scientific-programme/special/stereology.It is my intention to involve young people and fresh ideas in the activities of ISS and in further improvement of IAS. Please contact me at lucie

  7. Scientific Communication and its Relevance to Research Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosendaal, Hans E.; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the relation between developments in scientific communication and research. The developments in scientific communication are related to developments brought about by opportunities provided by the development and wide-scale introduction of modern information and communication

  8. Fundamental Scientific Problems in Magnetic Recording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulthess, T.C.; Miller, M.K.

    2007-06-27

    Magnetic data storage technology is presently leading the high tech industry in advancing device integration--doubling the storage density every 12 months. To continue these advancements and to achieve terra bit per inch squared recording densities, new approaches to store and access data will be needed in about 3-5 years. In this project, collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Center for Materials for Information Technology (MINT) at University of Alabama (UA), Imago Scientific Instruments, and Seagate Technologies, was undertaken to address the fundamental scientific problems confronted by the industry in meeting the upcoming challenges. The areas that were the focus of this study were to: (1) develop atom probe tomography for atomic scale imaging of magnetic heterostructures used in magnetic data storage technology; (2) develop a first principles based tools for the study of exchange bias aimed at finding new anti-ferromagnetic materials to reduce the thickness of the pinning layer in the read head; (3) develop high moment magnetic materials and tools to study magnetic switching in nanostructures aimed at developing improved writers of high anisotropy magnetic storage media.

  9. Ranking scientific publications: the effect of nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Liyang; Wei, Tian; Zeng, An; Fan, Ying; di, Zengru

    2014-10-01

    Ranking the significance of scientific publications is a long-standing challenge. The network-based analysis is a natural and common approach for evaluating the scientific credit of papers. Although the number of citations has been widely used as a metric to rank papers, recently some iterative processes such as the well-known PageRank algorithm have been applied to the citation networks to address this problem. In this paper, we introduce nonlinearity to the PageRank algorithm when aggregating resources from different nodes to further enhance the effect of important papers. The validation of our method is performed on the data of American Physical Society (APS) journals. The results indicate that the nonlinearity improves the performance of the PageRank algorithm in terms of ranking effectiveness, as well as robustness against malicious manipulations. Although the nonlinearity analysis is based on the PageRank algorithm, it can be easily extended to other iterative ranking algorithms and similar improvements are expected.

  10. Ranking scientific publications: the effect of nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Liyang; Wei, Tian; Zeng, An; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru

    2014-10-17

    Ranking the significance of scientific publications is a long-standing challenge. The network-based analysis is a natural and common approach for evaluating the scientific credit of papers. Although the number of citations has been widely used as a metric to rank papers, recently some iterative processes such as the well-known PageRank algorithm have been applied to the citation networks to address this problem. In this paper, we introduce nonlinearity to the PageRank algorithm when aggregating resources from different nodes to further enhance the effect of important papers. The validation of our method is performed on the data of American Physical Society (APS) journals. The results indicate that the nonlinearity improves the performance of the PageRank algorithm in terms of ranking effectiveness, as well as robustness against malicious manipulations. Although the nonlinearity analysis is based on the PageRank algorithm, it can be easily extended to other iterative ranking algorithms and similar improvements are expected.

  11. Speech and scientific paper. A rhetorical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Carmona Sandoval

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay attempts to show that the ancient rhetorical theory has explanatory capabilities to understand and learn to write modern texts and to analyze them in order to understand their communication skills, as in the scientific article, one of the most prestigious forms on scientific communication. It starts with the notion of discourse in the field of scientific communication and then address the rhetorical dimension of the paper.

  12. Assessing what to address in science communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-01-01

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people’s decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people’s understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people’s decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people’s mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients’ understanding and ability to make informed decisions. PMID:23942122

  13. Assessing what to address in science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-08-20

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people's decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people's understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people's decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people's mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients' understanding and ability to make informed decisions.

  14. Extracting Core Claims from Scientific Articles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Tom; Kuhn, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The number of scientific articles has grown rapidly over the years and there are no signs that this growth will slow down in the near future. Because of this, it becomes increasingly difficult to keep up with the latest developments in a scientific field. To address this problem, we present here an

  15. Doing Science that Matters to Address India's Water Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.

    2017-12-01

    Addressing water security in developing regions involves predicting water availability under unprecedented rates of population and economic growth. India is one of the most water stressed countries in the world. Despite appreciable increases in funding for water research, high quality science that is usable by stakeholders remains elusive. The absence of usable research, has been driven by notions of what is publishable in the developed world. This can be attributed to the absence of problem driven research on questions that actually matter to stakeholders, unwillingness to transcend disciplinary boundaries and the demise of a field-work research culture in favour of computer simulation. Yet the combination of rapid change, inadequate data and human modifications to watersheds poses a challenge, as researchers face a poorly constrained water resources modelling problem. Instead, what India and indeed all developing regions need is to approach the problem from first principles, identifying the most critical knowledge gaps, then prioritizing data collection using novel sensing and modelling approaches to address them. This might also necessitate consideration of underlying social and governance drivers of hydrologic change. Using examples from research in the Cauvery Basin, a highly contentious inter-state river basin, I offer some insights into framing "use-inspired" research agenda and show how the research generates not just new scientific insights but may be translated into practice.

  16. Human missions to Mars: issues and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, M.; Kminek, G.

    Recent announcements of the planned future human exploration of Mars by both European and US space agencies have raised a host of questions and challenges that must be addressed in advance of long-duration human missions. While detailed mission planning is a long way off, numerous issues can already be identified in the broad context of planetary protection. In this session, a panel of experts will provide brief overviews of the types of challenges ahead, such as the protection of the martian environment; the integration of human and robotic mission elements and operations; precursor scientific information necessary to plan human missions; development and use of nuclear and other technologies for the protection and support of astronauts during the mission; protection of Earth upon return; and societal and ethical questions about human exploration. The session has been designed to encourage and incorporate audience participation in the discussion about the issues and challenges ahead.

  17. Counting addressing method: Command addressable element and extinguishing module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Jovan D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific requirements that appear in addressable fire detection and alarm systems and the shortcomings of the existing addressing methods were discussed. A new method of addressing of detectors was proposed. The basic principles of addressing and responding of a called element are stated. Extinguishing module is specific subsystem in classic fire detection and alarm systems. Appearing of addressable fire detection and alarm systems didn't caused essential change in the concept of extinguishing module because of long calling period of such systems. Addressable fire security system based on counting addressing method reaches high calling rates and enables integrating of the extinguishing module in addressable system. Solutions for command addressable element and integrated extinguishing module are given in this paper. The counting addressing method was developed for specific requirements in fire detection and alarm systems, yet its speed and reliability justifies its use in the acquisition of data on slowly variable parameters under industrial conditions. .

  18. Scientific activities in and about Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Ebbe Krogh; Pedersen, Asger Dalsgaard

    2018-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation and analysis of opportunities, strengths and challenges of scientific activities involving Greenland as a research area or research object relative to other Arctic areas.......This report presents the results of an investigation and analysis of opportunities, strengths and challenges of scientific activities involving Greenland as a research area or research object relative to other Arctic areas....

  19. Scientific Opportunities for Monitoring at Environmental Remediation Sites (SOMERS): Integrated Systems-Based Approaches to Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Deeb, Rula A.; Hawley, Elizabeth L.; Truex, Michael J.; Peterson, Mark; Freshley, Mark D.; Pierce, Eric M.; McCord, John; Young, Michael H.; Gilmore, Tyler J.; Miller, Rick; Miracle, Ann L.; Kaback, Dawn; Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Rossabi, Joe; Lee, Michelle H.; Bush, Richard P.; Beam , Paul; Chamberlain, G. M.; Marble, Justin; Whitehurst, Latrincy; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Collazo, Yvette

    2012-05-15

    Through an inter-disciplinary effort, DOE is addressing a need to advance monitoring approaches from sole reliance on cost- and labor-intensive point-source monitoring to integrated systems-based approaches such as flux-based approaches and the use of early indicator parameters. Key objectives include identifying current scientific, technical and implementation opportunities and challenges, prioritizing science and technology strategies to meet current needs within the DOE complex for the most challenging environments, and developing an integrated and risk-informed monitoring framework.

  20. Hydra: a service oriented architecture for scientific simulation integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, Russell [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Djidjev, Tatiana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hayes, Birch P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holland, Joe V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Khalsa, Hari S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Linger, Steve P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mathis, Mark M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mniszewski, Sue M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bush, Brian [NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LAB

    2008-01-01

    One of the current major challenges in scientific modeling and simulation, in particular in the infrastructure-analysis community, is the development of techniques for efficiently and automatically coupling disparate tools that exist in separate locations on different platforms, implemented in a variety of languages and designed to be standalone. Recent advances in web-based platforms for integrating systems such as SOA provide an opportunity to address these challenges in a systematic fashion. This paper describes Hydra, an integrating architecture for infrastructure modeling and simulation that defines geography-based schemas that, when used to wrap existing tools as web services, allow for seamless plug-and-play composability. Existing users of these tools can enhance the value of their analysis by assessing how the simulations of one tool impact the behavior of another tool and can automate existing ad hoc processes and work flows for integrating tools together.