WorldWideScience

Sample records for address global challenges

  1. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Scott P.; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Denison, R. Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B.; Strauss, Sharon Y.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens and pests that evolve too quickly, and the second from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution, or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development. PMID:25213376

  2. Cooperation of international Research Infrastructures to address environmental global challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet García, Francisco J.; Suárez-Muñoz, María; Conchubhair, Diarmuid O.; Dohna, Tina; Lo Bue, Nadia

    2017-04-01

    Human impact on the planet is causing a set of global environmental problems that threaten the wellbeing of current and future generations. Examples of these environmental problems include climate change, decline of biodiversity, alteration of biogeochemical cycles, ocean acidification, etc. These environmental Global Challenges (GCs) are transnational and complex, combining elements of both natural and social factors. Providing solutions for these challenges can be significantly enhanced through the collaboration of various related institutions, governments and stakeholders. A deeper understanding of the causes and consequences of GCs, as well as the processes which control them is required. Environmental Research Infrastructures (DANUBIUS-RI) are key players in this learning process. Covering many fields of research, it is through RIs collaboration that GCs can be more fully addressed. However, the collaboration among environmental RIs is still limited nationally as well as internationally. Although contact is encouraged and interactions are common practice, there are few cases where RI managers initiate and foster transnational collaborations in order to address specific problems. The COOP+ project aims to explore and strengthen cooperation among global RIs by bringing various RIs together and working on the identification of requirements, strengths, knowledge gaps and other relevant items in regard to the selected GCs. For this purpose, 13 GCs have been selected: coral bleaching, marine debris, noise impact on marine fauna, Arctic sea ice melting, pollinators decline, threatened species, agriculture pollutants, nitrogen cycle, carbon and GHG, geohazards and extreme events, estuaries, global urbanization process, and ozone depletion. These GCs are being analysed and described by multidisciplinary teams of experts composed of scientists, RIs operators and other stakeholders. This assessment will derive a list of tasks and requirements to be fulfilled by the

  3. Addressing global change challenges for Central Asian socio-ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jiaguo; Bobushev, Temirbek S.; Kulmatov, Rashid; Groisman, Pavel; Gutman, Garik

    2012-06-01

    Central Asia is one of the most vulnerable regions on the planet earth to global climate change, depending on very fragile natural resources. The Soviet legacy has left the five countries (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) with a highly integrated system but they are facing great challenges with tensions that hinder regional coordination of food and water resources. With increasing climate variability and warming trend in the region, food and water security issues become even more crucial now and, if not addressed properly, could affect the regional stability. The long-term drivers of these two most critical elements, food and water, are climate change; the immediate and probably more drastic factors affecting the food and water security are land uses driven by institutional change and economic incentives. As a feedback, changes in land use and land cover have directly implications on water uses, food production, and lifestyles of the rural community in the region. Regional and international efforts have been made to holistically understand the cause, extent, rate and societal implications of land use changes in the region. Much of these have been understood, or under investigation by various projects, but solutions or research effort to develop solutions, to these urgent regional issues are lacking. This article, serves as an introduction to the special issue, provides a brief overview of the challenges facing the Central Asian countries and various international efforts in place that resulted in the publications of this special issue.

  4. Can pervasive sensing address current challenges in global healthcare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Atallah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Important challenges facing global healthcare include the increase in the number of people affected by escalating healthcare costs, chronic and infectious diseases, the need for better and more affordable elderly care and expanding urbanisation combined with air and water pollution. Recent advances in pervasive sensing technologies have led to miniaturised sensor networks that can be worn or integrated within the living environment without affecting a person’s daily patterns. These sensors promise to change healthcare from snapshot measurements of physiological parameters to continuous monitoring enabling clinicians to provide guidance on a daily basis. This article surveys several of the solutions provided by these sensor platforms from elderly care to neonatal monitoring and environmental mapping. Some of the opportunities available and the challenges facing the adoption of such technologies in large-scale epidemiological studies are also discussed.

  5. Challenges of Teaching Science to Address Global Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Halim, Lilia

    2015-01-01

    For a liveable condition in this post- industrial era, it would depend on our ability to understand and use the science and technology advancement in a responsible manner. Water pollution and global warming phenomena are outcomes of scientific and technological advancement that has been mismanaged. One way to achieve global sustainability is through science education and the development of a scientific literate citizen. This paper, based on the literature and research work in science educatio...

  6. Addressing Global Environmental Challenges through Interdisciplinary Biogeochemical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Our planet is dynamic; energy and matter constantly move between the hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere on time scales from seconds to millenia. These tight interactions - including those between organisms and their physical environment - are what make Earth habitable. However, as Rachel Carson wrote, 'Only within the moment of time represented by the present century has one species - man - acquired significant power to alter the nature of this world'. Globalization and explosive population growth have generated far-reaching environmental problems on a scale that humanity has never faced before. Fortunately, our species has also developed an unprecedented ability to provide science-based solutions. Since processes impacting the environment involve complex biological, physical, chemical and geological interactions and feedbacks, they require the integration of expertise from all these scientific disciplines as well as input from policy makers, social scientists, and economists. This talk presents four examples of current interdisciplinary research projects conducted in my lab, each one related to a theme from one of Carson's books (Under the Sea-wind, The Sea Around Us, The Edge of the Sea, and Silent Spring). These projects, and others like them, provide hope that we can move toward a sustainable relationship with the natural world by encouraging the best scientists to conduct interdisciplinary research with direct applications for environmental management and stewardship.

  7. The importance of fungi and mycology for addressing major global challenges*

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Lene

    2014-01-01

    In the new bioeconomy, fungi play a very important role in addressing major global challenges, being instrumental for improved resource efficiency, making renewable substitutes for products from fossil resources, upgrading waste streams to valuable food and feed ingredients, counteracting life-style diseases and antibiotic resistance through strengthening the gut biota, making crop plants more robust to survive climate change conditions, and functioning as host organisms for production of new...

  8. Global challenges keynote address in memoriam to colleagues lost in the Malaysia airlines 17 crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Catherine A

    2016-01-01

    Six colleagues working in the HIV field were killed when their flight en route to Kuala Lumpur was shot down over the Ukraine. This report is drawn from the in memoriam keynote opening address given at the 12th International AIDS Impact conference in Amsterdam in 2015. It highlights their tangible and valued roles in the HIV response and looks forward to the road ahead. It describes the ways in which we can build on their legacy to address current global challenges in HIV prevention and treatment and to mobilise the intensified, focused resources that are needed to turn the HIV epidemic on its head.

  9. MO-FG-BRB-01: Investing to Address the Global Cancer Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atun, R.

    2015-01-01

    The global burden of cancer is growing rapidly with an estimated 15 million new cases per year worldwide in 2015, growing to 19 million by 2025 and 24 million by 2035. The largest component of this growth will occur in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs). About half of these cases will require radiation treatment. The gap for available cancer treatment, including radiation therapy, between high-income countries (HICs) and LMICs is enormous. Accurate data and quantitative models to project the needs and the benefits of cancer treatment are a critical first step in closing the large cancer divide between LMICs and HICs. In this context, the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) has developed a Global Task Force on Radiotherapy for Cancer Control (GTFRCC) with a charge to answer the question as to what it will take to close the gap between what exists today and reasonable access to radiation therapy globally by 2035 and what the potential clinical and economic benefits are for doing this. The Task Force has determined the projections of cancer incidence and the infrastructure required to provide access to radiation therapy globally. Furthermore it has shown that appropriate investment not only yields improved clinical outcomes for millions of patients but that it also provides an overall economic gain throughout all the income settings where this investment is made. This symposium will summarize the facets associated with this global cancer challenge by reviewing the cancer burden, looking at the requirements for radiation therapy, reviewing the benefits of providing such therapy both from a clinical and economic perspective and finally by looking at what approaches can be used to aid in the alleviation of this global cancer challenge. The speakers are world renowned experts in global public health issues (R. Atun), medical physics (D. Jaffray) and radiation oncology (N. Coleman). Learning Objectives: To describe the global cancer challenge and the

  10. MO-FG-BRB-01: Investing to Address the Global Cancer Challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atun, R. [Harvard University (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The global burden of cancer is growing rapidly with an estimated 15 million new cases per year worldwide in 2015, growing to 19 million by 2025 and 24 million by 2035. The largest component of this growth will occur in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs). About half of these cases will require radiation treatment. The gap for available cancer treatment, including radiation therapy, between high-income countries (HICs) and LMICs is enormous. Accurate data and quantitative models to project the needs and the benefits of cancer treatment are a critical first step in closing the large cancer divide between LMICs and HICs. In this context, the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) has developed a Global Task Force on Radiotherapy for Cancer Control (GTFRCC) with a charge to answer the question as to what it will take to close the gap between what exists today and reasonable access to radiation therapy globally by 2035 and what the potential clinical and economic benefits are for doing this. The Task Force has determined the projections of cancer incidence and the infrastructure required to provide access to radiation therapy globally. Furthermore it has shown that appropriate investment not only yields improved clinical outcomes for millions of patients but that it also provides an overall economic gain throughout all the income settings where this investment is made. This symposium will summarize the facets associated with this global cancer challenge by reviewing the cancer burden, looking at the requirements for radiation therapy, reviewing the benefits of providing such therapy both from a clinical and economic perspective and finally by looking at what approaches can be used to aid in the alleviation of this global cancer challenge. The speakers are world renowned experts in global public health issues (R. Atun), medical physics (D. Jaffray) and radiation oncology (N. Coleman). Learning Objectives: To describe the global cancer challenge and the

  11. The importance of fungi and mycology for addressing major global challenges*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Lene

    2014-12-01

    In the new bioeconomy, fungi play a very important role in addressing major global challenges, being instrumental for improved resource efficiency, making renewable substitutes for products from fossil resources, upgrading waste streams to valuable food and feed ingredients, counteracting life-style diseases and antibiotic resistance through strengthening the gut biota, making crop plants more robust to survive climate change conditions, and functioning as host organisms for production of new biological drugs. This range of new uses of fungi all stand on the shoulders of the efforts of mycologists over generations: the scientific discipline mycology has built comprehensive understanding within fungal biodiversity, classification, evolution, genetics, physiology, ecology, pathogenesis, and nutrition. Applied mycology could not make progress without this platform. To unfold the full potentials of what fungi can do for both environment and man we need to strengthen the field of mycology on a global scale. The current mission statement gives an overview of where we are, what needs to be done, what obstacles to overcome, and which potentials are within reach. It further provides a vision for how mycology can be strengthened: The time is right to make the world aware of the immense importance of fungi and mycology for sustainable global development, where land, water and biological materials are used in a more efficient and more sustainable manner. This is an opportunity for profiling mycology by narrating the role played by fungi in the bioeconomy. Greater awareness and appreciation of the role of fungi can be used to build support for mycology around the world. Support will attract more talent to our field of study, empower mycologists around the world to generate more funds for necessary basic research, and strengthen the global mycology network. The use of fungi for unlocking the full potentials of the bioeconomy relies on such progress. The fungal kingdom can be an

  12. Addressing the challenges of diagnostics demand and supply: insights from an online global health discussion platform

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Nora; Wachter, Keri; Pai, Madhukar; Gallarda, Jim; Boehme, Catharina; Celentano, Isabelle; Weintraub, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Several barriers challenge development, adoption and scale-up of diagnostics in low and middle income countries. An innovative global health discussion platform allows capturing insights from the global health community on factors driving demand and supply for diagnostics. We conducted a qualitative content analysis of the online discussion ?Advancing Care Delivery: Driving Demand and Supply of Diagnostics? organised by the Global Health Delivery Project (GHD) (http://www.ghdonline.org/) at H...

  13. Addressing the challenges of diagnostics demand and supply: insights from an online global health discussion platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Nora; Wachter, Keri; Pai, Madhukar; Gallarda, Jim; Boehme, Catharina; Celentano, Isabelle; Weintraub, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Several barriers challenge development, adoption and scale-up of diagnostics in low and middle income countries. An innovative global health discussion platform allows capturing insights from the global health community on factors driving demand and supply for diagnostics. We conducted a qualitative content analysis of the online discussion 'Advancing Care Delivery: Driving Demand and Supply of Diagnostics' organised by the Global Health Delivery Project (GHD) (http://www.ghdonline.org/) at Harvard University. The discussion, driven by 12 expert panellists, explored what must be done to develop delivery systems, business models, new technologies, interoperability standards, and governance mechanisms to ensure that patients receive the right diagnostic at the right time. The GHD Online (GHDonline) platform reaches over 19 000 members from 185 countries. Participants (N=99) in the diagnostics discussion included academics, non-governmental organisations, manufacturers, policymakers, and physicians. Data was coded and overarching categories analysed using qualitative data analysis software. Participants considered technical characteristics of diagnostics as smaller barriers to effective use of diagnostics compared with operational and health system challenges, such as logistics, poor fit with user needs, cost, workforce, infrastructure, access, weak regulation and political commitment. Suggested solutions included: health system strengthening with patient-centred delivery; strengthened innovation processes; improved knowledge base; harmonised guidelines and evaluation; supply chain innovations; and mechanisms for ensuring quality and capacity. Engaging and connecting different actors involved with diagnostic development and use is paramount for improving diagnostics. While the discussion participants were not representative of all actors involved, the platform enabled a discussion between globally acknowledged experts and physicians working in different countries.

  14. A global Fine-Root Ecology Database to address below-ground challenges in plant ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Colleen M; McCormack, M Luke; Powell, A Shafer; Blackwood, Christopher B; Freschet, Grégoire T; Kattge, Jens; Roumet, Catherine; Stover, Daniel B; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A; Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar J; van Bodegom, Peter M; Violle, Cyrille

    2017-07-01

    Variation and tradeoffs within and among plant traits are increasingly being harnessed by empiricists and modelers to understand and predict ecosystem processes under changing environmental conditions. While fine roots play an important role in ecosystem functioning, fine-root traits are underrepresented in global trait databases. This has hindered efforts to analyze fine-root trait variation and link it with plant function and environmental conditions at a global scale. This Viewpoint addresses the need for a centralized fine-root trait database, and introduces the Fine-Root Ecology Database (FRED, http://roots.ornl.gov) which so far includes > 70 000 observations encompassing a broad range of root traits and also includes associated environmental data. FRED represents a critical step toward improving our understanding of below-ground plant ecology. For example, FRED facilitates the quantification of variation in fine-root traits across root orders, species, biomes, and environmental gradients while also providing a platform for assessments of covariation among root, leaf, and wood traits, the role of fine roots in ecosystem functioning, and the representation of fine roots in terrestrial biosphere models. Continued input of observations into FRED to fill gaps in trait coverage will improve our understanding of changes in fine-root traits across space and time. © 2017 UT-Battelle LLC. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. The Challenges Facing the Multilateral Trading System in Addressing Global Public Policy Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bellmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite a record-breaking 14.5 per cent increase in world merchandise exports, the effects of the financial crisis and global recession are still hampering faster economic recovery. Relatively high oil prices combined with persistent unemployment and measures designed to reduce budget deficits have undermined short-term growth prospects. While South–South trade continues to explode, trade imbalances – i.e. the gap between exports and imports – widened in 2010 compared to 2009 (though smaller than pre-crisis levels. Meanwhile, trade negotiations under the Doha Round have reached an impasse, generating uncertainties about the future of the World Trade Organization (WTO as a negotiating forum. Under these circumstances, should the system rethink its decision-making process founded upon the predominance of member states, the principle of consensus and the notion of single undertaking, as some critics have suggested? And, if so, how could such a reform agenda be initiated at the WTO? Moreover, beyond the negotiating function of the WTO, the paralysis of the system also raises urgent questions about the ability of the system to respond to pressing challenges of our times, such as trade and climate change, or food security and price volatility.

  16. Next biotech plants: new traits, crops, developers and technologies for addressing global challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricroch, Agnès E; Hénard-Damave, Marie-Cécile

    2016-08-01

    Most of the genetically modified (GM) plants currently commercialized encompass a handful of crop species (soybean, corn, cotton and canola) with agronomic characters (traits) directed against some biotic stresses (pest resistance, herbicide tolerance or both) and created by multinational companies. The same crops with agronomic traits already on the market today will continue to be commercialized, but there will be also a wider range of species with combined traits. The timeframe anticipated for market release of the next biotech plants will not only depend on science progress in research and development (R&D) in laboratories and fields, but also primarily on how demanding regulatory requirements are in countries where marketing approvals are pending. Regulatory constraints, including environmental and health impact assessments, have increased significantly in the past decades, delaying approvals and increasing their costs. This has sometimes discouraged public research entities and small and medium size plant breeding companies from using biotechnology and given preference to other technologies, not as stringently regulated. Nevertheless, R&D programs are flourishing in developing countries, boosted by the necessity to meet the global challenges that are food security of a booming world population while mitigating climate change impacts. Biotechnology is an instrument at the service of these imperatives and a wide variety of plants are currently tested for their high yield despite biotic and abiotic stresses. Many plants with higher water or nitrogen use efficiency, tolerant to cold, salinity or water submergence are being developed. Food security is not only a question of quantity but also of quality of agricultural and food products, to be available and accessible for the ones who need it the most. Many biotech plants (especially staple food) are therefore being developed with nutritional traits, such as biofortification in vitamins and metals. The main

  17. Global challenges keynote address in memoriam to colleagues lost in the Malaysia airlines 17 crash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hankins, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Six colleagues working in the HIV field were killed when their flight en route to Kuala Lumpur was shot down over the Ukraine. This report is drawn from the in memoriam keynote opening address given at the 12th International AIDS Impact conference in Amsterdam in 2015. It highlights their tangible

  18. Addressing the terawatt challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesborg, Peter C. K.; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    The energy infrastructure for fossil fuels is well-established, accounting for approximately 87% of the 16 TW of power consumed globally. For renewable and sustainable energy conversion technologies to play a relevant role at the terrestrial scale, they must be able to scale to the TW level...

  19. Global challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1990-01-01

    A major challenge now facing the world is the supply of energy needed for growth and development in a manner which is not only economically viable but also environmentally acceptable and sustainable in view of the demands of and risks to future generations. The internationally most significant pollutants from energy production through fossil fuels are SO 2 and NO x which cause acid rain, and CO 2 which is the most significant contributor to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear power, now providing about 17% of the world's electricity and 5% of the primary energy already is making a notable contribution to avoiding these emissions. While the industrialized countries will need more energy and especially electricity in the future, the needs of the developing countries are naturally much larger and present a tremendous challenge to the shaping of the world's future energy supply system. The advanced countries will have to accept special responsibilities, as they can most easily use advanced technologies and they have been and remain the main contributors to the environmental problems we now face. Energy conservation and resort to new renewable energy sources, though highly desirable, appear inadequate alone to meet the challenges. The world can hardly afford to do without an increased use of nuclear power, although it is strongly contested in many countries. The objections raised against the nuclear option focus on safety, waste management and disposal problems and the risk for proliferation of nuclear weapons. These issues are not without their problems. The risk of proliferation exists but will not appreciably diminish with lesser global reliance on nuclear power. The waste issue is more of a political than a technical problem. The use of nuclear power, or any other energy source, will never be at zero risk, but the risks are constantly reduced by new techniques and practices. The IAEA sees it as one of its priority tasks to promote such techniques. (author)

  20. GEOSS: Addressing Big Data Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Ochiai, O.

    2014-12-01

    In the sector of Earth Observation, the explosion of data is due to many factors including: new satellite constellations, the increased capabilities of sensor technologies, social media, crowdsourcing, and the need for multidisciplinary and collaborative research to face Global Changes. In this area, there are many expectations and concerns about Big Data. Vendors have attempted to use this term for their commercial purposes. It is necessary to understand whether Big Data is a radical shift or an incremental change for the existing digital infrastructures. This presentation tries to explore and discuss the impact of Big Data challenges and new capabilities on the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and particularly on its common digital infrastructure called GCI. GEOSS is a global and flexible network of content providers allowing decision makers to access an extraordinary range of data and information at their desk. The impact of the Big Data dimensionalities (commonly known as 'V' axes: volume, variety, velocity, veracity, visualization) on GEOSS is discussed. The main solutions and experimentation developed by GEOSS along these axes are introduced and analyzed. GEOSS is a pioneering framework for global and multidisciplinary data sharing in the Earth Observation realm; its experience on Big Data is valuable for the many lessons learned.

  1. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  2. A Biodiversity Indicators Dashboard: Addressing Challenges to Monitoring Progress towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets Using Disaggregated Global Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuemei; Smyth, Regan L.; Young, Bruce E.; Brooks, Thomas M.; Sánchez de Lozada, Alexandra; Bubb, Philip; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Larsen, Frank W.; Hamilton, Healy; Hansen, Matthew C.; Turner, Will R.

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the imperiled status of biodiversity and its benefit to human well-being, the world's governments committed in 2010 to take effective and urgent action to halt biodiversity loss through the Convention on Biological Diversity's “Aichi Targets”. These targets, and many conservation programs, require monitoring to assess progress toward specific goals. However, comprehensive and easily understood information on biodiversity trends at appropriate spatial scales is often not available to the policy makers, managers, and scientists who require it. We surveyed conservation stakeholders in three geographically diverse regions of critical biodiversity concern (the Tropical Andes, the African Great Lakes, and the Greater Mekong) and found high demand for biodiversity indicator information but uneven availability. To begin to address this need, we present a biodiversity “dashboard” – a visualization of biodiversity indicators designed to enable tracking of biodiversity and conservation performance data in a clear, user-friendly format. This builds on previous, more conceptual, indicator work to create an operationalized online interface communicating multiple indicators at multiple spatial scales. We structured this dashboard around the Pressure-State-Response-Benefit framework, selecting four indicators to measure pressure on biodiversity (deforestation rate), state of species (Red List Index), conservation response (protection of key biodiversity areas), and benefits to human populations (freshwater provision). Disaggregating global data, we present dashboard maps and graphics for the three regions surveyed and their component countries. These visualizations provide charts showing regional and national trends and lay the foundation for a web-enabled, interactive biodiversity indicators dashboard. This new tool can help track progress toward the Aichi Targets, support national monitoring and reporting, and inform outcome-based policy-making for the

  3. A biodiversity indicators dashboard: addressing challenges to monitoring progress towards the Aichi biodiversity targets using disaggregated global data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuemei; Smyth, Regan L; Young, Bruce E; Brooks, Thomas M; Sánchez de Lozada, Alexandra; Bubb, Philip; Butchart, Stuart H M; Larsen, Frank W; Hamilton, Healy; Hansen, Matthew C; Turner, Will R

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the imperiled status of biodiversity and its benefit to human well-being, the world's governments committed in 2010 to take effective and urgent action to halt biodiversity loss through the Convention on Biological Diversity's "Aichi Targets". These targets, and many conservation programs, require monitoring to assess progress toward specific goals. However, comprehensive and easily understood information on biodiversity trends at appropriate spatial scales is often not available to the policy makers, managers, and scientists who require it. We surveyed conservation stakeholders in three geographically diverse regions of critical biodiversity concern (the Tropical Andes, the African Great Lakes, and the Greater Mekong) and found high demand for biodiversity indicator information but uneven availability. To begin to address this need, we present a biodiversity "dashboard"--a visualization of biodiversity indicators designed to enable tracking of biodiversity and conservation performance data in a clear, user-friendly format. This builds on previous, more conceptual, indicator work to create an operationalized online interface communicating multiple indicators at multiple spatial scales. We structured this dashboard around the Pressure-State-Response-Benefit framework, selecting four indicators to measure pressure on biodiversity (deforestation rate), state of species (Red List Index), conservation response (protection of key biodiversity areas), and benefits to human populations (freshwater provision). Disaggregating global data, we present dashboard maps and graphics for the three regions surveyed and their component countries. These visualizations provide charts showing regional and national trends and lay the foundation for a web-enabled, interactive biodiversity indicators dashboard. This new tool can help track progress toward the Aichi Targets, support national monitoring and reporting, and inform outcome-based policy-making for the protection of

  4. A biodiversity indicators dashboard: addressing challenges to monitoring progress towards the Aichi biodiversity targets using disaggregated global data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Han

    Full Text Available Recognizing the imperiled status of biodiversity and its benefit to human well-being, the world's governments committed in 2010 to take effective and urgent action to halt biodiversity loss through the Convention on Biological Diversity's "Aichi Targets". These targets, and many conservation programs, require monitoring to assess progress toward specific goals. However, comprehensive and easily understood information on biodiversity trends at appropriate spatial scales is often not available to the policy makers, managers, and scientists who require it. We surveyed conservation stakeholders in three geographically diverse regions of critical biodiversity concern (the Tropical Andes, the African Great Lakes, and the Greater Mekong and found high demand for biodiversity indicator information but uneven availability. To begin to address this need, we present a biodiversity "dashboard"--a visualization of biodiversity indicators designed to enable tracking of biodiversity and conservation performance data in a clear, user-friendly format. This builds on previous, more conceptual, indicator work to create an operationalized online interface communicating multiple indicators at multiple spatial scales. We structured this dashboard around the Pressure-State-Response-Benefit framework, selecting four indicators to measure pressure on biodiversity (deforestation rate, state of species (Red List Index, conservation response (protection of key biodiversity areas, and benefits to human populations (freshwater provision. Disaggregating global data, we present dashboard maps and graphics for the three regions surveyed and their component countries. These visualizations provide charts showing regional and national trends and lay the foundation for a web-enabled, interactive biodiversity indicators dashboard. This new tool can help track progress toward the Aichi Targets, support national monitoring and reporting, and inform outcome-based policy-making for the

  5. Addressing the Global Sustainability Challenge: The Potential and Pitfalls of Private Governance from the Perspective of Human Capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalfagianni, A.

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary global politics is characterized by an increasing trend toward experimental forms of governance, with an emphasis on private governance. A plurality of private standards, codes of conduct and quality assurance schemes currently developed particularly, though not exclusively, by TNCs

  6. Global threat reduction initiative efforts to address transportation challenges associated with the recovery of disused radioactive sealed sources - 10460

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitworth, Julie; Abeyta, Cristy L.; Griffin, Justin M.; Matzke, James L.; Pearson, Michael W.; Cuthbertson, Abigail; Rawl, Richard; Singley, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Proper disposition of disused radioactive sources is essential for their safe and secure management and necessary to preclude their use in malicious activities. Without affordable, timely transportation options, disused sealed sources remain in storage at hundreds of sites throughout the country and around the world. While secure storage is a temporary measure, the longer sources remain disused or unwanted the chances increase that they will become unsecured or abandoned. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Off-Site Source Recovery Project (GTRIlOSRP), recovers thousands of disused and unwanted sealed sources annually as part of GTRl's larger mission to reduce and protect high risk nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide. Faced with decreasing availability of certified transportation containers to support movement of disused and unwanted neutron- and beta/gamma-emitting radioactive sealed sources, GTRIlOSRP has initiated actions to ensure the continued success of the project in timely recovery and management of sealed radioactive sources. Efforts described in this paper to enhance transportation capabilities include: (sm b ullet) Addition of authorized content to existing and planned Type B containers to support the movement of non-special form and other Type B-quantity sealed sources; (sm b ullet) Procurement of vendor services for the design, development, testing and certification of a new Type B container to support transportation of irradiators, teletherapy heads or sources removed from these devices using remote handling capabilities such as the IAEA portable hot cell facility; (sm b ullet) Expansion of shielded Type A container inventory for transportation of gamma-emitting sources in activity ranges requiring use of shielding for conformity with transportation requirements; (sm b ullet) Approval of the S300 Type A fissile container for transport of Pu-239 sealed sources internationally; (sm b ullet) Technology transfer of

  7. Activities to Address Challenges in Digital Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Lund , Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Part 3: Structures and Networks; International audience; Based on a literature review, this paper identifies four socio-technical challenges relating to innovation actor’s interactions in digital innovation. Furthermore, the paper explores how these challenges can be addressed. The challenges are investigated in a case study of digital innovation. The study is based on a two year long research and development project where an e-newspaper concept and a demonstrator based on e-paper technology ...

  8. Global challenges in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorian, James P.; Franssen, Herman T.; Simbeck, Dale R. MD

    2006-01-01

    Environmental and security concerns are stimulating global interest in hydrogen power, renewable energy, and advanced transportation technologies, but no significant movement away from oil and a carbon-based world economy is expected soon. Over the longer-term, however, a transition from fossil fuels to a non-carbon-based economy will likely occur, affecting the type of environment future generations may encounter. Key challenges will face the world's energy industry over the next few decades to ensure a smooth transition-challenges which will require government and industry solutions beginning as early as today. This paper identifies four critical challenges in energy and the choices which will have to be made on how best to confront growing pollution caused by fossil fuels and how to facilitate an eventual revolutionary-like transition to a non-carbon-based global economy

  9. The Global Energy Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    This report gives a brief overview of the global energy challenge and subsequently outlines how and where renewable energy could be developed to solve these issues. The report does not go into a lot of detail on these issues and hence, it is meant as an overview only. The report begins by outlining...... the causes of global climate change, concluding that energy-related emissions are the primary contributors to the problem. As a result, global energy production is analysed in more detail, discussing how it has evolved over the last 30 years and also, how it is expected to evolve in the coming 30 years....... Afterwards, the security of the world’s energy supply is investigated and it becomes clear that there is both an inevitable shortage of fossil fuels and a dangerous separation of supply and demand. The final topic discussed is renewable energy, since it is one sustainable solution to the global energy...

  10. Addressing the Global Burden of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US National Cancer Institute’s Center for Global Health (CGH) has been a key partner in a multi-institutional expert team that has developed a set of publications to address foundational concerns in breast cancer care across the cancer care continuum and within limited resource settings.

  11. HEP technologies to address medical imaging challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Developments in detector technologies aimed at solving challenges in present and future CERN experiments, particularly at the LHC, have triggered exceptional advances in the performance of medical imaging devices, allowing for a spectacular progress in in-vivo molecular imaging procedures, which are opening the way for tailored therapies of major diseases. This talk will briefly review the recent history of this prime example of technology transfer from HEP experiments to society, will describe the technical challenges being addressed by some ongoing projects, and will present a few new ideas for further developments and their foreseeable impact.

  12. Addressing Safeguards Challenges for the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majali, Raed; Yim, Man-Sung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    IAEA safeguard system is considered the corner stone of the international nuclear nonproliferation regime. Effective implementation of this legal instrument enables the IAEA to draw a conclusion with a high degree of confidence on the peaceful use of nuclear material and activities in the state. This paper aims to provide an opportunity to address various challenges encountered by IAEA. Strengthening safeguards system for verification is one of the most urgent challenges facing the IAEA. The IAEA should be able to provide credible assurance not only about declared use of nuclear material and facilities but also about the absence of undeclared material and activities. Implementation of IAEA safeguards continue to play a vital role within the nuclear non-proliferation regime. IAEA must move towards more enhanced safeguards system that is driven by the full use of all the safeguards available relevant information. Safeguards system must be responsive to evolving challenges and continue innovation through efficient implementations of more effective safeguards.

  13. Global Governance Mechanisms to Address Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padiyara, Ponnu; Inoue, Hajime; Sprenger, Marc

    2018-01-01

    Since their discovery, antibiotics, and more broadly, antimicrobials, have been a cornerstone of modern medicine. But the overuse and misuse of these drugs have led to rising rates of antimicrobial resistance, which occurs when bacteria adapt in ways that render antibiotics ineffective. A world without effective antibiotics can have drastic impacts on population health, global development, and the global economy. As a global common good, antibiotic effectiveness is vulnerable to the tragedy of the commons, where a shared limited resource is overused by a community when each individual exploits the finite resource for their own benefit. A borderless threat like antimicrobial resistance requires global governance mechanisms to mitigate its emergence and spread, and it is the responsibility of all countries and relevant multilateral organizations. These mechanisms can be in the form of legally binding global governance mechanisms such as treaties and regulatory standards or nonbinding mechanisms such as political declarations, resolutions, or guidelines. In this article, we argue that while both are effective methods, the strong, swift, and coordinated action needed to address rising rates of antimicrobial resistance will be better served through legally binding governance mechanisms.

  14. The challenge of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryner, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    The chapter outlines the science of global warming, the likely consequences of global warming and some of the major challenges in dealing with global climate change. Some of the major international organisations concerned with environmental issues are listed. International agreements might be used to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. 32 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Infections are a global issue: infection addresses global issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobusch, M P; Calleri, G; Bogner, J R

    2012-12-01

    Infections are of unifying global concern, despite regional differences in disease epidemiology, clinical appearance and the instruments to tackle them. The primary aim of Infection is "to be a forum for the presentation and discussion of clinically relevant information on infectious diseases… from all over the world". To that end, and as a reflection of the global burden of infectious diseases, we intend to increase the number of high-quality contributions from authors addressing the aetiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases from outside Europe and the affluent North (Chang et al. Infection 40:359-365, 2012; Misra et al. Infection 40:125-130, 2012). The Editorial Board of Infection envisages the journal as an interface between where infectious diseases meet and mix between "North and South"--i.e., the field of travel medicine--frequently functioning as a sentinel for altered/novel disease activities that are encountered as imported conditions. With the change in generation on the Editorial Board, Infection aims to expand the areas of tropical medicine, travel medicine and global health with its own section editors (GC and MPG). Contributions from outside Europe are actively encouraged.

  16. Addressing South Africa’s urban challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne M. Rogerson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is among the most urbanized countries in Africa and has an urban population that is growing rapidly. The country’s urban challenges sometimes are considered as distinctive and separate to those of rest of Africa because of the apartheid legacy of a fragmented and racially splintered urban landscape. Nevertheless, 20 years after democratic transition the issues that confront its cities increasingly exhibit a set of sustainability challenges that typify those problems of many other fast-growing African urban areas. This introduction locates the collection of articles as a contribution to the expanding corpus of scholarship on urban South Africa.

  17. Nutrient density: addressing the challenge of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-10-30

    Obesity rates are increasing worldwide. Potential reasons include excessive consumption of sugary beverages and energy-dense foods instead of more nutrient-rich options. On a per kJ basis, energy-dense grains, added sugars and fats cost less, whereas lean meats, seafood, leafy greens and whole fruit generally cost more. Given that consumer food choices are often driven by price, the observed social inequities in diet quality and health can be explained, in part, by nutrition economics. Achieving a nutrient-rich diet at an affordable cost has become progressively more difficult within the constraints of global food supply. However, given the necessary metrics and educational tools, it may be possible to eat better for less. New metrics of nutrient density help consumers identify foods, processed and unprocessed, that are nutrient-rich, affordable and appealing. Affordability metrics, created by adding food prices to food composition data, permit calculations of both kJ and nutrients per penny, allowing for new studies on the economic drivers of food choice. Merging dietary intake data with local or national food prices permits the estimation of individual-level diet costs. New metrics of nutrient balance can help identify those food patterns that provide optimal nutritional value. Behavioural factors, including cooking at home, have been associated with nutrition resilience, defined as healthier diets at lower cost. Studies of the energy and nutrient costs of the global food supply and diverse food patterns will permit a better understanding of the socioeconomic determinants of health. Dietary advice ought to be accompanied by economic feasibility studies.

  18. Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda ... the adaptive capacity of communities to address the issue of climate-induced water stress. ... It will do so by testing the electronic dissemination of seasonal forecasts, early warning ...

  19. Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 janv. 2012 ... Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda ... adaptive capacity of communities to address the issue of climate-induced water stress. ... It will do so by testing the electronic dissemination of seasonal forecasts, early ...

  20. Partnerships as panacea for addressing global problems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kolk (Ans)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter examines partnerships and their peculiarities, based on recent research from various disciplines, in the context of the large problems faced by (global) society. These problems are very complex, often cross national boundaries, and cannot easily be 'solved' by one single

  1. ADDRESSING THE RISKS OF GLOBAL PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2011-01-01

    to rework, misunderstandings, miscommunication and lower quality. This paper investigates how the organisation can reduce the negative aspects of offshoring by presenting two possible approaches; one which lessens the exposure to situations in which these negative impacts happen and another which addresses...

  2. Is prophetic discourse adequate to address global economic justice?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-02-15

    Feb 15, 2011 ... of moral discourse adequately addresses issues of economic injustice. ... plays an indispensable role in addressing issues of global economic justice, but ...... governance in their business practices, to provide a tool for a.

  3. CIRM Alpha Stem Cell Clinics: Collaboratively Addressing Regenerative Medicine Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Catriona H M; Millan, Maria T; Creasey, Abla A; Lomax, Geoff; Donohoe, Mary E; Walters, Mark C; Abedi, Mehrdad; Bota, Daniela A; Zaia, John A; Adams, John S

    2018-06-01

    The California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) Alpha Stem Cell Clinic (ASCC) Network was launched in 2015 to address a compelling unmet medical need for rigorous, FDA-regulated, stem cell-related clinical trials for patients with challenging, incurable diseases. Here, we describe our multi-center experiences addressing current and future challenges. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Poor understanding? Challenges to Global Development Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Buchanan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As members of a global community, we cohabit a metaphorically shrinking physical environment, and are increasingly connected one to another, and to the world, by ties of culture, economics, politics, communication and the like. Education is an essential component in addressing inequalities and injustices concerning global rights and responsibilities. The increasing multicultural nature of societies locally, enhanced access to distal information, and the work of charitable organisations worldwide are some of the factors that have contributed to the interest in, and need for, understanding global development education. The project on which this paper reports sought answers to the question: to what extent and in what ways can a semester-long subject enhance and extend teacher education students’ understandings of and responses to global inequalities and global development aid? In the course of the project, a continuum model emerged, as follows: Indifference or ignorance ➝ pity and charity ➝ partnership and development among equals. In particular, this paper reports on some of the challenges and obstacles that need to be addressed in order to enhance pre-service teachers’ understandings of global development education. The study, conducted in Australia, has implications for global development education in other developed nations.

  5. DEGAS: Dynamic Exascale Global Address Space Programming Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmel, James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-02-23

    The Dynamic, Exascale Global Address Space programming environment (DEGAS) project will develop the next generation of programming models and runtime systems to meet the challenges of Exascale computing. The Berkeley part of the project concentrated on communication-optimal code generation to optimize speed and energy efficiency by reducing data movement. Our work developed communication lower bounds, and/or communication avoiding algorithms (that either meet the lower bound, or do much less communication than their conventional counterparts) for a variety of algorithms, including linear algebra, machine learning and genomics. The Berkeley part of the project concentrated on communication-optimal code generation to optimize speed and energy efficiency by reducing data movement. Our work developed communication lower bounds, and/or communication avoiding algorithms (that either meet the lower bound, or do much less communication than their conventional counterparts) for a variety of algorithms, including linear algebra, machine learning and genomics.

  6. Four Challenges That Global Health Networks Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Shiffman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Global health networks, webs of individuals and organizations with a shared concern for a particular condition, have proliferated over the past quarter century. They differ in their effectiveness, a factor that may help explain why resource allocations vary across health conditions and do not correspond closely with disease burden. Drawing on findings from recently concluded studies of eight global health networks—addressing alcohol harm, early childhood development (ECD, maternal mortality, neonatal mortality, pneumonia, surgically-treatable conditions, tobacco use, and tuberculosis—I identify four challenges that networks face in generating attention and resources for the conditions that concern them. The first is problem definition: generating consensus on what the problem is and how it should be addressed. The second is positioning: portraying the issue in ways that inspire external audiences to act. The third is coalition-building: forging alliances with these external actors, particularly ones outside the health sector. The fourth is governance: establishing institutions to facilitate collective action. Research indicates that global health networks that effectively tackle these challenges are more likely to garner support to address the conditions that concern them. In addition to the effectiveness of networks, I also consider their legitimacy, identifying reasons both to affirm and to question their right to exert power.

  7. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  8. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  9. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  10. Infections are a global issue: Infection addresses global issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grobusch, M. P.; Calleri, G.; Bogner, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    Infections are of unifying global concern, despite regional differences in disease epidemiology, clinical appearance and the instruments to tackle them. The primary aim of Infection is "to be a forum for the presentation and discussion of clinically relevant information on infectious diseasesaEuro

  11. Biodiversity data provision and decision-making - addressing the challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Despot-Belmonte

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs are measurements required for study, reporting, and management of biodiversity change. They are being developed to support consistency, from the collection to the reporting of biodiversity data at the national, regional and global scales. However, "EBV stakeholders" need to strike a balance between 'doing innovative research' and 'having positive impact' on biodiversity management decisions. This paper reports on a workshop entitled Identifying joint pathways to address the challenges of biodiversity data provision and decision-making and presents the main workshop’s output, a “researcher’s brief” entitled Guiding principles for promoting the application of EBVs for current and future needs of decision-makers. These guiding principles are: Speak with a common voice; Clearly define what is an EBV and how it relates to indicators; Engage beyond the research world; Be realistic about what can be done now and later; Define criteria for good EBVs; Use EBV as a clearing house; Convey the limitations of EBVs; Clarify what impact EBVs should have; Be salient, credible, legitimate, iterative; Don't put an EBV skin on everything you do; Don't create too many EBVs; and Don't reduce EBVs to building blocks of indicators. This brief is of relevance to the wider GEO BON (Group on Earth Observation Biodoversity Observation Network community, and in particular those scientists/researchers interested in the application of EBVs.

  12. Catholic Social Teaching: Addressing Globalization in Catholic Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, James B.; Martinez, Zaida; Toyne, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Although business schools are increasingly aware of the importance of globalization in educating future business leaders, their business programs have addressed globalization from a limited perspective that fails to provide students with a broader understanding of its impact on societies and its moral consequences. The conventional approach to the…

  13. Globalization challenges in a globalized world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Gjon Boriçi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is an ongoing phenomenon trying to redefine the economic, social, cultural and political dynamics of contemporary societies. The communication among countries and not only them, has been increased expanding political ties, making possible greater economic integration and wider cultural relations combined with augmented global wealth across the world. But, the process of globalization is in wider terms considered a beneficial one, but also viewed by some countries as a menace to national sovereignty and national culture. This paper tries to explain the obstacles to the process of globalization and its attendant benefits. Although globalization has arisen as a result of a more stable world, the factors that had contributed to its rise also help the factions interested to bring destabilization. In an academic approach in this article, between the research and comparative methods, I have been trying to get the maxims between economy, politics and diplomacy in their efforts of affecting the global era.

  14. International migration: a global challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P; Widgren, J

    1996-04-01

    Trends in international migration are presented in this multiregional analysis. Seven of the world's wealthiest countries have about 33% of the world's migrant population, but under 16% of the total world population. Population growth in these countries is substantially affected by the migrant population. The migration challenge is external and internal. The external challenge is to balance the need for foreign labor and the commitment to human rights for those migrants seeking economic opportunity and political freedom. The internal challenge is to assure the social adjustment of immigrants and their children and to integrate them into society as citizens and future leaders. Why people cross national borders and how migration flows are likely to evolve over the next decades are explained. This report also presents some ways that countries can manage migration or reduce the pressures which force people to migrate. It is recommended that receiving nations control immigration by accelerating global economic growth and reducing wars and human rights violations. This report examines the impact of immigration on international trade, aid, and direct intervention policies. Although migration is one of the most important international economic issues, it is not coordinated by an international group. The European experience indicates that it is not easy to secure international cooperation on issues that affect national sovereignty. It is suggested that countries desiring control of their borders should remember that most people never cross national borders to live or work in another country, that 50% of the world's migrants move among developing countries, and that countries can shift from being emigration to immigration countries. The author suggests that sustained reductions in migration pressure are a better alternative than the "quick fixes" that may invite the very much feared mass and unpredictable movements.

  15. Challenges in global ballast water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endresen, Oyvind; Lee Behrens, Hanna; Brynestad, Sigrid; Bjoern Andersen, Aage; Skjong, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    Ballast water management is a complex issue raising the challenge of merging international regulations, ship's specific configurations along with ecological conservation. This complexity is illustrated in this paper by considering ballast water volume, discharge frequency, ship safety and operational issues aligned with regional characteristics to address ecological risk for selected routes. A re-estimation of ballast water volumes gives a global annual level of 3500 Mton. Global ballast water volume discharged into open sea originating from ballast water exchange operations is estimated to approximately 2800 Mton. Risk based decision support systems coupled to databases for different ports and invasive species characteristics and distributions can allow for differentiated treatment levels while maintaining low risk levels. On certain routes, the risk is estimated to be unacceptable and some kind of ballast water treatment or management should be applied

  16. Innovative approaches for addressing old challenges in component importance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocco S, Claudio M.; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Importance measures (IM) are component related indices that allow assessing how a component in a system affects one or more system level performance functions. While several IM have been presented in the literature, challenges still remain with respect to the following: (1) multiple ranking—multiple perspective, (2) multi-component importance and, (3) multi-function importance. To address these challenges, this paper proposes set of innovative solutions based on several available techniques: Hasse diagram, Copeland score and Multi-objective optimization. As such, the purpose of this research is twofold: first propose solutions and second foster new research to address these challenges. Each of the proposed solutions is exemplified with a working example.

  17. Global challenges and globalization of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezhmetdinova, Farida

    2013-02-01

    This article analyzes problems and implications for man and nature connected with the formation of a new architecture of science, based on the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science (NBIC). It also describes evolution and genesis of bioethics, a scientific discipline and social practice with a special role of ethical management of potential risks of scientific research. The aim was to demonstrate the necessity of bioethical social control in the development of a global bioeconomy driven by NBIC technologies.

  18. Adequately Addressing Pediatric Obesity: Challenges Faced by Primary Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreve, Marilou; Scott, Allison; Vowell Johnson, Kelly

    2017-07-01

    To assess the challenges primary care providers encounter when providing counseling for pediatric patients identified as obese. A survey assessed the current challenges and barriers to the screening and treatment of pediatric obesity for providers in northwest Arkansas who provide care to families. The survey consisted of 15 Likert scale questions and 4 open-ended questions. Time, resources, comfort, and cultural issues were reported by providers as the biggest barriers in screening and the treatment of pediatric obesity. All providers reported lack of time as a barrier to providing the care needed for obese children. Cultural barriers of both the provider and client were identified as factors, which negatively affect the care and treatment of obese children. Primary care providers continue to experience challenges when addressing pediatric obesity. In this study, a lack of adequate time to address obesity was identified as the most significant current barrier and may likely be tied to physician resources. Although reimbursement for obesity is increasing, the level of reimbursement does not support the time or the resources needed to treat patients. Many providers reported their patients' cultural view of obesity influenced how they counsel their patients. Increasing providers' knowledge concerning differences in how weight is viewed or valued may assist them in the assessment and care of obese pediatric patients. The challenges identified in previous research continue to limit providers when addressing obesity. Although progress has been made regarding knowledge of guidelines, continuing effort is needed to tackle the remaining challenges. This will allow for earlier identification and intervention, resulting in improved outcomes in pediatric obesity.

  19. Global Workforce Development - Addressing the Changing Geography of Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElvy, G. W.; Loudin, M. G.

    2005-12-01

    The Geography of professional workforce hiring is changing significantly and rapidly in the petroleum industry, mostly in response to shifting investment patterns. These geographical changes pose daunting challenges as well as new opportunities for philanthropic institutions such as the ExxonMobil Foundation, and especially for academia. Our Angolan affiliate illustrates the challenges brought about by investment in new areas. Although we will continue to require access to numerous Angolan Geoscience graduates who can fully participate in our global Geoscience community, there is only one Angolan institution that grants a relatively small number of Geoscience degrees. Our access to other locally-educated Angolan professional graduates is similarly limited. The Petroleum sector's response to this situation has been to seek indigenous students who are already enrolled, often in North American or European academic institutions, or to sponsor Angolan students there. If one multiplies our Angolan Geoscience example by the number of competing employers in Angola, and then by the number of countries around the world that are experiencing strong economic growth, the magnitude of the unfilled demand for international educational development seems daunting. However, several academic institutions have already taken the initiative and have provided educational, linguistic, and cultural pathways that encourage Angolans and others to obtain a world-class educational preparation on their respective campuses. This strategy has indeed begun to address the need for capacity-building for many indigenous students, and has aided various industries in their efforts to build indigenous workforces. Nevertheless, growing the capacity of indigenous academic infrastructure is also essential for the long term, and only a few academic institutions have begun to explore this educational frontier. Increased engagement and collaboration in international educational activities would clearly confer

  20. Culture, Communication, and the Challenge of Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shome, Raka; Hegde, Radha S.

    2002-01-01

    Deals with the problematics that globalization poses for critical communication scholarship. Address how uneven patterns of global processes are enacted through cultural practices produced by the transnational flows of images and capital. Explores several areas of contemporary global growth with the overall objective of demonstrating the urgency…

  1. Knowledge Management Challenges For Global Business

    OpenAIRE

    Veli Denizhan Kalkan

    2011-01-01

    Managing organizational knowledge effectively is a prerequisite for securing competitive advantages in the global marketplace. The field of knowledge management brings out important challenges for global business practices. Based on a comprehensive academic and popular literature review, this paper identifies six main knowledge management challenges faced by global business today. These are developing a working definition of knowledge, dealing with tacit knowledge and utilization of informati...

  2. Mining and global environmental challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeff, J C; Bailey-McEwan, M [Chamber of Mines of South Africa, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    1992-04-01

    At least half of South Africa's gold production is presently dependent on CFC11 an CFC12 as refrigerants in water chilling machines used in cooling the underground workings. The South African Government will ratify the revised Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer which will mean CFCs will have to be phased out probably by 1997. HFC134 or HFC22 are possible replacements for CFC but present costs of converting machines are high. The article goes on to discuss the contribution of CFCs and CO{sub 2} to global warming and model simulations and predictions of climate change. Likely effects of growing concern about global warming on the coal mining industry are the possible limitations on the use of coal and the increased need for clean coal technology. 12 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. CULTURAL DIVERSITY: A GLOBAL CHALLENGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina LECA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available XXI century is the century of globalization, a century dominated by multinational organizations supremacy which gradually expanded to conquer the world through their products and services. In every industry working professionals need to interact with people from other ethnic and nationals groups, at home, job and around the world. Decisively all meant for companies and organizations, in addition to innovation and development the source of possible conflicts. Therefore what does cultural diversity mean and how it should be managed?

  4. Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florini, Ann; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2009-01-01

    This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems.

  5. Addressing the human resource challenge in the electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    The electricity industry is facing significant challenges in terms of its labour forces in the years ahead due to an aging workforce and pending retirements in an industry already challenged by increasing demand, technological change and regulatory instability. A shortage of skilled labour could compromise the electricity sector in a variety of ways including: reduced reliability, increased cost of production, infrastructure projects delays, and decreased safety and productivity due to less experienced employees and worker shortages. This report presented a briefing of recommendations developed by the Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) that offered concrete solutions to addressing the electricity industry's workforce challenges. The recommendations focused around three areas: building Canadian skills base by investing in education, skills training and apprenticeships, particularly in underrepresented communities; ensuring trained, skilled workers are able to work and flourish in their area of expertise by streamlining certification and credential recognition, and facilitating workforce mobility; and attracting and retaining skilled foreign workers by ensuring successful community and workplace integration. Background information on the electricity industry in Canada was also presented. The CEA also proposed a list of policy initiatives to ensure the Canadian electricity industry can maintain and enhance its human and electricity potential. It was concluded that the CEA is prepared to develop detailed implementation plans and programs to operationalize any and all of the recommendations in the briefing. 2 figs.

  6. ISLAM: Local and Global Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Indeed, in maintaining their local values when faced with globalchallenges, Muslims, as a social entity, and Islam, as a set of dogma, havegiven birth to new phenomena, e.g. new interpretation of Islam withina new context. Additionally, this era of globalization has led religions,including Islam, to renew their gambit to cope reality, e.g. in the practicallife (sociological, political, economical and anthropological aspects,intellectual endeavors (philosophical and theological aspects, and in therenewal of dogmatic teachings (hermeneutical aspects.

  7. Global Challenges and Local Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Peter

    2005-01-01

    the Korean and Malaysian unions were affected by the financial crisis from different structural and strategic positions, and were exposed to different national policies and corporate strategies of crisis management, the Korean unions and Malaysian unions generally followed, respectively, a more radical...... and militant and a more pragmatic and moderate strategy. In the global-local perspective we face two paradoxes. The first paradox is that in spite of the difference in union ideology, the outcome in terms of industrial relations (IR) institutions was rather similar in the sense that the auto industry contained......, which could impede their autonomy. Due to the strength of unions of the market leading firms a breakthrough did happen neither in Korea nor in Malaysia, although the Koreans were a step ahead of the Malaysians having established a federation of metalworkers unions, including the important autoworkers...

  8. Addressing the challenges of patient-centred design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen LaBat

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Patient-centred design is a relatively new term, but a longstanding concept in clinical practice. This discussion looks at patient-centred design and explores the relationships of patient-centred design to universal design, user-centred design and the newer human-centred design. It also explores why interdisciplinary approaches are needed for patient-centred design and how interdisciplinary collaboration works to address the challenges of patient centred design. Successful patient-centred solutions can grow from collaborations which include shared visions, understanding of both the nature and degree of variation in the patient,materials, and the designed solution, clear regular communication among all parties with careful definition of terms, and respect for the inherent cultures of all disciplines involved.

  9. Cultural dimensions of learning: Addressing the challenges of multicultural instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Parrish

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing multicultural nature of education and training environments makes it critical that instructors and instructional designers, especially those working in online learning environments, develop skills to deliver culturally sensitive and culturally adaptive instruction. This article explores research into cultural differences to identify those dimensions of culture that are most likely to impact instructional situations. It presents these in the cultural dimensions of learning framework (CDLF, which describes a set of eight cultural parameters regarding social relationships, epistemological beliefs, and temporal perceptions, and illustrates their spectrums of variability as they might be exhibited in instructional situations. The article also explores the literature on instructional design and culture for guidelines on addressing the cross-cultural challenges faced by instructional providers. It suggests that these challenges can be overcome through increased awareness, culturally sensitive communication, modified instructional design processes, and efforts to accommodate the most critical cultural differences. Finally, it describes the use of the CDLF questionnaire as a tool to illuminate the range of preferences existing among learners and to discover the potential range of strategies and tactics that might be useful for a given set of learners.

  10. Women and Smoking: Global Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taru Kinnunen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Global tobacco control has led to a reduction in smoking prevalence and mortality in men, while the rates among women have not followed the same declining rates or patterns. Tobacco-induced diseases, including those unique to women (reproductive complications, cervical and breast cancer are becoming increasingly prevalent among women. Unfortunately, many tobacco control policies and cessation programs have been found to be less effective for women than men. This is alarming as disease risk for lung cancer, CVD, osteoporosis, and COPD, associated with smoking, is higher among women. Women are also more likely to be exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke and subsequent morbidity. Finally, quitting smoking appears to be harder for women than men. Current tobacco control and surveillance data come primarily from high resource countries. WHO estimates that in 2030, in low and medium resource countries, 7 out of 10 deaths will be smoking-related. While the prevalence of smoking in women is relatively low in these countries, more information is needed regarding their patterns of tobacco use uptake, and subsequent health outcomes, as theirs differ from men. Tobacco use in women is greatly influenced by social, cultural and political determinants, and needs to be conceptualized within an intersectional framework.

  11. Is prophetic discourse adequate to address global economic justice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet J. Naudé

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article outlined key features of prophetic discourse and investigated whether this form of moral discourse adequately addresses issues of economic injustice. It is shown that the strength of prophetic discourse is its ability to denounce instances of injustice whilst at the same time announcing a God-willed alternative future. The ‘preferential option for the poor’ in Latin American liberation theologies is treated as a case study of the influence of prophetic discourse in contexts of perceived economic injustice. Also the core weaknesses of prophetic discourse are investigated, specifically its incomplete moral argument, weak moral analyses, silence on transition measures, and its inability to take a positive stance on reforms in the system from which itself benefits. In the final section it is concluded that prophetic discourse plays an indispensable role in addressing issues of global economic justice, but – taken by itself – it is not an adequate form of moral discourse to address concrete matters of justice.

  12. MO-FG-BRB-03: Addressing the Cancer Challenge: International Cancer Experts Corps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, N. [Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The global burden of cancer is growing rapidly with an estimated 15 million new cases per year worldwide in 2015, growing to 19 million by 2025 and 24 million by 2035. The largest component of this growth will occur in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs). About half of these cases will require radiation treatment. The gap for available cancer treatment, including radiation therapy, between high-income countries (HICs) and LMICs is enormous. Accurate data and quantitative models to project the needs and the benefits of cancer treatment are a critical first step in closing the large cancer divide between LMICs and HICs. In this context, the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) has developed a Global Task Force on Radiotherapy for Cancer Control (GTFRCC) with a charge to answer the question as to what it will take to close the gap between what exists today and reasonable access to radiation therapy globally by 2035 and what the potential clinical and economic benefits are for doing this. The Task Force has determined the projections of cancer incidence and the infrastructure required to provide access to radiation therapy globally. Furthermore it has shown that appropriate investment not only yields improved clinical outcomes for millions of patients but that it also provides an overall economic gain throughout all the income settings where this investment is made. This symposium will summarize the facets associated with this global cancer challenge by reviewing the cancer burden, looking at the requirements for radiation therapy, reviewing the benefits of providing such therapy both from a clinical and economic perspective and finally by looking at what approaches can be used to aid in the alleviation of this global cancer challenge. The speakers are world renowned experts in global public health issues (R. Atun), medical physics (D. Jaffray) and radiation oncology (N. Coleman). Learning Objectives: To describe the global cancer challenge and the

  13. MO-FG-BRB-03: Addressing the Cancer Challenge: International Cancer Experts Corps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, N.

    2015-01-01

    The global burden of cancer is growing rapidly with an estimated 15 million new cases per year worldwide in 2015, growing to 19 million by 2025 and 24 million by 2035. The largest component of this growth will occur in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs). About half of these cases will require radiation treatment. The gap for available cancer treatment, including radiation therapy, between high-income countries (HICs) and LMICs is enormous. Accurate data and quantitative models to project the needs and the benefits of cancer treatment are a critical first step in closing the large cancer divide between LMICs and HICs. In this context, the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) has developed a Global Task Force on Radiotherapy for Cancer Control (GTFRCC) with a charge to answer the question as to what it will take to close the gap between what exists today and reasonable access to radiation therapy globally by 2035 and what the potential clinical and economic benefits are for doing this. The Task Force has determined the projections of cancer incidence and the infrastructure required to provide access to radiation therapy globally. Furthermore it has shown that appropriate investment not only yields improved clinical outcomes for millions of patients but that it also provides an overall economic gain throughout all the income settings where this investment is made. This symposium will summarize the facets associated with this global cancer challenge by reviewing the cancer burden, looking at the requirements for radiation therapy, reviewing the benefits of providing such therapy both from a clinical and economic perspective and finally by looking at what approaches can be used to aid in the alleviation of this global cancer challenge. The speakers are world renowned experts in global public health issues (R. Atun), medical physics (D. Jaffray) and radiation oncology (N. Coleman). Learning Objectives: To describe the global cancer challenge and the

  14. How does Software Process Improvement Address Global Software Engineering?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Diebold, Philipp; Münch, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    a systematic mapping study on the state-of-the-art in SPI from a general perspective, we observed Global Software Engineering (GSE) becoming a topic of interest in recent years. Therefore, in this paper, we provide a detailed investigation of those papers from the overall systematic mapping study that were......For decades, Software Process Improvement (SPI) programs have been implemented, inter alia, to improve quality and speed of software development. To set up, guide, and carry out SPI projects, and to measure SPI state, impact, and success, a multitude of different SPI approaches and considerable...... experience are available. SPI addresses many aspects ranging from individual developer skills to entire organizations. It comprises for instance the optimization of specific activities in the software lifecycle as well as the creation of organization awareness and project culture. In the course of conducting...

  15. The next organizational challenge: finding and addressing diagnostic error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Mark L; Trowbridge, Robert; Myers, Jennifer S; Umscheid, Craig A; Strull, William; Kanter, Michael H

    2014-03-01

    Although health care organizations (HCOs) are intensely focused on improving the safety of health care, efforts to date have almost exclusively targeted treatment-related issues. The literature confirms that the approaches HCOs use to identify adverse medical events are not effective in finding diagnostic errors, so the initial challenge is to identify cases of diagnostic error. WHY HEALTH CARE ORGANIZATIONS NEED TO GET INVOLVED: HCOs are preoccupied with many quality- and safety-related operational and clinical issues, including performance measures. The case for paying attention to diagnostic errors, however, is based on the following four points: (1) diagnostic errors are common and harmful, (2) high-quality health care requires high-quality diagnosis, (3) diagnostic errors are costly, and (4) HCOs are well positioned to lead the way in reducing diagnostic error. FINDING DIAGNOSTIC ERRORS: Current approaches to identifying diagnostic errors, such as occurrence screens, incident reports, autopsy, and peer review, were not designed to detect diagnostic issues (or problems of omission in general) and/or rely on voluntary reporting. The realization that the existing tools are inadequate has spurred efforts to identify novel tools that could be used to discover diagnostic errors or breakdowns in the diagnostic process that are associated with errors. New approaches--Maine Medical Center's case-finding of diagnostic errors by facilitating direct reports from physicians and Kaiser Permanente's electronic health record--based reports that detect process breakdowns in the followup of abnormal findings--are described in case studies. By raising awareness and implementing targeted programs that address diagnostic error, HCOs may begin to play an important role in addressing the problem of diagnostic error.

  16. Addressing challenges for youths with mobility devices in winter conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Ernesto; Lindsay, Sally; Edwards, Geoffrey; Howell, Lori; Vincent, Claude; Yantzi, Nicole; Gauthier, Véronique

    2018-01-01

    Winter-related research about the experience of navigating in the urban context has mostly focused on the elderly population with physical disabilities. The aim of this project was to explore potential design solutions to enhance young people's mobility devices and the built environment to improve accessibility and participation in winter. A multi-method qualitative design process included the following steps: (1) in-depth interviews; (2) photo elicitation; (3) individual co-design sessions; and (4) group co-design sessions (i.e., focus group). The participants were 13 youths (nine males and four females), aged 12-21, who used a wheelchair (12 power chair users and one manual wheelchair), for some with their parents, others without their parents, according to the parents' willingness to participate or not in the study (n = 13). The first two authors conducted group co-design sessions with mechanical engineers and therapists/clinicians in two Canadian cities to discuss the feasibility of the designs. Results (findings): The youths and their parents reported different winter-related challenges and proposed specific design solutions to enhance their participation and inclusion in winter activities. Seven of these designs were presented at two group co-design sessions of therapists/clinicians and engineers. Two designs were found to be feasible: (1) a traction device for wheelchairs in snow and (2) a mat made of rollers to clean snow and dirt from tires. The results of this research highlight the frustrations and challenges youths who use wheelchairs encounter in winter and a need for new solutions to ensure greater accessibility in winter. Therapists/clinicians and designers should address winter-related accessibility problems in areas with abundant snow. Implications for Rehabilitation Several studies show that current urban contexts do not necessarily respond accurately to the needs of individuals with limited mobility. Winter-related research about the

  17. Addressing Open Water Data Challenges in the Bureau of Reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, L. D.; Danner, A.; Nagode, J.; Rocha, J.; Poulton, S.; Anderson, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation is largest wholesaler of water in the United States. Located in the 17 western states, Reclamation serves water to 31 million people, provides irrigated water to 20 percent of Western farmers, and is the second largest producer of hydroelectric power in the United States. Through these activities, Reclamation generates large amounts of water and water-related data, describing reservoirs and river system conditions, hydropower, environmental compliance activities, infrastructure assets, and other aspects of Reclamation's mission activities. Reclamation aims to make water and water-related data sets more easily found, accessed, and used in decision-making activities in order to benefit the public, private sector, and research communities. Historically, there has not been an integrated, bureau-wide system to store data in machine-readable formats; nor a system to permit centralized browsing, open access, and web-services. Reclamation began addressing these limitations by developing the Reclamation Water Information System (RWIS), released in Spring 2017 (https://water.usbr.gov/). A bureau-wide team contributed to RWIS development, including water data stewards, database administrators, and information technology (IT) specialists. The first RWIS release publishes reservoir time series data from Reclamation's five regions and includes a map interface for sites identification, a query interface for data discovery and access, and web-services for automated retrieval. As RWIS enhancement continues, the development team is developing a companion system - the Reclamation Information Sharing Environment (RISE) - to provide access to the other data subjects and types (geospatial, documents). While RWIS and RISE are promising starts, Reclamation continues to face challenges in addressing open water data goals: making data consolidation and open publishing a value-added activity for programs that publish data locally, going beyond providing open access

  18. Addressing professional resource challenges facing modern utilities with technological solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldie, T. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Hodder, S. [GE Digital Energy, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The challenges facing electric utilities regarding a shortage of highly qualified labour to maintain, refurbish and expand electrical infrastructure can be attributed to a wave of retirements in skilled employees, a shortage of entry-level workers and a rapidly increasing workload caused by investment in electricity infrastructure. Two solutions were presented for finding and sustaining an adequate personnel base. The first involved developing local talent, both entry-level and mid-career staff to ensure that work continuity and workplace safety are maintained. The second involved the implementation of technological solutions to help optimize the use of existing and future labour resources. This paper presented the human resource programs developed by Hydro One, the largest electrical transmission and distribution utility in the province of Ontario. Their initiatives include raising the profile of the utility work environment through strategic partnerships with educational institutions and developing in house offerings to supplement existing academic programs. This paper also presented a technical solution to address the resources challenges specifically associated with power system protection and control. The solution targets professional and skilled trades involved in the design, installation and maintenance of automated substations and protection and control systems. It is based on the premise that resource optimization can be achieved by reducing inconsistent design and construction practices and replacing these designs with highly standardized materials with digital communications using IEC 61850. This new technology should attract young professionals to the power engineering field while still maintaining a high comfort level with the established professional workforce. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Addressing Complex Problems: Using Authentic Audiences and Challenges to Develop Adaptive Leadership and Socially Responsible Agency in Leadership Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andenoro, Anthony C.; Sowcik, Matthew J.; Balser, Teresa C.

    2017-01-01

    Complex and adaptive challenges threaten human well-being and sustainability. However, our leadership graduates often lack the capacity and or commitment to address these challenges in a meaningful way. This paper details a five-year study exploring the impact of an interdisciplinary undergraduate course on the development of global capacities,…

  20. Towards a feminist global bioethics: addressing women's health concerns worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, R

    2001-01-01

    In this paper I argue that a global bioethics is possible. Specifically, I present the view that there are within feminist approaches to bioethics some conceptual and methodological tools necessary to forge a bioethics that embraces the health-related concerns of both developing and developed nations equally. To support my argument I discuss some of the challenges that have historically confronted feminists. If feminists accept the idea that women are entirely the same, then feminists present as fact the fiction of the essential "Woman." Not only does "Woman" not exist, -she" obscures important racial, ethnic, cultural, and class differences among women. However, if feminists stress women's differences too much, feminists lose the power to speak coherently and cogently about gender justice, women's rights, and sexual equality in general. Analyzing the ways in which the idea of difference as well as the idea of sameness have led feminists astray, I ask whether it is possible to avoid the Scylla of absolutism (imperialism, colonialism, hegemony) on the one hand and the Charybdis of relativism (postmodernism, fragmentation, Balkanization) on the other. Finally, after reflecting upon the work of Uma Narayan, Susan Muller Okin, and Martha Nussbaum, I conclude that there is a way out of this ethical bind. By focusing on women's, children's, and men's common human needs, it is possible to lay the foundation for a just and caring global bioethics.

  1. Framing global health: the governance challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Colin; Kamradt-Scott, Adam; Lee, Kelley; Reubi, David; Roemer-Mahler, Anne; Rushton, Simon; Williams, Owain David; Woodling, Marie

    2012-01-01

    With the emergence of global health comes governance challenges which are equally global in nature. This article identifies some of the initial limitations in analyses of global health governance (GHG) before discussing the focus of this special supplement: the framing of global health issues and the manner in which this impacts upon GHG. Whilst not denying the importance of material factors (such as resources and institutional competencies), the article identifies how issues can be framed in different ways, thereby creating particular pathways of response which in turn affect the potential for and nature of GHG. It also identifies and discusses the key frames operating in global health: evidence-based medicine, human rights, security, economics and development.

  2. Ethical Challenges Regarding Globalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Bert

    2011-01-01

    This paper places the question of ethical challenges in relation to the process of globalization concerning international education and the mobility of international students worldwide. It focuses on five areas of justice, namely, social and political justice, administrative justice, distributive justice, cultural justice and ecological justice.…

  3. Globalized E-Learning Cultural Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmundson, Andrea, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Globalized E-Learning Cultural Challenges" explores the issues educators, administrators, and instructional designers face when transferring knowledge and skills to other cultures through e-learning. Most e-learning courses have been designed in Western cultures, but the largest and fastest-growing consumer groups live in Eastern…

  4. The global conduct of cancer clinical trials: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Carlos H; Werutsky, Gustavo; Martinez-Mesa, Jeovany

    2015-01-01

    The nature of clinical research has changed substantially over the last 2 decades, evolving from being centered almost exclusively in developed countries to a more global scenario that is increasingly involving less developed regions of the world. Pharmaceutical companies and some academic cooperative groups have been conducting challenging, large pivotal registration studies with multinational participation. The much more needed globalization of academic research demands particular attention and represents a worthwhile subject for a more profound discussion. The requirement of large sample sizes and the potential for fast recruitment leading to a speedy completion of clinical studies are probably the most important factors that have fueled globalization of studies. Reduced operational costs and the ability to expedite the regulatory approval of drugs in various countries or regions are also important drivers. Globalization of research should be seen as having a much wider effect in the societies involved, in particular, when we consider public health, economic, social, and ethical implications. Most importantly, the process of expanding the network of clinical research sites also fosters the integration and the development of closer relationships among investigators at a global level. We consider this an essential element that should remain a prominent element in the discussion. In this article, we address the underlying reasons for globalization and we highlight some of the scientific and ethical concerns arising as a consequence. Finally, some strategies to address and mitigate the challenges of conducting multinational clinical research are proposed.

  5. Managing a scarce resource: addressing critical health workforce challenges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans. P.; Dussault, G.; Batenburg, R.; Frich, J.; Olivers, R.; Sermeus, W.

    2013-01-01

    With health care services significantly changing, the challenge is to initiate innovative, situational and integrated workforce forecasting and planning. Many health systems require a shift in mindset to move to the planning of skill mixes for health care professionals. This implies great challenges

  6. Addressing complex challenges using a co-innovation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijssen, Jessica; Srinivasan, M.S.; Dirks, Sarah; Fielke, Simon; Jongmans, C.T.; Agnew, Natasha; Klerkx, Laurens; Pinxterhuis, Ina; Moore, John; Edwards, Paul; Brazendale, Rob; Botha, Neels; Turner, James A.

    2017-01-01

    Co-innovation can be effective for complex challenges – involving interactions amongst multiple stakeholders, viewpoints, perceptions, practices and interests across programmes, sectors and national systems. Approaches to challenges in the primary sector have tended to be linear, where tools and

  7. Plutonium challenges. Changing dimensions of global cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, Noboru

    1998-01-01

    Global developoments in the 1990s have presented the international community with a new and serious challenge: a growing accumulation of plutonium originating from both civilian and military nuclear programmes. It arises from a number of developments. In this article, selected aspects of the issue of plutonium management in civilian nuclear programmes are discussed over a longer term perspective in the context of global cooperation and the IAEA's own role, which is evolving in response to the interests of its Member States. It draws upon discussions at international fora, including the International Symposium on Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Reactor Strategies in Jun 1997

  8. The Global Outlook for Small Reactors: Opportunities, Challenges and Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, A.

    2012-01-01

    The fascinating topic of small nuclear is becoming more prevalent on the nuclear agenda. The discussions are generally focused within the country of technical origin. In this presentation 'The global outlook for small reactors' Rolls-Royce along with energy business analysts Douglas-Westwood present their shared views on the global opportunities for Small Reactor deployment in the context of the wider energy market. The presentation will: provide a compressive overview of trends and dynamics relating to Small Reactors in the context of the current world energy market, identify specific Small Reactor opportunities and areas of interest, address the challenges and potential solutions for Small Reactor deployment and operation.(author).

  9. A Canadian Effort to Address Fractions Teaching and Learning Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearley, Shelley; Bruce, Catherine D.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching and learning fraction concepts provides challenges in primary schools all over the world. In this article, Shelley Yearley and Catherine Bruce describe a fractions-based research project conducted in Ontario, Canada.

  10. Expanding the Role for Psychology in Addressing Environmental Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clayton, Susan; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Swim, Janet; Bonnes, Mirilia; Steg, Linda; Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Carrico, Amanda

    Environmental challenges, though daunting, present an important area for psychologists to apply their knowledge. Psychological theories, research methods, and interventions are essential for examining the questions about human impacts, tendencies, and capacities that are integral to constructing

  11. Public engagement on global health challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emma R M; Masum, Hassan; Berndtson, Kathryn; Saunders, Vicki; Hadfield, Tom; Panjwani, Dilzayn; Persad, Deepa L; Minhas, Gunjeet S; Daar, Abdallah S; Singh, Jerome A; Singer, Peter A

    2008-05-20

    Experience with public engagement activities regarding the risks and benefits of science and technology (S&T) is growing, especially in the industrialized world. However, public engagement in the developing world regarding S&T risks and benefits to explore health issues has not been widely explored. This paper gives an overview about public engagement and related concepts, with a particular focus on challenges and benefits in the developing world. We then describe an Internet-based platform, which seeks to both inform and engage youth and the broader public on global water issues and their health impacts. Finally, we outline a possible course for future action to scale up this and similar online public engagement platforms. The benefits of public engagement include creating an informed citizenry, generating new ideas from the public, increasing the chances of research being adopted, increasing public trust, and answering ethical research questions. Public engagement also fosters global communication, enables shared experiences and methodology, standardizes strategy, and generates global viewpoints. This is especially pertinent to the developing world, as it encourages previously marginalized populations to participate on a global stage. One of the core issues at stake in public engagement is global governance of science and technology. Also, beyond benefiting society at large, public engagement in science offers benefits to the scientific enterprise itself. Successful public engagement with developing world stakeholders will be a critical part of implementing new services and technologies. Interactive engagement platforms, such as the Internet, have the potential to unite people globally around relevant health issues.

  12. Hungary Embracing Globalization: The Challenge Of Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Laszlo Csaba

    2007-01-01

    This think piece is an attempt to survey the evolution of competitiveness in a small open economy under the angle of costs and benefits of globalization. First a historical survey assesses the road leading to the present sage of transnationalization. Then a situation assessment is presented, followed by a survey of challenges and factors of competitiveness. Finally some general lessons are listed, without attempting to be exhaustive.

  13. Addressing the Sanitation Challenge in Poor Urban Areas (East Africa)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the global burden of disease could be reduced by up to 15% by improving water, sanitation and hygiene. Until recently, however, little attention has been paid to sanitation by national governments and the international community. For example, Kenya and Uganda have ...

  14. Challenging structures through addressing gender-based violence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Getting the past right in West Africa and beyond: Addressing gender-based ... 2 See Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women .... 6 The Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People's Rights on the ...

  15. Teaching Digital Natives: Promoting Information Literacy and Addressing Instructional Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    Technology must be used as a teaching and learning tool to help students succeed. However, educators must be proactive in identifying some of the pitfalls of technology, such as information illiteracy. The phenomenological study covers how English instructors from Indianapolis, who teach first year students, address information literacy and the…

  16. Addressing the challenges of postgraduate supervision to meet the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By 2030 South Africa has set the sites on producing 100 doctorate graduates per one million people. This means an increase from 1420 doctoral degrees from 2010 to 5000 doctoral degrees to 2030. The researcher concerns are on the various challenges experienced by students presently and the impact it is having on ...

  17. Oral health in Libya: addressing the future challenges | Peeran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Libya is a vast country situated in North Africa, having a relatively better functioning economy with a scanty population. This article is the first known attempt to review the current state of oral health care in Libya and to explore the present trends and future challenges. Libyan health system, oral health care, and human ...

  18. Addressing HIV/AIDS challenges in Uganda: does social capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, the success is attributed to the policy which allowed many actors to participate in the fight against the disease. The primary focus of this article is to map the process of social capital generation by NGOs and how social capital benefits enhance mitigation of HIV/AIDS challenges in Uganda. The key to social capital ...

  19. Addressing Cloud Computing in Enterprise Architecture: Issues and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Khaled; Gangavarapu, Narendra

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how the characteristics of cloud computing affect the enterprise architecture in four domains: business, data, application and technology. The ownership and control of architectural components are shifted from organisational perimeters to cloud providers. It argues that although cloud computing promises numerous benefits to enterprises, the shifting control from enterprises to cloud providers on architectural components introduces several architectural challenges. The d...

  20. Preventing and Addressing Challenging Behavior: Common Questions and Practical Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Corso, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer preschool teachers strategies for preventing challenging behavior and supporting the development of social skills and emotional competencies. This article is framed in a question and answer format using questions from teachers who the authors have worked with in the past. These questions and strategies are…

  1. The Big Five: Addressing Recurrent Multimodal Learning Data Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Mitri, Daniele; Schneider, Jan; Specht, Marcus; Drachsler, Hendrik

    2018-01-01

    The analysis of multimodal data in learning is a growing field of research, which has led to the development of different analytics solutions. However, there is no standardised approach to handle multimodal data. In this paper, we describe and outline a solution for five recurrent challenges in

  2. Addressing big data challenges for scientific data infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Grosso, P.; Wibisono, A.; de Laat, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges that are imposed by Big Data Science on the modern and future Scientific Data Infrastructure (SDI). The paper refers to different scientific communities to define requirements on data management, access control and security. The paper introduces the Scientific

  3. Strategies to address management challenges in larger intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlakala, M C; Bezuidenhout, M C; Botha, A D H

    2015-10-01

    To illustrate the need for and suggest strategies that will enhance sustainable management of a large intensive care unit (ICU). The challenges faced by intensive care nursing in South Africa are well documented. However, there appear to be no strategies available to assist nurses to manage large ICUs or for ICU managers to deal with problems as they arise. Data sources to illustrate the need for strategies were challenges described by ICU managers in the management of large ICUs. A purposive sample of managers was included in individual interviews during compilation of evidence regarding the challenges experienced in the management of large ICUs. The challenges were presented at the Critical Care Society of Southern Africa Congress held on 28 August to 2 September 2012 in Sun City North-West province, South Africa. Five strategies are suggested for the challenges identified: divide the units into sections; develop a highly skilled and effective nursing workforce to ensure delivery of quality nursing care; create a culture to retain an effective ICU nursing team; manage assets; and determine the needs of ICU nurses. ICUs need measures to drive the desired strategies into actions to continuously improve the management of the unit. Future research should be aimed at investigating the effectiveness of the strategies identified. This research highlights issues relating to large ICUs and the strategies will assist ICU managers to deal with problems related to large unit sizes, shortage of trained ICU nurses, use of agency nurses, shortage of equipment and supplies and stressors in the ICU. The article will make a contribution to the body of nursing literature on management of ICUs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Climate. Meeting the challenge of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Mann, Michael; Greene, Charles; Salas y Melia, David; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Journe, Venance; Guegan, Jean-Francois; ); Bopp, Laurent; Magnan, Alexandre; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Bally, Rene; Duponnois, Robin; Giodda, Alain; MOATTI, JEAN-PAUL; Recio, Carlos; Santana, Luis; Hulot, Nicolas; Criqui, Patrick; Meritet, Sophie; Jacobson, Mark; Delucchi, Mark; Julliard, Romain; Balibar, Sebastien; Prevot, Anne-Caroline; Colleony, Agathe; Mangin, Loic

    2015-01-01

    The contributions of this publication first discuss and comment the cost of inaction in front of global warming. The authors deny the existence of a climate pause, explain the existence of harsh winters in Europe in the context of global warming, outline that models developed and used in the 1960 already predicted the present trend, discuss the complex relationships between climate change and health, outline the threats on the oceans (acidification, impact on marine species, level rise) and consequently on mankind. A second set of contributions addresses opportunities to be implemented now: to plant trees along the Sahara, the example of an ecologic island (El Hierro, Canaries Islands), the commitment of communities, associations and citizens, the necessary energy transition, innovation at the service of climate, the role of finances and investments. The third set of contributions addresses perspectives: to do without fossil energies, how to reduce the impact of global warming in cities (by planting trees and closing shutters), the emergence of participative science, arguments against climate sceptics, a difficult change of behaviours

  5. Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florini, Ann; Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2009-12-15

    This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems. (author)

  6. Balancing the benefits and risks of public-private partnerships to address the global double burden of malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, Vivica I; Harrigan, Paige B; Lawrence, Mark; Harrison, Paul J; Jackson, Michaela A; Swinburn, Boyd

    2012-03-01

    Transnational food, beverage and restaurant companies, and their corporate foundations, may be potential collaborators to help address complex public health nutrition challenges. While UN system guidelines are available for private-sector engagement, non-governmental organizations (NGO) have limited guidelines to navigate diverse opportunities and challenges presented by partnering with these companies through public-private partnerships (PPP) to address the global double burden of malnutrition. We conducted a search of electronic databases, UN system websites and grey literature to identify resources about partnerships used to address the global double burden of malnutrition. A narrative summary provides a synthesis of the interdisciplinary literature identified. We describe partnership opportunities, benefits and challenges; and tools and approaches to help NGO engage with the private sector to address global public health nutrition challenges. PPP benefits include: raising the visibility of nutrition and health on policy agendas; mobilizing funds and advocating for research; strengthening food-system processes and delivery systems; facilitating technology transfer; and expanding access to medications, vaccines, healthy food and beverage products, and nutrition assistance during humanitarian crises. PPP challenges include: balancing private commercial interests with public health interests; managing conflicts of interest; ensuring that co-branded activities support healthy products and healthy eating environments; complying with ethical codes of conduct; assessing partnership compatibility; and evaluating partnership outcomes. NGO should adopt a systematic and transparent approach using available tools and processes to maximize benefits and minimize risks of partnering with transnational food, beverage and restaurant companies to effectively target the global double burden of malnutrition.

  7. Time for a change: addressing R&D and commercialization challenges for antibacterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, David J.; Miller, Linda Federici; Findlay, David; Anderson, James; Marks, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial therapeutic area has been described as the perfect storm. Resistance is increasing to the point that our hospitals encounter patients infected with untreatable pathogens, the overall industry pipeline is described as dry and most multinational pharmaceutical companies have withdrawn from the area. Major contributing factors to the declining antibacterial industry pipeline include scientific challenges, clinical/regulatory hurdles and low return on investment. This paper examines these challenges and proposes approaches to address them. There is a need for a broader scientific agenda to explore new approaches to discover and develop antibacterial agents. Additionally, ideas of how industry and academia could be better integrated will be presented. While promising progress in the regulatory environment has been made, more streamlined regulatory paths are still required and the solutions will lie in global harmonization and clearly defined guidance. Creating the right incentives for antibacterial research and development is critical and a new commercial model for antibacterial agents will be proposed. One key solution to help resolve both the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and lack of new drug development are rapid, cost-effective, accurate point of care diagnostics that will transform antibacterial prescribing and enable more cost-effective and efficient antibacterial clinical trials. The challenges of AMR are too great for any one group to resolve and success will require leadership and partnerships among academia, industry and governments globally. PMID:25918443

  8. Adoptive T cell therapy: Addressing challenges in cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Cassian

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adoptive T cell therapy involves the ex vivo selection and expansion of effector cells for the treatment of patients with cancer. In this review, the advantages and limitations of using antigen-specific T cells are discussed in counterpoint to vaccine strategies. Although vaccination strategies represent more readily available reagents, adoptive T cell therapy provides highly selected T cells of defined phenotype, specificity and function that may influence their biological behavior in vivo. Adoptive T cell therapy offers not only translational opportunities but also a means to address fundamental issues in the evolving field of cancer immunotherapy.

  9. Addressing the Challenge of Molecular Change: An Interim Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Raphael D.

    2018-04-01

    Invited by the editorial committee of the Annual Review of Physical Chemistry to "contribute my autobiography," I present it here, as I understand the term. It is about my parents, my mentors, my coworkers, and my friends in learning and the scientific problems that we tried to address. Courtesy of the editorial assistance of Annual Reviews, some of the science is in the figure captions and sidebars. I am by no means done: I am currently trying to fuse the quantitative rigor of physical chemistry with systems biology while also dealing with a post-Born-Oppenheimer regime in electronic dynamics and am attempting to instruct molecules to perform advanced logic.

  10. Progress and challenges to the global waste management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagdeep; Laurenti, Rafael; Sinha, Rajib; Frostell, Björn

    2014-09-01

    Rapid economic growth, urbanization and increasing population have caused (materially intensive) resource consumption to increase, and consequently the release of large amounts of waste to the environment. From a global perspective, current waste and resource management lacks a holistic approach covering the whole chain of product design, raw material extraction, production, consumption, recycling and waste management. In this article, progress and different sustainability challenges facing the global waste management system are presented and discussed. The study leads to the conclusion that the current, rather isolated efforts, in different systems for waste management, waste reduction and resource management are indeed not sufficient in a long term sustainability perspective. In the future, to manage resources and wastes sustainably, waste management requires a more systems-oriented approach that addresses the root causes for the problems. A specific issue to address is the development of improved feedback information (statistics) on how waste generation is linked to consumption. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Public engagement on global health challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhas Gunjeet S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experience with public engagement activities regarding the risks and benefits of science and technology (S&T is growing, especially in the industrialized world. However, public engagement in the developing world regarding S&T risks and benefits to explore health issues has not been widely explored. Methods This paper gives an overview about public engagement and related concepts, with a particular focus on challenges and benefits in the developing world. We then describe an Internet-based platform, which seeks to both inform and engage youth and the broader public on global water issues and their health impacts. Finally, we outline a possible course for future action to scale up this and similar online public engagement platforms. Results The benefits of public engagement include creating an informed citizenry, generating new ideas from the public, increasing the chances of research being adopted, increasing public trust, and answering ethical research questions. Public engagement also fosters global communication, enables shared experiences and methodology, standardizes strategy, and generates global viewpoints. This is especially pertinent to the developing world, as it encourages previously marginalized populations to participate on a global stage. One of the core issues at stake in public engagement is global governance of science and technology. Also, beyond benefiting society at large, public engagement in science offers benefits to the scientific enterprise itself. Conclusion Successful public engagement with developing world stakeholders will be a critical part of implementing new services and technologies. Interactive engagement platforms, such as the Internet, have the potential to unite people globally around relevant health issues.

  12. Addressing informatics challenges in Translational Research with workflow technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulah, Simon A; Correll, Mick A; Munro, Robin E J; Sheldon, Jonathan G

    2008-09-01

    Interest in Translational Research has been growing rapidly in recent years. In this collision of different data, technologies and cultures lie tremendous opportunities for the advancement of science and business for organisations that are able to integrate, analyse and deliver this information effectively to users. Workflow-based integration and analysis systems are becoming recognised as a fast and flexible way to build applications that are tailored to scientific areas, yet are built on a common platform. Workflow systems are allowing organisations to meet the key informatics challenges in Translational Research and improve disease understanding and patient care.

  13. Support for global science: Remote sensing's challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J. E.; Star, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Remote sensing uses a wide variety of techniques and methods. Resulting data are analyzed by man and machine, using both analog and digital technology. The newest and most important initiatives in the U. S. civilian space program currently revolve around the space station complex, which includes the core station as well as co-orbiting and polar satellite platforms. This proposed suite of platforms and support systems offers a unique potential for facilitating long term, multidisciplinary scientific investigations on a truly global scale. Unlike previous generations of satellites, designed for relatively limited constituencies, the space station offers the potential to provide an integrated source of information which recognizes the scientific interest in investigating the dynamic coupling between the oceans, land surface, and atmosphere. Earth scientist already face problems that are truly global in extent. Problems such as the global carbon balance, regional deforestation, and desertification require new approaches, which combine multidisciplinary, multinational research teams, employing advanced technologies to produce a type, quantity, and quality of data not previously available. The challenge before the international scientific community is to continue to develop both the infrastructure and expertise to, on the one hand, develop the science and technology of remote sensing, while on the other hand, develop an integrated understanding of global life support systems, and work toward a quantiative science of the biosphere.

  14. Expanding the role for psychology in addressing environmental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Susan; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Swim, Janet; Bonnes, Mirilia; Steg, Linda; Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Carrico, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    Environmental challenges, though daunting, present an important area for psychologists to apply their knowledge. Psychological theories, research methods, and interventions are essential for examining the questions about human impacts, tendencies, and capacities that are integral to constructing effective responses to these challenges. Although a great deal of relevant research has been done, there is scope for psychologists to be more extensively involved. Following a brief review of existing research, we outline some important new directions. We also highlight 2 key divergences, arguing that psychological research needs to expand beyond a traditional, theory-based and decontextualized approach to environmental issues to incorporate a contextualized or "place-based" approach and a willingness to collaborate in interdisciplinary research teams that focus on specific environmental problems. Suggestions for promoting such interdisciplinary collaborations are reviewed. We encourage psychologists to expand their engagement with important environmental issues through multiple research approaches in order to further their understanding of human behavior, contributions to human well-being, and relevance to other disciplines and to society. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Patent challenges for standard-setting in the global economy : lessons from information and communication industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maskus, K.; Merrill, S.A.; Bekkers, R.N.A.; Sandy Block, Marc; Contreras, Jorge; Gilbert, Richard; Goodman, David; Marasco, Amy; Simcoe, Tim; Smoot, Oliver; Suttmeier, Richard; Updegrove, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Patent Challenges for Standard-Setting in the Global Economy: Lessons from Information and Communication Technology examines how leading national and multinational standard-setting organizations (SSOs) address patent disclosures, licensing terms, transfers of patent ownership, and other issues that

  16. Addresses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Point features representing locations of all street addresses in Orange County, NC including Chapel Hill, NC. Data maintained by Orange County, the Town of Chapel...

  17. Addressing socioeconomic and political challenges posed by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Harindra Joseph; Klaic, Zvjezdana Bencetic

    2011-08-01

    NATO Advanced Research Workshop: Climate Change, Human Health and National Security; Dubrovnik, Croatia, 28-30 April 2011; Climate change has been identified as one of the most serious threats to humanity. It not only causes sea level rise, drought, crop failure, vector-borne diseases, extreme events, degradation of water and air quality, heat waves, and other phenomena, but it is also a threat multiplier wherein concatenation of multiple events may lead to frequent human catastrophes and intranational and international conflicts. In particular, urban areas may bear the brunt of climate change because of the amplification of climate effects that cascade down from global to urban scales, but current modeling and downscaling capabilities are unable to predict these effects with confidence. These were the main conclusions of a NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) sponsored by the NATO Science for Peace and Security program. Thirty-two invitees from 17 counties, including leading modelers; natural, political, and social scientists; engineers; politicians; military experts; urban planners; industry analysts; epidemiologists; and health care professionals, parsed the topic on a common platform.

  18. Catalyzing Open and Collaborative Science to Address Global ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As the cost of computer hardware continues to drop and developing-country researchers get increased access to the Internet and mobile phones, each offers the potential for solving these development challenges by opening up the scientific process. What is open science? At the heart of the open science concept is the ...

  19. Addressing climate change: lessons from Paris, challenges for Marrakech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaram, Dhanasree

    2016-02-01

    Dhanasree Jayaram, Project Associate in the Manipal Advanced Research Group of Manipal University (Karnataka, India), and author of 'Breaking out of the Green House: Indian Leadership in Times of Environmental Change (2012)' answers the following questions regarding the Paris agreement reach during COP21: - What is your assessment of the Paris agreement reach during COP21? - What is the most positive/negative aspect? - Is the agreement legally binding according to you? - What was the main 'redline' for the Indian government in the negotiations? - Is the Indian government satisfied by the content of the agreement? - Some people say that what happened outside the COP21 but during the week (Indian Solar Alliance, New Chinese Funds, Divest-Invest campaign, Electricity for Africa, activism of civil society, etc.), is more important that what happened inside. Do you share this opinion? - Are you optimistic regarding the gap between the 1.5 deg. C limit and the current level of the INDC? - What do you think about the position of the OPEC countries? - What are the main progresses proposed by the agreement regarding the financial dimension? - What are the main challenges for the COP22 in Morocco? What are the next big steps?

  20. Engineering grand challenges and the attributes of the global engineer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Aida; Ulseth, Ron; Jonhson, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Technology has been changing world in ways never imagined. The ever-evolving society and rapid development posed different demands and challenges to the engineering profession. Addressing these challenges means to re-vision and reform the ways we educate future engineers and the attributes need...... to be enhanced. This paper reports a literature review with aim to (1) understand the different stakeholders’ perspectives, namely students, educators, and employers, (2) understand the profile of the global engineer (i.e. knowledge, competences and skills), and (3) outline and discuss learning strategies....... As a result, the paper presents the main gaps in the existing knowledge, formulates research hypothesis, and proposes a research design for a follow up empirical study to investigate further the engineering grand challenges, the attributes needed to solve them, and the learning environments required....

  1. An assessment of open source promotion in addressing ICT acceptance challenges in Tanzania

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kinyondo, J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available challenges. This study is an assessment of such OS promotion efforts in addressing ICT acceptance challenges in Tanzania specifically. The research design includes case studies done on four OS communities using document analysis, a questionnaire, interviews...

  2. Strategies to Address Common Challenges When Teaching in an Active Learning Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Christina I.; Gorman, Kristen S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides practical strategies for addressing common challenges that arise for teachers in active learning classrooms. Our strategies come from instructors with experience teaching in these environments.

  3. Addressing Barriers to the Development and Adoption of Rapid Diagnostic Tests in Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Miller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs have demonstrated significant potential for use as point-of- care diagnostic tests in resource-limited settings. Most notably, RDTs for malaria have reached an unparalleled level of technological maturity and market penetration, and are now considered an important complement to standard microscopic methods of malaria diagnosis. However, the technical development of RDTs for other infectious diseases, and their uptake within the global health community as a core diagnostic modality, has been hindered by a number of extant challenges. These range from technical and biological issues, such as the need for better affinity agents and biomarkers of disease, to social, infrastructural, regulatory and economic barriers, which have all served to slow their adoption and diminish their impact. In order for the immunochromatographic RDT format to be successfully adapted to other disease targets, to see widespread distribution, and to improve clinical outcomes for patients on a global scale, these challenges must be identified and addressed, and the global health community must be engaged in championing the broader use of RDTs.

  4. Addressing Barriers to the Development and Adoption of Rapid Diagnostic Tests in Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Miller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs have demonstrated significant potential for use as point-of-care diagnostic tests in resource-limited settings. Most notably, RDTs for malaria have reached an unparalleled level of technological maturity and market penetration, and are now considered an important complement to standard microscopic methods of malaria diagnosis. However, the technical development of RDTs for other infectious diseases, and their uptake within the global health community as a core diagnostic modality, has been hindered by a number of extant challenges. These range from technical and biological issues, such as the need for better affinity agents and biomarkers of disease, to social, infrastructural, regulatory and economic barriers, which have all served to slow their adoption and diminish their impact. In order for the immunochromatographic RDT format to be successfully adapted to other disease targets, to see widespread distribution, and to improve clinical outcomes for patients on a global scale, these challenges must be identified and addressed, and the global health community must be engaged in championing the broader use of RDTs.

  5. Addressing Barriers to the Development and Adoption of Rapid Diagnostic Tests in Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric; Sikes, Hadley D

    Immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have demonstrated significant potential for use as point-of-care diagnostic tests in resource-limited settings. Most notably, RDTs for malaria have reached an unparalleled level of technological maturity and market penetration, and are now considered an important complement to standard microscopic methods of malaria diagnosis. However, the technical development of RDTs for other infectious diseases, and their uptake within the global health community as a core diagnostic modality, has been hindered by a number of extant challenges. These range from technical and biological issues, such as the need for better affinity agents and biomarkers of disease, to social, infrastructural, regulatory and economic barriers, which have all served to slow their adoption and diminish their impact. In order for the immunochromatographic RDT format to be successfully adapted to other disease targets, to see widespread distribution, and to improve clinical outcomes for patients on a global scale, these challenges must be identified and addressed, and the global health community must be engaged in championing the broader use of RDTs.

  6. Addressing the Challenge: Cataloguing Electronic Books in Academic Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Zhao

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective ‐ This paper explores the various issues and challenges arising from e‐book cataloguing experienced at the University of Windsor’s Leddy Library and the Ontario Council of University Libraries (OCUL. This discussion uses an evidence based approach to identify and resolve issues relevant to academic libraries as well as to consortia. With the ever rising popularity of e‐books within academic libraries, cataloguing librarians are actively seeking more effective methods of managing this new electronic medium, including the development of new cataloguing policies and procedures. This paper will explore the various issues and challenges surrounding e‐book cataloguing and processing within academic libraries, and will identify new policies and procedures that may be used to effectively assist in e‐book management.Methods ‐ This paper presents a case study of e‐book cataloguing practices undertaken by a Canadian academic library and the consortium with which it is affiliated. Towards this end, the University of Windsor’s Leddy Library will be the prime focus of this study, with its establishment of a new e‐book MARC records database. The research is based on the results of the e‐book MARC project undertaken by the Leddy Library and the Ontario Council of University Libraries (OCUL.Through analysis of various suppliers’ MARC records and the actual implementation of the e‐book MARC project, the authors developed and evaluated a new approach to e‐book cataloguing for use in academic libraries.Results ‐ This practice‐based approach towards the development of a new method of e‐book cataloguing required continual modification and examination of e‐book MARC records within the target library. The Leddy Library’s e‐book MARC project provided an excellent opportunity to test the library’s existing cataloguing standards and procedures for print format, while at the same time, identifying related e‐books issues

  7. Summoning compassion to address the challenges of conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Arian D; Bekoff, Marc; Batavia, Chelsea; Nelson, Michael P; Ramp, Daniel

    2018-04-27

    Conservation practice is informed by science, but also reflects ethical beliefs about how we ought to value and interact with the Earth's biota. As human activities continue to drive extinctions and diminish critical life-sustaining ecosystem processes, achieving conservation goals becomes increasingly urgent. In our determination to react decisively, conservation challenges can be handled without due deliberation, particularly when wildlife individuals are sacrificed "for the greater good" of wildlife collectives (populations, species, ecosystems). With growing recognition of the widespread sentience and sapience of many nonhuman animals, standard conservation practices that categorically prioritize collectives without due consideration for the wellbeing of individuals are ethically untenable. Here we highlight three overarching ethical orientations characterizing current and historical practices in conservation that suppress compassion: instrumentalism, collectivism, and nativism. We illustrate how establishing a commitment to compassion could re-orient conservation in more ethically expansive directions, which incorporate recognition of the intrinsic value of wildlife, the sentience of nonhuman animals, and the values of novel ecosystems, introduced species and their members. A compassionate conservation approach allays practices that intentionally and unnecessarily harm wildlife individuals, while aligning with critical conservation goals. Although the urgency of achieving effective outcomes for solving major conservation problems may enhance the appeal of quick and harsh measures, the costs are too high. Continuing to justify moral indifference when causing the suffering of wildlife individuals, particularly those who possess sophisticated capacities for emotion, consciousness, and sociality, risks estranging conservation practice from prevailing, and appropriate, social values. As conservationists and compassionate beings, we must demonstrate concern for both

  8. Nuclear Education and training: addressing a global need

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn Lee, Janice

    2008-01-01

    There is growing concern about the difficulties nuclear institutions in many OECD/NEA member countries are experiencing in recruiting qualified specialists. Recent studies have also shown that nuclear education and training have been suffering declines of various degrees. If no action is taken on this issue, the nuclear sector risks facing a shortage of qualified human resources to ensure the appropriate regulation and operation of existing nuclear facilities as well as the construction of new ones in those countries wishing to do so. The NEA Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy issued a statement on this subject in October 2007, the complete text of which is available at: www.nea.fr/html/general/press/2007/2007-05.html. The NEA has for many years been involved in efforts to define and address the need for qualified human resources. In this regard, the Agency: 1- carries out assessments of requirements and availability of qualified human resources in the nuclear field, 2- enhances nuclear education programmes, such as the International School of Nuclear Law, and 3- encourages large, high-profile international research and development programmes. These areas are addressed in the NEA Strategic Plan as well as in the specific NEA programmes discussed below. The presentation will focus on ways to address the issue of qualified human resources, share information about what others are doing, and discuss what we might do collectively. (author)

  9. Cryptocurrencies & the Challenge of Global Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacbs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent explosive development of new forms of digital currency opens up unprecedented opportunities and poses significant regulatory challenges. This new form of digital currency lowers the costs and other barriers to the global movement of money, international trade, foreign investment and speculation, while simultaneously enhancing the anonymity on which tax evasion, money-laundering and other illegal activities thrive. It also liberates the creation of money and regulation of economic activities from the political control of national governments and central banks. Since the value of a currency is related to the size of the population, strength of the economy and value of transactions that utilize it, a basket of cryptocurrencies could emerge as the first prototype of a world currency whose value is backed by the total productive capacity of the entire human community. Moreover, the triad of Internet, distributed ledger technologies and cryptocurrencies could serve as the basis for the development of new global economic potentials in a manner similar and a degree far exceeding the economic impact of the World Wide Web over the past two decades. At the same time, the rapid deployment of cryptocurrencies could have profound impact on the capacity of governments to tax transactions, income and wealth, one of the main pillars of the modern nation state. The development of autonomous global cryptocurrencies could dramatically reduce the control and effectiveness of existing regulatory mechanisms at the national level and generate considerable pressure for the evolution of more effective institutions for global governance. They could provide compelling incentives for national governments to enhance international cooperation and strengthen the functioning of international institutions to fill the regulatory void. International organizations will play an important role in harnessing the potentials and minimizing the risks arising from the growing

  10. Addressing China's grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-02-01

    China's increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies.

  11. Facing Global Challenges with Materials Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Fernando

    2017-10-01

    The path of society evolution has long been associated with a growing demand for natural resources and continuous environmental degradation. During the last decades, this pace has accelerated considerably, despite the general concern with the legacy being left for the next generations. Looking ahead, the predicted growth of the world population, and the improvement of life conditions in most regions, point to an increasing demand for energy generation, resulting in additional pressure on the Earth's sustainability. Materials have had a key role in decreasing the use of natural resources, by either improving efficiency of existing technologies or enabling the development of radical new ones. The greenhouse effect (CO2 emissions) and the energy crisis are global challenges that can benefit from the development of new materials for the successful implementation of promising technologies and for the imperative replacement of fossil fuels by renewable sources.

  12. Palliative care in Africa: a global challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntizimira, Christian R; Nkurikiyimfura, Jean Luc; Mukeshimana, Olive; Ngizwenayo, Scholastique; Mukasahaha, Diane; Clancy, Clare

    2014-01-01

    We are often asked what challenges Rwanda has faced in the development of palliative care and its integration into the healthcare system. In the past, patients have been barred from accessing strong analgesics to treat moderate to severe pain, but thanks to health initiatives, this is slowly changing. Rwanda is an example of a country where only a few years ago, access to morphine was almost impossible. Albert Einsten said 'in the middle of difficulty lies opportunity' and this sentiment could not be more relevant to the development of palliative care programmes. Through advocacy, policy, and staunch commitment to compassion, Rwandan healthcare workers are proving how palliative care can be successfully integrated into a healthcare system. As a global healthcare community, we should be asking what opportunities exist to do this across the African continent. Champions of palliative care have a chance to forge lasting collaborations between international experts and African healthcare workers. This global network could not only advocate for palliative care programmes but it would also help to create a culture where palliative care is viewed as a necessary part of all healthcare systems.

  13. Workshop Builds Strategies to Address Global Positioning System Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Genene

    2011-01-01

    When we examine the impacts of space weather on society, do we really understand the risks? Can past experiences reliably predict what will happen in the future? As the complexity of technology increases, there is the potential for it to become more fragile, allowing for a single point of failure to bring down the entire system. Take the Global Positioning System (GPS) as an example. GPS positioning, navigation, and timing have become an integral part of daily life, supporting transportation and communications systems vital to the aviation, merchant marine, cargo, cellular phone, surveying, and oil exploration industries. Everyday activities such as banking, mobile phone operations, and even the control of power grids are facilitated by the accurate timing provided by GPS. Understanding the risks of space weather to GPS and the many economic sectors reliant upon it, as well as how to build resilience, was the focus of a policy workshop organized by the American Meteorological Society (AMS) and held on 13-14 October 2010 in Washington, D. C. The workshop brought together a select group of policy makers, space weather scientists, and GPS experts and users.

  14. Large system change challenges: addressing complex critical issues in linked physical and social domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Steve; Cornell, Sarah; Hsueh, Joe; Ozer, Ceren; McLachlan, Milla; Birney, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Most action to address contemporary complex challenges, including the urgent issues of global sustainability, occurs piecemeal and without meaningful guidance from leading complex change knowledge and methods. The potential benefit of using such knowledge is greater efficacy of effort and investment. However, this knowledge and its associated tools and methods are under-utilized because understanding about them is low, fragmented between diverse knowledge traditions, and often requires shifts in mindsets and skills from expert-led to participant-based action. We have been engaged in diverse action-oriented research efforts in Large System Change for sustainability. For us, "large" systems can be characterized as large-scale systems - up to global - with many components, of many kinds (physical, biological, institutional, cultural/conceptual), operating at multiple levels, driven by multiple forces, and presenting major challenges for people involved. We see change of such systems as complex challenges, in contrast with simple or complicated problems, or chaotic situations. In other words, issues and sub-systems have unclear boundaries, interact with each other, and are often contradictory; dynamics are non-linear; issues are not "controllable", and "solutions" are "emergent" and often paradoxical. Since choices are opportunity-, power- and value-driven, these social, institutional and cultural factors need to be made explicit in any actionable theory of change. Our emerging network is sharing and building a knowledge base of experience, heuristics, and theories of change from multiple disciplines and practice domains. We will present our views on focal issues for the development of the field of large system change, which include processes of goal-setting and alignment; leverage of systemic transitions and transformation; and the role of choice in influencing critical change processes, when only some sub-systems or levels of the system behave in purposeful ways

  15. EPA Leadership on Science, Innovation, and Decision Support Tools for Addressing Current and Future Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Alan D; Ferster, Aaron; Summers, Kevin

    2017-10-16

    When the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established nearly 50 years ago, the nation faced serious threats to its air, land, and water, which in turn impacted human health. These threats were effectively addressed by the creation of EPA (in 1970) and many subsequent landmark environmental legislations which in turn significantly reduced threats to the Nation's environment and public health. A key element of historic legislation is research aimed at dealing with current and future problems. Today we face national and global challenges that go beyond classic media-specific (air, land, water) environmental legislation and require an integrated paradigm of action and engagement based on (1) innovation based on science and technology, (2) stakeholder engagement and collaboration, and (3) public education and support. This three-pronged approach recognizes that current environmental problems, include social as well as physical and environmental factors, are best addressed through collaborative problem solving, the application of innovation in science and technology, and multiple stakeholder engagement. To achieve that goal, EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) is working directly with states and local communities to develop and apply a suite of accessible decision support tools (DST) that aim to improve environmental conditions, protect human health, enhance economic opportunity, and advance a resilient and sustainability society. This paper showcases joint EPA and state actions to develop tools and approaches that not only meet current environmental and public health challenges, but do so in a way that advances sustainable, healthy, and resilient communities well into the future. EPA's future plans should build on current work but aim to effectively respond to growing external pressures. Growing pressures from megatrends are a major challenge for the new Administration and for cities and states across the country. The recent hurricanes hitting

  16. Global panorama of energy access: Current situation, challenges and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galichon, Ines; Lacroix, Olivier; Wiedmer, Damien

    2014-07-15

    Globally 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity. If this figure is projected to decline 1 billion by 2030, the global population who relies on the traditional use of biomass for cooking is expected to substantially increase, from 2.6 billion to 2.7 billion people. In its commitment to energy access, ENEA published a synthesis on the current situation and the further development perspectives of energy access worldwide, a crucial issue of human and economic development and an opportunity for the private sector. This synthesis present the ecosystem of the actors involved in the improvement of energy access and the technical solutions that serve the needs of this high-potential market. The five main challenges energy access has to address are presented in this publication: energy prices, equipment financing, distribution, change of scale and environmental performances.

  17. Preparing for Change: Challenges and Opportunities in a Global World

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Sabine

    2009-03-01

    Our world is becoming increasingly global. This may sound like a clich'e, yet it is true nonetheless, and poses unprecedented challenges for graduate education. For the new generation of researchers, teachers and professionals to be successful they must be prepared in more than the content area of their chosen field. They must also acquire proficiency in global awareness, cultural literacy, multicultural teamwork and language facility. These global skill sets form the basis for effective multicultural collaboration and will become increasingly important even for those who do not intend to study or work abroad. Knowledge has become more portable in the internet age; large data bases and reports can be accessed in real time from various locations around the globe; information is exchanged in multifaceted knowledge networks; collaborative research takes place within and outside of the traditional venue of the research university in the private sector, research institutes, and associations; research networks span multiple disciplines as progress invariably occurs at the intersection of previously discrete fields of inquiry. Global collaboration thus is no longer dependent on the physical proximity of collaborators but can take place anywhere any time. This then requires yet another set of skills, namely the ability to adapt to change, exhibit flexibility and transfer skills to a range of contexts and applications. Effective graduate education must address these realities and expose students to learning opportunities that will enable them to acquire these much needed global skills sets.

  18. Challenges in Modeling of the Global Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjic, Zavisa; Djurdjevic, Vladimir; Vasic, Ratko; Black, Tom

    2015-04-01

    ") with significant amplitudes can develop. Due to their large scales, that are comparable to the scales of the dominant Rossby waves, such fictitious solutions are hard to identify and remove. Another new challenge on the global scale is that the limit of validity of the hydrostatic approximation is rapidly being approached. Having in mind the sensitivity of extended deterministic forecasts to small disturbances, we may need global non-hydrostatic models sooner than we think. The unified Non-hydrostatic Multi-scale Model (NMMB) that is being developed at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) as a part of the new NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS) will be discussed as an example. The non-hydrostatic dynamics were designed in such a way as to avoid over-specification. The global version is run on the latitude-longitude grid, and the polar filter selectively slows down the waves that would otherwise be unstable. The model formulation has been successfully tested on various scales. A global forecasting system based on the NMMB has been run in order to test and tune the model. The skill of the medium range forecasts produced by the NMMB is comparable to that of other major medium range models. The computational efficiency of the global NMMB on parallel computers is good.

  19. The Collaboration Challenge: Global Partnerships to Achieve Global Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdak, Michael

    2017-01-01

    As capitalism is being re-invented and the voices of multiple stakeholders are becoming more prevalent and demanding, it is the perfect time for the private sector to embrace large-scale collaboration and a shared sense of purpose. Since the explosive growth of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the 1990s, a new era of responsibility, purpose and a re-envisioned capitalism are dramatically apparent. Beyond financial support, business leaders have the opportunity to galvanize networks, advocate for regulation and policy change, and form supporting consortia to support global development. The role of the private sector in development has changed significantly from a model of benevolent contributor to a model of collaborator, investor, business partner and exponential value creator. The new era of collaboration should move beyond a shared value mindset to new models of partnership where each contributor plays an equal role in defining challenges and designing solutions with the greater goal of sustainable value creation. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have the unprecedented opportunity to take leadership roles in engaging the private sector in more game-changing collaborations.

  20. Coping with global environmental change, disasters and security: threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauch, H.G.; Oswald Spring, Ú.; Mesjasz, C.; Grin, J.; Kameri-Mbote, P.; Chourou, B.; Dunay, P.; Birkmann, J.

    2011-01-01

    This policy-focused Global Environmental and Human Security Handbook for the Anthropo-cene (GEHSHA) addresses new security threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks posed by global environmental change and disasters. In 6 forewords, 5 preface essays 95 peer reviewed chapcountries analyse in 10

  1. The Challenge of Globalization: Preparing Teachers for a Global Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merryfield, Merry M.

    2008-01-01

    Globalization changes everything. When young people affect and are affected by issues, changes, and events across the world, they need to be given the tools to participate in global discourse and decision making. With their incredible consumer power, today's preK-12 students are already influencing global economic, technological, and environmental…

  2. Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-03-07

    AMO is developing advanced technologies that cut energy use and carbon emissions in some of the most energy-intensive processes within U.S. manufacturing. The brochure describes the AMO R&D projects that address these challenges.

  3. Exploring social recommenders for teacher networks to address challenges of starting teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazeli, Soude; Drachsler, Hendrik; Brouns, Francis; Sloep, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Fazeli, S., Drachsler, H., Brouns, F., & Sloep, P. B. (2012, 4 April). Exploring social recommenders for teacher networks to address challenges of starting teachers. Presentation at the Eighth International Conference on Networked Learning 2012, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

  4. The World Nuclear University: Addressing global needs. London, 4 September 2003. Inauguration ceremony, World Nuclear University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2003-01-01

    For some time, there has been a growing awareness of the need for succession planning in the nuclear industry, to ensure that we cultivate a new generation of young people with the proper education and skills to replace the aging nuclear workforce as its members retire. Today's inauguration of the 'World Nuclear University' (WNU) is the most substantive action taken to date to address this need. This is a challenge, because the widespread perception clearly exists that nuclear energy is a dying field. The IAEA, with its constituency of 135 Member States, is hopeful that this will truly become a World Nuclear University. Almost 2 billion people, nearly one third of the population of the planet, remain without access to modern energy supplies - a shortfall that could be addressed, at least in part, by nuclear energy. But any major expansion in the future use of nuclear power will only be feasible if the nuclear industry is successful in developing innovative reactor and fuel cycle technology - as well as operational and regulatory approaches - that effectively address concerns related to cost competitiveness, safety and security, proliferation resistance and waste disposal. And global development needs go well beyond the electricity sector. The IAEA's recognition of these situations underlies our assistance to Member States, through which we try to address areas of high national priority wherever nuclear technology provides the best option for success. A significant part of that effort lies in the development of human capacity - through training and education in how to apply nuclear technology safely and effectively. 'Atoms for Peace' is a vision nearly five decades old, focused on using nuclear science for the advancement of humankind. It is my hope that this 'World Nuclear University' can be an effective instrument towards the achievement of that vision

  5. Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terblanche, Deon; Jalkanen, Liisa

    2013-04-01

    counterparts. The urban environment also provides numerous opportunities. One example being the better use of weather and environmental predictions to proactively optimize the functioning of the urban environment in terms of the use of energy, goods and services. Another is the providing of air quality forecasting services to benefit the health of the population. To address the challenges and opportunities facing megacities and large urban complexes, WMO has established the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Urban Research Meteorology and Environment (GURME). Air pollution questions in urban areas, in particular megacities, is the main focus, building observational and modelling capabilities in developing countries through pilot projects and transfer of scientific expertise. GURME contributes to improving capabilities to handle meteorological and related features of air pollution by addressing end-to-end aspects of air quality, linking observational capabilities with the needs of chemical weather prediction, with the goal of providing high quality air quality services. Using examples from around the world but with specific reference to Africa, the unique challenges and opportunities related to megacities and large urban complexes, as perceived by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) are highlighted.

  6. Infertility: Ongoing Global challenge of new millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantibhai Naranbhai Sonaliya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility tends to be the global challenge even in the second decade of the new millennium. Especially in developing countries like India, it is still one the most lethal social evil responsible for a big proportion of cases of psychological disturbances including suicide. Again, recently, few conditions other than communicable or Non-communicable diseases are given place among the categories of significant public health problems like Road Traffic Accidents, Burns, Poisoning, drowning and few more. But, for developing countries like India, the list is incomplete without inclusion of Infertility (there may be several others also. In public health, tuberculosis, leprosy and some other diseases are considered social diseases which produce social stigma for the patients and/or his family members.1 In same manner, Infertility is an important cause of social stigmatization since centuries for a couple suffering from, especially for woman involved. During a transitory phase of industrialization and socio-economic development, the situation is changed a minute smidgen at urban areas of India but at rural parts, sub-urban or even at urban slums (mainly among pockets of recent migrants the situation is as same as a few hundred years ago. A female of no religion, caste, social status or higher level of education are barred from some stringent mores related to infertility. Infertile females are still not allowed to take part in so many religious or social ceremonies; on the contrary, they have to face more harassment including domestic violence than their counterparts, who have given birth to the child. Due to social, psychological, economic disturbances, they are forced to take multiple sorts of treatments including religious quacks. So many infertile women are exploited physically and economically also in such weird ways of treatment to gain a pregnancy.

  7. Towards addressing transient learning challenges in undergraduate physics: an example from electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredlund, T.; Linder, C.; Airey, J.

    2015-09-01

    In this article we characterize transient learning challenges as learning challenges that arise out of teaching situations rather than conflicts with prior knowledge. We propose that these learning challenges can be identified by paying careful attention to the representations that students produce. Once a transient learning challenge has been identified, teachers can create interventions to address it. By illustration, we argue that an appropriate way to design such interventions is to create variation around the disciplinary-relevant aspects associated with the transient learning challenge.

  8. The challenge of market power under globalization

    OpenAIRE

    David Arie Mayer-Foulkes

    2014-01-01

    The legacy of Adam Smith leads to a false confidence on the optimality of laissez faire policies for the global market economy. Instead, the polarized character of current globalization deeply affects both developed and underdeveloped economies. Current globalization is characterized by factor exchange between economies of persistently unequal development. This implies the existence of persistent extraordinary market power in transnational corporations, reflected in their disproportionate par...

  9. IOMP - Challenges for advancing medical physic globally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusslin, F.

    2010-01-01

    IOMP stands for International Organization for Medical Physics. The determinants of health care include; science, research, academia, education, technology, engineering, industry, politics, economic, society, ethics, culture and medicine. However, physics and engineering are the driving forces of progress in health care. Medical Physics is a branch of Applied Physics, pursued by medical physicists, which uses physics principles, methods and techniques in practice and research for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of human diseases with a specific goal of improving human health and well-being. How can we achieve Health Care improvement through Medical Physics globally? By forming international alliances in the Medical Physics community to develop and implement coherent concepts of • Appropriate University / Hospital Structures • Education & Training and Certification Schemes • Research & Development Platforms • Professional Career Development • International Cooperation within the Science Community IOMP represents ca. 18.000 medical physicists worldwide, it is affiliated to 80 national member organizations, six regional organizations as Members plus Corporate Members. The mission of IOMP is to advance medical physics practice worldwide by disseminating scientific and technical information, fostering the educational and professional development of medical physics and promoting the highest quality medical services for patients. 6 Medical physicists are professionals with education and specialist training in the concepts and techniques of applying physics in medicine. They work in clinical, academic or research institutions. Challenges, Efforts and Achievements of the International Organization for Medical Physics Recognition of the Medical Physics profession by the National Health Authorities. Medical Physicists are essential to ensure adequate and safe use of radiation equipment, Radiation Protection of patients, workers and public in a clinical

  10. Global Challenge: Save the World on Your Way to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, David; Grasso, Susan Hull

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how the Global Challenge allows high school students to do something for the environment while winning an award that will help them financially through college. The Global Challenge is an online competition for high school students across the world. Students from other nations can pair up with students in the U.S. and…

  11. The Global Challenge for Accounting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliar, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Accounting and education are both global phenomena, and there is thus an argument that accounting education should be consistent and comparable across the globe. However, accounting, and accounting education are all socially constructed and globally they have been influenced by their historical, social, economic, political and cultural contexts.…

  12. Biological approaches for addressing the grand challenge of providing access to clean drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) recently published a document presenting "Grand Challenges for Engineering". This list was proposed by leading engineers and scientists from around the world at the request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). Fourteen topics were selected for these grand challenges, and at least seven can be addressed using the tools and methods of biological engineering. Here we describe how biological engineers can address the challenge of providing access to clean drinking water. This issue must be addressed in part by removing or inactivating microbial and chemical contaminants in order to properly deliver water safe for human consumption. Despite many advances in technologies this challenge is expanding due to increased pressure on fresh water supplies and to new opportunities for growth of potentially pathogenic organisms. PMID:21453515

  13. Socio-Cultural Challenges in Global Software Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoda, Rashina; Babar, Muhammad Ali; Shastri, Yogeshwar; Yaqoob, Humaa

    2017-01-01

    Global software engineering education (GSEE) is aimed at providing software engineering (SE) students with knowledge, skills, and understanding of working in globally distributed arrangements so they can be prepared for the global SE (GSE) paradigm. It is important to understand the challenges involved in GSEE for improving the quality and…

  14. The Challenge of Global Poliomyelitis Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garon, Julie R; Cochi, Stephen L; Orenstein, Walter A

    2015-12-01

    In the United States during the 1950's, polio was on the forefront of every provider and caregiver's mind. Today, most providers in the United States have never seen a case. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), which began in 1988 has reduced the number of cases by over 99%. The world is closer to achieving global eradication of polio than ever before but as long as poliovirus circulates anywhere in the world, every country is vulnerable. The global community can support the polio eradication effort through continued vaccination, surveillance, enforcing travel regulations and contributing financial support, partnerships and advocacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Globalization, Consumerism and the Challenge of Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    them in the continent. Globalization appears to be encouraging Africa not to think, but ..... and services and grow and develop without damaging the environment. ... rich-quick, by the lower class to emulate them have heightened corruption with.

  16. From Labour to Work: The Global Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Guy

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the shift from rights of labor through the right to labor, to the duty to labor and the changes that have resulted. Suggests that the result is global awareness of pervasive social and economic insecurity. (Author/JOW)

  17. Globalization And Education: Challenges And Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Sadegh Bakhtiari; H. Shajar

    2011-01-01

    The impact of globalization on culture and educational system is a major concern. Some people saw it as a treat for traditional institutions such as the family and the school, another argument saw benefits in overturning traditional and developing modern attitudes. this paper will analysis the positive and negative impacts of globalization on education for developing countries. Effective education systems are the foundation of opportunities to lead a decent life. Ensuring that all children ha...

  18. Globalization vs. localization: global food challenges and local sollutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaye, W.; Jongerden, J.P.; Essegbey, G.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of global-local interactions on food production and consumption in Ghana, and identify possible local solutions. Primary data were collected using a combination of quantitative-qualitative methods, which included focus group discussions and

  19. Do textbooks address known learning challenges in area measurement? A comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Dae S.; Choi, Kyong Mi; Runnalls, Cristina; Hwang, Jihyun

    2018-02-01

    This study compared area lessons from Korean textbooks and US standard-based textbooks to understand differences and similarities among these textbooks, as well as how these textbooks address known learning challenges in area measurement. Several well-known challenges have been identified in previous studies, such as covering, array structure, and linking array structure to area formula. We were interested in knowing if textbooks addressed these issues in their treatments of area measurement and, in doing so, provided students with opportunities to overcome or become familiar with known challenges. The results show that both countries' textbooks demonstrated similar limitations; only few area and area-related lessons are covered and three important learning challenges in area measurement are not covered well, which need to be informed to practicing teachers.

  20. GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE--THE TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, have led to increasing atmospheric concentrations which are at least partly responsible for the roughly 0.7% degree C global warming earth has experienced since the industrial revolution. With industrial activit...

  1. The influence of future-oriented technology analysis: addressing the Cassandra challenge

    OpenAIRE

    JOHNSTON Ron; CAGNIN Cristiano

    2011-01-01

    This paper is based on a series of interviews with nine leading researchers conducted during the Future-Oriented Technology Analysis International Conference held in Seville on 16–17 October 2008. Analysis of these interviews paints a picture of FTA as an increasingly important approach being adopted in many countries to address the many challenges which are emerging at this time in human history. From this are drawn implications for the community of FTA practitioners. The biggest challenge i...

  2. Analysis of the mass media coverage of the Gates Foundation grand challenges in global health initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, G

    2009-03-01

    The Grand Challenges were launched in 2003 by the Gates Foundation and other collaborators to address the health needs of developing countries. This paper outlines the current problem with health research and development in the context of inequality as conveyed by the 90/10 divide. The paper then looks at the focus and nature of press reporting of global health issues by analysing how press articles have portrayed the Grand Challenges in Global Health initiative. Analysis of the mass media illustrates that the focus of reporting on the Grand Challenges tends to be on utilitarian themes, leaving issues related to justice and equity comparatively under-reported.

  3. Science Diplomacy: New Global Challenges, New Trend

    OpenAIRE

    Van Langenhove, Luk

    2016-01-01

    As new challenges such as the critical need for a universal sustainable development agenda confront mankind, science and diplomacy are converging as common tools for trouble-shooting. Science Diplomacy can be seen as a new phenomenon involving the role of science in diplomacy.

  4. Challenges to professionalism: Social accountability and global environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, David; Walpole, Sarah; Barna, Stefi

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the concept of professionalism as it relates to social change and social accountability, and expands on them in the light of global environmental changes. Professionalism in medicine includes concepts of altruism, service, professional knowledge, self-regulation and autonomy. Current dialogues around social accountability suggest that medical schools should re-orientate their strategy and desired education, research and service outcomes to the health needs of the communities they serve.This article addresses the following questions: • How do we reconcile ideas of medical professionalism with the demands of creating a more equal, just, sustainable and socially inclusive society? • What new challenges do or will we face in relation to environmental degradation, biodiversity loss, ecosystem health and climate change? • How can medical schools best teach social and environmental responsiveness within a framework of professionalism? • How do medical schools ensure that tomorrow's doctors possess the knowledge, skills and attitude to adapt to the challenges they will face in future roles?We offer ideas about why and how medical educators can change, recommendations to strengthen the teaching of professionalism and social accountability and suggestions about the contribution of an emerging concept, that of "environmental accountability".

  5. DIRECTIONS AND CHALLENGES IN GLOBAL AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela POPA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of global agricultural market has been at the forefront of professional studies. Expert opinions have quite differing views as to whether the world’s food production will be able to supply the huge demand of growing population. This scientific paper provides a general overview of global agricultural directions, including views on whether agricultural productivity increases will be able to keep with food demand increases and price trends. The scientific paper has focused on the present state of the agricultural market and on the analysis of the key factors defining the tasks of the agricultural sector in the near future, with a special attention to the case of Republic of Moldova.

  6. Globalization - the challenge of new times

    OpenAIRE

    Gordana Bujas

    2001-01-01

    The world economy undergoes through big changes and enters into the restructuring and reorganization process, which bring some countries into the new situations and faces them and their enterprises with new tasks. Knowledge has primary role, both for the individual and overall economy in this changing world, while the land, work and capital become of secondary importance. Creation and innovation enter into the way of production as its most important parts. Globalization brought by the scienti...

  7. Global Citizens: Social Movements and the Challenge of Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Mayo, Marjorie C.

    2005-01-01

    The dawn of the twenty first century has been accompanied by an upsurge of anti-capitalist campaigning, challenging the very basis of the New World Economic order. This book sets out to explore the lessons from these experiences of social mobilization. How can non-governmental organizations, community based organizations and the labor and trade union movement develop effective campaigning alliances--without becoming institutionalized and incorporated themselves? How can they balance immediate...

  8. Wind energy global trends: Opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancona, D.F.

    1995-01-01

    Wind energy is one of the least cost and environmentally attractive new electricity source options for many parts of the world. Because of new wind turbine technology, reduced costs, short installation time, and environmental benefits, countries all over the world are beginning to once again develop one of the world's oldest energy technologies. A unique set of opportunities and challenges now faces the wind industry and its proponents. This paper discusses the potential and challenges of wind power. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is working closely with industry to develop new, improved wind turbine technology and to support both domestic and international deployment. The US DOE Wind Program is discussed within this context

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions - a global challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarebrot, Eivind; Langvik, Sveinung

    2000-01-01

    The article describes some greenhouse gas emission challenges in the Norwegian petroleum industry. Some of the conclusions are that the national taxation policies are insufficient and that international co-operation is essential in order to obtain significant pollution abatement. The mechanisms for this are not yet in place. Some possible measures are mentioned. The main solution to the problems internationally seems to be international co-operation projects generally with quota trade in order to meet the Kyoto agreement obligations

  10. Palliative care in Africa: a global challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Ntizimira, Christian R; Nkurikiyimfura, Jean Luc; Mukeshimana, Olive; Ngizwenayo, Scholastique; Mukasahaha, Diane; Clancy, Clare

    2014-01-01

    We are often asked what challenges Rwanda has faced in the development of palliative care and its integration into the healthcare system. In the past, patients have been barred from accessing strong analgesics to treat moderate to severe pain, but thanks to health initiatives, this is slowly changing. Rwanda is an example of a country where only a few years ago, access to morphine was almost impossible. Albert Einsten said ?in the middle of difficulty lies opportunity? and this sentiment coul...

  11. Addressing the challenges in using qualitative data in qualitative comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Block, Debora; Vis, B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses an issue that so far has received relatively little attention in methodological discussions about Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), namely the challenges researchers face when using qualitative data in QCA analyses. Building on a literature review of 22 empirical studies

  12. Elections: DOD Needs More Comprehensive Planning to Address Military and Overseas Absentee Voting Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Acknowledgments Contact Acknowledgments Related GAO Products Page 75 GAO-16-378 DOD Overseas Absentee Voting U.S. Postal Service: Actions... Products Page 76 GAO-16-378 DOD Overseas Absentee Voting Election Reform: Nine States’ Experiences Implementing Federal Requirements for...ELECTIONS DOD Needs More Comprehensive Planning to Address Military and Overseas Absentee Voting Challenges

  13. Addressing the Challenges Related to Transforming Qualitative Into Quantitative Data in Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Block, de Debora; Vis, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    The use of qualitative data has so far received relatively little attention in methodological discussions on qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). This article addresses this lacuna by discussing the challenges researchers face when transforming qualitative data into quantitative data in QCA. By

  14. Exploring social recommenders for teacher networks to address challenges of starting teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazeli, Soude; Brouns, Francis; Drachsler, Hendrik; Sloep, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Fazeli, S., Brouns, F., Drachsler, H., & Sloep, P. B. (2012). Exploring social recommenders for teacher networks to address challenges of starting teachers. In V. Hodgson, C. Jones, M. de Laat, D. McConnell, T. Ryberg, & P. Sloep (Eds.), Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on

  15. The global change challenge: a regional perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, F

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available with resolution about 210 km Climate Modelling at the CSIR NRE ? NWP and RCM capacity build around the conformal-cubic atmospheric model (CCAM) of the CSIRO ? A cube-based global model; semi-Lagrangian semi-implicit solution of the primitive equations... to impact on crop yield, livestock, biodiversity and energy demand ? CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za RCM ens-ave projected change in annual rainfall (%) for 2071-2100 vs 1961-1990 Southern Africa projected to become generally drier...

  16. Understanding the challenges of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of the threat of global warming and the chronology of the last half century of efforts to prevent it from overwhelming humanity is chronicled. It was in the 1970s when it was first realized that the cumulative total of atmospheric carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning had been steadily rising from the pre-industrial 280 ppmv (parts per million by volume) to 325 ppmv, approximately parallel with the rise of industrialization. Nevertheless, the first attempt at a global accord to reduce emissions was not made until 1992, when the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit tried, but miserably failed to reach agreement, having been prevented from achieving anything of substance by a loose-knit group of nations and commercial interests. Binding agreements were finally reached at the next scheduled international meeting in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997. There is a detailed discussion of the Kyoto Protocols, the measures that Annex One nations such as Canada have to do to achieve the six per cent reductions targets below 1990 levels of emissions by 2010, and estimates of the costs involved. These discussions of proposed actions are balanced by a display of examples of the the growing volume of arguments advanced by opponents who not only disagree about what can be done to reduce emissions, but that there is anything that needs to be done at all. Central to their arguments is the denial that human activities are responsible for global warming, disregarding the overwhelming evidence by 3000+ leading scientists of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change that most of the global warming over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities. The rest of the article details what can and needs to be done to reverse the cumulative impact of greenhouse gas emissions, how we can produce the energy we need at the lowest environmental cost, and the types of energy (solar, wind, biomass, natural gas) that result in the smallest GHG emissions. Familiar arguments are recited to

  17. Nuclear power development: global challenges and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourogov, Victor M.; )

    1997-01-01

    This article highlights key factors that will determine today and tomorrow's optimal energy strategies. It addresses methods to utilize the high potential energy content of uranium. Plutonium used as fuel in a nuclear reactors is discussed as is the future potential of a thorium fuel cycle. Various strategies to increase the economic viability of nuclear power are brought out. Technological means to further minimize environmental impacts and to enhance safety are covered as they are a major factor in public acceptance. Also covered are advances anticipated by mid-century in nuclear reactor and fuel cycle technologies

  18. Canada and global warming: Meeting the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Canada accounts for ca 2% of total world emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide emissions are by far the largest greenhouse gas source in Canada, primarily from energy consumption. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks second among industrialized countries in terms of energy related carbon dioxide emissions. Canada's northern geography and climate, its export-oriented economy with energy-intensive resource industries, and its relatively small population dispersed over a wide land mass contribute to this high per-capita value. The effects of global warming induced by greenhouse gases are outlined, including a reduction in water supplies, droughts affecting agriculture and forestry, and large-scale thawing of permafrost. A national strategy to respond to global warming has been developed which includes limiting and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, preparing for potential climatic changes, and improving scientific understanding and predictive capabilities with respect to climate change. Details of this strategy are outlined, including provincial and territorial strategies in partnership with the national strategy. 11 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Final Report from The University of Texas at Austin for DEGAS: Dynamic Global Address Space programming environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erez, Mattan

    2018-02-21

    The Dynamic, Exascale Global Address Space programming environment (DEGAS) project will develop the next generation of programming models and runtime systems to meet the challenges of Exascale computing. Our approach is to provide an efficient and scalable programming model that can be adapted to application needs through the use of dynamic runtime features and domain-specific languages for computational kernels. We address the following technical challenges: Programmability: Rich set of programming constructs based on a Hierarchical Partitioned Global Address Space (HPGAS) model, demonstrated in UPC++. Scalability: Hierarchical locality control, lightweight communication (extended GASNet), and ef- ficient synchronization mechanisms (Phasers). Performance Portability: Just-in-time specialization (SEJITS) for generating hardware-specific code and scheduling libraries for domain-specific adaptive runtimes (Habanero). Energy Efficiency: Communication-optimal code generation to optimize energy efficiency by re- ducing data movement. Resilience: Containment Domains for flexible, domain-specific resilience, using state capture mechanisms and lightweight, asynchronous recovery mechanisms. Interoperability: Runtime and language interoperability with MPI and OpenMP to encourage broad adoption.

  20. Rebalancing brain drain: exploring resource reallocation to address health worker migration and promote global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Timothy Ken; Liang, Bryan Albert

    2012-09-01

    Global public health is threatened by an imbalance in health worker migration from resource-poor countries to developed countries. This "brain drain" results in health workforce shortages, health system weakening, and economic loss and waste, threatening the well-being of vulnerable populations and effectiveness of global health interventions. Current structural imbalances in resource allocation and global incentive structures have resulted in 57 countries identified by WHO as having a "critical shortage" of health workers. Yet current efforts to strengthen domestic health systems have fallen short in addressing this issue. Instead, global solutions should focus on sustainable forms of equitable resource sharing. This can be accomplished by adoption of mandatory global resource and staff-sharing programs in conjunction with implementation of state-based health services corps. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Meeting the Global Challenge through Production Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij

    to the current debates about how these firms could assert themselves in a world of far-reaching transformation. As the title of the study suggests, this contribution is made through focusing the discussion upon production offshoring, which is currently commanding attention of so many practitioners, academics...... and policy makers. Building on ground that is already well trodden within the academic literature, the study searches for novel multidisciplinary explanations about how the production function can be organised by lead firms on a global scale and, more importantly, what the strategic implications...... of this process are. While the study concentrates on the production function, the implications of the discussion stretch much wider; the study also reveals implications for other functions and the company as a whole, as well as it points towards broader societal implications. The study employs a qualitative...

  2. Globalization, Adjustment and the Challenge of Inclusive Growth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Globalization, Adjustment and the Challenge of Inclusive Growth (Indonesia, Philippines and Viet Nam). This project seeks to better understand the challenge of inclusive growth in the context of ... the productivity-business cycle interaction. Dossiers. Industry churning, the labor market and workers' welfare. Dossiers.

  3. An Overview of the Challenges and Opportunities for Globalization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper is an overview of the existing challenges and opportunities of globalization of Nigerian libraries. It examine the challenges and opportunities for the establishment of viable information and communication. Technologies (ICTs) and recommends the way forward for interconnectivity of Nigerian libraries to facilitate ...

  4. Making Norms to Tackle Global Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    by mandates, moral standing and technical expertise, IGOs act in two ways: operating with high level of political support, these organisations guide priority setting and norm development through the definition of collective problems and solutions, including STI aspects, establishing a shared vision; involving......This paper argues that Intergovernmental Organisations (IGOs) can play a significant role in the processes of system transformation required by Grand Challenges. The reason is their potential to influence socio-technical regimes connected to policy areas in which they have authority. Supported......, designed by UNITAID to fulfil access and innovation needs in relation to HIV/AIDS drugs, and WIPO Re:Search, set up by WIPO to support collaboration and accelerate discovery and product development for Neglected Tropical Diseases, Malaria and Tuberculosis....

  5. The Global Virus Network: Challenging chikungunya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweegan, Edward; Weaver, Scott C; Lecuit, Marc; Frieman, Matthew; Morrison, Thomas E; Hrynkow, Sharon

    2015-08-01

    The recent spread of chikungunya virus to the Western Hemisphere, together with the ongoing Ebola epidemic in West Africa, have highlighted the importance of international collaboration in the detection and management of disease outbreaks. In response to this need, the Global Virus Network (GVN) was formed in 2011. The GVN is a coalition of leading medical virologists in 34 affiliated laboratories in 24 countries, who collaborate to share their resources and expertise. The GVN supports research, promotes training for young scientists, serves as a technical resource for governments, businesses and international organizations, facilitates international scientific cooperation, and advocates for funding and evidence-based public policies. In response to the spread of chikungunya, the GVN formed a task force to identify research gaps and opportunities, including models of infection and disease, candidate vaccines and antivirals, epidemiology and vector control measures. Its members also serve as authoritative sources of information for the public, press, and policy-makers. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "Chikungunya discovers the New World". Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. A Novel Addressing Scheme for PMIPv6 Based Global IP-WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Motaharul Islam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available IP based Wireless Sensor Networks (IP-WSNs are being used in healthcare, home automation, industrial control and agricultural monitoring. In most of these applications global addressing of individual IP-WSN nodes and layer-three routing for mobility enabled IP-WSN with special attention to reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization are a few of the major issues to be addressed. Most of the routing protocols in WSN are based on layer-two approaches. For reliability and end to end communication enhancement the necessity of layer-three routing for IP-WSNs is generating significant attention among the research community, but due to the hurdle of maintaining routing state and other communication overhead, it was not possible to introduce a layer-three routing protocol for IP-WSNs. To address this issue we propose in this paper a global addressing scheme and layer-three based hierarchical routing protocol. The proposed addressing and routing approach focuses on all the above mentioned issues. Simulation results show that the proposed addressing and routing approach significantly enhances the reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization. We also present architecture, message formats and different routing scenarios in this paper.

  7. A novel addressing scheme for PMIPv6 based global IP-WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Motaharul; Huh, Eui-Nam

    2011-01-01

    IP based Wireless Sensor Networks (IP-WSNs) are being used in healthcare, home automation, industrial control and agricultural monitoring. In most of these applications global addressing of individual IP-WSN nodes and layer-three routing for mobility enabled IP-WSN with special attention to reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization are a few of the major issues to be addressed. Most of the routing protocols in WSN are based on layer-two approaches. For reliability and end to end communication enhancement the necessity of layer-three routing for IP-WSNs is generating significant attention among the research community, but due to the hurdle of maintaining routing state and other communication overhead, it was not possible to introduce a layer-three routing protocol for IP-WSNs. To address this issue we propose in this paper a global addressing scheme and layer-three based hierarchical routing protocol. The proposed addressing and routing approach focuses on all the above mentioned issues. Simulation results show that the proposed addressing and routing approach significantly enhances the reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization. We also present architecture, message formats and different routing scenarios in this paper.

  8. Toward a Predictive Understanding of Earth?s Microbiomes to Address 21st Century Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Blaser, Martin J.; Cardon, Zoe G.; Cho, Mildred K.; Dangl, Jeffrey L.; Donohue, Timothy J.; Green, Jessica L.; Knight, Rob; Maxon, Mary E.; Northen, Trent R.; Pollard, Katherine S.; Brodie, Eoin L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microorganisms have shaped our planet and its inhabitants for over 3.5 billion?years. Humankind has had a profound influence on the biosphere, manifested as global climate and land use changes, and extensive urbanization in response to a growing population. The challenges we face to supply food, energy, and clean water while maintaining and improving the health of our population and ecosystems are significant. Given the extensive influence of microorganisms across our biosphere, we p...

  9. Ergonomics and sustainability – challenges from global supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2012-01-01

    The development of globalised supply chains is a major challenge for sustainability. For several years, there has been discussion within the profession whether and how ergonomics and human factors can play a role. Based on our research, we have identified five major challenges from global supply...... chains especially related to the social aspects of sustainability: (1) criteria for social sustainability, (2) the role of key performance indicators in the management of supply chains, (3) the constant changes in supply chains, (4) the challenge in establishing participation, and (5) the development...... of agency and regulatory mechanisms. There are obviously no clear and simple solutions to these challenges. One possible avenue for progress might lie in acquiring a greater understanding of the challenges from global supply chains and developing a strategy which combines social and long-term business...

  10. Global issues and challenges beyond Ottawa: the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, Angela; Speller, Viv

    2007-01-01

    This article links 10 regional field reports to the statement Shaping the future of health promotion: Priorities for action, which are both outcomes of the global IUHPE and CCHPR project, Renewing our Commitment to the Ottawa Charter: The Way Forward. The Shaping the future statement has emerged from the regional field reports and will act as the driving force behind the future articulation of health promotion policy at an international level. Connections are made between the key areas of the regional field reports, which include health promotion policy, health-promoting services, health promotion funding and availability of resources, community participation in health, research and information, and the recommendations made in the Shaping the future of health promotion: Priorities for action statement. The coverage includes putting healthy policies in to practice; strengthening structures and processes for health promotion; moving towards knowledge based practice; building a competent health promotion workforce and empowering communities. There are a number of significant issues arising across all the regional field reports that have been drawn on to make the recommendations in the statement. For example, the political environment has strongly influenced the evolution of health promotion. There is a clear message from the reports that political will is essential and that political advocacy needs to continue to ensure that policy goals represent the principles of Ottawa in an appropriate manner. Examples drawn from the reports demonstrate the many and varied challenges for health promotion in addressing 21st century global health determinants. There is also a clear indication that the principles established in Ottawa, and developed in subsequent WHO declarations and charters, have been embedded in the framework of health promotion practice. Shaping the future articulates the key message from the regional field reports, and therefore ensures that the lessons learnt

  11. Regulatory challenges facing the global nuclear energy partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, Edwin S.

    2007-01-01

    In January 2006 the Department of Energy (DOE) announced the creation of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), an ambitious plan to reshape the nuclear energy production sector both in the United States and worldwide. If fully realized in the United States, GNEP would entail the construction of a large number of sodium-cooled fast reactors utilizing actinide-based fuels, multiple commercial-scale reprocessing plants for both light-water and fast reactors, and fast reactor fuel fabrication plants. It appears likely that the first commercial-scale GNEP facilities, as well as a future full-scale GNEP complex, would fall under the licensing jurisdiction of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This will be a challenging endeavor for the NRC, primarily because the proposed GNEP facilities will in large part be based on novel and untested designs and processes that have not been developed on a commercial scale. In order to effectively regulate the GNEP complex, the NRC will have to quickly address the many technical and policy questions that will arise in any GNEP licensing scheme. This paper identifies some difficult issues that will be encountered in GNEP licensing by examining the potential implications of NRC's current policies and regulatory requirements, and analyzing the impacts of some emerging post-9/11 security issues. (author)

  12. Researching gender: the challenge of global diversity today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia Longman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The text of this paper is based on a lecture given at the symposium of the Ghent African Platform “Researching Gender in/on Africa” at Ghent University in December 2009. It addresses some general challenges faced by ‘gender studies’ as an autonomous field versus ‘gender research’ as an integrated topic within mainstream disciplines in academia. Gender studies have sometimes superseded ‘women’s studies’ and expanded to cover the terrain of study of various forms of diversity including men’s and transgender studies. We will show that the ‘mainstreaming’ of gender in public policy at local, national and transnational levels is a development which may potentially lead to the loss of a – feminist – political edge. Secondly, while gender studies with their emphasis on socially constructed gender as opposed to biological essentialist understandings of ‘sex’ appear to face the challenge of a popular ‘new biological determinism’, it is shown that the binary model of sex/gender in fact has been criticised for some time now from within feminist theory and gender research. This is (selectively illustrated with research from four disciplines, including the work of African gender studies scholars, i.e. feminist philosophy, social sciences (in particular socio-cultural anthropology, history and biology itself. This then shows how the accusation that gender studies would be ‘socially deterministic’ without attending to bodily matters or materiality is unfounded. Finally, it is argued that there is still a need for gender studies to become more culturally diverse, more global and transnational in its outlook, by becoming more deeply attuned to the way gender intersects with other forms of difference and taking into account postcolonial critiques of western feminist paternalism, without falling into the trap of cultural relativism. Key words: gender studies, feminism, sex/gender debate, gender mainstreaming, postcolonial

  13. Challenges Addressing Unmet Need for Contraception: Voices of Family Planning Service Providers in Rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraka, Jitihada; Rusibamayila, Asinath; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Baynes, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Provider perspectives have been overlooked in efforts to address the challenges of unmet need for family planning (FP). This qualitative study was undertaken in Tanzania, using 22 key informant interviews and 4 focus group discussions. The research documents perceptions of healthcare managers and providers in a rural district on the barriers to meeting latent demand for contraception. Social-ecological theory is used to interpret the findings, illustrating how service capability is determined by the social, structural and organizational environment. Providers' efforts to address unmet need for FP services are constrained by unstable reproductive preferences, low educational attainment, and misconceptions about contraceptive side effects. Societal and organizational factors--such as gender dynamics, economic conditions, religious and cultural norms, and supply chain bottlenecks, respectively--also contribute to an adverse environment for meeting needs for care. Challenges that healthcare providers face interact and produce an effect which hinders efforts to address unmet need. Interventions to address this are not sufficient unless the supply of services is combined with systems strengthening and social engagement strategies in a way that reflects the multi-layered, social institutional problems.

  14. Global Energy Transitions and the Challenge of Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riahi, K.

    2008-01-01

    the forest and agricultural sectors playing an important role for the cost-effectiveness. Energy-related measures range from energy conservation and efficiency improvements to shifts away from carbon-intensive coal to cleaner fuels (such as natural gas, renewable, and nuclear), as well as 'add-on' technologies such as carbon capture and storage. Other important measures include changes in agricultural practices to reduce CH 4 and N 2 O emissions, and enhancement of terrestrial sink activities in the forest sector. Reducing the risks of climate change significantly, requires fundamental structural changes of the energy system in the long term, combined with accelerated technology diffusion and early investments over the next few decades. In addition, appropriate and effective investment incentives need to be in place for development, acquisition, transfer, and deployment of new technologies. Achieving a trend-reversal of presently declining trends of R and D expenditures in environmentally friendly energy technologies will thus be central for addressing the climate change challenge.(author)

  15. Empowering people to change occupational behaviours to address critical global issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikiugu, Moses N; Westerfield, Madeline A; Lien, Jamie M; Theisen, Emily R; Cerny, Shana L; Nissen, Ranelle M

    2015-06-01

    The greatest threat to human well-being in this century is climate change and related global issues. We examined the effectiveness of the Modified Instrumentalism in Occupational Therapy model as a framework for facilitating occupational behaviour change to address climate change and related issues. Eleven individuals participated in this mixed-methods single-subject-design study. Data were gathered using the Modified Assessment and Intervention Instrument for Instrumentalism in Occupational Therapy and Daily Occupational Inventories. Quantitative data were analyzed using two- and three-standard deviation band methods. Qualitative data were analyzed using heuristic phenomenological procedures. Occupational performance changed for five participants. Participants' feelings shifted from frustration and helplessness to empowerment and a desire for action. They felt empowered to find occupation-based solutions to the global issues. Occupation-based interventions that increase personal awareness of the connection between occupational performance and global issues could empower people to be agents for action to ameliorate the issues.

  16. The Global Energy Challenge:A Contextual Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    This report gives a brief overview of the global energy challenge and subsequently outlines how and where renewable energy could be developed to solve these issues. The report does not go into a lot of detail on these issues and hence, it is meant as an overview only.The report begins by outlining the causes of global climate change, concluding that energy-related emissions are the primary contributors to the problem. As a result, global energy production is analysed in more detail, discussin...

  17. Meeting global health challenges through operational research and management science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royston, Geoff

    2011-09-01

    This paper considers how operational research and management science can improve the design of health systems and the delivery of health care, particularly in low-resource settings. It identifies some gaps in the way operational research is typically used in global health and proposes steps to bridge them. It then outlines some analytical tools of operational research and management science and illustrates how their use can inform some typical design and delivery challenges in global health. The paper concludes by considering factors that will increase and improve the contribution of operational research and management science to global health.

  18. Addressing the Big-Earth-Data Variety Challenge with the Hierarchical Triangular Mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilee, Michael L.; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Clune, Thomas; Oloso, Amidu; Brown, Paul G.; Yu, Honfeng

    2016-01-01

    We have implemented an updated Hierarchical Triangular Mesh (HTM) as the basis for a unified data model and an indexing scheme for geoscience data to address the variety challenge of Big Earth Data. We observe that, in the absence of variety, the volume challenge of Big Data is relatively easily addressable with parallel processing. The more important challenge in achieving optimal value with a Big Data solution for Earth Science (ES) data analysis, however, is being able to achieve good scalability with variety. With HTM unifying at least the three popular data models, i.e. Grid, Swath, and Point, used by current ES data products, data preparation time for integrative analysis of diverse datasets can be drastically reduced and better variety scaling can be achieved. In addition, since HTM is also an indexing scheme, when it is used to index all ES datasets, data placement alignment (or co-location) on the shared nothing architecture, which most Big Data systems are based on, is guaranteed and better performance is ensured. Moreover, our updated HTM encoding turns most geospatial set operations into integer interval operations, gaining further performance advantages.

  19. Moving beyond regression techniques in cardiovascular risk prediction: applying machine learning to address analytic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin A; Navar, Ann Marie; Carter, Rickey E

    2017-06-14

    Risk prediction plays an important role in clinical cardiology research. Traditionally, most risk models have been based on regression models. While useful and robust, these statistical methods are limited to using a small number of predictors which operate in the same way on everyone, and uniformly throughout their range. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the use of machine-learning methods for development of risk prediction models. Typically presented as black box approaches, most machine-learning methods are aimed at solving particular challenges that arise in data analysis that are not well addressed by typical regression approaches. To illustrate these challenges, as well as how different methods can address them, we consider trying to predicting mortality after diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. We use data derived from our institution's electronic health record and abstract data on 13 regularly measured laboratory markers. We walk through different challenges that arise in modelling these data and then introduce different machine-learning approaches. Finally, we discuss general issues in the application of machine-learning methods including tuning parameters, loss functions, variable importance, and missing data. Overall, this review serves as an introduction for those working on risk modelling to approach the diffuse field of machine learning. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  20. The challenges of globalization for smes in Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Ionela Cretoiu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation offers humankind a new vision both on international economic relations and on international affairs, which have gained momentum and turned over time. The international economic relations seen from the perspective of the global economy’s globalization have expanded and acquired new meanings, the evolution towards such a global economy involving intra-regional relationships and partnerships development that have arisen between multinational companies. On the ground of these transformations, SMEs face a number of challenges due to the evolution of economic, social and cultural conditions of globalization. This paper investigates, using a field survey type research, the ways in which globalization affects the activity of SMEs from the perspective of the managers in Moldova perspective.

  1. Romanian spatial planning research facing the challenges of globalizing sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Ionuţ Petrişor

    2018-03-01

    competitiveness, measured in terms of scientific yield and citations, primarily affects fields where articles and citations are not the traditional outputs, such as the humanities and social sciences in general and planning-related disciplines in particular. When discussing planning, it has to be stressed out that research has a merely societal value and is not aimed at developing products that can foster economic growth or delivering scientific articles that profoundly change the theoretical perspectives. Simply put, research in planning aims at increasing the safety and welfare of people. As a consequence, planning research topics have shifted from providing scientific grounds to regional development policies, to addressing research quality and social responsibility or producing research guidelines. This article looks at the particular case of Romanian planning research based on SCImago data, in an attempt to assess whether this field is able to meet these global challenges, especially after the consistent, albeit uneven, in terms of goal and pace, application of new research policies designed after joining the European Union, which were aimed at increasing its article output and its international visibility. The findings indicate that the numerical growth of articles and publications is spectacular in Romania for most fields, and even more so within the humanities, the social sciences and planning. However, the question remains whether this impressive growth is supported by an increase in quality. We have therefore left aside matters such as the globalization of authors, topics or citations. These aspects require a more in-depth research effort.

  2. Career challenges and opportunities in the global chemistry enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article serves as an overview of the various career challenges and opportunities faced by chemistry professionals in the 21st century in the global chemistry enterprise. One goal is to highlight a broad spectrum of career paths, including non-traditional careers, and to showcase examples of ch...

  3. The debt crisis, the global economy and the challenges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The debt crisis, the global economy and the challenges of development: sub Saharan Africa at the crossroads. ... democratization, striving towards gender parity, stemming conditions that precipitate incessant conflicts, reversing the region's crumbling environmental conditions, and fighting the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Journal of ...

  4. Global Expansion of International Branch Campuses: Managerial and Leadership Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jason E.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the author outlines the growth of international branch campuses (IBCs) over the past fifty years and discusses some of the major management and leadership challenges associated with creating and sustaining IBCs. Part one of the chapter provides a discussion of the global expansion of IBCs. The second part focuses on the…

  5. Food, Populations and Health — global Patterns and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present volume is based on presentations at a symposium at the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters in September 2014 with the title Food, Population and Health – global Patterns and Challenges. Food has played a fundamental role in the history of all societies over the World. Availab...

  6. Addressing water challenges on the North China Plain with hydroeconomic optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Grith; Davidsen, Claus; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    . This enables the representation of links and interactions between the water resources system and the power system of Northern China. The multi-reservoir LP model is formulated as a flow path based optimization, which tracks each water delivery from supplier to receiver. This is useful for the exploration...... constructed. However, the project alone cannot solve the NCP’s water crisis. A hydroeconomic optimization model has been developed for the NCP system. The model area represents the administrative area of the Hai River Commission. The challenges addressed are the spatio-temporal distribution of costs......With its diverse environment and large population, China is facing water resource challenges, both in terms of quantity and quality. The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the world’s most densely populated areas and one of the highly water stressed regions of China. It counts for 15% of the Chinese...

  7. Symposium on international safeguards: Addressing verification challenges. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    A safeguards symposium has traditionally been organized by the Safeguards Department approximately every four years. The 2006 symposium addresses challenges to IAEA safeguards that have emerged or grown more serious since 2001. The increase in size and flexibility of uranium enrichment plants, for instance, and the spread of enrichment technology to a wider circle of States, pose challenges to traditional safeguards approaches. The procurement and supply networks discovered in 2004, dealing in sensitive nuclear technology and information, have serious implications for the future effectiveness of IAEA safeguards. The symposium will provide an opportunity for the IAEA and Member States to discuss options for dealing constructively with trade in sensitive nuclear technology. Reflecting developments since 2001, the 2006 symposium will focus on current challenges to the safeguards system, improving collection and analysis of safeguards information (analysis, processing tools, satellite imagery), advances in safeguards techniques and technology (future technology, neutron techniques, spent fuel verification, reprocessing, environmental sampling, containment and surveillance), further strengthening safeguards practices and approaches (safeguards approaches, integrated safeguards, R/SSAC, destructive analysis, non-destructive analysis, enrichment, reprocessing, spent fuel transfer) and future challenges. This publication contains 183 extended synopses, each of them was indexed separately.

  8. Symposium on international safeguards: Addressing verification challenges. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A safeguards symposium has traditionally been organized by the Safeguards Department approximately every four years. The 2006 symposium addresses challenges to IAEA safeguards that have emerged or grown more serious since 2001. The increase in size and flexibility of uranium enrichment plants, for instance, and the spread of enrichment technology to a wider circle of States, pose challenges to traditional safeguards approaches. The procurement and supply networks discovered in 2004, dealing in sensitive nuclear technology and information, have serious implications for the future effectiveness of IAEA safeguards. The symposium will provide an opportunity for the IAEA and Member States to discuss options for dealing constructively with trade in sensitive nuclear technology. Reflecting developments since 2001, the 2006 symposium will focus on current challenges to the safeguards system, improving collection and analysis of safeguards information (analysis, processing tools, satellite imagery), advances in safeguards techniques and technology (future technology, neutron techniques, spent fuel verification, reprocessing, environmental sampling, containment and surveillance), further strengthening safeguards practices and approaches (safeguards approaches, integrated safeguards, R/SSAC, destructive analysis, non-destructive analysis, enrichment, reprocessing, spent fuel transfer) and future challenges. This publication contains 183 extended synopses, each of them was indexed separately

  9. Addressing the Analytic Challenges of Cross-Sectional Pediatric Pneumonia Etiology Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitt, Laura L; Feikin, Daniel R; Scott, J Anthony G; Zeger, Scott L; Murdoch, David R; O'Brien, Katherine L; Deloria Knoll, Maria

    2017-06-15

    Despite tremendous advances in diagnostic laboratory technology, identifying the pathogen(s) causing pneumonia remains challenging because the infected lung tissue cannot usually be sampled for testing. Consequently, to obtain information about pneumonia etiology, clinicians and researchers test specimens distant to the site of infection. These tests may lack sensitivity (eg, blood culture, which is only positive in a small proportion of children with pneumonia) and/or specificity (eg, detection of pathogens in upper respiratory tract specimens, which may indicate asymptomatic carriage or a less severe syndrome, such as upper respiratory infection). While highly sensitive nucleic acid detection methods and testing of multiple specimens improve sensitivity, multiple pathogens are often detected and this adds complexity to the interpretation as the etiologic significance of results may be unclear (ie, the pneumonia may be caused by none, one, some, or all of the pathogens detected). Some of these challenges can be addressed by adjusting positivity rates to account for poor sensitivity or incorporating test results from controls without pneumonia to account for poor specificity. However, no classical analytic methods can account for measurement error (ie, sensitivity and specificity) for multiple specimen types and integrate the results of measurements for multiple pathogens to produce an accurate understanding of etiology. We describe the major analytic challenges in determining pneumonia etiology and review how the common analytical approaches (eg, descriptive, case-control, attributable fraction, latent class analysis) address some but not all challenges. We demonstrate how these limitations necessitate a new, integrated analytical approach to pneumonia etiology data. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  10. Global networks for invasion science: benefits, challenges and guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Packer, Jasmin G.; Meyerson, Laura A.; Richardson, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Much has been done to address the challenges of biological invasions, but fundamental questions (e.g., which species invade? Which habitats are invaded? How can invasions be effectively managed?) still need to be answered before the spread and impact of alien taxa can be effectively managed. Ques...

  11. City leadership: At the heart of the global challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, P.A.

    2008-09-30

    The world's attention is now focused on cities, and for good reasons. From a global perspective cities have become the engines of economic prosperity. In 2007, the collective Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the top 10 cities exceeded the total GDP of 162 countries combined, with Tokyo alone generating a larger GDP than Canada. Cities have become the centers of population. In 1900, only 10% of the world's population lived in cities, but by 2007 the urban population had reached 50%, and the estimate for 2050 is that 75% of the world's population, over 7 billion people, will be living in cities. In parallel, cities have become the centers of consumption. In 2006, cities accounted for approximately 67% of global primary energy demand, a concentration that is expected to rise to 75% by 2030. The corollary to this concentration of population and consumption is the concentration of activities that lead to climate change. Cities now acount for over 70% of global carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. Asia's cities are at the forefront of the global challenges of urbanization. While they are the location of many challenges, cities also present opportunities, particularly in finding solutions to the crucial global challenges of our time -- climate change, energy demand and water. Many of the world's greatest challenges, from environmental degradation to widening income gaps, are increasingly coming to be defined as urban challenges, given the rapid growth of cities. The author, who leads the World Economic Forum's SlimCity initiative, take a look at the options being explored by the public and private sectors.

  12. Global Health Governance Challenges 2016 - Are We Ready?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickbusch, Ilona

    2016-02-29

    The year 2016 could turn out to be a turning point for global health, new political realities and global insecurities will test governance and financing mechanisms in relation to both people and planet. But most importantly political factors such as the global power shift and "the rise of the rest" will define the future of global health. A new mix of health inequity and security challenges has emerged and the 2015 humanitarian and health crises have shown the limits of existing systems. The global health as well as the humanitarian system will have to prove their capacity to respond and reform. The challenge ahead is deeply political, especially for the rising political actors. They are confronted with the consequences of a model of development that has neglected sustainability and equity, and was built on their exploitation. Some direction has been given by the path breaking international conferences in 2015. Especially the agreement on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris agreement on climate change will shape action. Conceptually, we will need a different understanding of global health and its ultimate goals - the health of people can no longer be seen separate from the health of the planet and wealth measured by parameters of growth will no longer ensure health. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  13. Grand Challenges Canada: inappropriate emphasis and missed opportunities in global health research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Charles P; Haddad, Slim; Birn, Anne-Emanuelle; Cole, Donald C; Labonte, Ronald; Roberts, Janet Hatcher; Schrecker, Ted; Sellen, Daniel; Zakus, David

    2011-01-01

    In May 2010, Grand Challenges Canada (GCC) was launched with the mandate to identify global challenges in health that could be supported through the Government of Canada's Development Innovations Fund (DIF: $225 million over five years). The GCC offers a potentially excellent mechanism for taking Canada's participation in global health challenges "to a higher level". Recent GCC announcements raise new questions about the emphasis being placed on technological discovery or "catalytic" research. Missing so far are opportunities that the Fund could offer in order to support innovative research addressing i) health systems strengthening, ii) more effective delivery of existing interventions, and iii) policies and programs that address broader social determinants of health. The Canadian Grand Challenges announced to date risk pushing to the sidelines good translational and implementation science and early career-stage scientists addressing important social, environmental and political conditions that affect disease prevalence, progress and treatment; and the many unresolved challenges faced in bringing to scale proven interventions within resource-constrained health systems. We wish to register our concern at the apparent prioritization of biotechnical innovation research and the subordination of the social, environmental, economic and political context in which human health is either protected or eroded.

  14. Nation state and the challenge of globalization: Project draft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrenović Zoran G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This project draft discusses the issues facing a nation state in the dynamic processes of globalization. First, the term globalization is tentatively defined as a decentralized process of condensation and homogenization of space and time. Then, the ambivalent structure of the globalization discourse, i.e. its semantic and pragmatic dimensions, are shown. The neo-liberal viewpoint is explored of the erosion and weakening of the nation state within the global capitalist power, both in terms of its (state's traditional functions, and in terms of its internal and external sovereignty. Against the neo-liberal thesis about the decline of the nation state many empirical arguments have been offered. Some of these are presented in this text. The main point of this argumentation consists in a general view that the decline of the nation state is strongly linked with the process of globalization. In view of the critical argumentation included in the paper, it is argued that in the environment of global processes only the societies which have a strong state behind them have a chance to succeed. Politics, not economy, still dominates international relations. Emphasis on state politics opens a new perspective in discussing the process of globalization. Current globalization processes cannot be judged accurately unless geopolitical interests and the changing balance of world power are understood. Finally, the paper points to the ideological nature of the neo-liberal discourse of globalization, questioning another basic assumption of the latter, namely, the idea that the process of globalization is at the same time a process of emancipation. By challenging the positing of a necessary link between globalization and emancipation we formulate a position that allows for a normative critique of current processes.

  15. Economic optimization of a global strategy to address the pandemic threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Jamison; Bogich, Tiffany; Elwood, Sarah; Finnoff, David C; Daszak, Peter

    2014-12-30

    Emerging pandemics threaten global health and economies and are increasing in frequency. Globally coordinated strategies to combat pandemics, similar to current strategies that address climate change, are largely adaptive, in that they attempt to reduce the impact of a pathogen after it has emerged. However, like climate change, mitigation strategies have been developed that include programs to reduce the underlying drivers of pandemics, particularly animal-to-human disease transmission. Here, we use real options economic modeling of current globally coordinated adaptation strategies for pandemic prevention. We show that they would be optimally implemented within 27 y to reduce the annual rise of emerging infectious disease events by 50% at an estimated one-time cost of approximately $343.7 billion. We then analyze World Bank data on multilateral "One Health" pandemic mitigation programs. We find that, because most pandemics have animal origins, mitigation is a more cost-effective policy than business-as-usual adaptation programs, saving between $344.0.7 billion and $360.3 billion over the next 100 y if implemented today. We conclude that globally coordinated pandemic prevention policies need to be enacted urgently to be optimally effective and that strategies to mitigate pandemics by reducing the impact of their underlying drivers are likely to be more effective than business as usual.

  16. Economic optimization of a global strategy to address the pandemic threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Jamison; Bogich, Tiffany; Elwood, Sarah; Finnoff, David C.; Daszak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Emerging pandemics threaten global health and economies and are increasing in frequency. Globally coordinated strategies to combat pandemics, similar to current strategies that address climate change, are largely adaptive, in that they attempt to reduce the impact of a pathogen after it has emerged. However, like climate change, mitigation strategies have been developed that include programs to reduce the underlying drivers of pandemics, particularly animal-to-human disease transmission. Here, we use real options economic modeling of current globally coordinated adaptation strategies for pandemic prevention. We show that they would be optimally implemented within 27 y to reduce the annual rise of emerging infectious disease events by 50% at an estimated one-time cost of approximately $343.7 billion. We then analyze World Bank data on multilateral “One Health” pandemic mitigation programs. We find that, because most pandemics have animal origins, mitigation is a more cost-effective policy than business-as-usual adaptation programs, saving between $344.0.7 billion and $360.3 billion over the next 100 y if implemented today. We conclude that globally coordinated pandemic prevention policies need to be enacted urgently to be optimally effective and that strategies to mitigate pandemics by reducing the impact of their underlying drivers are likely to be more effective than business as usual. PMID:25512538

  17. Characteristics of Treatment Decisions to Address Challenging Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anixt, Julia S; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Estridge, Halley; Smith, Laura; Brinkman, William B

    2018-05-01

    To describe the characteristics of treatment decisions to address challenging behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Parents of children aged 4 to 15 years with ASD seen in a developmental behavioral pediatric (DBP) clinic completed validated measures to characterize their child's behaviors and their own level of stress. Parents reported their treatment priority before the visit. During the visit, we assessed shared decision making (SDM) using the Observing Patient Involvement (OPTION) scale and alignment of the clinician's treatment plan with the parent's priority. Before and after the visit, parents rated their uncertainty about the treatment plan using the Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS). We calculated descriptive statistics for the measures. Fifty-four families participated. Children were a mean (SD) age of 8.8 (3.3) years, and 87% were male. Children had a variety of behavioral challenges, and parents reported high levels of stress. Commonly reported parent treatment priorities were hyperactivity, tantrums, anxiety, and poor social skills. Levels of SDM were low, with a mean (SD) OPTION score of 24.5 (9.7). Parent priorities were addressed in 65% of treatment plans. Approximately 69% of parents had elevated DCS scores before the visit. Although levels of decisional conflict were lower after the visit compared with before the visit (p < 0.03), 46% of parents continued to report high scores on the DCS. Parents leave DBP visits with feelings of uncertainty about treatment decisions and with treatment plans that do not always address their priorities. SDM interventions hold promise to improve the quality of ASD treatment decisions.

  18. Addressing challenges to MMPI-2-RF-based testimony: questions and answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2012-11-01

    Introduction of a new version of a psychological test brings with it challenges that can be accentuated by the adversarial nature of the legal process. In the case of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), these challenges can be addressed by becoming familiar with the rationale for and the methods used in revising the inventory, the information contained in the test manuals, and the growing peer-reviewed literature on the test. Potential challenges to MMPI-2-RF-based testimony are identified in this article and discussed in question and answer format. The questions guiding this discussion are based on the Daubert factors, established in 1993 by the US Supreme Court as criteria for gauging the scientific validity of proffered expert testimony. The answers to these questions apply more broadly to testimony in depositions, pre-trial hearings, and at trial. Consideration of the MMPI-2-RF in light of the Daubert factors indicates that the instrument has been subjected to extensive empirical testing and that a substantial peer-reviewed literature is available to guide and support its use. Information about the known and potential rate of error associated with MMPI-2-RF scores is available, and standard procedures for administration, scoring, and interpretation of the inventory are detailed in the test administration manual. Indicators of MMPI-2-RF acceptance can be cited, and criticisms of the MMPI-2-RF can be addressed with information available in the test documents and an extensive, modern, and actively growing peer-reviewed literature.

  19. GLOBALIZATION AND SMALL BUSINESSES AND ECONOMIES – CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NINKO KOSTOVSKI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the effect of globalization in general and from the viewpoint of the small and medium sized companies in the Republic of Macedonia, as a typical developing economy. Our survey of 100 managers and business owners from small and medium sized enterprises indicates that they tend to perceive the globalization with more conservative glasses as negative, or at the best, as a neutral phenomenon to their overall business prospects. However, to harvest the apparent opportunities of the globalization and to achieve the desired internationalization of their businesses, they call for intensive regional cooperation seeing it as a gateway to much harsher realms of the globalized market. The literature review and the examples from some other countries support these conservative standing of our managers and offer practical explanations why the approach towards the globalization is conservative and often even negative. Small business is important provider of new jobs, ideas and business concepts. However, with the opening of the global market it is a constant pursue for customers all around the world, having to meet their diverse and rapidly changing needs and facing extremely shortened delivery terms and product lifecycles. Many small companies, particularly from the developing countries are not adequately prepared to face the reality of this challenge. On the other hand, the big multinational companies receive more than hefty incentives to invest into the developing countries and that creates additional negative sentiments towards the globalization among the local companies.

  20. Addressing practical challenges in utility optimization of mobile wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswaran, Sharanya; Misra, Archan; La Porta, Thomas; Leung, Kin

    2008-04-01

    This paper examines the practical challenges in the application of the distributed network utility maximization (NUM) framework to the problem of resource allocation and sensor device adaptation in a mission-centric wireless sensor network (WSN) environment. By providing rich (multi-modal), real-time information about a variety of (often inaccessible or hostile) operating environments, sensors such as video, acoustic and short-aperture radar enhance the situational awareness of many battlefield missions. Prior work on the applicability of the NUM framework to mission-centric WSNs has focused on tackling the challenges introduced by i) the definition of an individual mission's utility as a collective function of multiple sensor flows and ii) the dissemination of an individual sensor's data via a multicast tree to multiple consuming missions. However, the practical application and performance of this framework is influenced by several parameters internal to the framework and also by implementation-specific decisions. This is made further complex due to mobile nodes. In this paper, we use discrete-event simulations to study the effects of these parameters on the performance of the protocol in terms of speed of convergence, packet loss, and signaling overhead thereby addressing the challenges posed by wireless interference and node mobility in ad-hoc battlefield scenarios. This study provides better understanding of the issues involved in the practical adaptation of the NUM framework. It also helps identify potential avenues of improvement within the framework and protocol.

  1. Challenges and opportunities in mapping land use intensity globally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuemmerle, Tobias; Erb, Karlheinz; Meyfroidt, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Future increases in land-based production will need to focus more on sustainably intensifying existing production systems. Unfortunately, our understanding of the global patterns of land use intensity is weak, partly because land use intensity is a complex, multidimensional term, and partly becau...... challenges and opportunities for mapping land use intensity for cropland, grazing, and forestry systems, and identify key issues for future research....... we lack appropriate datasets to assess land use intensity across broad geographic extents. Here, we review the state of the art regarding approaches for mapping land use intensity and provide a comprehensive overview of available global-scale datasets on land use intensity. We also outline major...

  2. The global energy challenge: new challenges and threats, the ways to overcome them

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandr N. Zakharov

    2017-01-01

    The article describes key aspects of global energy issues, with an emphasis on energy security. The Russian Federation is to face three inter-related challenges: provide energy security, stimulate economic growth and protect the environment, reducing emissions of greenhouse gases that will reduce the level of air pollution and contribute to the global improvement of the atmosphere. The author analyzes the status and prospects of world energy markets and the forecast of their development for t...

  3. Consensus Statement on Electronic Health Predictive Analytics: A Guiding Framework to Address Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasingham, Ruben; Audet, Anne-Marie J; Bates, David W; Glenn Cohen, I; Entwistle, Martin; Escobar, G J; Liu, Vincent; Etheredge, Lynn; Lo, Bernard; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Ram, Sudha; Saria, Suchi; Schilling, Lisa M; Shahi, Anand; Stewart, Walter F; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Xie, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The recent explosion in available electronic health record (EHR) data is motivating a rapid expansion of electronic health care predictive analytic (e-HPA) applications, defined as the use of electronic algorithms that forecast clinical events in real time with the intent to improve patient outcomes and reduce costs. There is an urgent need for a systematic framework to guide the development and application of e-HPA to ensure that the field develops in a scientifically sound, ethical, and efficient manner. Building upon earlier frameworks of model development and utilization, we identify the emerging opportunities and challenges of e-HPA, propose a framework that enables us to realize these opportunities, address these challenges, and motivate e-HPA stakeholders to both adopt and continuously refine the framework as the applications of e-HPA emerge. To achieve these objectives, 17 experts with diverse expertise including methodology, ethics, legal, regulation, and health care delivery systems were assembled to identify emerging opportunities and challenges of e-HPA and to propose a framework to guide the development and application of e-HPA. The framework proposed by the panel includes three key domains where e-HPA differs qualitatively from earlier generations of models and algorithms (Data Barriers, Transparency, and ETHICS) and areas where current frameworks are insufficient to address the emerging opportunities and challenges of e-HPA (Regulation and Certification; and Education and Training). The following list of recommendations summarizes the key points of the framework: Data Barriers: Establish mechanisms within the scientific community to support data sharing for predictive model development and testing.Transparency: Set standards around e-HPA validation based on principles of scientific transparency and reproducibility. Develop both individual-centered and society-centered risk-benefit approaches to evaluate e-HPA.Regulation and Certification: Construct a

  4. Leveraging Big Data Tools and Technologies: Addressing the Challenges of the Water Quality Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Ponce Romero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The water utility sector is subject to stringent legislation, seeking to address both the evolution of practices within the chemical/pharmaceutical industry, and the safeguarding of environmental protection, and which is informed by stakeholder views. Growing public environmental awareness is balanced by fair apportionment of liability within-sector. This highly complex and dynamic context poses challenges for water utilities seeking to manage the diverse chemicals arising from disparate sources reaching Wastewater Treatment Plants, including residential, commercial, and industrial points of origin, and diffuse sources including agricultural and hard surface water run-off. Effluents contain broad ranges of organic and inorganic compounds, herbicides, pesticides, phosphorus, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals of emerging concern. These potential pollutants can be in dissolved form, or arise in association with organic matter, the associated risks posing significant environmental challenges. This paper examines how the adoption of new Big Data tools and computational technologies can offer great advantage to the water utility sector in addressing this challenge. Big Data approaches facilitate improved understanding and insight of these challenges, by industry, regulator, and public alike. We discuss how Big Data approaches can be used to improve the outputs of tools currently in use by the water industry, such as SAGIS (Source Apportionment GIS system, helping to reveal new relationships between chemicals, the environment, and human health, and in turn provide better understanding of contaminants in wastewater (origin, pathways, and persistence. We highlight how the sector can draw upon Big Data tools to add value to legacy datasets, such as the Chemicals Investigation Programme in the UK, combined with contemporary data sources, extending the lifespan of data, focusing monitoring strategies, and helping users adapt and plan more efficiently. Despite

  5. MO-FG-BRB-00: The Global Cancer Challenge: What Can We Do?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    The global burden of cancer is growing rapidly with an estimated 15 million new cases per year worldwide in 2015, growing to 19 million by 2025 and 24 million by 2035. The largest component of this growth will occur in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs). About half of these cases will require radiation treatment. The gap for available cancer treatment, including radiation therapy, between high-income countries (HICs) and LMICs is enormous. Accurate data and quantitative models to project the needs and the benefits of cancer treatment are a critical first step in closing the large cancer divide between LMICs and HICs. In this context, the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) has developed a Global Task Force on Radiotherapy for Cancer Control (GTFRCC) with a charge to answer the question as to what it will take to close the gap between what exists today and reasonable access to radiation therapy globally by 2035 and what the potential clinical and economic benefits are for doing this. The Task Force has determined the projections of cancer incidence and the infrastructure required to provide access to radiation therapy globally. Furthermore it has shown that appropriate investment not only yields improved clinical outcomes for millions of patients but that it also provides an overall economic gain throughout all the income settings where this investment is made. This symposium will summarize the facets associated with this global cancer challenge by reviewing the cancer burden, looking at the requirements for radiation therapy, reviewing the benefits of providing such therapy both from a clinical and economic perspective and finally by looking at what approaches can be used to aid in the alleviation of this global cancer challenge. The speakers are world renowned experts in global public health issues (R. Atun), medical physics (D. Jaffray) and radiation oncology (N. Coleman). Learning Objectives: To describe the global cancer challenge and the

  6. MO-FG-BRB-00: The Global Cancer Challenge: What Can We Do?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The global burden of cancer is growing rapidly with an estimated 15 million new cases per year worldwide in 2015, growing to 19 million by 2025 and 24 million by 2035. The largest component of this growth will occur in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs). About half of these cases will require radiation treatment. The gap for available cancer treatment, including radiation therapy, between high-income countries (HICs) and LMICs is enormous. Accurate data and quantitative models to project the needs and the benefits of cancer treatment are a critical first step in closing the large cancer divide between LMICs and HICs. In this context, the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) has developed a Global Task Force on Radiotherapy for Cancer Control (GTFRCC) with a charge to answer the question as to what it will take to close the gap between what exists today and reasonable access to radiation therapy globally by 2035 and what the potential clinical and economic benefits are for doing this. The Task Force has determined the projections of cancer incidence and the infrastructure required to provide access to radiation therapy globally. Furthermore it has shown that appropriate investment not only yields improved clinical outcomes for millions of patients but that it also provides an overall economic gain throughout all the income settings where this investment is made. This symposium will summarize the facets associated with this global cancer challenge by reviewing the cancer burden, looking at the requirements for radiation therapy, reviewing the benefits of providing such therapy both from a clinical and economic perspective and finally by looking at what approaches can be used to aid in the alleviation of this global cancer challenge. The speakers are world renowned experts in global public health issues (R. Atun), medical physics (D. Jaffray) and radiation oncology (N. Coleman). Learning Objectives: To describe the global cancer challenge and the

  7. Medical mycology and fungal immunology: new research perspectives addressing a major world health challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Neil A R; Netea, Mihai G

    2016-12-05

    Fungi cause more than a billion skin infections, more than 100 million mucosal infections, 10 million serious allergies and more than a million deaths each year. Global mortality owing to fungal infections is greater than for malaria and breast cancer and is equivalent to that owing to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. These statistics evidence fungal infections as a major threat to human health and a major burden to healthcare budgets worldwide. Those patients who are at greatest risk of life-threatening fungal infections include those who have weakened immunity or have suffered trauma or other predisposing infections such as HIV. To address these global threats to human health, more research is urgently needed to understand the immunopathology of fungal disease and human disease susceptibility in order to augment the advances being made in fungal diagnostics and drug development. Here, we highlight some recent advances in basic research in medical mycology and fungal immunology that are beginning to inform clinical decisions and options for personalized medicine, vaccine development and adjunct immunotherapies.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Authors.

  8. Global occupational health: current challenges and the need for urgent action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, Roberto G; London, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Global occupational health and safety (OHS) is strictly linked to the dynamics of economic globalization. As the global market is increasing, the gap between developed and underdeveloped countries, occupational diseases, and injuries affect a vast number of workers worldwide. Global OHS issues also become local in developed countries due to many factors, including untrained migrant workers in the informal sector, construction, and agriculture. To identify the current status and challenges of global occupational health and safety and the needs for preventive action. Absence of OHS infrastructure amplifies the devastating consequences of infectious outbreaks like the Ebola pandemic and tuberculosis. Interventions in global OHS are urgently needed at various levels: 1. Increased governmental funding is needed for international organizations like the World Health Organization and the International Labor Organization to face the increasing demand for policies, guidance, and training. 2. Regulations to ban and control dangerous products are needed to avoid the transfer of hazardous production to developing countries. 3. The OHS community must address global OHS issues through advocacy, position papers, public statements, technical and ethical guidelines, and by encouraging access of OHS professionals from the developing countries to leadership positions in professional and academic societies. 4. Research, education, and training of OHS professionals, workers, unions and employers are needed to address global OHS issues and their local impact. 5. Consumers also can influence significantly the adoption of OHS practices by demanding the protection of workers who are producing he goods that are sold in the global market. Following the equation of maximized profits prompted by the inhibition of OHS is an old practice that has proven to cause significant costs to societies in the developed world. It is now an urgent priority to stop this process and promote a harmonized global

  9. THE CHALLENGE OF GLOBALIZATION FOR LARGE CHINESE FIRMS

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Nolan; Jin Zhang

    2002-01-01

    As China joins the World Trade Organization, the author questions whether China’s large firms will be able to compete on the global level playing field. Over the past two decades, Chinese large enterprises have undertaken extensive evolutionary change but, at the same time, the world’s leading firms have undergone a revolutionary transformation. Based on analysis of firms with the aerospace, oil and petrochemical industry, the authors conclude that China’s leading firms face critical challeng...

  10. Addressing the Challenges of Hepatitis C Virus Resistance and Treatment Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che C. Colpitts

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C is a major cause of chronic liver disease, including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The development of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs revolutionized hepatitis C virus (HCV treatment by offering genuine prospects for the first comprehensive cure of a chronic viral infection in humans. While antiviral resistance is a significant limitation for interferon-based therapies, resistance and treatment failure still appear to be present in a small fraction of patients even in state-of-the-art DAA combination therapies. Therefore, treatment failure and resistance still remain a clinical challenge for the management of patients not responding to DAAs. In this special issue of Viruses on HCV drug resistance, mechanisms of antiviral resistance for different classes of antiviral drugs are described. Furthermore, the detection and monitoring of resistance in clinical practice, the clinical impact of resistance in different patient groups and strategies to prevent and address resistance and treatment failure using complementary antiviral strategies are reviewed.

  11. Addressing the Challenges of Hepatitis C Virus Resistance and Treatment Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpitts, Che C; Baumert, Thomas F

    2016-08-16

    Chronic hepatitis C is a major cause of chronic liver disease, including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The development of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) revolutionized hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment by offering genuine prospects for the first comprehensive cure of a chronic viral infection in humans. While antiviral resistance is a significant limitation for interferon-based therapies, resistance and treatment failure still appear to be present in a small fraction of patients even in state-of-the-art DAA combination therapies. Therefore, treatment failure and resistance still remain a clinical challenge for the management of patients not responding to DAAs. In this special issue of Viruses on HCV drug resistance, mechanisms of antiviral resistance for different classes of antiviral drugs are described. Furthermore, the detection and monitoring of resistance in clinical practice, the clinical impact of resistance in different patient groups and strategies to prevent and address resistance and treatment failure using complementary antiviral strategies are reviewed.

  12. Experiences addressing health-related financial challenges with disease management among African American women with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal R; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Id-Deen, Effat; Clark, Noreen M

    2014-06-01

    Despite economic hardship, compliance with self-management regimens is still evident among individuals and families managing chronic disease. The purpose of this study was to describe how women with asthma address cost-related challenges to management of their condition. In 2012 and 2013, four focus groups were conducted in Southeast Michigan with 26 African American women with asthma, recruited based on maximum variation sampling procedures. A semi-structured interview protocol was employed by trained facilitators. Coded transcripts were analyzed for themes regarding means to reduce the impact of the cost of asthma management. Major themes identified were acceptance of the status quo; stockpiling and sharing medicines; utilizing community assistance programs; reaching out to healthcare providers and social networks for help; foregoing self-management; and utilizing urgent care. Awareness of strategies that are helpful to patients in reducing out-of-pocket costs may better equip service providers and others to develop interventions to make useful strategies more widely available.

  13. Customizing NASA's Earth Science Research Products for addressing MENA Water Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    As projected by IPCC 2007 report, by the end of this century the Middle East North Mrica (MENA) region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C rise in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation. This poses a serious problem for this geographic zone especially when majority of the hydrological consumption is for the agriculture sector and the remaining amount is for domestic consumption. In late 2011, the World Bank, USAID and NASA have joined hands to establishing integrated, modem, up to date NASA developed capabilities for various countries in the MENA region for addressing water resource issues and adapting to climate change impacts for improved decision making for societal benefits. The main focus of this undertaking is to address the most pressing societal issues which can be modeled and solved by utilizing NASA Earth Science remote sensing data products and hydrological models. The remote sensing data from space is one of the best ways to study such complex issues and further feed into the decision support systems. NASA's fleet of Earth Observing satellites offer a great vantage point from space to look at the globe and provide vital signs necessary to maintain healthy and sustainable ecosystem. NASA has over fifteen satellites and thirty instruments operating on these space borne platforms and generating over 2000 different science products on a daily basis. Some of these products are soil moisture, global precipitation, aerosols, cloud cover, normalized difference vegetation index, land cover/use, ocean altimetry, ocean salinity, sea surface winds, sea surface temperature, ozone and atmospheric gasses, ice and snow measurements, and many more. All of the data products, models and research results are distributed via the Internet freely through out the world. This project will utilize several NASA models such as global Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) to generate hydrological states and fluxes in near real time. These LDAS products

  14. Addressing Emerging Risks: Scientific and Regulatory Challenges Associated with Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy R. Dugas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM are often generated through widely-used thermal processes such as the combustion of fuels or the thermal decomposition of waste. Residents near Superfund sites are exposed to PM through the inhalation of windblown dust, ingestion of soil and sediments, and inhalation of emissions from the on-site thermal treatment of contaminated soils. Epidemiological evidence supports a link between exposure to airborne PM and an increased risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. It is well-known that during combustion processes, incomplete combustion can lead to the production of organic pollutants that can adsorb to the surface of PM. Recent studies have demonstrated that their interaction with metal centers can lead to the generation of a surface stabilized metal-radical complex capable of redox cycling to produce ROS. Moreover, these free radicals can persist in the environment, hence their designation as Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFR. EPFR has been demonstrated in both ambient air PM2.5 (diameter < 2.5 µm and in PM from a variety of combustion sources. Thus, low-temperature, thermal treatment of soils can potentially increase the concentration of EPFR in areas in and around Superfund sites. In this review, we will outline the evidence to date supporting EPFR formation and its environmental significance. Furthermore, we will address the lack of methodologies for specifically addressing its risk assessment and challenges associated with regulating this new, emerging contaminant.

  15. Coach strategies for addressing psychosocial challenges during the return to sport from injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlog, Leslie; Dionigi, Rylee

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine coach strategies for addressing athletes' psychosocial challenges in returning to sport following injury rehabilitation. Qualitative interviews with eight elite coaches from the Western Australian Institute of Sport (WAIS) in Perth, Australia revealed that coaches facilitated athletes' return to sport from injury through a variety of means, but did not typically provide systematic forms of assistance. Coaches commented that the idiosyncratic nature of the injury experience meant that they needed to apply strategies consistent with athletes' particular psychosocial needs. Such strategies included: (a) coordination of a "team approach" to rehabilitation; (b) fostering open communication with athletes and treatment team members; (c) social support; (d) positive thinking and goal setting; and (e) role models. Analysis of these strategies revealed that coaches attempted to address competence, autonomy, and relatedness needs in facilitating athletes' return from injury. These findings suggest that self-determination theory may be a valuable approach for examining coach forms of assistance regarding athletes' return to competition following injury. Findings are discussed in relation to injury literature and self-determination theory. Suggestions for future research are also presented.

  16. Addressing challenges for future strategic-level emergency management: reframing, networking, and capacity-building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosomworth, Karyn; Owen, Christine; Curnin, Steven

    2017-04-01

    The mounting frequency and intensity of natural hazards, alongside growing interdependencies between social-technical and ecological systems, are placing increased pressure on emergency management. This is particularly true at the strategic level of emergency management, which involves planning for and managing non-routine, high-consequence events. Drawing on the literature, a survey, and interviews and workshops with Australia's senior emergency managers, this paper presents an analysis of five core challenges that these pressures are creating for strategic-level emergency management. It argues that emphasising 'emergency management' as a primary adaptation strategy is a retrograde step that ignores the importance of addressing socio-political drivers of vulnerabilities. Three key suggestions are presented that could assist the country's strategic-level emergency management in tackling these challenges: (i) reframe emergency management as a component of disaster risk reduction rather than them being one and the same; (ii) adopt a network governance approach; and (iii) further develop the capacities of strategic-level emergency managers. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  17. Technological challenges of addressing new and more complex migrating products from novel food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Ian C; Haighton, Lois A; Lynch, Barry S; Tafazoli, Shahrzad

    2009-12-01

    The risk assessment of migration products resulting from packaging material has and continues to pose a difficult challenge. In most jurisdictions, there are regulatory requirements for the approval or notification of food contact substances that will be used in packaging. These processes generally require risk assessment to ensure safety concerns are addressed. The science of assessing food contact materials was instrumental in the development of the concept of Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern procedures. While the risk assessment process is in place, the technology of food packaging continues to evolve to include new initiatives, such as the inclusion of antimicrobial substances or enzyme systems to prevent spoilage, use of plastic packaging intended to remain on foods as they are being cooked, to the introduction of more rigid, stable and reusable materials, and active packaging to extend the shelf-life of food. Each new technology brings with it the potential for exposure to new and possibly novel substances as a result of migration, interaction with other chemical packaging components, or, in the case of plastics now used in direct cooking of products, degradation products formed during heating. Furthermore, the presence of trace levels of certain chemicals from packaging that were once accepted as being of low risk based on traditional toxicology studies are being challenged on the basis of reports of adverse effects, particularly with respect to endocrine disruption, alleged to occur at very low doses. A recent example is the case of bisphenol A. The way forward to assess new packaging technologies and reports of very low dose effects in non-standard studies of food contact substances is likely to remain controversial. However, the risk assessment paradigm is sufficiently robust and flexible to be adapted to meet these challenges. The use of the Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern concepts may

  18. Strategies for Addressing the Challenges of Patient-Centered Medical Home Implementation: Lessons from Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmon, Sherril; Bouranis, Nicole; Sandberg, Billie; Petchel, Shauna

    2018-01-01

    Patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) are at the forefront of the transformation of primary care as part of health systems reform. Despite robust literature describing implementation challenges, few studies describe strategies being used to overcome these challenges. This article addresses this gap through observations of exemplary PCMHs in Oregon, where the Oregon Health Authority supports and recognizes Patient-Centered Primary Care Homes (PCPCH). Twenty exemplary PCPCHs were selected using program scores, with considerations for diversity in clinic characteristics. Between 2015 and 2016, semistructured interviews and focus groups were completed with 85 key informants. Clinics reported similar challenges implementing the PCPCH model, including shifting patterns of care use, fidelity to the PCPCH model, and refining care processes. The following ten implementation strategies emerged: expanding access through care teams, preventing unnecessary emergency department visits through patient outreach, improved communication and referral tracking with outside providers, prioritization of selected program metrics, implementing patient-centered practices, developing continuous improvement capacity through committees and "champions," incorporating preventive services and chronic disease management, standardization of workflows, customizing electronic health records, and integration of mental health. Clinic leaders benefited from understanding the local context in which they were operating. Despite differences in size, ownership, geography, and population, all clinic leaders were observed to be proponents of strategies commonly associated with a "learning organization": systems thinking, personal mastery, mental models, shared vision, and team. Clinics can draw on their own characteristics, use state resources, and look to established PCMHs to build the evidence base for implementation in primary care. © Copyright 2018 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  19. Ethics in occupational health: deliberations of an international workgroup addressing challenges in an African context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Leslie; Tangwa, Godfrey; Matchaba-Hove, Reginald; Mkhize, Nhlanhla; Nwabueze, Remi; Nyika, Aceme; Westerholm, Peter

    2014-06-23

    International codes of ethics play an important role in guiding professional practice in developing countries. In the occupational health setting, codes developed by international agencies have substantial import on protecting working populations from harm. This is particularly so under globalisation which has transformed processes of production in fundamental ways across the globe. As part of the process of revising the Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health, an Africa Working Group addressed key challenges for the relevance and cogency of an ethical code in occupational health for an African context through an iterative consultative process. Firstly, even in the absence of strong legal systems of enforcement, and notwithstanding the value of legal institutionalisation of ethical codes, guidelines alone may offer advantageous routes to enhancing ethical practice in occupational health. Secondly, globalisation has particularly impacted on health and safety at workplaces in Africa, challenging occupational health professionals to be sensitive to, and actively redress imbalance of power. Thirdly, the different ways in which vulnerability is exemplified in the workplace in Africa often places the occupational health professional in invidious positions of Dual Loyalty. Fourth, the particular cultural emphasis in traditional African societies on collective responsibilities within the community impacts directly on how consent should be sought in occupational health practice, and how stigma should be dealt with, balancing individual autonomy with ideas of personhood that are more collective as in the African philosophy of ubuntu. To address stigma, practitioners need to be additionally sensitive to how power imbalances at the workplace intersect with traditional cultural norms related to solidarity. Lastly, particularly in the African context, the inseparability of workplace and community means that efforts to address workplace hazards demand

  20. Policy recommendations for addressing privacy challenges associated with cell-based research and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbogu, Ubaka; Burningham, Sarah; Ollenberger, Adam; Calder, Kathryn; Du, Li; El Emam, Khaled; Hyde-Lay, Robyn; Isasi, Rosario; Joly, Yann; Kerr, Ian; Malin, Bradley; McDonald, Michael; Penney, Steven; Piat, Gayle; Roy, Denis-Claude; Sugarman, Jeremy; Vercauteren, Suzanne; Verhenneman, Griet; West, Lori; Caulfield, Timothy

    2014-02-03

    The increased use of human biological material for cell-based research and clinical interventions poses risks to the privacy of patients and donors, including the possibility of re-identification of individuals from anonymized cell lines and associated genetic data. These risks will increase as technologies and databases used for re-identification become affordable and more sophisticated. Policies that require ongoing linkage of cell lines to donors' clinical information for research and regulatory purposes, and existing practices that limit research participants' ability to control what is done with their genetic data, amplify the privacy concerns. To date, the privacy issues associated with cell-based research and interventions have not received much attention in the academic and policymaking contexts. This paper, arising out of a multi-disciplinary workshop, aims to rectify this by outlining the issues, proposing novel governance strategies and policy recommendations, and identifying areas where further evidence is required to make sound policy decisions. The authors of this paper take the position that existing rules and norms can be reasonably extended to address privacy risks in this context without compromising emerging developments in the research environment, and that exceptions from such rules should be justified using a case-by-case approach. In developing new policies, the broader framework of regulations governing cell-based research and related areas must be taken into account, as well as the views of impacted groups, including scientists, research participants and the general public. This paper outlines deliberations at a policy development workshop focusing on privacy challenges associated with cell-based research and interventions. The paper provides an overview of these challenges, followed by a discussion of key themes and recommendations that emerged from discussions at the workshop. The paper concludes that privacy risks associated with cell

  1. Ethics in occupational health: deliberations of an international workgroup addressing challenges in an African context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background International codes of ethics play an important role in guiding professional practice in developing countries. In the occupational health setting, codes developed by international agencies have substantial import on protecting working populations from harm. This is particularly so under globalisation which has transformed processes of production in fundamental ways across the globe. As part of the process of revising the Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health, an Africa Working Group addressed key challenges for the relevance and cogency of an ethical code in occupational health for an African context through an iterative consultative process. Discussion Firstly, even in the absence of strong legal systems of enforcement, and notwithstanding the value of legal institutionalisation of ethical codes, guidelines alone may offer advantageous routes to enhancing ethical practice in occupational health. Secondly, globalisation has particularly impacted on health and safety at workplaces in Africa, challenging occupational health professionals to be sensitive to, and actively redress imbalance of power. Thirdly, the different ways in which vulnerability is exemplified in the workplace in Africa often places the occupational health professional in invidious positions of Dual Loyalty. Fourth, the particular cultural emphasis in traditional African societies on collective responsibilities within the community impacts directly on how consent should be sought in occupational health practice, and how stigma should be dealt with, balancing individual autonomy with ideas of personhood that are more collective as in the African philosophy of ubuntu. To address stigma, practitioners need to be additionally sensitive to how power imbalances at the workplace intersect with traditional cultural norms related to solidarity. Lastly, particularly in the African context, the inseparability of workplace and community means that efforts to address

  2. Globalization of international migration: Social challenges and policy implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I A Aleshkovski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the XX century, the humankind witnessed the insurmountable and irreversible power of globalization processes, which influence all spheres of social life and establish a global system of interdependency between countries and nations. Globalization within impetuous changes in global political, social and economic systems has determined dramatic shifts in the international migration processes that lead to the new stage of migration history. In nowadays globalized world, international migration has become a reality for almost all corners of the globe. The author considers features of the recent trends of international migration: the unprecedented growth of the international migration flows; the widening geography of international migration that involves nearly all countries of the world; qualitative changes in the structure of international migration flows; the key role of economic migration; the permanent growth and structural intricateness of irregular migration; the increasing scale and geographical widening of forced migration; the growing importance of international migration for the demographic development of the world, countries of both origin and destination. All these trends combined prove that the international migration patterns have become more complex. The author analyzes the legal framework of the international migration processes, and gives recommendations on the ways to improve the control and regulation of migration processes. Specific issues related to the social challenges of international migration are also discussed in the article.

  3. A systematic review of knowledge sharing challenges and practices in global software development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Shahin, Mojtaba; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    the data extracted from the reviewed primary studies. Results: Our findings revealed that knowledge sharing challenges and practices in GSD could be classi- fied in 6 main themes: management, team structure, work processes/practices, team cognition, social attributes and technology. In regard to contextual......Context: Global Software Development (GSD) presents significant challenges to share and understand knowledge required for developing software. Organizations are expected to implement appropriate practices to address knowledge-sharing challenges in GSD. With the growing literature on GSD and its...... and practices fall under the theme of “work practices”. (c) The technology related knowledge-sharing challenges are the least reported; we discussed the available technologies for sup- porting knowledge sharing needs in GSD. (d) The organizational contextual information is missing from a large number of studies...

  4. Eduction and outreach for the global energy challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snieder, R.

    2008-12-01

    Energy is the life-blood of the modern world. According to the Energy Information Administration, global energy consumption is expected to grow by about 70% in the coming 25 years. Much of this growth is driven by developing countries, whose inhabitants seek a standard of living that more closely resembles that of the western world. Petroleum provides about 40% of the world-wide energy demand, and, although estimates vary, oil production is expected to peak in the relatively near-future. The combination of increased energy demand and declining petroleum supply can be a threat to political stability and is likely to lead to a shift towards coal and non-conventional oil. This will further increase CO2 emissions and thus accelerate global warming and life-altering regional climate changes. Many actions can be taken now to begin to reduce energy demand, diversify our energy portfolio, and reduce costs of energy supplies, with lower greenhouse gas emissions. This will not happen, however, without a plan and the willingness to implement such a plan. Public engagement and education in dealing with the pressing challenges and opportunities are the key to getting started now. In order to foster such engagement I have prepared the presentation "The Global Energy Challenge." This Powerpoint presentation is freely available and aims to be appealing and understandable for a broad audience. The comment-boxes in the Powerpoint presentation give ideas for a narrative. The presentation sketches the tension between increased energy demand, peak oil, the associated challenge in curbing climate change, and actions that we can take towards a sustainable energy system. The presentation gives ideas for positive action that teachers, students, businessmen, consumers, and citizens can take, and it conveys that the challenges related to our energy supply come with career opportunities, a point that is especially appealing to a young audience. I invite to help making a difference by

  5. CAWR: Two institutions join forces in a cluster by addressing the grand challenges of water research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeckel, Greta; Braeckevelt, Mareike

    2017-04-01

    The Center for Advanced Water Research (CAWR) brings together the water competences of two German research institutions: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ and the Technische Universität Dresden (TUD). Highly qualified scientists are jointly tackling some of the key challenges in the water sector in an outstanding breadth of research topics and at the same time with a profound disciplinary expertise. Our mission is: "Save water for humans and environment", because water in a good quality and adequate quantity is a fundamental basis of life for humankind and the environment. In many global challenges, such as food or energy security, human health and ecosystems, flood defence and droughts or the provision of drinking water and sanitation systems, water is becoming a very critical element for a sustainable society in Germany, in Europe and worldwide. The CAWR focusses its work on the fields of research, education & training as well as transfer. The CAWR was established in 2013. Over 3 years the activities within the three pillars and the six thematic priority research fields ( 1) Understanding processes: water cycle and water quality, 2): Water quantity and scarcity in the regional context, 3): Urban Water Systems, 4): Methods of data collection and information processing, 5): Societal and climate change, 6): Water governance) were presented within: • the scientific community (newsletters, publication highlights, workshops with different new formats, conferences) • to national and international stakeholders from policy, industry and society (workshops, opinion papers) • public media (TV, radio stations, Newspapers, brochures, videoclips via youtube…) This PICO presentation by Greta Jäckel (scientific management of CAWR) should show which tools for the presentation of research results are useful and which influence they have on different target groups. A bunch of examples for effective and also less successful instruments to present important

  6. Global Energy Challenges of the 21. Century and Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagarinskiy, Andrey

    2008-01-01

    The paper considers the world energy demand till the middle of the century, as well as possible forecasting solution for this challenge. On the base of the mathematical model developed in the Kurchatov Institute in 2003- 2006, the vision of the global nuclear energy system and its potential contribution in the energy mix was analyzed. The rate of rapprochement between specific energy consumptions in different countries of the world is a key parameter determining the energy market strain. It was shown that a continuation of the current world trends of this rapprochement would result in an energy resource deficit already in the nearest future. The energy mix picture would contain an 'unsatisfied demand' area of about 10 000 Mtoe of total energy to be consumed by the mid-century Supposing that the mankind has to meet the 'unsatisfied demand' by nuclear energy, the global energy challenges of the 21. century energy do not impose any upper limit on nuclear energy development, the scale of which would be determined by development opportunities. Russia, as one of the pioneers of the First Nuclear Era, possesses great experience of solving the key issues of nuclear energy of the 20. century, and is capable to play an important role in dealing with the challenges faced by nuclear in the 21. century. (authors)

  7. Good practices and challenges in addressing poliomyelitis and measles in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, John; Stöven, Svenja; Elgh, Fredrik; Murillo, Pilar; Sulzner, Michael

    2018-04-06

    All European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) Member States have pledged to ensure political commitment towards sustaining the region's poliomyelitis-free status and eliminating measles. However, there remain significant gaps between policy and practice in many countries. This article reports on an assessment conducted for the European Commission that aimed to support improvements in preparedness and response to poliomyelitis and measles in Europe. A documentary review was complemented by qualitative interviews with professionals working in International and EU agencies, and in at-risk or recently affected EU/EEA Member States (six each for poliomyelitis and measles). Twenty-six interviews were conducted on poliomyelitis and 24 on measles; the data were subjected to thematic analysis. Preliminary findings were then discussed at a Consensus Workshop with 22 of the interviewees and eight other experts. Generic or disease-specific plans exist in the participating countries and cross-border communications during outbreaks were generally reported as satisfactory. However, surveillance systems are of uneven quality, and clinical expertise for the two diseases is limited by a lack of experience. Serious breaches of protocol have recently been reported from companies producing poliomyelitis vaccines, and vaccine coverage rates for both diseases were also sub-optimal. A set of suggested good practices to address these and other challenges is presented. Poliomyelitis and measles should be brought fully onto the policy agendas of all EU/EEA Member States, and adequate resources provided to address them. Each country must abide by the relevant commitments that they have already made.

  8. Assessing the impact of defining a global priority research agenda to address HIV-associated tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odone, Anna; Matteelli, Alberto; Chiesa, Valentina; Cella, Paola; Ferrari, Antonio; Pezzetti, Federica; Signorelli, Carlo; Getahun, Haileyesus

    2016-11-01

    In 2010, the WHO issued 77 priority research questions (PRQs) to address HIV-associated TB. Objective of the this study was to assess the impact of defining the research agenda in stimulating and directing research around priority research questions. We used number and type of scientific publications as a proxy to quantitatively assess the impact of research agenda setting. We conducted 77 single systematic reviews - one for every PRQ - building 77 different search strategies using PRQs' keywords. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to assess the quantity and quality of research produced over time and accounting for selected covariates. In 2009-2015, PRQs were addressed by 1631 publications (median: 11 studies published per PRQ, range 1-96). The most published area was 'Intensified TB case finding' (median: 23 studies/PRQ, range: 2-74). The majority (62.1%, n = 1013) were published as original studies, and more than half (58%, n = 585) were conducted in the African region. Original studies' publication increased over the study period (P trend = <0.001). They focused more on the 'Intensified TB case finding' (OR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.56-2.93) and 'Drug-resistant TB and HIV infection' (OR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.47-3.06) areas than non-original studies. Original studies were published in journals of lower impact factor and received a smaller number of citations than non-original studies (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.42-0.69). The generation of evidence to address PRQs has increased over time particularly in selected fields. Setting a priority research agenda for HIV-associated TB might have positively influenced the direction and the conduct of research and contributed to the global response to such a major threat to health. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Planetary Atmosphere and Surfaces Chamber (PASC: A Platform to Address Various Challenges in Astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mateo-Marti

    2014-08-01

    . Furthermore, the stability and presence of certain minerals on planetary surfaces and the potential habitability of microorganisms under various planetary environmental conditions can be studied using our apparatus. Therefore, these simulation chambers can address multiple different challenging and multidisciplinary astrobiological studies.

  10. Addressing the Challenges in Tonsillectomy Research to Inform Health Care Policy: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandavia, Rishi; Schilder, Anne G M; Dimitriadis, Panagiotis A; Mossialos, Elias

    2017-09-01

    Eighty-five percent of investment in medical research has been wasted, with lack of effect on clinical practice and policy. There is increasing effort to improve the likelihood of research being used to influence clinical practice and policy. Tonsillectomy is one of the most common otorhinolaryngologic surgical procedures, and its frequency, cost, and morbidity create a clear need for evidence-based guidelines and policy. The first systematic review on tonsillectomy was conducted 40 years ago and highlighted the lack of definitive evidence for the procedure. Since that study, the body of evidence has still not been able to sufficiently inform policy. This review provides an overview of the key challenges in research to inform tonsillectomy policy and recommendations to help bridge the evidence-policy gap. The challenges in using research to inform policy can be summarized as 4 main themes: (1) non-policy-focused evidence and lack of available evidence, (2) quality of evidence, (3) communication of research findings, and (4) coordinating time frames. Researchers and decision makers should be aware of the limitations of research designs and conflicts of interest that can undermine policy decisions. Researchers must work with decision makers and patients throughout the research process to identify areas of unmet need and political priority, align research and policy time frames, and disseminate research findings. Incentives for researchers should be reorganized to promote dissemination of findings. It is important to consider why evidence gaps in tonsillectomy research have not been addressed during the past 40 years despite considerable investment in time and resources. These findings and recommendations will help produce research that is more responsive to policy gaps and more likely to result in policy changes.

  11. Radiotherapy in Cancer Care: Facing the Global Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Zubizarreta, Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    Cancer treatment is complex and calls for a diverse set of services. Radiotherapy is recognized as an essential tool in the cure and palliation of cancer. Currently, access to radiation treatment is limited in many countries and non-existent in some. This lack of radiotherapy resources exacerbates the burden of disease and underscores the continuing health care disparity among States. Closing this gap represents an essential measure in addressing this global health equity problem. This publication presents a comprehensive overview of the major topics and issues to be taken into consideration when planning a strategy to address this problem, in particular in low and middle income countries. With contributions from leaders in the field, it provides an introduction to the achievements and issues of radiation therapy as a cancer treatment modality around the world. Dedicated chapters focus on proton therapy, carbon ion radiotherapy, intraoperative radiotherapy, radiotherapy for children, HIV/AIDS related malignancies, and costing and quality management issues.

  12. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Core Spacecraft Systems Engineering Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundas, David J.; ONeill, Deborah; Field, Thomas; Meadows, Gary; Patterson, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), and other US and international partners, with the goal of monitoring the diurnal and seasonal variations in precipitation over the surface of the earth. These measurements will be used to improve current climate models and weather forecasting, and enable improved storm and flood warnings. This paper gives an overview of the mission architecture and addresses the status of some key trade studies, including the geolocation budgeting, design considerations for spacecraft charging, and design issues related to the mitigation of orbital debris.

  13. Operationalizing the One Health approach: the global governance challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Brumme, Zabrina L

    2013-10-01

    While there has been wide-ranging commitment to the One Health approach, its operationalisation has so far proven challenging. One Health calls upon the human, animal and environmental health sectors to cross professional, disciplinary and institutional boundaries, and to work in a more integrated fashion. At the global level, this paper argues that this vision is hindered by dysfunctions characterising current forms of global health governance (GHG), namely institutional proliferation, fragmentation, competition for scarce resources, lack of an overarching authority, and donor-driven vertical programmes. This has contributed, in part, to shortcomings in how One Health has been articulated to date. An agreed operational definition of One Health among key global institutions, efforts to build One Health institutions from the ground up, comparative case studies of what works or does not work institutionally, and high-level global support for research, training and career opportunities would all help to enable One Health to help remedy, and not be subsumed by, existing dysfunctions in GHG.

  14. The status and challenge of global fire modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantson, Stijn; Arneth, Almut; Harrison, Sandy P.; Kelley, Douglas I.; Prentice, I. Colin; Rabin, Sam S.; Archibald, Sally; Mouillot, Florent; Arnold, Steve R.; Artaxo, Paulo; Bachelet, Dominique; Ciais, Philippe; Forrest, Matthew; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Hickler, Thomas; Kaplan, Jed O.; Kloster, Silvia; Knorr, Wolfgang; Lasslop, Gitta; Li, Fang; Mangeon, Stephane; Melton, Joe R.; Meyn, Andrea; Sitch, Stephen; Spessa, Allan; van der Werf, Guido R.; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Yue, Chao

    2016-06-01

    Biomass burning impacts vegetation dynamics, biogeochemical cycling, atmospheric chemistry, and climate, with sometimes deleterious socio-economic impacts. Under future climate projections it is often expected that the risk of wildfires will increase. Our ability to predict the magnitude and geographic pattern of future fire impacts rests on our ability to model fire regimes, using either well-founded empirical relationships or process-based models with good predictive skill. While a large variety of models exist today, it is still unclear which type of model or degree of complexity is required to model fire adequately at regional to global scales. This is the central question underpinning the creation of the Fire Model Intercomparison Project (FireMIP), an international initiative to compare and evaluate existing global fire models against benchmark data sets for present-day and historical conditions. In this paper we review how fires have been represented in fire-enabled dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) and give an overview of the current state of the art in fire-regime modelling. We indicate which challenges still remain in global fire modelling and stress the need for a comprehensive model evaluation and outline what lessons may be learned from FireMIP.

  15. Mentoring health researchers globally: Diverse experiences, programmes, challenges and responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Donald C; Johnson, Nancy; Mejia, Raul; McCullough, Hazel; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Barnoya, Joaquin; Falabella Luco, María Soledad

    2016-10-01

    Mentoring experiences and programmes are becoming increasingly recognised as important by those engaged in capacity strengthening in global health research. Using a primarily qualitative study design, we studied three experiences of mentorship and eight mentorship programmes for early career global health researchers based in high-income and low- and middle-income countries. For the latter, we drew upon programme materials, existing unpublished data and more formal mixed-method evaluations, supplemented by individual email questionnaire responses. Research team members wrote stories, and the team assembled and analysed them for key themes. Across the diverse experiences and programmes, key emergent themes included: great mentors inspire others in an inter-generational cascade, mentorship is transformative in personal and professional development and involves reciprocity, and finding the right balance in mentoring relationships and programmes includes responding creatively to failure. Among the challenges encountered were: struggling for more level playing fields for new health researchers globally, changing mindsets in institutions that do not have a culture of mentorship and building collaboration not competition. Mentoring networks spanning institutions and countries using multiple virtual and face-to-face methods are a potential avenue for fostering organisational cultures supporting quality mentorship in global health research.

  16. Securing classification and regulatory approval for deepwater projects: management challenges in a global environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feijo, Luiz P.; Burton, Gareth C. [American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As the offshore industry continues to develop and move into increasingly deeper waters, technological boundaries are being pushed to new limits. Along with these advances, the design, fabrication and installation of deepwater oil and gas projects has become an increasingly global endeavor. After providing an overview of the history and role of Classification Societies, this paper reviews the challenges of securing classification and regulatory approval in a global environment. Operational, procedural and technological changes which one Classification Society; the American Bureau of Shipping, known as ABS, has implemented to address these challenges are presented. The result of the changes has been a more customized service aiming at faster and more streamlined classification approval process. (author)

  17. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Toni A.

    2014-01-01

    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed

  18. The Evolution of Chemical High-Throughput Experimentation To Address Challenging Problems in Pharmaceutical Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krska, Shane W; DiRocco, Daniel A; Dreher, Spencer D; Shevlin, Michael

    2017-12-19

    The structural complexity of pharmaceuticals presents a significant challenge to modern catalysis. Many published methods that work well on simple substrates often fail when attempts are made to apply them to complex drug intermediates. The use of high-throughput experimentation (HTE) techniques offers a means to overcome this fundamental challenge by facilitating the rational exploration of large arrays of catalysts and reaction conditions in a time- and material-efficient manner. Initial forays into the use of HTE in our laboratories for solving chemistry problems centered around screening of chiral precious-metal catalysts for homogeneous asymmetric hydrogenation. The success of these early efforts in developing efficient catalytic steps for late-stage development programs motivated the desire to increase the scope of this approach to encompass other high-value catalytic chemistries. Doing so, however, required significant advances in reactor and workflow design and automation to enable the effective assembly and agitation of arrays of heterogeneous reaction mixtures and retention of volatile solvents under a wide range of temperatures. Associated innovations in high-throughput analytical chemistry techniques greatly increased the efficiency and reliability of these methods. These evolved HTE techniques have been utilized extensively to develop highly innovative catalysis solutions to the most challenging problems in large-scale pharmaceutical synthesis. Starting with Pd- and Cu-catalyzed cross-coupling chemistry, subsequent efforts expanded to other valuable modern synthetic transformations such as chiral phase-transfer catalysis, photoredox catalysis, and C-H functionalization. As our experience and confidence in HTE techniques matured, we envisioned their application beyond problems in process chemistry to address the needs of medicinal chemists. Here the problem of reaction generality is felt most acutely, and HTE approaches should prove broadly enabling

  19. Climate change and forest diseases: using todays knowledge to address future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturrock, R. N.

    2012-11-01

    The health of the earths forests and urban green spaces is increasingly challenged by the outcomes of human activities, including global climate change. As climate changes, the role and impact of diseases on trees in both forest ecosystems and in urban settings will also change. Knowledge of relationships between climate variables and diseases affecting forest and urban trees is reviewed, with specific emphasis on those affecting foliage, shoots, and stems. Evidence that forest diseases are already responding to the earths changing climate is examined (e.g., Dothistroma needle blight in northern British Columbia) as are predicted scenarios for future changes in impact on forests by other tree diseases. Outbreaks of tree diseases caused by native and alien pathogens are predicted to become more frequent and intense this and other general predictions about the effects of climate change on forest and tree diseases are discussed. Despite the uncertainty that accompanies such predictions it is imperative that researchers, forest and urban tree managers, and policy makers work together to develop and implement management strategies that enhance the resilience of the worlds forests and urbanized trees. Strategies discussed include monitoring, forecasting, planning, and mitigation. (Author) 60 refs.

  20. DYNAMICS AND NEW CHALLENGES IN THE GLOBAL COMMODITY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA CARTAS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Global economy and particularly the world production of goods depends to a large extent on the supply of raw materials, of resource inputs extracted from the environment as well as an easy access to them. Commodities play an important part in the growth of global production and in the world trade in goods and services. The access to raw materials is vital for sustaining the productive capacity of the economy and also for satisfying domestic demand for industrial goods. On the other side, increasing demand for commodities and the need for assuring a sustainable supply pose great challenges on the world economy. The issue of raw materials supply represents a high - priority theme in the political agenda of the European Union. The Raw Materials Initiative launched in 2008 by the European Commission is based on three main pillars: - to ensure the access to raw materials on world market at undistorted conditions; - to foster sustainable supply of raw materials from European sources; - to reduce the EU's consumption of primary raw materials. (EC, 2008. To this end, EC has started to take action in order to ensure access to resources and avoid supply shortages. A great deal of attention is being paid to the study of recent developments in the global and particular commodity markets, taking into consideration fundamental aspects as supply concentration, governance of producing countries, the pressure of demand and its impact on prices, material's substitutability, stressing the role of resource consumption efficiency, recycling and substitution of vital raw materials and thus providing policy makers and industry with reliable information on how to efficiently manage resource inputs. This paper is dealing with the main developments which occurred during the past decade or so in the global commodity market, a major driver of the world economy, with particular reference to selected key -markets - as: aluminium, copper, nickel; cotton; corn, meat - swine

  1. Nuclear technologies to address the challenges in plant-water systems and adaptation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, P.S.

    2016-01-01

    In India, over the last decade or so, the stagnation in yield and recent declining trend of the most popular varieties of wheat and rice suggest that the farmers' limited fields with the current soil fertility and agronomic practices has reached the limits of food production sustainability. While water is an important input resource in agriculture, a reliable assessment of its aggregate situation and its protection from depletion and degradation has not received its due respect in the management of agriculture. For enhancement in food production, besides the HYVs and agronomic practices, proper management of the limited groundwater resource, and the water demand under the scarce water availability conditions, enhancing water use efficiency and reducing post-harvest losses is important. Nuclear techniques can provide detailed insight into many long-term process governing Plant-Water Systems, and could be helpful to address the challenges in agriculture. Extensive studies on groundwater assessment and water use efficiency using radioactive "3H, "1"4C, "2"3"4U, "2"3"8U) and stable (2"H, "1"3C, "1"8O) isotopes, have been undertaken for over three decades in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh of the Gangetic Plains, in Sabarmati River Basin, Gujarat and in arid Rajasthan. Some examples have been discussed, along with HYV development and post harvest preservation using gamma irradiation

  2. Upscaling the Use of Fallout Radionuclides in Soil Erosion and Sediment Budget Investigations: Addressing the Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.E. Walling

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of fallout radionuclides in soil erosion investigations and related sediment budget studies has provided a widely used tool for improving understanding of soil erosion and sediment transfer processes. However, most studies using fallout radionuclides undertaken to date have focussed on small areas. This focus on small areas reflects both the issues addressed and practical constraints associated with sample collection and analysis. Increasing acceptance of the important role of fine sediment in degrading aquatic habitats and in the transfer and fate of nutrients and contaminants within terrestrial and fluvial systems has emphasised the need to consider larger areas and the catchment or regional scale. The need to upscale existing approaches to the use of fallout radionuclides to larger areas represents an important challenge. This contribution provides a brief review of existing and potential approaches to upscaling the use of fallout radionuclides and presents two examples where such approaches have been successfully applied. These involve a national scale assessment of soil erosion rates in England and Wales based on 137Cs measurements and an investigation of the sediment budgets of three small/intermediate-size catchments in southern Italy.

  3. Experiences addressing health-related financial challenges with disease management among African American women with asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal R.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Id-Deen, Effat; Clark, Noreen M.

    2018-01-01

    Objective Despite economic hardship, compliance with self-management regimens is still evident among individuals and families managing chronic disease. The purpose of this study was to describe how women with asthma address cost-related challenges to management of their condition. Methods In 2012 and 2013, four focus groups were conducted in Southeast Michigan with 26 African American women with asthma, recruited based on maximum variation sampling procedures. A semi-structured interview protocol was employed by trained facilitators. Coded transcripts were analyzed for themes regarding means to reduce the impact of the cost of asthma management. Results Major themes identified were acceptance of the status quo; stockpiling and sharing medicines; utilizing community assistance programs; reaching out to healthcare providers and social networks for help; foregoing self-management; and utilizing urgent care. Conclusions Awareness of strategies that are helpful to patients in reducing out-of-pocket costs may better equip service providers and others to develop interventions to make useful strategies more widely available. PMID:24471517

  4. Managing flood risks in the Mekong Delta: How to address emerging challenges under climate change and socioeconomic developments

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, L.P.; Biesbroek, R.; Tri, V.P.D.; Kummu, M.; van Vliet, M.T.H.; Leemans, R.; Kabat, P.; Ludwig, F.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change and accelerating socioeconomic developments increasingly challenge flood-risk management in the Vietnamese Mekong River Delta—a typical large, economically dynamic and highly vulnerable delta. This study identifies and addresses the emerging challenges for flood-risk management. Furthermore, we identify and analyse response solutions, focusing on meaningful configurations of the individual solutions and how they can be tailored to specific challenges using expert surveys, conte...

  5. Enabling a new Paradigm to Address Big Data and Open Science Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, Mohan; Fisher, Ward

    2017-04-01

    Data are not only the lifeblood of the geosciences but they have become the currency of the modern world in science and society. Rapid advances in computing, communi¬cations, and observational technologies — along with concomitant advances in high-resolution modeling, ensemble and coupled-systems predictions of the Earth system — are revolutionizing nearly every aspect of our field. Modern data volumes from high-resolution ensemble prediction/projection/simulation systems and next-generation remote-sensing systems like hyper-spectral satellite sensors and phased-array radars are staggering. For example, CMIP efforts alone will generate many petabytes of climate projection data for use in assessments of climate change. And NOAA's National Climatic Data Center projects that it will archive over 350 petabytes by 2030. For researchers and educators, this deluge and the increasing complexity of data brings challenges along with the opportunities for discovery and scientific breakthroughs. The potential for big data to transform the geosciences is enormous, but realizing the next frontier depends on effectively managing, analyzing, and exploiting these heterogeneous data sources, extracting knowledge and useful information from heterogeneous data sources in ways that were previously impossible, to enable discoveries and gain new insights. At the same time, there is a growing focus on the area of "Reproducibility or Replicability in Science" that has implications for Open Science. The advent of cloud computing has opened new avenues for not only addressing both big data and Open Science challenges to accelerate scientific discoveries. However, to successfully leverage the enormous potential of cloud technologies, it will require the data providers and the scientific communities to develop new paradigms to enable next-generation workflows and transform the conduct of science. Making data readily available is a necessary but not a sufficient condition. Data providers

  6. Polycentrism in Global Health Governance Scholarship Comment on "Four Challenges That Global Health Networks Face".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Jale

    2017-05-23

    Drawing on an in-depth analysis of eight global health networks, a recent essay in this journal argued that global health networks face four challenges to their effectiveness: problem definition, positioning, coalition-building, and governance. While sharing the argument of the essay concerned, in this commentary, we argue that these analytical concepts can be used to explicate a concept that has implicitly been used in global health governance scholarship for quite a few years. While already prominent in the discussion of climate change governance, for instance, global health governance scholarship could make progress by looking at global health governance as being polycentric. Concisely, polycentric forms of governance mix scales, mechanisms, and actors. Drawing on the essay, we propose a polycentric approach to the study of global health governance that incorporates coalitionbuilding tactics, internal governance and global political priority as explanatory factors. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  7. Coping with global environmental change, disasters and security. Threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauch, Hans Guenter [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Political and Social Sciences; UNU-EHS, Bonn (DE). College of Associated Scientists and Advisors (CASA); Oswald Spring, Ursula [National Univ. of Mexico, Cuernavaca (MX). Regional Multidisciplinary Research Centre (CRIM); Mesjasz, Czeslaw [Cracow Univ. of Exonomics (Poland). Faculty of Management; Grin, John [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Political Science; Dutch Knowledge network for Systems Innovations and Transitions (KSI), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kameri-Mbote, Patricia [Strathmore Univ., Nairobi (Kenya). Dept. of Law; International Environmental Law Research Centre, Nairobi (Kenya); Chourou, Bechir [Univ. of Tunis-Carthage, Hammam-Chatt (Tunisia); Dunay, Pal [Geneva Centre for Security Policy (Switzerland). International Training Course in Security Policy; Birkmann, Joern (eds.) [United Nations Univ. (UNU), Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (EHS)

    2011-07-01

    This policy-focused Global Environmental and Human Security Handbook for the Anthropo-cene (GEHSHA) addresses new security threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks posed by global environmental change and disasters. In 6 forewords, 5 preface essays 95 peer reviewed chapcountries analyse in 10 parts concepts of military and political hard security and economic, social, environmental soft security with a regional focus on the Near East, North and Sub-Sahara Africa and Asia and on hazards in urban centres. The major focus is on coping with global environmental change: climate change, desertification, water, food and health and with hazards and strategies on social vulnerability and resilience building and scientific, international, regional and national political strategies, policies and measures including early warning of conflicts and hazards. The book proposes a political geo-ecology and discusses a 'Fourth Green Revolution' for the Anthropocene era of earth history. (orig.)

  8. Constraints and challenges in access to insulin: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, David; Ewen, Margaret; Laing, Richard

    2016-03-01

    Substantial attention has been given to the issue of access to medicines for communicable diseases; however, access to essential medicines for diabetes, especially insulin, has had insufficient focus. Although insulin was discovered in 1921, the drug is unattainable to many globally, and this Review aims to highlight the range and complexity of factors that contribute to this unattainability. Manufacturers' selling prices of various insulin formulations and presentations, duties, taxes, mark-ups, and other supply chain costs affect the price of insulin and hence the drug's affordability to health systems and individuals. Unlike drugs for HIV and AIDS, the production of generic or biosimilar insulin has not had an effect on the overall market. Other factors contributing to poor availability of insulin include its quantification at the national level, in-country distribution, and determination of needs at lower levels of the health system. Although insulin is essential for the survival of people with type 1 diabetes and is needed for improved management of diabetes for some people with type 2 diabetes, very little has been done globally to address the issue of access, despite the UN's political commitment to address non-communicable diseases and ensure universal access to drugs for these disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiple-level stakeholder engagement in malaria clinical trials: addressing the challenges of conducting clinical research in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtove, George; Kimani, Joshua; Kisinza, William; Makenga, Geofrey; Mangesho, Peter; Duparc, Stephan; Nakalembe, Miriam; Phiri, Kamija S; Orrico, Russell; Rojo, Ricardo; Vandenbroucke, Pol

    2018-03-22

    Multinational clinical trials are logistically complex and require close coordination between various stakeholders. They must comply with global clinical standards and are accountable to multiple regulatory and ethical bodies. In resource-limited settings, it is challenging to understand how to apply global clinical standards to international, national, and local factors in clinical trials, making multiple-level stakeholder engagement an important element in the successful conduct of these clinical trials. During the planning and implementation of a large multinational clinical trial for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in resource-limited areas of sub-Saharan Africa, we encountered numerous challenges, which required implementation of a range of engagement measures to ensure compliance with global clinical and regulatory standards. These challenges included coordination with ongoing global malaria efforts, heterogeneity in national regulatory structures, sub-optimal healthcare infrastructure, local practices and beliefs, and perspectives that view healthcare providers with undue trust or suspicion. In addition to engagement with international bodies, such as the World Health Organization, the Malaria in Pregnancy Consortium, the Steve Biko Centre for Bioethics, and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, in order to address the challenges just described, Pfizer Inc. and Medicines for Malaria Venture (the "Sponsoring Entities" for these studies) and investigators liaised with national- and district-level stakeholders such as health ministers and regional/local community health workers. Community engagement measures undertaken by investigators included local meetings with community leaders to explain the research aims and answer questions and concerns voiced by the community. The investigators also engaged with family members of prospective trial participants in order to be sensitive to local practices and beliefs. Engagement

  10. Cosmetic Surgery: Regulatory Challenges in a Global Beauty Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Danielle; Mullock, Alex

    2017-02-28

    The market for cosmetic surgery tourism is growing with an increase in people travelling abroad for cosmetic surgery. While the reasons for seeking cosmetic surgery abroad may vary the most common reason is financial, but does cheaper surgery abroad carry greater risks? We explore the risks of poorly regulated cosmetic surgery to society generally before discussing how harm might be magnified in the context of cosmetic tourism, where the demand for cheaper surgery drives the market and makes surgery accessible for increasing numbers of people. This contributes to the normalisation of surgical enhancement, creating unhealthy cultural pressure to undergo invasive and risky procedures in the name of beauty. In addressing the harms of poorly regulated surgery, a number of organisations purport to provide a register of safe and ethical plastic surgeons, yet this arguably achieves little and in the absence of improved regulation the risks are likely to grow as the global market expands to meet demand. While the evidence suggests that global regulation is needed, the paper concludes that since a global regulatory response is unlikely, more robust domestic regulation may be the best approach. While domestic regulation may increase the drive towards foreign providers it may also have a symbolic effect which will reduce this drive by making people more aware of the dangers of surgery, both to society and individual physical wellbeing.

  11. The global nutrient challenge. From science to public engagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M.A.; Howard, C.M. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Bleeker, A. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands); Datta, A. [United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2013-04-15

    Among the many environment and development challenges facing humanity, it is fair to say that nutrients do not currently feature so regularly in the newspapers, radio and television. The media tends to prefer easy single issues which affect our daily lives in a clear-cut way. The role of carbon in climate change is a good example. We all depend on climate. Burning fossil fuels makes more carbon dioxide, tending to change temperature and rainfall patterns, to which we can easily relate. The science is complex, but it is a simple message for the public to understand. It does not take long to think of several other easily grasped threats, like urban air pollution, poor drinking water, or even the occurrence of horsemeat in food chains. It is perhaps for these reasons that the role of nutrients in environmental change has received much less public attention. After all, nutrients - including nitrogen, phosphorus and many micronutrients - play multiple roles in our world; they affect many biogeochemical processes and they lead to a plethora of interacting threats. If we are not careful, we can quickly get buried in the complexity of the different ways in which our lives are affected by these elements. The outcome is that it can become hard to convey the science of global nutrient cycles in a way that the public can understand. These are points about which we have given substantial thought as we contributed to a recently launched report Our Nutrient World: The challenge to produce more food and energy with less pollution (Sutton et al., 2013). The report was commissioned by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and conducted by the Global Partnership on Nutrient Management in cooperation with the International Nitrogen Initiative. The commission was not to provide a full scientific assessment, but rather to develop a global overview of the challenges associated with nutrient management. Drawing on existing knowledge, the aim was to distill the nature of the

  12. Addressing challenges in bar-code scanning of large-volume infusion bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Kirthana; Heelon, Mark; Kerr, Gary; Higgins, Thomas L

    2011-08-01

    A hospital pharmacy's efforts to identify and address challenges with bedside scanning of bar codes on large-volume parenteral (LVP) infusion bags are described. Bar-code-assisted medication administration (BCMA) has been shown to reduce medication errors and improve patient safety. After the pilot implementation of a BCMA system and point-of-care scanning procedures at a medical center's intensive care unit, it was noted that nurses' attempted bedside scans of certain LVP bags for product identification purposes often were not successful. An investigation and root-cause analysis, including observation of nurses' scanning technique by a multidisciplinary team, determined that the scanning failures stemmed from the placement of two bar-code imprints-one with the product identification code and another, larger imprint with the expiration date and lot number-adjacently on the LVP bags. The nursing staff was educated on a modified scanning technique, which resulted in significantly improved success rates in the scanning of the most commonly used LVP bags. Representatives of the LVP bag manufacturer met with hospital staff to discuss the problem and corrective measures. As part of a subsequent infusion bag redesign, the manufacturer discontinued the use of the bar-code imprint implicated in the scanning failures. Failures in scanning LVP bags were traced to problematic placement of bar-code imprints on the bags. Interdisciplinary collaboration, consultation with the bag manufacturer, and education of the nursing and pharmacy staff resulted in a reduction in scanning failures and the manufacturer's removal of one of the bar codes from its LVP bags.

  13. Academic Research Library as Broker in Addressing Interoperability Challenges for the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P., II

    2015-12-01

    Data capture is an important process in the research lifecycle. Complete descriptive and representative information of the data or database is necessary during data collection whether in the field or in the research lab. The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Public Access Plan (2015) mandates the need for federally funded projects to make their research data more openly available. Developing, implementing, and integrating metadata workflows into to the research process of the data lifecycle facilitates improved data access while also addressing interoperability challenges for the geosciences such as data description and representation. Lack of metadata or data curation can contribute to (1) semantic, (2) ontology, and (3) data integration issues within and across disciplinary domains and projects. Some researchers of EarthCube funded projects have identified these issues as gaps. These gaps can contribute to interoperability data access, discovery, and integration issues between domain-specific and general data repositories. Academic Research Libraries have expertise in providing long-term discovery and access through the use of metadata standards and provision of access to research data, datasets, and publications via institutional repositories. Metadata crosswalks, open archival information systems (OAIS), trusted-repositories, data seal of approval, persistent URL, linking data, objects, resources, and publications in institutional repositories and digital content management systems are common components in the library discipline. These components contribute to a library perspective on data access and discovery that can benefit the geosciences. The USGS Community for Data Integration (CDI) has developed the Science Support Framework (SSF) for data management and integration within its community of practice for contribution to improved understanding of the Earth's physical and biological systems. The USGS CDI SSF can be used as a reference model to map to Earth

  14. Addressing current and future challenges for the NHS: the role of good leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton, Lotte

    2016-10-03

    Purpose This paper aims to describe and analyse some of the ways in which good leadership can enable those working within the National Health Service (NHS) to weather the changes and difficulties likely to arise in the coming years, and takes the format of an essay written by the prize-winner of the Faculty of Medical Leadership and Management's Student Prize. The Faculty of Medical Leadership and Management ran its inaugural Student Prize in 2015-2016, which aimed at medical students with an interest in medical leadership. In running the Prize, the Faculty hoped to foster an enthusiasm for and understanding of the importance of leadership in medicine. Design/methodology/approach The Faculty asked entrants to discuss the role of good leadership in addressing the current and future challenges faced by the NHS, making reference to the Leadership and Management Standards for Medical Professionals published by the Faculty in 2015. These standards were intended to help guide current and future leaders and were grouped into three categories, namely, self, team and corporate responsibility. Findings This paper highlights the political nature of health care in the UK and the increasing impetus on medical professionals to navigate debates on austerity measures and health-care costs, particularly given the projected deficit in NHS funding. It stresses the importance of building organisational cultures prizing transparency to prevent future breaches in standards of care and the value of patient-centred approaches in improving satisfaction for both patients and staff. Identification of opportunities for collaboration and partnership is emphasised as crucial to assuage the burden that lack of appropriate social care places on clinical services. Originality/value This paper offers a novel perspective - that of a medical student - on the complex issues faced by the NHS over the coming years and utilises a well-regarded set of standards in conceptualising the role that health

  15. Localizing the Global and Globalizing the Local: Opportunities and Challenges in Bali Island Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Darma Putra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In September and October 2013, only one week apart,Bali hosted two global events in the upper class markettourism resort Nusa Dua. The first event was the MissWorld beauty pageant, and the other one was the APECSummit. Thousands of journalists from all over the worldcovered these events. From a tourism marketing point ofview, these two prestigious events helped Bali boost itspopularity through global mass media. Historically, sincethe early phase of its development, Bali’s tourism industryhas received many benefits from global forces initiallychanneled out through the Dutch colonial power in the firstdecade of the twentieth century and later through nationaland multinational corporations. The recent enlisting byUNESCO of Bali’s cultural landscape as a world heritagesite (2012 provides yet another great example of how Balicontinues to receive global endorsement by world institutions as a unique tourism destination. This paper discusesopportunities and challenges caused by globalizationand localization phenomena in the management of Bali’stourism island destination. Bali’s experiences provide aninteresting example of how global and local stakeholdersdevelop the island tourism in a sustainable manner whileat the same time continuing to preserve its local arts andculture as one of its main attractions. While there aremany examples how both forces contribute to numerousopportunities toward the development of Bali’s tourism,it is also true to state that impacts of globalization causesvarious forms of distraction for the island’s ability to takefull control of its vast move of development.

  16. Key challenges of offshore wind power: Three essays addressing public acceptance, stakeholder conflict, and wildlife impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Alison Waterbury

    Society is facing a pressing need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to limit anthropogenic climate change, which has far reaching implications for humans and the environment. Transforming the energy infrastructure to carbon-free sources is one solution to curb greenhouse gas emissions, but this transformation has been slow to materialize in many places, such as the United States (U.S.). Offshore wind energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources available, which can be deployed in large-scale developments in many parts of the world. Yet, offshore wind has faced many challenges, which are more social and regulatory than technical. This dissertation addresses social and regulatory issues surrounding offshore wind development through three stand-alone essays, which, in combination, address a decision-making framework of where to locate offshore wind turbines, by minimizing effects on people and wildlife. The challenges to offshore wind that are addressed by this dissertation include (1) understanding underlying factors that drive support for or opposition to offshore wind energy; (2) conflict with existing ocean uses and users; and (3) public concern and regulatory processes related to wildlife impacts. The first paper identifies unique factors that drive public opinion of proposed offshore wind projects in nearby coastal communities. Wind energy development on land has faced local opposition for reasons such as effects on cultural landscapes and wildlife, which can be instrumental in whether or not and the speed with which a project moves ahead toward completion. Factors leading to support for, or opposition to, offshore wind energy are not well known, particularly for developments that are near-shore and in-view of coastal communities. Results are presented from a survey of 699 residents (35.5% response rate) completed in 2013 in greater Atlantic City, New Jersey and coastal Delaware, United States, where near-shore wind demonstration projects had

  17. Health as freedom: addressing social determinants of global health inequities through the human right to development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ashley M; Meier, Benjamin Mason

    2009-02-01

    In spite of vast global improvements in living standards, health, and well-being, the persistence of absolute poverty and its attendant maladies remains an unsettling fact of life for billions around the world and constitutes the primary cause for the failure of developing states to improve the health of their peoples. While economic development in developing countries is necessary to provide for underlying determinants of health--most prominently, poverty reduction and the building of comprehensive primary health systems--inequalities in power within the international economic order and the spread of neoliberal development policy limit the ability of developing states to develop economically and realize public goods for health. With neoliberal development policies impacting entire societies, the collective right to development, as compared with an individual rights-based approach to development, offers a framework by which to restructure this system to realize social determinants of health. The right to development, working through a vector of rights, can address social determinants of health, obligating states and the international community to support public health systems while reducing inequities in health through poverty-reducing economic growth. At an international level, where the ability of states to develop economically and to realize public goods through public health systems is constrained by international financial institutions, the implementation of the right to development enables a restructuring of international institutions and foreign-aid programs, allowing states to enter development debates with a right to cooperation from other states, not simply a cry for charity.

  18. Global Water Governance in the Context of Global and Multilevel Governance: Its Need, Form, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyeeta Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To complement this Special Feature on global water governance, we focused on a generic challenge at the global level, namely, the degree to which water issues need to be dealt with in a centralized, concentrated, and hierarchical manner. We examined water ecosystem services and their impact on human well-being, the role of policies, indirect and direct drivers in influencing these services, and the administrative level(s at which the provision of services and potential trade-offs can be dealt with. We applied a politics of scale perspective to understand motivations for defining a problem at the global or local level and show that the multilevel approach to water governance is evolving and inevitable. We argue that a centralized overarching governance system for water is unlikely and possibly undesirable; however, there is a need for a high-level think tank and leadership to develop a cosmopolitan perspective to promote sustainable water development.

  19. 17th Workshop on MHD Stability Control: addressing the disruption challenge for ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttery, Richard

    2013-08-01

    This annual workshop on magnetohydrodynamic stability control was held on 5-7 November 2012 at Columbia University in the city of New York, in the aftermath of a violent hydrodynamic instability event termed 'Hurricane Sandy'. Despite these challenging circumstances, Columbia University managed an excellent meeting, enabling the full participation of the community. This Workshop has been held since 1996 to help in the development of understanding and control of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities for future fusion reactors. It covers a wide range of stability topics—from disruptions, to tearing modes, error fields, edge-localized modes (ELMs), resistive wall modes (RWMs) and ideal MHD—spanning many device types (tokamaks, stellarators and reversed field pinches) to identify commonalities in the physics and a means of control. The theme for 2012 was 'addressing the disruption challenge for ITER', and thus the first day had a heavy focus on both the avoidance and mitigation of disruptions in ITER. Key elements included understanding how to apply 3D fields to maintain stability, as well as managing the disruption process itself through mitigating loads in the thermal quench and handling so called 'runaway electrons'. This culminated in a panel discussion on the disruption mitigation strategy for ITER, which noted that heat load asymmetries during the thermal quench appear to be an artifact of MHD processes, and that runaway electron generation may be inevitable, suggesting research should focus on control and dissipation of the runaway beam. The workshop was combined this year with the annual US-Japan MHD Workshop, with a special section looking more deeply at 'Fundamentals of 3D Perturbed Equilibrium Control', with interesting sessions on 3D equilibrium reconstruction, RWM physics, novel control concepts such as non-magnetic sensing, adaptive control, q operation, and the effects of flow. The final day turned to tearing mode interactions, exploring the state

  20. OpenTopography: Addressing Big Data Challenges Using Cloud Computing, HPC, and Data Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, C. J.; Nandigam, V.; Phan, M.; Youn, C.; Baru, C.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2014-12-01

    OpenTopography (OT) is a geoinformatics-based data facility initiated in 2009 for democratizing access to high-resolution topographic data, derived products, and tools. Hosted at the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC), OT utilizes cyberinfrastructure, including large-scale data management, high-performance computing, and service-oriented architectures to provide efficient Web based access to large, high-resolution topographic datasets. OT collocates data with processing tools to enable users to quickly access custom data and derived products for their application. OT's ongoing R&D efforts aim to solve emerging technical challenges associated with exponential growth in data, higher order data products, as well as user base. Optimization of data management strategies can be informed by a comprehensive set of OT user access metrics that allows us to better understand usage patterns with respect to the data. By analyzing the spatiotemporal access patterns within the datasets, we can map areas of the data archive that are highly active (hot) versus the ones that are rarely accessed (cold). This enables us to architect a tiered storage environment consisting of high performance disk storage (SSD) for the hot areas and less expensive slower disk for the cold ones, thereby optimizing price to performance. From a compute perspective, OT is looking at cloud based solutions such as the Microsoft Azure platform to handle sudden increases in load. An OT virtual machine image in Microsoft's VM Depot can be invoked and deployed quickly in response to increased system demand. OT has also integrated SDSC HPC systems like the Gordon supercomputer into our infrastructure tier to enable compute intensive workloads like parallel computation of hydrologic routing on high resolution topography. This capability also allows OT to scale to HPC resources during high loads to meet user demand and provide more efficient processing. With a growing user base and maturing scientific user

  1. Global hunger: a challenge to agricultural, food, and nutritional sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shiuan-Huei; Ho, Chi-Tang; Nah, Sui-Lin; Chau, Chi-Fai

    2014-01-01

    Hunger has been a concern for generations and has continued to plague hundreds of millions of people around the world. Although many efforts have been devoted to reduce hunger, challenges such as growing competitions for natural resources, emerging climate changes and natural disasters, poverty, illiteracy, and diseases are posing threats to food security and intensifying the hunger crisis. Concerted efforts of scientists to improve agricultural and food productivity, technology, nutrition, and education are imperative to facilitate appropriate strategies for defeating hunger and malnutrition. This paper provides some aspects of world hunger issues and summarizes the efforts and measures aimed to alleviate food problems from the food and nutritional sciences perspectives. The prospects and constraints of some implemented strategies for alleviating hunger and achieving sustainable food security are also discussed. This comprehensive information source could provide insights into the development of a complementary framework for dealing with the global hunger issue.

  2. Natural gas reserves/total energy consumption: a useful new ratio for addressing global climate change concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    Energy analysts have used the reserves/production ratios for oil and natural gas for decades as indicators of the ability of countries to maintain or increase their production of those fuels. The global community is now faced with the challenge of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from a variety of sources, with the energy sector being the largest contributor to the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Natural gas has emerged as a highly desirable fuel, since it produces lower emissions of carbon dioxide than coal or oil for equivalent amounts of energy supplied. The ratio of a country's proven natural gas reserves to its total energy consumption is a good indicator of its ability to improve its air quality situation or address greenhouse gas reduction targets from domestic natural gas sources. This paper provides the ratio for several countries at different stages of development, and discusses some of the implications. In countries where exploration for natural gas has been limited, the estimated resources in place may sometimes be a more useful indicator than proven reserves, and could be used instead. (author)

  3. Nature-Based Solutions in the EU: Innovating with nature to address social, economic and environmental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faivre, Nicolas; Fritz, Marco; Freitas, Tiago; de Boissezon, Birgit; Vandewoestijne, Sofie

    2017-11-01

    Contemporary societies are facing a broad range of challenges, from pressures on human health and well-being to natural capital depletion, and the security of food, water and energy. These challenges are deeply intertwined with global processes, such as climate change and with local events such as natural disasters. The EU's research & innovation (R&I) policy is now seeking to address these challenges from a new perspective, with Nature-Based Solutions, and turn them into innovation opportunities that optimise the synergies between nature, society and the economy. Nature-Based Solutions can be an opportunity for innovation, and are here promoted by both policymakers and practitioners as a cost-effective way of creating a greener, more sustainable, and more competitive economy. Since 2013, the European Commission has devoted particular attention to Nature-Based Solutions through consultations and dialogues that sought to make the concept of these solutions more concrete and to define the concept's place within the spectrum of ecosystem-based approaches. In 2014, the Commission launched an expert group, which conducted further analysis, and made recommendations to help increase the use of Nature-Based Solutions and bring nature back into cities. In 2015, a survey was conducted on citizens' views and perceptions of 'Nature in Cities' to provide further insight for future work. Based on these elements and on results from running EU projects, the Commission has developed an R&I agenda for Nature-Based Solutions and has published targeted calls for proposals for large-scale demonstration projects in this field in 2016 and 2017. Additional R&I actions at EU level that promote systemic Nature-Based Solutions and their benefits to cities and territories are planned with the aim to improve the implementation capacity and evidence base for deploying Nature-Based Solutions and developing corresponding future markets. They are also expected to foster an interdisciplinary R

  4. Climate change, global risks, challenges and decisions. Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, K.; Steffen, W.; Schellnhuber, H.J.

    2009-03-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) meeting to be held in Copenhagen in December 2009 (the 15th Conference of the Parties, COP-15) will be a critical step in developing a global response to the threat of climate change caused by human activities. The primary scientific input to those negotiations is the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), published in 2007. The IPCC report has already been instrumental in increasing both public and political awareness of the societal risks associated with unchecked emission of greenhouse gases. Since the production of the IPCC report, new knowledge has emerged that furthers understanding of the impacts of human influence on the climate and the response options and approaches that are available to tackle this complex issue. To bring this new knowledge together, the International Alliance of Research Universities organised an international scientific congress on climate change, Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions, which was held in Copenhagen from 10-12 March 2009. Participants came from nearly 80 different countries and contributed with more than 1400 scientific presentations. Abstracts for all of the scientific presentations made can be found at www.iop.org/EJ/volume/1755-1315/6, and a transcript of the closing plenary session can be found at environmentalresearchweb.org/cws/article/opinion/39126. This synthesis report presents an up-to-date overview of a broad range of research relevant to climate change - including fundamental climate science, the impacts of a changing climate on society and environment, and the many tools and approaches available to deal effectively with the challenge of climate change. (LN)

  5. Global challenges of graduate level Ayurvedic education: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Kishor; Gehlot, Sangeeta; Singh, Girish; Rathore, H.C.S.

    2010-01-01

    In the present day scenario, Ayurveda is globally being perceived in several contradictory ways. Poor quality of Ayurveda graduates produced as a result of poorly structured and poorly regulated education system is at least one of the important factors responsible for this scenario. The present study was carried out to evaluate the ‘Global challenges of graduate level Ayurvedic education’ and is based on the responses of Ayurvedic students and Ayurvedic teachers from various educational institutions of India to a methodically validated questionnaire. As the study indicates, the poor standard of Ayurvedic education in India is definitely a cause of concern. The curriculum of Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery (BAMS) course of studies is required to be reviewed and restructured. The syllabi are required to be updated with certain relevant topics like laws governing the intellectual property rights, basic procedures of standardization of medicinal products, fundamental methods of evaluating the toxicity of the medicinal products, essentials of healthcare management and the basics of cultivation and marketing of medicinal plants. Furthermore, the study suggests that the Ayurvedic academicians are required to be trained in standard methods of research and documentation skills, and the educational institutions are required to be encouraged to contribute their share in building up the evidence base for Ayurveda in the form of quality education and research. PMID:20532099

  6. Mining education in the XXI century: global challenges and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. И. Казанин

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of development prospects for the world mining industry is presented, requirements to mining technologies are formulated, as well as key trends of technologic development in the mineral resources complex. The paper demonstrates the role of mining industry and professional education as essential components of sustainable territorial development. Global challenges have been formulated, which must be taken into account when forming general approaches to the development of mining education. Distinctions of mining education in Russia, Germany, USA and other leading mining countries have been analyzed. Professional standards for mining engineers have been reviewed for different countries, along with their relation to educational standards. It has been shown, what role professional communities play in the development of professional education and stimulation of continuous professional development of mining engineers. Authors point out the need for international integration in the issues of training and continuous professional development of mining specialists, as well as international accreditation of educational programs for mining engineers and their certification. Information is presented on international organizations, performing the function of international accreditation of engineering educational programs, history of their establishment and role within the context of economic globalization. The paper contains examples of successful international cooperation and modern integration processes among universities, aimed at unification of requirements and improvement of existing systems of training and continuous professional development of mining engineers.

  7. Global Status of Nuclear Power: Prospects and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayobeka, B. M.

    2010-01-01

    Global energy requirements and the share of electricity in total energy consumption are increasing rapidly, and the contribution of nuclear power is projected to increase significantly. Out of the 29 countries currently using nuclear power for electricity generation, 22 intend to allow new plants to be built, and, of those, the majority are actively supporting the increased use of nuclear power, some by providing incentives. Most of these countries are expected to build reactors with a generating capacity of over 1000 MW(e). Only three countries continue to have a policy to phase out the use of nuclear energy in the future by not replacing existing operating nuclear power plants and with no consideration of the option of new nuclear plants.In addition, a growing number of countries are expressing interest in introducing nuclear power. Of the more than 60 countries that have expressed such an interest in recent years, over 20 are actively considering nuclear power programmes to meet their energy needs and the others have expressed interest in understanding the issues associated with the introduction of nuclear power.The drivers for rising expectations for nuclear power include: growing energy demand, concern over national energy supply security, the increasingly volatile price of fossil fuels and global environmental concerns. The drivers appear to be the same for countries expanding existing nuclear programmes and those seeking to introduce programmes. The projections made by different international organizations indicate a significant growth in the use of nuclear power. The IAEA projections indicate a world total for nuclear electrical generating capacity of between 445 and 543 GW(e) by 2020 and between 511 and 807 GW(e) by 2030. This paper takes a detailed look into the global status of nuclear power, highlighting challenges and prospects of the technology going into the next century.(author).

  8. Managing differences: the central challenge of global strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghemawat, Pankaj

    2007-03-01

    The main goal of any international strategy should be to manage the large differences that arise at the borders of markets. Yet executives often fail to exploit market and production discrepancies, focusing instead on the tensions between standardization and localization. In this article, Pankaj Ghemawat presents a new framework that encompasses all three effective responses to the challenges of globalization. He calls it the AAA Triangle. The A's stand for the three distinct types of international strategy. Through adaptation, companies seek to boost revenues and market share by maximizing their local relevance. Through aggregation, they attempt to deliver economies of scale by creating regional, or sometimes global, operations. And through arbitrage, they exploit disparities between national or regional markets, often by locating different parts of the supply chain in different places--for instance, call centers in India, factories in China, and retail shops in Western Europe. Ghemawat draws on several examples that illustrate how organizations use and balance these strategies and describes the trade-offs they make as they do so. Because most enterprises should draw from all three A's to some extent, the framework can be used to develop a summary scorecard indicating how well the company is globalizing. However, given the tensions among the strategies, it's not enough simply to tick off the corresponding boxes. Strategic choice requires some degree of prioritization--and the framework can help with that as well. While it is possible to make progress on all three strategies, companies usually must focus on one or two when trying to build competitive advantage.

  9. Recommendations on Arresting Global Health Challenges Facing Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    The health challenges faced by young people are more complex than adults and can compromise their full growth and development. Attention must be paid to the health of this age group, yet adolescents and youth remain largely invisible and often disappear from the major global datasets. The aim of this paper is to discuss the global health challenges faced by adolescents and youth, global legislations and guidelines pertaining to this particular age group, recommendations to arrest these challenges, and research priorities. Major direct and indirect global health risks faced by adolescents include early pregnancy and childbirth, femicide, honor killing, female genital mutilation, nutritional habits and choices, social media, and peer pressure. There are no standard legal age cut-offs for adulthood; rather, the age varies for different activities, such as age of consent or the minimum age that young people can legally work, leave school, drive, buy alcohol, marry, be held accountable for criminal action, and make medical decisions. This reflects the fact that the existing systems and structures are focused on either children or adults, with very few investments and interventions directed specifically to young people. Existing legislation and guidelines need transformation to bring about a specific focus on adolescents in the domains of substance use and sexual behaviors, and the capacity for adolescent learning should be exploited through graduated legal and policy frameworks. Sustainable development goals provide an opportunity to target this neglected and vulnerable age group. A multisectoral approach is needed to bring about healthy change and address the challenges faced by adolescents and youth, from modifications at a broader legislative and policy level to ground-level (community-level) implementations. Copyright © 2017 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Challenges of Home Enteral Tube Feeding: A Global Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omorogieva Ojo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to provide a global perspective of Home Enteral Tube Feeding (HETF and to outline some of the challenges of home enteral nutrition (HEN provisions. It is well established that the number of patients on HETF is on the increase worldwide due to advances in technology, development of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy techniques, and the shift in care provisions from acute to community settings. While the significance of home enteral nutrition in meeting the nutritional requirements of patients with poor swallowing reflexes and those with poor nutritional status is not in doubt, differences exist in terms of funding, standards, management approaches and the level of infrastructural development across the world. Strategies for alleviating some of the challenges militating against the effective delivery of HETF including the development of national and international standards, guidelines and policies for HETF, increased awareness and funding by government at all levels were discussed. Others, including development of HEN services, which should create the enabling environment for multidisciplinary team work, clinical audit and research, recruitment and retention of specialist staff, and improvement in patient outcomes have been outlined. However, more research is required to fully establish the cost effectiveness of the HEN service especially in developing countries and to compare the organization of HEN service between developing and developed countries.

  11. Getting People Involved: The Benefit of Intellectual Capital Management for Addressing HR Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pook, Katja

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the benefits of intellectual capital assessment for facing current challenges of human resources work and organizational development. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes findings of studies on challenges in HR work and maps them with features of intellectual capital assessment methods. It is thus a…

  12. Strategies for Helping Parents of Young Children Address Challenging Behaviors in the Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Zhen; Lieberman-Betz, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Challenging behavior can be defined as any repeated pattern of behavior, or perception of behavior, that interferes with or is at risk of interfering with optimal learning or engagement in prosocial interactions with peers and adults. It is generally accepted in young children that challenging behaviors serve some sort of communicative purpose--to…

  13. Strategies to Address English Language Writing Challenges Faced by International Graduate Students in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Swathi; Kretovics, Mark; Kirby, Kara; Ghosh, Ankita

    2017-01-01

    Since 2000, there has been a 72% increase in the number of international students attending US institutions of higher education. The increase, specifically of international graduate students, has brought to light the writing challenges experienced by this population of students. This study explored specific writing challenges experienced by…

  14. Hyperresolution global land surface modeling: Meeting a grand challenge for monitoring Earth's terrestrial water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric F.; Roundy, Joshua K.; Troy, Tara J.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; Blyth, Eleanor; de Roo, Ad; DöLl, Petra; Ek, Mike; Famiglietti, James; Gochis, David; van de Giesen, Nick; Houser, Paul; Jaffé, Peter R.; Kollet, Stefan; Lehner, Bernhard; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Sheffield, Justin; Wade, Andrew; Whitehead, Paul

    2011-05-01

    Monitoring Earth's terrestrial water conditions is critically important to many hydrological applications such as global food production; assessing water resources sustainability; and flood, drought, and climate change prediction. These needs have motivated the development of pilot monitoring and prediction systems for terrestrial hydrologic and vegetative states, but to date only at the rather coarse spatial resolutions (˜10-100 km) over continental to global domains. Adequately addressing critical water cycle science questions and applications requires systems that are implemented globally at much higher resolutions, on the order of 1 km, resolutions referred to as hyperresolution in the context of global land surface models. This opinion paper sets forth the needs and benefits for a system that would monitor and predict the Earth's terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. We discuss six major challenges in developing a system: improved representation of surface-subsurface interactions due to fine-scale topography and vegetation; improved representation of land-atmospheric interactions and resulting spatial information on soil moisture and evapotranspiration; inclusion of water quality as part of the biogeochemical cycle; representation of human impacts from water management; utilizing massively parallel computer systems and recent computational advances in solving hyperresolution models that will have up to 109 unknowns; and developing the required in situ and remote sensing global data sets. We deem the development of a global hyperresolution model for monitoring the terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles a "grand challenge" to the community, and we call upon the international hydrologic community and the hydrological science support infrastructure to endorse the effort.

  15. Hyperresolution Global Land Surface Modeling: Meeting a Grand Challenge for Monitoring Earth's Terrestrial Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric F.; Roundy, Joshua K.; Troy, Tara J.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; 4 Blyth, Eleanor; de Roo, Ad; Doell. Petra; Ek, Mike; Famiglietti, James; hide

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring Earth's terrestrial water conditions is critically important to many hydrological applications such as global food production; assessing water resources sustainability; and flood, drought, and climate change prediction. These needs have motivated the development of pilot monitoring and prediction systems for terrestrial hydrologic and vegetative states, but to date only at the rather coarse spatial resolutions (approx.10-100 km) over continental to global domains. Adequately addressing critical water cycle science questions and applications requires systems that are implemented globally at much higher resolutions, on the order of 1 km, resolutions referred to as hyperresolution in the context of global land surface models. This opinion paper sets forth the needs and benefits for a system that would monitor and predict the Earth's terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. We discuss six major challenges in developing a system: improved representation of surface-subsurface interactions due to fine-scale topography and vegetation; improved representation of land-atmospheric interactions and resulting spatial information on soil moisture and evapotranspiration; inclusion of water quality as part of the biogeochemical cycle; representation of human impacts from water management; utilizing massively parallel computer systems and recent computational advances in solving hyperresolution models that will have up to 10(exp 9) unknowns; and developing the required in situ and remote sensing global data sets. We deem the development of a global hyperresolution model for monitoring the terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles a grand challenge to the community, and we call upon the international hydrologic community and the hydrological science support infrastructure to endorse the effort.

  16. National and Global Infrastructure of the Arctic Zone of the APR: New Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Khananovich Krasnopolskiy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses issues of formation of the national and global infrastructure in the Arctic and its Asia-Pacific zone in the context of the new challenges in the development of the region, associated mainly with the political and military deterioration of relations between Russia and the United States. The study also characterizes international experience in the area of infrastructure researches and presents strategic documents of both countries in the sphere of the study and development of the Arctic and its territories. The author concludes that research organizations need to overcome their passivity to strengthen cooperation between these structures from both sides, which is absolutely essential for the development of a global scientific and other kinds of infrastructure and for the further successful, rational and effective exploitation of the Arctic areas

  17. VGB-congress power plants 2013. Security of supply - from challenges to solutions. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The VGB Congress 'Power Plants 2013' took place in Masstricht/NL from September 25 to 27, 2013 under the motto 'Security of Supply - From Challenges to Solutions'. Experts from 31 countries attended the largest European congress for power and heat generation to discuss and inform about current issues. The congress comprised the sections 'Security of Supply: A Common European Challenge', 'Technical Solutions for our Future Electricity Generation', 'Operational Experience as Key Competence' and 'Thinking Ahead: Projects and Visions 2020+' where participants and lecturers dealt with the future challenges of European power supply. (orig.)

  18. A Holistic Approach towards Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for Addressing Education Challenges in Asia and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Sungsup; Chin, Brian; Lim, Cher Ping

    2016-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) offers opportunities for governments to address key education challenges of quality, equity, and efficiency. While governments and educational institutions in developed countries may have taken up these opportunities, many developing countries in Asia and the Pacific region have often missed them out.…

  19. Can a Chatbot Determine My Diet?: Addressing Challenges of Chatbot Application for Meal Recommendation

    OpenAIRE

    Fadhil, Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity. A conversational agent can support people as a virtual coach, however building such systems still have its associated challenges and limitations. This paper describes the background and motivation for chatbot systems in the context of healthy nutrition recommendation. We discuss current challenges associated with chatbot application, we tackled ...

  20. State - Level Regulation's Effectiveness in Addressing Global Climate Change and Promoting Solar Energy Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Carla Joy

    Paper 1, Local Solutions to Global Problems: Climate Change Policies and Regulatory Jurisdiction, considers the efficacy of various types of environmental regulations when they are applied locally to pollutants whose damages extend beyond the jurisdiction of the local regulators. Local regulations of a global pollutant may be ineffective if producers and consumers can avoid them by transacting outside the reach of the local regulator. In many cases, this may involve the physical relocation of the economic activity, a problem often referred to as "leakage." This paper highlights another way in which local policies can be circumvented: through the shuffling of who buys from whom. The paper maintains that the problems of reshuffling are exacerbated when the options for compliance with the regulations are more flexible. Numerical analyses is presented demonstrating that several proposed policies to limit greenhouse gas emissions from the California electricity sector may have very little effect on carbon emissions if they are applied only within that state. Paper 1 concludes that although local subsidies for energy efficiency, renewable electricity, and transportation biofuels constitute attempts to pick technology winners, they may be the only mechanisms that local jurisdictions, acting alone, have at their disposal to address climate change. Paper 2, Pass-Through of Solar PV Incentives to Consumers: The Early Years of California's Solar PV Incentives, examines the pass through of incentives to California solar PV system owners. The full post-subsidy price consumers pay for solar power is a key metric of the success of solar PV incentive programs and of overall PV market performance. This study examines the early years of California's most recent wave of distributed solar PV incentives (2000-2008) to determine the pass-through of incentives. Examination of this period is both intellectually and pragmatically important due to the high level of incentives provided and

  1. THE EUROPEAN UNION AS A GLOBAL PLAYER: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Comanescu

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Strengthening the external action of the Union has emerged as a powerful expectation shared both by a large majority of members of the Convention on the future of Europe, and more significantly by public opinion when it has been consulted on this issue. Although there is a consensual desire for Europe to speak with a stronger voice in global affairs, the ways and means to achieve this objective still divide those called to clarify the path to be followed. The European Union is already a significant presence in world politics by its considerable share in the international trade, or its dominant contribution to development aid. Many criticise on the other hand the lack of consistency in the more classical dimensions of foreign policy, or the lack of credibility in the capacity to act attributed to the absence of defence capabilities. Such concerns are currently addressed in the larger debate on the future of Europe, either within the dedicated framework, the European Convention convened to design the future of the EU, or outside the Convention, both among politicians and academics. It is generally considered and accepted that Europe will gain in political influence once the unification of the continent is completed, i.e. the current enlargement objectives are achieved. It goes without saying that devising and making operational appropriate instruments and capacities to act coherently outside its borders are a necessity as well. Institutional guarantees that Europe could in the future continue to influence the course of events in world affairs are becoming imperative. This article will explore some of the proposals in that sense. It will also address the place for Romania as a future EU member state in the new architecture of Europe and its possible contribution to the Common Foreign and Security Policy.

  2. Challenges and Opportunities in Global Mental Health: a Research-to-Practice Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainberg, Milton L; Scorza, Pamela; Shultz, James M; Helpman, Liat; Mootz, Jennifer J; Johnson, Karen A; Neria, Yuval; Bradford, Jean-Marie E; Oquendo, Maria A; Arbuckle, Melissa R

    2017-05-01

    Globally, the majority of those who need mental health care worldwide lack access to high-quality mental health services. Stigma, human resource shortages, fragmented service delivery models, and lack of research capacity for implementation and policy change contribute to the current mental health treatment gap. In this review, we describe how health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are addressing the mental health gap and further identify challenges and priority areas for future research. Common mental disorders are responsible for the largest proportion of the global burden of disease; yet, there is sound evidence that these disorders, as well as severe mental disorders, can be successfully treated using evidence-based interventions delivered by trained lay health workers in low-resource community or primary care settings. Stigma is a barrier to service uptake. Prevention, though necessary to address the mental health gap, has not solidified as a research or programmatic focus. Research-to-practice implementation studies are required to inform policies and scale-up services. Four priority areas are identified for focused attention to diminish the mental health treatment gap and to improve access to high-quality mental health services globally: diminishing pervasive stigma, building mental health system treatment and research capacity, implementing prevention programs to decrease the incidence of mental disorders, and establishing sustainable scale up of public health systems to improve access to mental health treatment using evidence-based interventions.

  3. Data and Workflow Management Challenges in Global Adjoint Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, W.; Ruan, Y.; Smith, J. A.; Modrak, R. T.; Orsvuran, R.; Krischer, L.; Chen, Y.; Balasubramanian, V.; Hill, J.; Turilli, M.; Bozdag, E.; Lefebvre, M. P.; Jha, S.; Tromp, J.

    2017-12-01

    It is crucial to take the complete physics of wave propagation into account in seismic tomography to further improve the resolution of tomographic images. The adjoint method is an efficient way of incorporating 3D wave simulations in seismic tomography. However, global adjoint tomography is computationally expensive, requiring thousands of wavefield simulations and massive data processing. Through our collaboration with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) computing group and an allocation on Titan, ORNL's GPU-accelerated supercomputer, we are now performing our global inversions by assimilating waveform data from over 1,000 earthquakes. The first challenge we encountered is dealing with the sheer amount of seismic data. Data processing based on conventional data formats and processing tools (such as SAC), which are not designed for parallel systems, becomes our major bottleneck. To facilitate the data processing procedures, we designed the Adaptive Seismic Data Format (ASDF) and developed a set of Python-based processing tools to replace legacy FORTRAN-based software. These tools greatly enhance reproducibility and accountability while taking full advantage of highly parallel system and showing superior scaling on modern computational platforms. The second challenge is that the data processing workflow contains more than 10 sub-procedures, making it delicate to handle and prone to human mistakes. To reduce human intervention as much as possible, we are developing a framework specifically designed for seismic inversion based on the state-of-the art workflow management research, specifically the Ensemble Toolkit (EnTK), in collaboration with the RADICAL team from Rutgers University. Using the initial developments of the EnTK, we are able to utilize the full computing power of the data processing cluster RHEA at ORNL while keeping human interaction to a minimum and greatly reducing the data processing time. Thanks to all the improvements, we are now able to

  4. Big Data Challenges in Global Seismic 'Adjoint Tomography' (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, J.; Bozdag, E.; Krischer, L.; Lefebvre, M.; Lei, W.; Smith, J.

    2013-12-01

    The challenge of imaging Earth's interior on a global scale is closely linked to the challenge of handling large data sets. The related iterative workflow involves five distinct phases, namely, 1) data gathering and culling, 2) synthetic seismogram calculations, 3) pre-processing (time-series analysis and time-window selection), 4) data assimilation and adjoint calculations, 5) post-processing (pre-conditioning, regularization, model update). In order to implement this workflow on modern high-performance computing systems, a new seismic data format is being developed. The Adaptable Seismic Data Format (ASDF) is designed to replace currently used data formats with a more flexible format that allows for fast parallel I/O. The metadata is divided into abstract categories, such as "source" and "receiver", along with provenance information for complete reproducibility. The structure of ASDF is designed keeping in mind three distinct applications: earthquake seismology, seismic interferometry, and exploration seismology. Existing time-series analysis tool kits, such as SAC and ObsPy, can be easily interfaced with ASDF so that seismologists can use robust, previously developed software packages. ASDF accommodates an automated, efficient workflow for global adjoint tomography. Manually managing the large number of simulations associated with the workflow can rapidly become a burden, especially with increasing numbers of earthquakes and stations. Therefore, it is of importance to investigate the possibility of automating the entire workflow. Scientific Workflow Management Software (SWfMS) allows users to execute workflows almost routinely. SWfMS provides additional advantages. In particular, it is possible to group independent simulations in a single job to fit the available computational resources. They also give a basic level of fault resilience as the workflow can be resumed at the correct state preceding a failure. Some of the best candidates for our particular workflow

  5. Rising to the challenge: addressing the concerns of people working in the sex industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Frances M; Lewis, Jacqueline; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2011-02-01

    In September 2010, three Canadian Criminal Code provisions related to prostitution were ruled unconstitutional because they increase the risk of harm to people working in the sex industry (PWSI). Using data from studies with PWSI and key informants conducted in several Canadian cities, we examine three domains related to worker health and safety: occupational health and safety, perceptions of and behaviors toward workers, and access to essential services. Addressing these issues necessitates moving beyond decriminalization. We conclude that using a harm reduction/labor rights framework would enhance our ability to address issues related to the physical, social, and mental well-being as well as rights of PWSI.

  6. A complex system approach to address world challenges in food and agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mil, van H.G.J.; Foegeding, E.A.; Windhab, E.J.; Perrot, N.; Linden, van der E.

    2014-01-01

    The quality and amount of the world food supply is crucial to the well-being of every human on the planet in the basic sense that we need food to live. It also has a profound impact on world economy, international trade, and global political stability. The choice of land used for agriculture, and

  7. A multifaceted 'omics' approach for addressing the challenge of antimicrobial resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Asi; Bont, LJ; Engelhard, Dan; Moore, Edward; Fernandez, David; Kreisberg-Greenblatt, Racheli; Oved, Kfir; Eden, Eran; Hays, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The inappropriate use of antibiotics has severe global health and economic consequences, including the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. A major driver of antibiotic misuse is the inability to accurately distinguish between bacterial and viral infections based on currently available

  8. Mixed Methods Research Strategies with Deaf People: Linguistic and Cultural Challenges Addressed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Amy T.; Winiarczyk, Rowena E.

    2014-01-01

    Deaf people, members of a complex global language minority, have been excluded from positions of power in the field of humanitarian aid and development assistance, as well as from playing a significant role in the conduct of research that affects their lives. Deaf people rarely lead or participate as researchers in studies about their own…

  9. Effective Practices to Address Implementation Challenges in IB Diploma Programmes in Michigan Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    The 21st century learner resides in an advanced global society that is led by the waves of the economy, advances in the technological world, concern around our safety and security, as well as demographical changes (Carver & Markatos-Soriano, 2007). The trends suggest education needs to equip students with the attitudes that promote respect for…

  10. Addressing the STEM Challenge by Expanding Specialty Math and Science High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Robert D.; Hugo, Janet; Lundgren, Dennis; Shapiro, Martin J.; Thomas, Jerald

    2007-01-01

    If America is to succeed in the innovation-powered global economy, boosting math and science skills will be critical. This is why a wide array of task forces and organizations has recently raised the clarion call for more and better scientists and engineers. While the policy proposals offered are wide ranging, one key policy innovation has…

  11. Managing Radioactive Waste. Problems and Challenges in a Globalizing World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    Many countries are at a crossroads in terms of maintaining their energy supply. The existing resources of fossil fuels are dwindling, and global warming makes their use increasingly problematic. Nuclear power is now often regarded inevitable for future sustainability, energy security, and economic prosperity. There are, however, still unsolved problems regarding nuclear power. The fact that no country has established a final waste repository for spent nuclear fuel throws fundamental doubt on nuclear energy expansion. Also, the processes of globalization have transformed the nuclear industry towards increased privatization, concentration, and internationalization. This leads to uncertainties regarding the responsibility for nuclear waste management. In these circumstances is it of greatest importance that scholars from different disciplines, as well as policy makers and practitioners within the field, meet to share experiences. This conference had the general objective of producing knowledge about the challenges caused by global developmental trends, and what the management of nuclear waste implies for contemporary and future social development. Over 100 persons attended the conferences. Papers available at the conference site have been separately indexed. Several contributions were also made as PP-presentation, which are available at the site, among others the Keynote Speeches: Waiting for the Nuclear Renaissance: Exploring the Nexus of Expansion and Disposal in Europe (Jane Dawson); Applying the Risk Governance Framework: Institutional Requirements for Dealing with Nuclear Waste (Ortwin Renn); Learning to Listen: The Long Road to Legitimating Radioactive Waste Management Policies (Frans Berkhout); The Nuclear Waste Debate is Irrational but We Need Not Panic (Frank von Hippel). The conference was divided into the following sessions: Session A: Political characteristics matters; Session B: Radioactivity, geology, society. On a problem definition of HLW

  12. Managing Radioactive Waste. Problems and Challenges in a Globalizing World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    Many countries are at a crossroads in terms of maintaining their energy supply. The existing resources of fossil fuels are dwindling, and global warming makes their use increasingly problematic. Nuclear power is now often regarded inevitable for future sustainability, energy security, and economic prosperity. There are, however, still unsolved problems regarding nuclear power. The fact that no country has established a final waste repository for spent nuclear fuel throws fundamental doubt on nuclear energy expansion. Also, the processes of globalization have transformed the nuclear industry towards increased privatization, concentration, and internationalization. This leads to uncertainties regarding the responsibility for nuclear waste management. In these circumstances is it of greatest importance that scholars from different disciplines, as well as policy makers and practitioners within the field, meet to share experiences. This conference had the general objective of producing knowledge about the challenges caused by global developmental trends, and what the management of nuclear waste implies for contemporary and future social development. Over 100 persons attended the conferences. Papers available at the conference site have been separately indexed. Several contributions were also made as PP-presentation, which are available at the site, among others the Keynote Speeches: Waiting for the Nuclear Renaissance: Exploring the Nexus of Expansion and Disposal in Europe (Jane Dawson); Applying the Risk Governance Framework: Institutional Requirements for Dealing with Nuclear Waste (Ortwin Renn); Learning to Listen: The Long Road to Legitimating Radioactive Waste Management Policies (Frans Berkhout); The Nuclear Waste Debate is Irrational but We Need Not Panic (Frank von Hippel). The conference was divided into the following sessions: Session A: Political characteristics matters; Session B: Radioactivity, geology, society. On a problem definition of HLW

  13. EPA leadership on Science, Innovation, and Decision Support Tools for Addressing Current and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    When the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established nearly 50 years ago, the nation faced serious threats to its air, land, and water, which in turn impacted human health. These threats were effectively addressed by the creation of EPA (in 1970) and many subsequen...

  14. Addressing Complex Challenges through Adaptive Leadership: A Promising Approach to Collaborative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Tenneisha; Squires, Vicki

    2017-01-01

    Organizations are faced with solving increasingly complex problems. Addressing these issues requires effective leadership that can facilitate a collaborative problem solving approach where multiple perspectives are leveraged. In this conceptual paper, we critique the effectiveness of earlier leadership models in tackling complex organizational…

  15. ORD-State Cooperation is Essential to Help States Address Contemporary Environmental Public Health Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Cascio’s presentation “ORD-State Cooperation is Essential to Help States Address Contemporary Environmental Public Health Challenges” at ORD’s State Coordination Team Meeting will highlight the role that ORD science and technical expertise in helping t...

  16. Defense Logistics: DOD Needs to Take Additional Actions to Address Challenges in Supply Chain Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Jack E. Edwa appendix III. t rds Director, Defense Capabilities and Managemen Page 36 GAO-11-569 Defense Logistics List of Committees...Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302... operations . DOD faces asset visibility challenges due, in part, to a lack of interoperability among information technology

  17. A Promising Approach to Addressing America's Biggest Challenges. Needle-Moving Community Collaboratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolin, Michele; Schmitz, Paul; Seldon, Willa

    2012-01-01

    Communities face powerful challenges--a high-school dropout epidemic, youth unemployment, teen pregnancy--that require powerful solutions. In a climate of increasingly constrained resources, those solutions must help communities to achieve more with less. A new kind of community collaborative--an approach that aspires to significant,…

  18. Narrative Research Addressing the Challenges of a Career in Professional Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankl, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the challenges that accomplished young athletes face as they aspire to become professional athletes. The data used in this study was derived from selected lived and told sport experiences of undergraduate and graduate kinesiology majors who were former competitive athletes. Additional data was derived…

  19. The Benefits and Challenges of Becoming Cross-Culturally Competent Counseling Psychologists. Presidential Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, P. Paul

    2006-01-01

    The central thesis of this article is that focusing on cross-cultural competence will enhance both the science and the practice of counseling psychology. Developing cross-cultural competence is a lifelong journey, replete with many joys and challenges, that will (a) increase the sophistication of our research, (b) expand the utility and…

  20. Regulatory challenges of robotics : Some guidelines for addressing legal and ethical issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenes, Ronald; Palmerini, Erica; Koops, Bert-Jaap; Bertolini, Andrea; Salvini, Pericle; Lucivero, Federica

    2017-01-01

    Robots are slowly, but certainly, entering people’s professional and private lives. They require the attention of regulators due to the challenges they present to existing legal frameworks and the new legal and ethical questions they raise. This paper discusses four major regulatory dilemmas in the

  1. Cell and Gene Therapies: European View on Challenges in Translation and How to Address Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile F. Rousseau

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs, i.e., cell and gene therapy products, is a rapidly evolving field of therapeutic development. A significant proportion of the products are being developed by academia or small/medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. The many challenges in translation posed by this class of products include aspects covering: manufacturing, non-clinical development plan as relevant to clinical trial, marketing authorization, and reimbursement. In this context, the term translation refers to the relevance of non-clinical data in relation to how it impacts on appropriate and efficient clinical development. In order to successfully overcome these challenges, a clear understanding of the requirements and expectations of all the stakeholders is critical. This article aims to cover the potential challenges related to such translation and suggested approaches to find solutions based on experience and learnings from the perspective of European Union. While commercial challenges have a significant impact on the ATMPs in general, it is considered outside the scope of this article. However, by adopting a strong scientific basis for translation as suggested in this article, it is likely such an approach would help rather than harm successful real world clinical use of ATMPs.

  2. Addressing challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of rare genetic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boycott, Kym M; Ardigó, Diego

    2018-03-01

    The past 5 years have seen an unprecedented rate of discovery of genes that cause rare diseases and with it a commensurate increase in the number of diagnosable but nevertheless untreatable disorders. Here, we discuss the increasing opportunity for diagnosis and therapy of rare diseases and how to tackle the associated challenges.

  3. Assessing the Governance Capacity of Cities to Address Challenges of Water, Waste, and Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koop, S. H.A.; Koetsier, L.; Doornhof, A.; Reinstra, O.; van Leeuwen, C. J.; Brouwer, S.; Dieperink, C.; Driessen, P. P.J.

    2017-01-01

    The challenges of water, waste, and climate change in cities are overwhelming and underpin the importance of overcoming governance issues impeding adaptation. These “governance challenges” typically have fragmented scopes, viewpoints, and responsibilities. As there are many causes leading to this

  4. Practice Facilitator Strategies for Addressing Electronic Health Record Data Challenges for Quality Improvement: EvidenceNOW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemler, Jennifer R; Hall, Jennifer D; Cholan, Raja A; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Damschroder, Laura J; Solberg, Leif I; Ono, Sarah S; Cohen, Deborah J

    2018-01-01

    Practice facilitators ("facilitators") can play an important role in supporting primary care practices in performing quality improvement (QI), but they need complete and accurate clinical performance data from practices' electronic health records (EHR) to help them set improvement priorities, guide clinical change, and monitor progress. Here, we describe the strategies facilitators use to help practices perform QI when complete or accurate performance data are not available. Seven regional cooperatives enrolled approximately 1500 small-to-medium-sized primary care practices and 136 facilitators in EvidenceNOW, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's initiative to improve cardiovascular preventive services. The national evaluation team analyzed qualitative data from online diaries, site visit field notes, and interviews to discover how facilitators worked with practices on EHR data challenges to obtain and use data for QI. We found facilitators faced practice-level EHR data challenges, such as a lack of clinical performance data, partial or incomplete clinical performance data, and inaccurate clinical performance data. We found that facilitators responded to these challenges, respectively, by using other data sources or tools to fill in for missing data, approximating performance reports and generating patient lists, and teaching practices how to document care and confirm performance measures. In addition, facilitators helped practices communicate with EHR vendors or health systems in requesting data they needed. Overall, facilitators tailored strategies to fit the individual practice and helped build data skills and trust. Facilitators can use a range of strategies to help practices perform data-driven QI when performance data are inaccurate, incomplete, or missing. Support is necessary to help practices, particularly those with EHR data challenges, build their capacity for conducting data-driven QI that is required of them for participating in practice

  5. Global Health Philanthropy and Institutional Relationships: How Should Conflicts of Interest Be Addressed?

    OpenAIRE

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    David Stuckler and colleagues examine five large private global health foundations and report on the scope of relationships between these tax-exempt foundations and for-profit corporations including major food and pharmaceutical companies.

  6. Health care voluntourism: addressing ethical concerns of undergraduate student participation in global health volunteer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Daniel; Iltis, Ana S

    2014-12-01

    The popularity and availability of global health experiences has increased, with organizations helping groups plan service trips and companies specializing in "voluntourism," health care professionals volunteering their services through different organizations, and medical students participating in global health electives. Much has been written about global health experiences in resource poor settings, but the literature focuses primarily on the work of health care professionals and medical students. This paper focuses on undergraduate student involvement in short term medical volunteer work in resource poor countries, a practice that has become popular among pre-health professions students. We argue that the participation of undergraduate students in global health experiences raises many of the ethical concerns associated with voluntourism and global health experiences for medical students. Some of these may be exacerbated by or emerge in unique ways when undergraduates volunteer. Guidelines and curricula for medical student engagement in global health experiences have been developed. Guidelines specific to undergraduate involvement in such trips and pre-departure curricula to prepare students should be developed and such training should be required of volunteers. We propose a framework for such guidelines and curricula, argue that universities should be the primary point of delivery even when universities are not organizing the trips, and recommend that curricula should be developed in light of additional data.

  7. Addressing the Challenges and Opportunities of the Polio Endgame: Lessons for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish; Cochi, Stephen

    2017-07-01

    The Global Commission for the Certification of the Eradication of Poliomyelitis certified the eradication of type 2 poliovirus in September 2015, making type 2 poliovirus the first human pathogen to be eradicated since smallpox. The eradication of type 2 poliovirus, the absence of detection of type 3 poliovirus worldwide since November 2012, and cornering type 1 poliovirus to only a few geographic areas of 3 countries has enabled implementation of the endgame of polio eradication which calls for a phased withdrawal of oral polio vaccine beginning with the type 2 component, introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, strengthening of routine immunization in countries with extensive polio resources, and initiating activities to transition polio resources, program experience, and lessons learned to other global health initiatives. This supplement focuses on efforts by global partners to successfully launch polio endgame activities to permanently secure and sustain the enormous gains of polio eradication forever. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  8. International policies to address the greenhouse effect. Encouraging developing country participation in global greenhouse control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, J.; Hischenmoller, M.; Vellinga, P.; Van der Wurff, R.; Junne, G.

    1995-01-01

    The conditions under which developing country governments are likely to feel motivated to take real action in addressing the greenhouse gas problem and the international mechanisms that are likely to succeed are briefly outlined

  9. SIR JOHN CRAWFORD MEMORIAL ADDRESS: Agriculture: The challenges of the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Beddington, Sir John

    2012-01-01

    The Sir John Crawford Memorial Address has been presented since 1985, in honour of the distinguished Australian civil servant, educator and agriculturalist in whose name the Crawford Fund was established. Sir John Crawford was a remarkable Australian who contributed at the highest levels, and was a passionate supporter of international agricultural research for development. This talk draws attention to four current and interrelated trends that suggest the world will be rather different by 202...

  10. Challenges and Opportunities in Modeling of the Global Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjic, Zavisa; Djurdjevic, Vladimir; Vasic, Ratko

    2016-04-01

    are comparable to the scales of the dominant Rossby waves, such fictitious solutions are hard to identify and remove. Another new challenge on the global scale is that the limit of validity of the hydrostatic approximation is rapidly being approached. Relaxing the hydrostatic approximation requieres careful reformulation of the model dynamics and more computations and communications. The unified Non-hydrostatic Multi-scale Model (NMMB) will be briefly discussed as an example. The non-hydrostatic dynamics were designed in such a way as to avoid over-specification. The global version is run on the latitude-longitude grid, and the polar filter selectively slows down the waves that would otherwise be unstable without modifying their amplitudes. The model has been successfully tested on various scales. The skill of the medium range forecasts produced by the NMMB is comparable to that of other major medium range models, and its computational efficiency on parallel computers is good.

  11. The Global Challenge of Human Rights and Solidarity to Nordic Global Companies and Trade Unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernt Schiller

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The idea that corporations, besides making profit, have a social responsibility to society is not new in history. Nor is it new that unions besides representing material interests stand for a universal ambition as defenders of the oppressed in the world. The article argues that corporations’ social responsibility and trade union solidarity, to the extent both are based on universal principles of human rights, ought to open for cooperation concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR, where trade unions should be recognized as important stakeholders in corporations. This idea is new, even if examples exist, and it challenges traditional concepts of the role of management and unions in the company. However, trade unions have taken a critical attitude to CSR, the implementation of which they have mainly been excluded from. Instead, they have tried to get global agreements, Global Framework Agreements (GFAs, with the MNCs.1 In the article the development of the attitudes of the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC and of the Nordic national centers is investigated. A long-term historical perspective, in addition to a general theory of collective action will be used to draft the hypothesis that, when unions as interest organizations, through the process of national integration, have achieved a strong position in the domestic labor market, they lack reasons to take transnational action and seek international trade union solidarity. This hypothesis is valid today for the well-established unions in the Nordic countries. But in questions concerning social responsibility and human rights, the article presents the possibility that GFAs might become a platform from which to extend the Nordic model of national partnership to the global level, while at the same time global competition will increasingly make it difficult for the unions to show international solidarity in interest questions of capital investments and outsourcing.

  12. Trends and EIE higher education response to the current global technical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poboroniuc, Marian; Livint, Gheorghe; Friesel, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Education Institutions (SALEIE), an EU supported project, gathers together a global team aiming to provide higher education models in the EIE disciplines that can respond to the key global technical challenges. This paper deals with findings within the SALEIE project's work package WP3 (Global Challenges......), namely: state-of-the-art in implementation of the Bologna recommendation for Bachelor and Master, technical challenges that the EIE higher education faces nowadays, and existing models in EIE higher education and their degree of response to key global technical challenges....

  13. Coping with the Global Economic Crisis: A Challenge to Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gold

    2012-07-26

    Jul 26, 2012 ... Global Economic Crisis may as well be referred to as. Global ... utilization, household incomes and business profits all fall during recessions. Governments ..... In Nigeria today, education is in crisis, teachers' salaries are.

  14. The future role of nuclear power in addressing global environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, W.

    1995-01-01

    Decision makers have to increasingly balance the costs versus benefits of various energy choices against a background of global environmental deterioration. This is particularly so in the choice of long term electricity production strategies where these have to be balanced against the potential of a very severe disruption of the world's climate due to global warming. In this presentation, the threat of global warming is quantified and scenarios are developed of future predicted energy consumption patterns and their impact on international policies to curb global warming, are analyzed. The conclusion is reached that the threat of global warming is so severe that, on the macro level, an international accepted strategy of utilising a proper balance between all forms of electricity production, is a matter of priority and that all national energy choices should be taken against this framework. Such strategic decisions on the macro level must, however, also translate into the micro level of energy production on topics which include: - more efficient plant utilisation; - more effective risk management; correct choice and application of technology; and - better understanding of issues concerning safety, quality and environmental impact. (author)

  15. Food security for Africa: an urgent global challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasson Albert

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2012, food insecurity is still a major global concern as 1 billion people are suffering from starvation, under-, and malnutrition, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO has concluded that we are still far from reaching millennium development goal (MDG number 1: to halve extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. In sub-Saharan Africa, the number of people suffering from hunger is estimated at 239 million, and this figure could increase in the near future. There are many examples of food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa, some of them having reached catastrophic dimensions, for example, in the Horn of Africa or southern Madagascar. Food insecurity is not just about insufficient food production, availability, and intake, it is also about the poor quality or nutritional value of the food. The detrimental situation of women and children is particularly serious, as well as the situation among female teenagers, who receive less food than their male counterparts in the same households. Soaring food prices and food riots are among the many symptoms of the prevailing food crisis and insecurity. Climate change and weather vagaries, present and forecast, are generally compounding food insecurity and drastically changing farming activities, as diagnosed by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR in June 2011. The key cause of food insecurity is inadequate food production. Since the global food crisis of 2007–2008, there has been an increasing awareness throughout the world that we must produce more and better food; and we should not be derailed from this goal, despite some relief brought by the good cereal harvests in 2011–2012. This is particularly true in sub-Saharan Africa, which needs and wants to make its own green revolution. The African challenge indeed is key to mitigating food insecurity in the world. Commitments were made by the heads of states and governments of the African Union

  16. The global energy challenge: new challenges and threats, the ways to overcome them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr N. Zakharov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes key aspects of global energy issues, with an emphasis on energy security. The Russian Federation is to face three inter-related challenges: provide energy security, stimulate economic growth and protect the environment, reducing emissions of greenhouse gases that will reduce the level of air pollution and contribute to the global improvement of the atmosphere. The author analyzes the status and prospects of world energy markets and the forecast of their development for the period up to 2050. As the main trend the development of smalldistributed generation is highlighted, primarily in developing countries. The article justifies the importance of energy efficiency increase in Russia. In our country per unit of GDP consumes two times more energy than the member countries of the IEA, but a noticeable improvement has not yet been achieved. Meanwhile, aging, and often obsolete infrastructure in the electricity and district heat is in urgent need of investment. Attracting investment in the modernization and improvement of energy efficiency can be provided with the following key measures: reducing the dependence of fuel and energy complex on equipment imports; the research of renewable energy sources (RES; development of the most cost-effective oil and gas reserves and the change in export strategy.

  17. Addressing challenges in communicating adaptation practices to smallholder farmers in Kenya through a radio intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Nyawira Mwaniki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Farmers in Africa are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change due to their high dependency on climate-sensitive natural resources. Kenyan farmers are faced with limited public agricultural extension services, narrowing their sources of useful information including adaptive strategies that would help them cope with the impacts of climate change. Radio can be an effective extension tool with the ability to reach many farmers in their local language. This study investigated the potential of radio in influencing the utilization of climate change information by farmers in Kilifi County, located along the Kenyan coast. Education and communication about climate change was undertaken using radio to make available and understandable information to different social and cultural groups. This study revealed that radio can effectively complement other agricultural extension methods and has the potential to engage farmers on climate change issues and motivate them to take action, if appropriate approaches are used. Although very few farmers (33% reported to have listened to the programs, a high percentage (82% of those who did implemented the recommended strategies and technologies they heard. The major challenges reported by farmers to accessing the radio programs were lack of a radio and unsuitable program timing. An additional reported challenge was the inability to store or record the programs resulting in farmers relying on their own recollection when implementing strategies. Further research should explore the use of social learning approaches that encourage group rather than individual listenership (such as community listening clubs and community-based radio schools to overcome these challenges.

  18. Strategies for Integrated Analysis of Genetic, Epigenetic, and Gene Expression Variation in Cancer: Addressing the Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Louise Bruun; Andersen, Lars; Makalic, Enes

    2016-01-01

    to integration strategies used for analyzing genetic risk factors for cancer. We critically examine the ability of these strategies to handle the complexity of the human genome and also accommodate information about the biological and functional interactions between the elements that have been measured......The development and progression of cancer, a collection of diseases with complex genetic architectures, is facilitated by the interplay of multiple etiological factors. This complexity challenges the traditional single-platform study design and calls for an integrated approach to data analysis...

  19. Addressing challenges in single species assessments via a simple state-space assessment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders

    Single-species and age-structured fish stock assessments still remains the main tool for managing fish stocks. A simple state-space assessment model is presented as an alternative to (semi) deterministic procedures and the full parametric statistical catch at age models. It offers a solution...... to some of the key challenges of these models. Compared to the deterministic procedures it solves a list of problems originating from falsely assuming that age classified catches are known without errors and allows quantification of uncertainties of estimated quantities of interest. Compared to full...

  20. New generation of Sour Service Drill Pipe allows addressing highly sour field challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomazic A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Drill pipes are commonly produced by assembling pipe and tool joints through friction welding. The weld, as a result of this process, presents some challenges for preserving corrosion resistance due to some metallurgical factors such as heterogeneous microstructure, different chemical compositions between the tool joint and the pipe body and heterogeneous mechanical properties close to the welded line. Hence a new drill pipe configuration have been developed including modified chemical composition and modified manufacturing process. These modifications allow for the improvement of mechanical properties performance and corrosion resistance in the welded zone.

  1. Changing Global Risk Landscape - Challenges for Risk Management (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, F.

    2009-12-01

    The exponentially growing losses related to natural disasters on a global scale reflect a changing risk landscape that is characterized by the influence of climate change and a growing population, particularly in urban agglomerations and coastal zones. In consequence of these trends we witness (a) new hazards such as landslides due to dwindling permafrost, new patterns of strong precipitation and related floods, potential for tropical cyclones in the Mediterranean, sea level rise and others; (b) new risks related to large numbers of people in very dense urban areas, and risks related to the vulnerability of infrastructure such as energy supply, water supply, transportation, communication, etc. (c) extreme events with unprecedented size and implications. An appropriate answer to these challenges goes beyond classical views of risk assessment and protection. It must include an understanding of risk as changing with time so that risk assessment needs to be supplemented by risk monitoring. It requires decision making under high uncertainty. The risks (i.e. potentials for future losses) of extreme events are not only high but also very difficult to quantify, as they are characterized by high levels of uncertainty. Uncertainties relate to frequency, time of occurrence, strength and impact of extreme events but also to the coping capacities of society in response to them. The characterization, quantification, reduction in the extent possible of the uncertainties is an inherent topic of extreme event research. However, they will not disappear, so a rational approach to extreme events must include more than reducing uncertainties. It requires us to assess and rate the irreducible uncertainties, to evaluate options for mitigation under large uncertainties, and their communication to societal sectors. Thus scientist need to develop methodologies that aim at a rational approach to extreme events associated with high levels of uncertainty.

  2. Global Education Reform Movement: Challenge to Nordic Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Ringsmose

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The international comparison and competitive focus on (academic performance, together with the growing awareness that early years impact children’s learning and development in education as well as over a lifetime, has resulted in heightened political interest in the learning of the youngest children. Politicians take action to achieve what they assume to be most effective approach, resulting in more centralized control, and more structured learning approaches introduced to children at still younger ages (Brogaard-Clausen, 2015: Brehony, 2000: Moss, 2013. In the Nordic countries1 there is a general concern for early years and the challenges facing early childhood education and care in an era of increasing globalization, with focus on accountability and academic competition (Ringsmose, Kragh-Müller, 2017. In Denmark, the social pedagogical tradition has been part of the culture of early childhood education for decades. In the social pedagogical tradition, relationships, play, and children’s influence are considered of key importance, and as the child’s natural way to learn about, and make sense of the world. It is considered that children learn and explore through play and participation embedded in the culture. Recently, the ministry of education has discussed more focused learning plans, and has tried out a program with more structured learning approaches. The gradual changes, together with the possible political action, are changes seriously threatening the social pedagogical tradition with more school-like, and more structured ways for children to interact. The purpose of this article is to present the Danish example as an alternative to the schoolification of early years that we see in many countries.

  3. Strategies to increase demand for maternal health services in resource-limited settings: challenges to be addressed.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Elmusharaf, Khalifa

    2015-09-01

    Universal health access will not be achieved unless women are cared for in their own communities and are empowered to take decisions about their own health in a supportive environment. This will only be achieved by community-based demand side interventions for maternal health access. In this review article, we highlight three common strategies to increase demand-side barriers to maternal healthcare access and identify the main challenges that still need to be addressed for these strategies to be effective.

  4. Radiochemistry methods in DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples: Addressing new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadeff, S.K.; Goheen, S.C.; Riley, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    Radiochemistry methods in Department of Energy Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) add to the repertoire of other standard methods in support of U.S. Department of Energy environmental restoration and waste management (DOE/EM) radiochemical characterization activities. Current standard sources of radiochemistry methods are not always applicable for evaluating DOE/EM samples. Examples of current sources include those provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, and Environmental Measurements Laboratory Procedures Manual (HASL-300). The applicability of these methods is generally limited to specific matrices (usually water), low-level radioactive samples, and a limited number of analytes. DOE Methods complements these current standard methods by addressing the complexities of EM characterization needs. The process for determining DOE/EM radiochemistry characterization needs is discussed. In this context of DOE/EM needs, the applicability of other sources of standard radiochemistry methods is defined, and gaps in methodology are identified. Current methods in DOE Methods and the EM characterization needs they address are discussed. Sources of new methods and the methods incorporation process are discussed. The means for individuals to participate in (1) identification of DOE/EM needs, (2) the methods incorporation process, and (3) submission of new methods are identified

  5. Relative and absolute addressability of global disease burden in maternal and perinatal health by investment in R&D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Nicholas M; McKee, Martin; Atun, Rifat

    2011-06-01

    Maternal and perinatal disease accounts for nearly 10% of the global burden of disease, with only modest progress towards achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Despite a favourable new global health landscape in research and development (R&D) to produce new drugs for neglected diseases, R&D investment in maternal/perinatal health remains small and non-strategic. Investment in obstetric R&D by industry or the not-for-profit sector has lagged behind other specialties, with the number of registered pipeline drugs only 1-5% that for other major disease areas. Using a Delphi exercise with maternal/perinatal experts in global and translational research, we estimate that equitable pharmaceutical R&D and public sector research funding over the next 10-20 years could avert 1.1% and 1.9% of the global disease burden, respectively. In contrast, optimal uptake of existing research would prevent 3.0%, justifying the current focus on health service provision. Although R&D predominantly occurs in high-income countries, more than 98% of the estimated reduction in disease burden in this field would be in developing countries. We conclude that better pharmaceutical and public sector R&D would prevent around 1/3 and 2/3, respectively, of the disease burden addressable by optimal uptake of existing research. Strengthening R&D may be an important complementary strategy to health service provision to address global maternal and perinatal disease burden. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Challenges created by data dissemination and access restrictions when attempting to address community concerns: individual privacy versus public wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquhoun, Amy; Aplin, Laura; Geary, Janis; Goodman, Karen J; Hatcher, Juanita

    2012-05-08

    Population health data are vital for the identification of public health problems and the development of public health strategies. Challenges arise when attempts are made to disseminate or access anonymised data that are deemed to be potentially identifiable. In these situations, there is debate about whether the protection of an individual's privacy outweighs potentially beneficial public health initiatives developed using potentially identifiable information. While these issues have an impact at planning and policy levels, they pose a particular dilemma when attempting to examine and address community concerns about a specific health problem. Research currently underway in northern Canadian communities on the frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection and associated diseases, such as stomach cancer, is used in this article to illustrate the challenges that data controls create on the ability of researchers and health officials to address community concerns. Barriers are faced by public health professionals and researchers when endeavouring to address community concerns; specifically, provincial cancer surveillance departments and community-driven participatory research groups face challenges related to data release or access that inhibit their ability to effectively address community enquiries. The resulting consequences include a limited ability to address misinformation or to alleviate concerns when dealing with health problems in small communities. The development of communication tools and building of trusting relationships are essential components of a successful investigation into community health concerns. It may also be important to consider that public wellbeing may outweigh the value of individual privacy in these situations. As such, a re-evaluation of data disclosure policies that are applicable in these circumstances should be considered.

  7. Strategies to increase demand for maternal health services in resource-limited settings: challenges to be addressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmusharaf, Khalifa; Byrne, Elaine; O'Donovan, Diarmuid

    2015-09-08

    Universal health access will not be achieved unless women are cared for in their own communities and are empowered to take decisions about their own health in a supportive environment. This will only be achieved by community-based demand side interventions for maternal health access. In this review article, we highlight three common strategies to increase demand-side barriers to maternal healthcare access and identify the main challenges that still need to be addressed for these strategies to be effective. Common demand side strategies can be grouped into three categories:(i) Financial incentives/subsidies; (ii) Enhancing patient transfer, and; (iii) Community involvement. The main challenges in assessing the effectiveness or efficacy of these interventions or strategies are the lack of quality evidence on their outcome and impact and interventions not integrated into existing health or community systems. However, what is highlighted in this review and overlooked in most of the published literature on this topic is the lack of knowledge about the context in which these strategies are to be implemented. We suggest three challenges that need to be addressed to create a supportive environment in which these demand-side strategies can effectively improve access to maternal health services. These include: addressing decision-making norms, engaging in intergenerational dialogue, and designing contextually appropriate communication strategies.

  8. Addressing current challenges in cancer immunotherapy with mathematical and computational modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstorum, Anna; Vella, Anthony T; Adler, Adam J; Laubenbacher, Reinhard C

    2017-06-01

    The goal of cancer immunotherapy is to boost a patient's immune response to a tumour. Yet, the design of an effective immunotherapy is complicated by various factors, including a potentially immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment, immune-modulating effects of conventional treatments and therapy-related toxicities. These complexities can be incorporated into mathematical and computational models of cancer immunotherapy that can then be used to aid in rational therapy design. In this review, we survey modelling approaches under the umbrella of the major challenges facing immunotherapy development, which encompass tumour classification, optimal treatment scheduling and combination therapy design. Although overlapping, each challenge has presented unique opportunities for modellers to make contributions using analytical and numerical analysis of model outcomes, as well as optimization algorithms. We discuss several examples of models that have grown in complexity as more biological information has become available, showcasing how model development is a dynamic process interlinked with the rapid advances in tumour-immune biology. We conclude the review with recommendations for modellers both with respect to methodology and biological direction that might help keep modellers at the forefront of cancer immunotherapy development. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. On the road to a stronger public health workforce: visual tools to address complex challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drehobl, Patricia; Stover, Beth H; Koo, Denise

    2014-11-01

    The public health workforce is vital to protecting the health and safety of the public, yet for years, state and local governmental public health agencies have reported substantial workforce losses and other challenges to the workforce that threaten the public's health. These challenges are complex, often involve multiple influencing or related causal factors, and demand comprehensive solutions. However, proposed solutions often focus on selected factors and might be fragmented rather than comprehensive. This paper describes approaches to characterizing the situation more comprehensively and includes two visual tools: (1) a fishbone, or Ishikawa, diagram that depicts multiple factors affecting the public health workforce; and (2) a roadmap that displays key elements-goals and strategies-to strengthen the public health workforce, thus moving from the problems depicted in the fishbone toward solutions. The visual tools aid thinking about ways to strengthen the public health workforce through collective solutions and to help leverage resources and build on each other's work. The strategic roadmap is intended to serve as a dynamic tool for partnership, prioritization, and gap assessment. These tools reflect and support CDC's commitment to working with partners on the highest priorities for strengthening the workforce to improve the public's health. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Addressing challenges of modulation transfer function measurement with fisheye lens cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Brian M.; Denny, Patrick E.; Zlokolica, Vladimir; Dever, Barry; Russell, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Modulation transfer function (MTF) is a well defined and accepted method of measuring image sharpness. The slanted edge test, as defined in ISO12233 is a standard method of calculating MTF, and is widely used for lens alignment and auto-focus algorithm verification. However, there are a number of challenges which should be considered when measuring MTF in cameras with fisheye lenses. Due to trade-offs related Petzval curvature, planarity of the optical plane is difficult to achieve in fisheye lenses. It is therefore critical to have the ability to accurately measure sharpness throughout the entire image, particularly for lens alignment. One challenge for fisheye lenses is that, because of the radial distortion, the slanted edges will have different angles, depending on the location within the image and on the distortion profile of the lens. Previous work in the literature indicates that MTF measurements are robust for angles between 2 and 10 degrees. Outside of this range, MTF measurements become unreliable. Also, the slanted edge itself will be curved by the lens distortion, causing further measurement problems. This study summarises the difficulties in the use of MTF for sharpness measurement in fisheye lens cameras, and proposes mitigations and alternative methods.

  11. Addressing challenges of heterogeneous tumor treatment through bispecific protein-mediated pretargeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Parker, Christina L; McCallen, Justin D; Lai, Samuel K

    2015-12-28

    Tumors are frequently characterized by genomically and phenotypically distinct cancer cell subpopulations within the same tumor or between tumor lesions, a phenomenon termed tumor heterogeneity. These diverse cancer cell populations pose a major challenge to targeted delivery of diagnostic and/or therapeutic agents, as the conventional approach of conjugating individual ligands to nanoparticles is often unable to facilitate intracellular delivery to the full spectrum of cancer cells present in a given tumor lesion or patient. As a result, many cancers are only partially suppressed, leading to eventual tumor regrowth and/or the development of drug-resistant tumors. Pretargeting (multistep targeting) approaches involving the administration of 1) a cocktail of bispecific proteins that can collectively bind to the entirety of a mixed tumor population followed by 2) nanoparticles containing therapeutic and/or diagnostic agents that can bind to the bispecific proteins accumulated on the surface of target cells offer the potential to overcome many of the challenges associated with drug delivery to heterogeneous tumors. Despite its considerable success in improving the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy, the pretargeting strategy remains underexplored for a majority of nanoparticle therapeutic applications, especially for targeted delivery to heterogeneous tumors. In this review, we will present concepts in tumor heterogeneity, the shortcomings of conventional targeted systems, lessons learned from pretargeted radioimmunotherapy, and important considerations for harnessing the pretargeting strategy to improve nanoparticle delivery to heterogeneous tumors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Global governance approaches to addressing illegal logging: uptake and lessons learnt

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Cashore; K. McGinley; S. Leipold; P.O. Cerutti; G. Bueno; S. et al. Carodenuto

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the results of the fifth global scientific assessment undertaken by the GFEP initiative. The report set out to gain deeper understanding of the meaning of illegal logging and related timber trade, its scale, drivers and consequences. It provides a structured synthesis of available scientific and expert knowledge on illegal logging and associated...

  13. Partnerships as panacea for addressing global problems? On rationale, context, actors, impact and limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Seitanidi, M.M; Crane, A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines partnerships and their peculiarities, based on recent research from various disciplines, in the context of the large problems faced by (global) society. These problems are very complex, often cross national boundaries, and cannot easily be 'solved' by one single actor. Previous

  14. Addressing AACSB Global and Technology Requirements: Exploratory Assessment of a Marketing Management Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Scott; Bao, Yongchuan

    2009-01-01

    The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) standards mandate knowledge of global and technology issues. Businesses desire employees with ability to analyze international markets and to be adept with technology. Taxpayers supporting public universities and organizations hiring business school graduates expect accountability…

  15. Addressing the trade-climate change-energy nexus: China's explorations in a global governance landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Monkelbaan

    2014-12-01

    As a way forward, different approaches towards the governance of trade and climate change will be highlighted. Besides discussing the specific aspects of Chinese participation in global trade and climate change governance, this paper aims at offering broader insights into the nexus between trade, energy and climate governance in China.

  16. GA(2)LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network) addresses the allergy and asthma 'epidemic'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, J.; Burney, P. G.; Zuberbier, T.; Cauwenberge, P. V.; Akdis, C. A.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Bonini, S.; Fokkens, W. J.; Kauffmann, F.; Kowalski, M. L.; Lodrup-Carlsen, K.; Mullol, J.; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, E.; Papadopoulos, N.; Toskala, E.; Wickman, M.; Anto, J.; Auvergne, N.; Bachert, C.; Bousquet, P. J.; Brunekreef, B.; Canonica, G. W.; Carlsen, K. H.; Gjomarkaj, M.; Haahtela, T.; Howarth, P.; Lenzen, G.; Lotvall, J.; Radon, K.; Ring, J.; Salapatas, M.; Schünemann, H. J.; Szczecklik, A.; Todo-Bom, A.; Valovirta, E.; von Mutius, E.; Zock, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Allergic diseases represent a major health problem in Europe. They are increasing in prevalence, severity and costs. The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN), a Sixth EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development (FP6) Network of Excellence, was created in 2005 as

  17. Synthesis and review: Tackling the nitrogen management challenge: from global to local scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Stefan; Bekunda, Mateete; Howard, Clare M.; Karanja, Nancy; Winiwarter, Wilfried; Yan, Xiaoyuan; Bleeker, Albert; Sutton, Mark A.

    2016-12-01

    One of the ‘grand challenges’ of this age is the anthropogenic impact exerted on the nitrogen cycle. Issues of concern range from an excess of fixed nitrogen resulting in environmental pressures for some regions, while for other regions insufficient fixed nitrogen affects food security and may lead to health risks. To address these issues, nitrogen needs to be managed in an integrated fashion, at a variety of scales (from global to local). Such management has to be based on a thorough understanding of the sources of reactive nitrogen released into the environment, its deposition and effects. This requires a comprehensive assessment of the key drivers of changes in the nitrogen cycle both spatially, at the field, regional and global scale and over time. In this focus issue, we address the challenges of managing reactive nitrogen in the context of food production and its impacts on human and ecosystem health. In addition, we discuss the scope for and design of management approaches in regions with too much and too little nitrogen. This focus issue includes several contributions from authors who participated at the N2013 conference in Kampala in November 2013, where delegates compiled and agreed upon the ‘Kampala Statement-for-Action on Reactive Nitrogen in Africa and Globally’. These contributions further underline scientifically the claims of the ‘Kampala Statement’, that simultaneously reducing pollution and increasing nitrogen available in the food system, by improved nitrogen management offers win-wins for environment, health and food security in both developing and developed economies. The specific messages conveyed in the Kampala Statement focus on improving nitrogen management (I), including the reduction of nitrogen losses from agriculture, industry, transport and energy sectors, as well as improving waste treatment and informing individuals and institutions (II). Highlighting the need for innovation and increased awareness among stakeholders (III

  18. ¿A quantitative biophysics ethics to address the global challenge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ortega

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Philosophical and political discussions often become ends in circles, in which barely scratches occur without creating new structures of thought that would reveal the reality and the ways to solve the serious problems we live. Generally, each person involved in the discussion, consider that it is right in his argument and no mediator to interact in the discussion to help move the points of view, nor an arbitrator may render a verdict. And often the rhetorical skill and the weight of tradition influence the outcome of the discussions, for better or for worse. Is it possible philosophical and political debate based on science universal? In this case, the arguments would have to present diagrams to explain the systems that defend and to quantify energy flows involved, quantitatively simulate the consequences of the alternatives and generate indicators to assess the implications of the proposals. The progress of modern science enables this evolution. This new type of discussion requires training in Biophysics Economics. The science involved would be: General Systems Theory, Systemic Ecology, Thermodynamics of Open Systems and Holistic Psychology. These sciences enable a systemic approach to reality, explaining the complexity and dynamics. We could have a qualitative leap in human work and interaction with nature, whether judges, politicians and ordinary people could make decisions based on the systemic approach. Have you thought of a Systemic Ethic and the implications of this approach to religion? Or to set the price of resources and products? Or to set the value of a coin? Or to measure the sustainability of the production models? Therefore, education on these sciences is a great need and that training should occur in parallel with formal education and everyday activities of people.

  19. Qualitative Computing and Qualitative Research: Addressing the Challenges of Technology and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Cisneros Puebla

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative computing has been part of our lives for thirty years. Today, we urgently call for an evaluation of its international impact on qualitative research. Evaluating the international impact of qualitative research and qualitative computing requires a consideration of the vast amount of qualitative research over the last decades, as well as thoughtfulness about the uneven and unequal way in which qualitative research and qualitative computing are present in different fields of study and geographical regions. To understand the international impact of qualitative computing requires evaluation of the digital divide and the huge differences between center and peripheries. The international impact of qualitative research, and, in particular qualitative computing, is the question at the heart of this array of selected papers from the "Qualitative Computing: Diverse Worlds and Research Practices Conference." In this article, we introduce the reader to the goals, motivation, and atmosphere at the conference, taking place in Istanbul, Turkey, in 2011. The dialogue generated there is still in the air, and this introduction is a call to spread that voice. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1202285

  20. Replicating a self-affirmation intervention to address gender differences: Successes and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost-Smith, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Ito, Tiffany A.; Miyake, Akira

    2012-02-01

    We previously reported on the success of a psychological intervention implemented to reduce gender differences in achievement in an introductory college physics course. In this prior study, we found that the gender gap on exams and the FMCE among students who completed two 15-minute self-affirmation writing exercises was significantly reduced compared to the gender gap among students who completed neutral writing exercises. In a follow-up study we replicated the self-affirmation intervention in a later semester of the same course, with the same instructor. In this paper, we report the details and preliminary results of the replication study, where we find similar patterns along exams and course grades, but do not observe these patterns along the FMCE. We begin to investigate the critical features of replicating educational interventions, finding that replicating educational interventions is challenging, complex, and involves potentially subtle factors, some of which we explore and others that require further research.

  1. An introduction to electronic learning and its use to address challenges in surgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Szczepan W; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Kehler, James

    2009-06-01

    The animal research community faces a shortage of surgical training opportunities along with an increasing demand for expertise in surgical techniques. One possible means of overcoming this challenge is the use of computer-based or electronic learning (e-learning) to disseminate material to a broad range of animal users. E-learning platforms can take many different forms, ranging from simple text documents that are posted online to complex virtual courses that incorporate dynamic video or audio content and in which students and instructors can interact in real time. The authors present an overview of e-learning and discuss its potential benefits as a supplement to hands-on rodent surgical training. They also discuss a few basic considerations in developing and implementing electronic courses.

  2. Globalizing rehabilitation psychology: Application of foundational principles to global health and rehabilitation challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Jacob A; Bruyère, Susanne M; LeBlanc, Jeanne; MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2016-02-01

    This article reviewed foundational principles in rehabilitation psychology and explored their application to global health imperatives as outlined in the World Report on Disability (World Health Organization & World Bank, 2011). Historical theories and perspectives are used to assist with conceptual formulation as applied to emerging international rehabilitation psychology topics. According to the World Report on Disability (World Health Organization & World Bank, 2011), there are approximately 1 billion individuals living with some form of disability globally. An estimated 80% of persons with disabilities live in low- to middle-income countries (WHO, 2006). The primary messages and recommendations of the World Report on Disability have been previously summarized as it relates to potential opportunities for contribution within the field of rehabilitation psychology (MacLachlan & Mannan, 2014). Yet, undeniable barriers remain to realizing the full potential for contributions in low- to middle-income country settings. A vision for engaging in international capacity building and public health efforts is needed within the field of rehabilitation psychology. Foundational rehabilitation psychology principles have application to the service of individuals with disabilities in areas of the world facing complex socioeconomic and sociopolitical challenges. Foundational principles of person-environment interaction, importance of social context, and need for involvement of persons with disabilities can provide guidance to the field as it relates to global health and rehabilitation efforts. The authors illustrate the application of rehabilitation psychology foundational principles through case examples and description of ongoing work, and link foundational principles to discreet domains of intervention going forward. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Are we ready to accept the challenge? Addressing the shortcomings of contemporary qualitative health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Sofie Rosenlund; Traulsen, Janine M

    Qualitative approaches represent an important contributor to health care research. However, several researchers argue that contemporary qualitative research does not live up to its full potential. By presenting a snapshot of contemporary qualitative research in the field of social and administrative pharmacy, this study challenges contributors to the field by asking: Are we ready to accept the challenge and take qualitative research one step further? The purpose of this study was to initiate a constructive dialogue on the need for increased transparency in qualitative data analysis, including explicitly reflecting upon theoretical perspectives affecting the research process. Content analysis was used to evaluate levels of theoretical visibility and analysis transparency in selected qualitative research articles published in Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy between January 2014 and January 2015. In 14 out of 21 assessed papers, the use of theory was found to be Seemingly Absent (lowest level of theory use), and the data analyses did not include any interpretive endeavors. Only two papers consistently applied theory throughout the entire study and clearly took the data analyses from a descriptive to an interpretive level. It was found that the aim of the majority of assessed papers was to change or modify a given practice, which however, resulted in a lack of both theoretical underpinnings and analysis transparency. This study takes the standpoint that theory and high-quality analysis go hand-in-hand. Based on the content analysis, articles that were deemed to be high in quality were explicit about the theoretical framework of their study and transparent in how they analyzed their data. It was found that theory contributed to the transparency of how the data were analyzed and interpreted. Two ways of improving contemporary qualitative research in the field of social and administrative pharmacy are discussed: engaging with social theory and establishing

  4. Implementing Peer Learning in Clinical Education: A Framework to Address Challenges In the "Real World".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Joanna Hong Meng; Canny, Benedict J; Haines, Terry P; Molloy, Elizabeth K

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: Peer learning has many benefits and can assist students in gaining the educational skills required in future years when they become teachers themselves. Peer learning may be particularly useful in clinical learning environments, where students report feeling marginalized, overwhelmed, and unsupported. Educational interventions often fail in the workplace environment, as they are often conceived in the "ideal" rather than the complex, messy real world. This work sought to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing peer learning activities in a clinical curriculum. Previous peer learning research results and a matrix of empirically derived peer learning activities were presented to local clinical education experts to generate discussion around the realities of implementing such activities. Potential barriers and limitations of and strategies for implementing peer learning in clinical education were the focus of the individual interviews. Thematic analysis of the data identified three key considerations for real-world implementation of peer learning: culture, epistemic authority, and the primacy of patient-centered care. Strategies for peer learning implementation were also developed from themes within the data, focusing on developing a culture of safety in which peer learning could be undertaken, engaging both educators and students, and establishing expectations for the use of peer learning. Insights: This study identified considerations and strategies for the implementation of peer learning activities, which took into account both educator and student roles. Reported challenges were reflective of those identified within the literature. The resultant framework may aid others in anticipating implementation challenges. Further work is required to test the framework's application in other contexts and its effect on learner outcomes.

  5. Building a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Its Interoperability Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Launched in 2005 by industrialized nations, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) began building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Consisting of both a policy framework, and an information infrastructure, GEOSS, was intended to link and/or integrate the multitude of Earth observation systems, primarily operated by its Member Countries and Participating Organizations, so that users could more readily benefit from global information assets for a number of society's key environmental issues. It was recognized that having ready access to observations from multiple systems was a prerequisite for both environmental decision-making, as well as economic development. From the very start, it was also recognized that the shear complexity of the Earth's system cannot be captured by any single observation system, and that a federated, interoperable approach was necessary. While this international effort has met with much success, primarily in advancing broad, open data policies and practices, challenges remain. In 2014 (Geneva, Switzerland) and 2015 (Mexico City, Mexico), Ministers from GEO's Member Countries, including the European Commission, came together to assess progress made during the first decade (2005 to 2015), and approve implementation strategies and mechanisms for the second decade (2016 to 2025), respectively. The approved implementation strategies and mechanisms are intended to advance GEOSS development thereby facilitating the increased uptake of Earth observations for informed decision-making. Clearly there are interoperability challenges that are technological in nature, and several will be discussed in this presentation. There are, however, interoperability challenges that can be better characterized as economic, governmental and/or political in nature, and these will be discussed as well. With the emergence of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), and the United Nations

  6. Characterizing and Addressing the Need for Statistical Adjustment of Global Climate Model Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. D.; Baker, B.; Mueller, C.; Villarini, G.; Foley, P.; Friedman, D.

    2017-12-01

    As part of its mission to research and measure the effects of the changing climate, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) regularly uses the World Climate Research Programme's Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model dataset. However, these data are generated at a global level and are not fine-tuned for specific watersheds. This often causes CMIP5 output to vary from locally observed patterns in the climate. Several downscaling methods have been developed to increase the resolution of the CMIP5 data and decrease systemic differences to support decision-makers as they evaluate results at the watershed scale. Evaluating preliminary comparisons of observed and projected flow frequency curves over the US revealed a simple framework for water resources decision makers to plan and design water resources management measures under changing conditions using standard tools. Using this framework as a basis, USACE has begun to explore to use of statistical adjustment to alter global climate model data to better match the locally observed patterns while preserving the general structure and behavior of the model data. When paired with careful measurement and hypothesis testing, statistical adjustment can be particularly effective at navigating the compromise between the locally observed patterns and the global climate model structures for decision makers.

  7. PM₂.₅ opened a door to public participation addressing environmental challenges in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ganlin

    2015-02-01

    China has long been regarded as a centralized society where the public has little influence on decision-making. Such a top-down management scheme is perceived as a major obstacle to address complicated environment issues. The recent public campaign in China to urge creation of a nationwide PM₂.₅ monitoring network and mitigation plan provides an unprecedented case of how the public participated and influenced policy-making in a centralized society. This paper reviews key incidents in the campaign chronologically. Here we identify information technology, public awareness of air quality's health impacts and the fact air quality affects everyone as public goods as the major factors promoting public participation. This case demonstrates that public participation can happen in a centralized, top-down society such as China. Continued environmental deterioration may stimulate similar campaigns for other issues. We anticipate this essay to be a starting point for more studies on how environmental issues stimulate incremental social change by making people involved in decision-making process, especially in societies where they are rarely able to do so. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Addressing the social determinants of health at the local level: Opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, E; Helgesen, M K; Hagen, S; Torp, S

    2018-02-01

    The gradient in health inequalities reflects a relationship between health and social circumstance, demonstrating that health worsens as you move down the socio-economic scale. For more than a decade, the Norwegian National government has developed policies to reduce social inequalities in health by levelling the social gradient. The adoption of the Public Health Act in 2012 was a further movement towards a comprehensive policy. The main aim of the act is to reduce social health inequalities by adopting a Health in All Policies approach. The municipalities are regarded key in the implementation of the act. The SODEMIFA project aimed to study the development of the new public health policy, with a particular emphasis on its implementation in municipalities. In the SODEMIFA project, a mixed-methods approach was applied, and the data consisted of surveys as well as qualitative interviews. The informants were policymakers at the national and local level. Our findings indicate that the municipalities had a rather vague understanding of the concept of health inequalities, and even more so, the concept of the social gradient in health. The most common understanding was that policy to reduce social inequalities concerned disadvantaged groups. Accordingly, policies and measures would be directed at these groups, rather than addressing the social gradient. A movement towards an increased understanding and adoption of the new, comprehensive public health policy was observed. However, to continue this process, both local and national levels must stay committed to the principles of the act.

  9. Nuclear Energy's Role in the 21. Century: Addressing the Challenge of Financing. Conference Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, Rakan; Borovas, George; Burkart, Alex; Gorn, Janet; Cho, Carl; Duncan, Aleshia; ); Gadomski, Chris; Ha, Jaejoo; ); Keppler, Jan Horst; ); Kuchinov, Vladimir; Lipman, Dan; Mathieson, John; McGinnis, Ed; Murphy, Paul; Mussler, Robert; Paillere, Henri; ); Reilly, Fiona; Sadayasu, Motomitsu; Schapiro, Regine; Shropshire, David; ); Duncan, Aleshia; Kmiec, Weronika; Grosch, Gisela; Lundell, Charlotta; Pham Van, Andree; Vuillaume; Allen Hamilton, Booz; Barkatullah, Nadira; Rollat, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    In May 2016, the International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation (IFNEC) held a conference in cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) on 'Nuclear Energy's Role in the 21. Century: Addressing the Challenge of Financing'. This conference brought together over 150 stakeholders from more than 30 countries, including government representatives and members of the nuclear and finance communities, as well as experts from the NEA and the OECD. Conference participants discussed the primary challenges faced by the markets, including how to secure financing for new nuclear projects, as well as approaches and solutions to such challenges. Through multiple expert presentations, moderated sessions and scenario discussions, participants acquired a better understanding of the unique challenges, approaches and techniques involved in financing new nuclear power plants. Throughout the conference, experts set the stage to understand why financing new NPPs is so difficult and complex. The following are the key challenges identified through discussions: - unstable electricity prices in a liberalized market; - electricity market designs that do not provide investment signals for low-carbon technologies; - insufficient carbon pricing to promote nuclear investments; - explicit governmental support for renewables; - uncertain and changing political support; - poor social and political perception of safety; - historical new nuclear project budget and schedule overruns; - long-term nature of capital investments. Final recommendations for consideration Conclusions were reached through discussions and debate on how to best address the aforementioned challenges. Although not all of these challenges can be resolved, there are methods to address the risks involved and to build the confidence necessary for investment. The key recommendations from the conference for financing new NPPs include: - conduct electricity market reform to level the playing field across all

  10. Pedagogy in Speaking: Challenges Addressed by Teacher-Student in the ESL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kawser Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Teaching speaking is perhaps one of the major challenges for teachers teaching in English as a Second Language (ESL classroom environment. Like writing, speaking is not linear and easy approach to ensure the best utilization among learners.  Since speaking is a real life event and face to face conversation, it needs more sophisticated care, practice oriented session for the students and effective means to implement it in the ESL situation. Even language experts often grope to outline effective and mediocre way to help learners have a good understanding in speaking.  This paper attempts to delineate the focal points where teachers and students face problems in teaching and learning speaking. It immensely chalks out with methodological study, qualitative data analysis and the underlining factors ESL teachers face enormously in the pedagogy of speaking for second language learners. My paper will outline the pedagogical tenets of speaking in the realistic non-native set ups and diagnose the impediments faced by learners when they are supposed to speak and by teachers when they teach speaking for their students.

  11. Addressing the Challenges of Aging: How Elders and Their Care Partners Seek Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jan; Crotty, Bradley H; O'Brien, Jacqueline; Dierks, Meghan M; Lipsitz, Lewis; Safran, Charles

    2017-10-01

    Elders in retirement communities face many challenges concerning information and communication. We know little about whether or how online technologies help meet their medical and social needs. The objective of this study was to gain insights into how these elders and their families manage health information and communication. Qualitative analysis of 10 focus groups with elders and family members. Participants were 30 elders at least 75 years of age residing in 5 senior living communities in and near Boston, MA, and 23 family members. Elders and families turned first to their personal networks when they needed information or help. They stayed informed about elders' health primarily by talking directly with providers. They used online resources infrequently, including portal access to medical records. They wanted online access to medication lists and visit notes, up-to-date information about local services and social activities, and a way to avoid the overwhelming nature of Internet searches. Elders in senior living communities and their families piece together information primarily from word of mouth communication. In the future, electronic social and collaborative technologies may make information gathering easier. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Strategies for integrated analysis of genetic, epigenetic and gene expression variation in cancer: addressing the challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Bruun Thingholm

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development and progression of cancer, a collection of diseases with complex genetic architectures, is facilitated by the interplay of multiple etiological factors. This complexity challenges the traditional single-platform study design and calls for an integrated approach to data analysis. However, integration of heterogeneous measurements of biological variation is a non-trivial exercise due to the diversity of the human genome and the variety of output data formats and genome coverage obtained from the commonly used molecular platforms. This review article will provide an introduction to integration strategies used for analyzing genetic risk factors for cancer. We critically examine the ability of these strategies to handle the complexity of the human genome and also accommodate information about the biological and functional interactions between the elements that have been measured – making the assessment of disease risk against a composite genomic factor possible. The focus of this review is to provide an overview and introduction to the main strategies and to discuss where there is a need for further development.

  13. Towards large-scale paludiculture: addressing the challenges of biomass harvesting in wet and rewetted peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schröder

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Peatland drainage causes peat degradation, which results in high greenhouse gas emissions and ongoing subsidence of the ground surface. To avoid further land degradation, the rewetting of peatlands is essential. The new land use concept of paludiculture - the use of wet and rewetted peatlands for agriculture and forestry - now offers possibilities for landowners and land managers to continue using these sites under wet conditions. But new challenges arise due to the limited bearing capacity of wet soils, which restricts accessibility for machinery. Whilst many site-specific technical solutions for harvesting on wet peatland are available, it remains unclear whether current machinery is suitable for use in the large-scale implementation of paludiculture. Repeated crossings of the same ground can easily disturb the upper peat layer and cause serious problems for the removal of biomass. In this article we present available machinery and approaches to biomass harvesting; and explore how the number of transport runs required for biomass removal varies with productivity of the site, cargo capacity and working width of the harvesting machinery. The results are used in a discussion of logistics and infrastructure requirements to facilitate the implementation of paludiculture. Whilst there is still considerable scope for improvement of harvesting technologies, our results show that a peat-conserving harvest from wet and rewetted peatlands is possible with adjustments to harvesting technique, logistics and site infrastructure.

  14. Vision for cross-layer optimization to address the dual challenges of energy and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Heather M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dehon, Andre [U. PENN; Carter, Nicholas P [INTEL

    2009-01-01

    We are rapidly approaching an inflection point where the conventional target of producing perfect, identical transistors that operate without upset can no longer be maintained while continuing to reduce the energy per operation. With power requirements already limiting chip performance, continuing to demand perfect, upset-free transistors would mean the end of scaling benefits. The big challenges in device variability and reliability are driven by uncommon tails in distributions, infrequent upsets, one-size-fits-all technology requirements, and a lack of information about the context of each operation. Solutions co-designed across traditional layer boundaries in our system stack can change the game, allowing architecture and software (a) to compensate for uncommon variation, environments, and events, (b) to pass down invariants and requirements for the computation, and (c) to monitor the health of collections of deVices. Cross-layer codesign provides a path to continue extracting benefits from further scaled technologies despite the fact that they may be less predictable and more variable. While some limited multi-layer mitigation strategies do exist, to move forward redefining traditional layer abstractions and developing a framework that facilitates cross-layer collaboration is necessary.

  15. Addressing Emerging Risks: Scientific and Regulatory Challenges Associated with Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Tammy R; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Cormier, Stephania A; Dellinger, Barry; Reams, Margaret

    2016-06-08

    Airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) are often generated through widely-used thermal processes such as the combustion of fuels or the thermal decomposition of waste. Residents near Superfund sites are exposed to PM through the inhalation of windblown dust, ingestion of soil and sediments, and inhalation of emissions from the on-site thermal treatment of contaminated soils. Epidemiological evidence supports a link between exposure to airborne PM and an increased risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. It is well-known that during combustion processes, incomplete combustion can lead to the production of organic pollutants that can adsorb to the surface of PM. Recent studies have demonstrated that their interaction with metal centers can lead to the generation of a surface stabilized metal-radical complex capable of redox cycling to produce ROS. Moreover, these free radicals can persist in the environment, hence their designation as Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFR). EPFR has been demonstrated in both ambient air PM2.5 (diameter challenges associated with regulating this new, emerging contaminant.

  16. Evolution of nuclear reactor containments in India: Addressing the present day challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakodkar, Anil, E-mail: kakodkar@barc.gov.in

    2014-04-01

    Indigenously developed Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) that form the backbone of current stage of nuclear power development in India have seen continuous evolution of their containment systems. This evolution that has taken place over implementation of 18 PHWRs (200/220/540 MWe) has encompassed all aspects of containment design, viz. the structural system, energy management system, radio-activity management and hydrogen management system. As a part of ongoing efforts toward strengthening of safety performance, India is also ready with the design of Advance Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR), which represents a technology demonstrator for advanced reactor systems and for thorium utilization. This reactor has a number of improved passive safety features and it is capable of meeting the demanding safety challenges that future reactor system would be expected to meet as a result of emerging expectations in the background of accidents over the past three decades viz. those at Three Mile Island (1979), Chernobyl (1986) and most recently at Fukushima (2011). In this lecture I shall focus on the evolution of nuclear reactor containments in India and highlight the design, associated structural and thermal hydraulics safety assessment made over the years for the improvement of containment performance.

  17. New Challenges for Urban History: Culture, Networks, Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hietala, Marjatta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban history is a very lively and dynamic research field, showing strict parallelism with the fast increasing of the urban population. Today, competitiveness is one of the key aims for cities in the globalized world. Factors such as accessibility and infrastructure, industry, human capital, innovation, and investment, green spaces, affordable housing, business support and quality of education are necessaries. However, the OECD recognizes three dilemmas in this strategic vision, concerning the spill over of metro-regions, the public strategic vision, and the relationship between economic dynamism and the liveable city. Today urban historians are facing some general challenges: comparative aspects are needed; also interdisciplinarity to develop cooperation between disciplines; and for maintaining the professional status of academic urban history. The expanding networks between towns and cities, and the meeting places as conferences and exhibitions are considered, as they are the multitudinous challenges and threats, especially for those cities suffering continuously of major natural and man-made disasters. Moreover, new amalgams of hazard are being created in metropolitan areas with overlapping natural, technological, biological and social risks, exposing more people and places, needing safety and security.

    La historia urbana es un campo de investigación muy vivo y dinámico, mostrando un paralelismo estricto con el rápido incremento de la población urbana. La competencia es hoy uno de los objetivos claves para las ciudades en el mundo globalizado. Factores tales como la accesibilidad y las infraestructuras, la industria, el capital humano, la innovación y la inversión, los espacios verdes, la vivienda accesible, el apoyo a los negocios y la calidad de la educación son necesarios. Sin embargo, la OCDE reconoce tres dilemas en esa visión estratégica, el desarrollo de las metrópolis, la visión estratégica pública y la relaci

  18. Addressing the challenges of cleft lip and palate research in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mossey Peter

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Indian sub-continent remains one of the most populous areas of the world with an estimated population of 1.1 billion in India alone. This yields an estimated 24.5 million births per year and the birth prevalence of clefts is somewhere between 27,000 and 33,000 clefts per year. Inequalities exist, both in access to and quality of cleft care with distinct differences in urban versus rural access and over the years the accumulation of unrepaired clefts of the lip and palate make this a significant health care problem in India. In recent years the situation has been significantly improved through the intervention of Non Governmental Organisations such as SmileTrain and Transforming Faces Worldwide participating in primary surgical repair programmes. The cause of clefts is multi factorial with both genetic and environmental input and intensive research efforts have yielded significant advances in recent years facilitated by molecular technologies in the genetic field. India has tremendous potential to contribute by virtue of improving research expertise and a population that has genetic, cultural and socio-economic diversity. In 2008, the World Health Organisation (WHO has recognised that non-communicable diseases, including birth defects cause significant infant mortality and childhood morbidity and have included cleft lip and palate in their Global Burden of Disease (GBD initiative. This will fuel the interest of India in birth defects registration and international efforts aimed at improving quality of care and ultimately prevention of non-syndromic clefts of the lip and palate.

  19. “Culture Education” and the Challenge of Globalization in Modern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola Omobewaji Dasylva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper has to do with the challenges of globalization in modern Nigeria and the process of “culture education,” a terminology used to emphasize the peculiar means and methods of instruction by which a society imparts its body of values and mores in the pursuance and attainment of the society’s collective vision, aspirations, and goals. Within this framework, this paper examines the legacies of imperialism and colonization within the Nigerian educational system––particularly in reference to the teaching of folklore and oral tradition––including the destruction of indigenous knowledge systems and the continuing lack of adequate resources in African universities. The paper concludes by offering suggestions for a more fully synthesized indigenous and formal Nigerian educational system as a method of addressing postcolonial rupture.

  20. Technical Reference Suite Addressing Challenges of Providing Assurance for Fault Management Architectural Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Rhonda; Whitman, Gerek

    2016-01-01

    Research into complexities of software systems Fault Management (FM) and how architectural design decisions affect safety, preservation of assets, and maintenance of desired system functionality has coalesced into a technical reference (TR) suite that advances the provision of safety and mission assurance. The NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) Program, with Software Assurance Research Program support, extracted FM architectures across the IV&V portfolio to evaluate robustness, assess visibility for validation and test, and define software assurance methods applied to the architectures and designs. This investigation spanned IV&V projects with seven different primary developers, a wide range of sizes and complexities, and encompassed Deep Space Robotic, Human Spaceflight, and Earth Orbiter mission FM architectures. The initiative continues with an expansion of the TR suite to include Launch Vehicles, adding the benefit of investigating differences intrinsic to model-based FM architectures and insight into complexities of FM within an Agile software development environment, in order to improve awareness of how nontraditional processes affect FM architectural design and system health management. The identification of particular FM architectures, visibility, and associated IV&V techniques provides a TR suite that enables greater assurance that critical software systems will adequately protect against faults and respond to adverse conditions. Additionally, the role FM has with regard to strengthened security requirements, with potential to advance overall asset protection of flight software systems, is being addressed with the development of an adverse conditions database encompassing flight software vulnerabilities. Capitalizing on the established framework, this TR suite provides assurance capability for a variety of FM architectures and varied development approaches. Research results are being disseminated across NASA, other agencies, and the

  1. Using Scientific Enquiry to Make Sense of Global Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Max

    2010-01-01

    In a context where the science underlying global issues such as climate change often loses out to political opinions and distortions, science teachers have a unique and very important role. Science teachers can use global-learning approaches to encourage learners to develop skills in scientific enquiry and critical analysis of scientific issues.…

  2. 111 Nigeria's Development Challenges in a Digitalized Global

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... Abstract. The paper assesses Nigeria's digital opportunity index in a digitalized global economy. Given the rising knowledge intensity that permeates every aspect of life, Nigeria is inevitably drawn into the digital global economy indexed by information and communication technology. The paper argues ...

  3. The ebola crisis : challenges for global health law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2015-01-01

    he recent Ebola crisis has caused approximately 20.000 deaths so far. Compared to other global health crises, including the deaths caused by armed conflicts and chronic diseases, this is still a small amount. Yet, from a global and domestic health law and governance perspective, this crisis raises a

  4. Global warming and drainage development: perspective and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wrachien, De D.; Feddes, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    The report gives an overview of current and future (time horizon 2025) drainage developments around the world. Moreover, the paper analyses the results of four of the most advanced global circulation models for assessing the hydrological impact of global warming, due to the greenhouse effect, on the

  5. Faith & Globalization:the Challenge for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Tony; Bardsley, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Globalization continues to transform how universities work: the students and subjects they teach, and the way they conduct and disseminate research. With tight budgets everywhere in the wake of the global economic downturn, universities are under increasing pressure to demonstrate value for money to the wider public from their research and…

  6. Global Mobility and the Challenges of Educational Research and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Fazal

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the author focuses upon the global mobility of people and considers what some of its drivers are. The author explores the consequences it has in transforming not only the demographic composition of communities, but also the ways in which global interconnectivities now define the terrain in which social, economic, political and…

  7. [The modern international public health and globalization challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the issues of impact of globalization on population health and public health. The positive and negative aspects of this process are analyzed. The role of international organizations (UN, WHO, UNESCO, ILO, UNISEF) is demonstrated in the area of management of globalization impact on public health of different countries, Russia included.

  8. The Current Observation and Challenges of Tourism Development in Batur Global Geopark Area, Bali Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosyidie, A.; Sagala, S.; Syahbid, M. M.; Sasongko, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    mining that makes environmental and infrastructure problems. Other activities include farming that does not fit well with the geopark aims. To address the challenges in the development of geopark, a number of activities should be considered, as follows: (i) Socialization and awareness raising on the importance of conservation in the area’s geological heritage, (ii) Batur Global Geopark needs improvement, thus it creates sense of pride of local community toward their region, (iii) Creation of local enterprises, new jobs and high-quality training courses to support the economy. Meanwhile, the development of Batur Global Geopark should be coordinated with all stakeholders from local communities, local entrepreneur, local non-governmental organization and local government.

  9. Challenging the reported disadvantages of e-questionnaires and addressing methodological issues of online data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Louise

    2012-01-01

    To review the advantages and disadvantages of e-questionnaires, and question whether or not reported disadvantages remain valid or can be limited or circumvented. The internet is likely to become the dominant medium for survey distribution, yet nurses and midwives have been slow to use online technology for research involving questionnaires. Relatively little is known about optimal methods of harnessing the internet's potential in health studies. A small e-questionnaire of health workers. The Medline and Maternity and Infant Care databases were searched for articles containing the words 'web', 'online', or 'internet' and 'survey' or 'questionnaire'. The search was restricted to articles in English published since 2000. The reference lists of retrieved articles were also searched. Reported disadvantages of online data collection, such as sample bias, psychometric distortions, 'technophobia' and lower response rates are discussed and challenged. The author reports her experience of conducting a survey with an e-questionnaire to contribute to the limited body of knowledge in this area, and suggests how to maximise the quantity and quality of responses to e-questionnaires. E-questionnaires offer the researcher an inexpensive, quick and convenient way to collect data. Many of the reported disadvantages of the medium are no longer valid. The science of conducting the perfect e-survey is emerging. However, the lessons learned in the author's study, together with other research, seem to suggest that satisfactory response rates and data quality can be achieved in a relatively short time if certain tactics are used. To get the best results from e-questionnaires, it is suggested that the questionnaire recipients should be targeted carefully and that the value of their potential contribution to the project should be emphasised. E-questionnaires should be convenient, quick and easy to access, and be set out in a way that encourages full and complete responses.

  10. Graph-state preparation and quantum computation with global addressing of optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, Alastair; Pachos, Jiannis K.; Adams, Charles S.

    2006-01-01

    We present a way to manipulate ultracold atoms where four atomic levels are trapped by appropriately tuned optical lattices. When employed to perform quantum computation via global control, this unique structure dramatically reduces the number of steps involved in the control procedures, either for the standard, network, model, or for one-way quantum computation. The use of a far-blue-detuned lattice and a magnetically insensitive computational basis makes the scheme robust against decoherence. The present scheme is a promising candidate for experimental implementation of quantum computation and for graph-state preparation in one, two, or three spatial dimensions

  11. The commercial marketing of healthy lifestyles to address the global child and adolescent obesity pandemic: prospects, pitfalls and priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, Vivica I; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Story, Mary

    2009-11-01

    Public- and private-sector initiatives to promote healthy eating and physical activity, called 'healthy lifestyles', are a relatively recent response to the global obesity pandemic. The present paper explores different views about marketing healthy lifestyles with a special emphasis on private-sector initiatives and public-private partnerships designed to reach young people. We discuss aspects of these initiatives and partnerships from three perspectives: (i) the potential for commercial marketing practices to have a favourable influence on reversing global obesity trends (termed prospects); (ii) unresolved dilemmas and challenges that may hinder progress (termed pitfalls); and (iii) the implementation and evaluation of coordinated and systematic actions (termed priorities) that may increase the likelihood that commercially marketed healthy-lifestyle initiatives and public-private partnerships can make a positive contribution to reverse the rise in overweight and obesity among young people globally.

  12. Road traffic injuries and data systems in Egypt: addressing the challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvanachandra, P; Hoe, C; El-Sayed, H F; Saad, R; Al-Gasseer, N; Bakr, M; Hyder, A A

    2012-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major cause of global mortality and morbidity, killing approximately 1.3 million people and injuring 20 to 50 million each year. The significance of this public health threat is most pronounced in low- and middle-income countries where 90 percent of the world's road traffic-related fatalities take place. Current estimates for Egypt show a road traffic fatality rate of 42 deaths per 100,000 population-one of the highest in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. RTIs are also responsible for 1.8 percent of all deaths and 2.4 percent of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost in the country. Despite this, studies surrounding this topic are scarce, and reliable data are limited. The overall goal of this article is to define the health impact of RTIs in Egypt and to identify the strengths and weaknesses of each data source for the purpose of improving the current RTI data systems. A 2-pronged approach was undertaken to assess the burden of RTIs in Egypt. First, a thorough literature review was performed using PubMed, Embase, ISIS Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Articles pertaining to Egypt and road traffic injuries were selected for screening. With assistance from Egyptian colleagues, a comprehensive exploration of data sources pertaining to RTIs in Egypt was undertaken and secondary data from these sources were procured for analysis. The literature review yielded a total of 20 studies, of which 6 were multi-country and 5 were hospital-based studies. None examined risk factors such as speeding, alcohol, or seat belt use. Secondary data sources were acquired from national hospital-based injury surveillance; a community-based health survey; pre-hospital injury surveillance; the Ministry of Transport; the General Authority for Roads, Bridges and Land Transport; death certificates; and the central agency for public motorization and statistics. Risk factor data are also limited from these sources. The results of this article

  13. CHALLENGES FOR TODAY’S RUSSIAN POLITICAL ELITE, AND WAYS TO ADDRESS THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ф И Шарков

    2017-12-01

    choice of the direction for further development is com-plicated by the destructive impact of the aggressive global elites pursuing their own interests that con-tradict Russia’s national interests.

  14. Global warming and the challenge of international cooperation: an interdisciplinary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryner, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    The book aims to explore the nature of potential climatic change. It seeks to assess the scientific, economic legal and political issues related to the threat of global warming from an interdisciplinary perspective. The seven chapters have the following titles: the challenge of global warming; global warming and ozone depletion - certainties and uncertainties; consequences of global climate change for Earth's biosphere; global energy use and global warming; problems and prospects of institutionalizing ecological interdependence in a world of local independence; political institutions and climate change; and policy options for responding to the threat of global warming. Six chapters are abstracted separately. 158 refs

  15. Assembling GHERG: Could "academic crowd-sourcing" address gaps in global health estimates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Marušić, Ana; Sridhar, Devi; Nair, Harish; Adeloye, Davies; Theodoratou, Evropi; Chan, Kit Yee

    2015-06-01

    In recent months, the World Health Organization (WHO), independent academic researchers, the Lancet and PLoS Medicine journals worked together to improve reporting of population health estimates. The new guidelines for accurate and transparent health estimates reporting (likely to be named GATHER), which are eagerly awaited, represent a helpful move that should benefit the field of global health metrics. Building on this progress and drawing from a tradition of Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG)'s successful work model, we would like to propose a new initiative - "Global Health Epidemiology Reference Group" (GHERG). We see GHERG as an informal and entirely voluntary international collaboration of academic groups who are willing to contribute to improving disease burden estimates and respect the principles of the new guidelines - a form of "academic crowd-sourcing". The main focus of GHERG will be to identify the "gap areas" where not much information is available and/or where there is a lot of uncertainty present about the accuracy of the existing estimates. This approach should serve to complement the existing WHO and IHME estimates and to represent added value to both efforts.

  16. Challenges and Opportunities for Tribal Waters: Addressing Disparities in Safe Public Drinking Water on the Crow Reservation in Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John T; Kindness, Larry; Realbird, James; Eggers, Margaret J; Camper, Anne K

    2018-03-21

    Disparities in access to safe public drinking water are increasingly being recognized as contributing to health disparities and environmental injustice for vulnerable communities in the United States. As the Co-Directors of the Apsaálooke Water and Wastewater Authority (AWWWA) for the Crow Tribe, with our academic partners, we present here the multiple and complex challenges we have addressed in improving and maintaining tribal water and wastewater infrastructure, including the identification of diverse funding sources for infrastructure construction, the need for many kinds of specialized expertise and long-term stability of project personnel, ratepayer difficulty in paying for services, an ongoing legacy of inadequate infrastructure planning, and lack of water quality research capacity. As a tribal entity, the AWWWA faces additional challenges, including the complex jurisdictional issues affecting all phases of our work, lack of authority to create water districts, and additional legal and regulatory gaps-especially with regards to environmental protection. Despite these obstacles, the AWWWA and Crow Tribe have successfully upgraded much of the local water and wastewater infrastructure. We find that ensuring safe public drinking water for tribal and other disadvantaged U.S. communities will require comprehensive, community-engaged approaches across a broad range of stakeholders to successfully address these complex legal, regulatory, policy, community capacity, and financial challenges.

  17. Addressing the challenges of standalone multi-core simulations in molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaya, R. O.; Terblans, J. J.

    2017-07-01

    Computational modelling in material science involves mathematical abstractions of force fields between particles with the aim to postulate, develop and understand materials by simulation. The aggregated pairwise interactions of the material's particles lead to a deduction of its macroscopic behaviours. For practically meaningful macroscopic scales, a large amount of data are generated, leading to vast execution times. Simulation times of hours, days or weeks for moderately sized problems are not uncommon. The reduction of simulation times, improved result accuracy and the associated software and hardware engineering challenges are the main motivations for many of the ongoing researches in the computational sciences. This contribution is concerned mainly with simulations that can be done on a "standalone" computer based on Message Passing Interfaces (MPI), parallel code running on hardware platforms with wide specifications, such as single/multi- processor, multi-core machines with minimal reconfiguration for upward scaling of computational power. The widely available, documented and standardized MPI library provides this functionality through the MPI_Comm_size (), MPI_Comm_rank () and MPI_Reduce () functions. A survey of the literature shows that relatively little is written with respect to the efficient extraction of the inherent computational power in a cluster. In this work, we discuss the main avenues available to tap into this extra power without compromising computational accuracy. We also present methods to overcome the high inertia encountered in single-node-based computational molecular dynamics. We begin by surveying the current state of the art and discuss what it takes to achieve parallelism, efficiency and enhanced computational accuracy through program threads and message passing interfaces. Several code illustrations are given. The pros and cons of writing raw code as opposed to using heuristic, third-party code are also discussed. The growing trend

  18. Innovative Use of the Law to Address Complex Global Health Problems Comment on "The Legal Strength of International Health Instruments - What It Brings toGlobal Health Governance?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Helen L; Ooms, Gorik

    2017-05-20

    Addressing the increasingly globalised determinants of many important problems affecting human health is a complex task requiring collective action. We suggest that part of the solution to addressing intractable global health issues indeed lies with the role of new legal instruments in the form of globally binding treaties, as described in the recent article of Nikogosian and Kickbusch. However, in addition to the use of international law to develop new treaties, another part of the solution may lie in innovative use of existing legal instruments. A 2015 court ruling in The Hague, which ordered the Dutch government to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at least 25% within five years, complements this perspective, suggesting a way forward for addressing global health problems that critically involves civil society and innovative use of existing domestic legal instruments. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  19. Developing Strategies for Islamic Banks to Face the Future Challenges of Financial Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Al Ajlouni, Ahmed

    2004-01-01

    Developing Strategies for Islamic Banks to Face the Future Challenges of Financial Globalization Ahmed Al-Ajlouni Abstract This study aims at forming strategic response to assess the ability of Islamic banks in benefiting from the opportunities that may be provided by financial globalization and limits its threats, through assessing the capability of Islamic banks to meet the requirements and challenges of financial globalization, then suggests the suitable strategies that may be ...

  20. Places to Go: Challenges to Multicultural Art Education in a Global Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Dipti

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between globalization and postmodern multicultural art education. The questions that drive my investigation are: What is the role of postmodern multiculturalism in this current phase of globalization and what challenges does globalization pose for multiculturalism? I explore the shifts in the field of art…

  1. Social Justice and the Global Economy: New Challenges for Social Work in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polack, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    The globalization of the economy creates new challenges for social work in the arenas of social and economic justice. This article outlines social justice issues related to the debt crisis of the Global South and sweatshops. A presentation of colonial precursors is followed by a detailed examination of these global institutions with an emphasis on…

  2. Global climate change: Implications, challenges, and mitigation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    This book presents a perspective of the potential problem of global climate change induced by human activity. The editors have presented viewpoints of experts (advocates and skeptics) representing the issues of climate change. Possible results from long-term global change discussed in this book include mass migrations of plants and animals; changes in crop yields; flood and drought; and economic, political, and cultural changes. The text contains 20 chapters on the impact of global climate change and 10 chapters on the mitigation of effects and policy development

  3. Current issues and challenges in global analysis of parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, Wu-Ki

    2007-01-01

    A new implementation of precise perturbative QCD calculation of deep inelastic scattering structure functions and cross sections, incorporating heavy quark mass effects, is applied to the global analysis of the full HERA I data sets on NC and CC cross sections, in conjunction with other experiments. Improved agreement between the NLO QCD theory and the global data sets are obtained. Comparison of the new results to that of previous analysis based on conventional zero-mass parton formalism is made. Exploratory work on implications of new fixed-target neutrino scattering and Drell-Yan data on global analysis is also discussed. (author)

  4. Challenges of the Audit Profession in the Globalization Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Munteanu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Massive unprecedented changes, that best describe this era, are affecting the accountant and auditor profession, as well as the global business environment. The traditional role of the financial auditor will change, but if it will adapt and provide new services, may become a trusted councillor for its clients. The way financial auditors approach future tendencies will shape the destiny of the accountant and auditor profession. Financial auditors must understand innovation, to be open towards globalization, to be prepared as human resources that are competing not only nationally but also globally.

  5. Polycentrism in Global Health Governance Scholarship; Comment on “Four Challenges That Global Health Networks Face”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jale Tosun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on an in-depth analysis of eight global health networks, a recent essay in this journal argued that global health networks face four challenges to their effectiveness: problem definition, positioning, coalition-building, and governance. While sharing the argument of the essay concerned, in this commentary, we argue that these analytical concepts can be used to explicate a concept that has implicitly been used in global health governance scholarship for quite a few years. While already prominent in the discussion of climate change governance, for instance, global health governance scholarship could make progress by looking at global health governance as being polycentric. Concisely, polycentric forms of governance mix scales, mechanisms, and actors. Drawing on the essay, we propose a polycentric approach to the study of global health governance that incorporates coalitionbuilding tactics, internal governance and global political priority as explanatory factors.

  6. [Continuous challenges in Japanese forensic toxicology practice: strategy to address specific goals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageura, Mitsuyoshi

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, the status quo of forensic toxicology in Japan and the West is surveyed and a strategy to address future goals of Japanese forensic toxicology is proposed. Forensic toxicology in the West consists of three main areas--post-mortem forensic toxicology, human-performance forensic toxicology and forensic urine drug testing. In Japan, post-mortem forensic toxicology is practiced in university forensic medicine departments while most of the human-performance forensic toxicology is carried out in police laboratories. However, at least at present, strictly controlled workplace urine drug testing is not being performed, despite the abuse of drugs even by uniformed members of the National Defence Forces and police. For several years, the author has been introducing Western forensic toxicology guidelines and recommendations, translated into Japanese with the help of Western forensic toxicologists, to Japanese forensic toxicologists. Western forensic toxicology practice is at an advanced stage, whereas Japanese practice is in a critical condition and holds many problems awaiting solution, as exemplified by the urine drug testing in police laboratories. There is never any sample left for re-examination by the defence in all cases, though the initial volume of the urine sample available for examination is 30-50 ml. Only one organisation carries out everything from sampling to reporting and, in addition, the parent drug and its metabolites are not quantified. It is clear that the police laboratories do not work within good laboratory practice guidelines, nor do they have quality manuals or standard operating procedures manuals. A basic change in Japanese forensic toxicology practice is now essential. The author strongly recommends that, first of all, Japanese toxicologists should prepare forensic toxicology guidelines based on the Western models. The guidelines would progress the following objectives for forensic toxicology laboratories: 1) to have documented good

  7. Ecological Momentary Assessment in Behavioral Research: Addressing Technological and Human Participant Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lora E; Shiffman, Saul; Music, Edvin; Styn, Mindi A; Kriska, Andrea; Smailagic, Asim; Siewiorek, Daniel; Ewing, Linda J; Chasens, Eileen; French, Brian; Mancino, Juliet; Mendez, Dara; Strollo, Patrick; Rathbun, Stephen L

    2017-03-15

    completing EMA surveys was high, with 88.3% (66,978/75,888) completion of random assessments and around 90% (23,411/25,929 and 23,343/26,010) completion of time-contingent assessments, despite the duration of EMA data collection and challenges with implementation. This work informed us of the necessary preliminary steps to plan and prepare a longitudinal study using smartphone technology and the critical elements to ensure participant engagement in the potentially burdensome protocol, which spanned 12 months. While this was a technology-supported and -programmed study, it required close oversight to ensure all elements were functioning correctly, particularly once human participants became involved. ©Lora E Burke, Saul Shiffman, Edvin Music, Mindi A Styn, Andrea Kriska, Asim Smailagic, Daniel Siewiorek, Linda J Ewing, Eileen Chasens, Brian French, Juliet Mancino, Dara Mendez, Patrick Strollo, Stephen L Rathbun. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 15.03.2017.

  8. Regulatory challenges in the review of data from global clinical trials: the PMDA perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, K; Tanaka, A; Sato, T; Uyama, Y

    2013-08-01

    Regulatory agencies face challenges in reviewing data from global clinical trials (GCTs) in the era of globalization of drug development. One major challenge is consideration of ethnic factors in evaluating GCT data so as to extrapolate foreign population data to one's own national population. Here, we present the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) perspective in reviewing GCT data in new drug applications (NDAs) and discuss future challenges for new drug approval.

  9. Challenges and Opportunities for Integrating Social Science Perspectives into Climate and Global Change Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, E. K.; Li, J.; Zycherman, A.

    2017-12-01

    Integration of social science into climate and global change assessments is fundamental for improving understanding of the drivers, impacts and vulnerability of climate change, and the social, cultural and behavioral challenges related to climate change responses. This requires disciplinary and interdisciplinary knowledge as well as integrational and translational tools for linking this knowledge with the natural and physical sciences. The USGCRP's Social Science Coordinating Committee (SSCC) is tasked with this challenge and is working to integrate relevant social, economic and behavioral knowledge into processes like sustained assessments. This presentation will discuss outcomes from a recent SSCC workshop, "Social Science Perspectives on Climate Change" and their applications to sustained assessments. The workshop brought academic social scientists from four disciplines - anthropology, sociology, geography and archaeology - together with federal scientists and program managers to discuss three major research areas relevant to the USGCRP and climate assessments: (1) innovative tools, methods, and analyses to clarify the interactions of human and natural systems under climate change, (2) understanding of factors contributing to differences in social vulnerability between and within communities under climate change, and (3) social science perspectives on drivers of global climate change. These disciplines, collectively, emphasize the need to consider socio-cultural, political, economic, geographic, and historic factors, and their dynamic interactions, to understand climate change drivers, social vulnerability, and mitigation and adaptation responses. They also highlight the importance of mixed quantitative and qualitative methods to explain impacts, vulnerability, and responses at different time and spatial scales. This presentation will focus on major contributions of the social sciences to climate and global change research. We will discuss future directions for

  10. The credibility challenge for global fluvial flood risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trigg, M.A.; Birch, C.E.; Neal, J.C.; Bates, P.D.; Smith, A.; Sampson, C.C.; Yamazaki, D.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Pappenberger, F.; Dutra, E.; Ward, P.J.; Winsemius, H.C.; Salamon, P.; Dottori, F.; Rudari, R.; Kappes, M.S.; Simpson, A.L.; Hadzilacos, G.; Fewtrell, T.J.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying flood hazard is an essential component of resilience planning, emergency response, and mitigation, including insurance. Traditionally undertaken at catchment and national scales, recently, efforts have intensified to estimate flood risk globally to better allow consistent and equitable

  11. Electronic Waste: A Growing Challenge In Nigeria | Ukem | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... growing problem of electronic waste from the Nigerian perspective, and highlights factors that can militate ... equipment, electronic waste, recycling, environmental pollution, waste management.

  12. Trump's Doctrine and Climate Change: New Challenges for Global Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Contipelli, Ernani

    2017-01-01

    The present communication aims to discuss the main topics related to Trump’s Doctrine and its effects on the implementation of global governance to fight against Climate Change. To present the argument, first, we will analyze the relation between global governance and climate change, followed by a general view of the climate change by some Republican Party members, and finally, the current policies already put in place by President Trump

  13. A common agenda of global challenges. Japan and U.S. pool resources to tackle global issues including population and HIV / AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The Common Agenda for Cooperation in Global Perspective is a bilateral partnership established in 1993 between the US and Japan to address important global challenges of the 21st century such as global health and human development, including population and HIV/AIDS, global stability, protection of the global environment, and the advancement of science and technology. On the fifth anniversary of the agenda, representatives of the Japan and the US governments, international organizations, and private sectors discussed ways to further promote US-Japan cooperation under the agenda at a meeting held in Tokyo during March 12-13. Participants of the Common Agenda Open Forum also reviewed efforts made by Japan and the US under the agenda to address population and the environment. Forum participants focused upon developing new ideas for future cooperation between the governments, the private sector, and other nations, especially in the areas of health and the environment. The meeting was jointly organized by Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the US Department of State. Attention was also given during talks to diminishing international assistance budgets worldwide.

  14. Global risk & global challenges - Space as a game changer for socioeconomic sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Christopher; Karlsson, Evelina; Giannopapa, Christina

    2017-11-01

    The world's societies at the beginning of the 21st century are better off than ever before. (Gapminder, 2015) At the same time, the world is also threatened by global challenges where space as a tool has and can play a pivotal role in meeting those challenges. The challenges range from climate change, over mass unemployment, to terrorism or migration - to name but a few. Space activities have started to respond to this changing world, not only by providing a deeper understanding of our universe, but by using space as an additional sphere and sector, through which humankind can increase and secure its wealth - it is thus game changing in the way we sustain humanity's existence. This paper is meant to capture this development. In the first part, an overview is given on the risks that humankind is facing. The second part describes the way that space can be used as a tool to prevent and manage these risks. The overview in the first part is based on the examination of the most recent reports and overall strategies of key International Governmental Organisations and Non-Governmental Organisations that are involved in agenda-setting, policy formulation and implementation. The second part includes an overview on current activities of the European Space Agency (ESA) that play a role in responding to these risks. To better understand ESA's activities that contain humanity's risks, a standard classification for risks management is used, which distinguishes between four components: Identification, Assessment, Management and Communication (Renn, 2005). The analysis reveals how space activities already today play a pivotal role in all four types of risk management. Space activities contribute very tangible to the management of risks through its space mission, but also in a more indirect way, as providing the technical backbone for stable and reliable cooperation in the international governance arena, and serve as crucial economic stimulator. The overall results show that space

  15. Nigeria's Development Challenges in a Digitalized Global Economy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the rising knowledge intensity that permeates every aspect of life, Nigeria ... and power supply, widespread insecurity, poverty and high illiteracy level. In other to overcome these challenges, the paper recommends among others sound ...

  16. EU Failing FAO Challenge to Improve Global Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B; Kerr, William A

    2016-07-01

    The announcement that the European Union (EU) had reached an agreement allowing Member States (MS) to ban genetically modified (GM) crops confirms that the EU has chosen to ignore the food security challenge issued to the world by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in 2009. The FAO suggests that agricultural biotechnology has a central role in meeting the food security challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Useful global-change scenarios: current issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parson, E A

    2008-01-01

    Scenarios are increasingly used to inform global-change debates, but their connection to decisions has been weak and indirect. This reflects the greater number and variety of potential users and scenario needs, relative to other decision domains where scenario use is more established. Global-change scenario needs include common elements, e.g., model-generated projections of emissions and climate change, needed by many users but in different ways and with different assumptions. For these common elements, the limited ability to engage diverse global-change users in scenario development requires extreme transparency in communicating underlying reasoning and assumptions, including probability judgments. Other scenario needs are specific to users, requiring a decentralized network of scenario and assessment organizations to disseminate and interpret common elements and add elements requiring local context or expertise. Such an approach will make global-change scenarios more useful for decisions, but not less controversial. Despite predictable attacks, scenario-based reasoning is necessary for responsible global-change decisions because decision-relevant uncertainties cannot be specified scientifically. The purpose of scenarios is not to avoid speculation, but to make the required speculation more disciplined, more anchored in relevant scientific knowledge when available, and more transparent.

  18. Struggles Against Bilateral FTAs: Challenges for Transnational Global Justice Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Choudry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has seen major movements and mobilizations against the new crop of bilateral free trade and investment agreements being pursued by governments in the wake of the failure of global (World Trade Organization and regional (e.g. Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, and the defeat of an attempted Multilateral Agreement on Investment in the 1990s.  However, in spite of much scholarly, non-governmental organization (NGO and activist focus on transnational global justice activism, many of these movements, such as the major multi-sectoral popular struggle over the recently-concluded US-Korea Free Trade Agreement, are hardly acknowledged in North America and Europe.  With a shift in emphasis pushing liberalization and deregulation of trade and investment increasingly favouring lower-profile bilateral agreements, this article maps the resistance movements to these latest shifts in global free market capitalist relations and discusses the disconnect between these (mainly Southern struggles and dominant scholarly and NGO conceptions of global justice and the global justice movement as well as questions of knowledge production arising from these movements.

  19. Implications of nuclear industry globalization for chinese nuclear industry: opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhifeng; Ding Qihua; Wang Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, globalization of the world nuclear industry has developed into a new phase. Chinese nuclear industry will be inevitably integrated into this trend. Globalization will bring both positive and adverse effects on Chinese nuclear industry. Facing the fierce competition, Chinese companies must rise to many challenges to enter the global nuclear market. And China need to make scientific decisions and take effective measures in various fields of nuclear industry to realized the goal of global development. (authors)

  20. Opening Statement - Angel Gurria [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurria, Angel

    2009-01-01

    China. Our organization is now more open and plural, welcoming new members and having launched an ?enhanced engagement? process with the most important emerging economies. Forging a more structured and stronger partnership with China is fundamental in such a process. It is based on our mutual interest to develop global solutions to global challenges, such as nuclear energy in the 21st century. Thus, I urge you to look into three important issues, which we should address in the years to come, namely, security, financing and development of nuclear energy

  1. An integrated framework to address climate change (ESCAPE) and further developments of the global and regional climate modules (MAGICC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulme, M.; Raper, S.C.B.

    1995-01-01

    ESCAPE (the Evaluation of Strategies to address Climate change by Adapting to and Preventing Emissions) is an integrated climate change assessment model constructed between 1990 and 1992 for DG XI of the Commission of the European Community by a consortium of research institutes headed by the Climatic Research Unit (CRU). It has been designed to enable the user to generate future scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (through an energy-economic model), examine their impact on global climate and sea level (through two independent global climate models), and illustrate some of the consequences of this global climate change at a regional scale for the European Community (through a regional climate scenario generator and impact models). We provide a very brief overview of the ESCAPE model which, although innovative, suffers from a number of major limitations. Subsequent work in the CRU has concentrated on improvements to the global climate module and work has also commenced on an improved regional climate scenario generating module. These improvements will lead to a new integrated climate change assessment model, MAGICC (Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse gas Induced Climate Change) which can easily be incorporated into new larger integrated frameworks developed by other institutes. (Author)

  2. Global trade and health: key linkages and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettcher, D W; Yach, D; Guindon, G E

    2000-01-01

    Globalization of trade, marketing and investment has important implications for public health, both negative and positive. This article considers the implications of the single package of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements for public health research and policy, focusing on three themes: commodities, intellectual property rights, and health services. The main aims of the analysis are as follows: to identify how trade issues are associated with the transnationalization of health risks and possible benefits; to identify key areas of research; and to suggest policy-relevant advice and interventions on trade and health issues. The next wave of international trade law will need to take more account of global public health issues. However, to become more engaged in global trade debates, the public health community must gain an understanding of the health effects of global trade agreements. It must also ensure that its own facts are correct, so that public health is not blindly used for political ends, such as justifying unwarranted economic protectionism. "Healthy trade" policies, based on firm empirical evidence and designed to improve health status, are an important step towards reaching a more sustainable form of trade liberalization.

  3. Global climate change--The technology challenge: China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population growth and developmental pressures, spawned by an increasing demand for resource intensive goods, foods and services, are altering the planet in ways that threaten the long-term well-being of humans and other species. Global climate change and its associated impacts is...

  4. Global Challenges and Threats: European and US Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marquina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta las similitudes y diferencias que existen en las aproximaciones de seguridad entre la Unión Europea y los Estados Unidos, así como sus implicaciones para la OTAN. La Estrategia de Seguridad Europea enfatiza los desafíos y amenazas globales, dejando en un segundo plano los problemas de seguridad tradicional existentes en la periferia europea. Los Estados Unidos, por su parte, que es una potencia militar global tiende a considerar los problemas de seguridad europea en un contexto más global. El artículo hace un recorrido por las políticas puestas en pie por la Unión Europea y los Estados Unidos para hacer frente a los desafíos globales y explica las similitudes y diferencias en orden a entender los problemas cruciales que los estados miembros de la OTAN tienen que abordar para dar consistencia y permanencia al nuevo concepto estratégico de la OTAN que se está elaborando.

  5. The challenge of the global elimination of iodine deficiency disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, van der F.

    1997-01-01

    Most nations of the world are well positioned for success in their pursuit of the virtual elimination of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) by the year 2000. In 1990 at the World Summit for Children, Heads of State and Government had agreed on this global goal and in 1992 at the International

  6. Cyber Governance : Challenges, Solutions, and Lessons for Effective Global Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayawardane, S.; Larik, J.E.; Jackson, E.

    2015-01-01

    Cyberspace permeates global social and economic relations in the 21st Century. It is an integral part of the critical infrastructure on which modern societies depend and has revolutionized how we communicate and socialize. The governance of cyberspace is, therefore, an indispensable component of

  7. [Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: challenges of a global emergence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comolet, T

    2015-10-01

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis, in particular Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR-TB) is an increasing global concern and a major burden for some developing countries, especially the BRICS. It is assumed that every year roughly 350 000 new MDR-TB cases occur in the world, on average in 20.5% of TB patients that have been previously treated but also in 3.5% of persons that have never been on TB treatment before. The global distribution of cases is very heterogeneous and is now better understood thanks to a growing number of specific surveys and routine surveillance systems: incidence is much higher in southern Africa and in all countries formerly part of the USSR. Countries with weak health systems and previously inefficient TB control programs are highly vulnerable to MDR epidemics because program failures do help creating, maintaining and spreading resistances. Global response is slowly rolled out and diagnosis capacities are on the rise (mostly with genotypic methods) but adequate and successful treatment and care is still limited to a minority of global cases. From a public health perspective the MDR-TB growing epidemics will not be controlled merely by the introduction of few new antibiotics because it is also linked to patient's compliance and adequate case management supported by efficient TB program. In depth quality improvement will only be achieved after previous errors are thoroughly analyzed and boldly corrected.

  8. Global pharmaceutical regulation: the challenge of integration for developing states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzola, Anthony; Sweet, Cassandra M

    2016-12-20

    This paper has set out to map the state of pharmaceutical regulation in the developing world through the construction of cross-national indices drawing from World Health Organization data. The last two decades have been characterized by deep changes for the pharmaceutical sector, including the complete transformation of intellectual property systems at the behest of the World Trade Organization and the consolidation of global active ingredient suppliers in China and India. Although the rules for ownership of medicine have been set and globally implemented, we know surprisingly little about how the standards for market entrance and regulation of pharmaceutical products have changed at the national level. How standardized are national pharmaceutical market systems? Do we find homogeneity or variation across the developing world? Are their patterns for understanding why some countries have moved closer to one global norm for pharmaceutical regulation and others have developed hybrid models for oversight of this sector? Access to medicine is a core tool in public health. This paper gauges the levels of standards in public and private generics markets for developing countries building on national-level pharmaceutical market surveys for 78 countries to offer three indicators of market oversight: State Regulatory Infrastructure, Monitoring the Private Market and Public Quality Control. Identifying the different variables that affect a state's institutional capacity and current standard level offers new insights to the state of pharmaceuticals in the developing world. It is notable that there are very few (none at the time of this paper) studies that map out the new global terrain for pharmaceutical regulation in the post-TRIPS context. This paper uses item response theory to develop original indicators of pharmaceutical regulation. We find remarkable resistance to the implementation of global pharmaceutical norms for quality standards in developing states and in

  9. Challenges for a Local Service Agency to Address Domestic Violence –A Case Study From Rural Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, Elli Nur; Emmelin, Maria; Eriksson, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Since the launch of a Zero Tolerance Policy in Indonesia, several policies to address domestic violence have been enacted. The obligation of local governments to establish service units for women survivors of domestic violence is one of them. Since domestic violence is a sensitive and complex issue in Indonesia it is important to understand how governmentally regulated services function in practice. This case study aimed to explore challenges faced by a local service agency in managing service provision for women survivors of domestic violence in rural Indonesia. Data from one focus group discussion (12 participants), four individual interviews, six short narratives, two days of participant observation, as well as archive reviews were collected. All data were analyzed using Grounded Theory Situational Analysis. The major challenge faced by the local agency was the low priority that was given them by the local authorities, mirrored also in low involvement by the assigned volunteers in the daily service. The study also identified a gap between the socio-cultural arena and the law & policy arena that needs to be bridged to avoid that the two arenas address domestic violence in a contradictory way. Budget allocation to support the sustainability of the daily routines of service agencies has to be given priority. There is also a need for careful considerations regarding the composition of personnel involved within daily management of service agencies addressing domestic violence. To bridge the gap between the legal systems and traditional cultural values, culturally adjusted alternative justice systems could be developed to increase women’s access to legal support. PMID:25363105

  10. Addressing implementation challenges during guideline development - a case study of Swedish national guidelines for methods of preventing disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter-Sundberg, Linda; Kardakis, Therese; Weinehall, Lars; Garvare, Rickard; Nyström, Monica E

    2015-01-22

    Many of the world's life threatening diseases (e.g. cancer, heart disease, stroke) could be prevented by eliminating life-style habits such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and excessive alcohol use. Incorporating evidence-based research on methods to change unhealthy lifestyle habits in clinical practice would be equally valuable. However gaps between guideline development and implementation are well documented, with implications for health care quality, safety and effectiveness. The development phase of guidelines has been shown to be important both for the quality in guideline content and for the success of implementation. There are, however, indications that guidelines related to general disease prevention methods encounter specific barriers compared to guidelines that are diagnosis-specific. In 2011 the Swedish National board for Health and Welfare launched guidelines with a preventive scope. The aim of this study was to investigate how implementation challenges were addressed during the development process of these disease preventive guidelines. Seven semi-structured interviews were conducted with members of the guideline development management group. Archival data detailing the guideline development process were also collected and used in the analysis. Qualitative data were analysed using content analysis as the analytical framework. The study identified several strategies and approaches that were used to address implementation challenges during guideline development. Four themes emerged from the analysis: broad agreements and consensus about scope and purpose; a formalized and structured development procedure; systematic and active involvement of stakeholders; and openness and transparency in the specific guideline development procedure. Additional factors concerning the scope of prevention and the work environment of guideline developers were perceived to influence the possibilities to address implementation issues. This case study

  11. Lessons learned and present day challenges of addressing 20th century radiation legacies of Russia and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengel, M.T.; Kristofzski, J.G.; Schubert, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly enriched uranium and defense plutonium as well as processing of high-level wastes are among the most challenging issues of addressing radiation legacy of the 20th century. USA and Russia are the two primary countries that have to deal with the challenge and where most of the fissile materials to be processed are concentrated, nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are stored, and multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities are located. In the US, CH2M HILL is managing two of the most important nuclear projects being conducted by the US Department of Energy at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and at the DOE Hanford Site (177 underground tanks at this site contain 60 percent of the United States' high-level radioactive wastes). Within the framework of the Russian Federal special program 'Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Materials Management, Utilization and Disposal for 1996-2005' works were carried out on the Karachai lake covering with soil, highly active radwaste vitrification and fractionation at the 'Mayak' combine. Currently there is a discussion of launching joint Russian-American initiatives including comparative studies of environmental and public health impacts from high-level waste vitrification and plutonium stabilization processes in Russia and high-level waste removal from tanks in the USA and of continuing comprehensive research with the RADSITE project (USA, European Union, Japan, China and India) using coordinated approaches in 2000-2003. This paper presents comparative studies, technical approaches, and regulatory strategies to address the challenges of managing and closing highly enriched uranium, plutonium, and high level waste sites. (author)

  12. Challenges in Building a Global Supply Chain in the Apparel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyaranya B. Gargeya

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The last decade of the twentieth century has been characterized with the growth of global supply chains in a wide variety of industries. Global supply chain management in the apparel industry presents a wide variety of challenges. This paper presents a framework elaborating the challenges associated with communication, cultural relationships, technology, production processes, supplier arrangements, and transportation infrastructure in building a global supply chain in the apparel industry catering primarily to the U.S. market. The paper, in the concluding section, makes a few suggestions for future research in global supply chain management in the apparel industry.

  13. Children at Risk: Global Views on Challenges Facing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Members of the World Forum community were invited to respond to the question: "What is the most urgent challenge facing young children in your country?" Here are some of their responses. Jamils Richard Achunji Anguaseh mentions that in Cameroon, young children face lots of insecurity, both from health hazards and poor parenting practices. There…

  14. Science Education and Challenges of Globalization in Igbo Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeudu, F. O.; Nkokelonye, C. U.; Adigwe, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviewed the scientific contents in Igbo culture. Description of the Igbos who constitutes an ethnic group occupying southeastern Nigeria was made. It x-rayed the pre-colonial, colonial, and post-colonial culture of Igbo people and identified the scientific cultural activities, which can be harnessed to meet the challenges of modern day…

  15. GLOBAL CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalana Bartosova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of export. According to selected indicators of social challenges of sustainable agriculture the number of persons working in agriculture has decreasing tendency in last years. The evaluation of selected indicators of environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture implies that area of organic agriculture is the most widely applied sub-measure within the measure agri-environmental payments. For ensuring the balance of the three mentioned dimensions of sustainable agriculture is necessary to increase of local production and consumption of local products, to ensure the protection of nature and landscape, to ensure rural development and to increase the employment opportunities in countryside.

  16. The Global Classroom and the Educational Challenge of Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Sonja S.

    2010-01-01

    Change in education is not going away; instead, it seems to be increasing exponentially. Technology has been the catalyst, and the changes with the greatest impact on education are the location and size of the classroom. The challenges associated with these changes involve working with students from potentially an unlimited number of countries and…

  17. Nuclear power and the global challenges of energy security, 6 September 2007, London, England, World Nuclear Association Annual Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2007-01-01

    In the Atoms for Peace speech given by US President Eisenhower in 1953 - the speech that paved the way for the creation of the IAEA - he declared that a special purpose of Atoms for Peace would be 'to provide abundant electrical energy in the power-starved areas of the world'. That vision has yet to be realized. And it should not be taken to mean that nuclear power is the solution for all countries, or for all developing countries. But I would reiterate what I said at the outset - that the global challenges of security and development are interlinked, and that addressing the energy security needs of all countries will be a key to progress on both fronts. It is incumbent upon us to see to it that nuclear power will fulfil its potential in addressing these challenges

  18. The globalization of the arms industry: The next proliferation challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitzinger, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    The globalization of the arms industry entails a significant shift away from traditional, single-country patterns of weapons production toward internationalization of the development, production, and marketing of arms. While wholly indigenous armaments production may be on the decline, multinational arms production - through collaboration on individual weapon systems and increasingly via interfirm linkages across the international arms industry - appears actually to be expanding. In several instances, in fact, multinational armaments production is increasingly supplementing or even supplanting indigenous or autonomous weapons production or arms imports. The emergence of an increasingly transnational defense technology and industrial base is fundamentally affecting the shape and content of much of the global arms trade. This changing defense market, in turn, will have a profound impact on a number of national security issues concerning the Western industrialized nations. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Why do Cultures Change? The Challenges of Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Suberchicot, Alain

    2009-01-01

    This essay explores cultural change in the context of the economic globalization currently underway. It aims at analysing the role that theoretical inventiveness and ethical value play in fashioning broader cultural representation and responsibility, and shall explore issues of cultural disunity and conflict, while assessing the influence that leading intellectuals may have in promoting a finer perception of value worldwide. The role of higher education as an asset in the defence of democracy...

  20. International expansion of Chinese multinationals: the new challenge of globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Quer, Diego; Claver-Cortés, Enrique; Rienda, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, a new generation of Chinese multinationals has set out to conquer global markets, featuring major international acquisitions that were unthinkable until very recently. This work seeks to analyze the nature of this emerging phenomenon, illustrating the reasons behind the international expansion of Chinese multinationals, the factors that facilitate and hinder this process, the entry modes that they use and the strategic implications for Western companies of their sudde...

  1. The global change challenge: the role of science

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity Outlook 3,(2011) ?Deletions from the ?book of life ?Less resilent ecosystems ?Reduction in ecosystem services ?the era during which humans are the dominant influence on the functioning of the Earth System The roots of the problem? I = P x... usable ? Human health ? Heat stress, vector-borne diseases ? Global food insecurity: pressure on South Africa ? Reductions of cereal, deciduous fruit and livestock production mainly due to rising temperatures ? More frequent natural hazard extreme...

  2. Challenges of the Audit Profession in the Globalization Era

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Munteanu; Mihaela Cornelia Berechet (Dragnea)

    2016-01-01

    Massive unprecedented changes, that best describe this era, are affecting the accountant and auditor profession, as well as the global business environment. The traditional role of the financial auditor will change, but if it will adapt and provide new services, may become a trusted councillor for its clients. The way financial auditors approach future tendencies will shape the destiny of the accountant and auditor profession. Financial auditors must understand innovation, to be open towar...

  3. Preserving the global environment: The challenge of shared leadership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    This book brings together essays commissioned as background reading for an April 1990 conference on the global environment co-sponsored by the American Assembly and the World Resources Institute. Among the topic areas covered are the following: technical aspects of energy policy and climatic change; harnessing the power of the marketplace; international cooperation; international regulatory regimes; world economic climate; deforestation and species loss; human population growth

  4. Global surgery for pediatric hydrocephalus in the developing world: a review of the history, challenges, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Ryan T; Wang, Shelly; Warf, Benjamin C

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Pediatric hydrocephalus is one of the most common neurosurgical conditions and is a major contributor to the global burden of surgically treatable diseases. Significant health disparities exist for the treatment of hydrocephalus in developing nations due to a combination of medical, environmental, and socioeconomic factors. This review aims to provide the international neurosurgery community with an overview of the current challenges and future directions of neurosurgical care for children with hydrocephalus in low-income countries. METHODS The authors conducted a literature review around the topic of pediatric hydrocephalus in the context of global surgery, the unique challenges to creating access to care in low-income countries, and current international efforts to address the problem. RESULTS Developing countries face the greatest burden of pediatric hydrocephalus due to high birth rates and greater risk of neonatal infections. This burden is related to more general global health challenges, including malnutrition, infectious diseases, maternal and perinatal risk factors, and education gaps. Unique challenges pertaining to the treatment of hydrocephalus in the developing world include a preponderance of postinfectious hydrocephalus, limited resources, and restricted access to neurosurgical care. In the 21st century, several organizations have established programs that provide hydrocephalus treatment and neurosurgical training in Africa, Central and South America, Haiti, and Southeast Asia. These international efforts have employed various models to achieve the goals of providing safe, sustainable, and cost-effective treatment. CONCLUSIONS Broader commitment from the pediatric neurosurgery community, increased funding, public education, surgeon training, and ongoing surgical innovation will be needed to meaningfully address the global burden of untreated hydrocephalus.

  5. Contemporary Business Education: a Solution for Global Leadership Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Cristian Ţiclău

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Education and professional development is considered central issues in civil service development and public administration reform. While this may be true, the content of such programs bears equal influence in skill acquirement, which in turn, has an impact on managerial performance (Perry, 1989. The contemporary economic and social environment poses numerous and complex challenges to public leaders, who need to be equipped with the adequate set of skills and competencies in order to have a proper response. The present paper aims to find out the whether the current educational programs from the business field can be a solution for preparing the next generation of public (and private leaders. My argument is that the latest developments in public management reform (New Public Management, Good Governance and Public Entrepreneurship combined with new demands for effectiveness, efficiency and high quality public services could increase the relevance of such programs. In support for this I presented a series of research results that point to a set of common leadership challenges that transcend the public-private divide. Finally I explored the offerings of the top 5 MBA programs in the world to see whether this is reflected in their educational programs. Not surprisingly, three out of the five programs analysed offer dual degree programs that combine business and public management education as a solution for the leadership challenges that lay ahead.

  6. Makerere University College of Health Sciences’ role in addressing challenges in health service provision at Mulago National Referral Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekandi Juliet

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mulago National Referral Hospital (MNRH, Uganda’s primary tertiary and teaching hospital, and Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS have a close collaborative relationship. MakCHS students complete clinical rotations at MNRH, and MakCHS faculty partner with Mulago staff in clinical care and research. In 2009, as part of a strategic planning process, MakCHS undertook a qualitative study to examine care and service provision at MNRH, identify challenges, gaps, and solutions, and explore how MakCHS could contribute to improving care and service delivery at MNRH. Methods Key informant interviews (n=23 and focus group discussions (n=7 were conducted with nurses, doctors, administrators, clinical officers and other key stakeholders. Interviews and focus groups were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim, and findings were analyzed through collaborative thematic analysis. Results Challenges to care and service delivery at MNRH included resource constraints (staff, space, equipment, and supplies, staff inadequacies (knowledge, motivation, and professionalism, overcrowding, a poorly functioning referral system, limited quality assurance, and a cumbersome procurement system. There were also insufficiencies in the teaching of professionalism and communication skills to students, and patient care challenges that included lack of access to specialized services, risk of infections, and inappropriate medications. Suggestions for how MakCHS could contribute to addressing these challenges included strengthening referral systems and peripheral health center capacity, and establishing quality assurance mechanisms. The College could also strengthen the teaching of professionalism, communication and leadership skills to students, and monitor student training and develop courses that contribute to continuous professional development. Additionally, the College could provide in-service education for providers on professionalism

  7. Charting a Democratic Course for Global Citizenship Education: Research Directions and Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John P.

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines research directions for global citizenship education, by emphasizing the centrality of democratic goals for schools in the 21st century. Despite a significant shift in educational policies and practices towards addressing education that respond to the conditions of globalization, there is not a clear vision regarding its role…

  8. Diplomacy, Globalization and Heteropolarity: The Challenge of Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Copeland

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is the defining historical process of our times, conditioning, if not determining, outcomes across vast swathes of human activity. At the same time, a heteropolar world is emerging, one in which various and competing sources of power and influence are based more on difference than on similarity. In the face of these transformative forces, diplomacy is struggling to evolve. To date, none of the key elements of the diplomatic ecosystem – the foreign ministry, the Foreign Service, or the diplomatic business model – have adapted well, or quickly enough. If diplomacy is to achieve its full potential as a non-violent approach to the management of international relations and global issues through political communications, then radical reform will be required. These observations are particularly apt in Canada, where diplomatic performance has in recent years been troubled. The foreign ministry (formerly DFAIT, still struggling to absorb the deep cuts contained in the federal budget of March 2012, finds itself in the midst of a complicated merger with the aid agency (formerly CIDA. This unanticipated amalgamation has resulted in significant uncertainty and dislocation in both organizations, and is reminiscent of the disastrous split, and then re-integration, of the foreign and trade ministries 2004-06. Canadian public and digital diplomacy, widely considered to represent the leading edge of diplomatic practice, have been wound down as a result of the imposition of centralized control over all communications. The Foreign Service, for its part, remains locked in a protracted and acrimonious labour dispute over pay equity. Rotating strikes and working to rule have taken a toll on business and tourist arrivals, foreign student enrolment and high-level visits. In short, Canada’s diplomatic ecosystem is in a perilous state, and Canadian interests are suffering.In the age of globalization and heteropolarity, this won’t do.

  9. One Health: The global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health' such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or decrease the suffering of canine and human patients, and which aligns well with the One Health approach. In this review we discuss how surveillance for leishmaniases is undertaken globally through the control of anthroponootic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The ZVL epidemic has been managed to date by the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and control of the sandfly vector by insecticidal treatment of human homes and the canine reservoir. Recently, preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to reduction in the incidence of the canine and human disease. Vaccination permits greater dog owner compliance with control measures than a culling programme. Another advance in disease control in Africa is provided by a surveillance programme that combines remote satellite sensing, ecological modelling, vector surveillance and geo-spatial mapping of the distribution of vectors and of the animal-to-animal or animal-to-human pathogen transmission. This coordinated programme generates advisory notices and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks that may impede or avoid the spreading of visceral leishmaniasis to new areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming.

  10. Multilingual trends in a globalized world prospects and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Navin Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This book presents evolving language education trends by drawing examples and case studies from around the world. Over the past few decades, significant economic and political changes have taken place around the world which have had a significant impact on language teaching and learning practices across the globe. With globalization, the focus of language education has shifted from monolingualism towards bilingualism and multilingualism, in that multilingual practices have become the norm rather than the exception in most parts of the world. This book brings together some of latest controversi

  11. Five challenges for stochastic epidemic models involving global transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Britton

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The most basic stochastic epidemic models are those involving global transmission, meaning that infection rates depend only on the type and state of the individuals involved, and not on their location in the population. Simple as they are, there are still several open problems for such models. For example, when will such an epidemic go extinct and with what probability (questions depending on the population being fixed, changing or growing? How can a model be defined explaining the sometimes observed scenario of frequent mid-sized epidemic outbreaks? How can evolution of the infectious agent transmission rates be modelled and fitted to data in a robust way?

  12. Enhancing continental-scale understanding of agriculture: Integrating the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) with existing research networks to address global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, G.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a resurgence of interest in the sustainability of the world's food system and its contributions to feeding the world's population as well as to ensuring environmental sustainability of the planet. The elements of this grand challenge are by now well known. Analysis of agricultural sustainability is made more challenging by the fact that the local responses to these global drivers of change are extremely variable in space and time due to the biophysical and geopolitical heterogeneity across the United States, and the world. Utilizing research networks allows the scientific community to leverage existing knowledge, models and data to develop a framework for understanding the interplay between global change drivers, regional, and continental sustainability of US agriculture. For example, well-established instrumented and calibrated research networks will allow for the examination of the potential tradeoffs between: 1) crop production, 2) land use and carbon emissions and sequestration, 3) groundwater depletion, and 4) nitrogen dynamics. NEON represents a major investment in scientific infrastructure in support of ecological research at a continental scale and is intended to address multiple ecological grand challenges. NEON will collect data from automated sensors and sample organisms and ecological variables in 20 eco-climatic domains. We will provide examples of how NEON's full potential can be realized when these data are combined with long term experimental results and other sensor networks [e.g., Ameriflux, Fluxnet, the Long-term Ecological Research Program (LTER), the Long-term Agroecosystem Research Network (LTAR)], Critical Zone Observatory (CZO).

  13. Global challenges and perspectives of marketing of healthy food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with global trends of healthy food market growth, Serbian export potential as well as with the importance and role of positioning and other marketing strategies in this field. Secondary data will be used for identifying characteristics and range of healthy food market on a global level and key segments. In that context, the economic importance and export potential of this sector in Serbia will be discussed. Food sector accounts for high percentage of total Serbian export. Yet, those products are of low added value, neither branded nor packed. In order to position producers of healthy food on an international market successfully, strength and weaknesses of domestic production and export will be identified as well as measures for its promotion. In this paper, literature review in field of food positioning and marketing will be presented. Various positioning strategies of healthy food will be discussed from the aspect of branding, country of origin image, marketing mix instruments, with special emphasis on promotion and product labelling. Special part of paper will be dedicated to specific aspects of buying and food consumption behaviour. This behaviour is under the influence of numerous factors, both personal and sociodemographic, which will be analyzed in order to identify adequate positioning strategies. At the end, recommendations for successfully healthy food positioning on an international market will be given. We will present ways of improving marketing strategies regarding exploiting identified chances on an international market.

  14. The global market for oilseeds: prospects and challenges for Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosselet Nathalie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The global market for oilseeds, grains, vegetable oil and oilseed meal is a complex market which is growing at a very fast pace, and which is characterized by the large volume of production which is traded between countries. Offer is geographically constrained in this market: there are few exporting countries and these are mainly situated on the American continent. Demand on the other hand is more widespread, although highest in Asiatic countries, China in particular. As a result, small importing countries, like Morocco, are in a vulnerable position, and take the full brunt of price volatility. In the 90s, Moroccan oilseed production was relatively high, unfortunately production dropped over the years, and Morocco must now buy vegetable oil and proteins on the global market. Reviving oilseed production in Morocco would considerably help the country and provide numerous benefits, such as food security, improving the country’s trade balance, and enhancing the agronomic management of land thanks to the introduction of break crops. Finally, it would also boost the entire agricultural sector and help increase the income of farmers.

  15. Zika virus: Global health challenge, threat and current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hafsa; Zia, Aadarash; Anwer, Amania; Aziz, Muneeba; Fatima, Shazia; Faheem, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    ZIKV has emerged as grave global health issue in the past few years. ZIKV was firstly isolated in 1947 from a rhesus sentinel monkey in the Zika forest in Uganda. It is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes and infects skin fibroblasts, skin keratinocytes, etc. ZIKV until now was under reported because of its clinical similarity with the dengue and chikungunya. It is usually spread through the course of the sylvatic cycle. In this cycle, the virus or pathogen lifespan is spent between the wild animal and vectors. The intrinsic incubation period is not yet fully known but it is observed that the very first symptoms of ZIKV infection can appear or develop within 3-12 days of time period and usually subside within 7 days of time. There is a strong relationship between prenatal Zika virus infection and microcephaly; other serious brain anomalies to the infant or newborn are Guillain-Barré syndrome. To date no vaccines are available for ZIKV prevention hence only symptomatic treatment is recommended in infected patients. Usually ZIKV is detected by serologic (IgM ELISA), plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) along with in-house" molecular techniques (RT-PCR). ZIKV infection being imminent global health issue warrants strong protective measures to prevent it from becoming an epidemic. Early detection and prevention is the key to tackle this grave potential health hazard. J. Med. Virol. 89:943-951, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Knowledge capabilities for sustainable development in global classrooms - local challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Anderberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Young Masters Programme provides young people around the worldwith a net–based global–local learning environment for sustainable development. The present study investigates certain aspects of the implementation of this programme in the secondary schools of a Swedish municipality, in the context of the Lund Calling project. The research focuses on critical abilities to act globally, referred to as “knowledge capabilities”, and how they relate to the implementation process of initiating global learning for sustainabledevelopment (GLSD. A phenomenographic approach and semi–structuredinterviews were used in the investigation of the experiences of secondary school pupils, teachers and headmasters who participated in the project. Participants’ experiences of the changes carried out are described in relation to examples of knowledge capabilities needed for GLSD. Critical knowledge capabilities found to have been developed through the implementation were: to take command, and to collaborate. Critical knowledge capabilities perceived asnecessary, but not developed through the programme were: to be prepared, to act in a transdisciplinary manner, and to lead for a holistic understanding.

  17. Environmental policy: Meeting the challenge of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotzaman, P.

    1990-01-01

    The Canadian government's overall approach to resolving the environmental problems due to global warming is discussed, with reference to how this approach is related to actions taken by other countries. Canada's environmental strategy is based the need to correct the failure to take into account the environmental consequences of daily actions. One element seen necessary for such correction, better environmental decisionmaking, is underlain by such key factors as the need to provide a strong scientific base on which to make decisions, resolving uncertainties regarding the greenhouse effect, and an environmentally educated population. Direct governmental measures can be taken to factor environmental considerations into decisions, such as regulatory instruments regarding the environment and economic incentives to encourage taking the environment into account. With respect to global warming, Canada has signed the Hague Declaration on international cooperation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. About half the annual world emissions of greenhouse gases come from fossil fuel combustion. Canada is the fourth largest producer per capita of the single most important greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. The transport and industrial sectors each account for ca 25% of Canada's CO 2 emissions, and energy conservation is seen as a first step in reducing these emissions. The greatest scope for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector appears to lie in the development of convenient and economic alternate fuels

  18. Preparing Students for the Ethical Challenges of Global Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Flammia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to teaching ethical intercultural communication. This approach helps students become aware of their own ethnocentric attitudes and helps them move beyond those perspectives to develop a mindful approach to intercultural communication. The paper begins by introducing the concept of mindful communication and the challenges of developing of a code of ethical behavior for communicating across cultures. Then, strategies for reconciling cultural relativism and universalism are offered. Finally, the paper provides a set of guidelines for ethical behavior in intercultural encounters.

  19. 76 FR 55060 - Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9459-7] Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change... entitled, Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi- stressor... vulnerability of water quality and aquatic ecosystems across the United States to the potential impacts of...

  20. Global Character of International Labour Migration: Challenges and Objectives for Higher Education in World Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravska, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with analysis of challenges and objectives for higher education in the context of globalization: the forming of international labour market proves the fact that the process of international integration is affecting economy and technology as well as social and labour relations that are becoming more and more global. The…

  1. The Century-Long Challenge of Global Carbon Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolow, R.

    2002-05-01

    The time scale of the global carbon management is a century, not a decade and not a millennium. A century is the ratio of 1000 billion metric tons of carbon [Gt(C)] to 10 Gt(C)/yr. 1000 Gt(C) is the future emissions that will lead to approximately a doubling of the pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration, 280 ppm, assuming the total net ocean plus terrestrial sink remains at half the strength of this source - since 2.1 Gt (C) = 1 ppm, and the concentration today is already 370 ppm. Doubling is the most widely used boundary between acceptable and unacceptable Greenhouse-related environmental disruption, or, in the language of the Framework Convention on Climate Change, the onset of "dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system." And 10 Gt(C)/yr is a conservative estimate of the average annual fossil-fuel carbon source over the century; it is now between 6 and 7 Gt(C). Conventional oil and gas are not sufficiently abundant to generate a serious Greenhouse problem on their own. Well before their cumulative carbon emissions reach 1000 Gt(C), both are expected to become non-competitive as a result of growing costs of access (costs related to resources being very deep underground, or below very deep water, or very remote, or very small.) But several times 1000 Gt(C) of coal resources will probably be competitive with non-fossil fuel alternatives, as will "unconventional" oil and gas resources, such as tar sands. The world will not be saved from a serious Greenhouse problem by fossil fuel depletion. There are four mitigation strategies for avoiding dangerous interference with the climate system. Fossil fuels can cease to dominate the global energy system well before the end of the century, yielding large market share to some combination of renewable energy and nuclear (fission and fusion) energy sources. Fossil fuels can continue to dominate, but most of the carbon in the century's fossil fuels can be prevented from reaching the atmosphere (fossil

  2. Network Function Virtualization (NFV) based architecture to address connectivity, interoperability and manageability challenges in Internet of Things (IoT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseeb, Shariq; Hashim, Aisha Hassan A.; Khalifa, Othman O.; Faris Ismail, Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    IoT aims to interconnect sensors and actuators built into devices (also known as Things) in order for them to share data and control each other to improve existing processes for making people’s life better. IoT aims to connect between all physical devices like fridges, cars, utilities, buildings and cities so that they can take advantage of small pieces of information collected by each one of these devices and derive more complex decisions. However, these devices are heterogeneous in nature because of various vendor support, connectivity options and protocol suit. Heterogeneity of such devices makes it difficult for them to leverage on each other’s capabilities in the traditional IoT architecture. This paper highlights the effects of heterogeneity challenges on connectivity, interoperability, management in greater details. It also surveys some of the existing solutions adopted in the core network to solve the challenges of massive IoT deployments. Finally, the paper proposes a new architecture based on NFV to address the problems.

  3. New Methods to Address Old Challenges: The Use of Administrative Data for Longitudinal Replication Studies of Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurren, Emily; Stewart, Anna; Dennison, Susan

    2017-09-15

    Administrative data are crucial to the "big data" revolution of social science and have played an important role in the development of child maltreatment research. These data are also of value to administrators, policy makers, and clinicians. The focus of this paper is the use of administrative data to produce and replicate longitudinal studies of child maltreatment. Child protection administrative data have several advantages. They are often population-based, and allow longitudinal examination of child maltreatment and complex multi-level analyses. They also allow comparison across subgroups and minority groups, remove burden from individuals to disclose traumatic experiences, and can be less biased than retrospective recall. Finally, they can be linked to data from other agencies to explore comorbidity and outcomes, and are comparatively cost and time effective. The benefits and challenges associated with the use of administrative data for longitudinal child maltreatment research become magnified when these data are used to produce replications. Techniques to address challenges and support future replication efforts include developing a biographical understanding of the systems from which the data are drawn, using multiple data sources to contextualize the data and research results, recognizing and adopting various approaches to replication, and documenting all data coding and manipulation processes. These techniques are illustrated in this paper via a case study of previous replication work.

  4. Apollo 2: Solar energy meets the new global challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, R. B [Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Humanity faces imminent and serious global oil shortages. It is urgent that the solar energy community respond aggressively to fulfill its central role in the transition from a transitory fossil-fuel economy to a sustainable solar future. The intention here is to explain and quantify the oil shortfall, to validate the renewable option, and to calculate the rate at which the capacity of the renewable energy industry must accelerate to counteract the predictable oil deficit. [Spanish] La humanidad se enfrenta a una seria e inminente escasez mundial de petroleo. Es urgente que la comunidad de energia solar responda agresivamente para satisfacer su rol central en la transicion de una economia transitoria de combustibles fosiles a un futuro solar sustentable. La intencion aqui es la de explicar y cuantificar el deficit de petroleo para validar esta opcion renovable y para calcular la velocidad a la que la industria de la energia renovable debe acelerar para contrarrestar el predecible deficit del petroleo.

  5. Media, cultural diversity and globalization: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayani, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the role media play in safeguarding cultural diversity, promoting cultural dialogue, facilitating the exercise of cultural rights,fostering cultural understanding and cultivating intercultural citizenship in the age of globalization. The paper highlights several interconnected leverage points: media content, practices, processes, ownership, education, structures, and policies. It argues that fostering cultural diversity in and through the media can go a long way toward bringing a civic discourse which favors tolerance and facilitates co-existence. It can contribute to the breaking down of cultural barriers, the initiation of cultural dialogues, the empowerment of marginalized groups, and the practice of good governance. At the same time, this paper argues, the celebration of difference does not preclude the valuation of a common cultural core or a common humanity which brings people together in spite of their differences.

  6. Globalization and loss of plant knowledge: challenging the paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandebroek, Ina; Balick, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    The erosion of cultural knowledge and traditions as a result of globalization and migration is a commonly reported phenomenon. We compared one type of cultural knowledge about medicinal plants (number of plants reported to treat thirty common health conditions) among Dominican laypersons who self-medicate with plants and live in rural or urban areas of the Dominican Republic (DR), and those who have moved to New York City (NYC). Many plants used as medicines were popular Dominican food plants. These plants were reported significantly more often by Dominicans living in NYC as compared to the DR, and this knowledge was not age-dependent. These results contradict the popular paradigm about loss of cultural plant knowledge and is the first study to report a statistically measurable increase in this type of knowledge associated with migration.

  7. Globalization and Loss of Plant Knowledge: Challenging the Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandebroek, Ina; Balick, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The erosion of cultural knowledge and traditions as a result of globalization and migration is a commonly reported phenomenon. We compared one type of cultural knowledge about medicinal plants (number of plants reported to treat thirty common health conditions) among Dominican laypersons who self-medicate with plants and live in rural or urban areas of the Dominican Republic (DR), and those who have moved to New York City (NYC). Many plants used as medicines were popular Dominican food plants. These plants were reported significantly more often by Dominicans living in NYC as compared to the DR, and this knowledge was not age-dependent. These results contradict the popular paradigm about loss of cultural plant knowledge and is the first study to report a statistically measurable increase in this type of knowledge associated with migration. PMID:22662184

  8. Global change: The new challenge for the fossil carbon industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyfe, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Human population growth, at 90 million more per year and at least 10 billion next century, is forcing a re-examination of our values and technologies. Technology concerns are energy, food production, water and air quality, and waste disposal. All of these involve exact knowledge of the outer few km of our planet because this film forms the basis of all our resources. A great new challenge faces people with expertise in the fine structure and dynamics of the porous-cracked outer layers of earth. Much of this expertise is centered in the fossil carbon industries. All must be involved in the problems of water supply, soil conservation, waste disposal, and clean energy production. Perhaps the greatest question facing the fossil fuel industry concerns whether greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced

  9. Examining the global health arena: strengths and weaknesses of a convention approach to global health challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffeld, Just Balstad; Siem, Harald; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2010-01-01

    The article comprises a conceptual framework to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of a global health convention. The analyses are inspired by Lawrence Gostin's suggested Framework Convention on Global Health. The analytical model takes a starting-point in events tentatively following a logic sequence: Input (global health funding), Processes (coordination, cooperation, accountability, allocation of aid), Output (definition of basic survival needs), Outcome (access to health services), and Impact (health for all). It then examines to what degree binding international regulations can create order in such a sequence of events. We conclude that a global health convention could be an appropriate instrument to deal with some of the problems of global health. We also show that some of the tasks preceding a convention approach might be to muster international support for supra-national health regulations, negotiate compromises between existing stakeholders in the global health arena, and to utilize WHO as a platform for further discussions on a global health convention. © 2010 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  10. Energy policy: challenges of a global vision; Politique energetique: les enjeux d'une vision globale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destot, Michel [ed.] [Depute de l' Isere, Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    2000-02-18

    This is the proceedings of the 2. parliamentary gathering on energy held on 14 October 1999. The document presents the talks by Mr Michel Destot (as special rapporteur of the Industry's budget in National Assembly) and Laurent Fabius, President of National Assembly, and Jean-Claude Gayssot, Minister of Equipment, Transport and Dwelling, at the opening session, three round tables, the colloquium synthesis and the closing session. The round tables addressed the following issues: - 1. International and long-term approach guided predominantly by energy demand; - 2. Energy solutions in the struggle against greenhouse effect; - 3. Challenges of opening the European energy market (internationalization and decentralization). At the first round table, Yves Martin, President of the technical section of General Council of Mines, structured his introductory report emphasizing the specific issues of three time horizons: the present, characterized by abundant energy offer; the horizon of 10 to 20 years, that of the energy suppliers which is orienting their investments; the horizon of more than half a century, corresponding to responses of far-reaching actions imposed by energy demand and which must be the object of governments' policies. Jean-Yves Le Deaut, deputy of Meurthe-et-Moselle discussed the risks of climate change, resources' exhaustion, nuclear power and the issue of developing the renewable energies. The problems raised by energy demand by the year 2050 to met the needs of an earth population of 9 billions were mentioned by Philippe Trepant, the president of French Union of oil industries. Energy problems from a globalization standpoint were discussed also by Benjamin Dessus, Director of Ecodev program of CNRS. Policy in the field of mastering greenhouse gas releases was mentioned in the talk by Michel Mousel, president of Inter-ministerial Mission for greenhouse effect. In the frame of 2. round table questions relating to energy management, renewable

  11. Injuries and violence: a global public health challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muazzam Nasrullah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries and violence are a significant cause of mortality and physical disability. Injuries killed five million people worldwide each year [1]. The level of this dilemma, however, differs significantly by age, sex, region and economic development [2]. Globally, road traffic injury mortalities, self-inflicted injury mortality and interpersonal violence, war, drowning, and exposure to fire are the leading cause of deaths among people aged 15-44 years [3]. This special issue aims to assess the magnitude of this problem, identify risk factors and explore prevention strategies to alleviate the burden of injuries and violence. There is a dire need to increase the knowledge of the extent of problem, and associated risk factors that needs to be targeted for prevention. Erosa et al., examined reports of verbal and physical abuse from family caregivers of adults with severe physical, neurological and developmental disabilities, and found that caregivers who reported some form of abuse reported significantly greater distress and burden than caregivers who did not report any abuse. Grice et al., found that reported histories of work-related physical assault and work-related threat were associated with elevated risks of current work-related physical assault. Ahmad, systematically reviewed and summarized current scientific knowledge on the use of interactive computer-assisted screening to detect intimate partner violence (IPV.

  12. Global Space Weather Observational Network: Challenges and China's Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.

    2017-12-01

    To understand space weather physical processes and predict space weather accurately, global space-borne and ground-based space weather observational network, making simultaneous observations from the Sun to geo-space (magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere), plays an essential role. In this talk, we will present the advances of the Chinese space weather science missions, including the ASO-S (Advanced Space-borne Solar Observatory), MIT (Magnetosphere - Ionosphere- Thermosphere Coupling Exploration), and the ESA-China joint space weather science mission SMILE (Solar wind - Magnetosphere - Ionosphere Link Explore), a new mission to image the magnetosphere. Compared to satellites, ground-based monitors are cheap, convenient, and provide continuous real-time data. We will also introduce the Chinese Meridian Project (CMP), a ground-based program fully utilizing the geographic location of the Chinese landmass to monitor the geo-space environment. CMP is just one arm of a larger program that Chinese scientists are proposing to the international community. The International Meridian Circle Program (IMCP) for space weather hopes to connect chains of ground-based monitors at the longitudinal meridians 120 deg E and 60 deg W. IMCP takes advantage of the fact that these meridians already have the most monitors of any on Earth, with monitors in Russia, Australia, Brazil, the United States, Canada, and other countries. This data will greatly enhance the ability of scientists to monitor and predict the space weather worldwide.

  13. Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Krupke, Christian H; White, Michael A; Alexander, Corinne E

    2008-01-01

    It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution climate model, we project potential future ranges for each of these pests in the United States. Our analysis suggests the possibility of increased winter survival and greater degree-day accumulations for each of the pests surveyed. We find that relaxed cold limitation could expand the range of all four pest taxa, including a substantial range expansion in the case of corn earworm (H. zea), a migratory, cold-intolerant pest. Because the corn earworm is a cosmopolitan pest that has shown resistance to insecticides, our results suggest that this expansion could also threaten other crops, including those in high-value areas of the western United States. Because managing significant additional pressure from this suite of established pests would require additional pest management inputs, the projected decreases in cold limitation and increases in heat accumulation have the potential to significantly alter the pest management landscape for North American maize production. Further, these range expansions could have substantial economic impacts through increased seed and insecticide costs, decreased yields, and the downstream effects of changes in crop yield variability.

  14. Infopreneurs in service of rural enterprise and economic development: Addressing the critical challenges of scalability and sustainability in support of service extension in developing (rural) economies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rensburg, JR

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available years’ work of ongoing research in a Living Lab fashion to understand and address the two critical challenges of scalability and sustainability in the utilisation of technology (primarily Information and Communication Technologies – ICTs) as enablers...

  15. Leadership in Force XXI: Is the Army's Current Leadership Model and Leader Development Doctrine Properly Addressing the Challenges Brought About by the Transition to Force XXI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Carl

    1999-01-01

    .... The purpose of this research paper is to answer the question, Is the Army's current leadership model and leader development doctrine properly addressing the challenges brought about by the transition to Force XXI...

  16. Global trends and challenges in deceased donor kidney allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Diana A; Watson, Christopher J; Bradley, J Andrew; Johnson, Rachel J; Forsythe, John L; Oniscu, Gabriel C

    2017-06-01

    Worldwide, the number of patients able to benefit from kidney transplantation is greatly restricted by the severe shortage of deceased donor organs. Allocation of this scarce resource is increasingly challenging and complex. Striking an acceptable balance between efficient use of (utility) and fair access to (equity) the limited supply of donated kidneys raises controversial but important debates at ethical, medical, and social levels. There is no international consensus on the recipient and donor factors that should be considered in the kidney allocation process. There is a general trend toward a reduction in the influence of human leukocyte antigen mismatch and an increase in the importance of other factors shown to affect posttransplant outcomes, such as cold ischemia, duration of dialysis, donor and recipient age, and comorbidity. Increased consideration of equity has led to improved access to transplantation for disadvantaged patient groups. There has been an overall improvement in the transparency and accountability of allocation policies. Novel and contentious approaches in kidney allocation include the use of survival prediction scores as a criterion for accessing the waiting list and at the point of organ offering with matching of predicted graft and recipient survival. This review compares the diverse international approaches to deceased donor kidney allocation and their evolution over the last decade. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nuclear safeguards in challenging times [Experts on nuclear safeguards and verification assess the global picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.S.; Hillerman, J.

    2007-01-01

    Meeting at the IAEA's International Safeguards Symposium in October 2006, more than 500 experts from 60-plus countries and organizations addressed current and future challenges related to safeguards concepts, approaches, technologies, and experience. Sessions addressed five main issues driving developments: Current challenges to the safeguards system; Further strengthening safeguards practices and approaches; Improving the collection and analysis of safeguards information; Advances in safeguards techniques and technology; and Future challenges. Every four to five years, the IAEA brings together safeguards experts from all over the world at international symposia. In October 2001, they met in the shadow of 9/11 and the symposium included a special session on the prevention of nuclear terrorism

  18. The physics of global climate change: challenges for research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaxo, Paulo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada

    2009-07-01

    Full text: There are major issues in our scientific understanding of the functioning of our planet Earth. The growing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, changing in surface albedo, changes in distribution and lifetime of clouds, alteration in aerosol properties and distribution, are all key issues in the radiation balance that controls the climate of our planet. Earth is a non linear highly complex system. Since the industrial revolution, concentration of greenhouse gases, in particular carbon dioxide and methane have increase by 30 to 100%. The fraction of infrared radiation trapped in the atmosphere has increased by about 1.6 watts/m{sup 2}. This additional energy has increased the average temperature by 0.79 degrees centigrade, with certain regions. But, we know very little of the physics, chemistry and biology that controls emissions, sinks and effects in Earth climate. Every week new important scientific findings are published in this area, and models that could predict the future of Earth climate are quite primitive and lack key issues. The hard science of global change is closely associated with socio-economic issues. Humanity have taken the main control role on Earth climate, and the potential for an average increase in temperature of 3 to 5 degrees is large, although there are tentative to limit the average temperature growth to 2 degrees. But even with this ambitious target, Amazonia and the Arctic will probably be much hotter than 3-4 degrees, with important feedbacks in the climate system. The talk will deal with these issues and new research that is needed to increase our knowledge on how the climate of our planet works and which climate we could have in the next decades. (author)

  19. Air pollution and population health: a global challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2008-03-01

    "Air pollution and population health" is one of the most important environmental and public health issues. Economic development, urbanization, energy consumption, transportation/motorization, and rapid population growth are major driving forces of air pollution in large cities, especially in megacities. Air pollution levels in developed countries have been decreasing dramatically in recent decades. However, in developing countries and in countries in transition, air pollution levels are still at relatively high levels, though the levels have been gradually decreasing or have remained stable during rapid economic development. In recent years, several hundred epidemiological studies have emerged showing adverse health effects associated with short-term and long-term exposure to air pollutants. Time-series studies conducted in Asian cities also showed similar health effects on mortality associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) to those explored in Europe and North America. The World Health Organization (WHO) published the "WHO Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs), Global Update" in 2006. These updated AQGs provide much stricter guidelines for PM, NO(2), SO(2) and O(3). Considering that current air pollution levels are much higher than the WHO-recommended AQGs, interim targets for these four air pollutants are also recommended for member states, especially for developing countries in setting their country-specific air quality standards. In conclusion, ambient air pollution is a health hazard. It is more important in Asian developing countries within the context of pollution level and population density. Improving air quality has substantial, measurable and important public health benefits.

  20. Training Solutions to the Global Challenges of a Nuclear Renaissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garces, M.; Chan, S.; Leo, C.; Garcia, S.; Vidal, B.

    2010-07-01

    From East Asia to the United States and all over Europe, the nuclear re-birth is generating demands the training simulation vendors had not faced before. Companies involved in the planning, design, construction and operation of new plants increasingly require simulation tools to satisfy very different needs, all of them on a large scale: education and support of inexperienced newcomer staff, human factors analysis and control room design, e-learning, verification and validation of I and C systems or training and licensing of crews before the actual installations are complete. There is a full set of applications already available to the whole industry to satisfy these needs. End-user friendly Thunder Real-Time Executive (T-REX), poised to become the standard simulation platform for U.S. plants, makes it possible to provide full-scope simulator and simulator exercises to students and others on a memory stick or over the internet. AREVA EPR full-scope training simulator, based on the ALICES integrated object-oriented simulation environment, becomes an engineering simulator for the Flamanville 3 plant under construction in Normandy; the same will happen to the Taishan 1 and 2 simulators in Guangdong (China) while UniStar plans to apply this approach to the future EPR's to be built in the United States. SIREP PWR Basic Principle Simulator, with simplified models which can run on an ordinary PC, is used at GDF SUEZ offices in Brussels to implement their Nuclear Trainees Program. EDF Training Department chooses On-line Micro Simulation (MicroSel), which can be managed with Learning Management Systems, for classroom and stand-alone learning of the basic characteristics of French reactors. All these are examples of how extensive R and D and innovation programs implemented by the simulator providers, some of them under way here in Spain, will help to overcome some of the challenges of the current nuclear expansion.

  1. Training Solutions to the Global Challenges of a Nuclear Renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garces, M.; Chan, S.; Leo, C.; Garcia, S.; Vidal, B.

    2010-01-01

    From East Asia to the United States and all over Europe, the nuclear re-birth is generating demands the training simulation vendors had not faced before. Companies involved in the planning, design, construction and operation of new plants increasingly require simulation tools to satisfy very different needs, all of them on a large scale: education and support of inexperienced newcomer staff, human factors analysis and control room design, e-learning, verification and validation of I and C systems or training and licensing of crews before the actual installations are complete. There is a full set of applications already available to the whole industry to satisfy these needs. End-user friendly Thunder Real-Time Executive (T-REX), poised to become the standard simulation platform for U.S. plants, makes it possible to provide full-scope simulator and simulator exercises to students and others on a memory stick or over the internet. AREVA EPR full-scope training simulator, based on the ALICES integrated object-oriented simulation environment, becomes an engineering simulator for the Flamanville 3 plant under construction in Normandy; the same will happen to the Taishan 1 and 2 simulators in Guangdong (China) while UniStar plans to apply this approach to the future EPR's to be built in the United States. SIREP PWR Basic Principle Simulator, with simplified models which can run on an ordinary PC, is used at GDF SUEZ offices in Brussels to implement their Nuclear Trainees Program. EDF Training Department chooses On-line Micro Simulation (MicroSel), which can be managed with Learning Management Systems, for classroom and stand-alone learning of the basic characteristics of French reactors. All these are examples of how extensive R and D and innovation programs implemented by the simulator providers, some of them under way here in Spain, will help to overcome some of the challenges of the current nuclear expansion.

  2. NKS - The Nordic region's cooperative network for addressing challenges in nuclear safety and emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G. [NKS/Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Andgren, K. [NKS/Vattenfall R and D (Sweden); Leino, K. [NKS/Fortum Power and Heat Oy (Finland); Magnusson, S. [NKS/Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (Iceland); Physant, F. [NKS/FRIT, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2014-07-01

    Based on the foundation of a common cultural and historical heritage and a long tradition of collaboration, NKS aims to facilitate a common Nordic view on nuclear and radiation safety. A common understanding of rules, practice and measures, and national differences in this context, is here an essential requirement. Problems can generally be tackled quicker, more efficiently, more consistently and at a lower cost through collaboration, bearing in mind that key competencies are not equally distributed in the different Nordic countries. For instance common Nordic challenges emerge in relation to nuclear installations, where nuclear power plants are in operation in Finland and Sweden, and research reactors have been operated in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. There is an obvious benefit in exchanging ideas and technologies in relation to plant operation, and since a number of reactors in different Nordic countries are under decommissioning, a collaborative benefit can also be realised in that context. Sweden also has a nuclear fuel production plant, and its collaboration with other Nordic nuclear installations can also be beneficial. Further, a number of large radiological installations are projected in Nordic areas (e.g., the MAX-LAB/MAX IV synchrotron radiation source and the European spallation source ESS), where Nordic organisations are collaborating in addressing, e.g., potential environmental implications. On the emergency preparedness side, the Fukushima accident in March 2011 was a reminder that large accidents at nuclear installations can lead to widespread radioactive contamination in the environment. In order to respond to nuclear or radiological emergencies, should they affect Nordic populations, it is necessary to maintain an operational emergency preparedness. By continuously improving detection, response and decision aiding tools while maintaining an informal collaborative network between relevant stakeholders in the Nordic countries (including

  3. In silico regenerative medicine: how computational tools allow regulatory and financial challenges to be addressed in a volatile market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geris, L; Guyot, Y; Schrooten, J; Papantoniou, I

    2016-04-06

    The cell therapy market is a highly volatile one, due to the use of disruptive technologies, the current economic situation and the small size of the market. In such a market, companies as well as academic research institutes are in need of tools to advance their understanding and, at the same time, reduce their R&D costs, increase product quality and productivity, and reduce the time to market. An additional difficulty is the regulatory path that needs to be followed, which is challenging in the case of cell-based therapeutic products and should rely on the implementation of quality by design (QbD) principles. In silico modelling is a tool that allows the above-mentioned challenges to be addressed in the field of regenerative medicine. This review discusses such in silico models and focuses more specifically on the bioprocess. Three (clusters of) examples related to this subject are discussed. The first example comes from the pharmaceutical engineering field where QbD principles and their implementation through the use of in silico models are both a regulatory and economic necessity. The second example is related to the production of red blood cells. The described in silico model is mainly used to investigate the manufacturing process of the cell-therapeutic product, and pays special attention to the economic viability of the process. Finally, we describe the set-up of a model capturing essential events in the development of a tissue-engineered combination product in the context of bone tissue engineering. For each of the examples, a short introduction to some economic aspects is given, followed by a description of the in silico tool or tools that have been developed to allow the implementation of QbD principles and optimal design.

  4. Global warming what are the challenges for Copenhagen?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997 and, following a long ratification process, went into effect in 2005. Under the Protocol, 200 countries have committed to reducing their greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 2012. What conclusions can we draw from developments thus far, as we await the December conference in Copenhagen to determine a follow-up to the Kyoto Protocol? The work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has given us more accurate knowledge on global warming issues. In its latest report, published in 2007, the IPCC reveals that eleven of the past twelve years studied - 1995 to 2006 - were among the warmest yet recorded since 1850, when this type of data collection began. From 1906 to 2005, global temperatures rose by 0.74 deg. C, and the average rate of increase has more than doubled over the past fifty years. To help companies and countries achieve their GHG emissions reduction targets, the Kyoto Protocol provides for a carbon trading system based on carbon reduction credits (CRC), the exchange currency in a carbon credit market. When a company reduces its emissions below regulatory levels, it can have the 'excess' reduction certified and converted into carbon credits, which it can then sell to a company that has not yet reached its reduction targets. Japan has already used clean technologies and energy saving measures to achieve energy efficiency in the past. Its energy structure is fairly close to that of France, which has a 0% emissions goal. In Japan, nuclear power also accounts for a significant share of the electric power program. The Japanese government recently announced that it was increasing its carbon reduction goal from 6% to an ambitious 25%. China and the United States are the world's leading greenhouse gas emitters. When China ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2002, it was considered to be a developing country and as such has no emissions reduction obligations. Since then, China has moved closer to the Protocol principles

  5. Big Data challenges and solutions in building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Nativi, Stefano; Santoro, Mattia; Boldrini, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) is a voluntary partnership of governments and international organizations launched in response to calls for action by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development and by the G8 (Group of Eight) leading industrialized countries. These high-level meetings recognized that international collaboration is essential for exploiting the growing potential of Earth observations to support decision making in an increasingly complex and environmentally stressed world. To this aim is constructing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) on the basis of a 10-Year Implementation Plan for the period 2005 to 2015 when it will become operational. As a large-scale integrated system handling large datasets as those provided by Earth Observation, GEOSS needs to face several challenges related to big data handling and big data infrastructures management. Referring to the traditional multiple Vs characteristics of Big Data (volume, variety, velocity, veracity and visualization) it is evident how most of them can be found in data handled by GEOSS. In particular, concerning Volume, Earth Observation already generates a large amount of data which can be estimated in the range of Petabytes (1015 bytes), with Exabytes (1018) already targeted. Moreover, the challenge is related not only to the data size, but also to the large amount of datasets (not necessarily having a big size) that systems need to manage. Variety is the other main challenge since datasets coming from different sensors, processed for different use-cases are published with highly heterogeneous metadata and data models, through different service interfaces. Innovative multidisciplinary applications need to access and use those datasets in a harmonized way. Moreover Earth Observation data are growing in size and variety at an exceptionally fast rate and new technologies and applications, including crowdsourcing, will even increase data volume and variety in the next future

  6. Principles of Positive Behaviour Supports: Using the FBA as a Problem-Solving Approach to Address Challenging Behaviours beyond Special Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Gerardo; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2011-01-01

    The Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA) is an investigative process that examines the context of challenging behaviours in the classroom. Information gleaned from the FBA process is used to develop a behaviour intervention plan to address the challenging behaviour and teach a socially acceptable replacement behaviour. However, the FBA has…

  7. Social Identities in a Globalized World: Challenges and Opportunities for Collective Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenmann, Amir; Reese, Gerhard; Cameron, James E

    2016-03-01

    Globalization-the increasing interconnectedness of societies, economies, and cultures-is a defining feature of contemporary social life. Paradoxically, it underlies both the dynamics of global crises (e.g., rising inequality, climate change) and the possibilities for ameliorating them. In this review, we introduce globalization as a multifaceted process and elaborate its psychological effects with respect to identity, culture, and collective action. Using a social identity approach, we discuss three foci of identification: local culture, globalized Western culture, and humanity in its entirety. Each source of identification is analyzed in terms of its psychological meaning and position vis-à-vis the global power structure. Globalized Western culture forms the basis for an exclusive globalized identity, which privileges only some cultures and ways of life. We conceptualize reactions to its core values in terms of cultural identification and rejection and acceptance of, or opposition to, its global social order. Opposition to this inequitable global order is central to inclusive globalized identities (e.g., identification with humanity). These identities may encourage globally minded collective action, even as more research is needed to address their potential caveats. We consider possibilities for social change and action and conclude that a focused application of psychological science to the study of these issues is overdue. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Big Data Science: Opportunities and Challenges to Address Minority Health and Health Disparities in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinzhi; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Bourne, Philip E.; Peprah, Emmanuel; Duru, O. Kenrik; Breen, Nancy; Berrigan, David; Wood, Fred; Jackson, James S.; Wong, David W.S.; Denny, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Addressing minority health and health disparities has been a missing piece of the puzzle in Big Data science. This article focuses on three priority opportunities that Big Data science may offer to the reduction of health and health care disparities. One opportunity is to incorporate standardized information on demographic and social determinants in electronic health records in order to target ways to improve quality of care for the most disadvantaged populations over time. A second opportunity is to enhance public health surveillance by linking geographical variables and social determinants of health for geographically defined populations to clinical data and health outcomes. Third and most importantly, Big Data science may lead to a better understanding of the etiology of health disparities and understanding of minority health in order to guide intervention development. However, the promise of Big Data needs to be considered in light of significant challenges that threaten to widen health disparities. Care must be taken to incorporate diverse populations to realize the potential benefits. Specific recommendations include investing in data collection on small sample populations, building a diverse workforce pipeline for data science, actively seeking to reduce digital divides, developing novel ways to assure digital data privacy for small populations, and promoting widespread data sharing to benefit under-resourced minority-serving institutions and minority researchers. With deliberate efforts, Big Data presents a dramatic opportunity for reducing health disparities but without active engagement, it risks further widening them. PMID:28439179

  9. Big Data Science: Opportunities and Challenges to Address Minority Health and Health Disparities in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinzhi; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Bourne, Philip E; Peprah, Emmanuel; Duru, O Kenrik; Breen, Nancy; Berrigan, David; Wood, Fred; Jackson, James S; Wong, David W S; Denny, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Addressing minority health and health disparities has been a missing piece of the puzzle in Big Data science. This article focuses on three priority opportunities that Big Data science may offer to the reduction of health and health care disparities. One opportunity is to incorporate standardized information on demographic and social determinants in electronic health records in order to target ways to improve quality of care for the most disadvantaged populations over time. A second opportunity is to enhance public health surveillance by linking geographical variables and social determinants of health for geographically defined populations to clinical data and health outcomes. Third and most importantly, Big Data science may lead to a better understanding of the etiology of health disparities and understanding of minority health in order to guide intervention development. However, the promise of Big Data needs to be considered in light of significant challenges that threaten to widen health disparities. Care must be taken to incorporate diverse populations to realize the potential benefits. Specific recommendations include investing in data collection on small sample populations, building a diverse workforce pipeline for data science, actively seeking to reduce digital divides, developing novel ways to assure digital data privacy for small populations, and promoting widespread data sharing to benefit under-resourced minority-serving institutions and minority researchers. With deliberate efforts, Big Data presents a dramatic opportunity for reducing health disparities but without active engagement, it risks further widening them.

  10. How agro-ecological research helps to address food security issues under new IPM and pesticide reduction policies for global crop production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Birch, A Nicholas; Begg, Graham S; Squire, Geoffrey R

    2011-06-01

    Drivers behind food security and crop protection issues are discussed in relation to food losses caused by pests. Pests globally consume food estimated to feed an additional one billion people. Key drivers include rapid human population increase, climate change, loss of beneficial on-farm biodiversity, reduction in per capita cropped land, water shortages, and EU pesticide withdrawals under policies relating to 91/414 EEC. IPM (Integrated Pest Management) will be compulsory for all EU agriculture by 2014 and is also being widely adopted globally. IPM offers a 'toolbox' of complementary crop- and region-specific crop protection solutions to address these rising pressures. IPM aims for more sustainable solutions by using complementary technologies. The applied research challenge now is to reduce selection pressure on single solution strategies, by creating additive/synergistic interactions between IPM components. IPM is compatible with organic, conventional, and GM cropping systems and is flexible, allowing regional fine-tuning. It reduces pests below economic thresholds utilizing key 'ecological services', particularly biocontrol. A recent global review demonstrates that IPM can reduce pesticide use and increase yields of most of the major crops studied. Landscape scale 'ecological engineering', together with genetic improvement of new crop varieties, will enhance the durability of pest-resistant cultivars (conventional and GM). IPM will also promote compatibility with semiochemicals, biopesticides, precision pest monitoring tools, and rapid diagnostics. These combined strategies are urgently needed and are best achieved via multi-disciplinary research, including complex spatio-temporal modelling at farm and landscape scales. Integrative and synergistic use of existing and new IPM technologies will help meet future food production needs more sustainably in developed and developing countries, in an era of reduced pesticide availability. Current IPM research gaps are

  11. A highly scalable particle tracking algorithm using partitioned global address space (PGAS) programming for extreme-scale turbulence simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buaria, D.; Yeung, P. K.

    2017-12-01

    A new parallel algorithm utilizing a partitioned global address space (PGAS) programming model to achieve high scalability is reported for particle tracking in direct numerical simulations of turbulent fluid flow. The work is motivated by the desire to obtain Lagrangian information necessary for the study of turbulent dispersion at the largest problem sizes feasible on current and next-generation multi-petaflop supercomputers. A large population of fluid particles is distributed among parallel processes dynamically, based on instantaneous particle positions such that all of the interpolation information needed for each particle is available either locally on its host process or neighboring processes holding adjacent sub-domains of the velocity field. With cubic splines as the preferred interpolation method, the new algorithm is designed to minimize the need for communication, by transferring between adjacent processes only those spline coefficients determined to be necessary for specific particles. This transfer is implemented very efficiently as a one-sided communication, using Co-Array Fortran (CAF) features which facilitate small data movements between different local partitions of a large global array. The cost of monitoring transfer of particle properties between adjacent processes for particles migrating across sub-domain boundaries is found to be small. Detailed benchmarks are obtained on the Cray petascale supercomputer Blue Waters at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. For operations on the particles in a 81923 simulation (0.55 trillion grid points) on 262,144 Cray XE6 cores, the new algorithm is found to be orders of magnitude faster relative to a prior algorithm in which each particle is tracked by the same parallel process at all times. This large speedup reduces the additional cost of tracking of order 300 million particles to just over 50% of the cost of computing the Eulerian velocity field at this scale. Improving support of PGAS models on

  12. Global Social Challenges: insights from the physical sciences and their relevance to the evolution of social science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The complex challenges confronting humanity today point to the need for new thinking and new theory in the social sciences which overcomes the limitations of compartmentalized, sectoral concepts, strategies and policies and mechanistic approaches to living social systems. The World Academy of Art & Science is convening a consortium of leading institutions and thinkers from different sectors to contribute ideas for formulation of a cohesive framework capable of addressing global social challenges in their totality and complex interrelationships. The objective of my presentation will be to explore the potential for collaboration between the physical and social sciences to arrive at a more cohesive and effective framework by exploring a series of questions, including - - Is an integrated science of society possible that transcends disciplinary boundaries based on common underlying principles as we find in the natural sciences? - To what extent can principles of natural science serve as valid models and a...

  13. Northern Eurasia Future Initiative: Facing the Challenges of Global Change in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Pavel; Gutman, Garik; Gulev, Sergey; Maksyutov, Shamil; Qi, Jiaguo

    2016-04-01

    During the past 12 years, the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) - an interdisciplinary program of internationally-supported Earth systems and science research - has addressed large-scale and long-term manifestations of climate and environmental changes over Northern Eurasia and their impact on the Global Earth system. With more than 1500 peer-reviewed journal publications and 40 books to its credit, NEESPI's activities resulted in significant scientific outreach. This created a new research realm through self-organization of NEESPI scientists in a broad research network, accumulation of knowledge while developing new tools (observations, models, and collaborative networks) and producing new, exciting results that can be applied to directly support decision-making for societal needs. This realm was summed up at the Synthesis NEESPI Workshop in Prague, Czech Republic (April 9-12, 2015) where it was decided to shift gradually the foci of regional studies in Northern Eurasia towards applications with the following major Science Question: " What dynamic and interactive change(s) will affect societal well-being, activities, and health, and what might be the mitigation and adaptation strategies that could support sustainable development and decision-making activities in Northern Eurasia?". To answer this question requires a stronger socio-economic component in the ongoing and future regional studies focused on sustainable societal development under changing climatic and environmental conditions, especially, under conditions when societal decision-making impacts and feeds back on the environment. This made the NEESPI studies closer to the ICSU research initiative "Future Earth". Accordingly, the NEESPI Research Team decided to reorganize in the nearest future NEESPI into "Northern Eurasia Future Initiative" (NEFI) and began development of its Programmatic White Paper (in preparation at the time of this abstract submission). The NEFI research

  14. Global supply of oil. challenges and uncertainties; El suministro global de petroleo. Retos e incertidumbres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzo, M.

    2011-07-01

    The National Petroleum Council warns us of a disturbing reality: the world is running out of fossil resources, but the continued increase in oil extraction from conventional sources has increasingly risks and these are a serious obstacle to ensure demand the medium term. also the International Energy Agency also warns of serious uncertainties and risks in the field of oil production to meet global demand in the medium and long term.

  15. The impact of climate change on the global wine industry: Challenges & solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Renée Mozell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of climate change upon the global production of winegrapes and wine. It includes a review of the literature on the cause and effects of climate change, as well as illustrations of the specific challenges global warming may bring to the production of winegrapes and wine. More importantly, this paper provides some practical solutions that industry professionals can take to mitigate and adapt to the coming change in both vineyards and wineries.

  16. How to address a global problem with Earth Observations? Developing best practices to monitor forests around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Cordova, A. I.; Cherrington, E. A.; Vadrevu, K.; Thapa, R. B.; Oduor, P.; Mehmood, H.; Quyen, N. H.; Saah, D. S.; Yero, K.; Mamane, B.; Bartel, P.; Limaye, A. S.; French, R.; Irwin, D.; Wilson, S.; Gottielb, S.; Notman, E.

    2017-12-01

    Forests represent a key natural resource, for which degradation or disturbance is directly associated to economic implications, particularly in the context of the United Nations program REDD+ in supporting national policies to fight illegal deforestation. SERVIR, a joint NASA-USAID initiative that brings Earth observations (EO) for improved environmental decision making in developing countries, works with established institutions, called SERVIR hubs, in four regions around the world. SERVIR is partnering with global programs with great experience in providing best practices in forest monitoring systems, such as SilvaCarbon and the Global Forest Observation Initiative (GFOI), to develop a capacity building plan that prioritizes user needs. Representatives from the SERVIR global network met in February 2017 with experts in the field of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for forest applications to envisage this capacity building plan that aims to leverage the state-of-the-art knowledge on remote sensing to enhance forest monitoring for user agencies in SERVIR regions. SERVIR Hubs in West Africa, Eastern and Southern Africa, Hindu Kush-Himalaya and Lower Mekong, have long-lasting relations with local, national and regional initiatives, and there is a strong understanding of needs, concerns and best practices when addressing forest monitoring and capacity building. SERVIR Hubs also have a wealth of experience in building capacity on the use of EO to monitor forests, mostly using optical imagery. Most of the forest cover maps generated with SERVIR support have been used as the official national forest cover dataset for international reporting commitments. However, as new EO datasets become available, and in view of the inherent limitations of optical imagery, there is a strong need to use all freely available EO datasets, including SAR, to improve Monitoring & Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) systems and provide more frequent and accurate information. SERVIR

  17. Using Technology to Prepare Students for the Challenges of Global Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houman Sadri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the modern world, everyone must recognize that it is nearly impossible to separate many domestic and international problems and managing international challenges will take the efforts of all nations. As a result, each and every person must think like a global citizen and practice mindfulness in daily life. Using the complex interdependence model as a basis for examining citizen diplomacy, this paper suggests ways that new media can be used to introduce students to a global perspective on the world. Further, it provides faculty members with a set of guidelines for structuring projects that task students with the challenge of taking positive action to effect political and societal change.

  18. Performance-based incentives may be appropriate to address challenges to delivery of prevention of vertical transmission of HIV services in rural Mozambique: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Roseanne C; de Sousa, Octávio; Rivera, Jacqueline; Olson, Rebecca; Pinault, Delphine; Young, Sera L

    2016-10-07

    Performance-based incentives (PBIs) have garnered global attention as a promising strategy to improve healthcare delivery to vulnerable populations. However, literature gaps in the context in which an intervention is implemented and how the PBIs were developed exist. Therefore, we (1) characterized the barriers and promoters to prevention of vertical transmission of HIV (PVT) service delivery in rural Mozambique, where the vertical transmission rate is 12 %, and (2) assessed the appropriateness for a PBI's intervention and application to PVT. We conducted 24 semi-structured interviews with nurses, volunteers, community health workers, and traditional birth attendants about the barriers and promoters they experienced delivering PVT services. We then explored emergent themes in subsequent focus group discussions (n = 7, total participants N = 92) and elicited participant perspectives on PBIs. The ecological motivation-opportunity-ability framework guided our iterative data collection and thematic analysis processes. The interviews revealed that while all health worker cadres were motivated intrinsically and by social recognition, they were dissatisfied with low and late remuneration. Facility-based staff were challenged by factors across the rest of the ecological levels, primarily in the opportunity domain, including the following: poor referral and record systems (work mandate), high workload, stock-outs, poor infrastructure (facility environment), and delays in obtaining patient results and donor payment discrepancies (administrative). Community-based cadres' opportunity challenges included lack of supplies, distance (work environment), lack of incorporation into the health system (administration), and ability challenges of incorrect knowledge (health worker). PBIs based on social recognition and that enable action on intrinsic motivation through training, supervision, and collaboration were thought to have the most potential for targeting improvements

  19. Improving patient safety in transfusion medicine: contemporary challenges and the roles for bedside and laboratory biovigilance in addressing them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzejewski Jr C

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chester Andrzejewski Jr,1 Darlene Cloutier,1 David Unold,2 Richard C Friedberg1 1Transfusion Medicine Services, Department of Pathology, Baystate Medical Center, Baystate Health, Springfield, MA, 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA Abstract: Throughout the history of hemotherapy (HT, various challenges and concerns have been encountered in its practical application. When viewed using a prismatic lens of history, recurrent themes regarding adverse HT sequelae separate and become apparent. These can be broadly classified into three categories: infectious, noninfectious, and administrative/logistical. Using the HT care map as a frame of reference along with its associated rites, we examine the contemporary spectrum of HT adverse events and concerns, and some approaches as to how these may be addressed from bedside and laboratory medicine biovigilance perspectives enhancing patient care and blood transfusion safety. Although our vantage point is from an academic community hospital venue, the issues and concerns identified are germane to many if not all transfusion-medicine practice environments. Included among the subjects we explore are patient/specimen identification issues, blood-management initiatives, unrecognized and/or unreported suspected transfusion reactions, transfusion-associated adverse pulmonary sequelae (including transfusion-related acute lung injury and transfusion-associated circulatory overload, expanded applications of electronic health records and issues regarding their “meaningful use” and interinstitutional “digital compatibilities”, biovigilance integration of electronic data networks within and between health care entities, and anticipated workforce contractions secondary to projected declines in the availability of qualified laboratory professionals. Cooperative initiatives between accreditation and regulatory entities, blood collectors and suppliers, hospital

  20. Addressing the challenges of using ferromagnetic electrodes in the magnetic tunnel junction-based molecular spintronics devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Pawan; Friebe, Edward; Baker, Collin

    2015-01-01

    Addressing the challenges of using high-Curie temperature ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes is critical for molecular spintronics devices (MSDs) research. Two FM electrodes simultaneously chemically bonded with a thiol-functionalized molecule can produce novel MSDs to exploring new quantum mechanical phenomenon and computer technologies. For developing a commercially viable MSD, it is crucial to developing a device fabrication scheme that carefully considers FM electrodes’ susceptibility to oxidation, chemical etching, and stress-induced deformations during fabrication and usage. This paper studies NiFe, an alloy extensively used in present-day memory devices and high-temperature engineering applications, as a candidate FM electrode for the fabrication of MSDs. Our spectroscopic reflectance studies show that NiFe oxidized aggressively after heating beyond ∼90 °C. The NiFe surfaces, aged for several months or heated for several minutes below ∼90 °C, exhibited remarkable electrochemical activity and were found suitable for chemical bonding with the thiol-functionalized molecular device elements. NiFe also demonstrated excellent etching resistance against commonly used solvents and lithography related chemicals. Additionally, NiFe mitigated the adverse effects of mechanical stress by subsiding the stress-induced deformities. A magnetic tunnel junction-based MSD approach was designed by carefully considering the merits and limitations of NiFe. The device fabrication protocol considers the safe temperature limit to avoiding irreversible surface oxidation, the effect of mechanical stresses, surface roughness, and chemical etching. This paper provides foundational experimental insights in realizing a versatile MSD allowing a wide range of transport and magnetic studies