WorldWideScience

Sample records for address international health

  1. Addressing the Mental Health Problems of Chinese International College Students in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirong Liu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies unique mental health problems experienced by Chinese international students in the United States. The uniqueness of these problems suggests the need to address them independently from other Chinese and international student communities. First, an overview of the common sources of mental health problems and specific stressors these students face is provided. This article then develops culturally sensitive programming recommendations to improve collaborative efforts between health providers, mental health social workers, faculty, and academic staff within universities to serve these students more effectively.

  2. Ethics in occupational health: deliberations of an international workgroup addressing challenges in an African context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Leslie; Tangwa, Godfrey; Matchaba-Hove, Reginald; Mkhize, Nhlanhla; Nwabueze, Remi; Nyika, Aceme; Westerholm, Peter

    2014-06-23

    International codes of ethics play an important role in guiding professional practice in developing countries. In the occupational health setting, codes developed by international agencies have substantial import on protecting working populations from harm. This is particularly so under globalisation which has transformed processes of production in fundamental ways across the globe. As part of the process of revising the Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health, an Africa Working Group addressed key challenges for the relevance and cogency of an ethical code in occupational health for an African context through an iterative consultative process. Firstly, even in the absence of strong legal systems of enforcement, and notwithstanding the value of legal institutionalisation of ethical codes, guidelines alone may offer advantageous routes to enhancing ethical practice in occupational health. Secondly, globalisation has particularly impacted on health and safety at workplaces in Africa, challenging occupational health professionals to be sensitive to, and actively redress imbalance of power. Thirdly, the different ways in which vulnerability is exemplified in the workplace in Africa often places the occupational health professional in invidious positions of Dual Loyalty. Fourth, the particular cultural emphasis in traditional African societies on collective responsibilities within the community impacts directly on how consent should be sought in occupational health practice, and how stigma should be dealt with, balancing individual autonomy with ideas of personhood that are more collective as in the African philosophy of ubuntu. To address stigma, practitioners need to be additionally sensitive to how power imbalances at the workplace intersect with traditional cultural norms related to solidarity. Lastly, particularly in the African context, the inseparability of workplace and community means that efforts to address workplace hazards demand

  3. Ethics in occupational health: deliberations of an international workgroup addressing challenges in an African context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background International codes of ethics play an important role in guiding professional practice in developing countries. In the occupational health setting, codes developed by international agencies have substantial import on protecting working populations from harm. This is particularly so under globalisation which has transformed processes of production in fundamental ways across the globe. As part of the process of revising the Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health, an Africa Working Group addressed key challenges for the relevance and cogency of an ethical code in occupational health for an African context through an iterative consultative process. Discussion Firstly, even in the absence of strong legal systems of enforcement, and notwithstanding the value of legal institutionalisation of ethical codes, guidelines alone may offer advantageous routes to enhancing ethical practice in occupational health. Secondly, globalisation has particularly impacted on health and safety at workplaces in Africa, challenging occupational health professionals to be sensitive to, and actively redress imbalance of power. Thirdly, the different ways in which vulnerability is exemplified in the workplace in Africa often places the occupational health professional in invidious positions of Dual Loyalty. Fourth, the particular cultural emphasis in traditional African societies on collective responsibilities within the community impacts directly on how consent should be sought in occupational health practice, and how stigma should be dealt with, balancing individual autonomy with ideas of personhood that are more collective as in the African philosophy of ubuntu. To address stigma, practitioners need to be additionally sensitive to how power imbalances at the workplace intersect with traditional cultural norms related to solidarity. Lastly, particularly in the African context, the inseparability of workplace and community means that efforts to address

  4. Keynote address at the Fifth Congress of the International Association for Adolescent Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransome-Kuti, O

    1992-07-01

    This Nigerian Ministry of Health speech reiterates the importance of focusing on the problems of youth and adolescents which was 1st identified in 1989 at a World Health Assembly. Every stage of the life cycle is important because mental, physical, psychological, and social scars are carried into the future. It is important to make the transition to adulthood as smooth as possible. Of the 30% (1.5 billion) of the World's population that are adolescents 10-24 years old, 80% live in developing countries. 50% of the world population is 25 years. In the preparation for adulthood, age-old customs, culture, and tradition have ensured the stability and survival of societies, but great changes have taken place due to colonialism, modern education, urban migration, rapid travel an communication, tourism, and trade. There is weakening of traditional marriage. Foreign cultural influence has armed youths to challenge community cultural norms and parental authority to direct their development. There is social tension, disruption, an instability. Adults as role models have sometimes failed to represent integrity and honesty. There is a need for sensitive support and guidance from adults. Peer pressure operates for both good or ill. Some will react to this stress to conform in unhealthy ways. The health care system may not fill adolescent needs because they are too old for the pediatrician and too young for the physician. Girls are particularly vulnerable to the problems of premarital pregnancy, induced abortion, out-of-wedlock births, and sexually transmitted diseases. The pressure is to grow up fast, particularly in polygamous societies where the woman has security only in her children. Opportunities for dialogue degenerate into sessions of being "talked at" and forced compliance. Unemployment is very high which can lead to loss of self-esteem, psychological stress, and hopelessness and sometimes street fighting, thuggery, drug pushing, and armed robbery. Attempts worldwide are

  5. International Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... create refugee populations with immediate and long-term health problems. Some of the major diseases currently affecting ... also an international problem which can affect people's health. Many countries and health organizations are working together ...

  6. International Student Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Welch, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.

  7. Addressing Global Health, Development, and Social Inequalities through Research and Policy Analyses: the International Journal of MCH and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuladus E. Azuine, DrPH, RN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One year after the birth of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA, we continue to share the passion to document, and shine the light on the myriads of global health issues that debilitate developing countries.Although the focus of IJMA is on the social determinants of health and disease as well as on the disparities in the burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases affecting infants, children, women, adults, and families in developing countries, we would like to encourage our fellow researchers and policy makers in both the developing and developed countries to consider submitting work that examines cross-national variations in heath and social inequalities.Such a global focus allows us to identify and understand social, structural, developmental, and health policy determinants underlying health inequalities between nations.Global assessment of health and socioeconomic patterns reaffirms the role of broader societal-level factors such as human development, gender inequality, gross national product, income inequality, and healthcare infrastructure as the fundamental determinants of health inequalities between nations.This is also confirmed by our analysis of the WHO data that shows a strong negative association between levels of human development and infant and maternal mortality rates.Focusing on socioeconomic, demographic, and geographical inequalities within a developing country, on the other hand, should give us a sense of how big the problem of health inequity is within its own borders.Such an assessment, then, could lead to development of policy solutions to tackle health inequalities that are unique to that country.

  8. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to address facilitators and barriers to participation at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Anabela Correia

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was approved by the World Health Assembly in 2001. Ten years later, strong arguments have arisen regarding the added value of ICF to the policies on employment and the outcomes at the workplace. As a conceptual framework, ICF has universality because of its inclusive and comprehensive view of human functioning. At a practical level ICF can be used to quantify the impact of impairment on an individual's ability to act in his/her environment and to assess interventions to minimize the impact of disability and maximize functioning. To explore key indicators of social participation (life habits) of persons with disabilities, particularly related to work, among environmental and personal factors. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires from a convenience sample of 149 working-age persons with disabilities. Social participation is a construct composed by multiple components and employment domain is the strongest indicator of participation. Correlations between social participation and personal factors, such as self-efficacy and attitudes towards disability were moderate. Those who are employed scored higher quality of life in terms of satisfaction with life, more positive attitudes toward disabilities and higher self-efficacy than the ones who are retired or unemployed. Persons using adapted wheelchair and those who were involved in wheelchair selection scored higher in social participation in general, performance at work, and quality of life. Age and disability duration were not associated with participants' employment status. These findings suggest that rehabilitation and vocational agents, like physiotherapists and other professionals, should have knowledge and understanding of the multiple factors that influence persons with disabilities' participation at work. Programs should provide appropriate wheelchairs, skills training, empowerment and problem-solving strategies in

  9. Globalisation of international health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, G

    1998-02-07

    40 years ago, activities in international health were the domain of WHO, governments (based on bilateral agreements), and non-governmental organisations. This has changed. Today, new players (such as the World Bank and, increasingly, the World Trade Organisation) have an influence on international health. As globalisation of trade and markets takes hold, new coalitions and alliances are forming to examine and deal with the direct and indirect consequences on health. This paper examines the changing context of cooperation in international health, and voices concerns about rising potential inequalities in health, both within and between countries. The question of how such changes will affect the actions of organisations working in international health is also addressed.

  10. International partnership in lunar missions: Inaugural address

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dr A P J Abdul Kalam

    2005-12-01

    I am delighted to participate in the 6th International Conference on Exploration and Utilization of the Moon organized by the Physical Research Laboratory,Ahmedabad.I greet the organizers, eminent planetary exploration and space scientists from India and abroad,academicians,industrialists,engineers,entrepreneurs and distinguished guests.I understand that the International Lunar Conference is a forum to discuss scienti fic results of the ongoing and future space missions related to lunar exploration.This conference will also be utilized to develop understanding on various strategies,initiatives and missions leading to a permanent human presence on our Moon as the future objective.I am happy to note that interactions that took place in the earlier conferences have been bene ficial to participating countries through the intense sharing of scientific knowledge,data and hands-on mission experiences of various space agencies pursuing lunar exploration programmes.I find that nearly 100 scientific papers are being presented in this conference and that the Moon missions being planned and conducted by all the space faring nations of the world are being presented,reviewed and discussed.I note with excitement that many key issues related to space science and Moon missions are being addressed in this conference.These deliberations are important for the world space science community.This will enable you to obtain a comprehensive picture of the goals and policies of all nations striving towards a common vision of space research,being made available for the bene fit of all mankind.Indeed this augurs well for progress towards universal peace and harmony that is a cherished goal of the people of the world as a whole.

  11. Addressing Inequities in Urban Health: Do Decision-Makers Have the Data They Need? Report from the Urban Health Data Special Session at International Conference on Urban Health Dhaka 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsey, H; Thomson, D R; Lin, R Y; Maharjan, U; Agarwal, S; Newell, J

    2016-06-01

    Rapid and uncontrolled urbanisation across low and middle-income countries is leading to ever expanding numbers of urban poor, defined here as slum dwellers and the homeless. It is estimated that 828 million people are currently living in slum conditions. If governments, donors and NGOs are to respond to these growing inequities they need data that adequately represents the needs of the urban poorest as well as others across the socio-economic spectrum.We report on the findings of a special session held at the International Conference on Urban Health, Dhaka 2015. We present an overview of the need for data on urban health for planning and allocating resources to address urban inequities. Such data needs to provide information on differences between urban and rural areas nationally, between and within urban communities. We discuss the limitations of data most commonly available to national and municipality level government, donor and NGO staff. In particular we assess, with reference to the WHO's Urban HEART tool, the challenges in the design of household surveys in understanding urban health inequities.We then present two novel approaches aimed at improving the information on the health of the urban poorest. The first uses gridded population sampling techniques within the design and implementation of household surveys and the second adapts Urban HEART into a participatory approach which enables slum residents to assess indicators whilst simultaneously planning the response. We argue that if progress is to be made towards inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable cities, as articulated in Sustainable Development Goal 11, then understanding urban health inequities is a vital pre-requisite to an effective response by governments, donors, NGOs and communities.

  12. Addressing the reproductive health problems. JICA Reproductive Health Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Thi Han

    1999-01-01

    In an effort to ensure quality of medical and health services for all people in Vietnam, several multilateral and bilateral donors and international NGOs have collaborated. One of its most promising projects in the field of reproductive health is the technical cooperation project supported by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The JICA Reproductive Health Project, which started in June 1997, has created clear changes in staff's knowledge and skills, and people's awareness of the health problems and risks that they are faced with. It was developed to address the serious reproductive health problems in the province represented by an unacceptably high maternal mortality rate. In the Nghe An Province of Vietnam, the JICA Reproductive Health Project has gained the most important achievement. This has been the triumphant empowerment of midwives who are the focal persons of reproductive health care in Vietnam. In view of the success of the JICA Project, plans have been made to implement the reproductive health services in 11 other districts.

  13. Road Map to Address Cognitive Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-09

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Lynda Anderson highlights the important roles that states and communities can play in addressing cognitive health as part of overall health.  Created: 6/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/9/2014.

  14. South African address standard and initiatives towards an international address standard

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Various countries and international organizations have address standards or are developing them. An address is needed for many more applications than just postal delivery, such as: goods delivery; connecting utilities; opening bank accounts; voting...

  15. South African address standard and initiatives towards an international address standard.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Anthony K

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Various countries and international organizations have address standards or are developing them. An address is needed for many more applications than just postal delivery, such as: goods delivery; connecting utilities; opening bank accounts; voting...

  16. Addressing Violations of International Criminal Procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitcher, K.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the law and practice of the ICTY, ICTR and ICC with respect to procedural violations, including how such international criminal tribunals have dealt with the unique severity of the crimes falling within their jurisdiction in this context. The picture that emerges

  17. Addressing Maternal and Newborn Health: A Leadership Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Leslie; Johnson, Peter; Hart, Leah; Austin, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Globally, each year 289,000 mothers die in childbirth and three million infants die in the first four weeks of life. The shortcomings in maternal and newborn health are particularly devastating in low-resource countries. This qualitative study describes the experience of an international nongovernmental organization, Jhpiego, which has been implementing public health programs to address maternal and newborn health outcomes for more than 40 years. Themes emerged from interviews with leaders of offices in a variety of countries with unique challenges related to health systems, human resources and infrastructure. Results emphasized the importance of partnerships with governments and international agencies for long-term program impact, as well as the recruitment of local talent for improving health systems to address problems that are best understood by the people who live and work in these countries. The discussion of program successes and challenges may inform best practices for promoting the health and wellness of women and families around the world.

  18. Public health approach to address maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sanjay K; Anand, K; Misra, Puneet; Kant, Shashi; Upadhyay, Ravi Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Reducing maternal mortality is one of the major challenges to health systems worldwide, more so in developing countries that account for nearly 99% of these maternal deaths. Lack of a standard method for reporting of maternal death poses a major hurdle in making global comparisons. Currently much of the focus is on documenting the "number" of maternal deaths and delineating the "medical causes" behind these deaths. There is a need to acknowledge the social correlates of maternal deaths as well. Investigating and in-depth understanding of each maternal death can provide indications on practical ways of addressing the problem. Death of a mother has serious implications for the child as well as other family members and to prevent the same, a comprehensive approach is required. This could include providing essential maternal care, early management of complications and good quality intrapartum care through the involvement of skilled birth attendants. Ensuring the availability, affordability, and accessibility of quality maternal health services, including emergency obstetric care (EmOC) would prove pivotal in reducing the maternal deaths. To increase perceived seriousness of the community regarding maternal health, a well-structured awareness campaign is needed with importance be given to avoid adolescent pregnancy as well. Initiatives like Janani Surakhsha Yojna (JSY) that have the potential to improve maternal health needs to be strengthened. Quality assessments should form an essential part of all services that are directed toward improving maternal health. Further, emphasis needs to be given on research by involving multiple allied partners, with the aim to develop a prioritized, coordinated, and innovative research agenda for women's health.

  19. Public health approach to address maternal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K Rai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing maternal mortality is one of the major challenges to health systems worldwide, more so in developing countries that account for nearly 99% of these maternal deaths. Lack of a standard method for reporting of maternal death poses a major hurdle in making global comparisons. Currently much of the focus is on documenting the "number" of maternal deaths and delineating the "medical causes" behind these deaths. There is a need to acknowledge the social correlates of maternal deaths as well. Investigating and in-depth understanding of each maternal death can provide indications on practical ways of addressing the problem. Death of a mother has serious implications for the child as well as other family members and to prevent the same, a comprehensive approach is required. This could include providing essential maternal care, early management of complications and good quality intrapartum care through the involvement of skilled birth attendants. Ensuring the availability, affordability, and accessibility of quality maternal health services, including emergency obstetric care (EmOC would prove pivotal in reducing the maternal deaths. To increase perceived seriousness of the community regarding maternal health, a well-structured awareness campaign is needed with importance be given to avoid adolescent pregnancy as well. Initiatives like Janani Surakhsha Yojna (JSY that have the potential to improve maternal health needs to be strengthened. Quality assessments should form an essential part of all services that are directed toward improving maternal health. Further, emphasis needs to be given on research by involving multiple allied partners, with the aim to develop a prioritized, coordinated, and innovative research agenda for women′s health.

  20. Agriculture and Health Sectors Collaborate in Addressing Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Arthur; Boren, Jon; Koukel, Sonja; Ronquillo, Francisco; Davies, Cindy; Nkouaga, Carolina

    2017-09-01

    Population health is of growing importance in the changing health care environment. The Cooperative Extension Service, housed in each state's land grant university, has a major impact on population health through its many community-based efforts, including the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program - Education (SNAP-Ed) nutrition programs, 4-H youth engagement, health and wellness education, and community development. Can the agricultural and health sectors, which usually operate in parallel, mostly unknown to each other, collaborate to address population health? We set out to provide an overview of the collaboration between the Cooperative Extension Service and the health sector in various states and describe a case study of 1 model as it developed in New Mexico. We conducted a literature review and personally contacted states in which the Cooperative Extension Service is collaborating on a "Health Extension" model with academic health centers or their health systems. We surveyed 6 states in which Health Extension models are being piloted as to their different approaches. For a case study of collaboration in New Mexico, we drew on interviews with the leadership of New Mexico State University's Cooperative Extension Service in the College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences; the University of New Mexico (UNM) Health Science Center's Office for Community Health; and the personal experiences of frontline Cooperative Extension agents and UNM Health Extension officers who collaborated on community projects. A growing number of states are linking the agricultural Cooperative Extension Service with academic health centers and with the health care system. In New Mexico, the UNM academic health center has created "Health Extension Rural Offices" based on principles of the Cooperative Extension model. Today, these 2 systems are working collaboratively to address unmet population health needs in their communities. Nationally, the Cooperative Extension

  1. The role of health education in addressing the health divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to argue that an approach to health education, consistent with critical education theory echoing Freire’s ideas, has the potential to play a significant role in addressing determinants of health by, first and foremost, providing children and young people...... with opportunities (as part of teaching and learning processes) to critically examine health issues, including social determinants of health, and to gain experience with initiating health-promoting changes within the everyday realms of their school or its adjacent community....

  2. Overview of an address and purpose of the workshop [ISO Workshop on address standards: Considering the issues related to an international address standard

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This workshop was conceived with the aim of discussing what an address actually is and exploring the possibility of developing an international address standard across the various domains that use addresses. This paper attempts to provide...

  3. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...... diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato...

  4. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato......International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...

  5. Community Changes Address Common Health Threat

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-30

    This podcast helps residents living in multiunit housing, like apartments and condos, understand the threat of secondhand smoke. It also helps residents understand what steps they can take to breathe a little easier if involuntarily exposed to secondhand smoke.  Created: 9/30/2013 by Division of Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 9/30/2013.

  6. International Law Has a Role to Play in Addressing Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Røttingen, John-Arne; Frenk, Julio

    2015-01-01

    If an international legal agreement is needed for any of today's global health challenges, it would be antibiotic resistance (ABR). This challenge is transnational, its solution justifies coercion, tangible benefits are likely to be achieved, and other commitment mechanisms have thus far not been successful. Since addressing ABR depends on near-universal and interdependent collective action across sectors, states should utilize an international legal agreement - which formally represents the strongest commitment mechanism available to them.

  7. Healthy communities: addressing vulnerability and environmental health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution in South Africa is a serious environmental health threat, particularly in urban and peri-urban metropolitan areas, but also in low income settlements where indoor air pollution from domestic fuel use is a concern. A healthy population...

  8. The role of the health sector in addressing poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, D L

    2001-01-01

    To explore Canadian health sector initiatives addressing poverty. Information about 224 health sector initiatives addressing poverty was collected from Health Canada, provincial/territorial health ministries, and health regions. Health Canada, 12 provincial/territorial health ministries, and at least one third of health regions have been undertaking poverty-related initiatives. Almost two thirds (64.7%) of initiatives focused on the consequences of poverty. Much less frequent were initiatives that aim to: raise awareness about poverty; prevent people from becoming poor; enhance skills and education of people in poverty; and alter social and economic conditions contributing to poverty. While strategies that focus on the consequences of poverty likely enhance the health of Canadians in poverty, these strategies do little to reduce poverty rates. Efforts to improve the health of both individual Canadians in poverty and society as a whole will be limited until the health sector uses more strategies that challenge fundamental structural conditions contributing to poverty.

  9. International challenges and opportunities in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John R

    1993-01-01

    It is not easy to fit an introductory address to the topics of AIDS, transplantation, women's health, reproductive health, national health insurance and epidemiology and public health. I have been asked to speak on international challenges and opportunities in health care in the hope that the global context might frame your specific discussions in the broadest possible perspective. I will speak primarily about the widening gap in health status between rich and poor people and rich and poor nations -- a gap which poses great risks for the poor but increasing risks for all of us as well.

  10. Actions States and Communities Can Take to Address Cognitive Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-09

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Lynda Anderson highlights the important roles that states and communities can play in addressing cognitive health as part of overall health.  Created: 6/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/9/2014.

  11. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text ... was evaluated by the assay of liver function biochemical ..... Tietz T. Text Book of Clinical Chemistry, W.B..

  12. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and ..... the regeneration process and production of ... Lipid peroxidation in fatty liver induced by caffeine.

  13. International Students and Mental Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helen Forbes-Mewett; Anne-Maree Sawyer

    2016-01-01

    .... Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international...

  14. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    The journal is devoted to the promotion of health sciences and related disciplines ... Submission of Manuscript: The International Journal of Health Research uses a journal management ... tablet manufacturing because the process avoids.

  15. Cooperation of international Research Infrastructures to address environmental global challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet García, Francisco J.; Suárez-Muñoz, María; Conchubhair, Diarmuid O.; Dohna, Tina; Lo Bue, Nadia

    2017-04-01

    Human impact on the planet is causing a set of global environmental problems that threaten the wellbeing of current and future generations. Examples of these environmental problems include climate change, decline of biodiversity, alteration of biogeochemical cycles, ocean acidification, etc. These environmental Global Challenges (GCs) are transnational and complex, combining elements of both natural and social factors. Providing solutions for these challenges can be significantly enhanced through the collaboration of various related institutions, governments and stakeholders. A deeper understanding of the causes and consequences of GCs, as well as the processes which control them is required. Environmental Research Infrastructures (DANUBIUS-RI) are key players in this learning process. Covering many fields of research, it is through RIs collaboration that GCs can be more fully addressed. However, the collaboration among environmental RIs is still limited nationally as well as internationally. Although contact is encouraged and interactions are common practice, there are few cases where RI managers initiate and foster transnational collaborations in order to address specific problems. The COOP+ project aims to explore and strengthen cooperation among global RIs by bringing various RIs together and working on the identification of requirements, strengths, knowledge gaps and other relevant items in regard to the selected GCs. For this purpose, 13 GCs have been selected: coral bleaching, marine debris, noise impact on marine fauna, Arctic sea ice melting, pollinators decline, threatened species, agriculture pollutants, nitrogen cycle, carbon and GHG, geohazards and extreme events, estuaries, global urbanization process, and ozone depletion. These GCs are being analysed and described by multidisciplinary teams of experts composed of scientists, RIs operators and other stakeholders. This assessment will derive a list of tasks and requirements to be fulfilled by the

  16. Public Health Events and International Health Regulations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-06-21

    Dr. Katrin Kohl, a medical officer at the CDC, discusses the World Health Organization’s International Health Regulations for assessing and reporting on public health events across the world.  Created: 6/21/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/21/2012.

  17. DWD International, LCC Agrees to Address RCRA Violations in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DALLAS - (May 28, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently issued a consent agreement and final order to DWD International, LLC in Houston, Texas. The company violated laws under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) relat

  18. Challenges to using a business case for addressing health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Nicole; Somers, Stephen A; Fremont, Allen; Angeles, January; Murphy, Erin K; Hamblin, Allison

    2008-01-01

    The authors consider the challenges to quantifying both the business case and the social case for addressing disparities, which is central to achieving equity in the U.S. health care system. They describe the practical and methodological challenges faced by health plans exploring the business and social cases for undertaking disparity-reducing interventions. Despite these challenges, sound business and quality improvement principles can guide health care organizations seeking to reduce disparities. Place-based interventions may help focus resources and engage health care and community partners who can share in the costs of-and gains from-such efforts.

  19. Travelers' Health: International Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in an Area with Zika? Find a Clinic Yellow Fever Vaccinations Clinics FAQ Disease Directory Resources Resources for ... CE Courses and Training Presentations for Health Professionals Yellow Fever Vaccine Course About the Yellow Fever Vaccine Course ...

  20. Redesigning Health Care Practices to Address Childhood Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierman, Arthur H; Beck, Andrew F; Chung, Esther K; Tschudy, Megan M; Coker, Tumaini R; Mistry, Kamila B; Siegel, Benjamin; Chamberlain, Lisa J; Conroy, Kathleen; Federico, Steven G; Flanagan, Patricia J; Garg, Arvin; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Grace, Aimee M; Gross, Rachel S; Hole, Michael K; Klass, Perri; Kraft, Colleen; Kuo, Alice; Lewis, Gena; Lobach, Katherine S; Long, Dayna; Ma, Christine T; Messito, Mary; Navsaria, Dipesh; Northrip, Kimberley R; Osman, Cynthia; Sadof, Matthew D; Schickedanz, Adam B; Cox, Joanne

    2016-04-01

    Child poverty in the United States is widespread and has serious negative effects on the health and well-being of children throughout their life course. Child health providers are considering ways to redesign their practices in order to mitigate the negative effects of poverty on children and support the efforts of families to lift themselves out of poverty. To do so, practices need to adopt effective methods to identify poverty-related social determinants of health and provide effective interventions to address them. Identification of needs can be accomplished with a variety of established screening tools. Interventions may include resource directories, best maintained in collaboration with local/regional public health, community, and/or professional organizations; programs embedded in the practice (eg, Reach Out and Read, Healthy Steps for Young Children, Medical-Legal Partnership, Health Leads); and collaboration with home visiting programs. Changes to health care financing are needed to support the delivery of these enhanced services, and active advocacy by child health providers continues to be important in effecting change. We highlight the ongoing work of the Health Care Delivery Subcommittee of the Academic Pediatric Association Task Force on Child Poverty in defining the ways in which child health care practice can be adapted to improve the approach to addressing child poverty.

  1. Increasing the capacity of health sciences to address health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Sandra P; Broyles, Shelia L; Rivera, Lourdes M; Reznik, Vivian M

    2009-09-01

    In order to create a cohort of investigators who are engaged in health disparities research, scholarship, and practice, and to increase the amount of funding in the university that is invested in research focused on reducing health disparities, the San Diego EXPORT Center implemented 2 major initiatives: (1) the support of underrepresented minority (URM) junior faculty development and (2) the funding for pilot research grants in health disparities. This paper describes the activities employed by the center and summarizes the outcomes of these two initiatives. Ninety-five percent (18 of 19) URM junior faculty completed the faculty development program, and 83.3% (15 of 18) of the completers are advancing in their academic careers at University of California San Diego (UCSD) and are teaching, working with populations at risk and/or conducting research in health disparities. EXPORT awarded 7 investigators a total of $429186 to conduct pilot research, and 71.4% (5/7) have now obtained $4.7 million in independent extramural funding. The San Diego EXPORT Center has increased the research capacity, strengthened the infrastructure for health disparities research, and created a cohort of successful URM junior faculty who are advancing in their academic careers. These investigators are already changing the climate at UCSD by their leadership activities, research focus, peer-networking, and mentoring of students.

  2. Addressing the health workforce crisis: towards a common approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCaffery Jim

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The challenges in the health workforce are well known and clearly documented. What is not so clearly understood is how to address these issues in a comprehensive and integrated manner that will lead to solutions. This editorial presents – and invites comments on – a technical framework intended to raise awareness among donors and multisector organizations outside ministries of health and to guide planning and strategy development at the country level.

  3. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to ... Those of high quality (not previously ... Quick service and ... taste, satisfaction with service and the perceived ... private hospitals, the quality of services, the .... correctly filled, returned and therefore analyzed.

  4. International Conference on Health Informatics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the International Conference on Health Informatics (ICHI). The conference was a new special topic conference initiative by the International Federation of Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE), held in Vilamoura, Portugal on 7-9 November, 2013. The main theme of the ICHI2013 was “Integrating Information and Communication Technologies with Biomedicine for Global Health”. The proceedings offer a unique forum to examine enabling technologies of sensors, devices and systems that optimize the acquisition, transmission, processing, storage, retrieval of biomedical and health information as well as to report novel clinical applications of health information systems and the deployment of m-Health, e-Health, u-Health, p-Health and Telemedicine.

  5. Addressing the Mental Health Needs of Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Lee; Southammakosane, Cathy; Lewin, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent parenthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes for young mothers, including mental health problems such as depression, substance abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Teen mothers are also more likely to be impoverished and reside in communities and families that are socially and economically disadvantaged. These circumstances can adversely affect maternal mental health, parenting, and behavior outcomes for their children. In this report, we provide an overview of the mental health challenges associated with teen parenthood, barriers that often prevent teen mothers from seeking mental health services, and interventions for this vulnerable population that can be integrated into primary care services. Pediatricians in the primary care setting are in a unique position to address the mental health needs of adolescent parents because teens often turn to them first for assistance with emotional and behavioral concerns. Consequently, pediatricians can play a pivotal role in facilitating and encouraging teen parents’ engagement in mental health treatment. PMID:24298010

  6. Different Approaches in Addressing Internal and External Economic Imbalances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭树清

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the internal and external imbalances of China’s economy from a global perspective. The author believes that trade surplus and savings surplus are not the absolute metrics to define a country’s economic strength. China’s balance of payments has continued to maintain a big surplus, which shows China’s unique economic structure and growth model and exposes deep contradictions in income distribution, factor prices and resource allocation. While stimulating rapid growth, the imbalance of China’s economy, at the same time, has long delayed the upgrading of industrial structure, aggravating the threat of inflation and heightening concerns of an asset bubble. Although the external and internal imbalances are closely linked to each other, they are quite different in nature. This similar global economic imbalance has existed for a long time, and to a great extent, is inevitable and rational. However, internal imbalances caused by its own systems and policies, if lasted, would have severe and negative impacts not only on China’s economy, but on the global economy as a whole.

  7. Using Cost-Effectiveness Analysis to Address Health Equity Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Richard; Mirelman, Andrew J; Griffin, Susan; Asaria, Miqdad; Dawkins, Bryony; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Verguet, Stéphane; J Culyer, Anthony

    2017-02-01

    This articles serves as a guide to using cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to address health equity concerns. We first introduce the "equity impact plane," a tool for considering trade-offs between improving total health-the objective underpinning conventional CEA-and equity objectives, such as reducing social inequality in health or prioritizing the severely ill. Improving total health may clash with reducing social inequality in health, for example, when effective delivery of services to disadvantaged communities requires additional costs. Who gains and who loses from a cost-increasing health program depends on differences among people in terms of health risks, uptake, quality, adherence, capacity to benefit, and-crucially-who bears the opportunity costs of diverting scarce resources from other uses. We describe two main ways of using CEA to address health equity concerns: 1) equity impact analysis, which quantifies the distribution of costs and effects by equity-relevant variables, such as socioeconomic status, location, ethnicity, sex, and severity of illness; and 2) equity trade-off analysis, which quantifies trade-offs between improving total health and other equity objectives. One way to analyze equity trade-offs is to count the cost of fairer but less cost-effective options in terms of health forgone. Another method is to explore how much concern for equity is required to choose fairer but less cost-effective options using equity weights or parameters. We hope this article will help the health technology assessment community navigate the practical options now available for conducting equity-informative CEA that gives policymakers a better understanding of equity impacts and trade-offs.

  8. International Students and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…

  9. A theoretical model to address organizational human conflict and disruptive behavior in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Llewellyn E

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes a theoretical model for leaders to use to address organizational human conflict and disruptive behavior in health care organizations. Leadership is needed to improve interpersonal relationships within the workforce. A workforce with a culture of internal conflict will be unable to achieve its full potential to delivery quality patient care.

  10. Challenges in Diabetes Care: Can Digital Health Help Address Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Varun; Wolf, Alexander; Brown, Adam; Close, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    In Brief There is great enthusiasm for the potential of digital health solutions in medicine and diabetes to address key care challenges: patient and provider burden, lack of data to inform therapeutic decision-making, poor access to care, and costs. However, the field is still in its nascent days; many patients and providers do not currently engage with digital health tools, and for those who do, the burden is still often high. Over time, digital health has excellent potential to collect data more seamlessly, make collected data more useful, and drive better outcomes at lower costs in less time. But there is still much to prove. This review offers key background information on the current state of digital health in diabetes, six of the most promising digital health technologies and services, and the challenges that remain.

  11. A consideration of user financial incentives to address health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Adam; Brown, Lawrence D

    2012-04-01

    Health inequalities and user financial incentives to encourage health-related behavior change are two topical issues in the health policy discourse, and this article attempts to combine the two; namely, we try to address whether the latter can be used to reduce the former in the contexts of the United Kingdom and the United States. Payments for some aspects of medical adherence may offer a promising way to address, to some extent, inequalities in health and health care in both countries. However, payments for more sustained behavior change, such as that associated with smoking cessation and weight loss, have thus far shown little long-term effect, although more research that tests the effectiveness of different incentive mechanism designs, informed by the findings of behavioral economics, ought to be undertaken. Many practical, political, ethical, and ideological objections can be waged against user financial incentives in health, and this article reviews a number of them, but the justifiability of and limits to these incentives require more academic and public discourse so as to gain a better understanding of the circumstances in which they can legitimately be used.

  12. Health Care for the International Student: Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, June C., Ed.; And Others

    This handbook consists of 24 papers addressing various aspects on health care and health care systems and services for foreign students from the Asia Pacific Region. The papers are: "Providing Health Care for International Students" (Donald F. B. Char); "Major Health Care Systems in Asia and the Pacific: Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong…

  13. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response. International Experiences and Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ghatikar, Girish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dudley, Junqiao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Martin, Phil [Enernoc, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Wikler, Greg

    2012-06-01

    Demand response (DR) is a load management tool which provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional supply-side solutions to address the growing demand during times of peak electrical load. According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), demand response reflects “changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.” 1 The California Energy Commission (CEC) defines DR as “a reduction in customers’ electricity consumption over a given time interval relative to what would otherwise occur in response to a price signal, other financial incentives, or a reliability signal.” 2 This latter definition is perhaps most reflective of how DR is understood and implemented today in countries such as the US, Canada, and Australia where DR is primarily a dispatchable resource responding to signals from utilities, grid operators, and/or load aggregators (or DR providers).

  14. Nutritional metabolomics: progress in addressing complexity in diet and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dean P; Park, Youngja; Ziegler, Thomas R

    2012-08-21

    Nutritional metabolomics is rapidly maturing to use small-molecule chemical profiling to support integration of diet and nutrition in complex biosystems research. These developments are critical to facilitate transition of nutritional sciences from population-based to individual-based criteria for nutritional research, assessment, and management. This review addresses progress in making these approaches manageable for nutrition research. Important concept developments concerning the exposome, predictive health, and complex pathobiology serve to emphasize the central role of diet and nutrition in integrated biosystems models of health and disease. Improved analytic tools and databases for targeted and nontargeted metabolic profiling, along with bioinformatics, pathway mapping, and computational modeling, are now used for nutrition research on diet, metabolism, microbiome, and health associations. These new developments enable metabolome-wide association studies (MWAS) and provide a foundation for nutritional metabolomics, along with genomics, epigenomics, and health phenotyping, to support the integrated models required for personalized diet and nutrition forecasting.

  15. Addressing the Health Concerns of VA Women With Sexual Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Caron Zlotnick, PhD 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...address ST-related risks among women veterans with lifetime ST would advance clinical care for these women in an important area. 15. SUBJECT TERMS...and assess a computer-delivered intervention (Safety and Health Experiences Program; SHE) that will provide a screening and brief behavior

  16. Evaluating complex community-based health promotion: addressing the challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Gwyneth

    2014-08-01

    Community-based health promotion is poorly theorised and lacks an agreed evidence-base. This paper examines characteristics of community-based health promotion and the challenges they present to evaluation. A review of health promotion evaluation leads to an exploration of more recent approaches, drawing on ideas from complexity theory and developmental evaluation. A reflexive analysis of three program evaluations previously undertaken as an evaluation consultant is used to develop a conceptual model to help in the design and conduct of health promotion evaluation. The model is further explored by applying it retrospectively to one evaluation. Findings suggest that the context-contingent nature of health promotion programs; turbulence in the community context and players; multiple stakeholders, goals and strategies; and uncertainty of outcomes all contribute to the complexity of interventions. Bringing together insights from developmental evaluation and complexity theory can help to address some evaluation challenges. The proposed model emphasises recognising and responding to changing contexts and emerging outcomes, providing rapid feedback and facilitating reflexive practice. This will enable the evaluator to gain a better understanding of the influence of context and other implementation factors in a complex setting. Use of the model should contribute to building cumulative evidence and knowledge in order to identify the principles of health promotion effectiveness that may be transferable to new situations.

  17. Trends in public health policies addressing violence against women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kattia Rojas Loría

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the content of policies and action plans within the public healthcare system that addresses the issue of violence against women. METHODS A descriptive and comparative study was conducted on the health policies and plans in Catalonia and Costa Rica from 2005 to 2011. It uses a qualitative methodology with documentary analysis. It is classified by topics that describe and interpret the contents. We considered dimensions, such as principles, strategies, concepts concerning violence against women, health trends, and evaluations. RESULTS Thirteen public policy documents were analyzed. In both countries’ contexts, we have provided an overview of violence against women as a problem whose roots are in gender inequality. The strategies of gender policies that address violence against women are cultural exchange and institutional action within the public healthcare system. The actions of the healthcare sector are expanded into specific plans. The priorities and specificity of actions in healthcare plans were the distinguishing features between the two countries. CONCLUSIONS The common features of the healthcare plans in both the counties include violence against women, use of protocols, detection tasks, care and recovery for women, and professional self-care. Catalonia does not consider healthcare actions with aggressors. Costa Rica has a lower specificity in conceptualization and protocol patterns, as well as a lack of updates concerning health standards in Catalonia.

  18. Trends in public health policies addressing violence against women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loría, Kattia Rojas; Rosado, Teresa Gutiérrez; Espinosa, Leonor María Cantera; Marrochi, Leda María Marenco; Sánchez, Anna Fernández

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the content of policies and action plans within the public healthcare system that addresses the issue of violence against women. METHODS A descriptive and comparative study was conducted on the health policies and plans in Catalonia and Costa Rica from 2005 to 2011. It uses a qualitative methodology with documentary analysis. It is classified by topics that describe and interpret the contents. We considered dimensions, such as principles, strategies, concepts concerning violence against women, health trends, and evaluations. RESULTS Thirteen public policy documents were analyzed. In both countries’ contexts, we have provided an overview of violence against women as a problem whose roots are in gender inequality. The strategies of gender policies that address violence against women are cultural exchange and institutional action within the public healthcare system. The actions of the healthcare sector are expanded into specific plans. The priorities and specificity of actions in healthcare plans were the distinguishing features between the two countries. CONCLUSIONS The common features of the healthcare plans in both the counties include violence against women, use of protocols, detection tasks, care and recovery for women, and professional self-care. Catalonia does not consider healthcare actions with aggressors. Costa Rica has a lower specificity in conceptualization and protocol patterns, as well as a lack of updates concerning health standards in Catalonia. PMID:25210820

  19. Health information exchange: national and international approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Joshua R

    2012-01-01

    Health information exchange (HIE), the process of electronically moving patient-level information between different organizations, is viewed as a solution to the fragmentation of data in health care. This review provides a description of the current state of HIE in seven nations, as well was three international HIE efforts, with a particular focus on the relation of exchange efforts to national health care systems, common challenges, and the implications of cross-border information sharing. National and international efforts highlighted in English language informatics journals, professional associations, and government reports are described. Fully functioning HIE is not yet a common phenomenon worldwide. However, multiple nations see the potential benefits of HIE and that has led to national and international efforts of varying scope, scale, and purview. National efforts continue to work to overcome the challenges of interoperability, record linking, insufficient infrastructures, governance, and interorganizational relationships, but have created architectural strategies, oversight agencies, and incentives to foster exchange. The three international HIE efforts reviewed represent very different approaches to the same problem of ensuring the availability of health information across borders. The potential of HIE to address many cost and quality issues will ensure HIE remains on many national agendas. In many instances, health care executives and leaders have opportunities to work within national programs to help shape local exchange governance and decide technology partners. Furthermore, HIE raises policy questions concerning the role of centralized planning, national identifiers, standards, and types of information exchanged, each of which are vital issues to individual health organizations and worthy of their attention.

  20. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  1. Personal empowerment program: addressing health concerns in people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klam, Joan; McLay, Myrna; Grabke, Diane

    2006-08-01

    Three staff nurses in the Outpatient Schizophrenia Service of the Foothills Medical Centre in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, became concerned about the weight gain of their patients. Patients and their family members were also concerned and asking for help. Before integrating a program to address these concerns, staff first had to demonstrate that a program of this nature would be beneficial for clinic patients. Of the 75 clients screened, many presented with problems in the areas of weight, blood pressure, and fasting blood sugar and lipid levels. Although not a research study, an 8-month pilot project was implemented to address these concerns. It was hypothesized that integrating all dimensions of wellness in patient programming would have a positive effect on various defined indicators (e.g., weight, body mass index, blood pressure, and fasting blood sugar and lipid levels). Screening tests before, during, and after the 8-month project provided the physical outcome measurements. Social and psychological outcomes were described through observation and group member feedback. The positive results are significant in terms of empowering patients in the long-term management of their health.

  2. Health journalism internships: a social marketing strategy to address health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duy H; Shimasaki, Suzuho; Stafford, Helen Shi; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2010-09-01

    The USA seeks to eliminate health disparities by stimulating the rapid uptake of health-promoting behaviors within disadvantaged communities. A health journalism internship incorporates social marketing strategies to increase communities' access to cancer information, while helping the interns who are recruited from underrepresented communities gain admission to top graduate schools. Interns are taught basic health journalism skills that enable them to create immediate streams of cancer-related press releases for submission to community newspapers. Interns are charged with the social responsibility of continuing this dissemination process throughout their careers. Intermediate outcomes are measured as mediators of distal behavioral change goals.

  3. International health law : an emerging field of public international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    This article discusses the nature and scope of international health law as an emerging field of public international law. It is argued that the protection of health reflects a pressing social need that should now be spoken of in the vocabulary of international law. Furthermore, there is an urgent

  4. International obligations through collective rights: Moving from foreign health assistance to global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Fox, Ashley M

    2010-06-15

    This article analyzes the growing chasm between international power and state responsibility in health rights, proposing an international legal framework for collective rights - rights that can reform international institutions and empower developing states to realize the determinants of health structured by global forces. With longstanding recognition that many developing state governments cannot realize the health of their peoples without international cooperation, scholars have increasingly sought to codify international obligations under the purview of an evolving human right to health, applying this rights-based approach as a foundational framework for reducing global health inequalities through foreign assistance. Yet the inherent limitations of the individual human rights framework stymie the right to health in impacting the global institutions that are most crucial for realizing underlying determinants of health through the strengthening of primary health care systems. Whereas the right to health has been advanced as an individual right to be realized by a state duty-bearer, the authors find that this limited, atomized right has proven insufficient to create accountability for international obligations in global health policy, enabling the deterioration of primary health care systems that lack the ability to address an expanding set of public health claims. For rights scholars to advance disease protection and health promotion through national primary health care systems - creating the international legal obligations necessary to spur development supportive of the public's health - the authors conclude that scholars must look beyond the individual right to health to create collective international legal obligations commensurate with a public health-centered approach to primary health care. Through the development and implementation of these collective health rights, states can address interconnected determinants of health within and across countries

  5. International Cooperation to Address the Radioactive Legacy in States of the Former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D K; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Tompson, A F B

    2003-07-27

    The end of the Cold War allows a comprehensive assessment of the nature and extent of the residual contamination derivative from the atomic defense and nuclear power enterprise in the former Soviet Union. The size of the problem is considerable; some 6.3 x 10{sup 7} TBq (6.4 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}) of radioactive waste from the Soviet Union weapons and power complex was produced throughout all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. The resulting contamination occurs at sites throughout the former Soviet Union where nuclear fuels were mined, milled, enriched, fabricated, and used in defense and power reactors. In addition, liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear reprocessing have been discharged to lakes, rivers, reservoirs and other surface impoundments; military and civilian naval reactor effluents were released to sea as well as stabilized on land. Finally, nuclear testing residuals from atmospheric and underground nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk and Novaya Zemlya test sites and peaceful nuclear tests conducted throughout the area of the former Soviet Union pose risks to human health and the environment. Through a program of international scientific exchange, cooperative approaches to address these threats provide former Soviet scientists with expertise and technologies developed in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere to design comprehensive and long term remedial solutions. The role of the international community to address these challenges is essential because the emerging states of the former Soviet Union share common nuclear residuals that cross newly established national borders. In addition, the widespread post-Soviet radioactive contamination hampers economic recovery and--in some cases--poses proliferation concerns. Also important is the widespread perception throughout these countries that the Soviet nuclear legacy poses a grave threat to the human population. A new paradigm of ''national security'' encompasses more than the

  6. The health of women and girls: how can we address gender equality and gender equity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the health of women and girls, and the role of addressing gender inequalities experienced by women and girls. The health of both males and females is influenced by sex, or biological factors, and gender, or socially constructed influences, including gender differences in the distribution and impact of social determinants of health, access to health promoting resources, health behaviors and gender discourse, and the ways in which health systems are organized and financed, and how they deliver care. Various strategies to address the health of women and girls have been developed at intergovernmental, regional, and national level, and by international nongovernmental organizations. These include vertical programs which aim to target specific health risks and deliver services to meet women and girl's needs, and more cross-cutting approaches which aim at "gender" policy making. Much of this work has developed following the adoption of gender mainstreaming principles across different policy arenas and scales of policy making, and this article reviews some of these strategies and the evidence for their success, before concluding with a consideration of future directions in global policy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Post-Polio Health International including International Ventilator Users Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Place Explore the past, the present and help build a promising future for the world’s polio survivors. ... Polio Health International (PHI) Including International Ventilator Users Network 4207 Lindell Blvd., #110, Saint Louis, MO 63108- ...

  8. Teaching undergraduate nursing students about environmental health: addressing public health issues through simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Mary Jo; Rojas, Deb

    2014-01-01

    Schools of nursing are challenged to find clinical placements in public health settings. Use of simulation can address situations unique to public health, with attention to specific concerns, such as environmental health. Environmental health is an integral part of public health nursing and is a standard of professional practice. Current simulations focus on acute care situations, offering limited scenarios with a public health perspective and excluding environmental health. This study's simulation scenario was created to enhance nursing students' understanding of public health concepts within an environmental health context. Outcomes from the simulation include the need for integration of environmental issues in public health teaching. Students stated that this scenario provided a broader understanding of the environmental influences that can affect the client's and family's health. This scenario fills a void in simulation content, while providing an interactive teaching and learning strategy to help students to apply knowledge to practice. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Addressing Africa's health needs - time for strong South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African involvement. Health and development in South Africa are, and will .... global health policies if collective security is to be achieved. This is particularly ... included human resource development, health information systems, health ...

  10. First International One Health congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn H. Jeggo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available More than 650 people from around 60 countries attended the 1st International One Health Conference, held in Melbourne from 14 to 16 February 2011. Scientists, clinicians, government and community members from a range of disciplines came together to discuss the benefits of working together to promote a One Health approach to human, animal and environmental health. One Health embraces systems thinking and recognising the interdependence of people, animals and environment. The conference was hosted by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO and was supported by international agencies, the Australian and Canadian governments, and industry.The Organising Committee recognised from the outset, the need to provide a forum not just for scientific presentation, but for open discussion and dialogue around the policy and political issues, as well as the science that drives the One Health agenda. The Committee was also cognizant of the need to embrace a definition of One Health that includes food security and food safety and included the social and economic pressures that shapes this area. The meeting was therefore organised under four themes with plenary sessions followed by breakout parallel sessions for each of these. The themes covered Disease Emergence, Environmental Drivers, Trade, Food Security and Food Safety, and Science Policy and Political Action. The plenary session commenced with one or two keynote presentations by world leaders on the topic being covered, followed by panel discussions involving six to eight experts and involving all participants at the congress. Each of the panel members spoke briefly on the topic covered by the keynote speaker and were asked to be as provocative as possible. The discussions that followed allowed debate and discussion on the keynote presentations and the panel members comments. This was followed by six to eight parallel breakout sessions involving in depth papers on the session

  11. Health hazards of international travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossar, J H; Reid, D

    1989-01-01

    The growth of travel and the increasing numbers of those affected by travel-related illnesses, some of a serious nature, will cause this subject to demand the attention of the medical profession, the travel trade, travellers themselves and the health authorities of countries receiving tourists. Provision of appropriate advice for the traveller is a shared responsibility, best channelled mainly through travel agencies; it can moreover be shown to be cost-beneficial. Continued monitoring of illness in travellers and provision of information systems geared to this problem and its prevention are fully justified. They should be based on traditional channels of communication and currently-available modern technology, and be readily accessible to medical and related workers. Increased collaboration between medical workers, health educators and those involved in the travel trade would be a positive and useful contribution towards the reduction of illness and discomfort among travellers and the associated expense incurred by the various national health services concerned. There are clearly economic benefits from the development of international tourism, but these have to be balanced in countries accepting tourists by attention to the prevention of illnesses associated with travel.

  12. Addressing a silent killer - The International Conference on Betel Quid and Areca Nut

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Global Health, National Cancer Institute, in coordination with the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research , The University of Texas at MD Anderson Cancer Center, Oral Cancer Research Coordinating Center, University of Malaya, Taiwan Health Promotion Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare, and with the generous support of the Malaysia Ministry of Health, hosted the International Conference on Betel Quid and Areca Nut in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia on April 27-28, 2016.

  13. A human rights-based approach to farmworker health: an overarching framework to address the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Athena K

    2017-09-26

    Migrant and seasonal workers have a right to the highest attainable standard of health. Unfortunately, these farmworkers face a multitude of challenges. They are employed in one of the most dangerous industries and face serious occupational health risks while positioned at the bottom of the social hierarchy. They often lack formal education and training, English language proficiency, legal status, access to information, and equitable opportunities to health and healthcare. This paper will explore the international human rights conventions that support farmworkers' right to health and healthcare in the United States. International human rights may provide a valuable legal framework that could be used to advocate on behalf of farmworkers and address the social determinants of health. Therefore, a Human Rights-Based Approach to Farmworker Health will be presented along with recommendations for how to advance health and access to healthcare among this population. Fostering the health and well-being of migrant and seasonal farmworkers is critical to advancing equity, social justice, and maintaining the workforce required to meet production needs and safeguard the economic competitiveness of the industry.

  14. Rebalancing brain drain: exploring resource reallocation to address health worker migration and promote global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Timothy Ken; Liang, Bryan Albert

    2012-09-01

    Global public health is threatened by an imbalance in health worker migration from resource-poor countries to developed countries. This "brain drain" results in health workforce shortages, health system weakening, and economic loss and waste, threatening the well-being of vulnerable populations and effectiveness of global health interventions. Current structural imbalances in resource allocation and global incentive structures have resulted in 57 countries identified by WHO as having a "critical shortage" of health workers. Yet current efforts to strengthen domestic health systems have fallen short in addressing this issue. Instead, global solutions should focus on sustainable forms of equitable resource sharing. This can be accomplished by adoption of mandatory global resource and staff-sharing programs in conjunction with implementation of state-based health services corps.

  15. Influenza Virus Samples, International Law, and Global Health Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Indonesia’s decision to withhold samples of avian influenza virus A (H5N1) from the World Health Organization for much of 2007 caused a crisis in global health. The World Health Assembly produced a resolution to try to address the crisis at its May 2007 meeting. I examine how the parties to this controversy used international law in framing and negotiating the dispute. Specifically, I analyze Indonesia’s use of the international legal principle of sovereignty and its appeal to rules on the protection of biological and genetic resources found in the Convention on Biological Diversity. In addition, I consider how the International Health Regulations 2005 applied to the controversy. The incident involving Indonesia’s actions with virus samples illustrates both the importance and the limitations of international law in global health diplomacy. PMID:18258086

  16. Influenza virus samples, international law, and global health diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, David P

    2008-01-01

    Indonesia's decision to withhold samples of avian influenza virus A (H5N1) from the World Health Organization for much of 2007 caused a crisis in global health. The World Health Assembly produced a resolution to try to address the crisis at its May 2007 meeting. I examine how the parties to this controversy used international law in framing and negotiating the dispute. Specifically, I analyze Indonesia's use of the international legal principle of sovereignty and its appeal to rules on the protection of biological and genetic resources found in the Convention on Biological Diversity. In addition, I consider how the International Health Regulations 2005 applied to the controversy. The incident involving Indonesia's actions with virus samples illustrates both the importance and the limitations of international law in global health diplomacy.

  17. Community health centers and community development financial institutions: joining forces to address determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelchuck, Ronda; Lowenstein, Daniel; Tobin, Jonathan N

    2011-11-01

    Community health centers and community development financial institutions share similar origins and missions and are increasingly working together to meet community needs. Addressing the social and economic determinants of health is a common focus. The availability of new federal grants and tax credits has led these financial institutions to invest in the creation and expansion of community health centers. This article reviews the most recent trends in these two sectors and explores opportunities for further collaboration to transform the health and well-being of the nation's low-income communities.

  18. Developing Social Marketing Capacity to Address Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, S.; Smart, E.; Kopela, J.; Gibson, T.; King, V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Social marketing is increasingly being seen as a potentially effective means of pursuing health education practice generally and within various specific areas such as mental health and wellbeing and more broadly in tackling health inequalities. This paper aims to report and reflect on the authors' experiences of undertaking a health…

  19. Managing a scarce resource: addressing critical health workforce challenges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans. P.; Dussault, G.; Batenburg, R.; Frich, J.; Olivers, R.; Sermeus, W.

    2013-01-01

    With health care services significantly changing, the challenge is to initiate innovative, situational and integrated workforce forecasting and planning. Many health systems require a shift in mindset to move to the planning of skill mixes for health care professionals. This implies great challenges

  20. Developing Social Marketing Capacity to Address Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, S.; Smart, E.; Kopela, J.; Gibson, T.; King, V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Social marketing is increasingly being seen as a potentially effective means of pursuing health education practice generally and within various specific areas such as mental health and wellbeing and more broadly in tackling health inequalities. This paper aims to report and reflect on the authors' experiences of undertaking a health…

  1. Cultural Diversity Among Older Adults: Addressing Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, David

    2005-01-01

    The diversity of the older adult population is increasing, and health professionals need to learn new knowledge and skills to improve the adherence of older ethnic clients to their health recommendations. Much of the existing research literature on diversity in gerontology concludes that ethnic older adults are at a health disadvantage. Few if any…

  2. Organizational level indicators to address health equity work in local public health agencies: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Katherine; Salvaterra, Rosana; Antonello, Deborah; Cohen, Benita E; Kothari, Anita; LeBer, Marlene Janzen; LeMieux, Suzanne; Moran, Kathy; Rizzi, Katherine; Robson, Jordan; Wai, Caroline

    2017-09-14

    To determine what organizational level indicators exist that could be used by local Ontario public health agencies to monitor and guide their progress in addressing health equity. This scoping review employed Arksey and O'Malley's (2005) six-stage framework. Multiple online databases and grey literature sources were searched using a comprehensive strategy. Studies were included if they described or used indicators to assess an organization's health equity activity. Abstracted indicator descriptions were classified using the roles for public health action identified by the Canadian National Collaborating Centre for Determinants of Health (NCCDH). Health equity experts participated in a consultation phase to examine items extracted from the literature. Eighteen peer-reviewed studies and 30 grey literature reports were included. Abstracted indicators were considered for 1) relevance for organizational assessment, 2) ability to highlight equity-seeking populations, and 3) potential feasibility for application. Twenty-eight items formed the basis for consultation with 13 selected health equity experts. Items considered for retention were all noted to require significant clarification, definition and development. Those eliminated were often redundant or not an organizational level indicator. Few evidence-based, validated indicators to monitor and guide progress to address health inequities at the level of the local public health organization were identified. There is a need for continued development of identified indicator items, including careful operationalization of concepts and establishing clear definitions for key terms.

  3. Anthropologists address health equity: recognizing barriers to care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Systems change is necessary for improving health care in the United States, especially for populations suffering from health disparities. Theoretical and methodological contributions of anthropology to health care design and delivery can inform systems change by providing a window into provider and patient perceptions and practices. Our community-engaged research teams conduct in-depth investigations of provider perceptions of patients, often uncovering gaps between patient and provider perceptions resulting in the degradation of health equity. We present examples of projects where collaborations between anthropologists and health professionals resulted in actionable data on functioning and malfunctioning systemic momentum toward efforts to eliminate disparities and support wellness. PMID:27158189

  4. Health Care Students’ Attitudes Towards Addressing Sexual Health in Their Future Professional Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerbild, Helle Nygaard; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Areskoug Josefsson, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    students’ attitudes towards working with and communicating about sexual health; thus, to be able to use the Students’ Attitudes Towards Addressing Sexual Health (SA-SH) questionnaire in a Danish context, it is necessary to translate and test the translated questionnaire psychometrically. The aim......Students’ attitudes and educational needs regarding sexual health are important, since their ability to promote sexual health in their future profession can be challenged by their attitudes and knowledge of sexuality and sexual health. There are no existing Danish instruments able to measure...... of the SA-SH (SA-SH-D) had a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.67. The content validity index showed high relevance (item context validity index 0.82–1.0), and item scale correlation was satisfactory. The SA-SH-D is a valid and reliable questionnaire, which can be used to measure health care professional students...

  5. Oral health in Libya: addressing the future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeran, Syed Wali; Altaher, Omar Basheer; Peeran, Syed Ali; Alsaid, Fatma Mojtaba; Mugrabi, Marei Hamed; Ahmed, Aisha Mojtaba; Grain, Abdulgader

    2014-01-01

    Libya is a vast country situated in North Africa, having a relatively better functioning economy with a scanty population. This article is the first known attempt to review the current state of oral health care in Libya and to explore the present trends and future challenges. Libyan health system, oral health care, and human resources with the present status of dental education are reviewed comprehensively. A bibliographic study of oral health research and publications has been carried out. The results point toward a common indicator that oral health-related research is low. Strategies have to be developed to educate the medical and dental professionals, to update the current curriculum and enable the system to be competent in all aspects of oral health care management.

  6. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Knowledge and Perceptions of E-Health and Telemedicine. Int J Health ... engineering fields). ... forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health sciences and related ..... them had a formal computer training.

  7. Activating people to address their health care needs: learning from people with lived experience of chronic illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Victoria; Henwood, Benjamin F

    2014-08-01

    One of the primary goals of health care reform is improving the quality and reducing the costs of care for people with co-morbid mental health and physical health conditions. One strategy is to integrate primary and behavioral health care through care coordination and patient activation. This qualitative study using community based participatory research methods informs the development of integrated care by presenting the perspectives of those with lived experience of chronic illnesses and homelessness. Themes presented include the internal and external barriers to addressing health needs and the key role of peer support in overcoming these barriers.

  8. Resident designed intern orientation to address the new ACGME Common Program Requirements for resident supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rialon, Kristy L; Barfield, Michael E; Elfenbein, Dawn M; Lunsford, Keri E; Tracy, Elisabeth T; Migaly, John

    2013-01-01

    To design an orientation for surgical interns to meet the new Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Common Program Requirements regarding supervision, to test patient-management competencies, and to assess confidence on skills and tasks pre-orientation and post-orientation. Twenty-seven incoming surgical interns participated in a two-day orientation to clinical duties. Activities included a pre-test, lectures, simulation, oral examination, intern shadowing, and a post-test. Incoming interns were surveyed before and after orientation and two months later for confidence in patient-management and surgical intern skills. Paired t-tests were used to determine if confidence improved pre-orientation and post-orientation, and two months following orientation. The study took place at an academic training hospital. All (n = 27) postgraduate year-1 (PGY-1) surgical residents at our institution, which included the categorical and nondesignated preliminary general surgery, urology, orthopedic surgery, otolaryngology, and neurosurgery programs. All interns passed the oral and written examinations, and were deemed able to be indirectly supervised, with direct supervision immediately available. They reported increased confidence in all areas of patient management addressed during orientation, and this confidence was retained after two months. In surgical and floor-related tasks and skills, interns reported no increase in confidence directly following orientation. However, after two months, they reported a significant increase in confidence, particularly in those tasks that are performed often. New requirements for resident supervision require creative ways of verifying resident competency in basic skills. This type of orientation is an effective way to address the new requirements of supervision and teach interns the tasks and skills that are necessary for internship. Copyright © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  9. Education and Sexuality: Towards Addressing Adolescents’ Reproductive Health Needs in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Godswill

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the crucial role of sexuality education in addressing adolescents’ reproductive health needs within the backdrops of immense challenges in Nigerian environment. Young people have been well documented as a special need group in the area of reproductive health. Adolescent sexuality and reproductive health are important contemporary concerns especially for reproductive health problems such as early marriage, unintended/unwanted pregnancy, maternal mortality and sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS. A large number of adolescents in Nigeria decide to be more sexually active without access to preventive measure, such as condoms or family planning devices and thus face undesired consequences, including unwanted pregnancies, Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs, including the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS and the social consequences of both. In fact, adolescents have a higher prevalence of most reproductive health problems because of lack of information and poor access to service. However, one of the 2004 Nigerian National Population Policy objectives is increasing the integration of adolescents and young people into development efforts and effectively addressing their reproductive health and related needs. The study, which relies mainly on secondary data, examines the crucial role and benefits of sexuality education against the backdrops of the challenges including reaching the youths with sexuality and reproductive information and service, or motivating them to change behavior in the light of new information and awareness, more institutional support and creating the social and economic climate, which will make the desired changes possible and sustainable. The author contends that it is a violation of ones fundamental human rights and freedom guaranteed by numerous international, regional and national policies as well as legal instruments when attempts are made to control rather than educate

  10. Infusing Oral Health Care into Nursing Curriculum: Addressing Preventive Health in Aging and Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Earle Hahn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Access to oral health care is essential for promoting and maintaining overall health and well-being, yet oral health disparities exist among vulnerable and underserved populations. While nurses make up the largest portion of the health care work force, educational preparation to address oral health needs of elders and persons with disabilities is limited across nursing curricula. This descriptive study reports on the interdisciplinary development, implementation, and testing of an oral health module that was included and infused into a graduate nursing curriculum in a three-phase plan. Phase 1 includes evaluation of a lecture presented to eight gerontological nurse practitioner (GNP students. Phase 2 includes evaluation of GNP students’ perceptions of learning, skills, and confidence following a one-time 8-hour practicum infused into 80 required practicum hours. The evaluation data show promise in preparing nurse practitioner students to assess and address preventive oral health needs of persons aging with disabilities such that further infusion and inclusion in a course for nurse practitioners across five specialties will implemented and tested in Phase 3.

  11. Systematic reviews addressing identified health policy priorities in Eastern Mediterranean countries: a situational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie A; Karroum, Lama Bou; Kdouh, Ola; Akik, Chaza; Fadlallah, Racha; Hammoud, Rawan

    2014-08-20

    Systematic reviews can offer policymakers and stakeholders concise, transparent, and relevant evidence pertaining to pressing policy priorities to help inform the decision-making process. The production and the use of systematic reviews are specifically limited in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities in the region is still unknown. This situational analysis exercise aims at assessing the extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities identified by policymakers and stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean region countries. It also provides an overview about the state of systematic review production in the region and identifies knowledge gaps. We conducted a systematic search of the Health System Evidence database to identify published systematic reviews on policy-relevant priorities pertaining to the following themes: human resources for health, health financing, the role of the non-state sector, and access to medicine. Priorities were identified from two priority-setting exercises conducted in the region. We described the distribution of these systematic reviews across themes, sub-themes, authors' affiliations, and countries where included primary studies were conducted. Out of the 1,045 systematic reviews identified in Health System Evidence on selected themes, a total of 200 systematic reviews (19.1%) addressed the priorities from the Eastern Mediterranean region. The theme with the largest number of systematic reviews included was human resources for health (115) followed by health financing (33), access to medicine (27), and role of the non-state sector (25). Authors based in the region produced only three systematic reviews addressing regional priorities (1.5%). Furthermore, no systematic review focused on the Eastern Mediterranean region. Primary studies from the region had limited contribution to systematic reviews; 17 systematic reviews (8.5%) included primary

  12. Ideological and organizational components of differing public health strategies for addressing the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Dennis; Brassolotto, Julia; Baldeo, Navindra

    2015-12-01

    Despite a history of conceptual contributions to reducing health inequalities by addressing the social determinants of health (SDH), Canadian governmental authorities have struggled to put these concepts into action. Ontario's-Canada's most populous province-public health scene shows a similar pattern. In statements and reports, governmental ministries, professional associations and local public health units (PHUs) recognize the importance of these issues, yet there has been varying implementation of these concepts into public health activity. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the key features responsible for differences in SDH-related activities among local PHUs. We interviewed Medical Officers of Health (MOH) and key staff members from nine local PHUs in Ontario varying in SDH activity as to their understandings of the SDH, public health's role in addressing the SDH, and their units' SDH-related activities. We also reviewed their unit's documents and their organizational structures in relation to acting on the SDH. Three clusters of PHUs are identified based on their SDH-related activities: service-delivery-oriented; intersectoral and community-based; and public policy/public education-focused. The two key factors that differentiate PHUs are specific ideological commitments held by MOHs and staff and the organizational structures established to carry out SDH-related activities. The ideological commitments and the organizational structures of the most active PHUs showed congruence with frameworks adopted by national jurisdictions known for addressing health inequalities. These include a structural analysis of the SDH and a centralized organizational structure that coordinates SDH-related activities.

  13. International Students, University Health Centers, and Memorable Messages about Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmack, Heather J.; Bedi, Shireen; Heiss, Sarah N.

    2016-01-01

    International students entering US universities often experience a variety of important socialization messages. One important message is learning about and using the US health system. International students often first encounter the US health system through their experiences with university health centers. The authors explore the memorable…

  14. Addressing the Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of Young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    SRH consultant; Indevelop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia1; Adolescent and Youth Senior advisor, ... Young people in Ethiopia face a number of risks to their sexual and reproductive health, ..... cultural and family pressure to have a child soon.

  15. Addressing the changing sources of health information in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Alishahi Tabriz

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion : Although during 8 years of study radio and television remained as main source of health information but there is an increasing tendency to use internet especially in men. Policymakers should revise their broadcasting strategies based on people demand.

  16. Health and the environment : assessing the impacts, addressing the uncertainties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental health problems have become increasingly complex. Climate change, increased urbanization or exposure to electromagnetic fields are highly divergent examples of issues about which no scientific consensus exists, for which no straightforward solutions are available and which are embedded

  17. Addressing the Mental Health Needs of Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgkinson, Stacy; Beers, Lee; Southammakosane, Cathy; Lewin, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent parenthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes for young mothers, including mental health problems such as depression, substance abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Teen mothers are also more likely to be impoverished and reside in communities and families that are socially and economically disadvantaged. These circumstances can adversely affect maternal mental health, parenting, and behavior outcomes for their children. In this report, we provide an overview of th...

  18. Why public health might address the emerging role of vaccinomics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Boccia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The greatest public health benefit of the advances brought about by the understanding of the human genome, completely sequenced in 2000, will likely occur as genomic medicine expands its focus from rare genetic disorders towards the inclusion of more common diseases also, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer and infectious disease. Advances in Genomics hold the promise of improving the delivery of health care, particularly that of preventive medicine, and of tailoring drug treatment.

  19. Australia's international health relations in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon

    2005-02-21

    A survey for the year 2003 of significant developments in Australia's official international health relations, and their domestic ramifications, is presented. The discussion is set within the broader context of Australian foreign policy. Sources include official documents, media reports and consultations with officers of the Department of Health and Ageing responsible for international linkages.

  20. Social entrepreneurship in religious congregations' efforts to address health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werber, Laura; Mendel, Peter J; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

    2014-01-01

    Examine how religious congregations engage in social entrepreneurship as they strive to meet health-related needs in their communities. Multiple case studies. Los Angeles County, California. Purposive sample of 14 congregations representing diverse races/ethnicities (African-American, Latino, and white) and faith traditions (Jewish and various Christian). Congregations were recruited based on screening data and consultation of a community advisory board. In each congregation, researchers conducted interviews with clergy and lay leaders (n = 57); administered a congregational questionnaire; observed health activities, worship services, and neighborhood context; and reviewed archival information. Interviews were analyzed by using a qualitative, code-based approach. Congregations' health-related activities tended to be episodic, small in scale, and local in scope. Trust and social capital played important roles in congregations' health initiatives, providing a safe, confidential environment and leveraging resources from-and for-faith-based and secular organizations in their community networks. Congregations also served as "incubators" for members to engage in social entrepreneurship. Although the small scale of congregations' health initiatives suggest they may not have the capacity to provide the main infrastructure for service provision, congregations can complement the efforts of health and social providers with their unique strengths. Specifically, congregations are distinctive in their ability to identify unmet local needs, and congregations' position in their communities permit them to network in productive ways.

  1. Social Entrepreneurship in Religious Congregations’ Efforts to Address Health Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werber, Laura; Mendel, Peter J.; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Examine how religious congregations engage in social entrepreneurship as they strive to meet health-related needs in their communities. Design Multiple case studies. Setting Los Angeles County, California. Participants Purposive sample of 14 congregations representing diverse races-ethnicities (African American, Latino, and white) and faith traditions (Jewish and various Christian). Method Congregations were recruited based on screening data and consultation of a community advisory board. In each congregation, researchers conducted interviews with clergy and lay leaders (n=57); administered a congregational questionnaire; observed health activities, worship services, and neighborhood context; and reviewed archival information. Interviews were analyzed using a qualitative, code-based approach. Results Congregations’ health-related activities tended to be episodic, small in scale, and local in scope. Trust and social capital played important roles in congregations’ health initiatives, providing a safe, confidential environment and leveraging resources from – and for – faith-based and secular organizations in their community networks. Congregations also served as “incubators” for members to engage in social entrepreneurship. Conclusion Although the small scale of congregations’ health initiatives suggest they may not have the capacity to provide the main infrastructure for service provision, congregations can complement the efforts of health and social providers with their unique strengths. Specifically, congregations are distinctive in their ability to identify unmet local needs, and congregations’ position in their communities permit them to network in productive ways. PMID:23875986

  2. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The journal is devoted to the promotion of health sciences and related ... forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health .... reported in Canada [10] and among Hispanic ..... plasma volume expansion [29].

  3. International research collaboration in maritime health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2011-01-01

    The new ILO-2006-convention and the EU Commission's strategic objectives for the EU maritime transport policy 2008-2018, mentions the necessity of a modern health and safety system for maritime transportation. However, there is no specific strategy for the development of maritime health and safety....... The area is regulated by international standards based on international research-based knowledge on health and safety. Moreover, many of the world's seafarers come from developing countries with specific disease problems like HIV and no possibility of independent maritime health research. The international...... maritime health research is sparse, and an increase in such research is necessary to help benefit needed shipping as a highly globalized industry. This paper presents an example of such research, accompanied by a discussion of methods and opportunities to increase international maritime health research....

  4. Keeping Current. Library Media Specialists: Addressing the Student Health Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddy, Juanita

    2005-01-01

    Health and educational leaders are sounding the alarm about the unhealthy condition of many students in America's K-12 schools. Each day, new scientific studies confirm that "The majority of American youth are sedentary and do not eat well. Sixteen percent of school-aged children and adolescents--or nine million--are overweight, a figure that has…

  5. The role of academic research and teaching in addressing health in situations of conflict and instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    The key roles of academic research and teaching in addressing health in situations of conflict and instability are to better inform and better equip actors with the knowledge and skills to address health problems. The four key contributions of research are: quantifying the health problem, examining the contextual circumstances, investigating the epidemiology of health problems and evaluation of health care and humanitarian interventions. The role of teaching can complement research by distributing its' findings in addition to teaching skill sets to apply this knowledge and conduct further research. Academic research and teaching both play imperative roles in enabling more successful approaches in addressing health in situations of conflict and instability.

  6. Barriers to addressing the social determinants of health: insights from the Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Dennis; Curry-Stevens, Ann; Bryant, Toba

    2008-12-01

    Despite Canada's reputation as a leader in health promotion and population health, implementation of public policies in support of the social determinants of health has been woefully inadequate. The continuing presence of income, housing, and food insecurity has led to Canada being the subject of a series of rebukes from the United Nations for failing to address child and family poverty, discrimination against women and Aboriginal groups, and most recently the crisis of homelessness and housing insecurity. In this article we consider some of the reasons why this might be the case. These include the epistemological dominance of positivist approaches to the health sciences, the ideology of individualism prevalent in North America, and the increasing influence on public policy of the marketplace. Various models of public policy provide pathways by which these barriers can be surmounted. Considering that the International Commission on the Social Determinants of Health will soon be releasing its findings and recommendations, such an analysis seems especially timely for understanding both the Canadian scene and developments in other nations.

  7. Health promotion interventions to address climate change using a primary health care approach: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rae; Hassall, John; Chaplin, Sue; Congues, Janet; Bajayo, Rachael; Mason, Wendy

    2011-12-01

    This project explored the literature in which key concepts in primary health care and health promotion are overtly applied to the problem of climate change. This paper contains a discussion of the literature relevant to health promotion principles and intervention strategies for addressing climate change mitigation and adaptation in the primary health care sector. The concept of primary health care is that used by the World Health Organization, based on the Declaration of Alma Ata and often referred to as comprehensive primary health care to differentiate it from primary medical care. This was a review of literature identified in electronic databases using two sets of search terms. Set A consisted of 'climate change or global warming or greenhouse effect' and set B consisted of 11 key concepts in primary health care and health promotion, for example community resilience, health promotion, social change, food security and economic development. Relevant literature was identified at the intersection of search term A with a term from set B. A search was completed for each set B term. This paper reports a discussion of major categories of health promotion interventions, namely health communication, community building and settings approaches and uses examples drawn from literature on community resilience and summer heat. These interventions are all applicable to the primary health care sector. There is a small literature on health promotion interventions for climate change mitigation and adaptation but it is incomplete and scattered across many sources. An important area for further research is to link the logic of service provision in primary health care to the logic of mitigation and adaptation in a changing environment. Interventions that link the logic must also link diverse services to provide coherent action on local and domestic scales, the scales at which primary health care acts. Another research gap is in regard to institutional change in the primary health

  8. 42 CFR 457.805 - State plan requirement: Procedures to address substitution under group health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State plan requirement: Procedures to address substitution under group health plans. 457.805 Section 457.805 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS...

  9. Designing a Community-Based Lay Health Advisor Training Curriculum to Address Cancer Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwede, Clement K.; Ashley, Atalie A.; McGinnis, Kara; Montiel-Ishino, F. Alejandro; Standifer, Maisha; Baldwin, Julie; Williams, Coni; Sneed, Kevin B.; Wathington, Deanna; Dash-Pitts, Lolita; Green, B. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Racial and ethnic minorities have disproportionately higher cancer incidence and mortality than their White counterparts. In response to this inequity in cancer prevention and care, community-based lay health advisors (LHAs) may be suited to deliver effective, culturally relevant, quality cancer education, prevention/screening, and early detection services for underserved populations. Approach and Strategies Consistent with key tenets of community-based participatory research (CBPR), this project engaged community partners to develop and implement a unique LHA training curriculum to address cancer health disparities among medically underserved communities in a tricounty area. Seven phases of curriculum development went into designing a final seven-module LHA curriculum. In keeping with principles of CBPR and community engagement, academic–community partners and LHAs themselves were involved at all phases to ensure the needs of academic and community partners were mutually addressed in development and implementation of the LHA program. Discussion and Conclusions Community-based LHA programs for outreach, education, and promotion of cancer screening and early detection, are ideal for addressing cancer health disparities in access and quality care. When community-based LHAs are appropriately recruited, trained, and located in communities, they provide unique opportunities to link, bridge, and facilitate quality cancer education, services, and research. PMID:22982709

  10. Emergencies in international child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stidham, G L

    1997-06-01

    Emergencies in the pediatric populations of third world and developing countries are of a much different sort than those to which pediatricians in developing countries are familiar. Many of these emergencies derive from conditions, situations, and etiologies that no longer represent a threat to children in developed countries: malnutrition, immunizable illnesses, infectious diseases from pathogenes easily treated or prevented, urbanization, and armed conflict. Programs directed at improving basic public health, health education, access to basic health care, and immunization have been shown to have a major and positive impact on children's health status in these countries. Because of the vastness of these health problems, a growing number of volunteer organizations offer opportunities for pediatricians to contribute to improvement and they have an impact on the health of children considerably less fortunate than those in developed countries.

  11. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    disciplines (including medicine, pharmacy, nursing, biotechnology, cell and molecular biology, and related ... forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health sciences and related ... make adequate information about sexual health available to ... Akintola University of Technology,. Osogbo ...

  12. Health needs and public health functions addressed in scientific publications in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benie-Bi, J; Cambon, L; Grimaud, O; Kivits, J; Alla, F

    2013-09-01

    To describe the reporting of public health research in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa (FSA). A bibliometric research study of scientific public health publications in FSA, which includes 24 countries and approximately 260 million people. Two researchers analysed original articles published in 2007 in the medical or social sciences fields and indexed in Scopus. At least one co-author of articles had to be based in FSA. The analysis focused on research field, public health function (WHO classification), FSA country author's affiliation, language, journal type and global burden of disease (WHO classification). Of 1047 articles retrieved by the search, 212 were from the public health field. The number of articles per country varied from 0 to 36. Public health functions examined were health service research (24.5%), health monitoring (27.4%), prevention (15%) and legislation (0.5%). The distribution of health needs described in the articles was close to that of the WHO data for Africa for 2004: infectious and parasitic diseases (70% vs 54%), maternal and perinatal conditions (15% vs 17%), non-communicable diseases (15.6% vs 21%), and injuries (0.5% vs 8%). The areas reported in published articles from sub-Saharan Africa reflect the health needs distribution in Africa; however, the number of publications is low, particularly for prevention. In light of the current focus on evidence-based public health, this study questions whether the international scientific community adequately considers the expertise and perspectives of African researchers and professionals. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. NASA's Systems Engineering Approaches for Addressing Public Health Surveillance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Timi

    2003-01-01

    NASA's systems engineering has its heritage in space mission analysis and design, including the end-to-end approach to managing every facet of the extreme engineering required for successful space missions. NASA sensor technology, understanding of remote sensing, and knowledge of Earth system science, can be powerful new tools for improved disease surveillance and environmental public health tracking. NASA's systems engineering framework facilitates the match between facilitates the match between partner needs and decision support requirements in the areas of 1) Science/Data; 2) Technology; 3) Integration. Partnerships between NASA and other Federal agencies are diagrammed in this viewgraph presentation. NASA's role in these partnerships is to provide systemic and sustainable solutions that contribute to the measurable enhancement of a partner agency's disease surveillance efforts.

  14. Addressing health disparities in middle school students' nutrition and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenn, Marilyn; Malin, Shelly; Bansal, Naveen; Delgado, Mary; Greer, Yvonne; Havice, Michael; Ho, Mary; Schweizer, Heidi

    2003-01-01

    Those with low income, especially women of African American and Hispanic heritage have the greatest risk of inactivity and obesity. A 4-session (Internet and video) intervention with healthy snack and gym labs was tested in 2 (gym lab in 1) urban low-middle-income middle schools to improve low fat diet and moderate and vigorous physical activity.1 The gym lab was particularly beneficial (p =.002). Fat in diet decreased with each Internet session in which students participated. Percentage of fat in food was reduced significantly p =.018 for Black, White, and Black/Native American girls in the intervention group. Interventions delivered through Internet and video may enable reduction of health disparities in students by encouraging those most at risk to consume 30% or less calories from fat and to engage in moderate and vigorous physical activity.

  15. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The journal is devoted to the promotion of health sciences and related disciplines ... engineering fields). It seeks ... collaboration among scientists, the industry and the healthcare professionals. It will also .... Civil servants, businessmen and.

  16. Inequalities, the arts and public health: Towards an international conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Clive; White, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers how participatory arts informed by thinking in public health can play a significant part internationally in addressing inequalities in health. It looks beyond national overviews of arts and health to consider what would make for meaningful international practice, citing recent initiatives of national networks in English-speaking countries and examples of influential developments in South America and the European Union. In the context of public health thinking on inequalities and social justice, the paper posits what would make for good practice and appropriate research that impacts on policy. As the arts and health movement gathers momentum, the paper urges the arts to describe their potency in the policy-making arena in the most compelling ways to articulate their social, economic and cultural values. In the process, it identifies the reflexive consideration of participatory practice – involving people routinely marginalised from decision-making processes – as a possible avenue into this work. PMID:25729409

  17. International institutions and China's health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanzhong

    2015-02-01

    This article examines the role of international institutional actors in China's health policy process. Particular attention is paid to three major international institutional actors: the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Through process tracing and comparative case studies, the article looks at how international institutions contribute to policy change in China and seeks to explain different outcomes in the relationship between international institutions and China's health policies. It finds that despite the opaque and exclusive authoritarian structure in China, international institutions play a significant role in the country's domestic health governance. By investing their resources and capabilities selectively and strategically, international institutions can change the preferences of government policy makers, move latent public health issues to the government's agenda, and affect the timing of government action and the content of policy design. Furthermore, the study suggests that different outcomes in the relationship between China's health policies and global health governance can be explained through the seriousness of the externalities China faces.

  18. New smart materials to address issues of structural health monitoring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaplya, Pavel Mikhail

    2004-12-01

    Nuclear weapons and their storage facilities may benefit from in-situ structural health monitoring systems. Appending health-monitoring functionality to conventional materials and structures has been only marginally successful. The purpose of this project was to evaluate feasibility of a new smart material that includes self-sensing health monitoring functions similar to that of a nervous system of a living organism. Reviews of current efforts in the fields of heath-monitoring, nanotechnology, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), and wireless sensor networks were conducted. Limitations of the current nanotechnology methods were identified and new approaches were proposed to accelerate the development of self-sensing materials. Wireless networks of MEMS sensors have been researched as possible prototypes of self-sensing materials. Sensor networks were also examined as enabling technologies for dense data collection techniques to be used for validation of numerical methods and material parameter identification. Each grain of the envisioned material contains sensors that are connected in a dendritic manner similar to networks of neurons in a nervous system. Each sensor/neuron can communicate with the neighboring grains. Both the state of the sensor (on/off) and the quality of communication signal (speed/amplitude) should indicate not only a presence of a structural defect but the nature of the defect as well. For example, a failed sensor may represent a through-grain crack, while a lost or degraded communication link may represent an inter-granular crack. A technology to create such material does not exist. While recent progress in the fields of MEMS and nanotechnology allows to envision these new smart materials, it is unrealistic to expect creation of self-sensing materials in the near future. The current state of MEMS, nanotechnology, communication, sensor networks, and data processing technologies indicates that it will take more than ten years for the

  19. Leprosy: International Public Health Policies and Public Health Eras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyi Awofeso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Public health policies continue to play important roles in national and international health reforms. However, the influence and legacies of the public health eras during which such policies are formulated remain largely underappreciated. The limited appreciation of this relationship may hinder consistent adoption of public health policies by nation-states, and encumber disinvestment from ineffective or anachronistic policies. This article reviews seven public health eras and highlights how each era has influenced international policy formulation for leprosy control—“the fertile soil for policy learning”. The author reiterates the role of health leadership and health activism in facilitating consistency in international health policy formulation and implementation for leprosy control.

  20. Red meat's role in addressing 'nutrients of public health concern'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Kevin D; Hayes, Aoife

    2017-10-01

    The role of red meat, particularly lean cuts, in healthy eating guidelines has been highlighted in most developed nations. Despite this, the public have received some mixed messages in relation to meat. Nutrition claims in Europe and nutrient content claims in the US may have important roles in providing consumer confidence and a better appreciation of the importance of red meat to achieving nutrient adequacy. In particular, it is noteworthy that nutrition/nutrient content claims for red meat could be made for four out of the seven nutrients of public health concern as designated in the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, namely sodium, potassium, iron, vitamin D, the intakes of which have also been shown to be problematic for European populations. While beef may already qualify to carry a 'Source of vitamin D' claim, other red meats do not. Vitamin D biofortification approaches may have the ability to enhance the vitamin D and/or 25-hydroxyvitamin content of red meat, facilitating additional nutrition/nutrient content claims. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Towards a feminist global bioethics: addressing women's health concerns worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, R

    2001-01-01

    In this paper I argue that a global bioethics is possible. Specifically, I present the view that there are within feminist approaches to bioethics some conceptual and methodological tools necessary to forge a bioethics that embraces the health-related concerns of both developing and developed nations equally. To support my argument I discuss some of the challenges that have historically confronted feminists. If feminists accept the idea that women are entirely the same, then feminists present as fact the fiction of the essential "Woman." Not only does "Woman" not exist, -she" obscures important racial, ethnic, cultural, and class differences among women. However, if feminists stress women's differences too much, feminists lose the power to speak coherently and cogently about gender justice, women's rights, and sexual equality in general. Analyzing the ways in which the idea of difference as well as the idea of sameness have led feminists astray, I ask whether it is possible to avoid the Scylla of absolutism (imperialism, colonialism, hegemony) on the one hand and the Charybdis of relativism (postmodernism, fragmentation, Balkanization) on the other. Finally, after reflecting upon the work of Uma Narayan, Susan Muller Okin, and Martha Nussbaum, I conclude that there is a way out of this ethical bind. By focusing on women's, children's, and men's common human needs, it is possible to lay the foundation for a just and caring global bioethics.

  2. School Nurses' Perceived Prevalence and Competence to Address Student Mental Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…

  3. New smart materials to address issues of structural health monitoring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaplya, Pavel Mikhail

    2004-12-01

    Nuclear weapons and their storage facilities may benefit from in-situ structural health monitoring systems. Appending health-monitoring functionality to conventional materials and structures has been only marginally successful. The purpose of this project was to evaluate feasibility of a new smart material that includes self-sensing health monitoring functions similar to that of a nervous system of a living organism. Reviews of current efforts in the fields of heath-monitoring, nanotechnology, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), and wireless sensor networks were conducted. Limitations of the current nanotechnology methods were identified and new approaches were proposed to accelerate the development of self-sensing materials. Wireless networks of MEMS sensors have been researched as possible prototypes of self-sensing materials. Sensor networks were also examined as enabling technologies for dense data collection techniques to be used for validation of numerical methods and material parameter identification. Each grain of the envisioned material contains sensors that are connected in a dendritic manner similar to networks of neurons in a nervous system. Each sensor/neuron can communicate with the neighboring grains. Both the state of the sensor (on/off) and the quality of communication signal (speed/amplitude) should indicate not only a presence of a structural defect but the nature of the defect as well. For example, a failed sensor may represent a through-grain crack, while a lost or degraded communication link may represent an inter-granular crack. A technology to create such material does not exist. While recent progress in the fields of MEMS and nanotechnology allows to envision these new smart materials, it is unrealistic to expect creation of self-sensing materials in the near future. The current state of MEMS, nanotechnology, communication, sensor networks, and data processing technologies indicates that it will take more than ten years for the

  4. Costing framework for International Health Regulations (2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; Haté, Vibhuti; Kornblet, Sarah; Fischer, Julie E

    2012-07-01

    The revised International Health Regulations (IHR [2005]) conferred new responsibilities on member states of the World Health Organization, requiring them to develop core capacities to detect, assess, report, and respond to public health emergencies. Many countries have not yet developed these capacities, and poor understanding of the associated costs have created a barrier to effectively marshaling assistance. To help national and international decision makers understand the inputs and associated costs of implementing the IHR (2005), we developed an IHR implementation strategy to serve as a framework for making preliminary estimates of fixed and operating costs associated with developing and sustaining IHR core capacities across an entire public health system. This tool lays the groundwork for modeling the costs of strengthening public health systems from the central to the peripheral level of an integrated health system, a key step in helping national health authorities define necessary actions and investments required for IHR compliance.

  5. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    collaboration among scientists, the industry and the healthcare professionals. It will also ... Government Area. The 'pre-' and ... percentage of missed children, (3) strengthening. RI, and (4) ... Inadequate health facilities (coupled with weak ... finances, drugs, and equipment), lack of ... an opportunity for advancing the study of.

  6. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    ... African Journal. Online, African Index Medicus, Open-J-Gate, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) databases ... Commentary. Encouraging Volunteer Participation in Health Research: ... contribution to research. ... Volunteering is the essence of the scholarly work ... the human resources used in social services [11].

  7. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-12-10

    Dec 10, 2009 ... software to allow authors track the changes to their submission. All manuscripts ... College of Education (FCE) and presumptive typhoid fever patients that ... Resistance profile of Salmonella species isolated from patients .... decrease in the susceptibility of the isolates .... World Health Organization 2003.

  8. COOP+ project: Promoting the cooperation among international Research Infrastructures to address global environmental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet-García, Francisco; Materia, Paola; Kutsch, Werner; de Lucas, Jesús Marco; Tjulin, Anders

    2016-04-01

    During the Anthropocene, mankind will face several global environmental challenges. One of the first and more successful responses provided by Science to these challenges is the collecting of long-term series of biophysical variables in order to improve our knowledge of natural systems. The huge amount of information gathered during the last decades by Research Infrastructures (RIs) has helped to understand the structure and functioning of natural systems at local and regional scales. But how can we address the global cross-scale and cross-disciplinary challenges posed by the global environment change? We believe that it will be necessary to observe, model better and understand the whole biosphere using long term data generated by international RIs. RIs play a key role on many of the last advances and discoveries in science, from the observation of the Higgs Boson at CERN to the exploration of the Universe by the telescopes of the European Southern Observatory in Chile. The scale of complexity, instrumentation, computing resources, technological advances, and also of the investments, and the size of research collaborations, do not have precedents in Science. RIs in environmental field are developing fast, but the corresponding communities need yet to further reflect the need for a wider global collaboration because the challenges to tackle are in essence of global nature. This contribution describes how COOP+ project (EU Horizon 2020 Coordination and Support Action) will promote the cooperation among RIs at a global scale to address global environmental challenges. Our project evolves from the experience of the sucessful FP7 COOPEUS project (see http://www.coopeus.eu), which explored the use and access to data from RIs in environmental research in Europe and USA. The general goal of COOP+ is to strengthen the links and coordination of the ESFRI RIs related to Marine Science (EMSO), Arctic and Atmospheric Research (EISCAT), Carbon Observation (ICOS) and Biodiversity

  9. The Role of Nutrition-Related Initiatives in Addressing Community Health Needs Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Daniel R.; Rovniak, Liza S.; Dillon, Judy; Snyder, Gail

    2017-01-01

    Academic Health Centers and nonprofit hospitals are exploring strategies to meet Affordable Care Act mandates requiring tax-exempt institutions to address community health needs, which commonly include major chronic illnesses. We explore the implications of this regulatory landscape, describing methods that nonprofit health care institutions are…

  10. Veterans Health Administration: Management Attention Is Needed to Address Systemic, Long standing Human Capital Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    required by the Choice Act: the Independent Assessment of the Health Care Delivery Systems and Management Processes of the Department of Veterans...VETERANS HEALTH ADMINISTRATION Management Attention Is Needed to Address Systemic, Long-standing Human Capital...Government Accountability Office Highlights of GAO-17-30, a report to congressional requesters December 2016 VETERANS HEALTH ADMINISTRATION

  11. The Role of Nutrition-Related Initiatives in Addressing Community Health Needs Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Daniel R.; Rovniak, Liza S.; Dillon, Judy; Snyder, Gail

    2017-01-01

    Academic Health Centers and nonprofit hospitals are exploring strategies to meet Affordable Care Act mandates requiring tax-exempt institutions to address community health needs, which commonly include major chronic illnesses. We explore the implications of this regulatory landscape, describing methods that nonprofit health care institutions are…

  12. World health organization perspective on implementation of International Health Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Maxwell Charles

    2012-07-01

    In 2005, the International Health Regulations were adopted at the 58th World Health Assembly; in June 2007, they were entered into force for most countries. In 2012, the world is approaching a major 5-year milestone in the global commitment to ensure national capacities to identify, investigate, assess, and respond to public health events. In the past 5 years, existing programs have been boosted and some new activities relating to International Health Regulations provisions have been successfully established. The lessons and experience of the past 5 years need to be drawn upon to provide improved direction for the future.

  13. Seeking health care through international medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, Lee Ann; Casken, John

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was the exploration of international travel experiences for the purpose of medical or dental care from the perspective of patients from Alaska and to develop insight and understanding of the essence of the phenomenon of medical tourism. The study is conceptually oriented within a model of health-seeking behavior. Using a qualitative design, 15 Alaska medical tourists were individually interviewed. The data were analyzed using a hermeneutic process of inquiry to uncover the meaning of the experience. Six themes reflecting the experiences of Alaska medical tourists emerged: "my motivation," "I did the research," "the medical care I need," "follow-up care," "the advice I give," and "in the future." Subthemes further categorized data for increased understanding of the phenomenon. The thematic analysis provides insight into the experience and reflects a modern approach to health-seeking behavior through international medical tourism. The results of this study provide increased understanding of the experience of obtaining health care internationally from the patient perspective. Improved understanding of medical tourism provides additional information about a contemporary approach to health-seeking behavior. Results of this study will aid nursing professionals in counseling regarding medical tourism options and providing follow-up health care after medical tourism. Nurses will be able to actively participate in global health policy discussions regarding medical tourism trends. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  14. Universal health care: the changing international discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Ramila

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 34 years ago, in 1978 in the face of a looming crisis in the health of the world's populations and rising health inequality, 134 countries came together to sign the historic Alma Ata Declaration where the idea of primary health care as the chosen path to "Health for All" was formulated. However even before the declaration and more so since, countries have diverse interpretations of Universalism, each setting it in the context of its own health care model. These have ranged from the minimalist to the more comprehensive welfare state. Today, as health statistics reveal, the crisis has deepened, not only in the developing world but also in the developed world. It is important to debate the nature of the crisis and understand current policy initiatives and their ideological legitimations. The paper attempts to trace, clarify and account for the shifts in international discourse on universal health care (UHC). It argues that the idea of UHC is still with us, but there have occurred substantial shifts in discourse and meaning, shaped by changing international and national contexts and social forces impinging on health systems. The current concept of universal health coverage has only a notional allusion to universality of Alma Ata and disregards its fundamental principles. It concludes that the shifts are detrimental and its value in promoting health for all is likely to be severely limited.

  15. Universal health care: The changing international discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramila Bisht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 34 years ago, in 1978 in the face of a looming crisis in the health of the world′s populations and rising health inequality, 134 countries came together to sign the historic Alma Ata Declaration where the idea of primary health care as the chosen path to "Health for All" was formulated. However even before the declaration and more so since, countries have diverse interpretations of Universalism, each setting it in the context of its own health care model. These have ranged from the minimalist to the more comprehensive welfare state. Today, as health statistics reveal, the crisis has deepened, not only in the developing world but also in the developed world. It is important to debate the nature of the crisis and understand current policy initiatives and their ideological legitimations. The paper attempts to trace, clarify and account for the shifts in international discourse on universal health care (UHC. It argues that the idea of UHC is still with us, but there have occurred substantial shifts in discourse and meaning, shaped by changing international and national contexts and social forces impinging on health systems. The current concept of universal health coverage has only a notional allusion to universality of Alma Ata and disregards its fundamental principles. It concludes that the shifts are detrimental and its value in promoting health for all is likely to be severely limited.

  16. Addressing the needs for international training, qualifications, and career development in occupational hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesbury, Roger J; Bailey, Stephen R

    2014-03-01

    Thirteen member societies of the International Occupational Hygiene Association (IOHA), all 11 national certification bodies, and IOHA itself are now cooperating in a new international training and qualification system. The structure broadens access to occupational hygiene education and training worldwide and complements existing professional accreditation schemes. There are currently 46 Approved Training Providers in the scheme and up to the end of June 2013, approaching 200 courses had been delivered in more than 32 countries, with nearly 2400 examinations taken in 7 languages. This influx of students, particularly in developing countries, is helping to address the worldwide need to combat occupational illness and is creating the foundation for sustainable growth in provision of occupational hygiene globally. The scheme originated in 2006, when the authors were instrumental in bringing together a group of senior hygienists to review the needs of industry. The resulting position paper, reflecting the perspective of major multi-national companies, was subject to widespread consultation with a diverse group of stakeholders from across the world. This led to the formation of the Occupational Hygiene Training Association (OHTA), as a not-for-profit organization, to operate the system. It is accessible through the OHlearning website that provides free downloads of educational materials and details of training events. In this commentary, we outline the needs that brought this about, identify the key stakeholders involved, review what has been done so far, and discuss some plans for the future.

  17. Addressing Cultural Competency in Pharmacy Education through International Service Learning and Community Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemin Kassam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a course in international service learning and community engagement for pharmacy undergraduate students. The course offered students opportunities to cultivate cultural competency in an international setting foreign to their own—Sub-Saharan Africa. The experience consisted of pre-departure preparation seminars followed by subsequent community immersion to experience, explore and confront personal attitudes and perceptions. A key feature of this course was its emphasis on a continuing cycle of learning, community engagement and reflection. Three students participated, a near-maximum cohort. Their daily self-reflections were qualitatively analyzed to document the impact of their cultural learning and experiences and revealed meaningful learning in the domains of self-assessment and awareness of their personal and professional culture, exposure to a participatory health delivery model involving the patient, the community and a multidisciplinary team and opportunities to engage in patient care in a different cultural setting. This proof-of-concept course provided students with experiences that were life-changing on both personal and professional levels and confirmed the viability and relevance of international service learning for the pharmacy field within its university-wide mandate.

  18. Defining cultural competence: a practical framework for addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care.

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt, Joseph R.; Green, Alexander R.; Carrillo, J. Emilio; Ananeh-Firempong, Owusu

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Racial/ethnic disparities in health in the U.S. have been well described. The field of "cultural competence" has emerged as one strategy to address these disparities. Based on a review of the relevant literature, the authors develop a definition of cultural competence, identify key components for intervention, and describe a practical framework for implementation of measures to address racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. METHODS: The authors conducted a literature...

  19. Veterans’ Health Care: Limited Progress Made to Address Concerns That Led to High Risk Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-15

    VETERANS’ HEALTH CARE Limited Progress Made to Address Concerns That Led to High-Risk Designation Statement of Debra A...Progress Made to Address Concerns That Led to High-Risk Designation What GAO Found The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has taken action to...establishing a task force, working groups, and a governance structure for addressing the issues that led to the high-risk designation. VA provided

  20. Increased health care utilisation in international adoptees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Heidi Jeannet; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kragstrup, Jakob;

    2015-01-01

    after adoption. Our study aimed to theassess health-care utilisation of international adoptees inprimary and secondary care for somatic and psychiatricdiagnoses in a late post-adoption period. Is there an increaseduse of the health-care system in this period, evenwhen increased morbidity in the group...... comprised internationallyadopted children (n = 6,820), adopted between 1994 and2005, and all non-adopted children (n = 492,374) who couldbe matched with the adopted children on sex, age, municipalityand family constellation at the time of adoption. Results: International adoption increased the use...

  1. International trade agreements: hazards to health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Brenner, Joseph E

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1980s, neoliberal policies have prescribed reducing the role of governments, relying on market forces to organize and provide health care and other vital human services. In this context, international trade agreements increasingly serve as mechanisms to enforce the privatization, deregulation, and decentralization of health care and other services, with important implications for democracy as well as for health. Critics contend that social austerity and "free" trade agreements contribute to the rise in global poverty and economic inequality and instability, and therefore to increased preventable illness and death. Under new agreements through the World Trade Organization that cover vital human services such as health care, water, education, and energy, unaccountable, secret trade tribunals could overrule decisions by democratically elected officials on public financing for national health care systems, licensing and training standards for health professionals, patient safety and quality regulations, occupational safety and health, control of hazardous substances such as tobacco and alcohol, the environment, and affordable access to safe water and sanitation. International negotiations in 2003 in Cancun and in Miami suggested that countervailing views are developing momentum. A concerned health care community has begun to call for a moratorium on trade negotiations on health care and water, and to reinvigorate an alternative vision of universal access to vital services.

  2. Leveraging Cloud Computing to Address Public Health Disparities: An Analysis of the SPHPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Arash; Olabode, Olusegun A; Bell, Christopher M

    2012-01-01

    As the use of certified electronic health record technology (CEHRT) has continued to gain prominence in hospitals and physician practices, public health agencies and health professionals have the ability to access health data through health information exchanges (HIE). With such knowledge health providers are well positioned to positively affect population health, and enhance health status or quality-of-life outcomes in at-risk populations. Through big data analytics, predictive analytics and cloud computing, public health agencies have the opportunity to observe emerging public health threats in real-time and provide more effective interventions addressing health disparities in our communities. The Smarter Public Health Prevention System (SPHPS) provides real-time reporting of potential public health threats to public health leaders through the use of a simple and efficient dashboard and links people with needed personal health services through mobile platforms for smartphones and tablets to promote and encourage healthy behaviors in our communities. The purpose of this working paper is to evaluate how a secure virtual private cloud (VPC) solution could facilitate the implementation of the SPHPS in order to address public health disparities.

  3. Addressing poverty, education, and gender equality to improve the health of women worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyer-Viola, Lynda A; Cesario, Sandra K

    2010-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) that target alleviating poverty, improving primary education, and fostering gender equity are important as a foundation to promote world health. Achieving these goals will create an environment for healthy lives for women and children. Poverty, education, and gender equality, although undeniably linked, need to be addressed individually. Nurses have the capacity and political will to address MDGs and to contribute to the health and well-being of the world population.

  4. Addressing the socioeconomic determinants of adolescent health: experiences from the WHO/HBSC Forum 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Theadora; Morgan, Antony; Guerreiro, Ana; Currie, Candace; Ziglio, Erio

    2009-09-01

    Over the past 25 years, the WHO collaborative cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study has been accumulating evidence that provides insights into how to promote the health and well-being of young people. HBSC has increased understanding of the determinants of young people's health, particularly in relation to the social contexts in which they live, learn and play. The study now spans 43 countries and regions in Europe and North America. HBSC provides intelligence for the development and evaluation of public health policy and practice at national, sub-national and international levels. However, the mere existence of evidence does not automatically change policy nor necessarily improve the lives of young people. Effective mechanisms to ensure use of evidence in policy-making and practice are needed. The WHO/HBSC Forum series is a platform designed to facilitate the translation of evidence into action. Forum processes convene researchers, policy-makers and practitioners from across Europe to analyse data, review policies and interventions, and identify lessons learned to improve the health of adolescents through actions that address the social contexts that influence their health. Each Forum process consists of case studies produced by interdisciplinary teams in countries and regions, cross-country evidence reviews, a European consultation, an outcomes statement within a final publication, and a Web-based knowledge platform. In addition to emphasizing the translation of research into action, the Forum series focuses on increasing know-how to scale up intersectoral policies and interventions; reduce health inequities; and involve young people in the design, implementation and evaluation of policies and interventions. Interviews with selected participants in the 2007 Forum process revealed that national-level impacts of involvement were: brokering new or strengthening existing working relationships among members of case study drafting teams

  5. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Toni A.

    2014-01-01

    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed

  6. Human rights, cultural pluralism, and international health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Patricia A

    2005-01-01

    In the field of bioethics, scholars have begun to consider carefully the impact of structural issues on global population health, including socioeconomic and political factors influencing the disproportionate burden of disease throughout the world. Human rights and social justice are key considerations for both population health and biomedical research. In this paper, I will briefly explore approaches to human rights in bioethics and review guidelines for ethical conduct in international health research, focusing specifically on health research conducted in resource-poor settings. I will demonstrate the potential for addressing human rights considerations in international health research with special attention to the importance of collaborative partnerships, capacity building, and respect for cultural traditions. Strengthening professional knowledge about international research ethics increases awareness of ethical concerns associated with study design and informed consent among researchers working in resource-poor settings. But this is not enough. Technological and financial resources are also necessary to build capacity for local communities to ensure that research results are integrated into existing health systems. Problematic issues surrounding the application of ethical guidelines in resource-poor settings are embedded in social history, cultural context, and the global political economy. Resolving the moral complexities requires a commitment to engaged dialogue and action among investigators, funding agencies, policy makers, governmental institutions, and private industry.

  7. Implementing a Public Health Approach to Addressing Mental Health Needs in a University Setting: Lessons and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcover, Jason; Mays, Sally; McCarthy, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The mental health needs of college students are placing increasing demands on counseling center resources, and traditional outreach efforts may be outdated or incomplete. The public health model provides an approach for reaching more students, decreasing stigma, and addressing mental health concerns before they reach crisis levels. Implementing a…

  8. Implementing a Public Health Approach to Addressing Mental Health Needs in a University Setting: Lessons and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcover, Jason; Mays, Sally; McCarthy, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The mental health needs of college students are placing increasing demands on counseling center resources, and traditional outreach efforts may be outdated or incomplete. The public health model provides an approach for reaching more students, decreasing stigma, and addressing mental health concerns before they reach crisis levels. Implementing a…

  9. Human resources for health in southeast Asia: shortages, distributional challenges, and international trade in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanachitra, Churnrurtai; Lindelow, Magnus; Johnston, Timothy; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lorenzo, Fely Marilyn; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; dela Rosa, Jennifer Frances

    2011-02-26

    In this paper, we address the issues of shortage and maldistribution of health personnel in southeast Asia in the context of the international trade in health services. Although there is no shortage of health workers in the region overall, when analysed separately, five low-income countries have some deficit. All countries in southeast Asia face problems of maldistribution of health workers, and rural areas are often understaffed. Despite a high capacity for medical and nursing training in both public and private facilities, there is weak coordination between production of health workers and capacity for employment. Regional experiences and policy responses to address these challenges can be used to inform future policy in the region and elsewhere. A distinctive feature of southeast Asia is its engagement in international trade in health services. Singapore and Malaysia import health workers to meet domestic demand and to provide services to international patients. Thailand attracts many foreign patients for health services. This situation has resulted in the so-called brain drain of highly specialised staff from public medical schools to the private hospitals. The Philippines and Indonesia are the main exporters of doctors and nurses in the region. Agreements about mutual recognition of professional qualifications for three groups of health workers under the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Framework Agreement on Services could result in increased movement within the region in the future. To ensure that vital human resources for health are available to meet the needs of the populations that they serve, migration management and retention strategies need to be integrated into ongoing efforts to strengthen health systems in southeast Asia. There is also a need for improved dialogue between the health and trade sectors on how to balance economic opportunities associated with trade in health services with domestic health needs and equity issues. Copyright © 2011

  10. Consumer health hazards in international food trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbosch, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Emerging risks have been defined as potential food-borne, feed-borne, or diet-related hazards that may become a risk for human health in the future. This study disentangles how emerging risks relate to international trade. It develops a basic framework for the economic analysis of emerging risks,

  11. Ranking health between countries in international comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Cross-national comparisons and ranking of summary measures of population health sometimes give rise to inconsistent and diverging conclusions. In order to minimise confusion, international comparative studies ought to be based on well-harmonised data with common standards of definitions...

  12. 10th International Conference on Health Informatics

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the International Conference on Health Informatics is to bring together researchers and practitioners interested in the application of information and communication technologies (ICT) to healthcare and medicine in general and to the support of persons with special needs in particular.

  13. Everyone Swims: A Community Partnership and Policy Approach to Address Health Disparities in Drowning and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempski, Sarah; Liu, Lenna; Grow, H. Mollie; Pomietto, Maureen; Chung, Celeste; Shumann, Amy; Bennett, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Well-known disparities exist in rates of obesity and drowning, two public health priorities. Addressing these disparities by increasing access to safe swimming and water recreation may yield benefits for both obesity and injury prevention. "Everyone Swims," a community partnership, brought community health clinics and water recreation…

  14. Providing Inclusive Sex Education in Schools Will Address the Health Needs of LGBT Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Marisol

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of programs that incorporate and address the health needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth will help reduce risky behaviors and negative health effects and create safer, more supportive, and more inclusive environments in the nation’s schools.

  15. Teaching lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender health in a South African health sciences faculty: addressing the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Alexandra

    2013-12-27

    People who identity as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) have specific health needs. Sexual orientation and gender identity are social determinants of health, as homophobia and heteronormativity persist as prejudices in society. LGBT patients often experience discrimination and prejudice in health care settings. While recent South African policies recognise the need for providing LGBT specific health care, no curricula for teaching about LGBT health related issues exist in South African health sciences faculties. This study aimed to determine the extent to which LGBT health related content is taught in the University of Cape Town's medical curriculum. A curriculum mapping exercise was conducted through an online survey of all academic staff at the UCT health sciences faculty, determining LGBT health related content, pedagogical methodology and assessment. 127 academics, across 31 divisions and research units in the Faculty of Health Sciences, responded to the survey, of which 93 completed the questionnaire. Ten taught some content related to LGBT health in the MBChB curriculum. No LGBT health related content was taught in the allied health sciences curricula. The MBChB curriculum provided no opportunity for students to challenge their own attitudes towards LGBT patients, and key LGBT health topics such as safer sex, mental health, substance abuse and adolescent health were not addressed. At present, UCTs health sciences curricula do not adequately address LGBT specific health issues. Where LGBT health related content is taught in the MBChB curriculum, it is largely discretionary, unsystematic and not incorporated into the overarching structure. Coordinated initiatives to integrate LGBT health related content into all health sciences curricula should be supported, and follow an approach that challenges students to develop professional attitudes and behaviour concerning care for patients from LGBT backgrounds, as well as providing them with specific LGBT

  16. Increased health care utilisation in international adoptees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Heidi Jeannet; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kragstrup, Jakob;

    2015-01-01

    after adoption. Our study aimed to theassess health-care utilisation of international adoptees inprimary and secondary care for somatic and psychiatricdiagnoses in a late post-adoption period. Is there an increaseduse of the health-care system in this period, evenwhen increased morbidity in the group...... of allservices in primary care, while in secondary care only fewareas showed an increased long-term morbidity. Conclusion: International adoptees use medical servicesin primary care at a higher rate than non-adoptees someyears after adoption. Excess use of services in secondarycare is also present, but only......Introduction: Several studies have documented thatinternational adoptees have an increased occurrence ofhealth problems and contacts to the health-care systemafter arriving to their new country of residence. This maybe explained by pre-adoption adversities, especially for theperiod immediately...

  17. Exploring the potential of Web 2.0 to address health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, M Chris; Fleisher, Linda; Slamon, Rachel E; Bass, Sarah; Kandadai, Venk; Beck, J Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses use of the Internet and Web 2.0 technologies by racial and ethnic minorities and explores the potential opportunities and challenges in leveraging Web 2.0 approaches to impact health disparities. These opportunities and challenges include developing approaches and methods to (a) identify strategies for integrating social media into health promotion interventions focused on major health-related issues that affect members of medically underserved groups; (b) amalgamate techniques to leverage and connect social-media technologies to other evidence-informed online resources; (c) integrate health communication best practices, including addressing health literacy issues; (d) capitalize on social networking to enhance access and communication with health care providers; and (e) advance current efforts and ongoing expansion of research participation by individuals from underserved communities.

  18. Public Health and International Drug Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csete, Joanne; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kazatchkine, Michel; Altice, Frederick; Balicki, Marek; Buxton, Julia; Cepeda, Javier; Comfort, Megan; Goosby, Eric; Goulão, João; Hart, Carl; Horton, Richard; Kerr, Thomas; Lajous, Alejandro Madrazo; Lewis, Stephen; Martin, Natasha; Mejía, Daniel; Mathiesson, David; Obot, Isidore; Ogunrombi, Adeolu; Sherman, Susan; Stone, Jack; Vallath, Nandini; Vickerman, Peter; Zábranský, Tomáš; Beyrer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    human rights for protection of collective security, as is also foreseen by human rights law in case of emergencies. International human rights standards dictate that in such cases, societies still must choose the least harmful way to address the emergency and that emergency measures must be proportionate and designed specifically to meet transparently defined and realistic goals. The pursuit of drug prohibition meets none of these criteria. Standard public health and scientific approaches that should be part of policy-making on drugs have been rejected in the pursuit of prohibition. The idea of reducing the harm of many kinds of human behavior is central to public policy in the areas of traffic safety, tobacco and alcohol regulation, food safety, safety in sports and recreation, and many other areas of human life where the behavior in question is not prohibited. But explicitly seeking to reduce drug-related harms through policy and programmes and to balance prohibition with harm reduction is regularly resisted in drug control. The persistence of unsafe injection-linked HIV and HCV transmission that could be stopped with proven, cost-effective measures remains one of the great failures of the global responses to these diseases. Drug policy that is dismissive of extensive evidence of its own negative impact and of approaches that could improve health outcomes is bad for all concerned. Countries have failed to recognise and correct the health and human rights harms that pursuit of prohibition and drug suppression have caused and in so doing neglect their legal responsibilities. They readily incarcerate people for minor offenses but then neglect their duty to provide health services in custodial settings. They recognize uncontrolled illegal markets as the consequence of their policies, but they do little to protect people from toxic, adulterated drugs that are inevitable in illegal markets or the violence of organized criminals, often made worse by policing. They waste

  19. International Aspects of Mental Health Work with Refugees and Future Directions: A European Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauff, Edvard

    This paper describes past and present European efforts to address the mental health needs of refugees. It begins with a brief historical survey of mental health services for refugees after the Second World War and delineates the policy recommendations from the 1948 International Congress on Mental Health. The next section describes current…

  20. Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchounwou, Paul B

    2016-05-04

    During the past century, environmental hazards have become a major concern, not only to public health professionals, but also to the society at large because of their tremendous health, socio-cultural and economic impacts. Various anthropogenic or natural factors have been implicated in the alteration of ecosystem integrity, as well as in the development of a wide variety of acute and/or chronic diseases in humans. It has also been demonstrated that many environmental agents, acting either independently or in combination with other toxins, may induce a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the role played by the environment in the etiology of human diseases is critical to designing cost-effective control/prevention measures. This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health includes the proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium provided an excellent opportunity to discuss the scientific advances in biomedical, environmental, and public health research that addresses global environmental health issues.

  1. A comparative analysis of policies addressing rural oral health in eight English-speaking OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocombe, Leonard A; Goldberg, Lynette R; Bell, Erica; Seidel, Bastian

    2017-01-01

    Oral health is fundamental to overall health. Poor oral health is largely preventable but unacceptable inequalities exist, particularly for people in rural areas. The issues are complex. Rural populations are characterised by lower rates of health insurance, higher rates of poverty, less water fluoridation, fewer dentists and oral health specialists, and greater distances to access care. These factors inter-relate with educational, attitudinal, and system-level issues. An important area of enquiry is whether and how national oral health policies address causes and solutions for poor rural oral health. The purpose of this study was to examine a series of government policies on oral health to (i) determine the extent to which such policies addressed rural oral health issues, and (ii) identify enabling assumptions in policy language about problems and solutions regarding rural communities. Eight current oral health policies were identified from Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the USA, England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Wales. Validated content and critical discourse analyses were used to document and explore the concepts in these policy documents, with a particular focus on the frequency with which rural oral health was mentioned, and the enabling assumptions in policy language about rural communities. Seventy-three concepts relating to oral health were identified from the textual analysis of the eight policy documents. The rural concept addressing oral health issues occurred in only 2% of all policies and was notably absent from the oral health policies of countries with substantial rural populations. It occurred most frequently in the policy documents from Australia and Scotland, less so in the policy documents from Canada, Wales, and New Zealand, and not at all in the oral health policies from the US, England, and Northern Ireland. Thus, the oral health needs of rural communities were generally not the focus of, nor included in, the oral health policy

  2. Effectiveness of Primary Health Care Services in Addressing Mental Health Needs of Minority Refugee Population in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha-Ranjit, Jagamaya; Patterson, Elizabeth; Manias, Elizabeth; Payne, Deborah; Koziol-McLain, Jane

    2017-04-01

    Many people are displaced from their country of origin and become refugees, mostly due to armed conflicts, political violence and human rights abuse. Refugees have complex mental, physical, and social health problems related to their traumatic background and the experiences they have endured during their refugee journey. The aim of this qualitative exploratory study was to examine the effectiveness of primary health care services in addressing mental health needs of Bhutanese refugee women resettled in New Zealand. This study included focus group discussion with Bhutanese women and men followed by interviews with health service providers. The findings of this study highlighted inadequacies and constraints in addressing Bhutanese refugee women's mental health needs in New Zealand and provided evidence for recommendations to address these inadequacies.

  3. Addressing a Threat to the Healthfulness of Tomorrow's Generation: The Case of Cigarette Smoking in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbe, Catherine O.; Petersen, Inge; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has widely received the attention of international and local health bodies. Efforts are being made towards curbing smoking prevalence globally with a view to reduce the health, economic and social effects of smoking in the society. While some developed countries are recording success in this effort mainly through stringent…

  4. The politics of knowledge: implications for understanding and addressing mental health and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Emily K

    2014-03-01

    While knowledge represents a valuable commodity, not all forms of knowledge are afforded equal status. The politics of knowledge, which entails the privileging of particular ways of knowing through linkages between the producers of knowledge and other bearers of authority or influence, represents a powerful force driving knowledge development. Within the health research and practice community, biomedical knowledge (i.e. knowledge pertaining to the biological factors influencing health) has been afforded a privileged position, shaping the health research and practice community's view of health, illness and appropriate intervention. The aim of this study is to spark critical reflection and dialogue surrounding the ways in which the politics of knowledge have constrained progress in addressing mental health and illness, one of today's leading public health issues. I argue that the hegemony of biological knowledge represents an ethical issue as it limits the breadth of knowledge available to support practitioners to 'do good' in terms of addressing mental illness. Given the power and influence inherent within the nursing community, I propose that nurses ought to engage in critical reflection and action in an effort to better situate the health research and practice community to effectively address the mental health of populations.

  5. The case for the World Health Organization's Commission on the Social Determinants of Health to address sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen

    2012-07-01

    The World Health Organization's (WHO's) social determinants of health discussion underscores the need for health equity and social justice. Yet sexual orientation was not addressed within the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health final report Closing the Gap in a Generation. This omission of sexual orientation as a social determinant of health stands in stark contrast with a body of evidence that demonstrates that sexual minorities are disproportionately affected by health problems associated with stigma and discrimination, such as mental health disorders. I propose strategies to integrate sexual orientation into the WHO's social determinants of health dialogue. Recognizing sexual orientation as a social determinant of health is an important first step toward health equity for sexual minorities.

  6. International research needs for improving sleep and health of workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, Kazutaka

    2005-01-01

    Research needs in identifying preventive measures dealing with working time arrangements and associated sleep problems are reviewed. These needs are based on the recognition of a range of risk factors for health involving disturbed circadian rhythms leading to various levels of sleep deficits. The review takes account of recent joint change approaches that address both working time arrangements and various relevant intervening factors. As examples of such approaches, voluntary industry-based guidelines for improving shift work are examined. Also reviewed is evidence indicating the effects of improved working time arrangements and sleep hygiene on the tolerance of workers working irregular shifts. Trends in action-oriented risk assessment are further discussed as the effects on health and sleep of these workers may be modified by complex aspects related to working situations, family and social conditions, personal characteristics and social support. Generally relevant are not only the relationships between sleep-affecting factors and health, but also advances in taking the various support measures. The effective use of participatory steps is found important in dealing with working time arrangements and associated health and sleep problems together. It is thus considered important to study (a) the efficacy of joint change approaches addressing complex sleep and health factors, (b) effective procedures for action-oriented health risk assessment in various work life situations, and (c) the relevance of innovative participatory steps to improving health and tolerance of workers. Future research topics mentioned by the participants of the international symposium on night and shift work held in Santos in 2003 are presented, and international efforts to promote research into these aspects in field conditions are discussed. Interactive research involving local people appears crucial.

  7. CDC's Health Equity Resource Toolkit: disseminating guidance for state practitioners to address obesity disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Gayle Holmes; James, Stephen D; Hawley, Lisa; Corrigan, Bethany; Kramer, Rachel E; Overton, Samantha N; Farris, Rosanne P; Wasilewski, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been on the rise in the United States over the past three decades, and is high. In addition to population-wide trends, it is clear that obesity affects some groups more than others and can be associated with age, income, education, gender, race and ethnicity, and geographic region. To reverse the obesity epidemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) promotes evidence-based and practice-informed strategies to address nutrition and physical activity environments and behaviors. These public health strategies require translation into actionable approaches that can be implemented by state and local entities to address disparities. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention used findings from an expert panel meeting to guide the development and dissemination of the Health Equity Resource Toolkit for State Practitioners Addressing Obesity Disparities (available at http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/health_equity/toolkit.html). The Toolkit helps public health practitioners take a systematic approach to program planning using a health equity lens. The Toolkit provides a six-step process for planning, implementing, and evaluating strategies to address obesity disparities. Each section contains (a) a basic description of the steps of the process and suggested evidence-informed actions to help address obesity disparities, (b) practical tools for carrying out activities to help reduce obesity disparities, and (c) a "real-world" case study of a successful state-level effort to address obesity with a focus on health equity that is particularly relevant to the content in that section. Hyperlinks to additional resources are included throughout.

  8. CDC’s Health Equity Resource Toolkit: Disseminating Guidance for State Practitioners to Address Obesity Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Gayle Holmes; James, Stephen D.; Hawley, Lisa; Corrigan, Bethany; Kramer, Rachel E.; Overton, Samantha N.; Farris, Rosanne P.; Wasilewski, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been on the rise in the United States over the past three decades, and is high. In addition to population-wide trends, it is clear that obesity affects some groups more than others and can be associated with age, income, education, gender, race and ethnicity, and geographic region. To reverse the obesity epidemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) promotes evidence-based and practice-informed strategies to address nutrition and physical activity environments and behaviors. These public health strategies require translation into actionable approaches that can be implemented by state and local entities to address disparities. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention used findings from an expert panel meeting to guide the development and dissemination of the Health Equity Resource Toolkit for State Practitioners Addressing Obesity Disparities (available at http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/health_equity/toolkit.html). The Toolkit helps public health practitioners take a systematic approach to program planning using a health equity lens. The Toolkit provides a six-step process for planning, implementing, and evaluating strategies to address obesity disparities. Each section contains (a) a basic description of the steps of the process and suggested evidence-informed actions to help address obesity disparities, (b) practical tools for carrying out activities to help reduce obesity disparities, and (c) a “real-world” case study of a successful state-level effort to address obesity with a focus on health equity that is particularly relevant to the content in that section. Hyperlinks to additional resources are included throughout. PMID:24962967

  9. A Public Health Approach to Address the Mental Health Burden of Youth in Situations of Political Violence and Humanitarian Emergencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.V.M. de Jong; L.H. Berckmoes; B.A. Kohrt; S.J. Song; W.A. Tol; R. Reis

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes how socio-ecological theory and a syndemic health systems and public health approach may help address the plight of youth in situations of political violence and humanitarian emergencies. We describe the treatment gap caused by discrepancies in epidemiological prevalence rates,

  10. Addressing the Social Determinants of Suicidal Behaviors and Poor Mental Health in LGBTI Populations in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael; Mars, Michelle

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and assess-as well as identify and rectify gaps in-intervention and prevention initiatives that specifically address poor mental health outcomes and suicidal behaviors in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) populations in Australia. It begins with an overview of the evidence base for heightened vulnerability to suicidal behaviors among LGBTI people in Australia. It then provides a discussion on the public health implications for LGBTI-targeted mental health initiatives and the prevention of and timely intervention in LGBTI suicidal behaviors. We conclude that the literature supports an increased risk for poorer mental health outcomes and suicidal behaviors in LGBTI populations in the Australian context. Psychological distress and suicidal behaviors in LGBTI people in Australia have social determinants that can and have been addressed through the provision of interventions with a strong evidence base in reducing these outcomes, implemented at a nationwide level, including training of health professionals and gatekeepers to mental health services and the general public. We conclude that the current Australian focus appears to address many of the social determinants of suicidal behaviors and poor mental health in LGBTI people but requires sustained and uniform government support if it is to continue and to produce measurable results.

  11. Sex education for local tourism/hospitality employees: addressing a local health need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Irmgard L

    2009-11-01

    Health concerns arising from sexual relationships between tourists and locals usually focus on the travelling public. The local sex partners' health, and their impact on their communities' health, seem far less acknowledged. This paper describes a local health education session which implemented recommendations based on a study in Cuzco/Peru on tourists' and locals' views, knowledge, attitudes and experiences relating to sexual relationships between them. On location, fifteen discotheque employees received a health education session at the establishment's owner's request. Concluding from the positive experience, it is argued that researchers should, where possible, respond to requests to deliver ad hoc health education sessions while on location to address an identified local health need.

  12. Quantifying the magnitude of environmental exposure misclassification when using imprecise address proxies in public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Martin A; Gilliland, Jason A

    2012-04-01

    In spatial epidemiologic and public health research it is common to use spatially aggregated units such as centroids of postal/zip codes, census tracts, dissemination areas, blocks or block groups as proxies for sample unit locations. Few studies, however, address the potential problems associated with using these units as address proxies. The purpose of this study is to quantify the magnitude of distance errors and accessibility misclassification that result from using several commonly-used address proxies in public health research. The impact of these positional discrepancies for spatial epidemiology is illustrated by examining misclassification of accessibility to several health-related facilities, including hospitals, public recreation spaces, schools, grocery stores, and junk food retailers throughout the City of London and Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada. Positional errors are quantified by multiple neighborhood types, revealing that address proxies are most problematic when used to represent residential locations in small towns and rural areas compared to suburban and urban areas. Findings indicate that the shorter the threshold distance used to measure accessibility between subject population and health-related facility, the greater the proportion of misclassified addresses. Using address proxies based on large aggregated units such as centroids of census tracts or dissemination areas can result in very large positional discrepancies (median errors up to 343 and 2088 m in urban and rural areas, respectively), and therefore should be avoided in spatial epidemiologic research. Even smaller, commonly-used, proxies for residential address such as postal code centroids can have large positional discrepancies (median errors up to 109 and 1363 m in urban and rural areas, respectively), and are prone to misrepresenting accessibility in small towns and rural Canada; therefore, postal codes should only be used with caution in spatial epidemiologic research

  13. The health impacts of international migration on Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, S Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Mexican migration to the USA is a phenomenon that affects a significant number of Mexican households. In the area of health, considerable research has been devoted to international migrants, but less is known about the health impacts of migration on other household members, particularly the wives of migrants. I used data from the Mexican Migration Project to investigate the health impacts of having a migrant husband. As part of my analysis I explored the relationship between the husbands' migration and several health conditions and behaviours among the wives. In contrast to existing research on the subject, I also considered whether the amount of time the husband spent in the US mediates the relationship between migration and health. Finally, I addressed the possibility that the wives of migrants differ in their initial health endowments from the wives of non-migrants. I found that despite having similar initial health endowments, the wives of migrants have poorer mental health, a higher prevalence of heart disease, and they are more likely to be obese or overweight than the wives of non-migrants.

  14. Oral health during pregnancy and early childhood: barriers to care and how to address them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Dana

    2010-09-01

    This brief supplements recommendations developed by the California Dental Association Foundation and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists that recommended practice guidelines during the perinatal period. This brief addresses the importance and safety of oral health care during pregnancy and outlines some of the multiple system-level barriers that make it difficult for many women to access oral health services, as well as offers specific strategies for mitigating these barriers.

  15. Corruption of pharmaceutical markets: addressing the misalignment of financial incentives and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marc-André

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains how the current architecture of the pharmaceutical markets has created a misalignment of financial incentives and public health that is a central cause of harmful practices. It explores three possible solutions to address that misalignment: taxes, increased financial penalties, and drug pricing based on value. Each proposal could help to partly realign financial incentives and public health. However, because of the limits of each proposal, there is no easy solution to fixing the problem of financial incentives.

  16. Are health-based payments a feasible tool for addressing risk segmentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogal, D L; Gauthier, A K

    1998-01-01

    As they attempt to increase health insurance coverage and improve the efficiency of the market, researchers, policymakers, and health plan representatives have been addressing the issue of risk segmentation. Many risk assessment tools and risk-adjusted payment methodologies have been developed and demonstrated for a variety of populations and payers experiencing various market constraints. The evidence shows that risk-adjusted payments are feasible for most populations receiving acute care, while technical obstacles, political issues, and some research gaps remain.

  17. Exploring health stakeholders' perceptions on moving towards comprehensive primary health care to address childhood malnutrition in Iran: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikia Udoy

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the multifaceted aspect of child malnutrition, a comprehensive approach, taking social factors into account, has been frequently recommended in health literature. The Alma-Ata declaration explicitly outlined comprehensive primary health care as an approach that addresses the social, economic and political causes of poor health and nutrition. Iran as a signatory country to the Alma Ata Declaration has established primary health care since 1979 with significant progress on many health indicators during the last three decades. However, the primary health care system is still challenged to reduce inequity in conditions such as child malnutrition which trace back to social factors. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of the Iranian health stakeholders with respect to the Iranian primary health care performance and actions to move towards a comprehensive approach in addressing childhood malnutrition. Health stakeholders are defined as those who affect or can be affected by health system, for example health policy-makers, health providers or health service recipients. Methods Stakeholder analysis approach was undertaken using a qualitative research method. Different levels of stakeholders, including health policy-makers, health providers and community members were interviewed as either individuals or focus groups. Qualitative content analysis was used to interpret and compare/contrast the viewpoints of the study participants. Results The results demonstrated that fundamental differences exist in the perceptions of different health stakeholders in the understanding of comprehensive notion and action. Health policy-makers mainly believed in the need for a secure health management environment and the necessity for a whole of the government approach to enhance collaborative action. Community health workers, on the other hand, indicated that staff motivation, advocacy and involvement are the main challenges need to be

  18. Global health security and the International Health Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva Otavio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Global nuclear proliferation, bioterrorism, and emerging infections have challenged national capacities to achieve and maintain global security. Over the last century, emerging infectious disease threats resulted in the development of the preliminary versions of the International Health Regulations (IHR of the World Health Organization (WHO. The current HR(2005 contain major differences compared to earlier versions, including: substantial shifts from containment at the border to containment at the source of the event; shifts from a rather small disease list (smallpox, plague, cholera, and yellow fever required to be reported, to all public health threats; and shifts from preset measures to tailored responses with more flexibility to deal with the local situations on the ground. The new IHR(2005 call for accountability. They also call for strengthened national capacity for surveillance and control; prevention, alert, and response to international public health emergencies beyond the traditional short list of required reporting; global partnership and collaboration; and human rights, obligations, accountability, and procedures of monitoring. Under these evolved regulations, as well as other measures, such as the Revolving Fund for vaccine procurement of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO, global health security could be maintained in the response to urban yellow fever in Paraguay in 2008 and the influenza (H1N1 pandemic of 2009-2010.

  19. Addressing Agricultural Issues in Health Care Education: An Occupational Therapy Curriculum Program Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallfield, Stacy; Anderson, Angela J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Medical and allied health professionals who work in agricultural states frequently address the needs of clients who live and work in rural and frontier environments. The primary occupations of those living in rural areas include farming, ranching, or other agriculture-related work. Farming is consistently ranked as one of the most…

  20. Faculty Attitudes toward Addressing Mental Health Conditions and Substance Abuse among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor-Merrigan, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    The continued prevalence of mental health conditions and substance abuse among students enrolled in institutions of higher education is a significant and progressing concern, with marked impact on retention, academic success, graduation rate, and alarming personal consequences. Yet, many institutions struggle with successfully addressing these…

  1. Urban HEART Detroit: a Tool To Better Understand and Address Health Equity Gaps in the City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdipanah, R; Schulz, A J; Israel, B A; Gamboa, C; Rowe, Z; Khan, M; Allen, A

    2017-09-19

    The Urban Health Equity Assessment Response Tool (Urban HEART) combines statistical evidence and community knowledge to address urban health inequities. This paper describes the process of adopting and implementing this tool for Detroit, Michigan, the first city in the USA to use it. The six steps of Urban HEART were implemented by the Healthy Environments Partnership, a community-based participatory research partnership made up of community-based organizations, health service providers, and researchers based in academic institutions. Local indicators and benchmarks were identified and criteria established to prioritize a response plan. We examine how principles of CBPR influenced this process, including the development of a collaborative and equitable process that offered learning opportunities and capacity building among all partners. For the health equity matrix, 15 indicators were chosen within the Urban HEART five policy domains: physical environment and infrastructure, social and human development, economics, governance, and population health. Partners defined the criteria and ranked them for use in assessing and prioritizing health equity gaps. Subsequently, partners generated a series of potential actions for indicators prioritized in this process. Engagement of community partners contributed to benchmark selection and modification, and provided opportunities for dialog and co-learning throughout the process. Application of a CBPR approach provided a foundation for engagement of partners in the Urban HEART process of identifying health equity gaps. This approach offered multiple opportunities for discussion that shaped interpretation and development of strategies to address identified issues to achieve health equity.

  2. Tailored Educational Approaches for Consumer Health (TEACH): a model system for addressing health communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Wendy F; Pannone, Aaron; Schubart, Jane; Lyman, Jason; Kinzie, Mable; Broshek, Donna K; Guterbock, Thomas M; Hartman, David; Mick, David; Bolmey, Armando; Garson, Arthur T

    2006-01-01

    The Consumer Health Education Institute (CHEDI) has developed a model system to improve the quality and effectiveness of patient education and health communication. Through assessment of characteristics and preferences, segmentation into groups and matching with the appropriate materials, we have demonstrated that patients and health consumers have different health information needs and preferences which show promise as a basis for selecting or designing the most appropriate materials or programs.

  3. Addressing health care disparities and increasing workforce diversity: the next step for the dental, medical, and public health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Dennis A; Lassiter, Shana L

    2006-12-01

    The racial/ethnic composition of our nation is projected to change drastically in the coming decades. It is therefore important that the health professions improve their efforts to provide culturally competent care to all patients. We reviewed literature concerning health care disparities and workforce diversity issues--particularly within the oral health field--and provide a synthesis of recommendations to address these issues. This review is highly relevant to both the medical and public health professions, because they are facing similar disparity and workforce issues. In addition, the recent establishment of relationships between oral health and certain systemic health conditions will elevate oral health promotion and disease prevention as important points of intervention in the quest to improve our nation's public health.

  4. Integrated approaches to address the social determinants of health for reducing health inequity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barten, F.J.M.H.; Mitlin, D.; Mulholland, C.; Hardoy, A.; Stern, R.

    2007-01-01

    The social and physical environments have long since been recognized as important determinants of health. People in urban settings are exposed to a variety of health hazards that are interconnected with their health effects. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have underlined the

  5. Integrated approaches to address the social determinants of health for reducing health inequity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barten, F.J.M.H.; Mitlin, D.; Mulholland, C.; Hardoy, A.; Stern, R.

    2007-01-01

    The social and physical environments have long since been recognized as important determinants of health. People in urban settings are exposed to a variety of health hazards that are interconnected with their health effects. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have underlined the multidimensiona

  6. Structural Vulnerability: Operationalizing the Concept to Address Health Disparities in Clinical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgois, Philippe; Holmes, Seth M; Sue, Kim; Quesada, James

    2017-03-01

    The authors propose reinvigorating and extending the traditional social history beyond its narrow range of risk behaviors to enable clinicians to address negative health outcomes imposed by social determinants of health. In this Perspective, they outline a novel, practical medical vulnerability assessment questionnaire that operationalizes for clinical practice the social science concept of "structural vulnerability." A structural vulnerability assessment tool designed to highlight the pathways through which specific local hierarchies and broader sets of power relationships exacerbate individual patients' health problems is presented to help clinicians identify patients likely to benefit from additional multidisciplinary health and social services. To illustrate how the tool could be implemented in time- and resource-limited settings (e.g., emergency department), the authors contrast two cases of structurally vulnerable patients with differing outcomes. Operationalizing structural vulnerability in clinical practice and introducing it in medical education can help health care practitioners think more clearly, critically, and practically about the ways social structures make people sick. Use of the assessment tool could promote "structural competency," a potential new medical education priority, to improve understanding of how social conditions and practical logistics undermine the capacities of patients to access health care, adhere to treatment, and modify lifestyles successfully. Adoption of a structural vulnerability framework in health care could also justify the mobilization of resources inside and outside clinical settings to improve a patient's immediate access to care and long-term health outcomes. Ultimately, the concept may orient health care providers toward policy leadership to reduce health disparities and foster health equity.

  7. Addressing children's oral health in the new millennium: trends in the dental workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Elizabeth; Mouradian, Wendy E

    2009-01-01

    Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General (SGROH) and National Call to Action to Promote Oral Health outlined the need to increase the diversity, capacity, and flexibility of the dental workforce to reduce oral health disparities. This paper provides an update on dental workforce trends since the SGROH in the context of children's oral health needs. Major challenges remain to ensure a workforce that is adequate to address the needs of all children. The dentist-to-population ratio is declining while shortages of dentists continue in rural and underserved communities. The diversity of the dental workforce has only improved slightly, and the the diversity of the pediatric population has increased substantially. More pediatric dentists have been trained, and dental educational programs are preparing students for practice in underserved areas, but the impact of these efforts on underserved children is uncertain. Other workforce developments with the potential to improve children's oral health include enhanced training in children's oral health for general dentists, expanded scope of practice for allied dental health professionals, new dental practitioners including the dental health aid therapist, and increased engagement of pediatricians and other medical practitioners in children's oral health. The evidence for increasing caries experience in young children points to the need for continued efforts to bolster the oral health workforce. However, workforce strategies alone will not be sufficient to change this situation. Requisite policy changes, educational efforts, and strong partnerships with communities will be needed to effect substantive changes in children's oral health.

  8. Disease patterns addressed by mobile health-enabling technologies--a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Bargen, Tobias; Schwartze, Jonas; Haux, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    Health-enabling technologies can contribute to a better living with diverse disease patterns, especially at home. Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) provides security and convenience at the main place of residence, but usually cannot be taken on the road. Mobile health-enabling technologies could overcome this barrier of immobility and enable its' users to take advantages of assistive technology with them. The presented literature review examines disease patterns, which can be addressed by mobile health-enabling technologies. Especially chronic diseases, like diabetes, are very responsive for continuous support by portable support technology.

  9. International health electives: thematic results of student and professional interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosoniak, Andrew; McCarthy, Anne; Varpio, Lara

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the complexities (including harms and benefits) of international health electives (IHEs) involving medical trainees. This exploration contributes to the ongoing debate about the goals and implications of IHEs for medical trainees. This qualitative study used anonymous, one-to-one, semi-structured interviews. All participants had previous international health experiences. Between September 2007 and March 2008, we interviewed a convenience sample of health care professionals (n=10) and medical trainees (n=10). Using a modified grounded theory methodology, we carried out cycles of data analysis in conjunction with data collection in an iterative and constant comparison process. The study's thematic structure was finalised when theme saturation was achieved. Participants described IHEs in both negative and positive terms. IHEs were described as unsustained short-term contributions that lacked clear educational objectives and failed to address local community needs. Ethical dilemmas were described as IHE challenges. Participants reflected that many IHEs included aspects of medical tourism and the majority of participants described the IHE in negative terms. However, a few participants acknowledged the benefits of the IHE. Specifically, it was seen as an introduction to a career in global health and as a potential foundation for more sustainable projects with positive host community impacts. Finally, despite similar understandings among participants, self-awareness of medical tourism was low. International health electives may include potential harms and benefits for both the trainee and the host community. Educational institutions should encourage and support structured IHEs for trainee participation. We recommend that faculties of medicine and global health educators establish pre-departure training courses for trainees and that IHE opportunities have sufficient structures in place to mitigate the negative effects of medical

  10. Strategies to Address English Language Writing Challenges Faced by International Graduate Students in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Swathi; Kretovics, Mark; Kirby, Kara; Ghosh, Ankita

    2017-01-01

    Since 2000, there has been a 72% increase in the number of international students attending US institutions of higher education. The increase, specifically of international graduate students, has brought to light the writing challenges experienced by this population of students. This study explored specific writing challenges experienced by…

  11. Policy Directions Addressing the Public Health Impact of Climate Change in South Korea: The Climate-change Health Adaptation and Mitigation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong Seung; Ha, Jongsik

    2012-01-01

    Climate change, caused by global warming, is increasingly recognized as a major threat to mankind's survival. Climate change concurrently has both direct and modifying influences on environmental, social, and public health systems undermining human health as a whole. Environmental health policy-makers need to make use of political and technological alternatives to address these ramifying effects. The objective of this paper is to review public health policy in Korea, as well as internationally, particularly as it relates to climate change health adaptation and mitigation programs (such as C-CHAMP of Korea), in order to assess and elicit directions for a robust environmental health policy that is adaptive to the health impacts of climate change. In Korea, comprehensive measures to prevent or mitigate overall health effects are limited, and the diffusion of responsibility among various government departments makes consistency in policy execution very difficult. This paper proposes integration, synergy, and utilization as the three core principles of policy direction for the assessment and adaptation to the health impacts of climate change. For specific action plans, we suggest policy making based on scientifically integrated health impact assessments and the prioritization of environmental factors in climate change; the development of practical and technological tools that support policy decisions by making their political implementation more efficient; and customized policy development that deals with the vulnerability of local communities.

  12. Knowledge into action? understanding ideological barriers to addressing health inequalities at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Patricia A; Abelson, Julia; Eyles, John D

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the presence of ideological barriers to addressing local health inequalities in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. A survey of active citizens revealed low levels of awareness of the social determinants of health (SDOH) framework, and some incongruence between understanding and attitudes towards the SDOH. Support for addressing health inequalities was associated with awareness of the SDOH framework, liberal value-systems, and a cluster of socio-demographic characteristics. Liberal leaning participants were also more politically active than their conservative counterparts. Ideological barriers included lack of SDOH awareness, narrow understandings of the relative influences of the SDOH, resistance to de-prioritizing healthcare, and conservative values. Advancement of a SDOH policy agenda should incorporate wider dissemination efforts to citizens and local service providers to increase support for this framework, and utilization of existing support and political engagement from liberal-leaning demographics.

  13. Health Care Students’ Attitudes Towards Addressing Sexual Health in Their Future Professional Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerbild, H.; Larsen, C. M.; Rolander, B.

    2017-01-01

    Students’ attitudes and educational needs regarding sexual health are important, since their ability to promote sexual health in their future profession can be challenged by their attitudes and knowledge of sexuality and sexual health. There are no existing Danish instruments able to measure...... of the SA-SH (SA-SH-D) had a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.67. The content validity index showed high relevance (item context validity index 0.82–1.0), and item scale correlation was satisfactory. The SA-SH-D is a valid and reliable questionnaire, which can be used to measure health care professional students...

  14. An evidence-based context to address health care for gay and lesbian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Paul M

    2006-09-01

    There is extensive, credible evidence in the medical literature, and overwhelming consensus among professional medical organizations, that disparities in health care provided to gay and lesbian patients and their families must be addressed and changed. As physicians, we continue to assess the latest medical evidence in order to provide the highest quality health care to all our patients. We will tell the truth when attempts to discriminate, whether legislative or societal, harm our patients or hamper our ability to care for them. Examples from Michigan, Ohio, and Nebraska, where constitutional amendments banning same sex civil unions or marriage have passed, are noteworthy, with increasing legal challenges to domestic partnerships. These discriminatory laws and amendments have jeopardized health care decision-making, hospital visitation rights, health insurance, and legal protections for gay as well as heterosexual couples. In Wisconsin, we can and must do better than that as we strive to improve the health of all of our citizens.

  15. Health-sector responses to address the impacts of climate change in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhimal, Meghnath; Dhimal, Mandira Lamichhane; Pote-Shrestha, Raja Ram; Groneberg, David A; Kuch, Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    Nepal is highly vulnerable to global climate change, despite its negligible emission of global greenhouse gases. The vulnerable climate-sensitive sectors identified in Nepal's National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) to Climate Change 2010 include agriculture, forestry, water, energy, public health, urbanization and infrastructure, and climate-induced disasters. In addition, analyses carried out as part of the NAPA process have indicated that the impacts of climate change in Nepal are not gender neutral. Vector-borne diseases, diarrhoeal diseases including cholera, malnutrition, cardiorespiratory diseases, psychological stress, and health effects and injuries related to extreme weather are major climate-sensitive health risks in the country. In recent years, research has been done in Nepal in order to understand the changing epidemiology of diseases and generate evidence for decision-making. Based on this evidence, the experience of programme managers, and regular surveillance data, the Government of Nepal has mainstreamed issues related to climate change in development plans, policies and programmes. In particular, the Government of Nepal has addressed climate-sensitive health risks. In addition to the NAPA report, several policy documents have been launched, including the Climate Change Policy 2011; the Nepal Health Sector Programme - Implementation Plan II (NHSP-IP 2) 2010-2015; the National Health Policy 2014; the National Health Sector Strategy 2015-2020 and its implementation plan (2016-2021); and the Health National Adaptation Plan (H-NAP): climate change and health strategy and action plan (2016-2020). However, the translation of these policies and plans of action into tangible action on the ground is still in its infancy in Nepal. Despite this, the health sector's response to addressing the impact of climate change in Nepal may be taken as a good example for other low- and middle-income countries.

  16. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, Fidel C T

    2015-01-01

    Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia.

  17. Don't blame patients, engage them: transforming health systems to address health literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frosch, D.L.; Elwyn, G.

    2014-01-01

    The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is affirming a new era for health care delivery in the United States, with an increased focus on patient engagement. The field of health literacy has important contributions to make, and there are opportunities to achieve much more synerg

  18. Promoting Health by Addressing Basic Needs: Effect of Problem Resolution on Contacting Health Referrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Boyum, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Members of vulnerable populations have heightened needs for health services. One advantage of integrating health risk assessment and referrals into social service assistance systems such as 2-1-1 is that such systems help callers resolve problems in other areas (e.g., housing). Callers to 2-1-1 in Missouri (N = 1,090) with at least one behavioral…

  19. Improving organizational capacity to address health literacy in public health: a rapid realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, C D; Saul, J E; Bitz, J; Pompu, K; Best, A; Jackson, B

    2014-06-01

    Despite the growing significance of health literacy to public health, relatively little is known about how organizational capacity may be improved for planning, implementing and sustaining health literacy interventions. This study aimed to connect decision makers in a public health agency with evidence of how organizational capacity may be improved for delivering health literacy services. A rapid realist review of published and grey literature was conducted by a partnership between the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) and the InSource Research Group. Realist review methodology attempts to understand what works for whom under what circumstances, and is characterized by its focus on strategies/interventions, contexts, mechanisms and their relationship to outcome. This review was completed in collaboration with a reference panel (comprised of a broad range of PHAC representatives) and an expert panel. Literature searching was conducted using three databases supplemented with bibliographic hand searches and articles recommended by panels. Data were extracted on key variables related to definitions, strategies/interventions associated with increased organizational capacity, contextual factors associated with success (and failure), mechanisms activated as a result of different strategies and contexts, key outcomes, and evidence cited. Strategies found to be associated with improved organizational capacity for delivering health literacy services may be classified into three domains: (1) government action; (2) organizational/practitioner action; and (3) partnership action. Government action includes developing policies to reinforce social norms; setting standards for education; conducting research; and measuring health literacy levels. Organizational/practitioner action relates to appropriate models of leadership (both high-level government engagement and distributed leadership). Innovative partnership action includes collaborations with media outlets, those producing

  20. mHealth Interventions in Low-Income Countries to Address Maternal Health: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaci, Daniela; Chaudhri, Simran; Vasan, Ashwin

    The wide availability and relative simplicity of mobile phones make them a promising instrument for delivering a variety of health-related interventions. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions have been tested in a variety of health delivery areas, but research has been restricted to pilot and small studies with limited generalizability. The aim of this review was to explore the current evidence on the use of mHealth for maternal health interventions in low- and low middle-income countries. Peer-reviewed papers were identified from Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library via a combination of search terms. Quantitative or mixed-methods papers published in the English language between January 2000 and July 2015 were included. Three hundred and seventy papers were found in the literature search. We assessed the full text of 57 studies, and included 19 in the review. Study designs included were 5 randomized controlled trials, 9 before and after comparisons, 1 study with endline assessment only, 3 postintervention assessments, and 1 cohort study. Quality assessment elucidated 9 low-quality, 5 moderate, and 5 high studies. Five studies supported the use of mobile phones for data collection, 3 for appointment reminders, and 4 for both appointment reminders and health promotion. Six studies supported the use of mHealth for provider-to-provider communication and 1 for clinical management. Studies demonstrated promise for the use of mHealth in maternal health; however, much of the evidence came from low- and moderate-quality studies. Pilot and small programs require more rigorous testing before allocating resources to scaling up this technology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Identifying and Addressing the Unmet Health Care Needs of Drug Court Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugosh, Karen L; Festinger, David S; Lipkin, Jessica L

    2016-12-01

    Drug courts address issues such as employment and housing but largely miss the opportunity to address important health care issues. The current study examined the prevalence and correlates of chronic medical conditions among a sample of drug court clients who were participating in a clinical trial of an intervention to reduce HIV risk. A total of 256 clients completed a health survey at entry into the drug court program and 9 months post-entry. The baseline health survey included a comprehensive list of chronic medical conditions, and participants were asked to indicate which, if any, they had ever been diagnosed as having. They were also asked to indicate whether or not they were currently receiving treatment for each chronic condition that they endorsed. The follow-up survey was identical to the baseline survey, with the exception that it contained items reflecting (1) whether or not any member of the drug court team engaged in discussion with the client about each of the chronic conditions reported and (2) whether the client received a referral to medical care for endorsed conditions while in the drug court program. Results indicated that over 50% of clients reported at least one chronic condition and 21% reported more than one condition. Among those with chronic conditions, 71% reported having chronic conditions for which they were not currently receiving treatment. Unfortunately, drug court clients reported that the drug court team did little to address these unmet health needs. Findings from this study suggest that clients could benefit if drug court programs began to widen their focus to include addressing health-related issues.

  2. A framework to link international clinical research to the promotion of justice in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Loff, Bebe

    2014-10-01

    How international research might contribute to justice in global health has not been substantively addressed by bioethics. Theories of justice from political philosophy establish obligations for parties from high-income countries owed to parties from low and middle-income countries. We have developed a new framework that is based on Jennifer Ruger's health capability paradigm to strengthen the link between international clinical research and justice in global health. The 'research for health justice' framework provides direction on three aspects of international clinical research: the research target, research capacity strengthening, and post-trial benefits. It identifies the obligations of justice owed by national governments, research funders, research sponsors, and investigators to trial participants and host communities. These obligations vary from those currently articulated in international research ethics guidelines. Ethical requirements of a different kind are needed if international clinical research is to advance global health equity. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Big Data Science: Opportunities and Challenges to Address Minority Health and Health Disparities in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinzhi; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Bourne, Philip E; Peprah, Emmanuel; Duru, O Kenrik; Breen, Nancy; Berrigan, David; Wood, Fred; Jackson, James S; Wong, David W S; Denny, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Addressing minority health and health disparities has been a missing piece of the puzzle in Big Data science. This article focuses on three priority opportunities that Big Data science may offer to the reduction of health and health care disparities. One opportunity is to incorporate standardized information on demographic and social determinants in electronic health records in order to target ways to improve quality of care for the most disadvantaged populations over time. A second opportunity is to enhance public health surveillance by linking geographical variables and social determinants of health for geographically defined populations to clinical data and health outcomes. Third and most importantly, Big Data science may lead to a better understanding of the etiology of health disparities and understanding of minority health in order to guide intervention development. However, the promise of Big Data needs to be considered in light of significant challenges that threaten to widen health disparities. Care must be taken to incorporate diverse populations to realize the potential benefits. Specific recommendations include investing in data collection on small sample populations, building a diverse workforce pipeline for data science, actively seeking to reduce digital divides, developing novel ways to assure digital data privacy for small populations, and promoting widespread data sharing to benefit under-resourced minority-serving institutions and minority researchers. With deliberate efforts, Big Data presents a dramatic opportunity for reducing health disparities but without active engagement, it risks further widening them.

  4. Residential address errors in public health surveillance data: a description and analysis of the impact on geocoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinszer, Kate; Jauvin, Christian; Verma, Aman; Bedard, Lucie; Allard, Robert; Schwartzman, Kevin; de Montigny, Luc; Charland, Katia; Buckeridge, David L

    2010-07-01

    The residential addresses of persons with reportable communicable diseases are used increasingly for spatial monitoring and cluster detection, and public health may direct interventions based upon the results of routine spatial surveillance. There has been little assessment, however, of the quality of address data in reportable disease notifications and of the corresponding impact of these errors on geocoding and routine public health practices. The objectives of this study were to examine address errors for a selected reportable disease in a large urban center in Canada and to assess the impact of identified errors on geocoding and the estimated spatial distribution of the disease. We extracted data for all notifications of campylobacteriosis from the Montreal public health department from 1995 to 2008 and used an address verification algorithm to determine the validity of the residential address for each case and to suggest corrections for invalid addresses. We assessed the types of address errors as well as the resulting positional errors, calculating the distance between the original address and the correct address as well as changes in disease density. Address errors and missing addresses were prevalent in the public health records (10% and 5%, respectively) and they influenced the observed distribution of campylobacteriosis in Montreal, with address correction changing case location by a median of 1.1 km. Further examination of the extent of address errors in public health data is essential, as is the investigation of how these errors impact routine public health functions.

  5. International Analog Criticism: The "Scandignation" Addresses of Willy Brandt and Richard Nixon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaly, Ingeborg

    The resignation speeches of West German Chancellor Willy Brandt and United States President Richard Nixon are compared and the rhetorical efficacy of each figure is assessed in this paper. Analog criticism is employed to support the argument that in the particular subgenre of "scandignation" addresses, Brandt came much closer than Nixon…

  6. International infectious disease law: revision of the World Health Organization's International Health Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostin, Lawrence O

    2004-06-02

    The International Health Regulations (IHR), the only global regulations for infectious disease control, have not been significantly changed since they were first issued in 1951. The World Health Organization (WHO) is currently engaged in a process to modernize the IHR. This article reviews WHO's draft revised IHR and recommends new reforms to improve global health, which include (1) a robust mission, emphasizing the WHO's core public health purposes, functions, and essential services; (2) broad scope, flexibly covering diverse health threats; (3) global surveillance, developing informational networks of official and unofficial data sources; (4) national public health systems, setting performance criteria, measuring outcomes, and holding states accountable; (5) human rights protection, setting science-based standards and fair procedures; and (6) good governance, adopting the principles of fairness, objectivity, and transparency. The WHO should ensure state compliance with health norms and generous economic and technical assistance to poorer countries. An important issue for the international community is how sovereign countries can join together to make global health work for everyone, the poor and the wealthy alike.

  7. Is food allergen analysis flawed? Health and supply chain risks and a proposed framework to address urgent analytical needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M J; Burns, D T; Elliott, C T; Gowland, M H; Mills, E N Clare

    2016-01-07

    above recommendations from food authorities, business organisations and National Measurement Institutes is important; however transparent international coordination is essential. Thus our recommendations are primarily addressed to the European Commission, the Health and Food Safety Directorate, DG Santé. A global multidisciplinary consortium is required to provide a curated suite of data including genomic and proteomic data on key allergenic food sources, made publically available on line.

  8. Using community-based participatory research to address Chinese older women's health needs: Toward sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E-Shien; Simon, Melissa A; Dong, XinQi

    2016-01-01

    Although community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been recognized as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities, less attention is given to how CBPR projects may address gender inequalities in health for immigrant older women. The goal of this article is to share culturally sensitive strategies and lessons learned from the PINE study-a population-based study of U.S. Chinese older adults that was strictly guided by the CBPR approach. Working with Chinese older women requires trust, respect, and understanding of their unique historical, social, and cultural positions. We also discuss implications for developing impact-driven research partnerships that meet the needs of this vulnerable population.

  9. Toward Culturally Centered Integrative Care for Addressing Mental Health Disparities among Ethnic Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kisha; McGregor, Brian; Thandi, Poonam; Fresh, Edith; Sheats, Kameron; Belton, Allyson; Mattox, Gail; Satcher, David

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of research, recognition and treatment of mental illness and its co-morbidities still remain a significant public health problem in the United States. Ethnic minorities are identified as a population that is vulnerable to mental health disparities and face unique challenges pertaining to mental health care. Psychiatric illness is associated with great physical, emotional, functional, and societal burden. The primary health care setting may be a promising venue for screening, assessment, and treatment of mental illnesses for ethnic minority populations. We propose a comprehensive, innovative, culturally centered integrated care model to address the complexities within the health care system, from the individual level, that includes provider and patient factors, to the system level, which include practice culture and system functionality issues. Our multi-disciplinary investigative team acknowledges the importance of providing culturally tailored integrative healthcare to holistically concentrate on physical, mental, emotional, and behavioral problems among ethnic minorities in a primary care setting. It is our intention that the proposed model will be useful for health practitioners, contribute to the reduction of mental health disparities, and promote better mental health and well-being for ethnic minority individuals, families, and communities. PMID:25383991

  10. Collaborating with Communities and Higher Education to Address the Health-care Needs of Individuals with Disabilities in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna J. Cech

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with disabilities experience inequities in access to health care, education, employment, and social inclusion. Causes for Change International (CCI, a non-governmental Organization (NGO, using a community-based rehabilitation approach has worked for 20 years to build self-sufficiency, improve health-care services, and education for women, children, and persons with disabilities in Ecuador. CCI initially addressed health; advocacy for individuals with disabilities; and promoted educational opportunities for children with disabilities, starting in one rural community. CCI’s outreach has expanded through Ecuador’s coastal provinces, Andean provinces, and Galapagos Islands. CCI also focused on local health-care workforce development, developing employment skills for individuals with disabilities and social inclusion for this population. CCI collaborated with local organizations, government, and universities to provide resources, managed by local leadership. Key program elements of the CCI approach include (1 develop trust between CCI, local communities, local agencies, and government; (2 empower local groups to assume leadership and sustain programs; (3 support communities and groups invested in developing self-sufficiency; and (4 strengthen collaborations and partnerships between local and international organizations, universities, and government agencies. Key lessons learned by CCI are to be supportive of cultural differences; understand that limited financial and material resources may limit the program development; recognize that it is difficult not to foster dependent relationships with communities and appreciate the importance of working with and within the host country’s governmental systems. CCI is expanding its service base to other regions of Ecuador and is focusing on development of the Ecuadorian health-care workforce and social inclusion opportunities for individuals with disability. The efforts of a small NGO have

  11. Addressing Geriatric Oral Health Concerns through National Oral Health Policy in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an escalating demand for geriatric oral healthcare in all developed and developing countries including India. Two-thirds of the world’s elderly live in developing countries. This is a huge population that must receive attention from policy-makers who will be challenged by the changing demands for social and health services including oral health services. Resources are limited thus rather than being aspirational in wanting to provide all treatment needed for everybody, this critique presents a road map of how we might answer the present and future geriatric oral health concerns in a most efficient manner in a developing country. Viewing the recent Indian demographic profile and the trends in oral health, pertinent policy subjects have been discussed concerning the oral health needs of the elderly and also the associated challenges which include strategies to improve quality of life, strategies to train and educate the dental workforce and above all the role of healthcare systems towards realization of better aged society in India and other developing countries

  12. Addressing the Primary Care Shortage on a Shoestring: A Successful Track in an Internal Medicine Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brislen, Heather; Dunn, Angela; Parada, Alisha; Rendon, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    Nationally, shortages of primary care providers are of major concern. Internal medicine programs, once the major supplier of primary care physicians, are no longer producing large numbers of primary care providers to help meet the needs of the growing patient population. In 2009, residents at the University of New Mexico created a resident-driven Primary Care Track (PCT) within the internal medicine residency, and after six years this track is thriving. The PCT allows residents to designate blocks of time specifically devoted to primary care training. Residents opt in to the track at the end of intern year and arrange their own schedules over large blocks of time in the last two years of training to allow for an individualized curriculum that prepares them for independent practice in primary care. Approximately 85% (11/13) of residents who have graduated from the track have gone on to practice in primary care after graduation, and the internal medicine residency program as a whole has also seen an increase in the fraction of residents pursuing primary care since the inception of this track. The PCT is currently at maximum capacity and may be forced to turn away applicants. To expand while still maintaining the core principles of the track, the PCT will strive to find additional ways to use New Mexico's existing resources and to develop a more robust mentoring structure and didactic programs. Formalized financial, faculty, and administrative support of the program also will be needed.

  13. Mapping of Health Communication and Education Strategies Addressing the Public Health Dangers of Illicit Online Pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Allison C; Mackey, Tim K; Attaran, Amir; Liang, Bryan A

    2016-01-01

    Illicit online pharmacies are a growing global public health concern. Stakeholders have started to engage in health promotion activities to educate the public, yet their scope and impact has not been examined. We wished to identify health promotion activities focused on consumer awareness regarding the risks of illicit online pharmacies. Organizations engaged on the issue were first identified using a set of engagement criteria. We then reviewed these organizations for health promotion programs, educational components, public service announcements, and social media engagement. Our review identified 13 organizations across a wide spectrum of stakeholders. Of these organizations, 69.2% (n = 9) had at least one type of health promotion activity targeting consumers. Although the vast majority of these organizations were active on Facebook or Twitter, many did not have dedicated content regarding online pharmacies (Facebook: 45.5%, Twitter: 58.3%). An online survey administered to 6 respondents employed by organizations identified in this study found that all organizations had dedicated programs on the issue, but only half had media planning strategies in place to measure the effectiveness of their programs. Overall, our results indicate that though some organizations are actively engaged on the issue, communication and education initiatives have had questionable effectiveness in reaching the public. We note that only a few organizations offered comprehensive and dedicated content to raise awareness on the issue and were effective in social media communications. In response, more robust collaborative efforts between stakeholders are needed to educate and protect the consumer about this public health and patient safety danger.

  14. Culturally-Tailored Education Programs to Address Health Literacy Deficits and Pervasive Health Disparities among Hispanics in Rural Shelbyville, Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Irma N; Ramos, Kenneth S; Boerner, Aisa; He, Qiang; Tavera-Garcia, Marco A

    2013-11-16

    This investigation was conducted to evaluate the impact of culturally-tailored education on health knowledge among Hispanic residents of rural, Shelbyville, KY. The program identified specific pathways to address health literacy deficits and disparities identified through a community-wide health assessment completed in 2010. A total of 43 Hispanic males who shared deficiencies in community-wide health infrastructure were enrolled in the program. The curriculum included an introductory session followed by five, subject-specific, sessions offered on a weekly basis from February to April 2011. Pre/post-test assessments showed marked improvement in knowledge base for all participants after each session, most notably related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The group reconvened in January 2012 for follow-up instruction on cardiovascular disease and diabetes, as well as global assessment of knowledge retention over a nine-month period. Comparisons of pre/post testing in cardiovascular disease and diabetes, as well as global health-related knowledge showed significant gains for all parameters. Health education programs that embrace perceptions of the community of their own health, and that integrate knowledge into culturally-sensitive education, significantly improved health knowledge among Hispanic residents in rural Kentucky. Such gains may translate into sustainable improvements in health literacy and help reduce health disparities.

  15. New dialogue for the way forward in maternal health: addressing market inefficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Katharine; Ramarao, Saumya; Taboada, Hannah

    2015-06-01

    Despite notable progress in Millennium Development Goal (MDG) five, to reduce maternal deaths three-quarters by 2015, deaths due to treatable conditions during pregnancy and childbirth continue to concentrate in the developing world. Expanding access to three effective and low-cost maternal health drugs can reduce preventable maternal deaths, if available to all women. However, current failures in markets for maternal health drugs limit access to lifesaving medicines among those most in need. In effort to stimulate renewed action planning in the post-MDG era, we present three case examples from other global health initiatives to illustrate how market shaping strategies can scale-up access to essential maternal health drugs. Such strategies include: sharing intelligence among suppliers and users to better approximate and address unmet need for maternal health drugs, introducing innovative financial strategies to catalyze otherwise unattractive markets for drug manufacturers, and employing market segmentation to create a viable and sustainable market. By building on lessons learned from other market shaping interventions and capitalizing on opportunities for renewed action planning and partnership, the maternal health field can utilize market dynamics to better ensure sustainable and equitable distribution of essential maternal health drugs to all women, including the most marginalized.

  16. Governance through Economic Paradigms: Addressing Climate Change by Accounting for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Belesova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a major challenge for sustainable development, impacting human health, wellbeing, security, and livelihoods. While the post-2015 development agenda sets out action on climate change as one of the Sustainable Development Goals, there is little provision on how this can be achieved in tandem with the desired economic progress and the required improvements in health and wellbeing. This paper examines synergies and tensions between the goals addressing climate change and economic progress. We identify reductionist approaches in economics, such as ‘externalities’, reliance on the metric of the Gross Domestic Product, positive discount rates, and short-term profit targets as some of the key sources of tensions between these goals. Such reductionist approaches could be addressed by intersectoral governance mechanisms. Health in All Policies, health-sensitive macro-economic progress indicators, and accounting for long-term and non-monetary values are some of the approaches that could be adapted and used in governance for the SDGs. Policy framing of climate change and similar issues should facilitate development of intersectoral governance approaches.

  17. In the right words: addressing language and culture in providing health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    As part of its continuing mission to serve trustees, executives, and staff of health foundations and corporate giving programs, Grantmakers In Health (GIH) convened a group of experts from philanthropy, research, health care practice, and policy on April 4, 2003, to discuss the roles of language and culture in providing effective health care. During this Issue Dialogue, In the Right Words: Addressing Language and Culture in Providing Health Care, health grantmakers and experts from policy and practice participated in an open exchange of ideas and perspectives on language access and heard from fellow grantmakers who are funding innovative programs in this area. Together they explored ways to effectively support comprehensive language services, including the use of interpreters and translation of written materials. This Issue Brief synthesizes key points from the day's discussion with a background paper previously prepared for Issue Dialogue participants. It focuses on the challenges and opportunities involved with ensuring language access for the growing number of people who require it. Sections include: recent immigration trends and demographic changes; the effect of language barriers on health outcomes and health care processes; laws and policies regarding the provision of language services to patients, including an overview of public financing mechanisms; strategies for improving language access, including enhancing access in delivery settings, promoting advocacy and policy change, improving interpreter training, and advancing research; and roles for foundations in supporting improved language access, including examples of current activities. The Issue Dialogue focused mainly on activities and programs that ensure linguistic access to health care for all patients. Although language and culture are clearly inseparable, a full exploration of the field of cultural competence and initiatives that promote its application to the health care setting are beyond the scope

  18. Personal health care of internal medicine residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataraman Palabindala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical residents, as part of their job to balance the demands of their work with caring for themselves so as to be mentally, emotionally, and physically sound to stay clinically competent. While regulatory and legislative attempts at limiting medical resident work hours have materialized but have yet to attain passage, there are fairly little data looking into how residents cope up with their demands and yet attend to their own personal health.Anonymous mailed survey.Three hundred and thirty-seven residents from all internal medicine residency programs within United States.We conducted a survey in the form of a questionnaire that was sent by e-mail to the program directors of various internal medicine residency programs within the United States, and responses were collected between May 19 and June 21, 2009. Response was well appreciated with total number of participants of 337 with even demographical distribution in gender, residency year, AMG/IMG, age group. Seventy-one percent of the residents felt that they would prefer getting admitted to their own hospital for any acute medical or surgical condition. Of the 216 residents who have had received health care in the past, almost half of them chose their own hospital because of the proximity, while 45% did not choose their own hospital despite proximity. Two out of three residents missed their doctors appointments or cancelled them due to demands of medical training. Only half of the residents have a primary care physician and almost 80% of them did not have their yearly health checkup. Close to 30% held back information regarding their social and sexual history from their provider because of privacy and confidentiality concerns. Eighty percent of residents never received information about barriers that physicians may face in obtaining care for their socially embarrassing conditions. Seventy percent felt that their performance then was suboptimal because of that health condition and also felt

  19. Time to address gender discrimination and inequality in the health workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Constance

    2014-05-06

    Gender is a key factor operating in the health workforce. Recent research evidence points to systemic gender discrimination and inequalities in health pre-service and in-service education and employment systems. Human resources for health (HRH) leaders' and researchers' lack of concerted attention to these inequalities is striking, given the recognition of other forms of discrimination in international labour rights and employment law discourse. If not acted upon, gender discrimination and inequalities result in systems inefficiencies that impede the development of the robust workforces needed to respond to today's critical health care needs.This commentary makes the case that there is a clear need for sex- and age-disaggregated and qualitative data to more precisely illuminate gender-related trends and dynamics in the health workforce. Because of their importance for measurement, the paper also presents definitions and examples of sex or gender discrimination and offers specific case examples.At a broader level, the commentary argues that gender equality should be an HRH research, leadership, and governance priority, where the aim is to strengthen health pre-service and continuing professional education and employment systems to achieve better health systems outcomes, including better health coverage. Good HRH leadership, governance, and management involve recognizing the diversity of health workforces, acknowledging gender constraints and opportunities, eliminating gender discrimination and equalizing opportunity, making health systems responsive to life course events, and protecting health workers' labour rights at all levels. A number of global, national and institution-level actions are proposed to move the gender equality and HRH agendas forward.

  20. The rise of global health diplomacy: An interdisciplinary concept linking health and international relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattu, Vijay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Global health diplomacy (GHD) is relatively a very new field that has yet to be clearly defined and developed though there are various definitions given by different experts from foreign policy, global health, diplomacy, international relations, governance, and law. With the intensification of globalization and increasing gaps between countries, new and reemerging health threats such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Ebola, and Zika and a gradual rethinking on security concepts framed a new political context. The health problems addressed diplomatically have also become diverse ranging from neglected tropical diseases, infectious diseases, sale of unsafe, counterfeit drugs to brain drain crisis. We see that global health has become more diverse as the actors widened and also the interests appealing not only to the traditional humanitarian ideals associated with health but also to the principles grounded in national and global security. Recently, we are witnessing the increased priority given to the GHD because the issue of health is discussed by various actors outside the WHO to shape the global policy for health determinants. In fact, the area of health has become the part of UN Summit Diplomacy involving the G8, G20, BRICS, and the EU. The recent WHO Pandemic Influenza Framework, UN High Level Framework on Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control are some of the examples of long-term negotiation processes for agreements that took place.

  1. Growing partners: building a community-academic partnership to address health disparities in rural North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Molly; Kearney, William; Smith, Tosha; Jones, Carson; Kearney-Powell, Arconstar; Ammerman, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) holds tremendous promise for addressing public health disparities. As such, there is a need for academic institutions to build lasting partnerships with community organizations. Herein we have described the process of establishing a relationship between a research university and a Black church in rural North Carolina. We then discuss Harvest of Hope, the church-based pilot garden project that emerged from that partnership. The partnership began with a third-party effort to connect research universities with Black churches to address health disparities. Building this academic-community partnership included collaborating to determine research questions and programming priorities. Other aspects of the partnership included applying for funding together and building consensus on study budget and aims. The academic partners were responsible for administrative details and the community partners led programming and were largely responsible for participant recruitment. The community and academic partners collaborated to design and implement Harvest of Hope, a church-based pilot garden project involving 44 youth and adults. Community and academic partners shared responsibility for study design, recruitment, programming, and reporting of results. The successful operation of the Harvest of Hope project gave rise to a larger National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded study, Faith, Farming and the Future (F3) involving 4 churches and 60 youth. Both projects were CBPR efforts to improve healthy food access and reducing chronic disease. This partnership continues to expand as we develop additional CBPR projects targeting physical activity, healthy eating, and environmental justice, among others. Benefits of the partnership include increased community ownership and cultural appropriateness of interventions. Challenges include managing expectations of diverse parties and adequate communication. Lessons learned and strategies for building

  2. Addressing gaps in abortion education: a sexual health elective created by medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro-Bruce, Emily; Schoenfeld, Elizabeth; Nothnagle, Melissa; Taylor, Julie

    2006-05-01

    Medical school curricula frequently contain gaps in the areas of abortion and sexual health. A group of first- and second-year medical students at the authors' institution organized a collaborative, multidisciplinary elective course to address such omissions in the preclinical curriculum. This paper describes the process of creating and implementing the elective. Medical students identified curricular gaps in the areas of abortion, sexual assault, lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender health, and HIV counseling. Clinical faculty and community-based professionals were invited to address these topics in a weekly lecture series organized by students. The course also included a half-day experience shadowing at a local abortion clinic. Collaboration with several student groups helped broaden student interest in and increase financial support for the elective. Some 37% of all first- and second-year students enrolled in the elective and received institutional credit for the course. Written and verbal evaluations confirmed student satisfaction with the lectures and the clinical experience. Dynamic and well-prepared speakers who presented interesting medical content received the highest ratings from students. Student leaders identified several challenges in implementing the elective. Ultimately the elective proved to be a successful collaboration among students, faculty, and healthcare providers, and resulted in permanent changes in the standard medical school curriculum. Challenges for student-initiated electives include difficulty in finding administrative support, securing funding and ensuring sustainability. This paper aims to make this process accessible and applicable to other students and faculty interested in addressing curricular gaps at their respective medical schools.

  3. Getting sports injury prevention on to public health agendas - addressing the shortfalls in current information sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F

    2012-01-01

    Public health policy is a successful population-level strategy for injury prevention but it is yet to be widely applied to the sports sector. Such policy is generally coordinated by government health departments concerned with the allocation of limited resources to health service delivery and preventive programs for addressing large community health issues. Prioritisation of sports injury prevention (SIP) requires high-quality evidence about the size of the problem and its public health burden; identification of at-risk vulnerable groups; confirmed effective prevention solutions; evidence of intervention cost-effectiveness; and quantification of both financial and policy implications of inaction. This paper argues that the major reason for a lack of sports injury policy by government departments for health or sport to date is a lack of relevant information available for policy makers to make their decisions. Key information gaps evident in Australia are used to highlight this problem. SIP policy does not yet rank highly because, relative to other health/injury issues, there is very little hard evidence to support: claims for its priority ranking, the existence of solutions that can be implemented and which will work, and potential cost-savings to government agencies. Moreover, policy action needs to be integrated across government portfolios, including sport, health and others. Until sports medicine research generates high-quality population-level information of direct relevance and importance to policy makers, especially intervention costing and implementation cost-benefit estimates, and fully engage in policy-informing partnerships, SIP will continue to be left off the public health agenda.

  4. African American Women and HIV/AIDS: A National Call for Targeted Health Communication Strategies to Address a Disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Monisha; Behforouz, Heidi L.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-01-01

    Dr Arya is assistant professor of medicine in the section of infectious diseases at the Baylor College of Medicine and a health services researcher at the Houston Center for Quality of Care and Utilization Studies in Houston. Dr Behforouz is assistant professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, medical and executive director of the Prevention and Access to Care and Treatment Project, and associate physician in the Brigham Internal Medicine Associates at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston. Dr Viswanath is associate professor of society, human development and health at the Harvard School of Public Health and director of the Health Communication Core of the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center, Boston. At the time of manuscript submission, Dr Arya was a fellow in the division of infectious diseases at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School. African American women are disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States. To address this disparity, the CDC released a call for targeted communication campaigns in African American communities. The mass media is an HIV/AIDS information source used by African Americans, and media initiatives can be cost-effective for delivering HIV prevention messages. Needed is research in communities at risk to determine the messages needed and the preferred formats and channels with which to deliver the messages so that targeted communication campaigns can be part of the multifaceted approach to ending the HIV/AIDS disparity affecting African American women. PMID:19271331

  5. International Symposium on Clusters and Nanostructures (Energy, Environment, and Health)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jena, Puru [Distinguished Professor of Physics, VCU

    2011-11-10

    The international Symposium on Clusters and Nanostructures was held in Richmond, Virginia during November 7-10, 2011. The symposium focused on the roles clusters and nanostructures play in solving outstanding problems in clean and sustainable energy, environment, and health; three of the most important issues facing science and society. Many of the materials issues in renewable energies, environmental impacts of energy technologies as well as beneficial and toxicity issues of nanoparticles in health are intertwined. Realizing that both fundamental and applied materials issues require a multidisciplinary approach the symposium provided a forum by bringing researchers from physics, chemistry, materials science, and engineering fields to share their ideas and results, identify outstanding problems, and develop new collaborations. Clean and sustainable energy sessions addressed challenges in production, storage, conversion, and efficiency of renewable energies such as solar, wind, bio, thermo-electric, and hydrogen. Environmental issues dealt with air- and water-pollution and conservation, environmental remediation and hydrocarbon processing. Topics in health included therapeutic and diagnostic methods as well as health hazards attributed to nanoparticles. Cross-cutting topics such as reactions, catalysis, electronic, optical, and magnetic properties were also covered.

  6. International program on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisel, W

    1995-05-01

    The International Program on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA) was established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1991. Currently, the technical part of IPHECA consists of five projects addressing the following areas of priority health problems or needs: thyroid, hematology, brain damage in utero, epidemiological registry and oral health. Important findings are: 1) a significant increase of thyroid cancer in children in Belarus and Ukraine since 1989, and in Russia since 1992 though not so pronounced. A relationship between detected thyroid cancers and radiation exposure is yet to be established, 2) no increase yet in the incidence of hemoblastoses in the three States, 3) no relationship established between mental retardation and radiation exposure in utero in 4,500 children investigated. The importance of dosimetry and biological indicators of radiation damage has been recognized by IPHECA. Several methods of biological and physical dosimetry are being employed using instrumentation provided by IPHECA. Some preliminary results indicate: 1) unstable aberrations can indicate an integral exposure but it is heavily biased to recent exposures, 2) when comparing healthy persons and patients with hematological diseases in contaminated areas, there is a higher ratio of total aberrations compared to their background and that the level of stable is lower than unstable aberrations, and 3) by applying electron spin resonance (ESR) it has been shown that the individual distribution of doses approaches a log-normal one, especially for adults, and that a peak shift towards higher doses is noticeable for children.

  7. Strengthening national capacities for researching on Social Determinants of Health (SDH) towards informing and addressing health inequities in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mtenga, Sally; Masanja, Irene M; Mamdani, Masuma

    2016-01-01

    Background Tanzania’s socio-economic development is challenged by sharp inequities between and within urban and rural areas, and among different socio-economic groups. This paper discusses the importance of strengthening SDH research, knowledge, relevant capacities and responsive systems towards addressing health inequities in Tanzania. Methods Based on a conceptual framework for building SDH research capacity, a mapping of existing research systems was undertaken between February and June 20...

  8. The first federal budget under Prime Minister Justin Trudeau: Addressing social determinants of health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald

    2016-08-15

    A challenging budget environment during the Harper years has meant that crucial investments in the social determinants of health (SDHs) have increasingly been neglected. The tabling of what is widely considered a more progressive budget with expansionary fiscal elements under the new Prime Minister, Justin Trudeau, raises the question as to what extent this budget invests in policy areas that are crucial for achieving a more equitable distribution in the social determinants of health, as promised in the Liberal party platform. In this commentary, we argue that the first Liberal budget represents a step in the right direction, but that this first step needs to be followed up with a sustained commitment to address the pervasive (and unfair) social inequalities that are the root cause of persistent health inequities in Canada. We conclude that the first Trudeau budget, while moving in the right direction, does not fully embody the sustained policy changes needed to effectively address SDHs, including a more expansive role for the federal government in the redistribution of income and wealth.

  9. Developing sustainable global health technologies: insight from an initiative to address neonatal hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajesh; Patel, Rajan; Murty, Naganand; Panicker, Rahul; Chen, Jane

    2015-02-01

    Relative to drugs, diagnostics, and vaccines, efforts to develop other global health technologies, such as medical devices, are limited and often focus on the short-term goal of prototype development instead of the long-term goal of a sustainable business model. To develop a medical device to address neonatal hypothermia for use in resource-limited settings, we turned to principles of design theory: (1) define the problem with consideration of appropriate integration into relevant health policies, (2) identify the users of the technology and the scenarios in which the technology would be used, and (3) use a highly iterative product design and development process that incorporates the perspective of the user of the technology at the outset and addresses scalability. In contrast to our initial idea, to create a single device, the process guided us to create two separate devices, both strikingly different from current solutions. We offer insights from our initial experience that may be helpful to others engaging in global health technology development.

  10. Addressing Hearing Health Care Disparities among Older Adults in a US-Mexico Border Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Maia; Marrone, Nicole; Sanchez, Daisey Thalia; Sander, Alicia; Navarro, Cecilia; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Colina, Sonia; Harris, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss is associated with cognitive decline and impairment in daily living activities. Access to hearing health care has broad implications for healthy aging of the U.S. population. This qualitative study investigated factors related to the socio-ecological domains of hearing health in a U.S.–Mexico border community experiencing disparities in access to care. A multidisciplinary research team partnered with community health workers (CHWs) from a Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) in designing the study. CHWs conducted interviews with people with hearing loss (n = 20) and focus groups with their family/friends (n = 27) and with members of the community-at-large (n = 47). The research team conducted interviews with FQHC providers and staff (n = 12). Individuals experienced depression, sadness, and social isolation, as well as frustration and even anger regarding communication. Family members experienced negative impacts of deteriorating communication, but expressed few coping strategies. There was general agreement across data sources that hearing loss was not routinely addressed within primary care and assistive hearing technology was generally unaffordable. Community members described stigma related to hearing loss and a need for greater access to hearing health care and broader community education. Findings confirm the causal sequence of hearing impairment on quality of life aggravated by socioeconomic conditions and lack of access to hearing health care. Hearing loss requires a comprehensive and innovative public health response across the socio-ecological framework that includes both individual communication intervention and greater access to hearing health resources. CHWs can be effective in tailoring intervention strategies to community characteristics. PMID:27574602

  11. A new international health order. An inquiry into the international relations of world health and medical care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannenborg, Charles Olke

    1978-01-01

    A 'New International Health Order' (NIHO) is a new notion. In order to value the function of a NIHO, the present international health order and the socioeconomic order between the rich and poor countries will have to be taken into account. The factual and normatived evelopment of a new international

  12. Assembling GHERG: Could "academic crowd-sourcing" address gaps in global health estimates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Marušić, Ana; Sridhar, Devi; Nair, Harish; Adeloye, Davies; Theodoratou, Evropi; Chan, Kit Yee

    2015-06-01

    In recent months, the World Health Organization (WHO), independent academic researchers, the Lancet and PLoS Medicine journals worked together to improve reporting of population health estimates. The new guidelines for accurate and transparent health estimates reporting (likely to be named GATHER), which are eagerly awaited, represent a helpful move that should benefit the field of global health metrics. Building on this progress and drawing from a tradition of Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG)'s successful work model, we would like to propose a new initiative - "Global Health Epidemiology Reference Group" (GHERG). We see GHERG as an informal and entirely voluntary international collaboration of academic groups who are willing to contribute to improving disease burden estimates and respect the principles of the new guidelines - a form of "academic crowd-sourcing". The main focus of GHERG will be to identify the "gap areas" where not much information is available and/or where there is a lot of uncertainty present about the accuracy of the existing estimates. This approach should serve to complement the existing WHO and IHME estimates and to represent added value to both efforts.

  13. Assembling GHERG: Could “academic crowd–sourcing” address gaps in global health estimates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Marušić, Ana; Sridhar, Devi; Nair, Harish; Adeloye, Davies; Theodoratou, Evropi; Chan, Kit Yee

    2015-01-01

    In recent months, the World Health Organization (WHO), independent academic researchers, the Lancet and PLoS Medicine journals worked together to improve reporting of population health estimates. The new guidelines for accurate and transparent health estimates reporting (likely to be named GATHER), which are eagerly awaited, represent a helpful move that should benefit the field of global health metrics. Building on this progress and drawing from a tradition of Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG)’s successful work model, we would like to propose a new initiative – “Global Health Epidemiology Reference Group” (GHERG). We see GHERG as an informal and entirely voluntary international collaboration of academic groups who are willing to contribute to improving disease burden estimates and respect the principles of the new guidelines – a form of “academic crowd–sourcing”. The main focus of GHERG will be to identify the “gap areas” where not much information is available and/or where there is a lot of uncertainty present about the accuracy of the existing estimates. This approach should serve to complement the existing WHO and IHME estimates and to represent added value to both efforts. PMID:26445671

  14. Linking international research to global health equity: the limited contribution of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Loff, Bebe

    2013-05-01

    Health research has been identified as a vehicle for advancing global justice in health. However, in bioethics, issues of global justice are mainly discussed within an ongoing debate on the conditions under which international clinical research is permissible. As a result, current ethical guidance predominantly links one type of international research (biomedical) to advancing one aspect of health equity (access to new treatments). International guidelines largely fail to connect international research to promoting broader aspects of health equity - namely, healthier social environments and stronger health systems. Bioethical frameworks such as the human development approach do consider how international clinical research is connected to the social determinants of health but, again, do so to address the question of when international clinical research is permissible. It is suggested that the narrow focus of this debate is shaped by high-income countries' economic strategies. The article further argues that the debate's focus obscures a stronger imperative to consider how other types of international research might advance justice in global health. Bioethics should consider the need for non-clinical health research and its contribution to advancing global justice.

  15. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH.

  16. Should Canadian health promoters support a food stamp-style program to address food insecurity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Elaine M; Little, Margaret H; Collins, Patricia A

    2015-03-01

    Food insecurity is an urgent public health problem in Canada, affecting 4 million Canadians in 2012, including 1.15 million children, and associated with significant health concerns. With little political will to address this significant policy issue, it has been suggested that perhaps it is time for Canada to try a food stamp-style program. Such a program could reduce rates of food insecurity and improve the nutritional health of low-income Canadians. In this article, we explore the history of the US food stamp program; the key impetus of which was to support farmers and agricultural interests, not to look after the needs of people living in poverty. Though the US program has moved away from its roots, its history has had a lasting legacy, cementing an understanding of the problem as one of lack of food, not lack of income. While the contemporary food stamp program, now called Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), reduces rates of poverty and food insecurity, food insecurity rates in the USA are significantly higher than those in Canada, suggesting a food stamp-style program per se will not eliminate the problem of food insecurity. Moreover, a food stamp-style program is inherently paternalistic and would create harm by reducing the autonomy of participants and generating stigma, which in itself has adverse health effects. Consequently, it is ethically problematic for health promoters to advocate for such a program, even if it could improve diet quality.

  17. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Martinez Valle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and evaluation (M&E have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH. This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH.

  18. Emerging Developments in Pharmacists' Scope of Practice to Address Unmet Health Care Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Anne L

    2016-09-01

    Pharmacists' comprehensive training is being leveraged in emerging patient care service opportunities that include prescriptive authority under collaborative practice agreements (CPAs) with prescribers or through state-based protocols. CPAs and state-based protocols expand pharmacists' scope of practice to allow the pharmacist to perform designated functions under the terms of the agreement or protocol. For patient-specific CPAs, this often includes initiating, modifying, or discontinuing therapy and ordering laboratory tests. For population-based CPAs and state-based protocols, pharmacists are often authorized to initiate medications to address a public health need. CPAs and state-based protocols are mechanisms to optimally use pharmacists' education and training.

  19. Addressing mental health challenges facing the "Next America": A call for culture change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeigh, Jill D; Melton, Gary B

    2015-09-01

    Provides an editorial addressing future mental health challenges. The articles in this issue highlight the need to create environments conducive to promoting the well-being of future generations. The articles build on symposia held by the American Orthopsychiatric Association in 2015, which focused on the effects on well-being of changing sociodemographics and labor market trends. Included in these pages are articles that lay out some of the challenges young people today face and strategies for helping them transition to adulthood successfully. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Internal marketing: creating quality employee experiences in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Maysoun Dimachkie; Oetjen, Dawn; Rotarius, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    To cope with the recent challenges within the health care industry, health care managers need to engage in the internal marketing of their various services. Internal marketing has been used as an effective management tool to increase employees' motivation, satisfaction, and productivity (J Mark Commun. 2010;16(5):325-344). Health care managers should understand that an intense focus on internal marketing factors will lead to a quality experience for employees that will ultimately have a positive effect on the patient experiences.

  1. Addressing the human resources crisis: a case study of the Namibian health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCourt, Willy; Awases, Magda

    2007-01-15

    This paper addresses an important practical challenge to staff management. In 2000 the United Nations committed themselves to the ambitious targets embodied in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Only five years later, it was clear that poor countries were not on track to achieve them. It was also clear that achieving the three out of the eight MDGs that concern health would only be possible if the appropriate human resources (HR) were in place. We use a case study based on semi-structured interview data to explore the steps that Namibia, a country facing severe health problems that include an alarmingly high AIDS infection rate, has taken to manage its health workers. In the fifteen years since independence, Namibia has patiently built up a relatively good strategic framework for health policy in the context of government policy as a whole, including strong training arrangements at every level of health staffing, and it has brought HIV/AIDS under the strategic umbrella through its National Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS. Its major weakness is that it has not kept pace with the rise in HIV/AIDS and TB infection: the community counselling service, still at the pilot stage at the time of this study, was the only specific response. That has created a tension between building long-term capacity in a strategic context and responding to the short-term demands of the AIDS and TB crisis, which in turn affects the ability of HR to contribute to improving health outcomes. It is suggested that countries like Namibia need a new paradigm for staffing their health services. Building on the existing strategic framework, it should target the training of 'mid-level cadres'. Higher-level cadres should take on the role of supporting and monitoring the mid-level cadres. To do that, they will need management training and a performance management framework for staff support and monitoring.

  2. Addressing the human resources crisis: a case study of the Namibian health service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awases Magda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper addresses an important practical challenge to staff management. In 2000 the United Nations committed themselves to the ambitious targets embodied in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. Only five years later, it was clear that poor countries were not on track to achieve them. It was also clear that achieving the three out of the eight MDGs that concern health would only be possible if the appropriate human resources (HR were in place. Methods We use a case study based on semi-structured interview data to explore the steps that Namibia, a country facing severe health problems that include an alarmingly high AIDS infection rate, has taken to manage its health workers. Results In the fifteen years since independence, Namibia has patiently built up a relatively good strategic framework for health policy in the context of government policy as a whole, including strong training arrangements at every level of health staffing, and it has brought HIV/AIDS under the strategic umbrella through its National Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS. Its major weakness is that it has not kept pace with the rise in HIV/AIDS and TB infection: the community counselling service, still at the pilot stage at the time of this study, was the only specific response. That has created a tension between building long-term capacity in a strategic context and responding to the short-term demands of the AIDS and TB crisis, which in turn affects the ability of HR to contribute to improving health outcomes. Conclusion It is suggested that countries like Namibia need a new paradigm for staffing their health services. Building on the existing strategic framework, it should target the training of 'mid-level cadres'. Higher-level cadres should take on the role of supporting and monitoring the mid-level cadres. To do that, they will need management training and a performance management framework for staff support and monitoring.

  3. Addressing Health Workforce Distribution Concerns: A Discrete Choice Experiment to Develop Rural Retention Strategies in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jacob Robyn

    2015-03-01

    the analysis of locally relevant, actionable incentives, generated through the involvement of policymakers at the design stage, this study provides an example of research directly linked to policy action to address a vitally important issue in global health.

  4. Addressing Practical Issues Related Tto Nursing Care For International Visitors To Hiroshima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Nishikawa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When nine million foreigners visited Japan in 2013, the federal government set a goal to attract an additional two and a half million visitors including medical tourists by 2020. This research investigates the attitudes and concerns of Japanese nurses when they are in a situation dealing with foreign patients. The data were collected from March through September 2010, from 114 nurses at three hospitals, in close proximity to popular tourist destinations in Hiroshima. A questionnaire was developed for this research, named Mari Meter, which included a section to write answers to an open question for the nurses to express their opinions. These responses were examined statistically and by word analysis using Text Mining Studio. Japanese nurses expressed greatest concern about payment options, foreign language skills, and issues of informed consent, when dealing with foreigners. The results confirm that, in order to provide a high quality of patient care, extra preparation and a greater knowledge of international workers and visitors are required by nursing professionals in Japan.

  5. A Qualitative Study of Health Care Experiences Among International Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Anna; Kitsos, Jewel; Miller, Andrea; Abraham, Sam

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the health care experiences of international students at a college in Indiana. The study answered the following research question: What are the lived experiences of international students while seeking health care? This research question was identified after a literature review, which showed a lack of research regarding international students' health care experiences. The data in this study were collected through in-depth interviews with 5 participants who resided at the college. After the interviews, the identification of themes and the analysis of results revealed the international students' lived experiences and perceptions of health care in the United States.

  6. Community health workers as cultural producers in addressing gender-based violence in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has been experiencing an epidemic of gender-based violence (GBV) for a long time and in some rural communities health workers, who are trained to care for those infected with HIV, are positioned at the forefront of addressing this problem, often without the necessary support. In this article, we pose the question: How might cultural production through media making with community health workers (CHWs) contribute to taking action to address GBV and contribute to social change in a rural community? This qualitative participatory arts-based study with five female CHWs working from a clinic in a rural district of South Africa is positioned as critical research, using photographs in the production of media posters. We offer a close reading of the data and its production and discuss three data moments: CHWs drawing on insider cultural knowledge; CHWs constructing messages; and CHWs taking action. In our discussion, we take up the issue of cultural production and then offer concluding thoughts on 'beyond engagement' when the researchers leave the community.

  7. Comparing the health impacts of different sources of energy. Keynote address

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    Assessing health impacts of different energy sources requires synthesis of research results from any different disciplines into a rational framework. Information is often scanty; qualitatively different risks, or energy systems with substantially different end uses, must be put on a common footing. Historically institutional constraints have inhibited agencies from making incisive comparisons necessary for formulating energy policy; this has exacerbated public controversy over appropriate energy sources. Risk assessment methods reviewed include examples drawn from work of the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere. Uncertainty over the mechanism and size of air pollution health damage is addressed through a probabilistic health-damage function, using sulfate-particle exposure as an indicator. This facilitates intercomparison through analysis of each step in the whole fuel cycle between a typical coal and nuclear powerplant. Occupational health impacts, a significant fraction of overall damage, are illustrated by accident trends in coal mining. In broadening comparisons to include new technologies, one must include the impact of manufacturing the energy-producing device as part of an expanded fuel cycle, via input/output methods. Throughout the analysis, uncertainties must be made explicit in the results, including uncertainty of data and uncertainty in choice of appropriate models and methods. No single method of comparative risk assessment is fully satisfactory; each has its limitations. One needs to compare several methods if decision-making is to be realistic.

  8. Profile of internal auditors in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusel, J; Oxner, T H

    1992-04-01

    The internal auditor is an important management resource for maintaining control over operations. As the importance of healthcare cost management grows, so does the potential contribution of the internal auditor. A recent study examines what internal auditors do, what backgrounds they have, what salaries they receive, and what their career attitudes are.

  9. A Road Map to Address the Social Determinants of Health Through Community Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henize, Adrienne W; Beck, Andrew F; Klein, Melissa D; Adams, Monica; Kahn, Robert S

    2015-10-01

    Economic, environmental, and psychosocial needs are common and wide-ranging among families cared for in primary care settings. Still, pediatric care delivery models are not set up to systematically address these fundamental risks to health. We offer a roadmap to help structure primary care approaches to these needs through the development of comprehensive and effective collaborations between the primary care setting and community partners. We use Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs as a well-recognized conceptual model to organize, prioritize, and determine appropriate interventions that can be adapted to both small and large practices. Specifically, collaborations with community organizations expert in addressing issues commonly encountered in primary care centers can be designed and executed in a phased manner: (1) build the case for action through a family-centered risk assessment, (2) organize and prioritize risks and interventions, (3) develop and sustain interventions, and (4) operationalize interventions in the clinical setting. This phased approach to collaboration also includes shared vision, codeveloped plans for implementation and evaluation, resource alignment, joint reflection and adaptation, and shared decisions regarding next steps. Training, electronic health record integration, refinement by using quality improvement methods, and innovative use of clinical space are important components that may be useful in a variety of clinical settings. Successful examples highlight how clinical-community partnerships can help to systematically address a hierarchy of needs for children and families. Pediatricians and community partners can collaborate to improve the well-being of at-risk children by leveraging their respective strengths and shared vision for healthy families. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Heart health in Lebanon and considerations for addressing the burden of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deek, Hiba; Newton, Phillip; Inglis, Sally; Kabbani, Samer; Noureddine, Samar; Macdonald, Peter S; Davidson, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Lebanon is a small country located at the western boundary of the Middle East. Approximately 40% of health care in Lebanon is financed by the public sector. Cardiovascular diseases in Lebanon are scarcely addressed in the literature raising the need for baseline data on these health condition to be better treated. To (1) aggregate and define the burden of cardiovascular disease in Lebanon and (2) describe implications for policy, practice and research to improve health outcomes in Lebanon. An integrative review was conducted of both peer-reviewed papers and unpublished reports. CINAHL, Medline, Google Scholar and Academic Search Complete were searched along with the websites of The World Health Organization, Ministry of Public Health Lebanon and Central Intelligence Agency of Lebanon. No year limit was applied to our search. The search yielded 28 peer-reviewed articles and 15 reports. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Lebanon and is also the primary cause of hospital admission. A range of social, political, economic and cultural factors explain the burden of cardiovascular diseases, some of these risks are culture specific such as the arghile smoking and the high rates of familial hypercholesterolemia. Workforce shortage produced by high rates of migrating nurses also has an implication on the patients' outcomes. Conclusion: Much of the presented data are sourced from the gray literature; more research, using systematic and prospective data collection methods, are needed to inform health services planning, delivery and evaluation. Primary care needs to be enhanced to produce better outcomes for a population with high profile of cardiovascular risk factors.

  11. Addressing the mental health needs of looked after children in foster care: the experiences of foster carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, W; Jones, J

    2017-03-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: In the UK and internationally, the number of looked after children is increasing year on year. Mental health problems among looked after children are significantly higher than in the general population, and the uptake of mental health services for these children is low. There is a poor prognosis for children with untreated mental health problems; this is further compounded if the child is within the care system. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study adds to our understanding of foster carers' experiences of the mental health needs of looked after children and demonstrates some of the challenges associated with accessing appropriate and timely mental health services. New knowledge derived from this research is that the barriers to accessing Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) are not at the time of initial referral as previously reported, but later, once within the mental health system with long waiting times experienced particularly for specialist services. This study provides new insights into the experience of being a foster carer and the levels of support and resources needed that directly relate to the viability of the placement. The majority of the foster carers interviewed were from a Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) background, previously under-represented in this research area. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: A number of areas in current CAMHS provision need addressing with a focus on accessibility, consultation and support for foster carers. Waiting times need to be addressed, and improved communication with other agencies is also highlighted. CAMHS nurses are well placed to develop and deliver a comprehensive care package to foster carers, offering more tailored support to them whilst enabling the children and young people in their care to access and engage more effectively with mental health services. Introduction Despite well-documented vulnerabilities to mental health problems

  12. Intervention mapping to address social and economic factors impacting indigenous people's health in Suriname's interior region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplow, Daniel; Augustine, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies found that while internationally financed economic development projects reduced poverty when measured in terms of per capita GDP, they also caused indigenous people to become disassociated, impoverished and alienated minorities whose health status has declined to unacceptable lows when measured in terms of mercury poisoning and the burgeoning rate of suicide. In this study, we developed a needs assessment and a policy-oriented causal diagram to determine whether the impaired health of the people in this region was at least partially due to the role the country has played within the global economy. Specifically, could the health and well-being of indigenous people in Suriname be understood in terms of the foreign investment programs and economic development policies traceable to the Inter-American Development Bank's Suriname Land Management Project. Interviews took place from 2004 through 2015 involving stakeholders with an interest in public health and economic development. A policy-oriented causal diagram was created to model a complex community health system and weave together a wide range of ideas and views captured during the interview process. Converting land and resources held by indigenous people into private ownership has created an active market for land, increased investment and productivity, and reduced poverty when measured in terms of per capita GDP. However, it has also caused indigenous people to become disassociated, impoverished and alienated minorities whose health status has declined to unacceptable lows. While the effects of economic development programs on the health of vulnerable indigenous communities are clear, the governance response is not. The governance response appeared to be determined less by the urgency of the public health issue or by the compelling logic of an appropriate response, and more by competing economic interests and the exercise of power. The health and well-being of the indigenous Wayana in Suriname

  13. Globalization of health insecurity: the World Health Organization and the new International Health Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2006-12-01

    The transnational spread of communicable and non-communicable diseases has opened new vistas in the discourse of global health security. Emerging and re-emerging pathogens, according to exponents of globalization of public health, disrespect the geo-political boundaries of nation-states. Despite the global ramifications of health insecurity in a globalizing world, contemporary international law still operates as a classic inter-state law within an international system exclusively founded on a coalition of nation-states. This article argues that the dynamic process of globalization has created an opportunity for the World Health Organization to develop effective synergy with a multiplicity of actors in the exercise of its legal powers. WHO's legal and regulatory strategies must transform from traditional international legal approaches to disease governance to a "post-Westphalian public health governance": the use of formal and informal sources from state and non-state actors, hard law (treaties and regulations) and soft law (recommendations and travel advisories) in global health governance. This article assesses the potential promise and problems of WHO's new International Health Regulations (IHR) as a regulatory strategy for global health governance and global health security.

  14. Working at the interface in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health: focussing on the individual health professional and their organisation as a means to address health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Annabelle M; Kelly, Janet; Magarey, Anthea; Jones, Michelle; Mackean, Tamara

    2016-11-17

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people experience inequity in health outcomes in Australia. Health care interactions are an important starting place to seek to address this inequity. The majority of health professionals in Australia do not identify as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people and the health care interaction therefore becomes an example of working in an intercultural space (or interface). It is therefore critical to consider how health professionals may maximise the positive impact within the health care interaction by skilfully working at the interface. Thirty-five health professionals working in South Australia were interviewed about their experiences working with Aboriginal people. Recruitment was through purposive sampling. The research was guided by the National Health and Medical Research Council Values and Ethics for undertaking research with Aboriginal communities. Critical social research was used to analyse data. Interviews revealed two main types of factors influencing the experience of non-Aboriginal health professionals working with Aboriginal people at the interface: the organisation and the individual. Within these two factors, a number of sub-factors were found to be important including organisational culture, organisational support, accessibility of health services and responding to expectations of the wider health system (organisation) and personal ideology and awareness of colonisation (individual). A health professional's practice at the interface cannot be considered in isolation from individual and organisational contexts. It is critical to consider how the organisational and individual factors identified in this research will be addressed in health professional training and practice, in order to maximise the ability of health professionals to work with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and therefore contribute to addressing health equity.

  15. Rewarding altruism: addressing the issue of payments for volunteers in public health initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Jane; Purcell, Martin E; Branney, Peter; Gamsu, Mark; White, Judy

    2014-03-01

    Lay involvement in public health programmes occurs through formalised lay health worker (LHW) and other volunteer roles. Whether such participation should be supported, or indeed rewarded, by payment is a critical question. With reference to policy in England, UK, this paper argues how framing citizen involvement in health only as time freely given does not account for the complexities of practice, nor intrinsic motivations. The paper reports results on payment drawn from a study of approaches to support lay people in public health roles, conducted in England, 2007-9. The first phase of the study comprised a scoping review of 224 publications, three public hearings and a register of projects. Findings revealed the diversity of approaches to payment, but also the contested nature of the topic. The second phase investigated programme support matters in five case studies of public health projects, which were selected primarily to reflect role types. All five projects involved volunteers, with two utilising forms of payment to support engagement. Interviews were conducted with a sample of project staff, LHWs (paid and unpaid), external partners and service users. Drawing on both lay and professional perspectives, the paper explores how payment relates to social context as well as various motivations for giving, receiving or declining financial support. The findings show that personal costs are not always absorbed, and that there is a potential conflict between financial support, whether sessional payment or expenses, and welfare benefits. In identifying some of the advantages and disadvantages of payment, the paper highlights the complexity of an issue often addressed only superficially. It concludes that, in order to support citizen involvement, fairness and value should be considered alongside pragmatic matters of programme management; however policy conflicts need to be resolved to ensure that employment and welfare rights are maintained.

  16. Medical mycology and fungal immunology: new research perspectives addressing a major world health challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Neil A R; Netea, Mihai G

    2016-12-05

    Fungi cause more than a billion skin infections, more than 100 million mucosal infections, 10 million serious allergies and more than a million deaths each year. Global mortality owing to fungal infections is greater than for malaria and breast cancer and is equivalent to that owing to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. These statistics evidence fungal infections as a major threat to human health and a major burden to healthcare budgets worldwide. Those patients who are at greatest risk of life-threatening fungal infections include those who have weakened immunity or have suffered trauma or other predisposing infections such as HIV. To address these global threats to human health, more research is urgently needed to understand the immunopathology of fungal disease and human disease susceptibility in order to augment the advances being made in fungal diagnostics and drug development. Here, we highlight some recent advances in basic research in medical mycology and fungal immunology that are beginning to inform clinical decisions and options for personalized medicine, vaccine development and adjunct immunotherapies.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Authors.

  17. Two-stage residual inclusion estimation: addressing endogeneity in health econometric modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terza, Joseph V; Basu, Anirban; Rathouz, Paul J

    2008-05-01

    The paper focuses on two estimation methods that have been widely used to address endogeneity in empirical research in health economics and health services research-two-stage predictor substitution (2SPS) and two-stage residual inclusion (2SRI). 2SPS is the rote extension (to nonlinear models) of the popular linear two-stage least squares estimator. The 2SRI estimator is similar except that in the second-stage regression, the endogenous variables are not replaced by first-stage predictors. Instead, first-stage residuals are included as additional regressors. In a generic parametric framework, we show that 2SRI is consistent and 2SPS is not. Results from a simulation study and an illustrative example also recommend against 2SPS and favor 2SRI. Our findings are important given that there are many prominent examples of the application of inconsistent 2SPS in the recent literature. This study can be used as a guide by future researchers in health economics who are confronted with endogeneity in their empirical work.

  18. Medical mycology and fungal immunology: new research perspectives addressing a major world health challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Neil A. R.; Netea, Mihai G.

    2016-01-01

    Fungi cause more than a billion skin infections, more than 100 million mucosal infections, 10 million serious allergies and more than a million deaths each year. Global mortality owing to fungal infections is greater than for malaria and breast cancer and is equivalent to that owing to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. These statistics evidence fungal infections as a major threat to human health and a major burden to healthcare budgets worldwide. Those patients who are at greatest risk of life-threatening fungal infections include those who have weakened immunity or have suffered trauma or other predisposing infections such as HIV. To address these global threats to human health, more research is urgently needed to understand the immunopathology of fungal disease and human disease susceptibility in order to augment the advances being made in fungal diagnostics and drug development. Here, we highlight some recent advances in basic research in medical mycology and fungal immunology that are beginning to inform clinical decisions and options for personalized medicine, vaccine development and adjunct immunotherapies. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience’. PMID:28080988

  19. International Inequalities: Algebraic Investigations into Health and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Susan; Robertson, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The Millennium Project is an international effort to improve the health, economic status, and environmental resources of the world's most vulnerable people. Using data associated with the Millennium Project, students use algebra to explore international development issues including poverty reduction and the relationship between health and economy.…

  20. Quality indicators for international benchmarking of mental health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Richard C; Mattke, Soeren; Somekh, David

    2006-01-01

    To identify quality measures for international benchmarking of mental health care that assess important processes and outcomes of care, are scientifically sound, and are feasible to construct from preexisting data.......To identify quality measures for international benchmarking of mental health care that assess important processes and outcomes of care, are scientifically sound, and are feasible to construct from preexisting data....

  1. Global health training and international clinical rotations during residency: current status, needs, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drain, Paul K; Holmes, King K; Skeff, Kelley M; Hall, Thomas L; Gardner, Pierce

    2009-03-01

    Increasing international travel and migration have contributed to globalization of diseases. Physicians today must understand the global burden and epidemiology of diseases, the disparities and inequities in global health systems, and the importance of cross-cultural sensitivity. To meet these needs, resident physicians across all specialties have expressed growing interest in global health training and international clinical rotations. More residents are acquiring international experience, despite inadequate guidance and support from most accreditation organizations and residency programs. Surveys of global health training, including international clinical rotations, highlight the benefits of global health training as well as the need for a more coordinated approach. In particular, international rotations broaden a resident's medical knowledge, reinforce physical examination skills, and encourage practicing medicine among underserved and multicultural populations. As residents recognize these personal and professional benefits, a strong majority of them seek to gain international clinical experience. In conclusion, with feasible and appropriate administrative steps, all residents can receive global health training and be afforded the accreditation and programmatic support to participate in safe international rotations. The next steps should address accreditation for international rotations and allowance for training away from continuity clinics by residency accreditation bodies, and stipend and travel support for six or more weeks of call-free elective time from residency programs.

  2. The framework of international health research--secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Kruse, Alexandra Yasmin

    2007-01-01

    Of the global budget for health research, only 10% is spent on the disease burden of 90% of the world's population. Investments in international health research are lacking, hampering health of the poor in particular. Effective vaccines against the world killers HIV, malaria and tuberculosis still...... and private sector commitment.Of the global budget for health research, only 10% is spent on the disease burden of 90% of the world's population. Investments in international health research are lacking, hampering health of the poor in particular. Effective vaccines against the world killers HIV, malaria...

  3. Community-based Men's Sheds: promoting male health, wellbeing and social inclusion in an international context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Wilson, Nathan J

    2014-09-01

    Males experience greater mortality and morbidity than females in most Western countries. The Australian and Irish National Male Health Policies aim to develop a framework to address this gendered health disparity. Men's Sheds have a distinct community development philosophy and are thus identified in both policies as an ideal location to address social isolation and positively impact the health and wellbeing of males who attend. The aim of this international cross-sectional survey was to gather information about Men's Sheds, the people who attend Men's Sheds, the activities at Men's Sheds, and the social and health dimensions of Men's Sheds. Results demonstrate that Men's Sheds are contributing a dual health and social role for a range of male subgroups. In particular, Men's Sheds have an outward social focus, supporting the social and mental health needs of men; health promotion and health literacy are key features of Men's Sheds. Men's Sheds have an important role to play in addressing the gendered health disparity that males face. They serve as an exemplar to health promotion professionals of a community development context where the aims of male health policy can be actualized as one part of a wider suite of global initiatives to reduce the gendered health disparity.

  4. Contribution of the Japan International Cooperation Agency health-related projects to health system strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Motoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Imada, Mihoko

    2013-09-22

    The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has focused its attention on appraising health development assistance projects and redirecting efforts towards health system strengthening. This study aimed to describe the type of project and targets of interest, and assess the contribution of JICA health-related projects to strengthening health systems worldwide. We collected a web-based Project Design Matrix (PDM) of 105 JICA projects implemented between January 2005 and December 2009. We developed an analytical matrix based on the World Health Organization (WHO) health system framework to examine the PDM data and thereby assess the projects' contributions to health system strengthening. The majority of JICA projects had prioritized workforce development, and improvements in governance and service delivery. Conversely, there was little assistance for finance or medical product development. The vast majority (87.6%) of JICA projects addressed public health issues, for example programs to improve maternal and child health, and the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Nearly 90% of JICA technical healthcare assistance directly focused on improving governance as the most critical means of accomplishing its goals. Our study confirmed that JICA projects met the goals of bilateral cooperation by developing workforce capacity and governance. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that JICA assistance could be used to support financial aspects of healthcare systems, which is an area of increasing concern. We also showed that the analytical matrix methodology is an effective means of examining the component of health system strengthening to which the activity and output of a project contributes. This may help policy makers and practitioners focus future projects on priority areas.

  5. Addressing HIV/AIDS among Aboriginal People using a Health Status, Health Determinants and Health Care Framework: A Literature Review and Conceptual Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowgesic, Earl

    2010-12-01

    (1) To describe the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among Aboriginal populations using a mixed methods approach (i.e. quantitative and qualitative methods); (2) to examine the individual-level and community-level relationships between HIV/AIDS, health determinants, and health care (e.g. diagnosis, access to treatment and health services planning); and (3) to explore innovative solutions to address HIV/AIDS among Aboriginal populations based upon research and infrastructure (e.g. partnerships, data sources and management, health indicators and culture) and policy (i.e. self-determination of Aboriginal Peoples). Literature review and conceptual analysis using a health status, health determinants and health care framework. In comparison to non-Aboriginal persons, HIV infection is higher among Aboriginal persons, is more directly attributable to unique risk factors and socio-demographic characteristics, and yields more adverse health outcomes. Culture, poverty and self-determination are determinants of health for Aboriginal populations. Aboriginal people have inadequate primary care and, in particular, specialist care. It is necessary to include traditional Aboriginal approaches and culture when addressing Aboriginal health while understanding competing paradigms between modern medicine and Aboriginal traditions. There is a need for self-determination of Aboriginal Peoples in order to improve the health of Aboriginal communities and those living with HIV/AIDS. Research and policy affecting Aboriginal people should be of the highest quality and based upon Aboriginal community relevance and involvement.

  6. Using electronic health records to address overweight and obesity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Heather J; Cho, Insook; Walmer, Rebecca A; Bain, Paul A; Bates, David W

    2013-10-01

    Overweight and obesity are problems of tremendous public health importance, but clinicians often fail to discuss weight management with their patients. Electronic health records (EHRs) have improved quality of care for some conditions and could be an effective mechanism for helping clinicians address overweight and obesity. This review sought to summarize current evidence on the use of EHRs for assessment and management of overweight and obesity. The authors searched PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, INSPEC, IEEE Explore, and the ACM Digital Library from their inception through August 15, 2012; analyses were conducted between September 2012 and March 2013. Eligible studies had to involve a new feature or a change in an existing feature within an EHR related to the identification, evaluation, or management of overweight and obesity. Included in the review were RCTs and nonrandomized controlled trials, pre-post studies with a historical control group, and descriptive studies. One reviewer screened all of the titles and abstracts. Citations that were potentially eligible were independently reviewed by two reviewers. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Of the 1188 unique citations identified, 11 met the inclusion criteria. Seven of these studies were conducted in children and adolescents, and four were conducted in adults. Most of the studies were pre-post studies with a historical control group, and only three were RCTs. Most of the interventions included calculation, display, or plotting of BMI or BMI percentiles; fewer included other features. The majority of studies examined clinician performance outcomes; only two studies examined patient outcomes. Few studies have examined whether EHR-based tools can help clinicians address overweight and obesity, and further studies are needed to examine the effects of EHR features on weight-related outcomes in patients. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive

  7. Addressing Human Variability in Next-Generation Human Health Risk Assessments of Environmental Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bois, Frederic Y.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Hattis, Dale; Rusyn, Ivan; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Characterizing variability in the extent and nature of responses to environmental exposures is a critical aspect of human health risk assessment. Objective: Our goal was to explore how next-generation human health risk assessments may better characterize variability in the context of the conceptual framework for the source-to-outcome continuum. Methods: This review was informed by a National Research Council workshop titled “Biological Factors that Underlie Individual Susceptibility to Environmental Stressors and Their Implications for Decision-Making.” We considered current experimental and in silico approaches, and emerging data streams (such as genetically defined human cells lines, genetically diverse rodent models, human omic profiling, and genome-wide association studies) that are providing new types of information and models relevant for assessing interindividual variability for application to human health risk assessments of environmental chemicals. Discussion: One challenge for characterizing variability is the wide range of sources of inherent biological variability (e.g., genetic and epigenetic variants) among individuals. A second challenge is that each particular pair of health outcomes and chemical exposures involves combinations of these sources, which may be further compounded by extrinsic factors (e.g., diet, psychosocial stressors, other exogenous chemical exposures). A third challenge is that different decision contexts present distinct needs regarding the identification—and extent of characterization—of interindividual variability in the human population. Conclusions: Despite these inherent challenges, opportunities exist to incorporate evidence from emerging data streams for addressing interindividual variability in a range of decision-making contexts. PMID:23086705

  8. History of the international societies in health technology assessment: International Society for Technology Assessment in Health Care and Health Technology Assessment International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, David; Jonsson, Egon; Childs, Paul

    2009-07-01

    The International Society for Technology Assessment in Health Care (ISTAHC) was formed in 1985. It grew out of the increasing awareness of the international dimensions of health technology assessment (HTA) and the need for new communication methods at the international level. The main function of ISTAHC was to present an annual conference, which gradually grew in size, and also to generally improve in quality from to year. ISTAHC overextended itself financially early in the first decade of the 2000s and had to cease its existence. A new society, Health Technology Assessment international (HTAi), based on many of the same ideas and people, grew up beginning in the year 2003. The two societies have played a large role in making the field of HTA visible to people around the world and providing a forum for discussion on the methods and role of HTA.

  9. Health Management Applications for International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena, Richard; Duncavage, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Traditional mission and vehicle management involves teams of highly trained specialists monitoring vehicle status and crew activities, responding rapidly to any anomalies encountered during operations. These teams work from the Mission Control Center and have access to engineering support teams with specialized expertise in International Space Station (ISS) subsystems. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) applications can significantly augment these capabilities by providing enhanced monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic tools for critical decision support and mission management. The Intelligent Systems Division of NASA Ames Research Center is developing many prototype applications using model-based reasoning, data mining and simulation, working with Mission Control through the ISHM Testbed and Prototypes Project. This paper will briefly describe information technology that supports current mission management practice, and will extend this to a vision for future mission control workflow incorporating new ISHM applications. It will describe ISHM applications currently under development at NASA and will define technical approaches for implementing our vision of future human exploration mission management incorporating artificial intelligence and distributed web service architectures using specific examples. Several prototypes are under development, each highlighting a different computational approach. The ISStrider application allows in-depth analysis of Caution and Warning (C&W) events by correlating real-time telemetry with the logical fault trees used to define off-nominal events. The application uses live telemetry data and the Livingstone diagnostic inference engine to display the specific parameters and fault trees that generated the C&W event, allowing a flight controller to identify the root cause of the event from thousands of possibilities by simply navigating animated fault tree models on their workstation. SimStation models the functional power flow

  10. Childhood Diabesity: International Applications for Health Education and Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Kotkin-Jaszi, Suzanne; Perez, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    Health policy has a direct impact on health education initiatives, health care delivery, resource allocation, and quality of life. Increasing rates in the epidemics of obesity and obesity-dependent diabetes mellitus (aka diabesity) suggest that health policy changes should be included in health education and disease prevention strategies. Health…

  11. mHealth information for migrants: an e-health intervention for internal migrants in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lan Thi Hoang; Nguyen, Ngan Thi Kim; Tran, Hanh Thi Duc; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2016-05-14

    Socio-economic development in Vietnam has resulted in increased internal migration particularly among young women seeking employment opportunities in cities. Vietnamese female migrants who enter new environments often encounter the loss or neglect of their right to access sexual and reproductive health services. To address this, a mobile health (mHealth) intervention model was implemented over 12 months (2013-2014) in a factory in the Long Bien industrial zone of Hanoi, Vietnam. The intervention provided sexual and reproductive health services for female migrants through text messaging, information booklets accompanied maps, and free counseling via a hotline. To evaluate the impact of the intervention, pre- and post-intervention data were collected to measure changes in women's knowledge and practices related to sexual and reproductive health. Qualitative data in the form of personal interviews were also collected. The sample size for the baseline survey was 411 women, and for the post-intervention survey it was 482 women (the intervention involved an open cohort). The majority of women were unmarried and under the age of 25. Results indicate that there was high uptake of the intervention services and that most women found the services important and useful. In addition, there was evidence that the intervention (1) increased women's knowledge of sexual and reproductive health (e.g., proper use of condoms, identification of high-risk behaviors such as having unprotected sex), and (2) fostered improved practices related to sexual and reproductive health (e.g., increased gynecological check-ups and use of condoms). The study demonstrated the feasibility of implementing a multi-faceted intervention for migrant women working in an industrial zone in Hanoi, Vietnam as well as its successful uptake and some early positive effects. This can be used to inform future design and implementation of mHealth/eHealth intervention models for migrant and other vulnerable/hard to

  12. Systems approach to address incivility and disruptive behaviors in health-care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Elizabeth; Kusy, Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    In response to the growing evidence that disruptive behaviors within health-care teams constitute a major threat to the quality of care, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organization (JCAHO; Joint Commission Resources, 2008) has a new leadership standard that addresses disruptive and inappropriate behaviors effective January 1, 2009. For professionals who work in human resources and organization development, these standards represent a clarion call to design and implement evidence-based interventions to create health-care communities of respectful engagement that have zero tolerance for disruptive, uncivil, and intimidating behaviors by any professional. In this chapter, we will build an evidence-based argument that sustainable change must include organizational, team, and individual strategies across all professionals in the organization. We will then describe an intervention model--Toxic Organization Change System--that has emerged from our own research on toxic behaviors in the workplace (Kusy & Holloway, 2009) and provide examples of specific strategies that we have used to prevent and ameliorate toxic cultures.

  13. Addressing the systems-based practice requirement with health policy content and educational technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Alisa; Andolsek, Kathryn; Dossary, Kristin; Schlueter, Joanne; Schulman, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Duke University Hospital Office of Graduate Medical Education and Duke University's Fuqua School of Business collaborated to offer a Health Policy lecture series to residents and fellows across the institution, addressing the "Systems-based Practice" competency.During the first year, content was offered in two formats: live lecture and web/podcast. Participants could elect the modality which was most convenient for them. In Year Two, the format was changed so that all content was web/podcast and a quarterly live panel discussion was led by module presenters or content experts. Lecture evaluations, qualitative focus group feedback, and post-test data were analyzed.A total of 77 residents and fellows from 8 (of 12) Duke Graduate Medical Education departments participated. In the first year, post-test results were the same for those who attended the live lectures and those who participated via web/podcast. A greater number of individuals participated in Year Two. Participants from both years expressed the need for health policy content in their training programs. Participants in both years valued a hybrid format for content delivery, recognizing a desire for live interaction with the convenience of accessing web/podcasts at times and locations convenient for them. A positive unintended consequence of the project was participant networking with residents and fellows from other specialties.

  14. Addressing Barriers to the Development and Adoption of Rapid Diagnostic Tests in Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Miller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs have demonstrated significant potential for use as point-of-care diagnostic tests in resource-limited settings. Most notably, RDTs for malaria have reached an unparalleled level of technological maturity and market penetration, and are now considered an important complement to standard microscopic methods of malaria diagnosis. However, the technical development of RDTs for other infectious diseases, and their uptake within the global health community as a core diagnostic modality, has been hindered by a number of extant challenges. These range from technical and biological issues, such as the need for better affinity agents and biomarkers of disease, to social, infrastructural, regulatory and economic barriers, which have all served to slow their adoption and diminish their impact. In order for the immunochromatographic RDT format to be successfully adapted to other disease targets, to see widespread distribution, and to improve clinical outcomes for patients on a global scale, these challenges must be identified and addressed, and the global health community must be engaged in championing the broader use of RDTs.

  15. Addressing Barriers to the Development and Adoption of Rapid Diagnostic Tests in Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric; Sikes, Hadley D

    Immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have demonstrated significant potential for use as point-of-care diagnostic tests in resource-limited settings. Most notably, RDTs for malaria have reached an unparalleled level of technological maturity and market penetration, and are now considered an important complement to standard microscopic methods of malaria diagnosis. However, the technical development of RDTs for other infectious diseases, and their uptake within the global health community as a core diagnostic modality, has been hindered by a number of extant challenges. These range from technical and biological issues, such as the need for better affinity agents and biomarkers of disease, to social, infrastructural, regulatory and economic barriers, which have all served to slow their adoption and diminish their impact. In order for the immunochromatographic RDT format to be successfully adapted to other disease targets, to see widespread distribution, and to improve clinical outcomes for patients on a global scale, these challenges must be identified and addressed, and the global health community must be engaged in championing the broader use of RDTs.

  16. Addressing Barriers to the Development and Adoption of Rapid Diagnostic Tests in Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Miller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs have demonstrated significant potential for use as point-of- care diagnostic tests in resource-limited settings. Most notably, RDTs for malaria have reached an unparalleled level of technological maturity and market penetration, and are now considered an important complement to standard microscopic methods of malaria diagnosis. However, the technical development of RDTs for other infectious diseases, and their uptake within the global health community as a core diagnostic modality, has been hindered by a number of extant challenges. These range from technical and biological issues, such as the need for better affinity agents and biomarkers of disease, to social, infrastructural, regulatory and economic barriers, which have all served to slow their adoption and diminish their impact. In order for the immunochromatographic RDT format to be successfully adapted to other disease targets, to see widespread distribution, and to improve clinical outcomes for patients on a global scale, these challenges must be identified and addressed, and the global health community must be engaged in championing the broader use of RDTs.

  17. Developing a Gap Taxonomy to Address Crew Health Risks in NASA's Human Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Edwards, J. Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The mission of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is to understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions. The HRP addresses 27 specific risks by identifying and then filling gaps in understanding the risks and in the ability to disposition the risks. The primary bases for identifying gaps have been past experience and requirements definition. This approach has been very effective in identifying some important, relevant gaps, but may be inadequate for identifying gaps outside the past experience base. We are exploring the use of a gap taxonomy as a comprehensive, underlying conceptual framework that allows a more systematic identification of gaps. The taxonomy is based on these stages in medical care: prediction, prevention, detection/diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, rehabilitation, and lifetime surveillance. This gap taxonomy approach identifies new gaps in HRP health risks. Many of the new gaps suggest risk reduction approaches that are more cost effective than present approaches. A major benefit of the gap taxonomy approach is to identify new, economical approaches that reduce the likelihood and/or consequence of a risk.

  18. Assessing correlations between geological hazards and health outcomes: Addressing complexity in medical geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Nicola Ann; Le Blond, Jennifer Susan

    2015-11-01

    The field of medical geology addresses the relationships between exposure to specific geological characteristics and the development of a range of health problems: for example, long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water can result in the development of skin conditions and cancers. While these relationships are well characterised for some examples, in others there is a lack of understanding of the specific geological component(s) triggering disease onset, necessitating further research. This paper aims to highlight several important complexities in geological exposures and the development of related diseases that can create difficulties in the linkage of exposure and health outcome data. Several suggested approaches to deal with these complexities are also suggested. Long-term exposure and lengthy latent periods are common characteristics of many diseases related to geological hazards. In combination with long- or short-distance migrations over an individual's life, daily or weekly movement patterns and small-scale spatial heterogeneity in geological characteristics, it becomes problematic to appropriately assign exposure measurements to individuals. The inclusion of supplementary methods, such as questionnaires, movement diaries or Global Positioning System (GPS) trackers can support medical geology studies by providing evidence for the most appropriate exposure measurement locations. The complex and lengthy exposure-response pathways involved, small-distance spatial heterogeneity in environmental components and a range of other issues mean that interdisciplinary approaches to medical geology studies are necessary to provide robust evidence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Using social marketing to address barriers and motivators to agricultural safety and health best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Aaron M; Murphy, Dennis J

    2012-01-01

    Social marketing is an intervention development strategy that pays considerable attention to barriers to and motivators for behavioral change or adoption of recommended behaviors. Barriers are obstacles that prevent individuals from changing or adopting behaviors and are often referred to as the "cons" or "costs" of doing something. Motivators, on the other hand, are factors that encourage individuals to change or adopt behaviors and are often referred to as the "pros," "benefits," or "influencing factors" of doing something. Importantly, social marketing does not target education or knowledge change as an end point; rather, it targets behavior change. Studies across several types of desired behaviors (e.g., smoking cessation, weight control, more exercise, sunscreen use, radon testing) using the Stages of Change model have found systematic relationships between stages of change and pros and cons of changing behavior. A review of literature identifies numerous research and intervention studies that directly reference social marketing in agricultural safety and health, studies that identify reasons why parents allow their children to be exposed to hazardous situations on the farm, and reasons why youth engage in risky behaviors, but only two studies were found that show evidence of systematically researching specific behavioral change motivating factors. The authors offer several suggestions to help address issues relating to social marketing and agricultural safety and health.

  20. International Journal of Health Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is a new online international ... Images for any manuscript should not exceed 200 kilobytes unless prior authorization is ... Benin City 300001, ... New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston; 1988.

  1. Measuring perinatal health equity and migration indicators for international comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Anita J; Small, Rhonda; Sarasua, Irene; Lang, Carly

    2015-01-01

    An international research collaboration answered, "Can equity in perinatal health for migrant women be measured for comparison across countries?" In nine countries, perinatal databases were assessed for the availability of equity indicators. Equity data were also sought from women and health records. Optimal sources of data differed depending on the migrant perinatal health equity indicator. Health and migration data, required to capture equity, were often not reported in the same location. Migration indicators other than country of birth were underreported. Perinatal health equity can be measured for international comparisons, although a standardized protocol is required to capture all indicators.

  2. [The modern international public health and globalization challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the issues of impact of globalization on population health and public health. The positive and negative aspects of this process are analyzed. The role of international organizations (UN, WHO, UNESCO, ILO, UNISEF) is demonstrated in the area of management of globalization impact on public health of different countries, Russia included.

  3. The framework of international health research--secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Yasmin; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2007-01-01

    Of the global budget for health research, only 10% is spent on the disease burden of 90% of the world's population. Investments in international health research are lacking, hampering health of the poor in particular. Effective vaccines against the world killers HIV, malaria and tuberculosis still...

  4. The Small Helm Project: an academic activity addressing international corruption for undergraduate civil engineering and construction management students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzley, Steven E

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents an academic project that addresses the issue of international corruption in the engineering and construction industry, in a manner that effectively incorporates several learning experiences. The major objectives of the project are to provide the students a learning activity that will 1) make a meaningful contribution within the disciplines being studied; 2) teach by experience a significant principle that can be valuable in numerous situations during an individual's career, and 3) engage the minds, experiences, and enthusiasm of the participants in a real ethical challenge that is prevalent in all of their chosen professional fields. The paper describes the full details of the project, the actual implementation of it during Winter Semester 2005, the experiences gained during the initial trial, and the modifications and improvements incorporated for future implementation.

  5. Makerere University College of Health Sciences’ role in addressing challenges in health service provision at Mulago National Referral Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekandi Juliet

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mulago National Referral Hospital (MNRH, Uganda’s primary tertiary and teaching hospital, and Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS have a close collaborative relationship. MakCHS students complete clinical rotations at MNRH, and MakCHS faculty partner with Mulago staff in clinical care and research. In 2009, as part of a strategic planning process, MakCHS undertook a qualitative study to examine care and service provision at MNRH, identify challenges, gaps, and solutions, and explore how MakCHS could contribute to improving care and service delivery at MNRH. Methods Key informant interviews (n=23 and focus group discussions (n=7 were conducted with nurses, doctors, administrators, clinical officers and other key stakeholders. Interviews and focus groups were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim, and findings were analyzed through collaborative thematic analysis. Results Challenges to care and service delivery at MNRH included resource constraints (staff, space, equipment, and supplies, staff inadequacies (knowledge, motivation, and professionalism, overcrowding, a poorly functioning referral system, limited quality assurance, and a cumbersome procurement system. There were also insufficiencies in the teaching of professionalism and communication skills to students, and patient care challenges that included lack of access to specialized services, risk of infections, and inappropriate medications. Suggestions for how MakCHS could contribute to addressing these challenges included strengthening referral systems and peripheral health center capacity, and establishing quality assurance mechanisms. The College could also strengthen the teaching of professionalism, communication and leadership skills to students, and monitor student training and develop courses that contribute to continuous professional development. Additionally, the College could provide in-service education for providers on professionalism

  6. Research to assess impacts on developing countries of measures to address emissions in the international aviation and shipping sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anger, A. [Cambridge University, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Faber, J.; Koopman, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Van Velzen, A. [Transport Analysis and Knowledge Systems TAKS, s.l. (Netherlands); Long, K.; Pollitt, H.; Barker, T. [Cambridge Econometrics, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Comberti, C.; Fazekas, D.; Blachowicz, A. [Climate Strategies, London (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    The greenhouse gas emissions of international aviation and maritime transport are projected to increase rapidly over the coming decades, despite significant improvements in the fuel efficiency of aircraft and ships. In order to address their growth, Market Based Measures (MBMs) have been proposed to complement technical and operational measures. These measures are being discussed in ICAO (the UN organization for civil aviation) and IMO (the UN organization for maritime transport). One of the main issues in the debate has been the impact of MBMs on developing countries and especially on remote economies. This report quantifies the economic impacts of MBMs on ten case study economies and globally. The case study economies have been selected in the expectation that they would be relatively highly impacted because of their remoteness and/or dependence on international aviation or maritime transport. This report shows that the decrease in GDP is less than 0.01% on average and significantly less than 0.1% for all but a few of the case study countries. Countries with a higher dependency on tourism and trade are likely to experience greater economic impacts as market-based measures raise the costs of aviation and maritime transport; they impact economies due to increased prices for passenger travel and exported and imported goods. Some of these countries are small island states that are also vulnerable to climate change impacts. Undesired economic impacts on developing countries can be addressed effectively by a combination of measures such as exemptions of certain routes, lump sum rebates, and investments in infrastructure efficiency and development of more efficient ships and aircraft.

  7. Opportunities in the international health services arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, R A

    1997-08-01

    Fundamental changes in domestic healthcare delivery in the '90s have prompted many U.S. healthcare organizations to consider entering international markets. Opportunities available to U.S. organizations include investing in foreign organizations, controlling foreign facilities, and obtaining referrals from extraterritorial or cooperating foreign providers. Before entering into these arrangements, however, organizations must consider the benefits, risks, and constraints they may face, specifically with regard to reimbursement and cash flow, currency risk, regulation, and political risk. To succeed in international service delivery ventures, organizations also may need to make adjustments in the training of healthcare financial managers who will face the international marketplace. Being sensitive to the culture of the countries with which they will be dealing is just as important as knowing the currency and financial regulations.

  8. The right to health of prisoners in international human rights law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, Rick

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the health rights of prisoners as defined in international law, and the mechanisms that have been used to ensure the rights of persons in detention to realise the highest attainable standard of health. It examines this right as articulated within United Nations and regional human rights treaties, non-binding or so-called soft law instruments from international organisations and the jurisprudence of international human rights bodies. It explores the use of economic, social and cultural rights mechanisms, and those within civil and political rights, as they engage the right to health of prisoners, and identifies the minimum legal obligations of governments in order to remain compliant with human rights norms as defined within the international case law. In addressing these issues, this article adopts a holistic approach to the definition of the highest attainable standard of health. This includes a consideration of adequate standards of general medical care, including preventative health and mental health services. It also examines the question of environmental health, and those poor conditions of detention that may exacerbate health decline, disease transmission, mental illness or death. The paper examines the approach to prison health of the United Nations human rights system and its various monitoring bodies, as well as the regional human rights systems in Europe, Africa and the Americas. Based upon this analysis, the paper draws conclusions on the current fulfilment of the right to health of prisoners on an international scale, and proposes expanded mechanisms under the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment to monitor and promote the health rights of prisoners at the international and domestic levels.

  9. How to address CPP and AMP translocation? Methods to detect and quantify peptide internalization in vitro and in vivo (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Sónia Troeira; Melo, Manuel Nuno; Castanho, Miguel A R B

    2007-01-01

    Membrane translocation is a crucial issue when addressing the activity of both cell-penetrating and antimicrobial peptides. Translocation is responsible for the therapeutic potential of cell-penetrating peptides as drug carriers and can dictate the killing mechanisms, selectivity and efficiency of antimicrobial peptides. It is essential to evaluate if the internalization of cell-penetrating peptides is mediated by endocytosis and if it is able to internalize attached cargoes. The mode of action of an antimicrobial peptide cannot be fully understood if it is not known whether the peptide acts exclusively at the membrane level or also at the cytoplasm. Therefore, experimental methods to evaluate and quantify translocation processes are of first importance. In this work, over 20 methods described in the literature for the assessment of peptide translocation in vivo and in vitro, with and without attached macromolecular cargoes, are discussed and their applicability, advantages and disadvantages reviewed. In addition, a classification of these methods is proposed, based on common approaches to detect translocation.

  10. Exploring International Perspectives in Hearing Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Judy K.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dr. Dolores E. Battle, a professor of speech-language pathology and senior advisor to the president for equity and campus diversity at Buffalo State College. She is a former president of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (in 2005) and a very active member of international organizations of both…

  11. Addressing Student Mental Health Needs by Providing Direct and Indirect Services and Building Alliances in the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffenberger, Carol J.; O'Rorke-Trigiani, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Given that 20% of students experience mental health issues that interfere with school performance and most of these students will turn first to their school for help, school counselors need to consider how they can best serve this population. This article describes how school counselors can address the mental health needs of students by providing…

  12. A call for an international collaboration on participatory research for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael T; Roche, Brenda; von Unger, Hella; Block, Martina; Gardner, Bob

    2010-03-01

    Participatory health research (PHR) has emerged as an important approach for addressing local health issues, including building capacity for health promotion. Increasingly, PHR is drawing the attention of communities, funders, decision-makers and researchers worldwide. It is time to consolidate what we know about PHR in order to secure its place as a source of knowledge and action for public health. This can be achieved through an International Collaboration on Participatory Research for Health to addresses the following issues:Set a framework in which information can be exchanged, decisions can be reached and information can be disseminated on central issues in PHR. Provide an international forum to discuss standards and quality. Produce guidelines for researchers, practitioners and community members. Synthesize the findings of PHR internationally. Formulate recommendations regarding generalizable findings. Similar to the Cochrane Collaboration on clinical trials research, the PHR Collaboration will be dependent on a host of experts from various countries to bring together what we know about PHR and to make that knowledge accessible to an international audience. Unlike the Cochrane Collaboration, the PHR Collaboration will include both quantitative and qualitative research approaches. The goal of the PHR Collaboration will not be able to achieve a standardization of research protocols, but rather to find meaningful ways to judge the quality of PHR and to report on its findings while respecting the variety of locally based approaches to research design, data collection and interpretation.

  13. The United Nations and One Health: the International Health Regulations (2005) and global health security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, I; Miyagishima, K; Roth, C; de La Rocque, S

    2014-08-01

    The One Health approach encompasses multiple themes and can be understood from many different perspectives. This paper expresses the viewpoint of those in charge of responding to public health events of international concern and, in particular, to outbreaks of zoonotic disease. Several international organisations are involved in responding to such outbreaks, including the United Nations (UN) and its technical agencies; principally, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO); UN funds and programmes, such as the United Nations Development Programme, the World Food Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, the United Nations Children's Fund; the UN-linked multilateral banking system (the World Bank and regional development banks); and partner organisations, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). All of these organisations have benefited from the experiences gained during zoonotic disease outbreaks over the last decade, developing common approaches and mechanisms to foster good governance, promote policies that cut across different sectors, target investment more effectively and strengthen global and national capacities for dealing with emerging crises. Coordination among the various UN agencies and creating partnerships with related organisations have helped to improve disease surveillance in all countries, enabling more efficient detection of disease outbreaks and a faster response, greater transparency and stakeholder engagement and improved public health. The need to build more robust national public human and animal health systems, which are based on good governance and comply with the International Health Regulations (2005) and the international standards set by the OIE, prompted FAO, WHO and the OIE to join forces with the World Bank, to provide practical tools to help countries manage their zoonotic disease risks and develop adequate resources to prevent and control disease

  14. Smoking Cessation Intervention for Female Prisoners: Addressing an Urgent Public Health Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Gloria; Weaver, Michael; Villalobos, Gabriela; Stitzer, Maxine; Best, Al

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We tested the efficacy of a combined pharmacologic and behavioral smoking cessation intervention among women in a state prison in the southern United States. Methods. The study design was a randomized controlled trial with a 6-month waitlist control group. The intervention was a 10-week group intervention combined with nicotine replacement therapy. Two hundred and fifty participants received the intervention, and 289 were in the control group. Assessments occurred at baseline; end of treatment; 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment; and at weekly sessions for participants in the intervention group. Results. The intervention was efficacious compared with the waitlist control group. Point prevalence quit rates for the intervention group were 18% at end of treatment, 17% at 3-month follow-up, 14% at 6-month follow-up, and 12% at 12-month follow-up, quit rates that are consistent with outcomes from community smoking-cessation interventions. Conclusions. Female prisoners are interested in smoking cessation interventions and achieved point-prevalence quit rates similar to community samples. Augmenting tobacco control policies in prison with smoking cessation interventions has the potential to address a significant public health need. PMID:18703440

  15. A healthy judgement? Health and Health care in the Netherlands in international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg PW; Kramers PGN; Wilk AE van der; VTV

    2002-01-01

    International comparisons of health and health care are increasingly used to 'benchmark' national health system performances. This report summarises earlier Dutch RIVM reports. It analyses: 1) the policy relevance of several other international reports, among which the WHO2000 report, which compared

  16. Rehabilitation treatment taxonomy and the international classification of health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Catherine R

    2014-01-01

    This commentary provides some reactions to the rehabilitation treatment taxonomy project in relation to work already underway to develop an International Classification of Health Interventions. This commentary also includes some comments in response to questions posed by the authors.

  17. International trends in health tourism: Implications for thermal spring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International trends in health tourism: Implications for thermal spring tourism in the ... with the earliest forms of tourism being based on apparent curative powers of ... natural resource, mineral-rich thermal water with a long tradition of healing, ...

  18. Health and well-being factors associated with international business travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, Justin D; Joines, Ron; Cunningham-Hill, Mark; Xu, Baowei

    2010-01-01

    International travel by US business travelers is continuing to increase with the globalization of the economy. The objective of this study was to determine if the frequency and duration of international business travel is associated with differences in travelers' health and well-being. This study expands our limited knowledge of the impact of long-haul travel on healthy lifestyle choices and traveler's perceptions of their health and well-being. 12,942 unique health risk appraisal (HRA) records of US employees of a multinational corporation were analyzed according to self-reported (objective and subjective) travel history and lifestyle habits. Comparing 2,962 international travelers and 9,980 non-travelers, international business travel was significantly associated with a lower body mass index, lower blood pressure, excess alcohol consumption, sleep deprivation, and diminished confidence to keep up with the pace of work. This study demonstrated both positive and negative associations on the health risks and well-being of a large sample of US-based international business travelers from an US multinational company. This study identifies targeted areas for pretrip screening and counseling to proactively address potential negative effects of travel and may assist in the design of corporate travel health and employee assistance programs. © 2010 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  19. Ninth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is dedicated to the publication of selected papers presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium was organized by Jackson State University (JSU from 16–19 September, 2012 at the Marriott Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi, USA. It was built upon the overwhelming success of seven previous symposia hosted by JSU.

  20. Eighth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is dedicated to the publication of selected papers presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium was organized by Jackson State University (JSU from September 18-21, 2011 at the Marriott Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi. It was built upon the overwhelming success of seven previous symposia hosted by JSU. [...

  1. Strategies to increase demand for maternal health services in resource-limited settings: challenges to be addressed.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Elmusharaf, Khalifa

    2015-09-01

    Universal health access will not be achieved unless women are cared for in their own communities and are empowered to take decisions about their own health in a supportive environment. This will only be achieved by community-based demand side interventions for maternal health access. In this review article, we highlight three common strategies to increase demand-side barriers to maternal healthcare access and identify the main challenges that still need to be addressed for these strategies to be effective.

  2. Health economists, tobacco control and international development: On the economisation of global health beyond neoliberal structural adjustment policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubi, David

    2013-06-01

    This article addresses the increasing influence of economic rationalities in global health over the past 30 years by examining the genealogy of one economic strategy - taxation - that has become central to international anti-smoking initiatives in the global South. It argues that this genealogy sits uncomfortably with the usual story about economics and global health, which reduces the economisation of international health to neoliberal structural adjustment policies aimed at stabilisation, liberalisation and privatisation and laments their detrimental effect on health. While not disputing these policies' importance and damaging impact, the genealogy of tobacco taxes outlined in this article shows that the economisation of global health is not only about neoliberal structural adjustment policies but also about sin taxes, market failures and health economics. By stressing how changes in health like the global South's epidemiological transition can impact on economics and how beneficial taxation can be for health, it also shows that the relation between economics and health is not always unidirectional and detrimental to the latter. In doing so, the article contributes to the critique of the often mechanical use of neo-liberalism to explicate change and calls for other stories about the economisation of global health to be told.

  3. [Laws relevant to international missions of health cooperation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaroni, E; Riccardo, F; De Rosa, A G; Russo, G; Pacini, A; Nardi, L; Pacifici, L E

    2007-01-01

    Both medical doctors and humanitarian operators engaged in health relief or development missions abroad, are called to respect the general principles of international law, that is to say, customary law that is legally compulsory for the International Community and rules deriving from Treaties and International Conventions. Humanitarian operators have to observe also the rules and regulations of the hosting country. They have to respect all rules applying to their humanitarian action and they have to take responsibility towards beneficiaries and donors alike.

  4. International Terrorism and Mental Health: Recent Research and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Ai, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    International terrorism has become a major global concern. Several studies conducted in North America and Europe in the aftermath of terrorist attacks reveal that international terrorism represents a significant short-term and long-term threat to mental health. In the present article, the authors clarify the concept and categories of terrorism and…

  5. International Terrorism and Mental Health: Recent Research and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Ai, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    International terrorism has become a major global concern. Several studies conducted in North America and Europe in the aftermath of terrorist attacks reveal that international terrorism represents a significant short-term and long-term threat to mental health. In the present article, the authors clarify the concept and categories of terrorism and…

  6. Health perspectives: international epidemiology of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Stephanie Alison; Parikh, Seema; Workman, Barbara

    2011-09-01

    Populations globally are ageing, in part due to dramatic increases in life expectancies, forcing a reconsideration of what constitutes being "elderly" and "old." The proportion of older adults living with disability may be decreasing, yet older individuals are living with a significant burden of chronic disease, geriatric impairments in cognition, vision and hearing and reduced physiological reserve (frailty). Caring for a growing number of medically complex individuals has implications for medical workforce size and composition, health programmes and expenditure. Future responses to an ageing population will require further innovation in health-care delivery models, and increasing representation of older adults in clinical trials. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Internal migration and health: premarital sexual initiation in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mberu, Blessing Uchenna; White, Michael J

    2011-04-01

    The high rates of youth migration to urban and economic centers, in the context of persistent poverty and devastating HIV/AIDS burden, have raised intricate social policy challenges in developing countries. Using the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data, descriptive statistics, Kaplan-Meier survival curves and discrete-time hazard regression models, this study examines the patterns of internal migration and sexual initiation among never-married Nigerian youth aged 15-24. We find that migrants generally show stronger association than non-migrants, and urban-rural and rural-rural migrants particularly show the strongest independent association with premarital sexual initiation. Other significant covariates are age, religion, ethnic origin, educational attainment, independent living arrangement, formal employment and exposure to the mass media. The findings highlight the direct importance of youth migration in understanding and addressing the challenges of premarital sexual behavior and the need for behavior change policies and programs to be sensitive to the complex contextual nuances across youth groups in one country. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Priorities and realities: addressing the rich-poor gaps in health status and service access in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utomo Budi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Over the past four decades, the Indonesian health care system has greatly expanded and the health of Indonesian people has improved although the rich-poor gap in health status and service access remains an issue. The government has been trying to address these gaps and intensify efforts to improve the health of the poor following the economic crisis in 1998. Methods This paper examines trends and levels in socio-economic inequity of health and identifies critical factors constraining efforts to improve the health of the poor. Quantitative data were taken from the Indonesian Demographic Health Surveys and the National Socio-Economic Surveys, and qualitative data were obtained from interviews with individuals and groups representing relevant stakeholders. Results The health of the population has improved as indicated by child mortality decline and the increase in community access to health services. However, the continuing prevalence of malnourished children and the persisting socio-economic inequity of health suggest that efforts to improve the health of the poor have not yet been effective. Factors identified at institution and policy levels that have constrained improvements in health care access and outcomes for the poor include: the high cost of electing formal governance leaders; confused leadership roles in the health sector; lack of health inequity indicators; the generally weak capacity in the health care system, especially in planning and budgeting; and the leakage and limited coverage of programs for the poor. Conclusions Despite the government's efforts to improve the health of the poor, the rich-poor gap in health status and service access continues. Factors at institutional and policy levels are critical in contributing to the lack of efficiency and effectiveness for health programs that address the poor.

  9. Addressing the Social Determinants of Health of Children and Youth: A Role for SOPHE Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allensworth, Diane D.

    2011-01-01

    The determinants of youth health disparities include poverty, unequal access to health care, poor environmental conditions, and educational inequities. Poor and minority children have more health problems and less access to health care than their higher socioeconomic status cohorts. Having more health problems leads to more absenteeism in school,…

  10. Addressing the Social Determinants of Health of Children and Youth: A Role for SOPHE Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allensworth, Diane D.

    2011-01-01

    The determinants of youth health disparities include poverty, unequal access to health care, poor environmental conditions, and educational inequities. Poor and minority children have more health problems and less access to health care than their higher socioeconomic status cohorts. Having more health problems leads to more absenteeism in school,…

  11. Beyond health aid: would an international equalization scheme for universal health coverage serve the international collective interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Gorik; Hammonds, Rachel; Waris, Attiya; Criel, Bart; Van Damme, Wim; Whiteside, Alan

    2014-05-21

    It has been argued that the international community is moving 'beyond aid'. International co-financing in the international collective interest is expected to replace altruistically motivated foreign aid. The World Health Organization promotes 'universal health coverage' as the overarching health goal for the next phase of the Millennium Development Goals. In order to provide a basic level of health care coverage, at least some countries will need foreign aid for decades to come. If international co-financing of global public goods is replacing foreign aid, is universal health coverage a hopeless endeavor? Or would universal health coverage somehow serve the international collective interest?Using the Sustainable Development Solutions Network proposal to finance universal health coverage as a test case, we examined the hypothesis that national social policies face the threat of a 'race to the bottom' due to global economic integration and that this threat could be mitigated through international social protection policies that include international cross-subsidies - a kind of 'equalization' at the international level.The evidence for the race to the bottom theory is inconclusive. We seem to be witnessing a 'convergence to the middle'. However, the 'middle' where 'convergence' of national social policies is likely to occur may not be high enough to keep income inequality in check.The implementation of the international equalization scheme proposed by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network would allow to ensure universal health coverage at a cost of US$55 in low income countries-the minimum cost estimated by the World Health Organization. The domestic efforts expected from low and middle countries are far more substantial than the international co-financing efforts expected from high income countries. This would contribute to 'convergence' of national social policies at a higher level. We therefore submit that the proposed international equalization scheme

  12. Political Economies of Health: A Consideration for International Nursing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.; Drummond, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces and explores the concept of political economy. In particular it focuses upon the political economy of health while also considering the implications for international nursing studies in the context of health care more generally. Political economy is not only about budgets, resources and policy. It is also about particular…

  13. Development of the International Classification of Mental Health Care (ICMHC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Peter de

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Evaluations of the process of providing mental health care have been hampered because a tool to systematically describe the interventions actually provided by the services was lacking. In this paper the development of such a tool (the International Classification of Mental Health Care; IC

  14. Addressing the next challenges: A summary of the 22nd international symposium on hepatitis C virus and related viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumert, Thomas F; Schuster, Catherine; Cosset, François-Loïc; Dubuisson, Jean; Hofmann, Maike; Tautz, Norbert; Zeisel, Mirjam B; Thimme, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Following the discovery of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) more than 25 years ago the field has succeeded to develop methods that have changed the safety of blood products, understand the molecular virology, epidemiology and clinical disease of HCV, and identify specific targets for the development of direct-acting antivirals for HCV cure. Nevertheless, major clinical and scientific challenges remain: therapy is still only available to a fraction of infected patients worldwide and many patients remain undiagnosed and/or live in countries where therapy is unattainable. An urgently needed HCV vaccine to eradicate infection remains still elusive. Scientifically, major questions remain regarding the life cycle, pathogenesis and mechanisms of viral clearance and persistence. Addressing these challenges, this meeting report reviews key findings of the 22nd International Symposium on Hepatitis C Virus and Related Viruses in Strasbourg, France from October 9 to 13, 2015. Copyright © 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Pan American Health Organization and international health: a history of training, conceptualization, and collective development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Annella; Guerrero Espinel, Juan Eduardo

    2011-08-01

    A constantly changing and increasingly complex global environment requires leaders with special competencies to respond effectively to this scenario. Within this context, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) goes beyond traditional leadership training models both in terms of its design as well as its conceptual approach to international health. As an intergovernmental, centenary organization in health, PAHO allows participants a unique vantage point from which to conceptualize, share experiences and develop projects relevant to international health. Derived from over two decades of experience (1985-2006) training professionals through its predessor Training Program in International Health, the Leaders in International Health Program "Edmundo Granda Ugalde" (LIHP) utilizes an innovative design, virtual and practical learning activities, and a problem-based approach to analyze the main concepts, theories, actors, forces, and processes relevant to international health. In collaboration with PAHO/WHO Representative Offices and national institutions, participants develop country projects based on priority health issues, many of which are integrated into the Organization's technical cooperation and/or implemented by relevant ministries and other entities in their respective countries/subregions. A total of 185 participants representing 31 countries have participated in the LIHP since its inception in 2008, building upon the 187 trained through its predecessor. These initiatives have contributed to the development of health professionals in the Region of the Americas devoted to international health, as well as provided important input towards a conceptual understanding of international health by fostering debate on this issue.

  16. The Thalassemia International Federation: a global public health paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elpidoforos S. Soteriades

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many international organizations are struggling today to coordinate limited economic and human resources in support of governments’ efforts to advance public health around the world. The United Nations and the World Health Organization, along with others play a pivotal role in this global effort. Furthermore, during the past few decades an increasingly higher percentage of global efforts on public health are carried out by specific health initiatives, international projects and non-governmental patient-oriented organizations. The Thalassemia International Federation (TIF is one such organization focusing on the control of thalassemia around the world. The current paper aims at presenting a comprehensive overview of the mission, goals, objectives and activities of this organization. Our ultimate goal is to highlight TIF’s public health paradigm and diffuse its success at an international levels for others to follow. TIF is devoted to disseminating information, knowledge, experience and best practices around the world to empower patients with thalassemia and their relatives, support health professionals providing care to such patients and promote national and international policies, which secure equal access to quality care for all patients with thalassemia.

  17. The potential of health literacy to address the health related UN sustainable development goal 3 (SDG3) in Nepal: a rapid review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhathoki, Shyam Sundar; Pokharel, Paras K; Good, Suvajee; Limbu, Sajani; Bhattachan, Meika; Osborne, Richard H

    2017-03-27

    Health literacy has been linked to health outcomes across population groups around the world. Nepal, a low income country, experiences the double burden of highly prevalent communicable as well as non-communicable diseases. The World Health Organization (WHO) has positioned health literacy as a key mechanism to meet the health-related Sustainable Development Goal (SDG3). However, there is little known about the status of health literacy in developing countries such as Nepal. This paper aims to review the potential of health literacy to address SDG3 in Nepal. A rapid review was conducted using the knowledge to action evidence summary approach. Articles included in the review were those reporting on barriers to health care engagements in Nepal published in English language between January 2000 and December 2015. Barriers for healthcare engagement included knowledge and education as strong factors, followed by culture, gender roles, quality of service and cost of services. These barriers influence the Nepalese community to access and engage with services, and make and enact healthcare decisions, not only at the individual level but at the family level. These factors are directly linked to health literacy. Health literacy is a pivotal determinant of understanding, accessing and using health information and health services, it is important that the health literacy needs of the people be addressed. Locally identified and developed health literacy interventions may provide opportunities for systematic improvements in health to address impediments to healthcare in Nepal. Further research on health literacy and implementation of health literacy interventions may help reduce inequalities and increase the responsiveness of health systems which could potentially facilitate Nepal to meet the sustainable development goals. While there is currently little in place for health literacy to impact on the SDG3, this paper generates insights into health literacy's potential role.

  18. Has the Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme of Andhra Pradesh Addressed the Educational Divide in Accessing Health Care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Rao

    Full Text Available Equity of access to healthcare remains a major challenge with families continuing to face financial and non-financial barriers to services. Lack of education has been shown to be a key risk factor for 'catastrophic' health expenditure (CHE, in many countries including India. Consequently, ways to address the education divide need to be explored. We aimed to assess whether the innovative state-funded Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme of Andhra Pradesh state launched in 2007, has achieved equity of access to hospital inpatient care among households with varying levels of education.We used the National Sample Survey Organization 2004 survey as our baseline and the same survey design to collect post-intervention data from 8623 households in the state in 2012. Two outcomes, hospitalisation and CHE for inpatient care, were estimated using education as a measure of socio-economic status and transforming levels of education into ridit scores. We derived relative indices of inequality by regressing the outcome measures on education, transformed as a ridit score, using logistic regression models with appropriate weights and accounting for the complex survey design.Between 2004 and 2012, there was a 39% reduction in the likelihood of the most educated person being hospitalised compared to the least educated, with reductions observed in all households as well as those that had used the Aarogyasri. For CHE the inequality disappeared in 2012 in both groups. Sub-group analyses by economic status, social groups and rural-urban residence showed a decrease in relative indices of inequality in most groups. Nevertheless, inequalities in hospitalisation and CHE persisted across most groups.During the time of the Aarogyasri scheme implementation inequalities in access to hospital care were substantially reduced but not eliminated across the education divide. Universal access to education and schemes such as Aarogyasri have the synergistic potential

  19. Addressing Children's Oral Health in the New Millennium: Trends in the Dental Workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Mertz, Elizabeth; Mouradian, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    The Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health (SGROH) and the Call to Action to Promote Oral Health outlined the need to increase the diversity, capacity and flexibility of the dental workforce to reduce oral health disparities. This paper provides an update on dental workforce trends since the SGROH in the context of children's oral health needs.

  20. Internal facial features are signals of personality and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Robin S S; Ward, Robert

    2010-11-01

    We investigated forms of socially relevant information signalled from static images of the face. We created composite images from women scoring high and low values on personality and health dimensions and measured the accuracy of raters in discriminating high from low trait values. We also looked specifically at the information content within the internal facial features, by presenting the composite images with an occluding mask. Four of the Big Five traits were accurately discriminated on the basis of the internal facial features alone (conscientiousness was the exception), as was physical health. The addition of external features in the full-face images led to improved detection for extraversion and physical health and poorer performance on intellect/imagination (or openness). Visual appearance based on internal facial features alone can therefore accurately predict behavioural biases in the form of personality, as well as levels of physical health.

  1. [Changes necessary for continuing health reform: II. The "internal" change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Martín, J; de Manuel Keenoy, E; Carmona López, G; Martínez Olmos, J

    1990-01-01

    The article desired organizational and managerial changes in Primary Health Care, so as to develop a sound and feasible social marketing strategy. Key elements that should be changed are: 1. Rigid and centralized administrative structures and procedures. 2. Incentives system centralized and dissociated from the managerial structure. 3. Primary Health Care management units immersed in political conflict. 4. Absence of alternative in the margin. Users cannot choose. 5. Lack of an internal marketing strategy. Several ways of internal markets simulation are assessed as potential means for internal change. The need for an administration reform leading to a less inflexible system in the Spanish national and regional health services in reviewed too. Three changes are considered essential: a) Payment systems in Primary Health Care. b) Modifications in the personnel contracts. c) Reform of the budgeting processes. Specific strategies in each of these issues are suggested, making emphasizing the need of their interrelationship and coherence.

  2. After Nairobi: can the international community help to develop health promotion in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixey, Rachael

    2014-03-01

    The Nairobi Conference presaged a surge of interest in the development of health promotion in sub-Saharan Africa. A number of Africans have asserted that health promotion is underdeveloped in the continent, with the principles of the Ottawa Charter not widely adopted. This paper does not presume to say how health promotion could be developed in Africa, as that is for Africans to decide for themselves. Rather, it debates some issues which the international epistemic health promotion community could address in order to work in solidarity with African colleagues in taking forward the health promotion agenda in their continent. These issues include the Eurocentric nature of health promotion discourse, the different disease burden of Africa and the lack of training capacity in African universities.

  3. Policy Directions Addressing the Public Health Impact of Climate Change in South Korea: The Climate-change Health Adaptation and Mitigation Program

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Yong Seung; Ha, Jongsik

    2012-01-01

    Climate change, caused by global warming, is increasingly recognized as a major threat to mankind's survival. Climate change concurrently has both direct and modifying influences on environmental, social, and public health systems undermining human health as a whole. Environmental health policy-makers need to make use of political and technological alternatives to address these ramifying effects. The objective of this paper is to review public health policy in Korea, as well as internationall...

  4. Health Workforce and International Migration: Can New Zealand Compete? OECD Health Working Papers No. 33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurn, Pascal; Dumont, Jean-Christophe

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines health workforce and migration policies in New Zealand, with a special focus on the international recruitment of doctors and nurses. The health workforce in New Zealand, as in all OECD countries, plays a central role in the health system. Nonetheless, maybe more than for any other OECD country, the health workforce in New…

  5. Presidential address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  6. Building Responsive Health Systems to Help Communities Affected by Migration: An International Delphi Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottie, Kevin; Hui, Charles; Rahman, Prinon; Ingleby, David; Akl, Elie A.; Russell, Grant; Ling, Li; Wickramage, Kolitha; Mosca, Davide; Brindis, Claire D.

    2017-01-01

    Persons affected by migration require health systems that are responsive and adaptable to the needs of both disadvantaged migrants and non-migrant populations. The objective of this study is to support health systems for populations affected by migration. Materials and Methods: An international Delphi consensus process was used to identify policy approaches to improve health systems for populations affected by migration. Participants were leading migrant health experts from Americas, Europe, Middle East, Asia, and Australasia. We calculated average ranking scores and qualitatively analyzed open-ended questions. Results: Participants identified the following key areas as priorities for policy development: health inequities, system discrimination, migrant related health data, disadvantaged migrant sub-groups, and considerations for disadvantaged non-migrant populations. Highly ranked items to improve health systems were: Health Equity Impact Assessment, evidence based guidelines, and the International Organization for Migration annual reports. Discussion: Policy makers need tools, data and resources to address health systems challenges. Policies need to avoid preventable deaths of migrants and barriers to basic health services. PMID:28165380

  7. The World Health Organization and the transition from "international" to "global" public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Theodore M; Cueto, Marcos; Fee, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The term "global health" is rapidly replacing the older terminology of "international health." We describe the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) in both international and global health and in the transition from one to the other. We suggest that the term "global health" emerged as part of larger political and historical processes, in which WHO found its dominant role challenged and began to reposition itself within a shifting set of power alliances. Between 1948 and 1998, WHO moved from being the unquestioned leader of international health to being an organization in crisis, facing budget shortfalls and diminished status, especially given the growing influence of new and powerful players. We argue that WHO began to refashion itself as the coordinator, strategic planner, and leader of global health initiatives as a strategy of survival in response to this transformed international political context.

  8. Opportunities for nursing-dental collaboration: addressing oral health needs among the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Providing quality oral health care for the growing elderly population is a major challenge, particularly for those residing in long-term care institutions. The Surgeon General's report on oral health in America (2000) noted that elders are at particularly high risk for oral health problems, and poor oral health in seniors has been linked to general systemic health risks such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, poor nutrition, and respiratory infection. This article outlines the need for greater attention to oral health care for the elderly in both nursing education and practice, and describes opportunities for effective inter-professional collaboration between nursing and oral health professionals. It also provides specific recommendations for fostering such collaboration. Working together, nurses and dental professionals can raise awareness of this issue, promote higher standards for oral care, and improve oral health and quality of life for elderly Americans.

  9. Addressing Health Inequities: Coronary Heart Disease Training within Learning Disabilities Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly, Deirdre; Sharp, John

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are at increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Research suggests this may be due to inequalities in health status and inequities in the way health services respond to need. Little is known about the most effective way to improve health outcomes for people with learning disabilities. A previously developed…

  10. Addressing Health Inequities: Coronary Heart Disease Training within Learning Disabilities Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly, Deirdre; Sharp, John

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are at increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Research suggests this may be due to inequalities in health status and inequities in the way health services respond to need. Little is known about the most effective way to improve health outcomes for people with learning disabilities. A previously developed…

  11. International migration to Canada: the post-birth health of mothers and infants by immigration class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Anita J; Dougherty, Geoffrey; Wahoush, Olive; Saucier, Jean-François; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Stanger, Elizabeth; Palmer, Becky; Merry, Lisa; Stewart, Donna E

    2013-01-01

    There are over 214 million international migrants worldwide, half of whom are women, and all of them assigned by the receiving country to an immigration class. Immigration classes are associated with certain health risks and regulatory restrictions related to eligibility for health care. Prior to this study, reports of international migrant post-birth health had not been compared between immigration classes, with the exception of our earlier, smaller study in which we found asylum-seekers to be at greatest risk for health concerns. In order to determine whether refugee or asylum-seeking women or their infants experience a greater number or a different distribution of professionally-identified health concerns after birth than immigrant or Canadian-born women, we recruited 1127 migrant (and in Canada immigration class (refugee, asylum-seeker, immigrant, or Canadian-born). Between February 2006 and May 2009, we followed them from childbirth (in one of eleven birthing centres in Montreal or Toronto) to four months and found that at one week postpartum, asylum-seeking and immigrant women had greater rates of professionally-identified health concerns than Canadian-born women; and at four months, all three migrant groups had greater rates of professionally-identified concerns. Further, international migrants were at greater risk of not having these concerns addressed by the Canadian health care system. The current study supports our earlier findings and highlights the need for case-finding and services for international migrant women, particularly for psychosocial difficulties. Policy and program mechanisms to address migrants' needs would best be developed within the various immigration classes.

  12. Addressing the Need for Mental Health Screening of Newly Resettled Refugees: A Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcher, Kelly; Calloway, Susan

    2016-07-01

    Refugees resettling to the United States are at increased risk for mental health disorders, which can lead to difficulty with adaptation and poor health outcomes. Standardized mental health screening of refugees is often neglected at primary care and community health clinics. A pilot project aimed to initiate early mental health screening for newly resettled adult refugees was implemented at a community health center in Fargo, North Dakota. Current refugee screening processes were evaluated to determine appropriate timing for refugee mental health screening. This took into consideration time, staffing, interpreter availability and the refugee "honeymoon" phase following resettlement. The Refugee Health Screener-15 (RHS-15) was identified as an efficient, valid, and reliable tool for assessing emotional distress in this population and was integrated into refugee health screening practices. The RHS-15 was administered to 178 adult refugees with arrival dates between August 1, 2013 and July 31, 2014. Of those screened, 51 (28.6%) screened positive for risk of emotional distress. Follow-up with primary care provider was completed with 30 (59%) of those who screened positive. Half (15) requested mental health treatment. Although the largest group of refugees during this period of time were resettling from Bhutan, refugees from Iraq had greater incidence of positive screening compared with those from Bhutan. Refugees from Iraq were also found to have significantly higher scores on the RHS-15. Although there are some challenges to implementing a standardized mental health screening for refugees, this pilot reiterates the need for standardized mental health screening of refugees. Routine mental health screening should be a part of the overall comprehensive health assessment provided to refugees nationwide. Considerations should be taken in regards to how refugees from Iraq have even greater risk of mental health disorders compared to other refugee groups. © The Author

  13. The Evidence Base for Mental Health Consultation in Early Childhood Settings: Research Synthesis Addressing Staff and Program Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Eileen M.; Bradley, Jennifer R.; Allen, Mary Dallas; Perry, Deborah F.

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: One strategy to support early childhood providers' work with children exhibiting challenging behavior is offering mental health consultation services in order to build staff skills and confidence and reduce staff stress and turnover. Through systematic search procedures, 26 recent studies were identified that addressed the…

  14. Learning from communities in the USA and England to promote equity and address the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Claire; Gibbs, Martin; Narle, Ginder; Brookes, Chris

    2013-12-01

    This commentary contextualises and documents the process of a twinning learning exchange between the US Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health initiative and the Communities for Health initiative in England to enable the transfer and adaptation of ideas for similar community-focused initiatives in various contexts globally. The multi-partner twinning exchange built on and shared knowledge around community health promotion interventions, targeting 'marginalised' populations and focused on addressing the social determinants of health to effectively reduce health inequalities. This commentary presents the methodology of the exchange; provides key themes, outcomes and lessons learnt that arose from discussions and the experience; and provides insights, considerations and recommendations for adaptation. Finally, it highlights the importance of such exchanges in the current global context and the need for their replication and adaptation. These experiences contribute to building the evidence base on successful interventions and identifying strategies that work for improving health outcomes and reducing health inequalities. They strengthen the need for all governments to address the social determinants of health as a priority whilst providing insights to inform successful policy.

  15. Addressing the realities [correction of realties] of health care in northern aboriginal communities through participatory action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minore, Bruce; Boone, Margaret; Katt, Mae; Kinch, Peggy; Birch, Stephen

    2004-11-01

    To address concerns about disruptions in the continuity of health care delivered to residents in three remote aboriginal communities in northern Ontario, Canada, the local health authority initiated a study in collaboration with the department of Health Canada responsible for ensuring that aboriginal reserves receive mandatory health services, and an inter-disciplinary team of researchers from two universities. The study focussed on the delivery of oncology, diabetes and mental health care, specifically, as well as systems issues such as recruitment and retention of health human resources and financial costs. The paper discusses the procedures involved, the benefits derived and the challenges encountered in doing this as a community driven participatory action research project. It also summarizes the findings that led to community formulated policy and program recommendations.

  16. Conference proceedings of the first international conference on mental health, March 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalily MT

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Tahir Khalily, Seema Gul, Uzma MasroorDepartment of Psychology, International Islamic University, Islamabad (IIUI, PakistanThere has been an alarming increase in mental illness reflected in a persistent wave of violence, suicide, deliberate self-harm, and disruption in the social fabric worldwide, and particularly in Pakistan, a developing country and now the ninth most populous in the world.Keeping in view the abovementioned mental health issues, the Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, International Islamic University, organized the first international conference on mental health, held on March 29–30, 2012, with the theme "Violence, psychological trauma, and possible acute and post-traumatic interventions in general and particularly in Pakistani society", to enable intellectual and academic circles to acquire a profound understanding of mental health issues and develop evidence-based strategies for the amelioration of psychological ailments.The chief invited guest at this inaugural conference was Sohail Naqvi, executive director of the Higher Education Commission, accompanied by Dr Mumtaz Ahmed, president of the International Islamic University, Islamabad, Nabi Bux Jumani, dean of the Faculty of Social Science, Muhammad Tahir Khalily, chairman and principal conference organizer, from the Department of Psychology, and Seema Gul, the coprincipal conference organizer. Tahir Khalily, the principal organizer, gave the welcome address, highlighting the prevalence of mental health problems in Pakistan as a consequence of violence. In addition, he lauded the support of the International Islamic University and Higher Education Commission in organizing this auspicious event.

  17. Implementing colorectal cancer screening in community health centers: addressing cancer health disparities through a regional cancer collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplin, Stephen H; Haggstrom, David; Jacobs, Tracy; Determan, Ada; Granger, Jennifer; Montalvo, Wanda; Snyder, William M; Lockhart, Susan; Calvo, Ahmed

    2008-09-01

    The population served by Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) has lower levels of cancer screening compared with the general population and suffers a disproportionate cancer burden. To address these disparities, 3 federal agencies and a primary care association established and tested the feasibility of a Regional Cancer Collaborative (RCC) in 2005. RCC faculty implemented a learning model to improve cancer screening across 4 FQHCs that met explicit organizational readiness criteria. Regional faculty trained "care process leaders," who worked with primary care teams to plan and implement practice changes. FQHCs monitored progress across the following measures of screening implementation: self-management goal-setting; number and percent screened for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer; percent timely results notification; and percent abnormal screens evaluated within 90 days. Progress and plans were reviewed in regular teleconferences. FQHCs were encouraged to create local communities of practice (LCOP) involving community resources to support cancer screening and to participate in a monthly teleconference that linked the LCOPs into a regional community of practice. Summary reports and administrative data facilitated a process evaluation of the RCC. chi test and test of trends compared baseline and follow-up screening rates. The RCC taught the collaborative process using process leader training, teleconferences, 2 regional meetings, and local process improvement efforts. All organizations created clinical tracking capabilities and 3 of the 4 established LCOPs, which met monthly in an regional community of practice. Screening documentation increased for all 3 cancers from 2005 to 2007. Colorectal cancer screening increased from 8.6% to 21.2%. A regional plan to enable collaborative learning for cancer screening implementation is feasible, and improvements in screening rates can occur among carefully selected organizations.

  18. Protecting health from climate change: Preparedness of medical interns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majra Jai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health and to meet the challenge, health systems require qualified staff. Aims : To study the preparedness of medical interns to meet the challenge of protecting health from climate change. Settings and Design: Medical colleges in a coastal town. Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A proportionate number of medical interns from five medical colleges were included in the study. Level of awareness was used as a criterion to judge the preparedness. A self-administered, pretested, open-ended questionnaire was used. Responses were evaluated and graded. Statistical Analysis Used: Proportions, percentage, Chi-test. Results : About 90% of the medical interns were aware of the climate change and human activities that were playing a major role. Ninety-four percent were aware of the direct health impacts due to higher temperature and depletion in ozone concentration, and about 78% of the respondents were aware about the change in frequency / distribution of vector-borne diseases, water borne / related diseases, malnutrition, and health impact of population displacement. Knowledge regarding health protection was limited to mitigation of climate change and training / education. Options like adaptation, establishing / strengthening climate and disease surveillance systems, and health action in emergency were known to only nine (7%, eight (6%, and 17 (13%, respectively. Collegewise difference was statistically insignificant. Extra / co-curricular activities were the major source of knowledge. Conclusions : Majority of medical interns were aware of the causes and health impacts of climate change, but their knowledge regarding health protection measures was limited.

  19. International observatory on mental health systems: structure and operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Harry

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sustained cooperative action is required to improve the mental health of populations, particularly in low and middle-income countries where meagre mental health investment and insufficient human and other resources result in poorly performing mental health systems. The Observatory The International Observatory on Mental Health Systems is a mental health systems research, education and development network that will contribute to the development of high quality mental health systems in low and middle-income countries. The work of the Observatory will be done by mental health systems research, education and development groups that are located in and managed by collaborating organisations. These groups will be supported by the IOMHS Secretariat, the International IOMHS Steering Group and a Technical Reference Group. Summary The International Observatory on Mental Health Systems is: 1 the mental health systems research, education and development groups; 2 the IOMHS Steering Group; 3 the IOMHS Technical Reference Group; and 4 the IOMHS Secretariat. The work of the Observatory will depend on free and open collaboration, sharing of knowledge and skills, and governance arrangements that are inclusive and that put the needs and interests of people with mental illness and their families at the centre of decision-making. We welcome contact from individuals and institutions that wish to contribute to achieving the goals of the Observatory. Now is the time to make it happen where it matters, by turning scientific knowledge into effective action for people's health. (J.W. Lee, in his acceptance speech on his appointment as the Director-General of the World Health Organization 1.

  20. Health literacy: setting an international collaborative research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowlands Gillian

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health literacy is an increasingly important topic in both the policy and research agendas of many countries. During the recent 36th Annual Meeting of the North American Primary Care Research Group, the authors led an audio-taped 3-hour forum, "Studying Health Literacy: Developing an International Collaboration," where the current state of health literacy (HL in the United States (US and United Kingdom (UK was presented and attendees were encouraged to debate a future research agenda. Discussion of Forum Themes The debate centred around three distinct themes, including: (1 refining HL definitions and conceptual models, (2 HL measurement and assessment tools, and (3 developing a collaborative international research agenda. The attendees agreed that future research should be theoretically grounded and conceptual models employed in studies should be explicit to allow for international comparisons to be drawn. Summary and Authors Reflections The importance of HL research and its possible contribution to health disparities is becoming increasingly recognised internationally. International collaborations and comparative studies could illuminate some of the possible determinants of disparities, and also possibly provide a vehicle to examine other research questions of interest.

  1. Addressing health inequalities by using Structural Funds. A question of opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neagu, Oana Maria; Michelsen, Kai; Watson, Jonathan; Dowdeswell, Barrie; Brand, Helmut

    2017-03-01

    Making up a third of the EU budget, Structural and Investment Funds can provide important opportunities for investing in policies that tackle inequalities in health. This article looks back and forward at the 2007-2013 and 2014-2020 financial periods in an attempt to inform the development of health equity as a strand of policy intervention under regional development. It combines evidence from health projects funded through Structural Funds and a document analyses that locates interventions for health equity under the new regulations. The map of opportunities has changed considerably since the last programming period, creating more visibility for vulnerable groups, social determinants of health and health systems sustainability. As the current programming period is progressing, this paper contributes to maximizing this potential but also identifying challenges and implementation gaps for prospective health system engagement in pursuing health equity as part of Structural Funds projects. The austerity measures and their impact on public spending, building political support for investments as well as the difficulties around pursuing health gains as an objective of other policy areas are some of the challenges to overcome. European Structural and Investment Funds could be a window of opportunity that triggers engagement for health equity if sectors adopt a transformative approach and overcome barriers, cooperate for common goals and make better use of the availability of these resources.

  2. Addressing disparities in maternal health care in Pakistan: gender, class and exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Zubia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After more than two decades of the Safe Motherhood Initiative and Millennium Development Goals aimed at reducing maternal mortality, women continue to die in childbirth at unacceptably high rates in Pakistan. While an extensive literature describes various programmatic strategies, it neglects the rigorous analysis of the reasons these strategies have been unsuccessful, especially for women living at the economic and social margins of society. A critical gap in current knowledge is a detailed understanding of the root causes of disparities in maternal health care, and in particular, how gender and class influence policy formulation and the design and delivery of maternal health care services. Taking Pakistan as a case study, this research builds upon two distinct yet interlinked conceptual approaches to understanding the phenomenon of inequity in access to maternal health care: social exclusion and health systems as social institutions. Methods/Design This four year project consists of two interrelated modules that focus on two distinct groups of participants: (1 poor, disadvantaged women and men and (2 policy makers, program managers and health service providers. Module one will employ critical ethnography to understand the key axes of social exclusion as related to gender, class and zaat and how they affect women’s experiences of using maternal health care. Through health care setting observations, interviews and document review, Module two will assess policy design and delivery of maternal health services. Discussion This research will provide theoretical advances to enhance understanding of the power dynamics of gender and class that may underlie poor women’s marginalization from health care systems in Pakistan. It will also provide empirical evidence to support formulation of maternal health care policies and health care system practices aimed at reducing disparities in maternal health care in Pakistan. Lastly, it

  3. Health concerns and ethical considerations regarding international surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoche, Jonathan W

    2014-08-01

    Since the advent of IVF, various arrangements for child bearing and rearing have developed. With the confluence of advanced medical technology, reproductive choice, and globalization, a market in international surrogacy has flourished. However, myriad health, social, and ethical concerns abound regarding the well-being of gestational carriers and children, the infringement of autonomy and free choice, and threats to human dignity. The present paper examines the scope, health risks, and ethical concerns of cross-border surrogacy, arguing that the risks may not exceed the benefits. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An investigation of the ways in which public health nutrition policy and practices can address climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulda, Heidi; Coveney, John; Bentley, Michael

    2010-03-01

    To develop a framework to guide action in the public health nutrition workforce to develop policies and practices addressing factors contributing to climate change. Action/consultative research. Interviews - South Australia, questionnaire - Australia. Interviews - key informants (n 6) were from various government, academic and non-government positions, invited through email. Questionnaire - participants were members of the public health nutrition workforce (n 186), recruited to the study through emails from public health nutrition contacts for each State in Australia (with the exception of South Australia). Support by participants for climate change as a valid role for dietitians and nutritionists was high (78 %). However, climate change was ranked low against other public health nutrition priorities. Support of participants to conduct programmes to address climate change from professional and work organisations was low. The final framework developed included elements of advocacy/lobbying, policy, professional recognition/support, organisational support, knowledge/skills, partnerships and programmes. This research demonstrates a need for public health nutrition to address climate change, which requires support by organisations, policy, improved knowledge and increased professional development opportunities.

  5. Addressing the socioeconomic determinants of adolescent health: experiences from the WHO/HBSC Forum 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koller, Theadora; Morgan, Antony; Guerreiro, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the WHO collaborative cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study has been accumulating evidence that provides insights into how to promote the health and well-being of young people. HBSC has increased understanding of the determinants of young...... people's health, particularly in relation to the social contexts in which they live, learn and play. The study now spans 43 countries and regions in Europe and North America. HBSC provides intelligence for the development and evaluation of public health policy and practice at national, sub...

  6. Sixth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health highlights selected papers presented at the Sixth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research organized by Jackson State University (JSU from September 13−16, 2009 at the Marriott Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi, USA. The Symposium was built upon the overwhelming success of previous symposia hosted by JSU and co-sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH RCMI-Center for Environmental Health, the U.S. Department of Education Title III Graduate Education Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the JSU Office of Academic Affairs, and the JSU Office of Research and Federal Relations. [...

  7. Seventh International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is dedicated to the publication of selected papers presented at the Seventh International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium was organized by Jackson State University (JSU from September 12–15, 2010 at the Marriott Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi. It was built upon the overwhelming success of previous symposia hosted by JSU and co-sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH RCMI-Center for Environmental Health, the U.S. Department of Education Title III Graduate Education Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the JSU Office of Academic Affairs, and the JSU Office of Research and Federal Relations. [...

  8. The virtual network supporting the front lines: addressing emerging behavioral health problems following the tsunami of 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissman, Dori B; Schreiber, Merritt; Klomp, Richard W; Hoover, Michele; Kowalski-Trakofler, Kathleen; Perez, Jon

    2006-10-01

    The devastation wreaked by the 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean required extensive multinational and nongovernmental relief efforts to address the massive loss of infrastructure, people, and society. This article addresses approaches to behavioral incident management from a process perspective, through the lens of one official stateside channel of emergency operations. The process highlights the formation and connectivity of multidisciplinary teams that virtually supported the efforts of a seven-person, on-scene, behavioral health team aboard the USNS Mercy as part of Operation Unified Assistance in the Indian Ocean. Frontline health diplomacy and behavioral health relief efforts were greatly augmented by the virtual network of support from leading experts around the globe. Future disaster response and recovery efforts ought to build on the success of such virtual support networks, by planning for appropriate technology, expertise, and mutual aid partnerships.

  9. Teaching lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender health in a South African health sciences faculty: addressing the gap

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Background People who identity as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) have specific health needs. Sexual orientation and gender identity are social determinants of health, as homophobia and heteronormativity persist as prejudices in society. LGBT patients often experience discrimination and prejudice in health care settings. While recent South African policies recognise the need for providing LGBT specific health care, no curricula for teaching about LGBT health related issues exist...

  10. The Role of Violence Against Women Act in Addressing Intimate Partner Violence: A Public Health Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Monica N.; Palmer, Sheallah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as violence committed by a current or former boyfriend or girlfriend, spouse or ex-spouse. Each year, 1.3 to 5.3 million women in the United States experience IPV. The large number of individuals affected, the enormous healthcare costs, and the need for a multidisciplinary approach make IPV an important healthcare issue. The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) addresses domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. It emphasizes development of coordinated community care among law enforcement, prosecutors, victim services, and attorneys. VAWA was not reauthorized in 2012 because it lacked bipartisan support. VAWA 2013 contains much needed new provisions for Native Americans; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, gay, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals; and victims of human trafficking but does not address the large amount of intimate partner violence in America's immigrant population. There are important remaining issues regarding intimate partner violence that need to be addressed by future legislation. This review examines the role of legislation and addresses proposals for helping victims of IPV. PMID:24299159

  11. Human Health and the Biological Effects of Tritium in Drinking Water: Prudent Policy Through Science - Addressing the ODWAC New Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingwall, S; Mills, C E; Phan, N; Taylor, K; Boreham, D R

    2011-02-22

    Tritium is a radioactive form of hydrogen and is a by-product of energy production in Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors. The release of this radioisotope into the environment is carefully managed at CANDU facilities in order to minimize radiation exposure to the public. However, under some circumstances, small accidental releases to the environment can occur. The radiation doses to humans and non-human biota from these releases are low and orders of magnitude less than doses received from naturally occurring radioisotopes or from manmade activities, such as medical imaging and air travel. There is however a renewed interest in the biological consequences of low dose tritium exposures and a new limit for tritium levels in Ontario drinking water has been proposed. The Ontario Drinking Water Advisory Council (ODWAC) issued a formal report in May 2009 in response to a request by the Minister of the Environment, concluding that the Ontario Drinking Water Quality Standard for tritium should be revised from the current 7,000 Bq/L level to a new, lower 20 Bq/L level. In response to this recommendation, an international scientific symposium was held at McMaster University to address the issues surrounding this change in direction and the validity of a new policy. Scientists, regulators, government officials, and industrial stakeholders were present to discuss the potential health risks associated with low level radiation exposure from tritium. The regulatory, economic, and social implications of the new proposed limit were also considered.The new recommendation assumed a linear-no-threshold model to calculate carcinogenic risk associated with tritium exposure, and considered tritium as a non-threshold chemical carcinogen. Both of these assumptions are highly controversial given that recent research suggests that low dose exposures have thresholds below which there are no observable detrimental effects. Furthermore, mutagenic and carcinogenic risk calculated from

  12. Addressing inequities in access to primary health care: lessons for the training of health care professionals from a regional medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkins, Sarah; Sen Gupta, Tarun; Evans, Rebecca; Murray, Richard; Preston, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    Attention to the inequitable distribution and limited access to primary health care resources is key to addressing the priority health needs of underserved populations in rural, remote and outer metropolitan areas. There is little high-quality evidence about improving access to quality primary health care services for underserved groups, particularly in relation to geographic barriers, and limited discussion about the training implications of reforms to improve access. To progress equity in access to primary health care services, health professional education institutions need to work with both the health sector and policy makers to address issues of workforce mix, recruitment and retention, and new models of primary health care delivery. This requires a fundamental shift in focus from these institutions and the health sector, to each view themselves as partners in an integrated teaching, research and service-oriented health system. This paper discusses the challenges and opportunities for primary health care professionals, educators and the health sector in providing quality teaching and clinical experiences for increasing numbers of health professionals as a result of the reform agenda. It then outlines some practical strategies based on theory and evolving experience for dealing with some of these challenges and capitalising on opportunities.

  13. On the road to a stronger public health workforce: visual tools to address complex challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drehobl, Patricia; Stover, Beth H; Koo, Denise

    2014-11-01

    The public health workforce is vital to protecting the health and safety of the public, yet for years, state and local governmental public health agencies have reported substantial workforce losses and other challenges to the workforce that threaten the public's health. These challenges are complex, often involve multiple influencing or related causal factors, and demand comprehensive solutions. However, proposed solutions often focus on selected factors and might be fragmented rather than comprehensive. This paper describes approaches to characterizing the situation more comprehensively and includes two visual tools: (1) a fishbone, or Ishikawa, diagram that depicts multiple factors affecting the public health workforce; and (2) a roadmap that displays key elements-goals and strategies-to strengthen the public health workforce, thus moving from the problems depicted in the fishbone toward solutions. The visual tools aid thinking about ways to strengthen the public health workforce through collective solutions and to help leverage resources and build on each other's work. The strategic roadmap is intended to serve as a dynamic tool for partnership, prioritization, and gap assessment. These tools reflect and support CDC's commitment to working with partners on the highest priorities for strengthening the workforce to improve the public's health. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Innovative Approaches Address Aging and Mental Health Needs in LGBTQ Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy-Ellis, Charles P; Ator, Michael; Kerr, Christopher; Milford, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    LGBTQ older adults have higher levels of psychological distress as compared to older adults in general. They also experience multiple barriers to accessing equitable, culturally competent mental health and aging services because of their distinct histories and particular social contexts. This article discusses this lack of access to services, and highlights an innovative way mental health services are being delivered in LGBTQ communities.

  15. New approaches to addressing information needs in local public health agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, L W; Haynes, R B; Pickering, R; McKibbon, A; Walker-Dilks, C J; Panton, L; Goldblatt, E

    1991-01-01

    For local Public Health agencies to be fully responsive to community needs, staff must have ready access to up-to-date and accurate information. During the last several years, the Hamilton-Wentworth Department of Public Health Services (DPHS), a Teaching Health Unit affiliated with McMaster University, has been developing new information services including establishment of a specialized library on site; education sessions on the use of information stored in this library and in the Hamilton-Wentworth Health Library Network; innovative approaches to tailoring information services to staff needs including on-site access to on-line literature databases; and establishment of a group to retrieve and report community health data. In the initial three years of operation, surveys of Hamilton-Wentworth staff and a comparison health unit (Niagara) revealed that staff most frequently sought information from managers and support staff, as well as from personal books, articles and journals. Over half (57%) of the Hamilton-Wentworth staff reported use of the DPHS library, whereas 28% of Niagara Regional Health Unit staff reported use of their library. Other information services, for example, bibliographic indexes on population health, were less frequently used. Plans to increase their use are discussed.

  16. Addressing individual behaviours and living conditions: Four Nordic public health policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2011-01-01

    approach to public health exists. All programmes contain contradictory policies and ideological statements with differences regarding the emphasis on individual behaviour versus choice and living conditions and political responsibility. The policies are not entirely predictable from the political stance......: Analyses of recent public health programmes in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Results: Focus is on either, or both, individual behaviour and living conditions as causes of ill health; the remedies are classical liberal as well as social democratic policies. None of the programmes is consistent...... environment and the politicians’ responsibility to improve the population’s health. The Swedish and the Finnish programmes lie between those of Denmark and Norway. The Finnish and Norwegian governments stress their responsibility for the health of the population. Conclusions: No common Nordic political...

  17. The Role of Occupational Therapy in Community-Based Programming: Addressing Childhood Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Kugel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and poor health habits impact youth’s health and occupational participation. Occupational therapy’s role in preventing and treating obesity continues to emerge in the research literature. This article explores the impact of a community-based program emphasizing health and wellness for female youth. Methods: Five girls 11 to 13 years of age participated in the healthy occupations program. Before and after the program, the participants engaged in an individual semi-structured interview and completed the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure and the CATCH Kids Club Questionnaire. The youth participated in a focus group midprogram. Results: The participants were receptive to information regarding healthy behaviors and initiated positive health behavior changes after implementation of a 7-week healthy lifestyle community- based program. Conclusion: Occupational therapy can collaborate with community partners to provide programming focused on health promotion and prevention as part of the interprofessional approach to preventing and treating childhood obesity and building healthier communities.

  18. Study of Global Health Strategy Based on International Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    HATANAKA, Takashi; EGUCHI, Narumi; DEGUCHI, Mayumi; YAZAWA, Manami; ISHII, Masami

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese government at present is implementing international health and medical growth strategies mainly from the viewpoint of business. However, the United Nations is set to resolve the Post-2015 Development Agenda in the fall of 2015; the agenda will likely include the achievement of universal health coverage (UHC) as a specific development goal. Japan’s healthcare system, the foundation of which is its public, nationwide universal health insurance program, has been evaluated highly by the Lancet. The World Bank also praised it as a global model. This paper presents suggestions and problems for Japan regarding global health strategies, including in regard to several prerequisite domestic preparations that must be made. They are summarized as follows. (1) The UHC development should be promoted in coordination with the United Nations, World Bank, and Asian Development Bank. (2) The universal health insurance system of Japan can be a global model for UHC and ensuring its sustainability should be considered a national policy. (3) Trade agreements such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) should not disrupt or interfere with UHC, the form of which is unique to each nation, including Japan. (4) Japan should disseminate information overseas, including to national governments, people, and physicians, regarding the course of events that led to the establishment of the Japan’s universal health insurance system and should make efforts to develop international human resources to participate in UHC policymaking. (5) The development of separate healthcare programs and UHC preparation should be promoted by streamlining and centralizing maternity care, school health, infectious disease management such as for tuberculosis, and emergency medicine such as for traffic accidents. (6) Japan should disseminate information overseas about its primary care physicians (kakaritsuke physicians) and develop international human resources. (7) Global health should be developed in

  19. International collaboration to protect health workers from infectious diseases in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Marie-Claude; Yassi, Annalee; Bryce, Elizabeth; Fujii, Ronaldo; Logronio, Milton; Tennassee, Maritza

    2010-05-01

    The Healthy Hospital Project, an international collaboration, aimed to strengthen Ecuador's capacity to promote healthier and safer hospitals by reducing occupational transmission of infectious diseases. Team members conducted a needs assessment to identify workplace hazards and health risks in three hospitals. A survey of health care workers' knowledge and practices of occupational health (OH) and infection control (IC) revealed positive practices such as a medical waste disposal program and widespread dissemination of health information. Challenges identified included a high frequency of recapping needles and limited resources for workers to apply consistent IC measures. The survey revealed underreporting of needlestick injuries and limited OH and safety (OHS) training. Therefore, project collaborators organized a training workshop for health care workers that aimed to overcome the identified obstacles by integrating interdisciplinary local, national, and international stakeholders to build capacity and institutionalize work-related infection prevention and control measures. The knowledge transferred and experience gained led to useful hospital-based projects and serves as a basis for implementation of other OHS projects nationwide. International interdisciplinary, interinstitutional collaboration in OHS and IC can build capacity to address OHS concerns in health care.

  20. Interpreting the International Right to Health in a Human Rights-Based Approach to Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Paul

    2016-12-01

    This article tracks the shifting place of the international right to health, and human rights-based approaches to health, in the scholarly literature and United Nations (UN). From 1993 to 1994, the focus began to move from the right to health toward human rights-based approaches to health, including human rights guidance adopted by UN agencies in relation to specific health issues. There is a compelling case for a human rights-based approach to health, but it runs the risk of playing down the right to health, as evidenced by an examination of some UN human rights guidance. The right to health has important and distinctive qualities that are not provided by other rights-consequently, playing down the right to health can diminish rights-based approaches to health, as well as the right to health itself. Because general comments, the reports of UN Special Rapporteurs, and UN agencies' guidance are exercises in interpretation, I discuss methods of legal interpretation. I suggest that the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights permits distinctive interpretative methods within the boundaries established by the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. I call for the right to health to be placed explicitly at the center of a rights-based approach and interpreted in accordance with public international law and international human rights law.

  1. Increasing the impact of health plan report cards by addressing consumers' concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, J H; Harris-Kojetin, L; Mullin, P; Lubalin, J; Garfinkel, S

    2000-01-01

    Most plan report cards that compare the performance of health plans have framed the decision about plan choice as an opportunity to get better-quality care. This study uses a controlled experimental design to examine the effect of reframing the health plan choice decision to one that emphasizes protecting oneself from possible risk. The findings show that framing the health plan decision using a risk message has a consistent and significant positive impact on how consumers comprehend, value, and weight comparative performance information.

  2. International trends in health science librarianship: Part 2--Northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollfuss, Helmut; Bauer, Bruno; Declève, Ghislaine; Verhaaren, Henri; Utard-Wlerick, Guillemette; Bakker, Suzanne; Leclerq, Edith; Murphy, Jeannette

    2012-06-01

    This is the third in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors were asked to reflect on developments in their country--viz. Austria, Belgium, France and the Netherlands. Future issues will track trends in the Nordic countries, Southern Europe and Latin America. JM.

  3. Current medical research funding and frameworks are insufficient to address the health risks of global environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebi, Kristie L; Semenza, Jan C; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-11-11

    Three major international agreements signed in 2015 are key milestones for transitioning to more sustainable and resilient societies: the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development; the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction; and the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Together, these agreements underscore the critical importance of understanding and managing the health risks of global changes, to ensure continued population health improvements in the face of significant social and environmental change over this century. BODY: Funding priorities of major health institutions and organizations in the U.S. and Europe do not match research investments with needs to inform implementation of these international agreements. In the U.S., the National Institutes of Health commit 0.025 % of their annual research budget to climate change and health. The European Union Seventh Framework Programme committed 0.08 % of the total budget to climate change and health; the amount committed under Horizon 2020 was 0.04 % of the budget. Two issues apparently contributing to this mismatch are viewing climate change primarily as an environmental problem, and therefore the responsibility of other research streams; and narrowly framing research into managing the health risks of climate variability and change from the perspective of medicine and traditional public health. This reductionist, top-down perspective focuses on proximate, individual level risk factors. While highly successful in reducing disease burdens, this framing is insufficient to protect health and well-being over a century that will be characterized by profound social and environmental changes. International commitments in 2015 underscored the significant challenges societies will face this century from climate change and other global changes. However, the low priority placed on understanding and managing the associated health risks by national and international research

  4. Addressing Social Determinants of Health in a Clinic Setting: The WellRx Pilot in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Reeves, Janet; Kaufman, Will; Bleecker, Molly; Norris, Jeffrey; McCalmont, Kate; Ianakieva, Veneta; Ianakieva, Dessislava; Kaufman, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Although it is known that the social determinants of health have a larger influence on health outcomes than health care, there currently is no structured way for primary care providers to identify and address nonmedical social needs experienced by patients seen in a clinic setting. We developed and piloted WellRx, an 11-question instrument used to screen 3048 patients for social determinants in 3 family medicine clinics over a 90-day period. Results showed that 46% of patients screened positive for at least 1 area of social need, and 63% of those had multiple needs. Most of these needs were previously unknown to the clinicians. Medical assistants and community health workers then offered to connect patients with appropriate services and resources to address the identified needs. The WellRx pilot demonstrated that it is feasible for a clinic to implement such an assessment system, that the assessment can reveal important information, and that having information about patients' social needs improves provider ease of practice. Demonstrated feasibility and favorable outcomes led to institutionalization of the WellRx process at a university teaching hospital and influenced the state department of health to require managed care organizations to have community health workers available to care for Medicaid patients.

  5. Addressing the human resource for health crisis in Tanzania: the lost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Tanzania is experiencing a serious Human Resource for Health (HRH) crisis. ... with the GIA period included place of accommodation, allowance (for .... to go on with clinical practices and hence opt for other well paying jobs that do ...

  6. 75 FR 20913 - Center for Devices and Radiological Health; New Address Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Electronic products, Labeling, Lasers, Medical devices, Radiation protection, Reporting and recordkeeping... and procedure, Medical devices. 21 CFR Part 900 Electronic products, Health facilities, Medical devices, Radiation protection, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, X-rays. 21 CFR Part...

  7. Storytelling/narrative theory to address health communication with minority populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeok; Fawcett, Jacqueline; DeMarco, Rosanna

    2016-05-01

    To explain the development and application of storytelling/narrative theory in health disparities intervention research as a way to promote health communication and behavior change among racial, ethnic, and minority populations. The proposed storytelling theory helps explain that storytelling affects changes in attitude and health behavior of the viewer through realism, identification, and transportation. The proposed storytelling/narrative theory can be a guide to develop culturally grounded narrative interventions that have the ability to connect with hard-to-reach populations. Narrative communication is context-dependent because it derives meaning from the surrounding situation and provides situation-based stories that are a pathway to processing story content. Although storytelling is grounded in nursing practice and education, it is underutilized in nursing interventional research. Future efforts are needed to extend theory-based narrative intervention studies designed to change attitude and behaviors that will reduce health disparities among minorities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Multi-sectoral action for addressing social determinants of noncommunicable diseases and mainstreaming health promotion in national health programmes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Monika; Chauhan, Kavita; John, Shoba; Mukhopadhyay, Alok

    2011-12-01

    Major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) share common behavioral risk factors and deep-rooted social determinants. India needs to address its growing NCD burden through health promoting partnerships, policies, and programs. High-level political commitment, inter-sectoral coordination, and community mobilization are important in developing a successful, national, multi-sectoral program for the prevention and control of NCDs. The World Health Organization's "Action Plan for a Global Strategy for Prevention and Control of NCDs" calls for a comprehensive plan involving a whole-of-Government approach. Inter-sectoral coordination will need to start at the planning stage and continue to the implementation, evaluation of interventions, and enactment of public policies. An efficient multi-sectoral mechanism is also crucial at the stage of monitoring, evaluating enforcement of policies, and analyzing impact of multi-sectoral initiatives on reducing NCD burden in the country. This paper presents a critical appraisal of social determinants influencing NCDs, in the Indian context, and how multi-sectoral action can effectively address such challenges through mainstreaming health promotion into national health and development programs. India, with its wide socio-cultural, economic, and geographical diversities, poses several unique challenges in addressing NCDs. On the other hand, the jurisdiction States have over health, presents multiple opportunities to address health from the local perspective, while working on the national framework around multi-sectoral aspects of NCDs.

  9. A public-policy practicum to address current issues in human, animal, and ecosystem health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, John A; Johnson, Yvette J; Troutt, H Fred; Prudhomme, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    There are recognized needs for cross-training health professionals in human, animal, and ecosystem health and for public health policy to be informed by experts from medical, science, and social science disciplines. Faculty members of the Community Health and Preventive Medicine Section at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Institute of Government and Public Affairs, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have offered a public-policy course designed to meet those needs. The course was designed as a practicum to teach students the policy-making process through the development of policy proposals and to instruct students on how to effectively present accurate scientific, demographic, and statistical information to policy makers and to the public. All students substantially met the learning objectives of the course. This course represents another model that can be implemented to help students learn about complex, multifactorial issues that affect the health of humans, animals, and ecosystems, while promoting participation in public health policy development.

  10. Internal marketing strategy: Focusing on staff orientation in health care in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. De Jager

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to determine the levels of satisfaction in respect of pre identified internal marketing-related variables in a large provincial hospital in South Africa. Problem investigated: Low job satisfaction is often cited as a major cause of high turnover among health care providers worldwide. Likewise the Public Health Care Industry in South Africa is facing complex employee retention issues. In determining the reasons for high turnover an interest in evaluating employee satisfaction among health care providers has increased. Measuring components of job satisfaction will assist not only the health care organisations' management to understand hospital culture, but also to compile an effective internal marketing plan and strategy. Design/Methodology/Approach: A staff satisfaction survey was conducted amongst staff members at a provincial hospital in the Tshwane region, South Africa. Attitudes of staff on pre-identified staff satisfaction variables were assessed. These variables were employed to implement an internal marketing strategy. A list of variables was formulated after an extensive literature study had been conducted. A total of 416 staff members voluntarily completed a self-administered questionnaire. A five-point Likert type scale was used to measure the levels of satisfaction on staff-related issues, with a view to addressing issues in the internal marketing strategy. Findings : It was evident that the management principles currently employed by the management team were a cause for concern among staff members. Based on the analysis that identified the satisfaction variables best it was clear that management should take immediate steps to address the following issues : Clarification of hospital goals \\ objectives; Understanding the goals of the respective departments; The functioning of the Human resource department; Functioning of the overall hospital management; andImplications: This paper aims to present a

  11. Child health and the international monetary fund: the Nicaraguan experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, E

    1998-11-14

    In 1979, when the Frente Sandinista de Liberacion Nacional (FSLN), a popular revolutionary front, deposed Nicaragua's ruling Somoza family, the Nicaraguan population's health status ranked with that of Bolivia and Honduras as the worst in Latin America. The Sandinista government committed itself to improving health services and health status such that in 1982, the World Health Organization commended the major advances in health care made in the government's first few years. That progress, however, has not been maintained as Sandinista health, nutrition, literacy, and agrarian programs have been abandoned by the government under pressure from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the US government to privatize and cut public spending. The progress made over the past decade is now being undone by an imposed structural adjustment policy and the burden of international debt. The IMF has disregarded social equity as a criterion for its programs. Under current conditions, the health and well-being of the Nicaraguan people will continue to deteriorate. Until the Nicaraguan debt situation is resolved, there is no hope for sustainable growth and development.

  12. Addressing health disparities through patient education: the development of culturally-tailored health education materials at Puentes de Salud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Isobel; O'Brien, Matthew

    2011-10-01

    The availability of culturally appropriate written health information is essential for promoting health in diverse populations. Lack of English fluency has been shown to negatively impact health outcomes for Latinos in the United States. The authors conducted a needs assessment at a clinic serving Latino immigrants, focusing on patients' health and previous experiences with written health information. Based on these results and a literature review, we developed 10 Spanish language brochures to better serve the target population. This article outlines the process of developing and implementing this intervention, which can serve as a model for similar projects targeting diverse populations.

  13. [The transition from 'international' to 'global' public health and the World Health Organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Theodore M; Cueto, Marcos; Fee, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Within the context of international public health, 'global health' seems to be emerging as a recognized term of preference. This article presents a critical analysis of the meaning and importance of 'global health' and situates its growing popularity within a historical context. A specific focus of this work is the role of the World Health Organization - WHO in both 'international' and 'global' health, and as na agent of transition from one to the other. Between 1948 and 1998, the WHO went through a period of hardship as it came up against an organizational crisis, budget cuts and a diminished status, especially when confronted with the growing influence of new, power players like the World Bank. We suggest that the WHO has responded to this changing international context by inititating its own process of restructuring and repositioning as an agent for coordinating, strategically planning and leading 'global health' initiatives.

  14. International health, the early cold war and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Marcos

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a panoramic vision of the development of international health in Latin America during the late 1940s and the 1950s, when a series of bilateral and multilateral institutions, such as the World Health Organization and UNICEF, were founded and reshaped. The language, policies, and activities of these new institutional actors were heavily influenced by the context of the early Cold War between the era's superpowers: the United States and the Soviet Union. Vertical campaigns against yaws and malaria--implemented under the leadership of Fred L. Soper, director of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau--symbolized international health's technical orientation, as well as its contribution to the modernization of the countries of the region. The Cold War period has received little attention by historians of medicine, though it bears certain similarities to historiographical discussions of the relationship between tropical medicine and imperialism in the early 20th century.

  15. Setting priorities to address cardiovascular diseases through universal health coverage in low- and middle-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Rachel A

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, universal health coverage (UHC) has emerged as a major policy goal for many low- and middle-income country governments. Yet, despite the high burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), relatively little is known about how to address CVD through UHC. This review covers three major topics. First, we define UHC and provide some context for its importance, and then we illustrate its relevance to CVD prevention and treatment. Second, we discuss how countries might select high-priority CVD interventions for a UHC health benefits package drawing on economic evaluation methods. Third, we explore some implementation challenges and identify research gaps that, if addressed, could improve the inclusion of CVD into UHC. PMID:28321266

  16. Addressing the "Global Health Tax" and "Wild Cards": Practical Challenges to Building Academic Careers in Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazuelos, Daniel; Dhillon, Ranu

    2016-01-01

    Among many possible benefits, global health efforts can expand the skills and experience of U.S. clinicians, improve health for communities in need, and generate innovations in care delivery with relevance everywhere. Yet, despite high rates of interest among students and medical trainees to include global health opportunities in their training, there is still no clear understanding of how this interest will translate into viable and sustained global health careers after graduation. Building on a growing conversation about how to support careers in academic global health, this Perspective describes the practical challenges faced by physicians pursuing these careers after they complete training. Writing from their perspective as junior faculty at one U.S. academic health center with a dedicated focus on global health training, the authors describe a number of practical issues they have found to be critical both for their own career development and for the advice they provide their mentees. With a particular emphasis on the financial, personal, professional, and logistical challenges that young "expat" global health physicians in academic institutions face, they underscore the importance of finding ways to support these career paths, and propose possible solutions. Such investments would not only respond to the rational and moral imperatives of global health work and advance the mission of improving human health but also help to fully leverage the potential of what is already an unprecedented movement within academic medicine.

  17. The effectiveness of health appraisal processes currently in addressing health and wellbeing during spatial plan appraisal: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Selena

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial planning affects the built environment, which in turn has the potential to have a significant impact on health, for good or ill. One way of ensuring that spatial plans take due account of health is through the inclusion of health considerations in the statutory and non statutory appraisal processes linked to plan-making processes. Methods A systematic review to identify evaluation studies of appraisals or assessments of plans where health issues were considered from 1987 to 2010. Results A total of 6161 citations were identified: 6069 from electronic databases, 57 fromwebsite searches, with a further 35 citations from grey literature, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. These 20 citations reported on a total of 135 different case studies: 11 UK HIA; 11 non UK high income countries HIA, 5 UK SEA or other integrated appraisal; 108 non UK high income SEA or other integrated appraisal. All studies were in English. No relevant studies were identified reporting on low or middle income countries. The studies were limited by potential bias (no independent evaluation, with those undertaking the appraisal also responsible for reporting outcomes, lack of detail and a lack of triangulation of results. Health impact assessments generally covered the four specified health domains (physical activity, mental health and wellbeing, environmental health issues such as pollution and noise, injury more comprehensively than SEA or other integrated appraisals, although mental health and wellbeing was an underdeveloped area. There was no evidence available on the incorporation of health in Sustainability Appraisal, limited evidence that the recommendations from any type of appraisal were implemented, and almost no evidence that the recommendations had led to the anticipated outcomes or improvements in health postulated. Conclusion Research is needed to assess (i the degree to which statutory plan appraisal processes (SA in the UK

  18. Creating change in government to address the social determinants of health: how can efforts be improved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Gemma; Crammond, Brad; Keast, Robyn

    2014-10-20

    The evidence base for the impact of social determinants of health has been strengthened considerably in the last decade. Increasingly, the public health field is using this as a foundation for arguments and actions to change government policies. The Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach, alongside recommendations from the 2010 Marmot Review into health inequalities in the UK (which we refer to as the 'Fairness Agenda'), go beyond advocating for the redesign of individual policies, to shaping the government structures and processes that facilitate the implementation of these policies. In doing so, public health is drawing on recent trends in public policy towards 'joined up government', where greater integration is sought between government departments, agencies and actors outside of government. In this paper we provide a meta-synthesis of the empirical public policy research into joined up government, drawing out characteristics associated with successful joined up initiatives.We use this thematic synthesis as a basis for comparing and contrasting emerging public health interventions concerned with joined-up action across government. We find that HiAP and the Fairness Agenda exhibit some of the characteristics associated with successful joined up initiatives, however they also utilise 'change instruments' that have been found to be ineffective. Moreover, we find that - like many joined up initiatives - there is room for improvement in the alignment between the goals of the interventions and their design. Drawing on public policy studies, we recommend a number of strategies to increase the efficacy of current interventions. More broadly, we argue that up-stream interventions need to be 'fit-for-purpose', and cannot be easily replicated from one context to the next.

  19. Addressing inequity to achieve the maternal and child health millennium development goals: looking beyond averages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhago George M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inequity in access to and use of child and maternal health interventions is impeding progress towards the maternal and child health Millennium Development Goals. This study explores the potential health gains and equity impact if a set of priority interventions for mothers and under fives were scaled up to reach national universal coverage targets for MDGs in Tanzania. Methods We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST to estimate potential reductions in maternal and child mortality and the number of lives saved across wealth quintiles and between rural and urban settings. High impact maternal and child health interventions were modelled for a five-year scale up, by linking intervention coverage, effectiveness and cause of mortality using data from Tanzania. Concentration curves were drawn and the concentration index estimated to measure the equity impact of the scale up. Results In the poorest population quintiles in Tanzania, the lives of more than twice as many mothers and under-fives were likely to be saved, compared to the richest quintile. Scaling up coverage to equal levels across quintiles would reduce inequality in maternal and child mortality from a pro rich concentration index of −0.11 (maternal and −0.12 (children to a more equitable concentration index of −0,03 and −0.03 respectively. In rural areas, there would likely be an eight times greater reduction in maternal deaths than in urban areas and a five times greater reduction in child deaths than in urban areas. Conclusions Scaling up priority maternal and child health interventions to equal levels would potentially save far more lives in the poorest populations, and would accelerate equitable progress towards maternal and child health MDGs.

  20. Looking within and beyond the community: lessons learned by researching, theorising and acting to address urban poverty and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Darrin; Chamberlain, Kerry; Tankel, Yadena; Groot, Shiloh

    2014-01-01

    Urban poverty and health inequalities are inextricably intertwined. By working in partnership with service providers and communities to address urban poverty, we can enhance the wellness of people in need. This article reflects on lessons learned from the Family100 project that explores the everyday lives, frustrations and dilemmas faced by 100 families living in poverty in Auckland. Lessons learned support the need to bring the experiences and lived realities of families to the fore in public deliberations about community and societal responses to urban poverty and health inequality.

  1. A responsive evaluation of mental health treatment in Cambodia: Intentionally addressing poverty to increase cultural responsiveness in therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seponski, Desiree M; Lewis, Denise C; Megginson, Maegan C

    2014-01-01

    Mental health issues are significant contributors to the global burden of disease with the highest incidence in resource poor countries; 90% of those in need of mental health treatment reside in low resource countries but receive only 10% of the world's resources. Cambodia, the eighth least developed country in the world, serves as one example of the need to address mental health concerns in low-income, resource poor countries. The current study utilises responsive evaluation methodology to explore how poverty-stricken Cambodian clients, therapists and supervisors experience Western models of therapy as culturally responsive to their unique needs. Quantitative and qualitative data were triangulated across multiple stakeholders using numerous methods including a focus group, interviews, surveys, case illustrations and live supervision observation and analysed using constant comparative analysis. Emerging findings suggest that poverty, material needs, therapy location and financial situations greatly impact the daily lives and mental health conditions of Cambodians and hinder clients' therapeutic progress. The local community needs and context of poverty greatly hinder clients' therapeutic progress in therapy treatment and when therapy does not directly address the culture of poverty, clients did not experience therapy as valuable despite some temporary decreases in mental health symptoms.

  2. The FDI African Strategy for Oral Health: addressing the specific needs of the continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hescot, Patrick; China, Emile; Bourgeois, Denis; Maina, Susan; Monteiro da Silva, Orlando; Luc Eiselé, Jean; Simpson, Christopher; Horn, Virginie

    2013-06-01

    The FDI World Dental Federation has defined a strategy for the development of oral health in Africa during the "African Summit" held in Cape Town, South Africa. The summit gathered presidents from 16 African National Dental Associations, FDI stakeholders, the World Health Organisation and government delegates. The outcomes of this summit were stated in a Declaration, defining the functional principles of the African strategy as three priorities: To establish and reinforce the credibility of NDAs To acquire and develop leadership and management skills Effective peer-to-peer exchange of information.

  3. Internal health locus of control predicts willingness to track health behaviors online and with smartphone applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Brooke L; Goldstein, Carly M; Gathright, Emily C; Hughes, Joel W; Latner, Janet D

    2017-04-17

    Given rising technology use across all demographic groups, digital interventions offer a potential strategy for increasing access to health information and care. Research is lacking on identifying individual differences that impact willingness to use digital interventions, which may affect patient engagement. Health locus of control, the amount of control an individual believes they have over their own health, may predict willingness to use mobile health (mHealth) applications ('apps') and online trackers. A cross-sectional study (n = 276) was conducted to assess college students' health locus of control beliefs and willingness to use health apps and online trackers. Internal and powerful other health locus of control beliefs predicted willingness to use health apps and online trackers while chance health locus of control beliefs did not. Individuals with internal and powerful other health locus of control beliefs are more willing than those with chance health locus of control beliefs to utilize a form of technology to monitor or change health behaviors. Health locus of control is an easy-to-assess patient characteristic providers can measure to identify which patients are more likely to utilize mHealth apps and online trackers.

  4. Public health agendas addressing violence against rural women - an analysis of local level health services in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cocco da Costa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses health managers' perceptions of local public health agendas addressing violence against rural women in municipalities in the southern part of the State Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. It consists of an exploratory descriptive study utilizing a qualitative approach. Municipal health managers responsible for planning actions directed at women's health and primary health care were interviewed. The analysis sought to explore elements of programmatic vulnerability related to violence in the interviewees' narratives based on the following dimensions of programmatic vulnerability: expression of commitment, transformation of commitment into action, and planning and coordination. It was found that local health agendas directed at violence against rural women do not exist. Health managers are therefore faced with the challenge of defining lines of action in accordance with the guidelines and principles of the SUS. The repercussions of this situation are expressed in fragile comprehensive services for these women and programmatic vulnerability.

  5. Tools for address georeferencing - limitations and opportunities every public health professional should be aware of.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Various address georeferencing (AG tools are currently available. But little is known about the quality of each tool. Using data from the EPIPorto cohort we compared the most commonly used AG tools in terms of positional error (PE and subjects' misclassification according to census tract socioeconomic status (SES, a widely used variable in epidemiologic studies. Participants of the EPIPorto cohort (n = 2427 were georeferenced using Geographical Information Systems (GIS and Google Earth (GE. One hundred were randomly selected and georeferenced using three additional tools: 1 cadastral maps (gold-standard; 2 Global Positioning Systems (GPS and 3 Google Earth, single and in a batch. Mean PE and the proportion of misclassified individuals were compared. Google Earth showed lower PE than GIS, but 10% of the addresses were imprecisely positioned. Thirty-eight, 27, 16 and 14% of the participants were located in the wrong census tract by GIS, GPS, GE (batch and GE (single, respectively (p<0.001. Misclassification according to SES was less frequent but still non-negligible -14.4, 8.1, 4.2 and 2% (p<0.001. The quality of georeferencing differed substantially between AG tools. GE seems to be the best tool, but only if prudently used. Epidemiologic studies using spatial data should start including information on the quality and accuracy of their georeferencing tools and spatial datasets.

  6. Identifying and Addressing the Mental Health Needs of Online Students in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Bonny

    2014-01-01

    89% of colleges and universities in the United States offer online courses and of those institutions 58% offer degree programs that are completely online (Parker, Lenhart & Moore, 2011).Providing online student services is an important component of these distance programs and is often required by accrediting bodies. Health and wellness…

  7. Addressing inequalities in oral health in India: need for skill mix in the dental workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Manu Raj; Singh, Ankur; Watt, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Dentistry has always been an under-resourced profession. There are three main issues that dentistry is facing in the modern era. Firstly, how to rectify the widely acknowledged geographical imbalance in the demand and supply of dental personnel, secondly, how to provide access to primary dental care to maximum number of people, and thirdly, how to achieve both of these aims within the financial restraints imposed by the central and state governments. The trends of oral diseases have changed significantly in the last 20 years. The two of the most common oral diseases that affect a majority of the population worldwide, namely dental caries and periodontitis, have been proved to be entirely preventable. Even for life-threatening oral diseases like oral cancer, the best possible available treatment is prevention. There is a growing consensus that appropriate skill mix can prove very beneficial in providing these preventive dental care services to the public and aid in achieving the goal of universal oral health coverage. Professions complementary to dentistry (PCD) have been found to be effective in reducing inequalities in oral health, improving access and spreading the messages of health promotion across entire spectrum of socio-economic hierarchy in various studies conducted globally. This commentary provides a review of the effectiveness of skill mix in dentistry and a reflection on how this can be beneficial in achieving universal oral health care in India.

  8. Can TESOL Teachers Address the Mental Health Concerns of the Indochinese Refugees? Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohon, J. Donald, Jr.

    This paper examines research in the fields of psychology, anthropology, and the Teaching of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) as it relates to the mental health needs of the Indochinese refugees. It is argued that TESOL instructors are in a key position to influence the adaptation process of refugees in their classes. Cultural values…

  9. Addressing inequalities in oral health in India: need for skill mix in the dental workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Raj Mathur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentistry has always been an under-resourced profession. There are three main issues that dentistry is facing in the modern era. Firstly, how to rectify the widely acknowledged geographical imbalance in the demand and supply of dental personnel, secondly, how to provide access to primary dental care to maximum number of people, and thirdly, how to achieve both of these aims within the financial restraints imposed by the central and state governments. The trends of oral diseases have changed significantly in the last 20 years. The two of the most common oral diseases that affect a majority of the population worldwide, namely dental caries and periodontitis, have been proved to be entirely preventable. Even for life-threatening oral diseases like oral cancer, the best possible available treatment is prevention. There is a growing consensus that appropriate skill mix can prove very beneficial in providing these preventive dental care services to the public and aid in achieving the goal of universal oral health coverage. Professions complementary to dentistry (PCD have been found to be effective in reducing inequalities in oral health, improving access and spreading the messages of health promotion across entire spectrum of socio-economic hierarchy in various studies conducted globally. This commentary provides a review of the effectiveness of skill mix in dentistry and a reflection on how this can be beneficial in achieving universal oral health care in India.

  10. Keep Calm and Contracept! Addressing Young Women's Pleasure in Sexual Health and Contraception Consultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanbury, Ali; Eastham, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Clinical sexual health consultations with young women often focus on avoiding "risks;" namely pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection transmission. They also typically fail to explore how contraception use can impact on the capacity to enjoy sexual relationships. In contrast, this paper argues that sexual pleasure should be a…

  11. Life Before Tests: A District's Coordinated Health Approach for Addressing Children's Full Range of Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Chronic illnesses, depression, abuse of drugs, alcohol and tobacco. Sugary snacks and drinks, vending machines, obesity and bullying. Guns, gang violence, school shootings and test scores. Teen-age birth rates, one-parent households, lack of health or dental care, and, dropouts. All of these issues are interconnected and intertwined with education…

  12. Addressing Health Disparities in the Undergraduate Curriculum: An Approach to Develop a Knowledgeable Biomedical Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabentos, Rocio; Ray, Payal; Kumar, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in health and healthcare are a major concern in the United States and worldwide. Approaches to alleviate these disparities must be multifaceted and should include initiatives that touch upon the diverse areas that influence the healthcare system. Developing a strong biomedical workforce with an awareness of the issues concerning health…

  13. Perspectives on the strategic uses of concept mapping to address public health challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lynda A; Slonim, Amy

    2017-02-01

    We examine the adaptation of approaches used to plan and implement the steps of concept mapping to meet specialized needs and requirements in several public health projects. Seven published concept mapping projects are detailed to document how each of the phases were modified to meet the specific aims of each project. Concept mapping was found to be a useful tool to complement public health roles such as assessment, program development, and priority setting. The phases of concept mapping allow for a blending of diverse perspectives, which is critical to public health efforts. The adaptability of concept mapping permits the use of multiple modalities such as the addition of face-to-face brainstorming; use of qualitative methods, including structured interviews; and review and use of published literature and guidelines. Another positive aspect of concept mapping for public health practice is its ability to identify program elements, provide a visual map of generated ideas and their relationships to one another, and assist in identifying priorities. Our reflections on the adaptability should help inform another generation in designing concept mapping projects and related products that may benefit from unique adaptations and the rapidly expanding social media technology and platforms.

  14. Functional food addressing heart health: do we have to target the gut microbiota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Paul M; Ross, Reynolds Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Caplice, Noel M; Stanton, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Health promoting functional food ingredients for cardiovascular health are generally aimed at modulating lipid metabolism in consumers. However, significant advances have furthered our understanding of the mechanisms involved in development, progression, and treatment of cardiovascular disease. In parallel, a central role of the gut microbiota, both in accelerating and attenuating cardiovascular disease, has emerged. Modulation of the gut microbiota, by use of prebiotics and probiotics, has recently shown promise in cardiovascular disease prevention. Certain prebiotics can promote a short chain fatty acid profile that alters hormone secretion and attenuates cholesterol synthesis, whereas bile salt hydrolase and exopolysaccharide-producing probiotics have been shown to actively correct hypercholesterolemia. Furthermore, specific microbial genera have been identified as potential cardiovascular disease risk factors. This effect is attributed to the ability of certain members of the gut microbiota to convert dietary quaternary amines to trimethylamine, the primary substrate of the putatively atherosclerosis-promoting compound trimethylamine-N-oxide. In this respect, current research is indicating trimethylamine-depleting Achaea - termed Archeabiotics as a potential novel dietary strategy for promoting heart health. The microbiota offers a modifiable target, which has the potential to progress or prevent cardiovascular disease development. Whereas host-targeted interventions remain the standard, current research implicates microbiota-mediated therapies as an effective means of modulating cardiovascular health.

  15. The Role of Mental Health Services in Addressing HIV Infection Among Women With Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Mary V

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews how mental health services can best prevent and treat HIV infection among women with serious mental illness. This is a selective narrative review of the recent literature on mental health services and HIV. The author used the terms "HIV," "serious mental illness," and "women" to search Google Scholar. Out of 500 relevant papers retrieved, 82 were included, based on their state-of-the-art findings. Women with serious mental illness at risk of HIV were found to be an especially vulnerable group. The evidence suggests that discussion of the modes of viral transmission reduces the risk of infection in this population, as do psychoeducation; long-term antipsychotic medication; adherence therapy; community treatment orders; prevention of domestic violence and homelessness; disbursement of financial entitlements; provision of psychotherapy and social support; cognitive rehabilitation; promotion of abstinence, monogamy, or reduction in the number of sexual partners; access to and training in the use of condoms; prophylaxis with vaginal microbicides and oral antiretroviral drugs; prompt diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases; across-the-board offers of HIV testing; and preservation and monitoring of reproductive health. For HIV-positive individuals, comprehensive treatment measures have included prompt HIV treatment; long-term retention in care; supervision of medication adherence and drug interactions; rapid management of substance use disorders and all other comorbidities as well as drug side effects; and preclusion of professional stigmatization. There is now sufficient evidence to recommend effective combinations of strategies to prevent and treat HIV within mental health services.

  16. Conference Addresses Problems of Reproduction and Women’s Health Care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER LIM

    1994-01-01

    REPRODUCTION and health are important problems concerning women’s progress and development. Since the 1960s the subjects have attracted the attention of the world. Awareness of these problems has gradually increased to the extent that some concepts have generally been agreed upon. They are:

  17. Mobile farm clinic outreach to address health conditions among Latino migrant farmworkers in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, John S; Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos; Marella, Prasen; Bowers, Angelica; Panchal, Viral; Anderson, Lisa; Charles, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural labor involves exposure to many occupational hazards, some of which can lead to chronic health conditions. The purpose of this study was to conduct an occupational health needs assessment of illnesses and work-related injuries among a Latino migrant farmworker population (recruited to harvest Vidalia onions) in South Georgia. Study data included survey responses from 100 farmworkers attending mobile farm clinics in 2010 at their worker housing residences, supplemented by medical diagnoses data from the same clinics collected over 3 years (2009-2011) for 1161 farmworkers at six different farms. From the survey, the main health problems reported were hypertension (25%), eye problems (12%), musculoskeletal problems (11%), diabetes (10%), and depression (7%). In multivariate analyses, depression scores were associated with having a history of musculoskeletal problems (p = .002). According to the mobile farm clinic data, the most common medical diagnoses included back pain (11.8%), hypertension (11.4%), musculoskeletal problems (11.3%), gastrointestinal disorders (8.6%), eye problems (7.2%), dermatitis or rash (7.0%), and tinea or fungal skin infections (5.6%). The study identified eye and musculoskeletal problems as the major occupational health conditions for this population of farmworkers.

  18. Addressing Health Disparities in the Undergraduate Curriculum: An Approach to Develop a Knowledgeable Biomedical Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabentos, Rocio; Ray, Payal; Kumar, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in health and healthcare are a major concern in the United States and worldwide. Approaches to alleviate these disparities must be multifaceted and should include initiatives that touch upon the diverse areas that influence the healthcare system. Developing a strong biomedical workforce with an awareness of the issues concerning health…

  19. Addressing Diversity in Health Science Students by Enhancing Flexibility through e-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penman, Joy; Thalluri, Jyothi

    2014-01-01

    The technological advancements for teaching and learning sciences for health science students are embedded in the Thalluri-Penman Good Practice Model, which aims to improve the learning experiences of science students and increase student retention and success rates. The model also links students from urban and rural areas, studying both on-and…

  20. Addressing adolescent substance use in a paediatric health-care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Natalie Lynette; Milne, Bronwyn; Silsbury, Catherine; Zappia, Popi; Zehetner, Anthony; Klineberg, Emily; Towns, Susan; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to review the operation of a specialist adolescent drug and alcohol consultation liaison service in a tertiary paediatric hospital. A retrospective review of patient records was conducted to identify patient characteristics and assess service utilisation. Two hundred adolescents were referred over 4 years. Most presented during mid-adolescence (14-16 years). Alcohol, cannabis and nicotine were the most frequently reported substances, and almost half of referrals involved polysubstance use. Mental health diagnoses and behavioural problems were commonly reported. Almost two-thirds (63.5%) attended an appointment for drug and alcohol assessment and intervention (n = 92) or were referred to appropriate services (n = 35). Adolescents more likely to engage and attend an appointment with the specialist adolescent addiction medicine service included those with amphetamine use, polysubstance use, chronic illness, any mental health diagnosis and mood disorder. Indigenous Australians and those with a history of aggression were more difficult to engage. Adolescents present to paediatric health settings with drug- and alcohol-related issues, including associated harms. These comprise, but are not limited to, physical and sexual assault, family conflict, mood and behavioural concerns (including psychosis), and forensic issues. Early intervention aims to reduce long-term risks such as dependence in adulthood. Specialist adolescent drug and alcohol services may assist in identifying and engaging these high-risk and often complex young people in developmentally appropriate treatment. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. Mental Health Facilities, This file contains the name, address, contact and some licensing information for the Mental Health facilities in Maryland., Published in 2010, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Mental Health Facilities dataset current as of 2010. This file contains the name, address, contact and some licensing information for the Mental Health facilities in...

  2. A distributed health data network analysis of survival outcomes: the International Consortium of Orthopaedic Registries perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Samprit; Cafri, Guy; Isaacs, Abby J; Graves, Stephen; Paxton, Elizabeth; Marinac-Dabic, Danica; Sedrakyan, Art

    2014-12-17

    The International Consortium for Orthopaedic Registries is a multinational initiative established by the United States Food and Drug Administration to develop a health data network aimed at providing a robust infrastructure to facilitate evidence-based decision-making on performance of medical devices. Through the International Consortium for Orthopaedic Registries, individual data holders have complete control of their data and can choose to participate in studies of their choice. In this article, we present an overview of the data extraction process and the analytic strategy employed to answer several device performance-related questions in total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty. In the process, we discuss some nuances pertinent to International Consortium for Orthopaedic Registries data that pose certain statistical challenges, and we briefly suggest strategies to be adopted to address them.

  3. Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) Facing the Twenty-First Century: Challenges and Contributions. Presidential Address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnove, Robert F.

    2001-01-01

    Examines challenges to comparative and international education in the areas of epistemological approaches, research methodology, philosophical considerations, and dissemination of findings; the field's contributions in questioning assumptions about school-society relationships, identifying the benefits and dangers of "borrowing" educational…

  4. The Role of School Health Services in Addressing the Needs of Students with Chronic Health Conditions: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Zanie C.; Wallin, Robin; Lee, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Children and adolescents in the United States spend many hours in school. Students with chronic health conditions (CHCs) may face lower academic achievement, increased disability, fewer job opportunities, and limited community interactions as they enter adulthood. School health services provide safe and effective management of CHCs, often for…

  5. The Role of School Health Services in Addressing the Needs of Students with Chronic Health Conditions: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Zanie C.; Wallin, Robin; Lee, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Children and adolescents in the United States spend many hours in school. Students with chronic health conditions (CHCs) may face lower academic achievement, increased disability, fewer job opportunities, and limited community interactions as they enter adulthood. School health services provide safe and effective management of CHCs, often for…

  6. Promoting the health of marginalized populations in Ecuador through international collaboration and educational innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Margot W; Spiegel, Jerry; Breilh, Jaime; Cabarcas, Fabio; Huish, Robert; Yassi, Annalee

    2009-04-01

    This paper examines two innovative educational initiatives for the Ecuadorian public health workforce: a Canadian-funded Masters programme in ecosystem approaches to health that focuses on building capacity to manage environmental health risks sustainably; and the training of Ecuadorians at the Latin American School of Medicine in Cuba (known as Escuela Latinoamericana de Medicina in Spanish). We apply a typology for analysing how training programmes address the needs of marginalized populations and build capacity for addressing health determinants. We highlight some ways we can learn from such training programmes with particular regard to lessons, barriers and opportunities for their sustainability at the local, national and international levels and for pursuing similar initiatives in other countries and contexts. We conclude that educational efforts focused on the challenges of marginalization and the determinants of health require explicit attention not only to the knowledge, attitudes and skills of graduates but also on effectively engaging the health settings and systems that will reinforce the establishment and retention of capacity in low- and middle-income settings where this is most needed.

  7. [Proposal to address the mental health problems detected after the February 27, 2010 earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Rodrigo A; Cortés, Paula F

    2016-02-01

    One of the most important topics mentioned by people from places affected by the February 27th, 2010 earthquake to the Presidential Delegation for the Reconstruction, was the urgent need of mental health care. Given the enormous individual and social burden of mental health sequelae after disasters, its treatment becomes a critical issue. In this article, we propose several actions to be implemented in Chile in the context of the process of recovery and reconstruction, including optimization of social communication and media response to disasters; designing and deployment of a national strategy for volunteer service; training of primary care staff in screening and initial management of post-traumatic stress reactions; and training, continuous education and clinical supervision of a critical number of therapists in evidence-based therapies for conditions specifically related to stress.

  8. Addressing mental health stigma among young adolescents: evaluation of a youth-led approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanda, Jeffrey J; Bruhn, Christine; Byro-Johnson, Trisha; Zentmyer, Melissa

    2014-05-01

    Stigma around mental illness puts adolescents at risk for not seeking help for themselves or helping peers dealing with mental distress. This program evaluation looks at a youth-led mental health awareness promotion campaign, in which high school students led educational workshops for at-risk middle school students in an after-school program. Pre- and posttests were used to measure knowledge about mental illness as well as social distance; a total of 57 pre- and posttests were analyzed. Analyses revealed statistically significant changes in both the Knowledge and Social Distance scales. The results suggest that salutary results can be realized as a result of very brief intervention with youths around the topic of mental health awareness.

  9. Responding to rural health needs through community participation: addressing the concerns of children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Vivienne; Ervin, Kaye

    2011-01-01

    A small rural health service undertook a major needs analysis in 2008 to identify gaps in service delivery and duplication of services. This exercise was intended to inform strategic direction but the result was consumer and community consultation and outcomes that far exceeded everyone's expectations. Organisations often pay lip service to the concept of community participation and consultation and the importance of consumer involvement. Turning this rhetoric into action is challenging and requires dedicated staff, organisational support and momentum for it to occur. The project described resulted in targeted, purposeful action regarding community engagement, and the findings and outcomes are reflective of this. The unexpected findings required an organisational shift, which was embraced by the health service and resulted in collaborative partnerships with consumers and organisations that are proving beneficial to the entire community and outlying areas. Few organisations would demonstrate the willingness to accommodate such change, or undertake a needs analysis that is chiefly community driven.

  10. Development of an interinstitutional collaboration to support community-partnered research addressing the health of emerging Latino populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Yaggy, Susan D; Lyn, Michelle; Green, Melissa; Ornelas, India J; Simmons, Tia; Perez, Georgina; Blumenthal, Connie

    2010-04-01

    Collaborative and participatory research approaches have received considerable attention as means to understanding and addressing disparities in health and health care. In this article, the authors describe the process of building a three-way partnership among two academic health centers-Duke University and the University of North Carolina-and members of the Latino community in North Carolina to develop and pilot test a lay health advisor program to improve Latina immigrants' mental health and coping skills. The authors applied the principles of participatory research to engage community and academic partners, to select the health topic and population, and to develop program goals and objectives. Key challenges were negotiating administrative structures and learning institutional cultures, as well as dealing with contextual issues such as mental health reform and antiimmigrant sentiment in the state.Some important lessons learned are to seek opportunities for taking advantage of existing relationships and expertise at each academic institution, to be respectful of the burden of research on vulnerable communities, and to involve community partners at all stages of the process.

  11. Addressing health system barriers to access to and use of skilled delivery services: perspectives from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganle, John Kuumuori; Fitzpatrick, Raymond; Otupiri, Easmon; Parker, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Poor access to and use of skilled delivery services have been identified as a major contributory factor to poor maternal and newborn health in sub-Saharan African countries, including Ghana. However, many previous studies that examine norms of childbirth and care-seeking behaviours have focused on identifying the norms of non-use of services, rather than factors, that can promote service use. Based on primary qualitative research with a total of 185 expectant and lactating mothers, and 20 healthcare providers in six communities in Ghana, this paper reports on strategies that can be used to overcome health system barriers to the use of skilled delivery services. The strategies identified include expansion and redistribution of existing maternal health resources and infrastructure, training of more skilled maternity caregivers, instituting special programmes to target women most in need, improving the quality of maternity care services provided, improving doctor-patient relationships in maternity wards, promotion of choice, protecting privacy and patient dignity in maternity wards and building partnerships with traditional birth attendants and other non-state actors. The findings suggest the need for structural changes to maternity clinics and routine nursing practices, including an emphasis on those doctor-patient relational practices that positively influence women's healthcare-seeking behaviours. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Five Topics Health Care Simulation Can Address to Improve Patient Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sollid, Stephen J M; Dieckmann, Peter; Aase, Karina

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: There is little knowledge about which elements of health care simulation are most effective in improving patient safety. When empirical evidence is lacking, a consensus statement can help define priorities in, for example, education and research. A consensus process was therefore init......-day consensus meeting at the Utstein Abbey in Norway. The goals of stage 4 were to agree on the top 5 topics in health care simulation that contribute the most to patient safety, identify the patient safety problems they relate to, and suggest solutions with implementation strategies...... for these problems. RESULTS: The expert group agreed on the following topics: technical skills, nontechnical skills, system probing, assessment, and effectiveness. For each topic, 5 patient safety problems were suggested that each topic might contribute to solve. Solutions to these problems and implementation....... CONCLUSIONS: The expert group recommends that the 5 topics identified in this consensus process should be the main focus when health care simulation is implemented in patient safety curricula.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial...

  13. Addressing sexual health in congenital heart disease: when being the same isn't the same.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomba, Rohit S; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Pelech, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    A larger number of individuals born with congenital heart disease is living into adolescence and young adulthood. With this comes the responsibility to counsel these patients regarding their sexual and reproductive health. This study utilizes representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to compare sexual measures including percentage of that sexually active, age of first sexual activity, number of sexual partners, condom use, and history of sexually transmitted diseases in those with and without congenital heart disease. A total of 1086 patients (1057 without congenital heart disease and 29 with congenital heart disease) were included in this study. Likelihood of being sexually active, age of first sexual intercourse, and condom use did not differ significantly between the two groups after multivariate analysis. Incidence of sexually transmitted disease did not differ between the two groups after multivariate analysis except for genital warts. There are no major differences in sexual measures between those with and without congenital heart disease. The absence of significant differences in sexual measures in those with congenital heart disease compared with the general population places this group of individuals at increased health risk known to occur with pregnancy.

  14. Cystic fibrosis: addressing the transition from pediatric to adult-oriented health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreindler JL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available James L Kreindler,1,2 Victoria A Miller1,31The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, 2Department of Pediatrics, 3Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Survival for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF increased to nearly 40 years in 2012 from the early childhood years in the 1940s. Therefore, patients are living long enough to require transition from pediatric CF centers to adult CF centers. The goal of transition is for the young adult to be engaged in the adult health care system in ways that optimize health, maximize potential, and increase quality of life. A successful transition promotes autonomy and responsibility with respect to one's own health. Currently, there is an information gap in the literature with respect to psychological models that can help guide informed transition processes. In this review, we establish the framework in which transition exists in CF; we review some of the published literature from the last 20 years of experience with transition in CF centers around the world; and we discuss psychological models of pediatric illness that can help to explain the current state of transition to adult-oriented care from pediatric-oriented care and help to formulate new models of ascertaining readiness for transition. Finally, we look at our current knowledge gaps and opportunities for future research endeavors.Keywords: cystic fibrosis, transition, adolescent, social-ecological model of AYA readiness for transition, SMART

  15. 2nd International Conference on Health Care Systems Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sahin, Evren; Li, Jingshan; Guinet, Alain; Vandaele, Nico

    2016-01-01

    In this volume, scientists and practitioners write about new methods and technologies for improving the operation of health care organizations. Statistical analyses play an important role in these methods with the implications of simulation and modeling applied to the future of health care. Papers are based on work presented at the Second International Conference on Health Care Systems Engineering (HCSE2015) in Lyon, France. The conference was a rare opportunity for scientists and practitioners to share work directly with each other. Each resulting paper received a double blind review. Paper topics include: hospital drug logistics, emergency care, simulation in patient care, and models for home care services. Discusses statistical analysis and operations management for health care delivery systems based on real case studies Papers in this volume received a double blind review Brings together the work of scientists, practitioners, and clinicians to unite research and practice in the future of these systems Top...

  16. Endocrine Disruptors: An Evolving Health Concern in International Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Borowy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are compounds believed to mimic hormones in animal and human bodies and which are thought therefore to be a potential threat to health. Agencies including the European Commission, the International Labour Office (ILO, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, the World Health Organization (WHO, the UN Environment Programme (UNEP each had some responsibility for chemicals in the wider environment over the last five decades. Despite this, the issue of how far the use of EDCs represents a threat to public health remains contested and policy remains uncertain. This article aims to examine the response of IHOs to the growing perception that EDCs can have negative health impacts by disentangling the various agendas and actors involved.

  17. Canadian health expenditures: Where do we really stand internationally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deber, R; Swan, B

    1999-01-01

    There are different ways to measure how much Canada spends on health care and the quality of these measurements may vary. This paper examines Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development data for 3 common standards of measure: health expenditures as a proportion of gross domestic product (GDP), nominal spending per capita (US dollars) and spending per capita in purchasing power parities (PPP) equivalents. In 1994, the most recent year for which there were firm data. Canada spent 9.9% of its GDP on health care (rank 3 of 29), and $1999 PPPs per capita (rank 3). However, actual spending was only US$1824 per capita (rank 14). In the same year Japan spent 7% of GDP on health care (rank 22), $1478 in PPPs per capita (rank 16), but actually spent US$2614 per capita (rank 3). Although each measure is suitable for some policy purposes, Canadian spending remains modest by international standards. PMID:10410638

  18. The Health Sciences and Technology Academy: an educational pipeline to address health care disparities in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendall, Sherron Benson; Kasten, Kasandra; Hanks, Sara; Chester, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Health and educational disparities are national issues in the United States. Research has shown that health care professionals from underserved backgrounds are more likely than others to work in underserved areas. The Association of American Medical Colleges' Project 3000 by 2000, to increase the number of underrepresented minorities in medical schools, spurred the West Virginia School of Medicine to start the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) in 1994 with the goal of supporting interested underrepresented high school students in pursuing college and health professions careers. The program was based on three beliefs: (1) if underrepresented high school students have potential and the desire to pursue a health professions career and are given the support, they can reach their goals, including obtaining a health professions degree; (2) underserved high school students are able to predict their own success if given the right resources; and (3) community engagement would be key to the program's success.In this Perspective, the authors describe the HSTA and its framework and philosophy, including the underlying theories and pedagogy from research in the fields of education and the behavioral/social sciences. They then offer evidence of the program's success, specifically for African American students, including graduates' high college-going rate and overwhelming intention to choose a health professions major. Finally, the authors describe the benefits of the HSTA's community partnerships, including providing mentors to students, adding legislative language providing tuition waivers and a budgetary line item devoted to the program, and securing program funding from outside sources.

  19. Climate Change and Health on the U.S. Gulf Coast: Public Health Adaptation is Needed to Address Future Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Elisaveta P; Ebi, Kristie L; Culp, Derrin; Redlener, Irwin

    2015-08-11

    The impacts of climate change on human health have been documented globally and in the United States. Numerous studies project greater morbidity and mortality as a result of extreme weather events and other climate-sensitive hazards. Public health impacts on the U.S. Gulf Coast may be severe as the region is expected to experience increases in extreme temperatures, sea level rise, and possibly fewer but more intense hurricanes. Through myriad pathways, climate change is likely to make the Gulf Coast less hospitable and more dangerous for its residents, and may prompt substantial migration from and into the region. Public health impacts may be further exacerbated by the concentration of people and infrastructure, as well as the region's coastal geography. Vulnerable populations, including the very young, elderly, and socioeconomically disadvantaged may face particularly high threats to their health and well-being. This paper provides an overview of potential public health impacts of climate variability and change on the Gulf Coast, with a focus on the region's unique vulnerabilities, and outlines recommendations for improving the region's ability to minimize the impacts of climate-sensitive hazards. Public health adaptation aimed at improving individual, public health system, and infrastructure resilience is urgently needed to meet the challenges climate change may pose to the Gulf Coast in the coming decades.

  20. Relative and absolute addressability of global disease burden in maternal and perinatal health by investment in R&D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Nicholas M; McKee, Martin; Atun, Rifat

    2011-06-01

    Maternal and perinatal disease accounts for nearly 10% of the global burden of disease, with only modest progress towards achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Despite a favourable new global health landscape in research and development (R&D) to produce new drugs for neglected diseases, R&D investment in maternal/perinatal health remains small and non-strategic. Investment in obstetric R&D by industry or the not-for-profit sector has lagged behind other specialties, with the number of registered pipeline drugs only 1-5% that for other major disease areas. Using a Delphi exercise with maternal/perinatal experts in global and translational research, we estimate that equitable pharmaceutical R&D and public sector research funding over the next 10-20 years could avert 1.1% and 1.9% of the global disease burden, respectively. In contrast, optimal uptake of existing research would prevent 3.0%, justifying the current focus on health service provision. Although R&D predominantly occurs in high-income countries, more than 98% of the estimated reduction in disease burden in this field would be in developing countries. We conclude that better pharmaceutical and public sector R&D would prevent around 1/3 and 2/3, respectively, of the disease burden addressable by optimal uptake of existing research. Strengthening R&D may be an important complementary strategy to health service provision to address global maternal and perinatal disease burden. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. [Position of health at international relations. Part I. Structural dimensions of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    In the article, the health is perceived as complex, multidimensional concept and not as absence of disease. This is consistent with public health perspective, where public health is regarded as public as well as political activity. It aims to solve health and social problems, depends on analysis of phenomena, needs the negotiations and relies on making decision on feasible directions of changes--what, why, how, where, when and by whom should be done. Public health policy developed as a result of international relations, and UN family fora especially, is regarded as significant for creating of health position. The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of selected concepts and definitions related to structural dimensions of health, used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of health structure notions at worldwide agenda. The UN main bodies, programmes and funds working on the health field are mentioned and voting rules in UN General Assembly and World Health Assembly are reminded. The following structural dimensions were considered: (a) well-being, (b) human rights, (c) everyday resource, health potential, (4) equity. All were explored in WHO Constitution, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and numerous WHA and UN GA resolutions, decisions as well as other documents. Some remarkable differences in English and Polish language versions and meanings were pointed out. It was argued that present perception of structural dimension of health is strongly derived from the preamble of the WHO Constitution adopted and signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States. It is an evidence of the strength of this document and wisdom of its authors. The greater progress is associated. with concepts and notion of organizational dimensions of health perceived as action and processes leading to health. Long-term efforts to strengthen

  2. [Position of health at international relations. Part II. Organizational dimensions of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of some concepts and definitions related with "set up of health", used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of organizational dimensions of health at worldwide agenda. The following organizational dimensions of health were discussed: (a) health for all, (b) health promotion, intersectoral and multisectoral actions, health in all policies, (c) health development, health as an element of human development, (d) investment for health, (e) health diplomacy and (f) mainstreaming of health. The analysis was based on World Health Assembly and UN General Assembly resolutions as well as supranational reports and statements available through conventional channels, not grey literature. It is apparent that some of notions are not in common use in Poland, some seems to be unknown. It was argued that some general and discreet thoughts and statements concerning organizational aspects of health were expressed in the preamble of WHO Constitution. Nevertheless they are not comparable with later propositions and proceedings. The first modern concepts and notions related as process were developed at late seventies. They originated from efforts to realize a vision of health for all and formulate national policies, strategies and plans of action for attaining this goal. The turning point was in 1981, when WHA adopted Global Strategy for Heath for All by the Year 2000. Since then one can observe considerable progress and new concepts came into existence, more and more precise and better reflecting the sense of health actions. The evolution of organizational dimensions of health was described in the context of brand positioning. It was assumed that first step of positioning was concentrated on structural dimensions of health. That served to awareness raise, attitudes change and motivation to action. That made a foundation to the next step--positioning based on process approach to health. Among others the

  3. International law, national policymaking, and the health of trafficked people in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oram, Siân; Zimmerman, Cathy; Adams, Brad; Busza, Joanna

    2011-12-15

    Human trafficking has been recognized both by the international community and many individual states around the world as a serious violation of human rights. Trafficking is associated with extreme violence and a range of physical, mental, and sexual health consequences. Despite the extreme nature of the harm caused by human trafficking, harm is not a concept that is integrated in the definition of trafficking or in policies to address the health of trafficked people. This paper examines the United Kingdom's response to human trafficking as a case study to explore national policy responses to the health needs of trafficked people and assess the willingness of UK authorities to implement international and regional law in securing trafficked people's health rights. Between 2007 and 2010, data on the development of the UK response to trafficking were obtained through 46 interviews with key trafficking policy stakeholders and health care providers, participant observation at 41 policy-relevant events, and document collection. Framework analysis was used to analyze the data. International and regional instruments specifically protect the health rights of trafficked people. Yet, UK engagement with trafficked people's health rights has been limited to granting, under certain circumstances, free access to health care services. Changes to trafficked people's entitlements to free health care occurred following the ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings, but had limited impact on trafficked people's access to medical care. International and regional instruments that provide specific or mandated instruction about states' health care obligations can be effective in furthering the health rights of vulnerable migrant groups. The UK government has demonstrated limited appetite for exceeding its minimum obligations to provide for the health of trafficked people, however, and key principles for promoting the health rights of

  4. Disability and health-related rehabilitation in international disaster relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    On behalf of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine's Sub-Committee on Rehabilitation Disaster Relief

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters result in significant numbers of disabling impairments. Paradoxically, however, the traditional health system response to natural disasters largely neglects health-related rehabilitation as a strategic intervention.To examine the role of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief along three lines of inquiry: (1 epidemiology of injury and disability, (2 impact on health and rehabilitation systems, and (3 the assessment and measurement of disability.Qualitative literature review and secondary data analysis.Absolute numbers of injuries as well as injury to death ratios in natural disasters have increased significantly over the last 40 years. Major impairments requiring health-related rehabilitation include amputations, traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries (SCI, and long bone fractures. Studies show that persons with pre-existing disabilities are more likely to die in a natural disaster. Lack of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief may result in additional burdening of the health system capacity, exacerbating baseline weak rehabilitation and health system infrastructure. Little scientific evidence on the effectiveness of health-related rehabilitation interventions following natural disaster exists, however. Although systematic assessment and measurement of disability after a natural disaster is currently lacking, new approaches have been suggested.Health-related rehabilitation potentially results in decreased morbidity due to disabling injuries sustained during a natural disaster and is, therefore, an essential component of the medical response by the host and international communities. Significant systematic challenges to effective delivery of rehabilitation interventions during disaster include a lack of trained responders as well as a lack of medical recordkeeping, data collection, and established outcome measures. Additional development of health-related rehabilitation following

  5. Operating plan for the Office of International Health Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    In this report unified ideas are presented about what the Office of International Health Programs does, what the individual contributions are, and how the organization connects to the Department of Energy. The planning efforts have focused on the office`s three areas of responsibility: Europe, Japan, and the Marshall Islands. Common to each technical program area are issues related to the following: health of populations exposed to radiation incidents and the associated medical aspects of exposure; dose reconstruction; training; and public involvement. Each of the program areas, its customers, and primary customer interests are described.

  6. Has the Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme of Andhra Pradesh Addressed the Educational Divide in Accessing Health Care?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rao, Mala; Singh, Prabal Vikram; Katyal, Anuradha; Samarth, Amit; Bergkvist, Sofi; Renton, Adrian; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    .... We aimed to assess whether the innovative state-funded Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme of Andhra Pradesh state launched in 2007, has achieved equity of access to hospital inpatient...

  7. Using the chronic care model to address tobacco in health care delivery organizations: a pilot experience in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, Beatriz H; Schauer, Gillian; Zbikowski, Susan; Thompson, Juliet

    2010-09-01

    This article describes a Washington State-based Systems Change Pilot Project in which the chronic care model and the model for improvement were used as tools to promote tobacco cessation-related changes within a health care system. Three diverse sites participated in the pilot. Site teams tailored plan-do-study-act tests to site circumstances, addressing current resources and barriers to implementing change. Teams tested system changes that incorporated tobacco use documentation into the routine health services provided. Findings from this pilot suggest that (a) even simple changes with minimal disruption of services can make a difference in improving documentation of tobacco use status; (b) changes to routine practices of health organizations may not be sustainable if ongoing quality assurance mechanisms are not developed; and (c) systems implemented for other disease states within the same organization or patient population are not instinctively applied to tobacco, because of a multitude of factors.

  8. Veterinary public health capacity-building in India: a grim reflection of the developing world's underpreparedness to address zoonotic risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Manish; Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kumar, Ashok; Hussain, Mohammad Akhtar; Sharma, Kavya; Bhatt, Purvi Mehta; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Veterinary public health (VPH) is ideally suited to promote convergence between human, animal and environmental sectors. Recent zoonotic and emerging infectious disease events have given rise to increasing calls for efforts to build global VPH capacities. However, even with their greater vulnerability to such events, including their economic and livelihood impacts, the response from low-and middle-income countries such as India has been suboptimal, thereby elevating global health risks. Addressing risks effectively at the human-animal interface in these countries will require a clear vision, consistent policies, strategic approach and sustained political commitment to reform and refine the current VPH capacity-building efforts. Only then can the discipline serve its goal of disease prevention, poverty alleviation and support for sustainable livelihoods through improvements in human and animal health.

  9. Constructing pragmatic socioeconomic status assessment tools to address health equality challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Tajik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A key challenge for equality evaluation and monitoring, mainly in developing countries, is assessing socioeconomic status (SES of individuals. This difficulty along with low technical competency, have resulted in many health information collected in these countries which are devoid of suitable SES indices. However, simplifying data collection requirements for estimating economic parameters seems to guarantee their wide adoption by survey and health information system (HIS designers, resulting in immediate production of equity-oriented policy-relevant information. The goal of this study is obtaining adequate number of variables, which their combination can provide a valid assessment of SES in Iranian population. Methods: The data source was Living Standards Measurement Study of Iran (2006. Data of 27,000 households on the ownership of 33 household assets was used for this analysis. Households of this study were divided into 5 groups in terms of SES status using principle component analysis. Then selection was made among the 33 variables so that a combination with minimum necessary number for obtaining SES status is reached. Agreement of the new combination (including minimum number of variables with full variable combination (including all 33 variables was assessed using weighted kappa. Results: A minimum set of six variables including having kitchen, bathroom, vacuum cleaner, washing machine, freezer and personal computer could successfully discriminate SES of the population. Comparing this 6 item-index with the whole 33 item-index revealed that 65% of households were in the same quintiles, with a weighted kappa statistics of 0.76. For households in different quintiles, movement was generally limited to one quintile, with just 2% of households moving two or more quintiles. Conclusions: The proposed simple index is completely applicable in current Iran′s society. It can be used in different survey and studies. The development is

  10. Does addressing gender inequalities and empowering women and girls improve health and development programme outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taukobong, Hannah F G; Kincaid, Mary M; Levy, Jessica K; Bloom, Shelah S; Platt, Jennifer L; Henry, Sarah K; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2016-12-01

    This article presents evidence supporting the hypothesis that promoting gender equality and women's and girls' empowerment (GEWE) leads to better health and development outcomes. We reviewed the literature across six sectors-family planning (FP); maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH); nutrition; agriculture; water, sanitation and hygiene; and financial services for the poor-and found 76 studies from low and middle-income countries that met our inclusion criteria. Across these studies, we identified common GEWE variables that emerged repeatedly as significant predictors of sector outcomes. We grouped these variables into 10 thematic categories, which we termed 'gender-related levers'. These levers were then classified by the strength of evidence into Wedges, Foundations and Facilitators. Wedges are gender-related levers that had strong associations with improved outcomes across multiple sectors. They include: 'control over income/assets/resources', 'decision-making power' and 'education'. Elements of these levers overlap, but combined, they encapsulate agency. Increasing female agency promotes equality and broadly improves health and development for women, their families and their communities. The second classification, Foundations, displayed strong, positive associations across FP, MNCH and nutrition. Foundations have a more proximal relationship with sector outcomes and include: 'equitable interpersonal relationships', 'mobility' and 'personal safety'. Finally, the third group of levers, Facilitators, was associated with improved outcomes in two to three sectors and include: 'access to information', 'community groups', 'paid labour' and 'rights'. These levers make it easier for women and girls to achieve their goals and are more traditional elements of development programmes. Overall, gender-related levers were associated with improvements in a variety of health and development outcomes. Furthermore, these associations were cross-sectoral, suggesting that to

  11. Peer Navigators and Integrated Care to Address Ethnic Health Disparities of People with Serious Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Pickett, Susan; Batia, Karen; Michaels, Patrick J.

    2017-01-01

    People of color with serious mental illnesses experience high rates of morbidity and mortality. Patient navigators, developed for cancer care, may help this group benefit from integrated care. This review examined patient navigators’ key ingredients for cancer care for relevance to patients of color for application of peer services to psychiatric goals. Among cancer patients, navigators lead to greater treatment engagement and improved health outcomes for ethnic minority groups. Research also suggests peers can improve integrated care by providing effective psychiatric services to individuals with mental illness. Ongoing research examines peer navigators’ impact on integrated care for patients of color. PMID:25144699

  12. 1997 Operating plan for the Office of International Health Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    One year ago, the Office of International Health Programs provided you with our 1996 Operating Plan, which defined our ideas and ideals for conducting business in 1996. We have again this year undertaken an intensive planning effort, first reviewing our accomplishments and shortcomings during 1996, and then developing plans and priorities for the upcoming year, taking into account input from customers and outside review panels, and ensuring that the demands on the office have been balanced with anticipated human, financial, and material resources.

  13. International trade of health services: global trends and local impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautier, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Globalization is a key challenge facing health policy-makers. A significant dimension of this is trade in health services. Traditionally, the flow of health services exports went from North to South, with patients travelling in the opposite direction. This situation is changing and a number of papers have discussed the growth of health services exports from Southern countries in its different dimensions. Less attention has been paid to assess the real scope of this trade at the global level and its potential impact at the local level. Given the rapid development of this area, there are little empirical data. This paper therefore first built an estimate of the global size and of the growth trend of international trade in health services since 1997, which is compared with several country-based studies. The second purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the significant economic impact of this trade at the local level for the exporting country. We consider the case of health providers in the South-Mediterranean region for which the demand potential, the economic effects and the consequence for the health system are presented. These issues lead to the overall conclusion that different policy options would be appropriate, in relation to the nature of the demand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. US and International Health Professions’ Requirements for Continuing Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofade, Toyin; Thakkar, Namrata; Rouse, Michael

    2014-01-01

    There is not a comprehensive global analysis of continuing professional development (CPD) and continuing education (CE) in the major health professions in published literature. The aim of this article is to summarize findings from the US and international literature on CPD and CE practices in the health professions, comparing the different requirements and frameworks to see what similarities and challenges exist and what the future focus should be for the pharmacy profession. A literature review was conducted on CPD and CE in selected health professions, namely pharmacy, medicine, nursing, ophthalmology, dentistry, public health, and psychology. Over 300 papers from the health professions were retrieved and screened. Relevant articles based on the abstracts and introductions were summarized into tabular form by profession, minimum requirements for licensure, nature of credits, guidelines on how to record CE and CPD activities, and specific CE and CPD definitions. Wide variations exist among the health professions. Lessons learned from this information can be used to further clarify and define the role of CE and CPD and self-directed lifelong learning in pharmacy and the health professions. PMID:25147401

  15. A Socio-Ecological Approach in Addressing Hearing Loss and Disparities in Access to Hearing Health Care Among Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Ingram

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is associated with cognitive decline and impairment in daily living activities. Access to hearing health care has broad implications for healthy aging of the U.S. population. This qualitative study investigated factors related to the socio-ecological domains of hearing health in a US-Mexico border community experiencing disparities in access to care. A multidisciplinary research team partnered with Community Health Workers (CHWs from a Federally Qualified Health Center in designing the study. CHWs conducted interviews with people with hearing loss (n=20 and focus groups with their family/friends (n=27 and with members of the community-at-large (n=47. The research team conducted interviews with FQHC providers and staff (n=12. Individuals experienced depression, sadness and social isolation, as well as frustration and even anger regarding communication. Family members experienced negative impacts of deteriorating communication, but expressed few coping strategies. There was general agreement across data sources that hearing loss was not routinely addressed within primary care and assistive hearing technology was generally unaffordable. Community members described stigma related to hearing loss and a need for greater access to hearing health care and broader community education. Findings confirm the causal sequence of hearing impairment on quality of life aggravated by socio-economic conditions and lack of access to hearing health care. Hearing loss requires a comprehensive and innovative public health response across the socio-ecological framework that includes both individual communication intervention and greater access to hearing health resources. Community health workers can be effective in tailoring intervention strategies to community characteristics.

  16. "KYDS": an innovative service addressing the health needs of youth and families in an Australian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citer, David; Carlson, Kym; McClellan, Danni; McGaw, Pam; Walter, Sophie; Bennett, David; Walter, Garry

    2013-04-01

    To describe the evolution of KYDS Youth Development Service ("KYDS"), a pioneering youth service in Sydney, Australia, its range of programs and the challenges that it has faced. KYDS emerged in the context of the escalating presentation of mental health and other problems affecting young people, and the desire of a local community to provide a service for its youth. The service has expanded since opening in 2005 and now includes, among other elements, therapy for referred clients, parent educational forums, and group programs such as a young women's program and a program for teenagers with parents affected by mental illness. The challenges for the service include financial pressures, service expansion, and how to best complement other services in the public and private sector.

  17. Process Improvement: Addressing Attrition from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Nurse Anesthesia Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John Tyler; Gibbons, Susanne W; Wofford, Kenneth

    2015-10-01

    This retrospective cohort study examined the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Registered Nurse Anesthesia program to identify reasons for high attrition rates. Relevant data were examined for 180 students enrolled in classes from 2005 through 2011. During that period, 40 students were dismissed or disenrolled, with the highest attrition rate (35%) occurring in the class of 2010. Evidence from this investigation indicates students who completed the program were younger, earned higher grade point averages while completing their undergraduate bachelor of science in nursing, and achieved higher analytic and total Graduate Record Examination scores than did students who withdrew or were dismissed. Gender differences were noted, as a greater proportion of women completed the program compared with men. Personal, family, and other issues frequently overlapped, with academic performance problems leading to attrition. Based on these findings, a number of important changes were made in the admission process to the USUHS RNA program and in the nonacademic mentoring and assistance offered to students.

  18. Integrating qualitative research methods into care improvement efforts within a learning health system: addressing antibiotic overuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Plaza, Corrine E; Parry, Carla; Hahn, Erin E; Tang, Tania; Nguyen, Huong Q; Gould, Michael K; Kanter, Michael H; Sharp, Adam L

    2016-08-15

    Despite reports advocating for integration of research into healthcare delivery, scant literature exists describing how this can be accomplished. Examples highlighting application of qualitative research methods embedded into a healthcare system are particularly needed. This article describes the process and value of embedding qualitative research as the second phase of an explanatory, sequential, mixed methods study to improve antibiotic stewardship for acute sinusitis. Purposive sampling of providers for in-depth interviews improved understanding of unwarranted antibiotic prescribing and elicited stakeholder recommendations for improvement. Qualitative data collection, transcription and constant comparative analyses occurred iteratively. Emerging themes and sub-themes identified primary drivers of unwarranted antibiotic prescribing patterns and recommendations for improving practice. These findings informed the design of a health system intervention to improve antibiotic stewardship for acute sinusitis. Core components of the intervention are also described. Qualitative research can be effectively applied in learning healthcare systems to elucidate quantitative results and inform improvement efforts.

  19. Leadership for Addressing Aging in America: The Health and Aging Policy Fellowship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacchione, Pamela Z; Epstein-Lubow, Gary; Borer, Amanda; Curran, Peter; DeVito Dabbs, Annette; Driessen, Julia; Kaskie, Brian; Khan, Fazal; Naegle, Madeline; Ordway, Anne; Reinke, Lynn F; Stein, Gary; West, Turner; Wright, Katie; Inouye, Sharon K

    2017-10-01

    The Health and Aging Policy Fellows Program funded by The John A. Hartford Foundation and Atlantic Philanthropies trains future leaders to influence healthcare policy, systems, and program development in aging. Following a rigorous residential training in Washington, DC, Fellows establish placements of up to 1 year in the executive, legislative, or judicial branch of government, at a federal agency, state or community agency or committee, or with a nongovernmental organization. The 2016-2017 Fellows' activities represent a broad scope of work, including contributions to national and local policy priorities expected to build over time far beyond the core fellowship year. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Addressing the Challenges in Tonsillectomy Research to Inform Health Care Policy: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandavia, Rishi; Schilder, Anne G M; Dimitriadis, Panagiotis A; Mossialos, Elias

    2017-09-01

    Eighty-five percent of investment in medical research has been wasted, with lack of effect on clinical practice and policy. There is increasing effort to improve the likelihood of research being used to influence clinical practice and policy. Tonsillectomy is one of the most common otorhinolaryngologic surgical procedures, and its frequency, cost, and morbidity create a clear need for evidence-based guidelines and policy. The first systematic review on tonsillectomy was conducted 40 years ago and highlighted the lack of definitive evidence for the procedure. Since that study, the body of evidence has still not been able to sufficiently inform policy. This review provides an overview of the key challenges in research to inform tonsillectomy policy and recommendations to help bridge the evidence-policy gap. The challenges in using research to inform policy can be summarized as 4 main themes: (1) non-policy-focused evidence and lack of available evidence, (2) quality of evidence, (3) communication of research findings, and (4) coordinating time frames. Researchers and decision makers should be aware of the limitations of research designs and conflicts of interest that can undermine policy decisions. Researchers must work with decision makers and patients throughout the research process to identify areas of unmet need and political priority, align research and policy time frames, and disseminate research findings. Incentives for researchers should be reorganized to promote dissemination of findings. It is important to consider why evidence gaps in tonsillectomy research have not been addressed during the past 40 years despite considerable investment in time and resources. These findings and recommendations will help produce research that is more responsive to policy gaps and more likely to result in policy changes.

  1. Building Capacity to Address Women's Health Issues in the Mixtec and Zapotec Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Annette E; Young, Sandra; Rabelo Vega, Roena; Cayetano, Reggie T; Crespi, Catherine M; Bastani, Roshan

    2015-01-01

    Mixtecs and Zapotecs are indigenous populations from Mexico. Many are unable to read and write, and speak only their native nonwritten languages, Mixteco and Zapoteco. About one-half of California's indigenous farm worker population is estimated to be Mixteco-speaking (82,000-125,000), and about 20,000 Mixtecs and a smaller number of Zapotecs live in Ventura County. A community-academic partnership conducted mixed-methods research with the aims of 1) collecting preliminary data on women's health needs, 2) training promotoras to assist with this effort, and 3) engaging community members and obtaining their input through community dialogues. Promotoras who were bilingual in Spanish and either Mixteco or Zapoteco were trained to conduct surveys that included questions on breast feeding and receipt of breast and cervical cancer screening examinations. Barriers to and facilitators of women obtaining these cancer screening tests were discussed in small groups. In 2013, 813 Mixtec and Zapotec women completed surveys. Although most women reported breast feeding (94%), and receipt of a pelvic examination (85%) and a breast examination (72%), only 44% of women 40 years and older had ever heard of and 33% had ever had a mammogram. Community members recommended offering free mammograms on the weekend by female providers, having women accompanied by promotoras who can translate, conducting door-to-door outreach, advertising cancer screening on the radio and providing small incentives to women. Trained bilingual promotoras can assist in increasing the capacity of indigenous communities to conduct collaborative research by engaging community members and collecting local data. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Educating Chinese Scientists to Write for International Journals: Addressing the Divide between Science and Technology Education and English Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargill, Margaret; O'Connor, Patrick; Li, Yongyan

    2012-01-01

    As is the worldwide trend, scientists in China face strong and increasing pressure to publish their research in international peer-reviewed journals written in English. There is an acute need for graduate students to develop the required language skills alongside their scientific expertise, in spite of the distinct division currently existing…

  3. Effectively Adapting the Sport Management Curricula: Harnessing Internal and External Resources to Address Industry-Specific Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein-Minkove, Jessica R.; DeLuca, Jaime R.

    2015-01-01

    Academic programs must constantly evolve in order to ensure that students are best prepared for success in internships and subsequent post-collegiate endeavors within the dynamic, rapidly changing sport industry. Based upon qualitative research, this work assesses and recommends areas of development in sport management curricula using internal and…

  4. Mapping SAGE questionnaire to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Alberto; Quintas, Rui; Russo, Emanuela; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Costardi, Daniela; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Franco, Maria Grazia; Andreotti, Alessandra; Ojala, Matti; Peña, Sebastián; Perales, Jaime; Chatterji, Somnath; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Koskinen, Seppo; Frattura, Lucilla; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    The collaborative research on ageing in Europe protocol was based on that of the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) project that investigated the relationship between health and well-being and provided a set of instruments that can be used across countries to monitor health and health-related outcomes of older populations as well as the strategies for addressing issues concerning the ageing process. To evaluate the degree to which SAGE protocol covered the spectrum of disability given the scope of the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), a mapping exercise was performed with SAGE protocol. Results show that the SAGE protocol covers ICF domains in a non-uniform way, with environmental factors categories being underrepresented, whereas mental, cardiovascular, sensory functions and mobility were overrepresented. To overcome this partial coverage of ICF functioning categories, new assessment instruments have been developed. PRACTITIONER MESSAGE: Mapping exercises are valid procedures to understand the extent to which a survey protocol covers the spectrum of functioning. The mapping exercise with SAGE protocol shows that it provides only a partial representation of body functions and activities and participation domains, and the coverage of environmental factors is poor. New instruments are therefore needed for researchers to properly understand the health and disability of ageing populations.

  5. Moving towards South-South International Health: debts and challenges in the regional health agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, María Belén

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. First, it aims to investigate the increased interest in health as an important dimension of the foreign policy and diplomatic concerns together with the emergence of a new framework for regional health integration and regional health diplomacy. Second, it seeks to understand the role and practices of new regional blocs in the field of health and whether they are conducting to the emergence of new strategies for addressing health regional policies in South America. The regional policy process relates to health as a right. Thus, some practices and processes in social policy are setting new standards for political and social cohesion in the construction of new regionalism. Health crosses national, regional, and global agendas in a multi-directional fashion, rather than via one-way, top-down policy transfer. A special feature of Unasur is upholding regional health sovereignty despite the unique fact that member countries retain national autonomy. Unasur has projected foreign policy that promotes social values in ways that seem innovative. Experience as Unasur shows that regional organisms can become a game changer in global diplomacy and an influential actor in the international agenda. Resumen El objetivo de este artículo es doble. En primer lugar,investigar el creciente interés en la salud como una dimensión importante de la política exterior, en sintonía con el surgimiento de un nuevo marcopara la integración regional y la diplomacia en salud. En segundo lugar, comprender el papel y las prácticas de los nuevos bloques regionales en el campo de la salud y si estasconducena la emergencia de nuevas estrategias para abordar las políticas sanitarias regionales en América del Sur. Los nuevos procesos de integración regional se refieren a la salud como un derecho. Así, algunas prácticas y procesos de la política regional están estableciendo nuevos patrones de cohesión política y social en el avancede un nuevo regionalismo

  6. Mental Health in Internationally Adopted Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Hysing, Mari; La Greca, Annette M; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Tell, Grethe S; Sivertsen, Børge

    2017-03-01

    To investigate whether mental health problems differ between internationally adopted adolescents and their non-adopted peers and examine design and sample characteristics that might underlie differences among studies. Studies published through August 2015 were collected through Embase, Medline, PsychINFO, Web of Science, ERIC, and Svemed+. Combined effect estimates were calculated using random-effects models. Eleven studies investigating 17,919 adoptees and 1,090,289 non-adopted peers were included in the meta-analysis. Internationally adopted adolescents reported more mental health problems across domains than their peers, with effect estimates (standardized mean differences [SMDs]) of 0.16 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.28) for questionnaire-based studies and 0.70 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.90) for register-based studies. They also reported significantly more externalizing difficulties (SMD 0.20, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.38), although the effect estimate for internalizing difficulties was not statistically significant (SMD 0.10, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.24). Studies using categorical measurements of mental health problems, indicating more serious problems, yielded larger effect estimates than continuous measurements (SMD 0.31, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.41; SMD 0.13, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.26, respectively). The difference in mental health problems between international adoptees and their peers was somewhat larger when using parent report compared with self-report. More recent studies (conducted in 1995 and later) yielded larger estimates than older studies, although no significant difference was found for this analysis or subgroup analyses investigating sex and age at adoption. Although most internationally adopted adolescents are well adjusted, adoptees as a group report higher levels of mental health problems compared with non-adopted peers. This difference should be acknowledged and adequate support services should be made available. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

  7. Addressing health inequalities in the delivery of the human papillomavirus vaccination programme: examining the role of the school nurse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy Boyce

    increase uptake and address health inequalities in childhood and adolescent vaccination programmes.

  8. Interprofessional Medical-Legal Education of Medical Students: Assessing the Benefits for Addressing Social Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettignano, Robert; Bliss, Lisa; McLaren, Susan; Caley, Sylvia

    2017-09-01

    Screening tools exist to help identify patient issues related to social determinants of health (SDH), but solutions to many of these problems remain elusive to health care providers as they require legal solutions. Interprofessional medical-legal education is essential to optimizing health care delivery. In 2011, the authors implemented a four-session didactic interprofessional curriculum on medical-legal practice for third-year medical students at Morehouse School of Medicine. This program, also attended by law students, focused on interprofessional collaboration to address client/patient SDH issues and health-harming legal needs. In 2011-2014, the medical students participated in pre- and postintervention surveys designed to determine their awareness of SDH's impact on health as well as their attitudes toward screening for SDH issues and incorporating resources, including a legal resource, to address them. Mean ratings were compared between pre- and postintervention respondent cohorts using independent-sample t tests. Of the 222 medical students who participated in the program, 102 (46%) completed the preintervention survey and 100 (45%) completed the postintervention survey. Postintervention survey results indicated that students self-reported an increased likelihood to screen patients for SDH issues and an increased likelihood to refer patients to a legal resource (P legal education into undergraduate medical education may result in an increased likelihood to screen patients for SDH and to refer patients with legal needs to a legal resource. In the future, an additional evaluation to assess the curriculum's long-term impact will be administered prior to graduation.

  9. An international partnership interdisciplinary training programme on public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrioti, Despena; Charalambous, George; Skitsou, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Targeted training programmes are more efficient towards skills development. Literature on assessing training needs in order to formulate programmes through international partnerships is very limited. This study intended to identify perceived training needs in public health with an aim...... at providing the respective training in cooperation with the World Health Organization, European Office. Method and Material: We distributed a questionnaire to Greek professionals such as doctors, nurses, administrative personnel and social scientists, employed in the public sector all over the country. We...... analysed 197 structured self-administered questionnaires using one way ANOVA to identify associations between individual characteristics of health professionals and perceived training needs. Results: The majority of participants were women (n=143, 73%) and men (n=53, 27%). In terms of motivation...

  10. Building International Genomics Collaboration for Global Health Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Helen H; Erkkila, Tracy; Chain, Patrick S G; Vuyisich, Momchilo

    2015-01-01

    Genome science and technologies are transforming life sciences globally in many ways and becoming a highly desirable area for international collaboration to strengthen global health. The Genome Science Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is leveraging a long history of expertise in genomics research to assist multiple partner nations in advancing their genomics and bioinformatics capabilities. The capability development objectives focus on providing a molecular genomics-based scientific approach for pathogen detection, characterization, and biosurveillance applications. The general approaches include introduction of basic principles in genomics technologies, training on laboratory methodologies and bioinformatic analysis of resulting data, procurement, and installation of next-generation sequencing instruments, establishing bioinformatics software capabilities, and exploring collaborative applications of the genomics capabilities in public health. Genome centers have been established with public health and research institutions in the Republic of Georgia, Kingdom of Jordan, Uganda, and Gabon; broader collaborations in genomics applications have also been developed with research institutions in many other countries.

  11. Building International Genomics Collaboration for Global Health Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen H Cui

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genome science and technologies are transforming life sciences globally in many ways, and becoming a highly desirable area for international collaboration to strengthen global health. The Genome Science Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is leveraging a long history of expertise in genomics research to assist multiple partner nations in advancing their genomics and bioinformatics capabilities. The capability development objectives focus on providing a molecular genomics-based scientific approach for pathogen detection, characterization, and biosurveillance applications. The general approaches include introduction of basic principles in genomics technologies, training on laboratory methodologies and bioinformatic analysis of resulting data, procurement and installation of next generation sequencing instruments, establishing bioinformatics software capabilities, and exploring collaborative applications of the genomics capabilities in public health. Genome centers have been established with public health and research institutions in the Republic of Georgia, Kingdom of Jordan, Uganda, and Gabon; broader collaborations in genomics applications have also been developed with research institutions in many other countries.

  12. Global surgical oncology disease burden: addressing disparities via global surgery initiatives: the University of Michigan International Breast Cancer Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiagge, Evelyn; Bensenhaver, Jessica M; Oppong, Joseph K; Awuah, Baffour; Newman, Lisa A

    2015-03-01

    Disparities in breast cancer incidence and outcome between African American and white American women are multifactorial in etiology. The increased frequency of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) in African American patients suggests the possible contribution of hereditary factors related to African ancestry. The University of Michigan (UM)-Komfo Anoyke Teaching Hospital (KATH) Breast Cancer Research Collaborative and International Breast Registry was established in 2004. It features epidemiologic information, tumor tissue, and germline DNA specimens from African American, white American, and Ghanaian women. This research collaborative has generated valuable findings regarding the pathogenesis and patterns of TNBC while concomitantly improving the standard of breast oncology care in Ghana. This partnership has also yielded important opportunities for academic and educational exchange. It has expanded to involve other sites in Africa and Haiti. The UM-KATH collaborative is a model for demonstrating the research and academic exchange value of international partnerships.

  13. Addressing the NASM health and safety standard through curricular changes in a brass methods course: an outcome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Amy; Chesky, Kris

    2014-09-01

    The National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) recently ratified a new health and safety standard requiring schools of music to inform students about health concerns related to music. While organizations such as the Performing Arts Medicine Association have developed advisories, the exact implementation is the prerogative of the institution. One possible approach is to embed health education activities into existing methods courses that are routinely offered to music education majors. This may influence student awareness, knowledge, and the perception of competency and responsibility for addressing health risks associated with learning and performing musical instruments. Unfortunately, there are no known lesson plans or curriculum guides for supporting such activities. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to (1) develop course objectives and content that can be applied to a preexisting brass methods course, (2) implement course objectives into a semester-long brass methods course, and (3) test the effectiveness of this intervention on students' awareness, knowledge, perception of competency, and responsibly of health risks that are related to learning and performing brass instruments. Results showcase the potential for modifying methods courses without compromising the other objectives of the course. Additionally, students' awareness, knowledge, perception of competency, and responsibility were positively influenced as measured by changes in pre to post responses to survey group questions.

  14. The development and implementation of theory-driven programs capable of addressing poverty-impacted children's health, mental health, and prevention needs: CHAMP and CHAMP+, evidence-informed, family-based interventions to address HIV risk and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan McKay, Mary; Alicea, Stacey; Elwyn, Laura; McClain, Zachary R B; Parker, Gary; Small, Latoya A; Mellins, Claude Ann

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a program of prevention and intervention research conducted by the CHAMP (Collaborative HIV prevention and Adolescent Mental health Project; McKay & Paikoff, 2007 ) investigative team. CHAMP refers to a set of theory-driven, evidence-informed, collaboratively designed, family-based approaches meant to address the prevention, health, and mental health needs of poverty-impacted African American and Latino urban youth who are either at risk for HIV exposure or perinatally infected and at high risk for reinfection and possible transmission. CHAMP approaches are informed by theoretical frameworks that incorporate an understanding of the critical influences of multilevel contextual factors on youth risk taking and engagement in protective health behaviors. Highly influential theories include the triadic theory of influence, social action theory, and ecological developmental perspectives. CHAMP program delivery strategies were developed via a highly collaborative process drawing upon community-based participatory research methods in order to enhance cultural and contextual sensitivity of program content and format. The development and preliminary outcomes associated with a family-based intervention for a new population, perinatally HIV-infected youth and their adult caregivers, referred to as CHAMP+, is described to illustrate the integration of theory, existing evidence, and intensive input from consumers and healthcare providers.

  15. Political priority of global oral health: an analysis of reasons for international neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzian, Habib; Hobdell, Martin; Holmgren, Christopher; Yee, Robert; Monse, Bella; Barnard, Johannes T; van Palenstein Helderman, Wim

    2011-06-01

    Global Oral Health suffers from a lack of political attention, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This paper analyses the reasons for this political neglect through the lens of four areas of political power: the power of the ideas, the power of the issue, the power of the actors, and the power of the political context (using a modified Political Power Framework by Shiffman and Smith. Lancet370 [2007] 1370). The analysis reveals that political priority for global oral health is low, resulting from a set of complex issues deeply rooted in the current global oral health sector, its stakeholders and their remit, the lack of coherence and coalescence; as well as the lack of agreement on the problem, its portrayal and possible solutions. The shortcomings and weaknesses demonstrated in the analysis range from rather basic matters, such as defining the issue in an agreed way, to complex and multi-levelled issues concerning appropriate data collection and agreement on adequate solutions. The political priority of Global Oral Health can only be improved by addressing the underlying reasons that resulted in the wide disconnection between the international health discourse and the small sector of Global Oral Health. We hope that this analysis may serve as a starting point for a long overdue, broad and candid international analysis of political, social, cultural, communication, financial and other factors related to better prioritisation of oral health. Without such an analysis and the resulting concerted action the inequities in Global Oral Health will grow and increasingly impact on health systems, development and, most importantly, human lives.

  16. Are we ready to accept the challenge? Addressing the shortcomings of contemporary qualitative health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Sofie Rosenlund; Traulsen, Janine M

    Qualitative approaches represent an important contributor to health care research. However, several researchers argue that contemporary qualitative research does not live up to its full potential. By presenting a snapshot of contemporary qualitative research in the field of social and administrative pharmacy, this study challenges contributors to the field by asking: Are we ready to accept the challenge and take qualitative research one step further? The purpose of this study was to initiate a constructive dialogue on the need for increased transparency in qualitative data analysis, including explicitly reflecting upon theoretical perspectives affecting the research process. Content analysis was used to evaluate levels of theoretical visibility and analysis transparency in selected qualitative research articles published in Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy between January 2014 and January 2015. In 14 out of 21 assessed papers, the use of theory was found to be Seemingly Absent (lowest level of theory use), and the data analyses did not include any interpretive endeavors. Only two papers consistently applied theory throughout the entire study and clearly took the data analyses from a descriptive to an interpretive level. It was found that the aim of the majority of assessed papers was to change or modify a given practice, which however, resulted in a lack of both theoretical underpinnings and analysis transparency. This study takes the standpoint that theory and high-quality analysis go hand-in-hand. Based on the content analysis, articles that were deemed to be high in quality were explicit about the theoretical framework of their study and transparent in how they analyzed their data. It was found that theory contributed to the transparency of how the data were analyzed and interpreted. Two ways of improving contemporary qualitative research in the field of social and administrative pharmacy are discussed: engaging with social theory and establishing

  17. Effectiveness of a parenting program in Bangladesh to address early childhood health, growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Frances E; Singla, Daisy R; Nahil, Md Imam; Borisova, Ivelina

    2013-11-01

    A stratified cluster design was used to evaluate a 10-month parenting program delivered to mothers of children in rural Bangladesh. Intervention mothers through a combination of group meetings and home visits received messages along with an illustrative card concerning hygiene, responsive feeding, play, communication, gentle discipline, and nutritious foods. Control mothers received the standard government care. Three months prior, 463 children between 4 and 14 months in a subdistrict of western Bangladesh were administered the cognitive, receptive language and expressive language Bayley III subtests, their length was taken and past week illness recorded. Gross motor milestones were reported by the mother and verified through observation. Mothers were interviewed concerning their practices: preventive health practices, dietary diversity, home stimulation, and knowledge about development milestones. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed as a measure of emotional availability. Family sociodemographic variables included maternal education, family assets, decision-making and mobility autonomy. One month after the end of the program, mothers and their children were again assessed. Comparisons were made between intervention and control children who were under-12 months vs. 12 months and older at the start of the program. This may be a critical age, when children begin to be upright and mobile enough to explore on their own and be less dependent on parenting stimulation. Analyses yielded strong intervention effects on the three Bayley subtests and on parenting practices related to stimulation and knowledge of development milestones. Age effects were found only for dietary diversity in that younger children in the program benefited more than older ones. However, all children became more stunted. Findings are discussed in terms of theories of behaviour change and parenting, critical ages for parenting programs, and implications for program delivery.

  18. Toward core inter-professional health promotion competencies to address the non-communicable diseases and their risk factors through knowledge translation: Curriculum content assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Elizabeth; Moffat, Marilyn; Skinner, Margot; Dornelas de Andrade, Armele; Myezwa, Hellen; Söderlund, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background To increase the global impact of health promotion related to non-communicable diseases, health professionals need evidence-based core competencies in health assessment and lifestyle behavior change. Assessment of health promotion curricula by health professional programs is a first step. Such program assessment is a means of 1. demonstrating collective commitment across health professionals to prevent non-communicable diseases; 2. addressing the knowledge translation gap between wh...

  19. Welcome Address

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@  On behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute, I welcome you to Beijing and to the Third Asian Conference on Food Safety and Nutrition. Many of you will remember the first Asian conference on Food Safety held in Kuala Lumpur in 1990 and the second held in Bangkok in 1994. These meetings have been so successful that ILSI made the commitment to host such a conference periodically in order to provide a forum to share the latest information and to set new goals and priorities.   This year, we have broadened the scope of the agenda to include issues on nutrition. I want to thank all of our co-sponsors and members of the Planning Committee for preparing such a comprehensive and timely program. Some of the issues and challenges facing Asia that will be addressed at this meeting are:

  20. An exploration of social determinants of health amongst internally displaced persons in northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geissler Wenzel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Social determinants of health describe the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age and their influence on health. These circumstances are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels, which are themselves influenced by policy choices. Armed conflict and forced displacement are important influences on the social determinants of health. There is limited evidence on the social determinants of health of internally displaced persons (IDPs who have been forced from their homes due to armed conflict but remain within the borders of their country. The aim of this study was to explore the social determinants of overall physical and mental health of IDPs, including the response strategies used by IDPs to support their health needs. Northern Uganda was chosen as a case-study, and 21 face-to-face semi-structured interviews with IDPs were conducted in fifteen IDP camps between November and December 2006. The findings indicated a number of key social determinants. Experiencing traumatic events could cause "over thinking" which in turn could lead to "madness" and physical ailments. Respondents also attributed "over thinking" to the spirit (cen of a killed person returning to disturb its killer. Other social determinants included overcrowding which affected physical health and contributed to an emotional sense of loss of freedom; and poverty and loss of land which affected physical health from lack of food and income, and mental health because of worry and uncertainty. Respondents also commented on how the conflict and displacement and led to changes in social and cultural norms such as increased "adultery", "defilement", and "thieving". Response strategies included a combination of biopsychosocial health services, traditional practices, religion, family and friends, and isolating. This study supports work exploring the political, environmental, economic, and socio

  1. Building Bridges to Address Health Disparities in Puerto Rico: the "Salud para Piñones" Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rivera, Enid J; Pacheco, Princess; Colón, Marielis; Mays, Mary Helen; Rivera, Maricruz; Munet-Díaz, Verónica; González, María Del R; Rodríguez, María; Rodríguez, Rebecca; Morales, Astrid

    2017-06-01

    Over the past several decades, Puerto Ricans have faced increased health threats from chronic diseases, particularly diabetes and hypertension. The patient-provider relationship is the main platform for individual disease management, whereas the community, as an agent of change for the community's health status, has been limited in its support of individual health. Likewise, traditional research approaches within communities have placed academic researchers at the center of the process, considering their knowledge was of greater value than that of the community. In this paradigm, the academic researcher frequently owns and controls the research process. The primary aim is contributing to the scientific knowledge, but not necessarily to improve the community's health status or empower communities for social change. In contrast, the community-based participatory research (CBPR) model brings community members and leaders together with researchers in a process that supports mutual learning and empowers the community to take a leadership role in its own health and well-being. This article describes the development of the community-campus partnership between the University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine and Piñones, a semi-rural community, and the resulting CBPR project: "Salud para Piñones". This project represents a collaborative effort to understand and address the community's health needs and health disparities based on the community's participation as keystone of the process. This participatory approach represents a valuable ally in the development of long-term community-academy partnerships, thus providing opportunities to establish relevant and effective ways to translate evidence-based interventions into concrete actions that impact the individual and community's wellbeing.

  2. Internal migration and maternal health service utilisation in Jiangsu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hai; You, Hua; Ning, Weiqing; Zhou, Hua; Wang, Jianming; Lu, Ying; Sun, Jun; Kou, Yun; Dong, Hengjin

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the use of maternal health care services by internal migrants in view of their migration status. Cross-sectional household survey in two cities of Jiangsu Province. Questions elicited data on socioeconomic information and MHC service use (pre-natal examination, post-natal visit, pre-natal health education). Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with MHC service use. A total of 946 married women were recruited, of whom 22.3% were internal migrants. Compared to local residents, migrants were five times less likely to attend pre-natal examinations (84.4% vs. 91.7%; OR = 0.49, P = 0.002), three times less likely to have post-natal visits (15.6% vs. 50.2%; OR = 0.18, P Internal migrants in Jiangsu Province underuse MHC services to a significant degree. More attention needs to be paid to pregnant migrant women, as they are vulnerable group in society. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Sustainable Development and Health: Recent International Developments, Policies and Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liliana Cori

    2006-01-01

    Environment and health have been more and more jointly addressed in recent years, thanks to the efforts of several public and private institutions. In this scenario, a leading role has been played by the World Heath Organisation (WHO). A specific attention was devoted to the issue by the European Union (EU) EU institutions and the WHO Office for Europe, which lists 52 countries (including Europe, Eastern European Countries and Turkey,former Yugoslavia and part of the former Soviet Union). The objectives of the present paper are to give an overview of the main developments in this area, and to underline the progress made towards a common understanding of health and environment issues, the advantages and limits of these developments and the challenges for the future, to be tackled at a global level.

  4. IJEPA: Gray Area for Health Policy and International Nurse Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendi, Ferry; Mackey, Timothy Ken; Huang, Mei-Chih; Chen, Ching-Min

    2017-05-01

    Indonesia is recognized as a nurse exporting country, with policies that encourage nursing professionals to emigrate abroad. This includes the country's adoption of international principles attempting to protect Indonesian nurses that emigrate as well as the country's own participation in a bilateral trade and investment agreement, known as the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement that facilitates Indonesian nurse migration to Japan. Despite the potential trade and employment benefits from sending nurses abroad under the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement, Indonesia itself is suffering from a crisis in nursing capacity and ensuring adequate healthcare access for its own populations. This represents a distinct challenge for Indonesia in appropriately balancing domestic health workforce needs, employment, and training opportunities for Indonesian nurses, and the need to acknowledge the rights of nurses to freely migrate abroad. Hence, this article reviews the complex operational and ethical issues associated with Indonesian health worker migration under the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement. It also introduces a policy proposal to improve performance of the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement and better align it with international principles focused on equitable health worker migration.

  5. International comparative performance of mental health research, 1980-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larivière, Vincent; Diepeveen, Stephanie; Ni Chonaill, Síobhán; Macaluso, Benoît; Pollitt, Alexandra; Grant, Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    Scientific understanding of mental illness, mental health and their neurobiological and psychosocial underpinnings has greatly increased in the last three decades. Yet, little is known about the landscape of this knowledge and how and where it is evolving. This paper provides a bibliometric assessment of mental health research (MHR) outputs from 1980 to 2011. MHR papers were retrieved using three strategies: from key mental health journals; using US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) keywords; and from additional journals in which mental health topics accounted for over 75% of papers. The number of papers per year increased over time in absolute terms and as a proportion of total medical output. The US's proportion of world publication output dropped from 60% in 1980 to 42% in 2011, while the EU increased its share from 27% to 40%. Countries with greater research intensity in mental health generally had higher citation impact, such as the US, UK, Canada and the Netherlands. MHR also became more collaborative: 3% of all MHR papers published in 1980 were the result of international collaboration compared to 22% in 2011. We conclude by noting that the rise in MHR appears to be due to funding and that bibliometrics can help highlight the potential drivers of variation in performance of MHR systems. The paper provides an analytical basis for benchmarking MHR trends in the future. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Addressing the social determinants of health: a case study from the Mitanin (community health worker) programme in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Sulakshana; Schneider, Helen

    2014-09-01

    The Mitanin Programme, a government community health worker (CHW) programme, was started in Chhattisgarh State of India in 2002. The CHWs (Mitanins) have consistently adopted roles that go beyond health programme-specific interventions to embrace community mobilization and action on local priorities. The aim of this research was to document how and why the Mitanins have been able to act on the social determinants of health, describing the catalysts and processes involved and the enabling programmatic and organizational factors. A qualitative comparative case study of successful action by Mitanin was conducted in two 'blocks', purposefully selected as positive exemplars in two districts of Chhattisgarh. One case focused on malnutrition and the other on gender-based violence. Data collection involved 17 in-depth interviews and 10 group interviews with the full range of stakeholders in both blocks, including community members and programme team. Thematic analysis was done using a broad conceptual framework that was further refined. Action on social determinants involved raising awareness on rights, mobilizing women's collectives, revitalizing local political structures and social action targeting both the community and government service providers. Through these processes, the Mitanins developed identities as agents of change and advocates for the community, both with respect to local cultural and gender norms and in ensuring accountability of service providers. The factors underpinning successful action on social determinants were identified as the significance of the original intent and vision of the programme, and how this was carried through into all aspects of programme design, the role of the Mitanins and their identification with village women, ongoing training and support, and the relative autonomy of the programme. Although the results are not narrowly generalizable and do not necessarily represent the situation of the Mitanin Programme as a whole, the

  7. 76 FR 44491 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ...-AQ66 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and... amendment to the interim final rules (76 FR 37208) entitled, ``Group Health Plans and Health Insurance... rule with request for comments entitled, ``Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules...

  8. 3rd International Conference on Movement, Health and Exercise 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Cheong, Jadeera; Usman, Juliana; Ahmad, Mohd; Razman, Rizal; Selvanayagam, Victor

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Movement, Health and Exercise 2016 (MoHE2016). The conference was jointly organized by the Biomedical Engineering Department and Sports Centre, University of Malaya. It was held in Malacca, from 28-30 September 2016. MoHE 2016 provided a good opportunity for speakers and participants to actively discuss about recent developments in a wide range of topics in the area of sports and exercise science. In total, 83 presenters and 140 participants took part in this successful conference. .

  9. Oral health and health care for older adults: a spatial approach for addressing disparities and planning services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Luisa N; Northridge, Mary E; Miller, Douglas B; Golembeski, Cynthia A; Spielman, Seth E; Sclar, Elliott D; Lamster, Ira B

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the geographic distribution of New York City adults aged 65 and older by race/ethnicity and poverty status. Also analyzed was seniors' access to dental care as defined by the location of dental providers and their proximity to the subway system lines in Manhattan and the Bronx. ArcGIS software was used to create a geographic information system (GIS) incorporating relevant data from a variety of sources. Individual and overlay maps were then produced to examine the aims of this analysis. Data showed that Black race, Hispanic ethnicity, and poverty status tend to co-occur spatially among seniors in Northern Manhattan and the South Bronx. Further, a spatial/transportation barrier may inhibit access to dental care for seniors who reside in these areas. By presenting multiple layers of local information juxtaposed, GIS can help provide directions for planning oral health service delivery for seniors.

  10. [International trade in health services and the medical industrial complex: implications for national health systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Angelica Borges dos; Passos, Sonia Regina Lambert

    2010-08-01

    Health services have increasingly proven to be an innovative sector, gaining prominence in the medical industrial complex through expansion to public and international markets. International trade can foster economic development and redirect the resources and infrastructure available for healthcare in different countries in favorable or unfavorable directions. Wherever private providers play a significant role in government-funded healthcare, GATS commitments may restrict health policy options in subscribing countries. Systematic information on the impacts of electronic health services, medical tourism, health workers' migration, and foreign direct investment is needed on a case-by-case basis to build evidence for informed decision-making, so as to maximize opportunities and minimize risks of GATS commitments.

  11. Survey of International Members of the American Thoracic Society on Climate Change and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfaty, Mona; Kreslake, Jennifer; Ewart, Gary; Guidotti, Tee L; Thurston, George D; Balmes, John R; Maibach, Edward W

    2016-10-01

    The American Thoracic Society (ATS), in collaboration with George Mason University, surveyed international members of the society to assess perceptions, clinical experiences, and preferred policy responses related to global climate change. A recruitment email was sent by the ATS President in October 2015 to 5,013 international members. Subsequently, four reminder emails were sent to nonrespondents. Responses were received from 489 members in 68 countries; the response rate was 9.8%. Half of respondents reported working in countries in Asia (25%) or Europe (25%), with the remainder in South America (18%), North America (Canada and Mexico) (18%), Australia or New Zealand (9%), and Africa (6%). Survey estimate confidence intervals were ± 5% or smaller. A high percentage of international ATS survey respondents judged that climate change is happening (96%), that it is driven by human activity (70%), and that it is relevant to patient care ("a great deal"/"a moderate amount") (80%). A majority of respondents also indicated they are already observing health impacts of climate change among their patients; most commonly as increases in chronic disease severity from air pollution (88%), allergic symptoms from exposure to plants or mold (72%), and severe weather injuries (69%). An even larger majority anticipated seeing these climate-related health impacts in the next two decades. Respondents further indicated that physicians and physician organizations should play an active role in educating patients, the public, and policy makers on the human health effects of climate change. International ATS respondents, like their counterparts in the U.S., observed that human health is already adversely affected by climate change, and support responses to address this situation.

  12. Interprofessional education for internationally educated health professionals: an environmental scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mubashir Arain,1 Esther Suter,1 Sara Mallinson,1 Shelanne L Hepp,1 Siegrid Deutschlander,1 Shyama Dilani Nanayakkara,2 Elizabeth Louise Harrison,3 Grace Mickelson,4 Lesley Bainbridge,5 Ruby E Grymonpre2 1Workforce Research & Evaluation, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB, 2College of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, 3School of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, 4Provincial Health Services Authority, Vancouver, BC, 5Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Objective: The objective of this environmental scan was to identify Western Canadian interprofessional education (IPE resources that currently exist for internationally educated health professionals (IEHPs. Methodology: A web-based search was conducted to identify learning resources meeting defined inclusion criteria with a particular focus on the resources available in the Western Canadian provinces. Information was extracted using a standardized template, and we contacted IEHP programs for additional information if necessary. Members of the research team reviewed preliminary findings, identified missing information from their respective provinces, and contacted organizations to fill in any gaps. Results: The scan identified 26 learning resources for IEHPs in Western Canadian provinces and 15 in other provinces focused on support for IEHPs to meet their profession-specific licensing requirements and to acquire knowledge and competencies relevant to working in the Canadian health care system. Most learning resources, such as those found in bridging programs for IEHPs, included an orientation to the Canadian health care system, components of cultural competence, and at least one aspect of interprofessional competence (eg, communication skills. None of the 41 learning resources provided comprehensive training for IEHPs to cover the six interprofessional competency

  13. Addressing gender inequalities to improve the sexual and reproductive health and wellbeing of women living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avni Amin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globally, women constitute 50% of all persons living with HIV. Gender inequalities are a key driver of women's vulnerabilities to HIV. This paper looks at how these structural factors shape specific behaviours and outcomes related to the sexual and reproductive health of women living with HIV. Discussion: There are several pathways by which gender inequalities shape the sexual and reproductive health and wellbeing of women living with HIV. First, gender norms that privilege men's control over women and violence against women inhibit women's ability to practice safer sex, make reproductive decisions based on their own fertility preferences and disclose their HIV status. Second, women's lack of property and inheritance rights and limited access to formal employment makes them disproportionately vulnerable to food insecurity and its consequences. This includes compromising their adherence to antiretroviral therapy and increasing their vulnerability to transactional sex. Third, with respect to stigma and discrimination, women are more likely to be blamed for bringing HIV into the family, as they are often tested before men. In several settings, healthcare providers violate the reproductive rights of women living with HIV in relation to family planning and in denying them care. Lastly, a number of countries have laws that criminalize HIV transmission, which specifically impact women living with HIV who may be reluctant to disclose because of fears of violence and other negative consequences. Conclusions: Addressing gender inequalities is central to improving the sexual and reproductive health outcomes and more broadly the wellbeing of women living with HIV. Programmes that go beyond a narrow biomedical/clinical approach and address the social and structural context of women's lives can also maximize the benefits of HIV prevention, treatment, care and support.

  14. Traffic pollution and health : international and Ontario experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, M.M. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). McMaster Inst. of Environment and Health]|[McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Family Medecine]|[Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Family Medecine]|[Toronto Univ., (Canada). Dept. of Public Health Sciences

    2006-07-01

    International and Ontario experience related to traffic pollution and health were discussed. The presentation opened with a table about deaths per day resulting from sulphur dioxide and smoke micrograms per cubic metre. It discussed the constituents of air pollution focusing on gas and particulates as well as atmospheric chemistry and indoor air pollution sources. Outdoor sources of air pollutants include naturally occurring pollutants such as volcanic eruptions, dust storms, vegetation emissions, and fires as well as human generated sources such as stationary and mobile sources and diesel engine pollution. Each type of pollutant was discussed in detail. Air pollution and human health was then presented in the context of traffic pollution and children, major epidemiologic studies of the health effects of pollutants, pollution and mortality in Vancouver, as well as other studies of a similar nature. The Hamilton/Toronto cohort study was one study that was highlighted in particular. The study concluded that living close to traffic in Hamilton and Toronto is associated with increased risk of circulatory disease hospital admissions and mortality. The presentation concluded with a discussion of air pollution and health in Ontario and recommendations made by the Ontario Medical Association. tabs., figs.

  15. TOSCA - first international registry to address knowledge gaps in the natural history and management of tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingswood, John C; Bruzzi, Paolo; Curatolo, Paolo; de Vries, Petrus J; Fladrowski, Carla; Hertzberg, Christoph; Jansen, Anna C; Jozwiak, Sergiusz; Nabbout, Rima; Sauter, Matthias; Touraine, Renaud; O'Callaghan, Finbar; Zonnenberg, Bernard; Crippa, Stefania; Comis, Silvia; d'Augères, Guillaume Beaure; Belousova, Elena; Carter, Tom; Cottin, Vincent; Dahlin, Maria; Ferreira, José Carlos; Macaya, Alfons; Benedik, Mirjana Perkovic; Sander, Valentin; Youroukos, Sotirios; Castellana, Ramon; Ulker, Bulent; Feucht, Martha

    2014-11-26

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare, multisystem, genetic disorder with an estimated prevalence between 1/6800 and 1/15000. Although recent years have seen huge progress in understanding the pathophysiology and in the management of TSC, several questions remain unanswered. A disease registry could be an effective tool to gain more insights into TSC and thus help in the development of improved management strategies. TuberOus SClerosis registry to increase disease Awareness (TOSCA) is a multicentre, international disease registry to assess manifestations, interventions, and outcomes in patients with TSC. Patients of any age diagnosed with TSC, having a documented visit for TSC within the preceding 12 months, or newly diagnosed individuals are eligible. Objectives include mapping the course of TSC manifestations and their effects on prognosis, identifying patients with rare symptoms and co-morbidities, recording interventions and their outcomes, contributing to creation of an evidence-base for disease assessment and therapy, informing further research on TSC, and evaluating the quality of life of patients with TSC. The registry includes a 'core' section and subsections or 'petals'. The 'core' section is designed to record general information on patients' background collected at baseline and updated annually. Subsections will be developed over time to record additional data related to specific disease manifestations and will be updated annually. The registry aimed to enrol approximately 2000 patients from about 250 sites in 31 countries. The initial enrolment period was of 24 months. A follow-up observation period of up to 5 years is planned. A pre-planned administrative analysis of 'core' data from the first 100 patients was performed to evaluate the feasibility of the registry. Results showed a high degree of accuracy of the data collection procedure. Annual interim analyses are scheduled. Results of first interim analysis will be presented subsequent to

  16. Canada's International Development Research Centre's eco-health projects with Latin Americans: origins, development and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Donald C; Crissman, Charles C; Orozco, A Fadya

    2006-01-01

    Since its founding in 1970, Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC) has supported research by concerned Latin American researchers on environments and human health relationships. Framing of such relationships has changed through different periods. Participant observation, bibliographic searches, document review, and interviews with key IDRC staff. From the early years of multiple different projects, IDRC developed more focussed interest in tropical diseases, pesticides, agriculture and human health in the 1980s. The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in the early 1990s gave impetus to examination of links between ecosystems and human health or "EcoHealth". Projects in Latin America built on earlier work but extended it in methods (transdisciplinarity, community participation, gendered approach) and scope (broader land use and development paradigm issues tackled). A key IDRC-funded activity in Latin America was "EcoSalud", an Ecuadorian effort, which has worked with farming communities, agricultural researchers, health practitioners and local politicians to advance integrated pest management, better recognize and treat poisonings and improve pesticide-related policies. ONGOING CHALLENGES INCLUDE: mobilizing sufficient resources for the primary prevention focus of EcoHealth activities when primary care infrastructure remains stretched, promoting micro-level change in diverse communities and ecosystems, and addressing power structures at the global level that profoundly affect environmental change.

  17. Health promotion interventions and policies addressing excessive alcohol use: A systematic review of national and global evidence as a guide to health-care reform in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Babor, Thomas F.; Zeigler, Donald; Xuan, Ziming; Morisky, Donald; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Nelson, Toben F.; Shen, Weixing; Li, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Aims Steady increases in alcohol consumption and related problems are likely to accompany China's rapid epidemiologic transition and profit-based marketing activities. We reviewed research on health promotion interventions and policies to address excessive drinking and to guide health-care reform. Methods We searched in Chinese and English language databases and included 21 studies in China published between 1980 and 2013 that covered each policy area from the WHO Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol. We evaluated and compared preventive interventions to the global alcohol literature for cross-national applicability. Results In contrast with hundreds of studies in the global literature, 11 of 12 studies from mainland China were published in Chinese; six of ten in English were on taxation from Taiwan or Hong Kong. Most studies demonstrated effectiveness in reducing excessive drinking, and some reported the reduction of health problems. Seven were randomized controlled trials. Studies targeted schools, drink-driving, workplaces, the health sector, and taxation. Conclusions China is the world's largest alcohol market, yet there has been little growth in alcohol policy research related to health promotion interventions over the past decade. Guided by a public health approach, the WHO Global Strategy, and health reform experience in Russia, Australia, Mexico, and the USA, China could improve its public health response through better coordination and implementation of surveillance and evidence-based research, and through programmatic and legal responses such as public health law research, screening and early intervention within health systems, and the implementation of effective alcohol control strategies. PMID:25533866

  18. Association between School District Policies That Address Chronic Health Conditions of Students and Professional Development for School Nurses on Such Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. Everett; Brener, Nancy D.; Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2015-01-01

    Supportive school policies and well-prepared school nurses can best address the needs of students with chronic health conditions. We analyzed nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine whether districts with policies requiring that schools provide health services to students with chronic…

  19. Addressing medical absenteeism in pre-vocational secondary students : Effectiveness of a public health intervention, using a quasi-experimental design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanneste-van Zandvoort, Y.T.M.; Mathijssen, J.J.P.; Van de Goor, L.A.M.; Rots – de Vries, C.M.; Feron, F.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Students’ health and school absenteeism affect educational level, with adverse effects on their future health. This interdependence is reflected in medical absenteeism. In the Netherlands, a public health intervention has been developed to address medical absenteeism in pre-vocational

  20. Addressing Issues in the Development and Use of the Composite International Reference Values as Rorschach Norms for Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gregory J; Shaffer, Thomas W; Erdberg, Philip; Horn, Sandra L

    2015-01-01

    This article describes 3 studies evaluating normative reference data for the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2003, 2007), with a particular focus on the viability of the Composite International Reference Values (CIRVs) that were compiled from 21 adult studies by Meyer, Erdberg, and Shaffer (2007). Study 1 documented how the CIRV norms are virtually identical when organized into 3 groups differentiated by the quality of their data collection effort, including an optimal group of 4 samples that relied on multiple experienced examiners and provided ongoing quality control over administration and coding. Analyses also showed that relative to the group of more optimal samples, the group of less optimal samples did not produce more variability in summary scores within or across samples or lower interrater reliability for coding. Study 2 used the existing CS reference norms to generate T scores for the CIRV means and documented how the CS norms make other samples of healthy nonpatients look psychologically impaired in multiple domains. Study 3 documented with examples from 4 different countries how 2 sets of within-country local norms produced notably different results on some variables, which compromises the ability of local norms to be used instead of the CIRVs. Taken together, the 3 studies provide support for the use of CIRVs in clinical practice as norms that are generalizable across samples, settings, languages, and cultures and that account for the natural variability that is present when clinicians and researchers contend with the ambiguity contained in the standard CS reference materials concerning the proper ways to administer and code. We conclude by urging CS users to rely on the CIRVs when making clinical inferences and to adopt alternative methods of ensuring they are following cohesively standardized administration and coding guidelines.

  1. Determinants of internal migrant health and the healthy migrant effect in South India: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Warren; Humphries, Sally; Patel, Kirit; Majowicz, Shannon; Little, Matthew; Dewey, Cate

    2017-09-12

    decline in health, or no change in health among migrant workers. Targeted public health interventions should focus on addressing the determinants of internal migrant health to enhance the contributions these individuals can make to their households and villages of origin.

  2. The Use of Mathematical Models of Chlamydia Transmission to Address Public Health Policy Questions: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönn, Minttu M; Wolf, Emory E; Chesson, Harrell; Menzies, Nicolas A; Galer, Kara; Gorwitz, Rachel; Gift, Thomas; Hsu, Katherine; Salomon, Joshua A

    2017-05-01

    Mathematical models of chlamydia transmission can help inform disease control policy decisions when direct empirical evaluation of alternatives is impractical. We reviewed published chlamydia models to understand the range of approaches used for policy analyses and how the studies have responded to developments in the field. We performed a literature review by searching Medline and Google Scholar (up to October 2015) to identify publications describing dynamic chlamydia transmission models used to address public health policy questions. We extracted information on modeling methodology, interventions, and key findings. We identified 47 publications (including two model comparison studies), which reported collectively on 29 distinct mathematical models. Nine models were individual-based, and 20 were deterministic compartmental models. The earliest studies evaluated the benefits of national-level screening programs and predicted potentially large benefits from increased screening. Subsequent trials and further modeling analyses suggested the impact might have been overestimated. Partner notification has been increasingly evaluated in mathematical modeling, whereas behavioral interventions have received relatively limited attention. Our review provides an overview of chlamydia transmission models and gives a perspective on how mathematical modeling has responded to increasing empirical evidence and addressed policy questions related to prevention of chlamydia infection and sequelae.

  3. Reducing refugee mental health disparities: a community-based intervention to address postmigration stressors with African adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, Jessica R; Hess, Julia M; Isakson, Brian; LaNoue, Marianna; Githinji, Ann; Roche, Natalie; Vadnais, Kathryn; Parker, Danielle P

    2014-08-01

    Refugees resettled in the United States have disproportionately high rates of psychological distress. Research has demonstrated the roles of postmigration stressors, including lack of meaningful social roles, poverty, unemployment, lack of environmental mastery, discrimination, limited English proficiency, and social isolation. We report a multimethod, within-group longitudinal pilot study involving the adaptation for African refugees of a community-based advocacy and learning intervention to address postmigration stressors. We found the intervention to be feasible, acceptable, and appropriate for African refugees. Growth trajectory analysis revealed significant decreases in participants' psychological distress and increases in quality of life, and also provided preliminary evidence of intervention mechanisms of change through the detection of mediating relationships whereby increased quality of life was mediated by increases in enculturation, English proficiency, and social support. Qualitative data helped to support and explain the quantitative data. Results demonstrate the importance of addressing the sociopolitical context of resettlement to promote the mental health of refugees and suggest a culturally appropriate, and replicable model for doing so.

  4. Scaling up the global nursing health workforce: contributions of an international organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukholm, Ellen E; Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg; Talbot, Lise R; Bednash, Geraldine; Raines, Fay; Potempa, Kathleen; Nugent, Pauline; Clark, Dame Jill Macleod; Bernhauser, Sue; Parfitt, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    In this paper key highlights of the scholarly work presented at the Toronto 2008 Global Alliance for Nursing Education & Scholarship (GANES) conference are summarized, challenges opportunities and issues facing nursing education globally arising from the conference discourse are outlined and initial steps are suggested as a way forward to a shared global view of baccalaureate and graduate nursing education and scholarship. This shared view arises from beginning understandings of the issues and opportunities we face globally starting with and building upon the lessons learned from the literature and from the experiences of nursing educators and nursing education organization locally, regionally, nationally and internationally. The theme of the groundbreaking GANES Toronto conference was "Educating the future nursing and health workforce: A global challenge". One hundred seventy delegates from 17 countries attended the event, with over 80 papers presented. A primary focus of GANES is the contribution of a strategic alliance of national nursing education organizations to contribute to nursing education leading practices and policy that address the scaling up of global nursing and health workforce. The founding members of GANES see a clear link between a strong educational infrastructure and strong scholarship activities in nursing and the ability of a society to be healthy and prosperous. Evidence presented at the recent GANES conference supports that belief. Through the strength of partnerships and other capacity-building efforts, member countries can support each other to address the global nursing education and health challenges while respecting the local issues.

  5. The Highland Health Advocates: a preliminary evaluation of a novel programme addressing the social needs of emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losonczy, Lia Ilona; Hsieh, Dennis; Wang, Michael; Hahn, Christopher; Trivedi, Tarak; Rodriguez, Marcela; Fahimi, Jahan; Alter, Harrison

    2017-09-01

    Patients commonly come to the emergency department (ED) with social needs. To address this, we created the Highland Health Advocates (HHA), an ED-based help desk and medical-legal partnership using undergraduate volunteers to help patients navigate public resources and provide onsite legal and social work referrals. We were able to provide these services in English and Spanish. We aimed to determine the social needs of the patients who presented to our ED and the potential impact of the programme in resolving those needs and connecting them to a 'medical home' (defined as a consistent, primary source of medical care such as a primary care doctor or clinic). ED patients at a US safety net hospital were enrolled in a 1:2 ratio in a quasi-experiment comparing those who received intervention from the HHA during a limited access rollout with controls who received usual care on days with no help desk. We collected a baseline social needs evaluation, with follow-up assessments at 1 and 6 months. Primary outcomes were linkages for the primary identified need and to a medical home within 1 month. Other outcomes at 6 months included whether a patient (1) felt helped; 2) had a decreased number of ED visits; (3) had the primary identified need met; (4) had a primary doctor; and (5) had a change in self-reported health status. We enrolled 459 subjects (intervention=154, control=305). Housing (41%), employment (23%) and inability to pay bills (22%) were participants' top identified needs. At baseline, 32% reported the ED as their medical home, with the intervention cohort having higher ED utilisation (>1 ED visit in the prior month: 49% vs 24%). At 1 month, 185 (40%) subjects were reached for follow-up, with more HHA subjects linked to a resource (59% vs 37%) and a medical home (92% vs 76%). At 6 months, 75% of subjects felt HHA was helpful and more subjects in the HHA group had a doctor (93% v 69%). No difference was found in ED utilisation, primary need resolution or self

  6. Addressing Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sosa Elízaga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The global sociology currently faces one of its greatest challenges: to contribute to the debate about the most serious problem which all societies have faced in recent years. The rising inequality has led to many initiatives for reflection, discussion and evaluation of public policies in order to combat poverty. Particularly, the fact that the Millennium Goals are supposed to accomplish their significance by 2015 provides the International Sociological Association (ISA the unique opportunity to contribute to those goals through their own analyses and proposals. Over many years, the ISA has promoted the integrated debate of its members on issues related to inequalities: from different perspectives such as education, health, social movements, public policies, gender problems and violence, among others. The overlapping and accumulation of inequalities has been, so to speak, the natural environment from which the ISA can take part in this international debate. This article identifies the work lines approved in the Association Program Committee Meeting held in Mexico in 2011, in the process of theAssociation’s Congress in Yokohama in 2014.

  7. Junior Doctors of Health©: an interprofessional service-learning project addressing childhood obesity and encouraging health care career choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buff, Scotty M; Gibbs, Pamella Y; Oubré, O'karsamaa L; Ariail, Jane C; Blue, Amy V; Greenberg, Raymond S

    2011-01-01

    While much literature describes programmatic success of clinical service-learning opportunities, this initiative integrates student learning across a comprehensive discipline set (Dental Medicine, Graduate Studies, Health Administration, Medicine, Nursing, Occupational Therapy, Pharmacy, Physical Therapy, and Physician Assistant), providing preventive health education and role modeling to low-income elementary-school children. Junior Doctors of Health© (JDOH), a health education curriculum taught by Medical University of South Carolina students, addresses childhood obesity and encourages child interest in health professional (HP) and biomedical science (BS) careers. Of the 78 surveyed HP/BS students, over 80% agreed JDOH was worthwhile for their professional development, increased their appreciation and ability as an interprofessional team member, improved their understanding and interest in underserved communities, and provided them with valuable childhood-obesity prevention information. With the increased need for childhood-obesity prevention and team building among students of various health and science professions, recommendations are offered to others interested in creating or collaborating to build similar service-learning initiatives.

  8. Identifying and addressing mental health risks and problems in primary care pediatric settings: a model to promote developmental and cultural competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Leandra; Carter, Alice S

    2013-01-01

    Young children, particularly uninsured children of color, suffer from mental health disturbances at rates similar to older children and adults, yet they have higher rates of unmet needs. To address unmet needs, efforts to identify mental health problems in primary care pediatric settings have grown in recent years, thanks in large part to expanded screening efforts. Yet, health disparities in early detection remain. Enhancing understanding of how early childhood mental health problems can be identified and addressed within pediatric settings is an important and growing area of research. The authors draw on theoretical models from public health policy, health psychology, and child development, including health beliefs, help seeking, transtheoretical, motivation to change, and dynamic systems, to better understand and address challenges to and disparities in identifying and addressing mental health problems in pediatric settings. These theories have not previously been applied to early mental health screening and identification efforts. Developmental and sociocultural considerations are highlighted in an effort to address and reduce higher rates of unmet needs among young, uninsured children of color. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  9. Conference summary: International Biomass Smoke Health Effects (IBSHE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holian, Andrij; Stock, Allison; Migliaccio, Christopher; Noonan, Curtis; Ward, Tony

    2010-02-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the University of Montana's Center for Environmental Health Sciences (CEHS) co-hosted a conference entitled "International Biomass Smoke and Health Effects" in Missoula, MT, on August 21 and 22, 2007. The goal of this conference was to bring together experts from diverse fields to review the state of the science in several key areas involving biomass smoke research, as well as identify future research directions. Researchers, physicians, and representatives from regulatory agencies from around the country and world met for a cross-disciplinary exploration of many issues related to biomass smoke research. Major topics of discussion included risk assessment, biomarkers of exposure, toxicology and animal study design, health outcomes measures/study design, and communications gaps. In addition to multiple presentations, breakout sessions were focused on identifying future research directions. In this issue of Inhalation Toxicology, we present the findings from each of these breakout sessions in an effort to summarize what is known in these key areas, and to identify those emerging issues in the field of biomass smoke research.

  10. Applicability of internationally available health literacy measures in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, M P; Van Schaik, T M; Twickler, T B; Essink-Bot, M L

    2011-01-01

    Health literacy measures for use in clinical-epidemiological research have all been developed outside Europe. In the absence of validated Dutch measures, we evaluated the cross-cultural applicability of the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), the Newest Vital Sign (NVS), the Set of Brief Screening Questions (SBSQ), and the measure of Functional Communicative and Critical Health Literacy (FCCHL). Each measure was translated into Dutch following standardized procedures. We assessed feasibility, internal consistency, and construct validity among patients with coronary artery disease (n = 201) and patients with diabetes type 2 (n = 88). Patients expressed most problems in responding to the NVS-D. They were not familiar with the type of food label and had difficulties calculating in portions instead of grams. The FCCHL-D items seemed too theoretical for many patients. Cronbach's alpha was acceptable for all measures. Correlation patterns between the measures were moderately coherent with a priori hypotheses. All translated measures were able to distinguish between high- and low-educated groups of patients, with the NVS-D performing best. Despite reasonable psychometric properties as demonstrated so far, these measures need to be further developed in order to increase applicability for assessing health literacy in clinical-epidemiological research in the Netherlands.

  11. 75 FR 43329 - Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and External... CFR Part 147 RIN 0991-AB70 Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers... Administration, Department of Labor; Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health...

  12. An international, multidisciplinary, academic and clinical publication dedicated to men's and women's sexual health.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    With a 2002 impact factor of 2.5,International Journal of Impotence Research: The Journal of Sexual Medicine currently ranks in the top ten of all journals in the ISI category of Urology and Nephrology*. The journal addresses sexual medicine for both genders as an interdisciplinary field for a wide audience including researchers, family practitioners, gynecologists, internist, psychologists,neurologists, psychiatrists, endocrinologists,radiologists, urologists and other health care clinicians.

  13. Establishment of an International Information Network for International Health Development: a survey of public health administration and management courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, G P

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the content emphasis of courses of public health administration and management (A & M) among member institutions of the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health (APACPH), to determine comparability of curricula across campuses. A survey of course syllabi from APACPH schools was conducted by three separate reviewers to identify topical subject matter presented in general and specialty A & M courses delivered to graduate students at each campus. Based on this review, three synthetic general content A & M courses, and one specialty A & M course (i.e. Hospital Administration) were created as a basis for intercampus cross-institutional comparisons conducted by the author. Despite the number of courses provided by the different APACPH institutions, specific content areas consistently appeared across institutions, suggesting possible foundational A & M content for public health students. In general, there was much better coverage of similar topics at the introductory level of instruction, and much greater consistency was observed across institutions that provided course work addressing the administration of hospitals. Several recommendations are made for further studies of other content areas, and for the development of minimum training content areas as a basis for cross-institutional studies.

  14. Effect of family sense of coherence on internalized stigma and health-related quality of life among individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Lu, Huei-Lan; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2017-01-05

    Health-related quality of life is an increasingly critical outcome of mental healthcare, yet its disease-independent attributes, particularly family-focused resilient indicators, for individuals with schizophrenia have not been explicitly examined. The aim of this study was to explore the degree of health-related quality of life and to examine the mediating effect of family sense of coherence on internalized stigma and health-related quality of life in individuals with schizophrenia. A cross-sectional and correlational study design was used. A total of 111 individuals with schizophrenia were enrolled from the in-patient psychiatric rehabilitation services of two psychiatric hospitals in Taiwan. Face-to-face structured interviews were applied to collect information. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and multiple regression analyses. The results indicated that affected individuals experienced impaired health-related quality of life. Family sense of coherence partially mediated the relationship between internalized stigma and health-related quality of life. This study indicates that knowledge about the role of family sense of coherence in mental health rehabilitation may assist mental healthcare professionals to provide therapeutic interventions to address internalized stigma, thereby promoting health-related quality of life in individuals living with schizophrenia. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  15. Why nafta failed and what's needed to protect workers' health and safety in international trade treaties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Garrett

    2005-01-01

    Labor standards, including occupational health and safety regulations and enforcement, are being subjected to intense downward pressures as a result of fundamental shifts in the global economy. The 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was the first trade treaty that attempted to promote and protect workplace health and safety through a "labor side agreement." NAFTA failed to protect workers' health and safety due to the weaknesses of the side agreement's text; the political and diplomatic considerations limiting its implementation; and the failure to recognize and address the economic context, and political consequences of this context, in which the agreement was implemented. Subsequent trade treaties, both bilateral and regional, have not overcome the weaknesses of NAFTA. The treaty components needed to protect workers' health in future trade agreements are: 1) a minimum floor of occupational health and safety regulations; 2) an "upward harmonization" of regulatory standards and actual practice; 3) inclusion of employers so that they have formal responsibility and liability for violations of the standards; 4) effective enforcement of national regulations and international standards; 5) transparency and public participation; and 6) recognition of disparate economic conditions among trading partners and provision of financial and technical assistance to overcome economic disincentives and lack of resources. Also required are continued actions by non-governmental actors, including the workers themselves and civil society organizations.

  16. Using the World Health Organization's 4S-Framework to Strengthen National Strategies, Policies and Services to Address Mental Health Problems in Adolescents in Resource-Constrained Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabral de Mello Meena

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most adolescents live in resource-constrained countries and their mental health has been less well recognised than other aspects of their health. The World Health Organization's 4-S Framework provides a structure for national initiatives to improve adolescent health through: gathering and using strategic information; developing evidence-informed policies; scaling up provision and use of health services; and strengthening linkages with other government sectors. The aim of this paper is to discuss how the findings of a recent systematic review of mental health problems in adolescents in resource-constrained settings might be applied using the 4-S Framework. Method Analysis of the implications of the findings of a systematic search of the English-language literature for national strategies, policies, services and cross-sectoral linkages to improve the mental health of adolescents in resource-constrained settings. Results Data are available for only 33/112 [29%] resource-constrained countries, but in all where data are available, non-psychotic mental health problems in adolescents are identifiable, prevalent and associated with reduced quality of life, impaired participation and compromised development. In the absence of evidence about effective interventions in these settings expert opinion is that a broad public policy response which addresses direct strategies for prevention, early intervention and treatment; health service and health workforce requirements; social inclusion of marginalised groups of adolescents; and specific education is required. Specific endorsed strategies include public education, parent education, training for teachers and primary healthcare workers, psycho-educational curricula, identification through periodic screening of the most vulnerable and referral for care, and the availability of counsellors or other identified trained staff members in schools from whom adolescents can seek assistance for

  17. International law, public health, and the meanings of pharmaceuticalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloatre, Emilie; Pickersgill, Martyn

    2014-10-01

    Recent social science scholarship has employed the term "pharmaceuticalization" in analyses of the production, circulation and use of drugs. In this paper, we seek to open up further discussion of the scope, limits and potential of this as an analytical device through consideration of the role of law and legal processes in directing pharmaceutical flows. To do so, we synthesize a range of empirical and conceptual work concerned with the relationships between access to medicines and intellectual property law. This paper suggests that alongside documenting the expansion or reduction in demand for particular drugs, analysts of pharmaceuticalization attend to the ways in which socio-legal developments change (or not) the identities of drugs, and the means through which they circulate and come to be used by states and citizens. Such scholarship has the potential to more precisely locate the biopolitical processes that shape international agendas and targets, form markets, and produce health.

  18. Salud Para Su Corazon (health for your heart) community health worker model: community and clinical approaches for addressing cardiovascular disease risk reduction in Hispanics/Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcazar, H; Alvarado, M; Ortiz, G

    2011-01-01

    This article describes 6 Salud Para Su Corazon (SPSC) family of programs that have addressed cardiovascular disease risk reduction in Hispanic communities facilitated by community health workers (CHWs) or Promotores de Salud (PS). A synopsis of the programs illustrates the designs and methodological approaches that combine community-based participatory research for 2 types of settings: community and clinical. Examples are provided as to how CHWs can serve as agents of change in these settings. A description is presented of a sustainability framework for the SPSC family of programs. Finally, implications are summarized for utilizing the SPSC CHW/PS model to inform ambulatory care management and policy.

  19. Development, health, and international policy: the research and innovation dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; Chamas, Claudia; Faid, Miriam; Morel, Carlos

    2016-11-03

    This text main objective is to discuss development and health from the perspective of the influence of global health governance, using as the tracer the dimension of research, development, and innovation policies in health, which relate to both important inputs for the health system, like drugs and medicines, vaccines, diagnostic reagents, and equipment, and innovative concepts and practices for the improvement of health systems and public health. The authors examine the two main macro-processes that influence development and health: the post-2015 Development Agenda and the process under way in the World Health Organization concerning research and development, intellectual property, and access to health inputs. The article concludes, first, that much remains to be done for the Agenda to truly represent a coherent and viable international political pact, and that the two macro-processes related to innovation in health need to be streamlined. But this requires democratization of participation by the main stakeholders - patients and the general population of the poorest countries - since this is the only way to overcome a "zero sum" result in the clash in the current debates among member State representatives. Resumo: O objetivo central deste texto é discutir desenvolvimento e saúde sob a ótica da influência da governança da saúde global, utilizando como traçador a dimensão das políticas de pesquisa, desenvolvimento e inovação em saúde, que se referem, de um lado, a insumos importantes para o sistema de saúde - como fármacos e medicamentos, vacinas, reativos para diagnóstico e equipamentos e, de outro, a conceitos e práticas inovadoras para o aperfeiçoamento dos sistemas de saúde e da saúde pública. Examina os dois principais macroprocessos que influenciam o desenvolvimento e a saúde: a Agenda do Desenvolvimento para o pós-2015 e o processo sobre pesquisa e desenvolvimento, propriedade intelectual e acesso a insumos em saúde em curso na Organiza

  20. Inaugural address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This