WorldWideScience

Sample records for address emerging zoonoses

  1. 6th International Conference on Emerging Zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, R E; Morozov, I; Feldmann, H; Richt, J A

    2012-09-01

    The 6th International Conference on Emerging Zoonoses, held at Cancun, Mexico, 24-27 February 2011, offered 84 participants from 18 countries, a snapshot of current research in numerous zoonoses caused by viruses, bacteria or prions. Co-chaired by Professors Heinz Feldmann and Jürgen Richt, the conference explored 10 topics: (i) The ecology of emerging zoonotic diseases; (ii) The role of wildlife in emerging zoonoses; (iii) Cross-species transmission of zoonotic pathogens; (iv) Emerging and neglected influenza viruses; (v) Haemorrhagic fever viruses; (vi) Emerging bacterial diseases; (vii) Outbreak responses to zoonotic diseases; (viii) Food-borne zoonotic diseases; (ix) Prion diseases; and (x) Modelling and prediction of emergence of zoonoses. Human medicine, veterinary medicine and environmental challenges are viewed as a unity, which must be considered under the umbrella of 'One Health'. Several presentations attempted to integrate the insights gained from field data with mathematical models in the search for effective control measures of specific zoonoses. The overriding objective of the research presentations was to create, improve and use the tools essential to address the risk of contagions in a globalized society. In seeking to fulfil this objective, a three-step approach has often been applied: (i) use cultured cells, model and natural animal hosts and human clinical models to study infection; (ii) combine traditional histopathological and biochemical approaches with functional genomics, proteomics and computational biology; and (iii) obtain signatures of virulence and insights into mechanisms of host defense response, immune evasion and pathogenesis. This meeting review summarizes 39 of the conference presentations and mentions briefly the 16 articles in this Special Supplement, most of which were presented at the conference in earlier versions. The full affiliations of all presenters and many colleagues have been included to facilitate further inquiries

  2. Hantaviruses as emergent zoonoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LS Ullmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses belong to the Bunyaviridae family, which consists of vector-borne viruses. These viruses can provoke two infection types: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS - which occurs in the Old World - and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS - an emergent zoonosis that can be found in many countries of the western hemisphere. Rodents are hantavirus reservoirs and each species seems to host a different virus type. Humans acquire the infection by inhaling contaminated aerosol particles eliminated by infected animals. The factors involved in the emergence of hantavirus infections in the human population include ecological modifications and changes in human activities. The most important risk factor is contact between man and rodents, as a result of agricultural, forestry or military activities. Rodent control remains the primary strategy for preventing hantavirus diseases, including via health education and hygienic habits.

  3. Control and prevention of emerging parasitic zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, Bruno B

    2008-09-01

    Emerging zoonoses have been defined as zoonoses that are newly recognised or newly evolved, or that have occurred previously but show an increase in incidence or expansion in geographical, host or vector range. Among parasitic zoonoses, protozoa are particularly likely to emerge. Control and prevention of emerging parasitic zoonoses are complex tasks that require an integrative and multidisciplinary approach. Reduction of parasite burden is certainly a major objective but cannot be set alone. Therefore, environmental and ecological modifications need to be implemented to reduce not only the parasitic load, but also the risk of parasite transmission. Finally, education and behavioral changes are critical for the success of both control and prevention of these diseases. However, without appropriate financial resources specifically allocated at the local and national levels as well as through international cooperation, control and prevention of these emerging parasitic diseases will not be possible.

  4. Wildlife, exotic pets, and emerging zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, Bruno B; Belotto, Albino; Meslin, François-Xavier

    2007-01-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic; wildlife constitutes a large and often unknown reservoir. Wildlife can also be a source for reemergence of previously controlled zoonoses. Although the discovery of such zoonoses is often related to better diagnostic tools, the leading causes of their emergence are human behavior and modifications to natural habitats (expansion of human populations and their encroachment on wildlife habitat), changes in agricultural practices, and globalization of trade. However, other factors include wildlife trade and translocation, live animal and bushmeat markets, consumption of exotic foods, development of ecotourism, access to petting zoos, and ownership of exotic pets. To reduce risk for emerging zoonoses, the public should be educated about the risks associated with wildlife, bushmeat, and exotic pet trades; and proper surveillance systems should be implemented.

  5. Zoonoses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-08

    In this podcast, Dr. King discusses zoonoses and how foxes, raccoons, and bats play an important role in the ecology of infectious diseases, such as rabies.  Created: 12/8/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/8/2008.

  6. Prioritizing emerging zoonoses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. Havelaar (Arie); F. van Rosse (Floor); C. Bucura (Catalin); M.A. Toetenel (Milou); J.A. Haagsma (Juanita); D. Kurowicka (Dorota); A.J.P. Heesterbeek (Hans); N. Speybroeck (Niko); M.F.M. Langelaar (Merel); J.W.B. van der Giessen (Joke); R.M. Cooke (Roger); M.A.H. Braks (Marieta)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: To support the development of early warning and surveillance systems of emerging zoonoses, we present a general method to prioritize pathogens using a quantitative, stochastic multi-criteria model, parameterized for the Netherlands. Methodology/Principal Findings: A risk

  7. Prioritizing Emerging Zoonoses in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar, A.H.; Rosse, F.; Bubura, C.; Toetenel, M.A.; Haagsma, J.A.; Kurowicka, D.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background To support the development of early warning and surveillance systems of emerging zoonoses, we present a general method to prioritize pathogens using a quantitative, stochastic multi-criteria model, parameterized for the Netherlands. Methodology/Principal Findings A risk score was based on

  8. Prioritizing emerging zoonoses in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar, A.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072306122; van Rosse, F.; Bucura, C.; Toetenel, M.A.; Haagsma, J.A.; Kurowicka, D.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073321427; Speybroeck, N.; Langelaar, M.F.M.; van der Giessen, J.W.; Cooke, R.M.; Braks, M.A.H.

    2010-01-01

    To support the development of early warning and surveillance systems of emerging zoonoses, we present a general method to prioritize pathogens using a quantitative, stochastic multi-criteria model, parameterized for the Netherlands. A risk score was based on seven criteria, reflecting assessments of

  9. Prioritizing Emerging Zoonoses in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar, A.H.; Van Rosse, F.; Bucura, C.; Toetenel, M.A.; Haagsma, J.A.; Kurowicka, D.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Speybroeck, N.; Langelaar, M.F.M.; Cooke, R.M.; et al.

    2010-01-01

    Background: To support the development of early warning and surveillance systems of emerging zoonoses, we present a general method to prioritize pathogens using a quantitative, stochastic multi-criteria model, parameterized for the Netherlands. Methodology/Principal Findings: A risk score was based

  10. Effect of Intermediate Hosts on Emerging Zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing-An; Chen, Fangyuan; Fan, Shengjie

    2017-08-01

    Most emerging zoonotic pathogens originate from animals. They can directly infect humans through natural reservoirs or indirectly through intermediate hosts. As a bridge, an intermediate host plays different roles in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens. In this study, we present three types of pathogen transmission to evaluate the effect of intermediate hosts on emerging zoonotic diseases in human epidemics. These types are identified as follows: TYPE 1, pathogen transmission without an intermediate host for comparison; TYPE 2, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as an amplifier; and TYPE 3, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as a vessel for genetic variation. In addition, we established three mathematical models to elucidate the mechanisms underlying zoonotic disease transmission according to these three types. Stability analysis indicated that the existence of intermediate hosts increased the difficulty of controlling zoonotic diseases because of more difficult conditions to satisfy for the disease to die out. The human epidemic would die out under the following conditions: TYPE 1: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]; TYPE 2: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]; and TYPE 3: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] Simulation with similar parameters demonstrated that intermediate hosts could change the peak time and number of infected humans during a human epidemic; intermediate hosts also exerted different effects on controlling the prevalence of a human epidemic with natural reservoirs in different periods, which is important in addressing problems in public health. Monitoring and controlling the number of natural reservoirs and intermediate hosts at the right time would successfully manage and prevent the prevalence of emerging zoonoses in humans.

  11. Parasite Zoonoses and Wildlife: Emerging Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Smith

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of wildlife as important sources, reservoirs and amplifiers of emerging human and domestic livestock pathogens, in addition to well recognized zoonoses of public health significance, has gained considerable attention in recent years. However, there has been little attention given to the transmission and impacts of pathogens of human origin, particularly protozoan, helminth and arthropod parasites, on wildlife. Substantial advances in molecular technologies are greatly improving our ability to follow parasite flow among host species and populations and revealing valuable insights about the interactions between cycles of transmission. Here we present several case studies of parasite emergence, or risk of emergence, in wildlife, as a result of contact with humans or anthropogenic activities. For some of these parasites, there is growing evidence of the serious consequences of infection on wildlife survival, whereas for others, there is a paucity of information about their impact.

  12. Emergence and re-emergence of zoonoses. Context and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, V; De Faveri, E

    2013-01-01

    Zoonoses have been and are still considered merely a "veterinary problem". Instead, the understanding of their emergence, re-emergence and persistence is more effectively addressed in the context of a "struggle" between pathogens, animals and man. The expression properties of pathogens are related with three interfaces: human-environment, environment-animal and human-animal. Animals and man can be either reservoirs or vectors of pathogens, while interfaces can amplify the clinical impact in all the species involved. The disease course is similar in animals and humans in terms of infection, clinical approach and control. Thus, this "epidemiological model" may be the key to an "updated" interpretation of infectious diseases involving humans and animals. Control and prevention should be carried out in an interdisciplinary context, without separating the medical and veterinary domains, in light of the fact that the activity of pathogenic microorganisms is not species-dependent. Finally, if human public health and veterinary public health are closely linked, knowledge and information can be pooled and used for mutual benefit.

  13. Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses of Dogs and Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno B. Chomel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the middle of the 20th century, pets are more frequently considered as “family members” within households. However, cats and dogs still can be a source of human infection by various zoonotic pathogens. Among emerging or re-emerging zoonoses, viral diseases, such as rabies (mainly from dog pet trade or travel abroad, but also feline cowpox and newly recognized noroviruses or rotaviruses or influenza viruses can sicken our pets and be transmitted to humans. Bacterial zoonoses include bacteria transmitted by bites or scratches, such as pasteurellosis or cat scratch disease, leading to severe clinical manifestations in people because of their age or immune status and also because of our closeness, not to say intimacy, with our pets. Cutaneous contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Leptospira spp., and/or aerosolization of bacteria causing tuberculosis or kennel cough are also emerging/re-emerging pathogens that can be transmitted by our pets, as well as gastro-intestinal pathogens such as Salmonella or Campylobacter. Parasitic and fungal pathogens, such as echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, onchocercosis, or sporotrichosis, are also re-emerging or emerging pet related zoonoses. Common sense and good personal and pet hygiene are the key elements to prevent such a risk of zoonotic infection.

  14. Prioritizing emerging zoonoses in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie H Havelaar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To support the development of early warning and surveillance systems of emerging zoonoses, we present a general method to prioritize pathogens using a quantitative, stochastic multi-criteria model, parameterized for the Netherlands. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A risk score was based on seven criteria, reflecting assessments of the epidemiology and impact of these pathogens on society. Criteria were weighed, based on the preferences of a panel of judges with a background in infectious disease control. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Pathogens with the highest risk for the Netherlands included pathogens in the livestock reservoir with a high actual human disease burden (e.g. Campylobacter spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Coxiella burnetii or a low current but higher historic burden (e.g. Mycobacterium bovis, rare zoonotic pathogens in domestic animals with severe disease manifestations in humans (e.g. BSE prion, Capnocytophaga canimorsus as well as arthropod-borne and wildlife associated pathogens which may pose a severe risk in future (e.g. Japanese encephalitis virus and West-Nile virus. These agents are key targets for development of early warning and surveillance.

  15. Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses of Dogs and Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, Bruno B.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Dogs and cats have been sharing our environment for a long time and as pets they bring major psychological well-being to our modern urbanized society. However, they still can be a source of human infection by various pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi. Abstract Since the middle of the 20th century, pets are more frequently considered as “family members” within households. However, cats and dogs still can be a source of human infection by various zoonotic pathogens. Among emerging or re-emerging zoonoses, viral diseases, such as rabies (mainly from dog pet trade or travel abroad), but also feline cowpox and newly recognized noroviruses or rotaviruses or influenza viruses can sicken our pets and be transmitted to humans. Bacterial zoonoses include bacteria transmitted by bites or scratches, such as pasteurellosis or cat scratch disease, leading to severe clinical manifestations in people because of their age or immune status and also because of our closeness, not to say intimacy, with our pets. Cutaneous contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Leptospira spp., and/or aerosolization of bacteria causing tuberculosis or kennel cough are also emerging/re-emerging pathogens that can be transmitted by our pets, as well as gastro-intestinal pathogens such as Salmonella or Campylobacter. Parasitic and fungal pathogens, such as echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, onchocercosis, or sporotrichosis, are also re-emerging or emerging pet related zoonoses. Common sense and good personal and pet hygiene are the key elements to prevent such a risk of zoonotic infection. PMID:26480316

  16. Bradford Hill's criteria, emerging zoonoses, and One Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, G V; Asokan, Vanitha

    2016-09-01

    Zoonoses constitute more than 60% of infectious diseases and 75% of emerging infectious diseases. Inappropriate overemphasis of specialization of disciplines has ignored public health. Identifying the causes of disease and determining how exposures are related to outcomes in "emerging zoonoses" affecting multiple species are considered to be the hallmarks of public health research and practice that compels the adoption of "One Health". The interactions within and among populations of vertebrates in the causation and transmissions of emerging zoonotic diseases are inherently dynamic, interdependent, and systems based. Disease causality theories have moved from one or several agents causing disease in a single species, to one infectious agent causing disease in multiple species-emerging zoonoses. Identification of the causative pathogen components or structures, elucidating the mechanisms of species specificity, and understanding the natural conditions of emergence would facilitate better derivation of the causal mechanism. Good quality evidence on causation in emerging zoonoses affecting multiple species makes a strong recommendation under the One Health approach for disease prevention and control from diagnostic tests, treatment, antimicrobial resistance, preventive vaccines, and evidence informed health policies. In the tenets of One Health, alliances work best when the legitimate interests of the different partners combine to prevent and control emerging zoonoses.

  17. [Prevalence situation of emerging parasitic zoonoses in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-ru; Liu, Lu; Yang, Guo-jing

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence characteristics of emerging parasitic zoonoses in China are introduced in this paper, and the impact factors of them are analyzed. The lack of systematic research and control of certain diseases is indicated, and the public health department should pay more attention to them.

  18. Surveillance, response systems, and evidence updates on emerging zoonoses: the role of one health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, G V; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K; Asokan, Vanitha

    2013-01-01

    Globally, emerging zoonotic diseases are increasing. Existing surveillance systems for zoonoses have substantial gaps, especially in developing countries, and the systems in place in the developed world require improvements. Resources and updates on evidence-based practice (EBP) for zoonoses are sparser in the veterinary literature as compared to the medical literature. Evidence updates for emerging zoonoses are either absent or rudimentary in both human and veterinary medicine. A 'one-health' concept, including a global signaling surveillance system for emerging zoonoses, will be essential for correct diagnoses, interventions, and public health strategies. An open access EBP platform supported by builders of EBP resources is urgently needed to counter emerging zoonoses.

  19. Surveillance, response systems, and evidence updates on emerging zoonoses: the role of one health

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Globally, emerging zoonotic diseases are increasing. Existing surveillance systems for zoonoses have substantial gaps, especially in developing countries, and the systems in place in the developed world require improvements. Resources and updates on evidence-based practice (EBP) for zoonoses are sparser in the veterinary literature as compared to the medical literature. Evidence updates for emerging zoonoses are either absent or rudimentary in both human and veterinary medicine. A ‘one-health...

  20. Bringing together emerging and endemic zoonoses surveillance: shared challenges and a common solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Jo; Daborn, Chris; Auty, Harriet; Mtema, Zacharia; Lembo, Tiziana; Bronsvoort, Barend M Dec; Handel, Ian; Knobel, Darryn; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah

    2012-10-19

    Early detection of disease outbreaks in human and animal populations is crucial to the effective surveillance of emerging infectious diseases. However, there are marked geographical disparities in capacity for early detection of outbreaks, which limit the effectiveness of global surveillance strategies. Linking surveillance approaches for emerging and neglected endemic zoonoses, with a renewed focus on existing disease problems in developing countries, has the potential to overcome several limitations and to achieve additional health benefits. Poor reporting is a major constraint to the surveillance of both emerging and endemic zoonoses, and several important barriers to reporting can be identified: (i) a lack of tangible benefits when reports are made; (ii) a lack of capacity to enforce regulations; (iii) poor communication among communities, institutions and sectors; and (iv) complexities of the international regulatory environment. Redirecting surveillance efforts to focus on endemic zoonoses in developing countries offers a pragmatic approach that overcomes some of these barriers and provides support in regions where surveillance capacity is currently weakest. In addition, this approach addresses immediate health and development problems, and provides an equitable and sustainable mechanism for building the culture of surveillance and the core capacities that are needed for all zoonotic pathogens, including emerging disease threats.

  1. Uncovering zoonoses awareness in an emerging disease 'hotspot'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Sarah B; Malavé, Carly; Mbabazi, Edith; Mayer, Jonathan; Goldberg, Tony L

    2015-03-01

    Emerging infectious diseases from animals pose significant and increasing threats to human health; places of risk are simultaneously viewed as conservation and emerging disease 'hotspots'. The One World/One Health paradigm is an 'assemblage' discipline. Extensive research from the natural and social sciences, as well as public health have contributed to designing surveillance and response policy within the One World/One Health framework. However, little research has been undertaken that considers the lives of those who experience risk in hotspots on a daily basis. As a result, policymakers and practitioners are unable to fully comprehend the social and ecological processes that catalyze cross-species pathogen exchange. This study examined local populations' comprehension of zoonotic disease. From October 2008-May 2009 we collected data from people living on the periphery of Kibale National Park, in western Uganda. We administered a survey to 72 individuals and conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 14 individuals. Results from the survey showed respondents had statistically significant awareness that transmission of diseases from animals was possible compared to those who did not think such transmission was possible (x(2) = 30.68, df = 1, p zoonoses and provided biomedically accurate examples of possible infections and corresponding animal sources (e.g., worm infection from pigs and Ebola from primates). Qualitative data also revealed expectations about the role of the State in managing the prevention of zoonoses from wildlife. As a result of this research, we recommend meaningful discourse with people living at the frontlines of animal contact in emerging disease and conservation hotspots in order to develop informed and relevant zoonoses prevention practices that take into account local knowledge and perceptions.

  2. Surveillance, response systems, and evidence updates on emerging zoonoses: the role of one health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Asokan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, emerging zoonotic diseases are increasing. Existing surveillance systems for zoonoses have substantial gaps, especially in developing countries, and the systems in place in the developed world require improvements. Resources and updates on evidence-based practice (EBP for zoonoses are sparser in the veterinary literature as compared to the medical literature. Evidence updates for emerging zoonoses are either absent or rudimentary in both human and veterinary medicine. A ‘one-health’ concept, including a global signaling surveillance system for emerging zoonoses, will be essential for correct diagnoses, interventions, and public health strategies. An open access EBP platform supported by builders of EBP resources is urgently needed to counter emerging zoonoses.

  3. Emerging zoonoses: the challenge for public health and biodefense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Frederick A

    2008-09-15

    The concept of new and emerging diseases has captured the public interest and has revitalized the public health infectious disease research community. This interest has also resulted in competition for funding and turf wars between animal health and public health scientists and public officials and, in some cases, has delayed and hindered progress toward effective prevention, control and biodefense. There is a dynamic list of outbreaks causing substantial morbidity and mortality in humans and often in the reservoir animal species. Some agents have the potential to grow into major epidemics. There are many determinants that influence the emergence of diseases of concern that require the use of current understanding of the nature of agent persistence and spread. Additional factors that are global must be added to plans for prevention and control. To this complex mix has been added the potential for accidental or malicious release of agents. The nature of emerging infectious agents and their impact is largely unpredictable. Models that strive to predict the dynamics of agents may be useful but can also blind us to increasing disease risks if it does not match a specific model. Field investigations of early events will be critical and should drive prevention and control actions. Many disease agents have developed strategies to overcome extremes of reservoir qualities like population size and density. Every infectious agent spreads easier when its hosts are closer together. Zoonoses must be dealt with at the interface of human and animal health by all available information. Lessons learned from the emergence of and response to agents like West Nile virus, H5N1 avian influenza, SARS and bovine spongiform encephalopathy, the cause of new-variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, must be used to create better plans for response and meet the challenge for public health and biodefense.

  4. Tick- and flea-borne rickettsial emerging zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parola, Philippe; Davoust, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

    2005-01-01

    Between 1984 and 2004, nine more species or subspecies of spotted fever rickettsiae were identified as emerging agents of tick-borne rickettsioses throughout the world. Six of these species had first been isolated from ticks and later found to be pathogenic to humans. The most recent example is Rickettsia parkeri, recognized as a human pathogen more than 60 years after its initial isolation from ticks. A new spotted fever rickettsia, R. felis was also found to be associated with fleas and to be a human pathogen. Similarly, bacteria within the family Anaplasmataceae have been considered to be of veterinary importance only, yet three species have been implicated in human diseases in recent years, including Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human anaplasmosis (formerly known as "human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent", E. equi and E. phagocytophila), and finally Ehrlichia ewingii, which causes granulocytic ehrlichiosis in humans. We present here an overview of the various tick- and flea-borne rickettsial zoonoses described in the last 20 years, focusing on the ecological, epidemiological and clinical aspects.

  5. Neglected and endemic zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudlin, Ian; Eisler, Mark Charles; Welburn, Susan Christina

    2009-09-27

    Endemic zoonoses are found throughout the developing world, wherever people live in close proximity to their animals, affecting not only the health of poor people but often also their livelihoods through the health of their livestock. Unlike newly emerging zoonoses that attract the attention of the developed world, these endemic zoonoses are by comparison neglected. This is, in part, a consequence of under-reporting, resulting in underestimation of their global burden, which in turn artificially downgrades their importance in the eyes of administrators and funding agencies. The development of cheap and effective vaccines is no guarantee that these endemic diseases will be eliminated in the near future. However, simply increasing awareness about their causes and how they may be prevented-often with very simple technologies-could reduce the incidence of many endemic zoonoses. Sustainable control of zoonoses is reliant on surveillance, but, as with other public-sector animal health services, this is rarely implemented in the developing world, not least because of the lack of sufficiently cheap diagnostics. Public-private partnerships have already provided advocacy for human disease control and could be equally effective in addressing endemic zoonoses.

  6. Dirofilariose: zoonose emergente negligenciada Dirofilariasis: neglected emerging zoonosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Costa da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A dirofilariose é uma zoonose pouco conhecida causada por Dirofilaria spp., nematódeo mais conhecido como verme do coração dos cães (Dirofilaria immitis, parasita do sistema circulatório desses animais, mas que também pode acometer gatos e o ser humano. Sua ocorrência está intimamente ligada à presença de mosquitos vetores (Aedes spp., Anopheles spp., Culex spp., condições climáticas favoráveis, assim como trânsito entre regiões indenes e endêmicas/epidêmicas. O ser humano pode se infectar com D. immitis (pulmão, Dirofilaria repens (pulmão, subcutâneo e Dirofilaria tenuis (subcutâneo. A fisiopatologia está intimamente ligada à morte do parasita onde, no cão, pode induzir a obstrução de vasos circulatórios e no ser humano produzir uma lesão nodular com intensa reação inflamatória no parênquima pulmonar com formato de moeda observada nas radiografias. Pode ser diagnosticada pelo exame físico, pela detecção de microfilárias na circulação sangüínea, imunoadsorção enzimático (ELISA, alterações radiográficas, ecocardiografia, ultrassonografia e necropsia. Há riscos no tratamento, sendo a prevenção com a utilização de drogas nos animais o método mais eficaz, principalmente em visitas a áreas endêmicas ou epidêmicas, diminuindo-se, assim, o risco para saúde pública devido à disseminação do parasita.Dirofilariasis is an unknown zoonosis, caused by Dirofilaria spp, nematodea most known as dog's heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis, which parasites the vascular system of these animals, but infects cats and human beings too. Its occurrence is highly linked to the presence of mosquitoes (Aedes spp., Anopheles spp., Culex spp., adequate climatic conditions, as well as the transit between infection-free and endemic/epidemic regions. Human beings can be infected by D. immitis (lung, Dirofilaria repens (lung, subcutaneous and Dirofilaria tenuis (subcutaneous. The physiopathology is highly dependent of the

  7. Evidence-based early clinical detection of emerging diseases in food animals and zoonoses: two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saegerman, Claude; Humblet, Marie-France; Porter, Sarah Rebecca; Zanella, Gina; Martinelle, Ludovic

    2012-03-01

    If diseases of food-producing animals or zoonoses (re-)emerge, early clinical decision making is of major importance. In this particular condition, it is difficult to apply a classic evidence-based veterinary medicine process, because of a lack of available published data. A method based on the partition of field clinical observations (evidences) could be developed as an interesting alternative approach. The classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to improve the early clinical detection in two cases of emerging diseases: bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease) and bluetongue due to the serotype 8-virus in cattle.

  8. Neglected and endemic zoonoses

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Endemic zoonoses are found throughout the developing world, wherever people live in close proximity to their animals, affecting not only the health of poor people but often also their livelihoods through the health of their livestock. Unlike newly emerging zoonoses that attract the attention of the developed world, these endemic zoonoses are by comparison neglected. This is, in part, a consequence of under-reporting, resulting in underestimation of their global burden, which in turn artificia...

  9. Major emerging and re-emerging zoonoses in China: a matter of global health and socioeconomic development for 1.3 billion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Cao, Lili; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-08-01

    Emerging and re-emerging zoonoses are a significant public health concern and cause considerable socioeconomic problems globally. The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, avian influenza H7N9, and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), and the re-emergence of rabies, brucellosis, and other zoonoses have had a significant effect on the national economy and public health in China, and have affected other countries. Contributing factors that continue to affect emerging and re-emerging zoonoses in China include social and environmental factors and microbial evolution, such as population growth, urbanization, deforestation, livestock production, food safety, climate change, and pathogen mutation. The Chinese government has devised new strategies and has taken measures to deal with the challenges of these diseases, including the issuing of laws and regulations, establishment of disease reporting systems, implementation of special projects for major infectious diseases, interdisciplinary and international cooperation, exotic disease surveillance, and health education. These strategies and measures can serve as models for the surveillance and response to continuing threats from emerging and re-emerging zoonoses in other countries.

  10. Emerging viral zoonoses: frameworks for spatial and spatiotemporal risk assessment and resource planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Archie C A; Pfeiffer, Dirk U

    2009-10-01

    Spatial epidemiological tools are increasingly being applied to emerging viral zoonoses (EVZ), partly because of improving analytical methods and technologies for data capture and management, and partly because the demand is growing for more objective ways of allocating limited resources in the face of the emerging threat posed by these diseases. This review documents applications of geographical information systems (GIS), remote sensing (RS) and spatially-explicit statistical and mathematical models to epidemiological studies of EVZ. Landscape epidemiology uses statistical associations between environmental variables and diseases to study and predict their spatial distributions. Phylogeography augments epidemiological knowledge by studying the evolution of viral genetics through space and time. Cluster detection and early warning systems assist surveillance and can permit timely interventions. Advanced statistical models can accommodate spatial dependence present in epidemiological datasets and can permit assessment of uncertainties in disease data and predictions. Mathematical models are particularly useful for testing and comparing alternative control strategies, whereas spatial decision-support systems integrate a variety of spatial epidemiological tools to facilitate widespread dissemination and interpretation of disease data. Improved spatial data collection systems and greater practical application of spatial epidemiological tools should be applied in real-world scenarios.

  11. Zoonoses as occupational diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Battelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses are discussed as occupational diseases, with special reference to animal husbandry and related activities. After quoting some historical references, occupational zoonoses are examined in relation to the evolution of the concept of occupational zoonosis, the involvement of the World Health Organization in this field, their socio-economic significance, the principal working activities, zoonoses of greatest importance (with special reference to the Mediterranean region, the evaluation of damage and risks. An outline is made of the transmission of zoonoses from farm workers to animals and the biological hazards from the environment. The present situation of occupational zoonoses and related risks in industrialised and traditional farming activities are presented and the importance of some emerging and re-emerging zoonoses for the health of workers is highlighted. The author concludes by stressing that the prevention of occupational zoonoses must be implemented jointly by both veterinary and medical services through preventive measures and epidemiological surveillance of human and animal health, risk evaluation, diagnosis of infections and prompt reporting. It is hoped that the future will offer better inter-disciplinary collaboration and that legislation will be timely and better tailored to safeguard working health and safety.

  12. Control of zoonoses in emergency situations: lessons learned during recent outbreaks (gaps and weaknesses of current zoonoses control programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darem Tabbaa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In emergency situations, domestic animals and wildlife are, like people, exposed to infectious diseases and environmental contaminants in the air, soil, water and food. They can suffer from acute and/or chronic diseases from such exposure. Often animals serve as disease reservoirs or early warning systems for the community in regard to the spread of zoonotic diseases. Over 100 years of experience have shown that animal and human health are closely related. During the past few years, emergent disease episodes have increased; nearly all have involved zoonotic agents. As there is no way to predict when or where the next important new zoonotic pathogen will emerge or what its ultimate importance might be, investigation at the first sign of emergence of a new zoonotic disease is particularly important. Today, in many emerging situations, different activities involving zoonotic disease control are at risk because of failed investigative infrastructures or financial constraints. Considering that zoonotic diseases have their own characteristics, their prevention and control require unique strategies, based more on fundamental and applied research than on traditional approaches. Such strategies require cooperation and coordination between animal and public health sectors and the involvement of other disciplines and experts such as epidemiologists, entomologists, environmentalists and climatologists. Lessons learned from the avian influenza pandemic threat, the Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and rabies outbreaks are presented and the gaps and weakness of current control programmes are discussed.

  13. Navigating parasite webs and parasite flow: emerging and re-emerging parasitic zoonoses of wildlife origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polley, Lydden

    2005-10-01

    Wildlife are now recognised as an important source of emerging human pathogens, including parasites. This paper discusses the linkages between wildlife, people, zoonotic parasites and the ecosystems in which they co-exist, revisits definitions for 'emerging' and 're-emerging', and lists zoonotic parasites that can be acquired from wildlife including, for some, estimates of the associated global human health burdens. The paper also introduces the concepts of 'parasite webs' and 'parasite flow', provides a context for parasites, relative to other infectious agents, as causes of emerging human disease, and discusses drivers of disease emergence and re-emergence, especially changes in biodiversity and climate. Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the Caribbean and the southern United States, Baylisascaris procyonis in California and Georgia, Plasmodium knowlesi in Sarawak, Malaysia, Human African Trypanosomiasis, Sarcoptes scabiei in carnivores, and Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Toxoplasma in marine ecosystems are presented as examples of wildlife-derived zoonotic parasites of particular recent interest. An ecological approach to disease is promoted, as is a need for an increased profile for this approach in undergraduate and graduate education in the health sciences. Synergy among scientists and disciplines is identified as critical for the study of parasites and parasitic disease in wildlife populations. Recent advances in techniques for the investigation of parasite fauna of wildlife are presented and monitoring and surveillance systems for wildlife disease are discussed. Some of the limitations inherent in predictions for the emergence and re-emergence of infection and disease associated with zoonotic parasites of wildlife are identified. The importance of public awareness and public education in the prevention and control of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic infection and disease are emphasised. Finally, some thoughts for the future are presented.

  14. Local address and emergency contact details

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The HR Department would like to remind members of the personnel that they are responsible for ensuring that their personal data concerning local address and preferred emergency contact details remains valid and up-to-date.   Both are easily accessible via the links below: Local address: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/LocalAddressChange   Emergency contacts: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/EC   Please take a few minutes to check your details and modify if necessary. Thank you in advance. HR Department Head Office

  15. Zoonoses in Europe: a risk to public health

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Infectious diseases originating from animal reservoirs (zoonoses) are a constant threat to public health. Recent examples are the outbreaks of avian influenza and SARS. Although it is unpredictable which zoonoses will emerge in the coming years in Europe, this report aims to summarize current scientific knowledge on the risks of (emerging) zoonoses for human public health in Europe. For this purpose, currently known zoonoses that are more or less likely to cause problems in Europe in the futu...

  16. Using routine surveillance data to estimate the epidemic potential of emerging zoonoses: application to the emergence of US swine origin influenza A H3N2v virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Cauchemez

    Full Text Available Prior to emergence in human populations, zoonoses such as SARS cause occasional infections in human populations exposed to reservoir species. The risk of widespread epidemics in humans can be assessed by monitoring the reproduction number R (average number of persons infected by a human case. However, until now, estimating R required detailed outbreak investigations of human clusters, for which resources and expertise are not always available. Additionally, existing methods do not correct for important selection and under-ascertainment biases. Here, we present simple estimation methods that overcome many of these limitations.Our approach is based on a parsimonious mathematical model of disease transmission and only requires data collected through routine surveillance and standard case investigations. We apply it to assess the transmissibility of swine-origin influenza A H3N2v-M virus in the US, Nipah virus in Malaysia and Bangladesh, and also present a non-zoonotic example (cholera in the Dominican Republic. Estimation is based on two simple summary statistics, the proportion infected by the natural reservoir among detected cases (G and among the subset of the first detected cases in each cluster (F. If detection of a case does not affect detection of other cases from the same cluster, we find that R can be estimated by 1-G; otherwise R can be estimated by 1-F when the case detection rate is low. In more general cases, bounds on R can still be derived.We have developed a simple approach with limited data requirements that enables robust assessment of the risks posed by emerging zoonoses. We illustrate this by deriving transmissibility estimates for the H3N2v-M virus, an important step in evaluating the possible pandemic threat posed by this virus. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  17. Bacterial and parasitic zoonoses of exotic pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J

    2009-09-01

    Zoonoses are estimated to make up to 75% of today's emerging infectious diseases. Many of these diseases are carried and transmitted by exotic pets and wildlife. Exotic animal practitioners must be aware of these risks not only to protect their health but also to safeguard the health of staff and clients. This article reviews selected bacterial and parasitic zoonoses associated with exotic animals.

  18. One Health in NSW: coordination of human and animal health sector management of zoonoses of public health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Sheena; Marich, Andrew; Roth, Ian

    2011-07-01

    Zoonoses of public health significance may occur in wildlife, livestock or companion animals, and may be detected by the human or animal health sectors. Of particular public health interest are foodborne, arboviral and emerging zoonoses (known/unknown, endemic/exotic). A coordinated One Health approach to the management of zoonoses in NSW uses measures including: mutually agreed intersectoral procedures for detection and response; surveillance and notification systems for defined endemic and exotic diseases; joint meetings and exercises to ensure currency of response plans; and intersectoral communication during a response. This One Health approach is effective and ensures the interests of both the human health and animal health sectors are addressed.

  19. The geo-spatial information infrastructure at the Centre for Control and Prevention of Zoonoses, University of Ibadan, Nigeria: an emerging sustainable One-Health pavilion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olugasa, B O

    2014-12-01

    presents a graded capability for geospatial data capture, analysis and an emerging sustainable map pavilion dedicated to zoonoses disease surveillance training among collaborating institutions in West Africa.

  20. Changing dietary habits in a changing world: emerging drivers for the transmission of foodborne parasitic zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broglia, A; Kapel, C

    2011-11-24

    Changing eating habits, population growth and movements, global trade of foodstuff, changes in food production systems, climate change, increased awareness and better diagnostic tools are some of the main drivers affecting the emergence or re-emergence of many foodborne parasitic diseases in recent years. In particular, the increasing demand for exotic and raw food is one of the reasons why reports of foodborne infections, and especially waterborne parasitosis, have increased in the last years. Moreover increasing global demand for protein of animal origin has led to certain farming practices (e.g. aquaculture) increasing in emerging or developing countries, where health monitoring may not be sufficiently implemented. Therefore, high quality epidemiological data are needed which together with biological, economic, social and cultural variables should be taken into account when setting control programs for these increasingly popular production systems in emerging economies. This review focuses on the dietary, social, economic and environmental changes that may cause an increase in human exposure to foodborne parasites. Some examples illustrating these new epidemiological dynamics of transmission foodborne parasitic disease are presented.

  1. Emerging vector-borne zoonoses: eco-epidemiology and public health implications in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Ramesh C

    2014-01-01

    The diseases originating from animals or associated with man and animals are remerging and have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality. The present review highlights the re-emergence of emerging mainly zoonotic diseases like chikungunya, scrub typhus, and extension of spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis from western Rajasthan to Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and Haryana states; West Nile virus to Assam, and non-endemic areas of Japanese encephalitis (JE) like Maharashtra and JE to Delhi; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever making inroads in Ahmedabad; and reporting fifth parasite of human malaria with possibility of zoonosis have been highlighted, which necessitates further studies for prevention and control. Emphasis has been given on understanding the ecology of reservoir hosts of pathogen, micro niche of vector species, climatic, socioeconomic risk factors, etc. Development of facilities for diagnosis of virus from insects, reservoirs, and human beings (like BSL4, which has been established in NIV, Pune), awareness about symptoms of new emerging viral and other zoonotic diseases, differential diagnosis, risk factors (climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic) and mapping of disease-specific vulnerable areas, and mathematical modeling for projecting epidemiological scenario is needed for preparedness of public health institutes. It is high time to understand the ecological link of zoonotic or anthroponotic diseases for updated risk maps and epidemiological knowledge for effective preventive and control measures. The public health stakeholders in India as well as in Southeast Asia should emphasize on understanding the eco-epidemiology of the discussed zoonotic diseases for taking preventive actions.

  2. Emerging zoonoses: responsible communication with the media--lessons learned and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbaa, D

    2010-11-01

    Emerging zoonotic disease outbreaks are inevitable and often unpredictable events. The environment surrounding an outbreak is unique in public health, and outbreaks are frequently marked by uncertainty, confusion and a sense of urgency. Good communication at this time, generally through the media, is essential, but examples unfortunately abound of communication failures that have delayed outbreak control, undermined public trust and compliance, and unnecessarily prolonged economic, social and political turmoil. With this paper we hope to disseminate the idea that communication expertise has become as essential to outbreak control as epidemiological training and laboratory analysis. The paper presents the best practices for communicating with the public and discusses future aspects of communicating through the mass media during an outbreak. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  3. All creatures great and minute: a public policy primer for companion animal zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaser, J K; Clark, E E; Meyers, N M

    2008-10-01

    Approximately 63% of US households have at least one pet, a large percentage of which are considered family members. Pet owners can derive substantial physical and psychological benefits from interaction with companion animals. However, pet ownership is not without risks; zoonotic diseases are increasingly drawing the attention of healthcare professionals, policy makers and the general public. While zoonoses of 'traditional' pets are widely recognized and their prevention and treatment factors are generally known, the growing popularity of 'non-traditional' pets has the potential to facilitate human exposure to novel zoonoses. However, the greatest risk of zoonoses probably arises from animals taken directly from the wild to serve as pets. Non-governmental organizations, state veterinary associations and others have been calling for increased regulation of animal imports, some proposing that all 'exotics' be banned from the pet trade. Because zoonotic diseases of companion animals are influenced by interacting factors of ecological, technical, socio-economic, and political origin, efforts to minimize their impact need be multi-dimensional, simultaneously addressing both the ecological and socio-political drivers of disease emergence and transmission. This study is intended to serve as a primer for animal care professionals seeking to engage with policy makers and the pet industry on the prevention of companion animal zoonoses. We provide background on the human-animal bond, risks of zoonoses associated with groups of companion animals, and the public policy context, as well as identify the factors needed to build a comprehensive approach to companion animal zoonoses risk management. Also included are examples of innovative, non-regulatory initiatives designed to limit the spread and impact of companion animal zoonoses, including a reptile salmonella poster, the National Reptile Improvement Plan, Habitattitude campaign, Pet Zoonoses Committee, and a wildlife disease

  4. Climate change, zoonoses and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Banga, H S

    2011-12-01

    Economic trends have shaped our growth and the growth of the livestock sector, but atthe expense of altering natural resources and systems in ways that are not always obvious. Now, however, the reverse is beginning to happen, i.e. environmental trends are beginning to shape our economy and health status. In addition to water, air and food, animals and birds play a pivotal role in the maintenance and transmission of important zoonotic diseases in nature. It is generally considered that the prevalence of vector-borne and waterborne zoonoses is likely to increase in the coming years due to the effects of global warming in India. In recent years, vector-borne diseases have emerged as a serious public health problem in countries of the South-East Asia region, including India. Vector-borne zoonoses now occur in epidemic form almost on an annual basis, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. New reservoir areas of cutaneous leishmaniosis in South India have been recognised, and the role of climate change in its re-emergence warrants further research, as does the role of climate change in the ascendancy of waterborne and foodborne illness. Similarly, climate change that leads to warmer and more humid conditions may increase the risk of transmission of airborne zoonoses, and hot and drier conditions may lead to a decline in the incidence of disease(s). The prevalence of these zoonotic diseases and their vectors and the effect of climate change on important zoonoses in India are discussed in this review.

  5. Neglected bacterial zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikeka, I; Dumler, J S

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial zoonoses comprise a group of diseases in humans or animals acquired by direct contact with or by oral consumption of contaminated animal materials, or via arthropod vectors. Among neglected infections, bacterial zoonoses are among the most neglected given emerging data on incidence and prevalence as causes of acute febrile illness, even in areas where recognized neglected tropical diseases occur frequently. Although many other bacterial infections could also be considered in this neglected category, five distinct infections stand out because they are globally distributed, are acute febrile diseases, have high rates of morbidity and case fatality, and are reported as commonly as malaria, typhoid or dengue virus infections in carefully designed studies in which broad-spectrum diagnoses are actively sought. This review will focus attention on leptospirosis, relapsing fever borreliosis and rickettsioses, including scrub typhus, murine typhus and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. Of greatest interest is the lack of distinguishing clinical features among these infections when in humans, which confounds diagnosis where laboratory confirmation is lacking, and in regions where clinical diagnosis is often attributed to one of several perceived more common threats. As diseases such as malaria come under improved control, the real impact of these common and under-recognized infections will become evident, as will the requirement for the strategies and allocation of resources for their control.

  6. Building the road to a regional zoonoses strategy: A survey of zoonoses programmes in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire de Carvalho, Mary H.; Hoet, Armando E.; Vigilato, Marco A. N.; Pompei, Julio C.; Cosivi, Ottorino; del Rio Vilas, Victor J.

    2017-01-01

    Background In recent years, global public health security has been threatened by zoonotic disease emergence as exemplified by outbreaks of H5N1 and H1N1 influenza, SARS, and most recently Ebola and Zika. Additionally, endemic zoonoses, such as rabies, burden countries year after year, placing demands on limited finances and personnel. To survey the baseline status of the emerging and endemic zoonoses programmes of the Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) countries, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) conducted a survey of priority emerging and endemic zoonoses, countries´ prioritization criteria and methodologies, and suggestions to strengthen countries capacities and regional approaches to zoonoses control. Methods A fillable online questionnaire was sent to the zoonoses programme managers of the Ministries of Health (MOH) and Ministries of Agriculture (MAg) of 33 LAC countries from January to April of 2015. The questionnaire comprised 36 single, multiple choice and open-ended questions to inform the objectives of the survey. A descriptive exploratory analysis was completed. Results Fifty-four ministries (26 MOH, 25 MAg, and 3 combined responses) in 31 LAC countries responded to the survey. Within the ministries, 22 (85%) MOH, 5 (20%) MAg, and 2 (67%) combined entities indicated they had specialized zoonoses units. For endemic zoonoses, 32 of 54 ministries responded that they conduct formal prioritization exercises, most of them annually (69%). The three priority endemic zoonoses for the MOHs were leptospirosis, rabies, and brucellosis while the three priorities for the MAgs were brucellosis, rabies, and tuberculosis. Diagnosis for rabies and leptospirosis were cited as the capacities most in need of development. The most needed cross-cutting capacity was coordination between stakeholders. For emerging zoonoses, 28 ministries performed formal prioritization exercises. The top prioritization criteria were probability of introduction into the country and

  7. [Prevalence and Control of Parasitic Zoonoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian-ping

    2015-12-01

    At present, parasitic zoonoses in China are characterized by the reappearance of traditional parasitic zoonoses and constant emergence of new ones, which makes the prevention and control more difficult. In this review, we introduce the classification, epidemiological features, the endemic factors of the infection, as well as the principles and strategies for control, in the aim to provide hints on the control of such diseases in the future.

  8. Zoonoses as occupational diseases

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Zoonoses are discussed as occupational diseases, with special reference to animal husbandry and related activities. After quoting some historical references, occupational zoonoses are examined in relation to the evolution of the concept of occupational zoonosis, the involvement of the World Health Organization in this field, their socio-economic significance, the principal working activities, zoonoses of greatest importance (with special reference to the Mediterranean region), the evaluation ...

  9. A brief review of foodborne zoonoses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, D; Shi, Z; Wei, J; Ma, Z

    2011-10-01

    Foodborne zoonoses have a major impact on public health in China. Its booming economy and rapid socioeconomic changes have affected food production, food supplies and food consumption habits, resulting in an increase in the number of outbreaks of foodborne zoonoses. Both emerging and re-emerging foodborne zoonoses have attracted increasing national and international attention in recent years. This paper briefly reviews the main foodborne zoonoses that have had a major impact on public health over the last 20 years in China. The major causative microorganisms, including foodborne bacteria, parasites and viruses, are discussed. The prevention and control of foodborne zoonoses are difficult challenges in China. The information provided here may aid the development of effective prevention and control strategies for foodborne zoonoses.

  10. One health: zoonoses in the exotic animal practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J

    2011-09-01

    Zoonoses make up approximately ¾ of today’s emerging infectious diseases; many of these zoonoses come from exotic pets and wildlife. Recent outbreaks in humans associated with nondomestic animals include Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Ebola virus, salmonellosis, and monkeypox. Expanding human populations, increased exotic pet ownership and changes in climate may contribute to increased incidence of zoonoses. Education and preventive medicine practices can be applied by veterinarians and other health professionals to reduce the risk of contracting a zoonotic disease. The health of humans, animals, and the environment must be treated as a whole to prevent the transmission of zoonoses.

  11. Addressing social resistance in emerging security technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus.1 Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake. PMID:23970863

  12. Addressing social resistance in emerging security technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus. Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake.

  13. Zoonoses in Europe: a risk to public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen JWB van der; Isken LD; Tiemersma EW; MGB; CIE

    2004-01-01

    Infectious diseases originating from animal reservoirs (zoonoses) are a constant threat to public health. Recent examples are the outbreaks of avian influenza and SARS. Although it is unpredictable which zoonoses will emerge in the coming years in Europe, this report aims to summarize current scient

  14. Transmission of zoonoses through immigration and tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoletta Mavroidi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available More than 200 of the documented zoonoses represent a high proportion of the infectious diseases that cause cases of morbidity and mortality and almost 75% are emerging infections. Immigration and tourism are human activities that are included in the broader field of human migration and travel. Travel plays a significant role in the emergence and spread of disease. The migration of humans has provided the route of spread for infectious diseases and zoonoses (for example, plague, yellow fever, monkey pox and severe acute respiratory syndrome. Tourism constitutes a small fraction of overall movements of humans but a point worthy of note is the number of international travellers has increased by more than 1 300% over the last 50 years. In addition, over 80 million people, mostly from developing countries, are legal or illegal immigrants. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveller to the population visited and the ecosystem. Tourism and immigration may constitute an interface for mixing different genetic and ecological profiles, as well as cultural and social aspects, which is of particular interest in regard to zoonoses. Primary prevention, epidemiological surveillance and health education in the framework of intersectoral and international collaboration remain the cornerstone for response to and control of zoonoses in the context of tourism and immigration.

  15. Communicating one's local address and emergency contact details

    CERN Multimedia

    Information Technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group; Human Resources Department, SPS (Services, Procedures and Social) Group

    2007-01-01

    As part of the ongoing simplification of procedures and rationalisation of administrative processes, the IT, PH (Users Office) and HR Departments have developed two new EDH forms for communicating or updating one's local address and emergency contact details. This is the first time that the forms relating to an official HR procedure can be accessed on a self-service basis and directly updated by the members of personnel themselves. The information recorded remains confidential and may only be accessed by the authorised administrative services and the emergency services. Local address: Members of the personnel must declare any change in their local address (Art. R V 1.38 of the Staff Regulations). This declaration is henceforth made by directly filling out the EDH document indicated below, and without requiring any other spontaneous formality vis-à-vis the department secretariat or the Users Office. It is also possible for any member of the personnel to check whether the local address in the Organizati...

  16. Communicating one's local address and emergency contact details

    CERN Document Server

    Information Technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group; Human Resources Department, SPS (Services, Procedures and Social) Group

    2007-01-01

    As part of the ongoing simplification of procedures and rationalisation of administrative processes, the IT, PH (Users Office) and HR Departments have developed two new EDH forms for communicating or updating one's local address and emergency contact details. This is the first time that the forms relating to an official HR procedure can be accessed on a self-service basis and directly updated by the members of personnel themselves. The information recorded remains confidential and may only be accessed by the authorised administrative services and the emergency services. Local address: Members of the personnel must declare any change in their local address (Art. R V 1.38 of the Staff Regulations). This declaration is henceforth made by directly filling out the EDH document indicated below, and without requiring any other spontaneous formality vis-à-vis the department secretariat or the Users Office. It is also possible for any member of the personnel to check whether the local address in the Organizati...

  17. Humans and cattle: a review of bovine zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Clinton J; Cardwell, Diana M; Moeller, Robert B; Gray, Gregory C

    2014-01-01

    Infectious disease prevention and control has been among the top public health objectives during the last century. However, controlling disease due to pathogens that move between animals and humans has been challenging. Such zoonotic pathogens have been responsible for the majority of new human disease threats and a number of recent international epidemics. Currently, our surveillance systems often lack the ability to monitor the human-animal interface for emergent pathogens. Identifying and ultimately addressing emergent cross-species infections will require a "One Health" approach in which resources from public veterinary, environmental, and human health function as part of an integrative system. Here we review the epidemiology of bovine zoonoses from a public health perspective.

  18. Zoonoses associated with fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Shane

    2011-09-01

    The taxonomic group that composes the fishes is the most diverse group of vertebrates worldwide. The challenges of unique physiologies, a foreign environment, and many unknowns attract a passionate group of biologists and veterinarians. Economically, fishes have become vital as food, bait, and companion animals. Fishermen and fish handlers (processing plants) represent the historical human population exposed to fish zoonoses, but growth in aquaculture and aquarium hobbyists have led to an increase in published fish-borne zoonotic cases starting in the late 1950s that bloomed in the 1980s. Human physicians, particularly dermatologists and infectious disease specialists, are now more aware of fish-borne zoonoses, but they can be assisted with diagnosis when informed patients give more detailed histories with fish/water exposure.

  19. Integrated epidemiology for vector-borne zoonoses

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The development and application of interventions for the control of vector-borne zoonoses requires broad understanding of epidemiological linkages between vector, animal infection and human infection. However, there are significant gaps in our understanding of these linkages and a lack of appropriate data poses a considerable barrier to addressing this issue. A move towards strengthened surveillance of vectors and disease in both animal and human hosts, in combination with linked human-animal...

  20. Portfolios: possibilities for addressing emergency medicine resident competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Patricia; Greene, Constance

    2002-11-01

    Portfolios are an innovative approach to evaluate the competency of emergency medicine residents. Three key characteristics add to their attractiveness. First, portfolios draw from the resident's actual work. Second, they require self-reflection on the part of the resident. Third, they are inherently practice-based learning since residents must review and consider their practice in order to begin the portfolio. This paper illustrates five different applications of portfolios. First, portfolios are applied to evaluating specific competencies as part of the training of emergency physicians. While evaluating specific competencies, the portfolio captures aspects of the general competencies. Second, the article illustrates using portfolios as a way to address a specific residency review committee (RRC) requirement such as follow-ups. Third is a description of how portfolios can be used to evaluate resident conferences capturing the competency of practice-based learning and possibly other competencies such as medical knowledge and patient care. Fourth, the authors of the article designed a portfolio as a way to demonstrate clinical competence. Fifth, they elaborate as to how a continuous quality improvement project could be cast within the portfolio framework. They provide some guidance concerning issues to address when designing the portfolios. Portfolios are carefully structured and not haphazard collections of materials. Following criteria is important in maintaining the validity of the portfolio as well as contributing to reliability. The portfolios can enhance the relationship between faculty and residents since faculty will suggest cases, discuss anomalies, and interact with the residents around the portfolio. The authors believe that in general portfolios can cover many of the general competencies specified by the ACGME while still focusing on issues important to emergency medicine. The authors believe that portfolios provide an approach to evaluation commensurate

  1. Parasitic zoonoses in India: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Sharma, J K; Juyal, P D

    2010-12-01

    Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent throughout India at varying rates. First reports of zoonotic parasites and new emerging diseases have been recorded in both the human and animal populations in recent decades. The prevalence of zoonotic parasites is likely to be an underestimate, owing to the lack of proper surveillance and the shortage of information about the existence of asymptomatic animal carriers. Emergence of diseases such as human echinococcosis/hydatidosis, neurocysticercosis, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis in those with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, together with the re-emergence of cutaneous leishmaniosis, poses a serious threat in India and the prevention and control of these parasitic zoonoses, and others, is a great challenge.

  2. Zoonoses in South-East Asia: a regional burden, a global threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordier, Marion; Roger, François

    2013-06-01

    Zoonoses are an issue of growing interest in South-East Asia, where environmental factors and socio-economic context favor the endemization of well-known diseases and the emergence of new pathogens at the human-wildlife interface. However, the health status of the region with respect to many zoonotic diseases remains poorly defined, despite the high overall burden of zoonoses on the countries of the area, and the global risk of new biological threats in the region. The first objective of this paper was to provide an update of data on the zoonoses commonly described by the scientific community and reported by governmental institutions and international organizations in continental South-East Asia. The analysis of the available data led to the identification of some trends in the evolution of the diseases, as well as some gaps in knowledge and in the current surveillance and control networks. In light of these findings, we discuss measures for effectively addressing zoonotic disease issues in South-East Asia, such as the allocation of funds for research and for surveillance and control programs, and a multi-sectoral and multi-disciplinary approach at various levels.

  3. 'Zoonoses? Not sure what that is...' An assessment of knowledge of zoonoses among medical students in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Manish; Ramani, Sudha; Menon, Geetha; Sankhe, Lalit; Gaidhane, Abhay; Krishnan, Sampath

    2011-05-01

    This study focuses on estimating knowledge of zoonoses among medical students and recent graduates, with an aim of understanding critical gaps in medical education with respect to zoonoses. A semi-structured tool for knowledge assessment, having nine principal domains of knowledge and five domains of practice, was developed and validated. Using this tool, cross-sectional data was collected from 364 medical students and recent graduates and knowledge scores were calculated based on pre-defined guidelines. Out of the 364 respondents, only 10 defined zoonoses accurately (2.8%). Only 33.7% of the respondents in the public college (62 out of 184) and 3.3% in the private college (6 out of 180) could correctly name three common parasitic zoonoses in India. Only 5.5% of respondents (20 out of 361) were able to identify rabies as a disease transmitted by animals other than dogs. Knowledge on all emerging and new infectious diseases was poor. The average knowledge score was 64% in the public medical college and 41.4% in the private medical college. These poor scores imply that, on average, a student knows only 40-60% of what is needed to diagnose, treat and report zoonotic diseases effectively. Considering the changing landscape of infectious diseases, the current medical curriculum needs to be revised to improve understanding of existing zoonoses and also include emerging diseases.

  4. Data monitoring committees: Promoting best practices to address emerging challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Thomas R; DeMets, David L; Roe, Matthew T; Wittes, Janet; Calis, Karim A; Vora, Amit N; Meisel, Alan; Bain, Raymond P; Konstam, Marvin A; Pencina, Michael J; Gordon, David J; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Hennekens, Charles H; Neaton, James D; Pearson, Gail D; Andersson, Tomas Lg; Pfeffer, Marc A; Ellenberg, Susan S

    2017-04-01

    Data monitoring committees are responsible for safeguarding the interests of study participants and assuring the integrity and credibility of clinical trials. The independence of data monitoring committees from sponsors and investigators is essential in achieving this mission. Creative approaches are needed to address ongoing and emerging challenges that potentially threaten data monitoring committees' independence and effectiveness. An expert panel of representatives from academia, industry and government sponsors, and regulatory agencies discussed these challenges and proposed best practices and operating principles for effective functioning of contemporary data monitoring committees. Prospective data monitoring committee members need better training. Options could include didactic instruction as well as apprenticeships to provide real-world experience. Data monitoring committee members should be protected against legal liability arising from their service. While avoiding breaches in confidentiality of interim data remains a high priority, data monitoring committees should have access to unblinded efficacy and safety data throughout the trial to enable informed judgments about risks and benefits. Because overly rigid procedures can compromise their independence, data monitoring committees should have the flexibility necessary to best fulfill their responsibilities. Data monitoring committee charters should articulate principles that guide the data monitoring committee process rather than list a rigid set of requirements. Data monitoring committees should develop their recommendations by consensus rather than through voting processes. The format for the meetings of the data monitoring committee should maintain the committee's independence and clearly establish the leadership of the data monitoring committee chair. The independent statistical group at the Statistical Data Analysis Center should have sufficient depth of knowledge about the study at hand and

  5. Ecology of zoonoses: natural and unnatural histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karesh, William B; Dobson, Andy; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Lubroth, Juan; Dixon, Matthew A; Bennett, Malcolm; Aldrich, Stephen; Harrington, Todd; Formenty, Pierre; Loh, Elizabeth H; Machalaba, Catherine C; Thomas, Mathew Jason; Heymann, David L

    2012-12-01

    More than 60% of human infectious diseases are caused by pathogens shared with wild or domestic animals. Zoonotic disease organisms include those that are endemic in human populations or enzootic in animal populations with frequent cross-species transmission to people. Some of these diseases have only emerged recently. Together, these organisms are responsible for a substantial burden of disease, with endemic and enzootic zoonoses causing about a billion cases of illness in people and millions of deaths every year. Emerging zoonoses are a growing threat to global health and have caused hundreds of billions of US dollars of economic damage in the past 20 years. We aimed to review how zoonotic diseases result from natural pathogen ecology, and how other circumstances, such as animal production, extraction of natural resources, and antimicrobial application change the dynamics of disease exposure to human beings. In view of present anthropogenic trends, a more effective approach to zoonotic disease prevention and control will require a broad view of medicine that emphasises evidence-based decision making and integrates ecological and evolutionary principles of animal, human, and environmental factors. This broad view is essential for the successful development of policies and practices that reduce probability of future zoonotic emergence, targeted surveillance and strategic prevention, and engagement of partners outside the medical community to help improve health outcomes and reduce disease threats.

  6. Zoonoses: A current issue in contemporary infectology

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. Animal infectious diseases which can be transmitted to humans are as old as the civilization itself. It is thought that 75% of all human infectious diseases are of zoonotic origin. Zoonoses are of significant public health importance, with major social and economic impact. General facts about zoonoses. Depending on their life cycle, four groups of zoonoses are distinguished: orthozoonoses, cyclozoonoses, metazoonoses and saprozoonoses. Some zoonoses are of bacterial or viral ori...

  7. Mathematical Modeling of Viral Zoonoses in Wildlife

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Zoonoses are a worldwide public health concern, accounting for approximately 75% of human infectious diseases. In addition, zoonoses adversely affect agricultural production and wildlife. We review some mathematical models developed for the study of viral zoonoses in wildlife and identify areas where further modeling efforts are needed.

  8. [Mycoses and zoonoses: Cryptococcus spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabañes, F Javier

    2008-03-01

    The term "zoonosis" is difficult to delimit because different authors have various definitions for this term. Few mycoses are usually considered zoonoses. However, the role that animals play in the epidemiology of the main human mycoses is still not well known. Moreover, the environmental niches for these fungal agents have not yet been completely determined. This special issue of the "Revista Iberoamericana de Micología" deals with the talks and round table presented at the VIII Spanish Mycological Congress held in October 2006 in Barcelona, Spain on "Cryptococcus spp. and zoonoses".

  9. Human behaviour and the epidemiology of parasitic zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Calum N L

    2005-10-01

    The behaviour of Homo sapiens has a pivotal role to play in the macro and microepidemiology of emerging or re-emerging parasitic zoonoses. Changing demographics and the concomitant alterations to the environment, climate, technology, land use and changes in human behavior, converge to favour the emergence and spread of parasitic zoonoses. The recent unprecedented movements of people, their animals and their parasites around the world, introduce and mix genes, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. The increasing proclivity for eating meat, fish, crabs, shrimp, molluscs raw, undercooked, smoked, pickled or dried facilitates a number of protozoan (Toxoplasma), trematode (Fasciola sp., Paragonimus spp., Clonorchis sp., Opisthorchis spp., Heterophyes sp., Metagonimus sp., Echinostoma spp., Nanophyetus sp.) cestode (Taenia spp, Diphyllobothrum sp.) and nematode (Trichinella spp., Capillaria spp., Gnathostoma spp., Anisakis sp., Parastrongylus spp.) caused zoonoses. The increasing world population and the inability to keep pace with the provision of adequate sanitation and clean, safe drinking water, has led to an increased importance of waterborne zoonoses, such as those caused by Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma. Our close relationship with and the numerous uses to which we put companion animals and their ubiquitous distribution has resulted in dogs and cats unwitting participation in sharing over 60 parasite species including: Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, most foodborne trematode species, Diphyllobothrum, Echinococcus spp., Ancylostoma and Toxocara. Changing human behaviour through education, to encourage the proper cooking of food, which may have cultural and social significance, will remain as challenging as controlling stray and feral pet populations, improving hygiene levels and the provision of safe drinking water and the proper use of sanctuary facilities. Long pre-patent periods and the normally insidious sub-clinical nature of

  10. Exploring local knowledge and perceptions on zoonoses among pastoralists in northern and eastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangesho, Peter Ernest; Neselle, Moses Ole; Karimuribo, Esron D; Mlangwa, James E; Queenan, Kevin; Mboera, Leonard E G; Rushton, Jonathan; Kock, Richard; Häsler, Barbara; Kiwara, Angwara; Rweyemamu, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Zoonoses account for the most commonly reported emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is limited knowledge on how pastoral communities perceive zoonoses in relation to their livelihoods, culture and their wider ecology. This study was carried out to explore local knowledge and perceptions on zoonoses among pastoralists in Tanzania. This study involved pastoralists in Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania and Kibaha and Bagamoyo districts in eastern Tanzania. Qualitative methods of focus group discussions, participatory epidemiology and interviews were used. A total of 223 people were involved in the study. Among the pastoralists, there was no specific term in their local language that describes zoonosis. Pastoralists from northern Tanzania possessed a higher understanding on the existence of a number of zoonoses than their eastern districts' counterparts. Understanding of zoonoses could be categorized into two broad groups: a local syndromic framework, whereby specific symptoms of a particular illness in humans concurred with symptoms in animals, and the biomedical framework, where a case definition is supported by diagnostic tests. Some pastoralists understand the possibility of some infections that could cross over to humans from animals but harm from these are generally tolerated and are not considered as threats. A number of social and cultural practices aimed at maintaining specific cultural functions including social cohesion and rites of passage involve animal products, which present zoonotic risk. These findings show how zoonoses are locally understood, and how epidemiology and biomedicine are shaping pastoralists perceptions to zoonoses. Evidence is needed to understand better the true burden and impact of zoonoses in these communities. More studies are needed that seek to clarify the common understanding of zoonoses that could be used to guide effective and locally relevant interventions. Such studies should

  11. Early action to address an emerging wildlife disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Harris, M. Camille; Grear, Daniel A.

    2017-02-23

    A deadly fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) that affects amphibian skin was discovered during a die-off of European fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra) in 2014. This pathogen has the potential to worsen already severe worldwide amphibian declines. Bsal is a close relative to another fungal disease known as Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Many scientists consider Bd to be the greatest threat to amphibian biodiversity of any disease because it affects a large number of species and has the unusual ability to drive species and populations to extinction.Although not yet detected in the United States, the emergence of Bsal could threaten the salamander population, which is the most diverse in the world. The spread of Bsal likely will lead to more State and federally listed threatened or endangered amphibian species, and associated economic effects.Because of the concern expressed by resource management agencies, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has made Bsal and similar pathogens a priority for research.

  12. UMANG – AN EMERGENCY CAMPAIGN TO ADDRESS MALNUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grana Pu Selvi Gnanaraj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: World Vision India with its existence in across the country implemented the emergency feeding program for the children with underweight in 53 area development sites spread across 15 states of the country. Rationale: Since more than 40% of the children were found to be underweight through our assessment process, we implemented this community based feeding program as an emergency response to children with malnutrition. Objective: To rehabilitate the malnourished children and sensitise the community on feeding, caring and health seeking practices. Material and Methods: Considering the high prevalence of underweight children, we initiated the program ‘UMANG’ (Urgent Management and Action for Nutritional growth on a campaign mode with the involvement of various stakeholders. Malnourished children for this program were selected through a community based screening program. This was a 90 day community based feeding program for the malnourished children conducted either in the anganwadi center or a common place. Underweight children (moderate and severe and their mothers/care takers attended this program with their contribution from backyard nutrition garden or local market and were taught to prepare a nutritious menu using locally available low cost food materials. Mothers were also sensitised on health seeking, caring and feeding practices to prevent future incidence of malnutrition. The families of the malnourished children were also supported with nutrition (backyard garden, economic development assistance to improve food diversity at the household level. Results: About 50858 malnourished children (54 per cent moderate and 46 per cent severe were enrolled in UMANG[1]. On comparing the baseline (1st day and endline figures (90th day 38.5 per cent of the children have graduated to normal from moderate and severe underweight. In addition UMANG had spin off benefits such as increase in anganwadi attendance, community based growth

  13. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in...

  14. Zoonoses of rabbits and rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, William Allen; Brown, Julie Paige

    2011-09-01

    Millions of households in the US own rabbits or rodents, including hamsters, guinea pigs, and gerbils. Activities such as hunting and camping also involve human interactions with wild rabbits and rodents. In many environments, feral rabbits and rodents live in close proximity to humans, domesticated animals, and other wildlife. Education of rodent and rabbit owners and individuals with occupational or recreational exposures to these species is paramount to reduce the prevalence of zoonoses associated with rabbit and rodent exposure.

  15. Integrated epidemiology for vector-borne zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Nicola A

    2016-02-01

    The development and application of interventions for the control of vector-borne zoonoses requires broad understanding of epidemiological linkages between vector, animal infection and human infection. However, there are significant gaps in our understanding of these linkages and a lack of appropriate data poses a considerable barrier to addressing this issue. A move towards strengthened surveillance of vectors and disease in both animal and human hosts, in combination with linked human-animal surveys, could form the backbone for epidemiological integration, enabling explicit assessment of the animal-human (and vector) interface, and subsequent implications for spill-over to human populations. Currently available data on the spatial distribution of human African trypanosomiasis allow an illustrative example.

  16. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Xu, Min-Jun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Song, Hui-Qun; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-07-28

    Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures.

  17. Food-borne Zoonoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The awareness of food borne illness has shifted over the years as international agribusiness and transportation have steadily increased. At least 30 food borne agents have been identified, with one-third emerging in the last 3 decades. Despite an increased emphasis on control measures, t...

  18. Zoonoses in the Bedroom

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-01-26

    This podcast reports on some of the diseases pet owners can acquire from their pets. Public health veterinarian, Dr. Heather Bair-Brake, describes the connection between disease and pets sleeping in their owner’s beds.  Created: 1/26/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/31/2011.

  19. Review of parasitic zoonoses in egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ahmed I; Uga, Shoji

    2014-03-01

    This review presents a comprehensive picture of the zoonotic parasitic diseases in Egypt, with particular reference to their relative prevalence among humans, animal reservoirs of infection, and sources of human infection. A review of the available literature indicates that many parasitic zoonoses are endemic in Egypt. Intestinal infections of parasitic zoonoses are widespread and are the leading cause of diarrhea, particularly among children and residents of rural areas. Some parasitic zoonoses are confined to specific geographic areas in Egypt, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis and zoonotic babesiosis in the Sinai. Other areas have a past history of a certain parasitic zoonoses, such as visceral leishmaniasis in the El-Agamy area in Alexandria. As a result of the implementation of control programs, a marked decrease in the prevalence of other zoonoses, such as schistosomiasis and fascioliasis has been observed. Animal reservoirs of parasitic zoonoses have been identified in Egypt, especially in rodents, stray dogs and cats, as well as vectors, typically mosquitoes and ticks, which constitute potential risks for disease transmission. Prevention and control programs against sources and reservoirs of zoonoses should be planned by public health and veterinary officers based on reliable information from systematic surveillance.

  20. Public health threat of new, reemerging, and neglected zoonoses in the industrialized world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Sally J; Fooks, Anthony R; van der Poel, Wim H M

    2010-01-01

    Microbiologic infections acquired from animals, known as zoonoses, pose a risk to public health. An estimated 60% of emerging human pathogens are zoonotic. Of these pathogens, >71% have wildlife origins. These pathogens can switch hosts by acquiring new genetic combinations that have altered pathogenic potential or by changes in behavior or socioeconomic, environmental, or ecologic characteristics of the hosts. We discuss causal factors that influence the dynamics associated with emergence or reemergence of zoonoses, particularly in the industrialized world, and highlight selected examples to provide a comprehensive view of their range and diversity.

  1. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures.

  2. Review of Parasitic Zoonoses in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive picture of the zoonotic parasitic diseases in Egypt, with particular reference to their relative prevalence among humans, animal reservoirs of infection, and sources of human infection. A review of the available literature indicates that many parasitic zoonoses are endemic in Egypt. Intestinal infections of parasitic zoonoses are widespread and are the leading cause of diarrhea, particularly among children and residents of rural areas. Some parasitic zoono...

  3. Zoonoses and poverty – a long road to the alleviation of suffering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristarchos Seimenis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Populations living in poverty in the developing world suffer a heavy burden caused by infectious diseases, most of them zoonoses. The poorer populations also tend to be marginalised from the health sector and so are many of the diseases that affect them. The poor in every society, and particularly in developing countries, bear a disproportionately high share of the disease burden. There is a broad range of viral, bacterial, mycotic, chlamydial, rickettsial and parasitic diseases of global and regional importance given their major impact on the health and socio-economic development of many populations. Endemic infectious diseases, including zoonoses, together with emerging and re-emerging diseases, are mostly shouldered by poor and vulnerable populations. Livestock are important in supporting the livelihoods of poor farmers, consumers and traders throughout the developing world. The animals of poor people are particularly vulnerable to disease because of costs, absence or unsuitability of the animal health sector, etc. The impact of endemic animal diseases are mainly felt at the farm level, while a broader economic impact can occur with these diseases through the restriction of trade in livestock and their products. Addressing comprehensive and sustainable solutions to public health problems created by endemic infections cannot be achieved solely by the public health sector alone. Partnerships with other sectors, particularly agriculture, environment, education, local administration, will be necessary to contain and effectively control zoonotic and foodborne diseases that affect mainly the poor. International organisations could support developing countries by coordinating national intersectoral activities, promoting appropriate technology and public health education, community participation and encouraging decision-makers to commit themselves. This is the only perspective for improved quality of life of poor and marginalised populations.

  4. Zoonoses and poverty - a long road to the alleviation of suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimenis, Aristarchos

    2012-01-01

    Populations living in poverty in the developing world suffer a heavy burden caused by infectious diseases, most of them zoonoses. The poorer populations also tend to be marginalised from the health sector and so are many of the diseases that affect them. The poor in every society, and particularly in developing countries, bear a disproportionately high share of the disease burden. There is a broad range of viral, bacterial, mycotic, chlamydial, rickettsial and parasitic diseases of global and regional importance given their major impact on the health and socio-economic development of many populations. Endemic infectious diseases, including zoonoses, together with emerging and re-emerging diseases, are mostly shouldered by poor and vulnerable populations. Livestock are important in supporting the livelihoods of poor farmers, consumers and traders throughout the developing world. The animals of poor people are particularly vulnerable to disease because of costs, absence or unsuitability of the animal health sector, etc. The impact of endemic animal diseases are mainly felt at the farm level, while a broader economic impact can occur with these diseases through the restriction of trade in livestock and their products. Addressing comprehensive and sustainable solutions to public health problems created by endemic infections cannot be achieved solely by the public health sector alone. Partnerships with other sectors, particularly agriculture, environment, education, local administration, will be necessary to contain and effectively control zoonotic and foodborne diseases that affect mainly the poor. International organisations could support developing countries by coordinating national intersectoral activities, promoting appropriate technology and public health education, community participation and encouraging decision-makers to commit themselves. This is the only perspective for improved quality of life of poor and marginalised populations.

  5. Keynote address: Closing the research-to-practice gap in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Carolyn M

    2007-11-01

    Emergency medicine in the United States is facing tremendous challenges due to recent public health emergencies, continuing threats of bioterrorism, and an increasing and unprecedented demand for emergency department services. These challenges include overcrowding; long waiting times; "boarding" of patients; ambulance diversion; a need for better, more reliable tools for triaging patients; and medical errors and other patient safety concerns. These challenges and concerns were brought to the forefront several years ago by the Institute of Medicine in several landmark reports that call for closing the research-to-practice gap in emergency medicine. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality is funding a number of projects that address many of the concerns raised in the reports, including the use of an advanced access appointment scheduling system to improve access to care; the use of an electronic medical record system to reduce waiting times and errors and improve patient and provider satisfaction; and the refinement of the Emergency Severity Index, a five-level triage scale to get patients to the right resources at the right time. The agency's Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project is gathering data that will allow researchers to examine a broad range of issues affecting the use, quality, and cost of emergency services. Although progress has been made over the past few years in closing the research-to-practice gap in emergency medicine, many challenges remain. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality has supported and will continue to support a broad portfolio of research to address the many challenges confronting emergency medicine, including ways to improve emergency care through the application of research findings.

  6. Addressing challenges for future strategic-level emergency management: reframing, networking, and capacity-building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosomworth, Karyn; Owen, Christine; Curnin, Steven

    2017-04-01

    The mounting frequency and intensity of natural hazards, alongside growing interdependencies between social-technical and ecological systems, are placing increased pressure on emergency management. This is particularly true at the strategic level of emergency management, which involves planning for and managing non-routine, high-consequence events. Drawing on the literature, a survey, and interviews and workshops with Australia's senior emergency managers, this paper presents an analysis of five core challenges that these pressures are creating for strategic-level emergency management. It argues that emphasising 'emergency management' as a primary adaptation strategy is a retrograde step that ignores the importance of addressing socio-political drivers of vulnerabilities. Three key suggestions are presented that could assist the country's strategic-level emergency management in tackling these challenges: (i) reframe emergency management as a component of disaster risk reduction rather than them being one and the same; (ii) adopt a network governance approach; and (iii) further develop the capacities of strategic-level emergency managers. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  7. Parasite zoonoses and wildlife: One Health, spillover and human activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R C Andrew

    2013-11-01

    This review examines parasite zoonoses and wildlife in the context of the One Health triad that encompasses humans, domestic animals, wildlife and the changing ecosystems in which they live. Human (anthropogenic) activities influence the flow of all parasite infections within the One Health triad and the nature and impact of resulting spillover events are examined. Examples of spillover from wildlife to humans and/or domestic animals, and vice versa, are discussed, as well as emerging issues, particularly the need for parasite surveillance of wildlife populations. Emphasis is given to Trypanosoma cruzi and related species in Australian wildlife, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Giardia, Baylisascaris, Toxoplasma and Leishmania.

  8. Prevention and control of zoonoses at their source: from the Chinese perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songtao YANG,Yuwei GAO,Jun QIAN,Quan LIU,Xuexing ZHENG,Hualei WANG,Zhiping XIA,Xianzhu XIA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses are a significant public health concern and cause considerable socioeconomic problems globally. The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI, and Ebola virus disease (EVD has had a significant effect on the national economy and public health in China, and other countries. This review analyzed zoonotic disease issues faced by China, and the main factors contributing to the risk of zoonotic disease. The Chinese government has devised new strategies and has taken measures to deal with the challenges of these diseases, and the prevention and control of zoonoses at their source. A strategy that is suited to China's national conditions, is proposed.

  9. Public Health Threat of New, Reemerging, and Neglected Zoonoses in the Industrialized World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, S.J.; Fooks, A.R.; Poel, van der W.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Microbiologic infections acquired from animals, known as zoonoses, pose a risk to public health. An estimated 60% of emerging human pathogens are zoonotic. Of these pathogens, >71% have wildlife origins. These pathogens can switch hosts by acquiring new genetic combinations that have altered path

  10. Public Health Threat of New, Reemerging, and Neglected Zoonoses in the Industrialized World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, S.J.; Fooks, A.R.; Poel, van der W.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Microbiologic infections acquired from animals, known as zoonoses, pose a risk to public health. An estimated 60% of emerging human pathogens are zoonotic. Of these pathogens, >71% have wildlife origins. These pathogens can switch hosts by acquiring new genetic combinations that have altered path

  11. Costing the Morbidity and Mortality Consequences of Zoonoses Using Health-Adjusted Life Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, H; Dunt, D; Hollingsworth, B; Firestone, S M; Burgman, M

    2016-10-01

    Governments are routinely involved in the biosecurity of agricultural and food imports and exports. This involves controlling the complex ongoing threat of the broad range of zoonoses: endemic, exotic and newly emerging. Policy-related decision-making in these areas requires accurate information and predictions concerning the effects and potential impacts of zoonotic diseases. The aim of this article was to provide information concerning the development and use of utility-based tools, specifically disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), for measuring the burden on human disease (morbidity and mortality) as a consequence of zoonotic infections. Issues and challenges to their use are also considered. Non-monetary utility approaches that are reviewed in this paper form one of a number of tools that can be used to estimate the monetary and non-monetary 'cost' of morbidity- and mortality-related consequences. Other tools derive from cost-of-illness, willingness-to-pay and multicriteria approaches. Utility-based approaches are specifically designed to capture the pain, suffering and loss of functioning associated with diseases, zoonotic and otherwise. These effects are typically complicated to define, measure and subsequently 'cost'. Utility-based measures will not be able to capture all of the effects, especially those that extend beyond the health sector. These will more normally be captured in financial terms. Along with other uncommon diseases, the quality of the relevant epidemiological data may not be adequate to support the estimation of losses in utility as a result of zoonoses. Other issues in their use have been identified. New empirical studies have shown some success in addressing these issues. Other issues await further study. It is concluded that, bearing in mind all caveats, utility-based methods are important tools in assessing the magnitude of the impacts of zoonoses in human disease. They make an important contribution to decision-making and priority

  12. 76 FR 44592 - Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses in Support of Strategies That Address Food Safety Problems That Align Domestically and Globally (U01); Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice...

  13. Parasitic zoonoses; public health and veterinary perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Tadeusz K; Tamang, Leena; Doocy, Shannon C

    2005-01-01

    The importance of parasitic zoonoses continues to increase on both local and global scales as interactions between people and animals become more frequent through global travel, intensification of agriculture, habitat devastation, and changes in world trade patterns. A current and real threat is the potential for a deliberate introduction of a zoonotic disease through the prospect of bioterrorism. Parasitic zoonoses represent significant problems in public health, animal agriculture and conservation, and the meat industry. There is an urgent need for integration of medical and veterinary services, continuous disease surveillance in both humans and animals, the teaching of zoonoses to medical doctors, and intensified research on zoonotic agents and diseases. The convergence of both public health and veterinary services currently represents a real challenge for managing zoonotic diseases.

  14. Zoonoses and One Health: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satesh Bidaisee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. One health is a concept that was officially adopted by international organizations and scholarly bodies in 1984. It is the notion of combining human, animal, and environmental components to address global health challenges that have an ecological interconnectedness. Methods. A cross-sectional study of the available literature cited was conducted from January 1984 when the one health concept was adopted till December 2012 to examine the role of the one health approach towards zoonoses. Inclusion criteria included publications, professional presentations, funding allocations, official documentation books, and book chapters, and exclusion criteria included those citations written outside the period of review. Results. A total of 737 resources met the inclusion criteria and were considered in this review. Resources showed a continuous upward trend for the years from 2006 to 2012. The predominant resources were journal publications with environmental health as the significant scope focus for one health. There was also an emphasis on the distribution of the work from developed countries. All categories of years, resources, scopes, and country locale differed from the means (P=0.000. Year of initiative, scope, and country locale showed a dependent relationship (P=0.022, P=0.003, and P=0.021, resp.. Conclusion. Our findings demonstrate the rapid growth in embracing the concept of one health, particularly in developed countries over the past six years. The advantages and benefits of this approach in tackling zoonoses are manifold, yet they are still not seemingly being embraced in developing countries where zoonoses have the greatest impact.

  15. Public health impact of zoonoses and international approaches for their detection and containment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Xavier Meslin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Many new, emerging and re-emerging diseases of humans are caused by pathogens that originate from animals or products of animal origin. A wide variety of both domestic and wild animal species act as reservoirs for these pathogens, which may be viruses, bacteria or parasites. Given the extensive distribution of the animal species affected, the effective surveillance, prevention and control of zoonotic diseases pose a significant challenge. There are direct and indirect implications for public health of emerging zoonoses. Direct implications are defined as the consequences for human health in terms of morbidity and mortality. Indirect implications are defined as the effect of the influence of emerging zoonotic disease on health professionals and the general public. The tremendous indirect impact of emerging zoonotic diseases on public health policy and structures and on public perception of health risks is acknowledged. A biphasic approach for handling emerging zoonoses is proposed, i.e. a short- to intermediate-term response to an outbreak or emergency and a long-term comprehensive study of the ecology of the zoonotic pathogen. Resource-rich countries should invest in the establishment and strengthening of surveillance systems in resource-limited countries considering the international significance of emerging zoonoses. Based on the new international health regulations, emphasis should be placed on building the appropriate preparedness and response capacity in countries and on promoting intersectoral collaboration and coordination.

  16. Emerging Developments in Pharmacists' Scope of Practice to Address Unmet Health Care Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Anne L

    2016-09-01

    Pharmacists' comprehensive training is being leveraged in emerging patient care service opportunities that include prescriptive authority under collaborative practice agreements (CPAs) with prescribers or through state-based protocols. CPAs and state-based protocols expand pharmacists' scope of practice to allow the pharmacist to perform designated functions under the terms of the agreement or protocol. For patient-specific CPAs, this often includes initiating, modifying, or discontinuing therapy and ordering laboratory tests. For population-based CPAs and state-based protocols, pharmacists are often authorized to initiate medications to address a public health need. CPAs and state-based protocols are mechanisms to optimally use pharmacists' education and training.

  17. Zoonoses: an occupational hazard for livestock workers and a public health concern for rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeJeune, J; Kersting, A

    2010-07-01

    Farming employs one of the most diverse work forces, while at the same time it is one of the most dangerous occupations in the U.S. Individuals associated with the livestock industry face an additional risk: zoonotic diseases. In an effort to improve the overall well-being of the farming community, this review addresses zoonoses as a health concern for the farming community. The discussion of agriculturally acquired zoonoses includes infections naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to man (e.g., rabies) and those common to animals and man (e.g., Salmonella). Special consideration is given to identifying individuals potentially at higher risk for developing disease. Case reports and epidemiological studies are reviewed from published veterinary and human-health literature to illustrate exposure scenarios and associated health outcomes. Additionally, key livestock zoonoses in the U.S. are summarized, and an overview of prevention and control strategies is provided. Findings show that livestock can transmit many zoonoses directly and indirectly, and human health can be significantly impacted, but the number of people adversely impacted is largely unknown. This review concludes that more education about zoonosis transmission and prevention is needed, and healthcare providers serving rural communities are a critical link in providing this information. In order for healthcare providers to address the educational gap, we recommend greater collaboration with veterinary specialists schooled in population medicine, zoonosis prevention and control, and animal production.

  18. Public Health Threat of New, Reemerging, and Neglected Zoonoses in the Industrialized World

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Microbiologic infections acquired from animals, known as zoonoses, pose a risk to public health. An estimated 60% of emerging human pathogens are zoonotic. Of these pathogens, >71% have wildlife origins. These pathogens can switch hosts by acquiring new genetic combinations that have altered pathogenic potential or by changes in behavior or socioeconomic, environmental, or ecologic characteristics of the hosts. We discuss causal factors that influence the dynamics associated with emergence or...

  19. Use of a systems approach and evidence-based One Health for zoonoses research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, G V; Asokan, Vanitha; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Tharyan, Prathap

    2011-05-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that 25% of the 57 million annual deaths that occur globally are caused by microbes. A study reported 1415 species of infectious organisms are known to be pathogenic to humans. Zoonoses constitute 61% of all known infectious diseases, with humans serving as the primary reservoir for only 3% of them. Of the 175 infectious species considered to be emerging, 75% are zoonotic. Zoonotic diseases and their impact on human and animal health are not monitored, prevented, and treated in an integrated way, despite the fact that etiologies and treatments are similar across species. The efficacy and resistance of a drug in one species has a bearing on others, in the context of zoonoses. Further, an RCT involving many species is effective in a natural setting, is robust, and may require fewer human volunteers. One Health is based on a systems approach and a collaborative effort of multiple disciplines - working locally, nationally, and globally - to attain optimal health for people, animals, and the environment. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have so far been independent and discipline oriented. Pooling of results for diagnostic test accuracies and treatment effects of drugs for zoonoses across species has to be done, since the results of preclinical trials emanate from laboratory animals. The Cochrane Collaboration is the platform of choice to initiate a new group on zoonoses to carry out systematic meta-analyses of diagnostic tests and drug efficacies without bias, thus underpinning the systems approach and One Health.

  20. The need to address poor numeracy skills in the emergency department environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Robert; Sinnott, Michael; Steinle, Vicki; Trenning, Leeanne; Boyde, Mary; Dimeski, Goce

    2014-06-01

    Substantial evidence exists for lack of numerical skills among many health professionals. Although poor numeracy has long been recognised as a contributor to medication error, other activities for which numerical literacy are required, such as interpretation of diagnostic results, have been largely ignored. Poor self-awareness of lack of numerical literacy increases the risk, especially in the busy and hurried emergency environment. System changes, such as standardising units and improving number presentation, reduce the potential for misinterpretation; however system changes do not address the underlying deficiencies in mathematical skills. The training of doctors in numeracy has been largely ignored. In contrast, education for nurses frequently occurs during both pre- and post-registration programmes. Interventions have had mixed success, although additional emphasis in increasing conceptual understanding of numbers is encouraging. The consequences of poor numerical literacy should be addressed in all clinical staff, not only by practice change to remove the potential for errors to be made, but also complemented by self-awareness and education.

  1. Addressing Emerging Risks: Scientific and Regulatory Challenges Associated with Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Tammy R; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Cormier, Stephania A; Dellinger, Barry; Reams, Margaret

    2016-06-08

    Airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) are often generated through widely-used thermal processes such as the combustion of fuels or the thermal decomposition of waste. Residents near Superfund sites are exposed to PM through the inhalation of windblown dust, ingestion of soil and sediments, and inhalation of emissions from the on-site thermal treatment of contaminated soils. Epidemiological evidence supports a link between exposure to airborne PM and an increased risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. It is well-known that during combustion processes, incomplete combustion can lead to the production of organic pollutants that can adsorb to the surface of PM. Recent studies have demonstrated that their interaction with metal centers can lead to the generation of a surface stabilized metal-radical complex capable of redox cycling to produce ROS. Moreover, these free radicals can persist in the environment, hence their designation as Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFR). EPFR has been demonstrated in both ambient air PM2.5 (diameter < 2.5 µm) and in PM from a variety of combustion sources. Thus, low-temperature, thermal treatment of soils can potentially increase the concentration of EPFR in areas in and around Superfund sites. In this review, we will outline the evidence to date supporting EPFR formation and its environmental significance. Furthermore, we will address the lack of methodologies for specifically addressing its risk assessment and challenges associated with regulating this new, emerging contaminant.

  2. Leveraging Emerging Technologies to Address Specific Learning Challenges and Derive Authentic Learning in Mathematics for Business at Africa University - Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Agrippah Kandiero; Nelson Jagero

    2014-01-01

    Emerging Technologies have been put forward by many theorists and researchers in the field of education as the key to 21st century pedagogy alternative, with promise to address learning challenges and provide a platform for authentic learning. This paper reports on use of Emerging Technologies to address learning challenges and derive authentic learning in a Mathematics for Business undergraduate course at Africa University. The research was motivated by an authentic learning challenge based ...

  3. Marine mammal zoonoses: a review of disease manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltzek, T B; Cortés-Hinojosa, G; Wellehan, J F X; Gray, Gregory C

    2012-12-01

    Marine mammals evoke strong public affection as well as considerable scientific interest. However, the resultant close contact with marine wildlife poses human health risks, including traumatic injury and zoonotic disease transmission. The majority of zoonotic marine mammal diseases result in localized skin infections in man that resolve spontaneously or with appropriate medical therapy. However, other marine mammal zoonoses, if left untreated, induce life-threatening systemic diseases that could pose public health risks. As the number of zoonotic diseases rises, the diagnosis of and treatment for these emerging pathogens pose special challenges requiring the expertise of physicians, veterinarians and wildlife biologists. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the bacterial, viral and fungal marine mammal zoonotic diseases that we hope will be utilized by public health professionals, physicians, veterinarians and wildlife biologists to better understand, diagnose and prevent marine mammal zoonotic diseases. 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH

  4. Zoonoses: a potential obstacle to the growing wildlife industry of Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudakwashe Magwedere

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses, which account for approximately 75% of emerging human infectious diseases worldwide, pose a re-emerging threat to public health. With an ever-increasing interrelationship between humans, livestock and wildlife species, the threat to human health will rise to unprecedented levels. Wildlife species contribute to the majority of emerging diseases; therefore, there is an urgent need to define control systems of zoonoses of wildlife origin but very little information exists. In this review, we examine prevalent zoonotic infections reported in Namibia between 1990 and 2009 and assess their potential impact on the growing wildlife industry. A wide spectrum of zoonotic diseases was confirmed in both livestock and wildlife species, with rabies and anthrax cases being over-represented and also showing the widest species distribution. Whilst vaccination and ante-mortem inspection against these diseases may curb infected livestock species from entering the human food chain, such practices are difficult to implement in free-ranging wildlife species. In this context, there is a need to improve existing control measures and/or develop novel and better interventional strategies to reduce the threat of this re-emerging global problem. This review provides the basis for initiating a multidisciplinary evidence-based approach to control zoonoses in countries with thriving wildlife and game farming.

  5. Research priorities for zoonoses and marginalized infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a review and analysis of the research landscape for zoonoses and marginalized infections which affect poor populations, and a list of research priorities to support disease control. The work is the output of the Disease Reference Group on Zoonoses and Marginalized Infectious Diseases of Poverty (DRG6), which is part of an independent think tank of international experts, established and funded by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), to identify key research priorities through review of research evidence and input from stakeholder consultations. The report covers a diverse range of diseases, including zoonotic helminth, protozoan, viral and bacterial infections considered to be neglected and associated with poverty. Disease-specific research issues are elaborated under individual disease sections and many common priorities are identified among the diseases such as the need for new and/or improved drugs and regimens, diagnostics and, where appropriate, vaccines. The disease-specific priorities are described as micro priorities compared with the macro level priorities which will drive policy-making for: improved surveillance; interaction between the health, livestock, agriculture, natural resources and wildlife sectors in tackling zoonotic diseases; and true assessment of the burden of zoonoses. This is one often disease and thematic reference group reports that have come out of the TDR Think Tank, all of which have contributed to the development of the Global Report search on Infectious Diseases of Poverty, available at: w.who.int/tdr/stewardship/global_report/en/index.html.

  6. Mapping of networks to detect priority zoonoses in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Sorrell

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of emerging disease events is a priority focus area for cooperative bioengagement programs. Communication and coordination among national disease surveillance and response networks are essential for timely detection and control of a public health event. Although systematic information sharing between the human and animal health sectors can help stakeholders detect and respond to zoonotic diseases rapidly, resource constraints and other barriers often prevent efficient cross-sector reporting. The purpose of this research project was to map the laboratory and surveillance networks currently in place for detecting and reporting priority zoonotic diseases in Jordan in order to identify the nodes of communication, coordination, and decision-making where health and veterinary sectors intersect, and to identify priorities and gaps that limit information-sharing for action. We selected three zoonotic diseases as case studies: highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1, rabies, and brucellosis. Through meetings with government agencies and health officials, and desk research, we mapped each system from the index case through response – including both surveillance and laboratory networks, highlighting both areas of strength and those that would benefit from capacity-building resources. Our major findings indicate informal communication exists across sectors; in the event of emergence of one of the priority zoonoses studied there is effective coordination across the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Agriculture. However, routine formal coordination is lacking. Overall, there is a strong desire and commitment for multi-sectoral coordination in detection and response to zoonoses across public health and veterinary sectors. Our analysis indicates that the networks developed in response to HPAI can and should be leveraged to develop a comprehensive laboratory and surveillance One Health network.

  7. [Zoonoses with wildlife reservoirs: a threat to public health and the economy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello C, Carlos; Cabello C, Felipe

    2008-03-01

    The world is experiencing an increase in emergent infections as a result of anthropogenic changes of the biosphere and globalization. Global warming unrestricted exploitation of natural resources such as forests and fisheries, urbanization, human migration, and industrialization of animal husbandry cause environmental destruction and fragmentation. These changes of the biosphere favor local emergence of zoonoses from their natural biotopes and their interaction with domestic animals and human populations. Subsequently, international commerce, human and animal migration and travel, favor the dissemination of these zoonotic pathogens worldwide. Chile is undergoing an important degradation of many wild-life biotopes, affecting their diversity and contributing to the dissemination of zoonoses such as Chagas disease, Hantavirus, rabies, fish tapeworms, and marine vibriosis. Moreover, agents of many other zoonoses such as inverted exclamation markeptospirosis, hydatidosis, salmonellosis, rabies, brucellosis and anthrax have been detected in different wild-life environments in the country. The intensification and accelerations of the anthropogenic deterioration of the biosphere in Chile, as results of the unrestricted utilization of natural resources and global climate change, suggests that emergence of new zoonoses in the near future will lead to important public health and economic problems. Forestalling of these problems will require active epidemiológica! surveillance of wild and domestic animals with a wide range of modern molecular and ancillary epidemiológica! tools. This also demands government and private sector (i.e., animal husbandry) intervention, funding and the collaboration of professionals in human and veterinary medicine with those in the environmental sciences including ecology, climatology and oceanography.

  8. LEPCs and Deliberate Releases: Addressing Terrorist Activities in the Local Emergency Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet discusses how local emergency planning committees (LEPCs) can incorporate counter-terrorism issues when they review and update their local plans. Builds on the National Response Team's Hazardous Materials Emergency Planning Guide.

  9. Zoonoses and the physicians' role in educating farming patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Ann L; Medeiros, Lydia C; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize physicians' knowledge of zoonoses and perceived role in the process of zoonoses education among their farming patients in Northeast Ohio. In 2006, 92 practicing physicians (specialties included family medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics/gynecology, and preventive medicine) identified through Web-based hospital directories participated in a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. Descriptive analysis was used to summarize physicians' practice procedures, and self- perceived knowledge of zoonoses. The survey demonstrated that over 50% of physicians were either mostly uncomfortable or strongly uncomfortable with their knowledge of zoonoses, and in their ability to diagnose and make recommendations on how to prevent zoonotic infections. Fifty-four percent either strongly agreed or mostly agreed that it was important to ask patients who engage in livestock production about zoonoses exposure, but when asked to pick one professional category as the most responsible for educating individuals about agricultural-related zoonoses, the most frequent category chosen was public health official, followed by veterinarian, agricultural extension agent, and physician. Fifty-three percent felt a collaborative relationship with a veterinarian who possessed specialty training in zoonoses would be valuable to their practice. A gap may exist in the delivery of zoonoses information and patient care, requiring better communication between health care providers, veterinarians, and public health officials serving farmers.

  10. Addressing diverse learner preferences and intelligences with emerging technologies: Matching models to online opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhang

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically reviews various learning preferences and human intelligence theories and models with a particular focus on the implications for online learning. It highlights a few key models, Gardner’s multiple intelligences, Fleming and Mills’ VARK model, Honey and Mumford’s Learning Styles, and Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model, and attempts to link them to trends and opportunities in online learning with emerging technologies. By intersecting such models with online technologies, it offers instructors and instructional designers across educational sectors and situations new ways to think about addressing diverse learner needs, backgrounds, and expectations. Learning technologies are important for effective teaching, as are theories and models and theories of learning. We argue that more immense power can be derived from connections between the theories, models and learning technologies. Résumé : Cet article passe en revue de manière critique les divers modèles et théories sur les préférences d’apprentissage et l’intelligence humaine, avec un accent particulier sur les implications qui en découlent pour l’apprentissage en ligne. L’article présente quelques-uns des principaux modèles (les intelligences multiples de Gardner, le modèle VAK de Fleming et Mills, les styles d’apprentissage de Honey et Mumford et le modèle d’apprentissage expérientiel de Kolb et tente de les relier à des tendances et occasions d’apprentissage en ligne qui utilisent les nouvelles technologies. En croisant ces modèles avec les technologies Web, les instructeurs et concepteurs pédagogiques dans les secteurs de l’éducation ou en situation éducationnelle se voient offrir de nouvelles façons de tenir compte des divers besoins, horizons et attentes des apprenants. Les technologies d’apprentissage sont importantes pour un enseignement efficace, tout comme les théories et les modèles d’apprentissage. Nous sommes d

  11. Social Environment and Control Status of Companion Animal-Borne Zoonoses in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi-Omoe, Hiromi; Omoe, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary The risk of companion animal-borne zoonoses has been rising in Japan with the tendency for increasing number of households to ever-growing numbers and varieties of animals as pets. In response, the Japanese government has implemented measures for the domestic and border control of zoonoses. However, it is impossible to determine whether these measures have adequately controlled the transmission of companion animal-borne zoonoses, due to a lack of (i) direct evidence linking companion animal involvement in disease and (ii) understanding of current trends in disease outbreak. Active surveillance should be conducted on a national level to collect the data necessary to make this determination and identify these trends. Abstract Changing social and environmental factors have been the cause of an increase in the number and variety of animals are being imported into Japan. Moreover, the number of Japanese households are keeping companion animals has also risen. These factors, along with the high density of the Japanese population and the low percentage of registered dogs, have increased the risk of animal-to-human transmission of zoonoses. To control zoonosis outbreaks, the Japanese government has implemented a three-stage approach for the border control of zoonoses and has stipulated the monitoring and reporting of eight companion animal-borne zoonoses under the Rabies Prevention Law and the Infectious Diseases Control Law. The fact that no case of human and animal rabies has been reported over the past 50 years indicates that these measures are highly effective in preventing rabies transmission. Although it is known that the total number of possible companion animal-borne zoonosis outbreaks decreased between 2005 and 2009 when compared with numbers between 2001 and 2004, the number of zoonosis cases that can be attributed to transmission by companion animals remains unclear. Active surveillance should be conducted on a national level to collect the data

  12. A Public Health Approach to Address the Mental Health Burden of Youth in Situations of Political Violence and Humanitarian Emergencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.V.M. de Jong; L.H. Berckmoes; B.A. Kohrt; S.J. Song; W.A. Tol; R. Reis

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes how socio-ecological theory and a syndemic health systems and public health approach may help address the plight of youth in situations of political violence and humanitarian emergencies. We describe the treatment gap caused by discrepancies in epidemiological prevalence rates,

  13. Tradition and transition: parasitic zoonoses of people and animals in Alaska, northern Canada, and Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Emily J; Castrodale, Louisa J; de Rosemond, Simone J C; Dixon, Brent R; Elmore, Stacey A; Gesy, Karen M; Hoberg, Eric P; Polley, Lydden; Schurer, Janna M; Simard, Manon; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Zoonotic parasites are important causes of endemic and emerging human disease in northern North America and Greenland (the North), where prevalence of some parasites is higher than in the general North American population. The North today is in transition, facing increased resource extraction, globalisation of trade and travel, and rapid and accelerating environmental change. This comprehensive review addresses the diversity, distribution, ecology, epidemiology, and significance of nine zoonotic parasites in animal and human populations in the North. Based on a qualitative risk assessment with criteria heavily weighted for human health, these zoonotic parasites are ranked, in the order of decreasing importance, as follows: Echinococcus multilocularis, Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella and Giardia, Echinococcus granulosus/canadensis and Cryptosporidium, Toxocara, anisakid nematodes, and diphyllobothriid cestodes. Recent and future trends in the importance of these parasites for human health in the North are explored. For example, the incidence of human exposure to endemic helminth zoonoses (e.g. Diphyllobothrium, Trichinella, and Echinococcus) appears to be declining, while water-borne protozoans such as Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Toxoplasma may be emerging causes of human disease in a warming North. Parasites that undergo temperature-dependent development in the environment (such as Toxoplasma, ascarid and anisakid nematodes, and diphyllobothriid cestodes) will likely undergo accelerated development in endemic areas and temperate-adapted strains/species will move north, resulting in faunal shifts. Food-borne pathogens (e.g. Trichinella, Toxoplasma, anisakid nematodes, and diphyllobothriid cestodes) may be increasingly important as animal products are exported from the North and tourists, workers, and domestic animals enter the North. Finally, key needs are identified to better assess and mitigate risks associated with zoonotic parasites, including enhanced

  14. Addressing geographic access barriers to emergency care services: a national ecologic study of hospitals in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; da Silva, Núbia Cristina; Amaral, Pedro Vasconcelos; Barbosa, Allan Claudius Queiroz; Rocha, João Victor Muniz; Alvares, Viviane; de Almeida, Dante Grapiuna; Thumé, Elaine; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; de Sousa Queiroz, Rejane Christine; de Souza, Marta Rovery; Lein, Adriana; Lopes, Daniel Paulino; Staton, Catherine A; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2017-08-22

    Unequal distribution of emergency care services is a critical barrier to be overcome to assure access to emergency and surgical care. Considering this context it was objective of the present work analyze geographic access barriers to emergency care services in Brazil. A secondary aim of the study is to define possible roles to be assumed by small hospitals in the Brazilian healthcare network to overcome geographic access challenges. The present work can be classified as a cross-sectional ecological study. To carry out the present study, data of all 5843 Brazilian hospitals were categorized among high complexity centers and small hospitals. The geographical access barriers were identified through the use of two-step floating catchment area method. Once concluded the previous step an evaluation using the Getis-Ord-Gi method was performed to identify spatial clusters of municipalities with limited access to high complexity centers but well covered by well-equipped small hospitals. The analysis of accessibility index of high complexity centers highlighted large portions of the country with nearly zero hospital beds by inhabitant. In contrast, it was possible observe a group of 1595 municipalities with high accessibility to small hospitals, simultaneously with a low coverage of high complexity centers. Among the 1595 municipalities with good accessibility to small hospitals, 74% (1183) were covered by small hospitals with at least 60% of minimum emergency service requirements. The spatial clusters analysis aggregated 589 municipalities with high values related to minimum emergency service requirements. Small hospitals in these 589 cities could promote the equity in access to emergency services benefiting more than eight million people. There is a spatial disequilibrium within the country with prominent gaps in the health care network for emergency services. Taking this challenge into consideration, small hospitals could be a possible solution and foster equity in access

  15. 急诊手术的接诊技巧%Emergency Surgery to Address Skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秀

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the emergency surgery patients accepts method, improve the quality of the operating room nursing work.Methods From April 2013 to may, the central operating departments of emergency operation in 339 cases of patients with communication, analyzed its physical condition and psychological problems, at the same time the corresponding nursing measures. Results By using the perspective-taking and strengthen the communication with the patient, enthusiastic service in emergency patients, to improve the nursing service quality and satisfaction of emergency patients, 339 cases of emergency surgery patients were successfully completed surgery.Conclusion Emergency surgery patients because of the special status, the more need of operating room nurses to care, love and communication. Strengthen accepts skills training for emergency surgery patients, maintain good state of mind can make the patients for treatment and nursing, promote the patient recover soon.%目的:探讨急诊手术患者的接诊方法,提高手术室护理工作质量。方法对2013年4月~5月中央手术室接诊的急诊手术患者339例进行沟通,分析其身体状况和易出现的心理问题,同时采取相应的护理措施。结果经采用换位思考和加强与患者的沟通,热情服务于急诊患者,提高了急诊患者的护理服务质量和满意度339例急诊手术患者均顺利完成手术。结论急诊手术患者因所处的特殊状态,更需要手术室护理人员的加以关心、关爱和信息交流。加强对急诊手术患者的接诊技巧培训,可使患者保持良好的心态接受治疗和护理,促进患者的早日康复。

  16. Correlation between laboratory services and reporting requirements for selected zoonoses

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    Questionnaires on the reporting required and the diagnostic services provided for selected zoonoses were completed by all departments of public health and all departments of agriculture in the 50 States. The public health departments offered services for a larger number of zoonoses than did the agricultural agencies. The correlation between the required reporting of a disease and the availability of services for that disease was stronger in the case of public health laboratories.

  17. Principais zoonoses em mamíferos selvagens

    OpenAIRE

    Fornazari, Felipe [UNESP; Langoni,Helio

    2014-01-01

    The study of zoonoses that occurs in wild animals is important in public, animal and environmental health issues. The present study had the objective to revise some of the main zoonoses in wild mammals, especially in Brazil. Toxoplasmosis has great importance in Neotropical primates and Australian marsupials, being fatal in such cases. Prevention consists in hygiene of the enclosures, adequate destiny of cat feces and freeze meat previously before feeding the animals. Especial care should be ...

  18. Zoonoses in the European Union: origin, distribution and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahuerta, A.; Westrell, T.; Takkinen, J.;

    2011-01-01

    We present a summary of the main findings of the latest report of the European Food Safety Authority and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control on zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in the European Union (EU), based on data from 2009. Zoonoses are prevalent and widely ...... distributed across several countries in the EU. The most important highlight of this report was the continuous decrease of human salmonellosis since 2005, probably due to effective control programmes in livestock....

  19. The socioeconomic burden of parasitic zoonoses: global trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Paul R; Macpherson, Calum N L

    2011-11-24

    Diseases resulting from zoonotic transmission of parasites are common. Humans become infected through food, water, soil and close contact with animals. Most parasitic zoonoses are neglected diseases despite causing a considerable global burden of ill health in humans and having a substantial financial burden on livestock industries. This review aims to bring together the current data available on global burden estimates of parasitic zoonoses and indicate any changes in the trends of these diseases. There is a clear need of such information as interventions to control zoonoses are often in their animal hosts. The costs of such interventions together with animal health issues will drive the cost effectiveness of intervention strategies. What is apparent is that collectively, parasitic zoonoses probably have a similar human disease burden to any one of the big three human infectious diseases: malaria, tuberculosis or HIV in addition to animal health burden. Although the global burden for most parasitic zoonoses is not yet known, the major contributors to the global burden of parasitic zoonoses are toxoplasmosis, food borne trematode infections, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, leishmaniosis and zoonotic schistosomosis. In addition, diarrhoea resulting from zoonotic protozoa may have a significant impact.

  20. NKS - The Nordic region's cooperative network for addressing challenges in nuclear safety and emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G. [NKS/Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Andgren, K. [NKS/Vattenfall R and D (Sweden); Leino, K. [NKS/Fortum Power and Heat Oy (Finland); Magnusson, S. [NKS/Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (Iceland); Physant, F. [NKS/FRIT, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2014-07-01

    Based on the foundation of a common cultural and historical heritage and a long tradition of collaboration, NKS aims to facilitate a common Nordic view on nuclear and radiation safety. A common understanding of rules, practice and measures, and national differences in this context, is here an essential requirement. Problems can generally be tackled quicker, more efficiently, more consistently and at a lower cost through collaboration, bearing in mind that key competencies are not equally distributed in the different Nordic countries. For instance common Nordic challenges emerge in relation to nuclear installations, where nuclear power plants are in operation in Finland and Sweden, and research reactors have been operated in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. There is an obvious benefit in exchanging ideas and technologies in relation to plant operation, and since a number of reactors in different Nordic countries are under decommissioning, a collaborative benefit can also be realised in that context. Sweden also has a nuclear fuel production plant, and its collaboration with other Nordic nuclear installations can also be beneficial. Further, a number of large radiological installations are projected in Nordic areas (e.g., the MAX-LAB/MAX IV synchrotron radiation source and the European spallation source ESS), where Nordic organisations are collaborating in addressing, e.g., potential environmental implications. On the emergency preparedness side, the Fukushima accident in March 2011 was a reminder that large accidents at nuclear installations can lead to widespread radioactive contamination in the environment. In order to respond to nuclear or radiological emergencies, should they affect Nordic populations, it is necessary to maintain an operational emergency preparedness. By continuously improving detection, response and decision aiding tools while maintaining an informal collaborative network between relevant stakeholders in the Nordic countries (including

  1. Doença de lyme-símile brasileira ou síndrome baggioyoshinari: zoonose exótica e emergente transmitida por carrapatos Brazilian lyme-like disease or baggio-yoshinari syndrome: exotic and emerging brazilian tick-borne zoonosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalino Hajime Yoshinari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A Doença de Lyme (DL é uma zoonose frequente no hemisfério Norte e considerada uma enfermidade infecciosa causada por espiroquetas do complexo Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato e transmitida pela picada de carrapatos do grupo Ixodes ricinus. Os primeiros casos semelhantes à DL no Brasil foram descobertos, em 1992, em irmãos que após serem picados por carrapatos desenvolveram eritema migratório, sintomas gripais e artrite. Criteriosa análise da casuística brasileira, mostrou que os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e laboratoriais no país, divergiam bastante dos exibidos pelos pacientes com DL nos Estados Unidos da América e Eurásia. Não foram encontrados carrapatos do complexo Ixodes ricinus hematófago ao homem nas áreas de risco; a enfermidade no país é recorrente; a Borrelia burgdorferi jamais foi isolada no Brasil e os ensaios sorológicos específicos exibem positividade baixa e oscilante. Além disso, o exame do sangue periférico dos pacientes quando analisados à microscopia eletrônica exibe estruturas sugestivas de Mycoplasma spp, Chlamydia spp e bacteroides. Na verdade, estas estruturas podem representar as formas latentes das espiroquetas (forma L ou bactérias desprovidas de parede, adaptadas a sobreviver em condições inóspitas em hospedeiros vertebrados e invertebrados. Assim, a zoonose presente no país recebeu a denominação de Síndrome Baggio-Yoshinari e definida como: "Enfermidade infecciosa nova e emergente brasileira, transmitida por carrapatos não pertencentes ao complexo Ixodes ricinus, causada por espiroquetas na sua morfologia atípica e latente, que origina manifestações clínicas semelhantes às observadas na DL, exceto pela ocorrência de recidivas clínicas e desordens autoimunes".Lyme disease (LD is a frequent zoonosis found in the Northern Hemisphere and is considered an infectious disease caused by spirochetes belonging sensu lato to the Borrelia burgdorferi complex transmitted by ticks of

  2. Surveillance for arboviral zoonoses in New Zealand birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tompkins

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Given the significant burden that emerging infectious diseases place on global economies and public health, the monitoring and mitigation of, and early response to, potential infectious diseases are of the highest priority. The objective of this study was to survey for known and other potential arboviral zoonoses in multiple bird species at four locations in New Zealand. Methods: Common bird species were targeted for blood sampling during two southern hemisphere summers. Sera from each period (n = 185 and n = 693 were screened in an epitope blocking enzyme immunoassay for flavivirus antibody detection. In the first season, testing for antibodies to specific alphaviruses was conducted on samples with sufficient sera (n = 22. In the second season, blood clots (n = 544 were screened for viral presence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for alphaviral and flaviviral RNA, and virus isolation (n = 146 was conducted. Results: Flavivirus antibodies were detected in 13 species, and one Australasian gannet (Morus serrator from one site was positive for antibodies to Ross River virus. PCR tests and virus isolation were all negative. Discussion: Evidence for flavivirus exposure in seabirds at Kaikoura Peninsula and Cape Kidnappers suggests that viruses isolated from seabirds and associated ticks in New Zealand in the late 1970s are still present. Evidence for flavivirus exposure in passerines at Kaikoura Peninsula, Cape Kidnappers and Mokoia Island is novel. The Ross River virus finding is also new and supports the hypothesis that migratory seabirds are an import pathway for such agents into New Zealand.

  3. One Health and Zoonoses: The Evolution of One Health and Incorporation of Zoonoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindaraj V. Asokan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Zoonotic disease outbreaks have surged in the last two decades. These include severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, Hendra virus, Nipah virus, influenza viruses, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS coronavirus, and ebola. One Health is the initiative of an inclusive collaboration linking human, animal, and environmental health. One Health is advocated through an intersectoral coordination to combat zoonoses, and the term has evolved over centuries. The primary aim of this literature review was to examine the change in the definition of the term One Health over time, particuarly following the the introduction of the latest definition in 2007 by the American Medical Association and the American Veterinary Medical Association.Methods: This review was conducted in four phases. The first phase consisted of a general PubMed search for the phrase “One Health” for every literature published up to December 2014. Then an advanced search was carried out using “One Health” in conjunction with the terms “zoonosis” and “zoonoses” in PubMed for the time period between January 2007 and December 2014.  The articles found were then categorized based on the type of journals in which the articles were published. For the second phase, “One Health” was searched as a Medical subject heading (MeSH term, which is the National Library of Medicine controlled vocabulary thesaurus used for indexing articles. In the third phase, One Health advocate organizations were found using Google search engine. During the final phase, One Health was searched in Google scholar, examined by Google trends, and analyzed by Google ngram.Results: Before 2007, One Health had many connotations to health in the medical literature with an incomplete adherence to the usage of One Health linking zoonoses. The Google trends analysis shows an overal steady increase of the search of One Health from 2007 to 2014, which is consistent with the findings of

  4. LCA of emerging technologies: addressing high uncertainty on inputs' variability when performing global sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacirignola, Martino; Blanc, Philippe; Girard, Robin; Pérez-López, Paula; Blanc, Isabelle

    2017-02-01

    In the life cycle assessment (LCA) context, global sensitivity analysis (GSA) has been identified by several authors as a relevant practice to enhance the understanding of the model's structure and ensure reliability and credibility of the LCA results. GSA allows establishing a ranking among the input parameters, according to their influence on the variability of the output. Such feature is of high interest in particular when aiming at defining parameterized LCA models. When performing a GSA, the description of the variability of each input parameter may affect the results. This aspect is critical when studying new products or emerging technologies, where data regarding the model inputs are very uncertain and may cause misleading GSA outcomes, such as inappropriate input rankings. A systematic assessment of this sensitivity issue is now proposed. We develop a methodology to analyze the sensitivity of the GSA results (i.e. the stability of the ranking of the inputs) with respect to the description of such inputs of the model (i.e. the definition of their inherent variability). With this research, we aim at enriching the debate on the application of GSA to LCAs affected by high uncertainties. We illustrate its application with a case study, aiming at the elaboration of a simple model expressing the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) as a function of few key parameters. Our methodology allows identifying the key inputs of the LCA model, taking into account the uncertainty related to their description.

  5. Molecular profiling--a tool for addressing emerging gaps in the comparative risk assessment of GMOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Jack A; Kurenbach, Brigitta; Quist, David

    2011-10-01

    Assessing the risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is required by both international agreement and domestic legislation. Many view the use of the "omics" tools for profiling classes of molecules as useful in risk assessment, but no consensus has formed on the need or value of these techniques for assessing the risks of all GMOs. In this and many other cases, experts support case-by-case use of molecular profiling techniques for risk assessment. We review the latest research on the applicability and usefulness of molecular profiling techniques for GMO risk assessment. As more and more kinds of GMOs and traits are developed, broader use of molecular profiling in a risk assessment may be required to supplement the comparative approach to risk assessment. The literature-based discussions on the use of profiling appear to have settled on two findings: 1. profiling techniques are reliable and relevant, at least no less so than other techniques used in risk assessment; and 2. although not required routinely, regulators should be aware of when they are needed. The dismissal of routine molecular profiling may be confusing to regulators who then lack guidance on when molecular profiling might be worthwhile. Molecular profiling is an important way to increase confidence in risk assessments if the profiles are properly designed to address relevant risks and are applied at the correct stage of the assessment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bacterial Zoonoses Transmitted by Household Pets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter Panduro; Broens, E.M.; Chomel, B.B.;

    2016-01-01

    with urine), and campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis (faecal–oral ingestion). Antimicrobial resistance was also included due to the recent emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria of zoonotic potential in dogs and cats. There is a general lack of data on pathogen prevalence in the relevant pet population...... and on the incidence of human infections attributable to pets. In order to address these gaps in knowledge, and to minimize the risk of human infection, actions at several levels are recommended, including: (1) coordinated surveillance of zoonotic pathogens and antimicrobial resistance in household pets, (2) studies....... Disease-specific recommendations include incentives to undertake research aimed at the development of new diagnostic tests, veterinary-specific antimicrobial products and vaccines, as well as initiatives to promote best practices in veterinary diagnostic laboratories and prudent antimicrobial usage....

  7. The virtual network supporting the front lines: addressing emerging behavioral health problems following the tsunami of 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissman, Dori B; Schreiber, Merritt; Klomp, Richard W; Hoover, Michele; Kowalski-Trakofler, Kathleen; Perez, Jon

    2006-10-01

    The devastation wreaked by the 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean required extensive multinational and nongovernmental relief efforts to address the massive loss of infrastructure, people, and society. This article addresses approaches to behavioral incident management from a process perspective, through the lens of one official stateside channel of emergency operations. The process highlights the formation and connectivity of multidisciplinary teams that virtually supported the efforts of a seven-person, on-scene, behavioral health team aboard the USNS Mercy as part of Operation Unified Assistance in the Indian Ocean. Frontline health diplomacy and behavioral health relief efforts were greatly augmented by the virtual network of support from leading experts around the globe. Future disaster response and recovery efforts ought to build on the success of such virtual support networks, by planning for appropriate technology, expertise, and mutual aid partnerships.

  8. 我国人兽共患病防控存在的问题与对策%Problems and countermeasures for prevention and control of zoonoses in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田克恭; 吴佳俊; 王立林

    2015-01-01

    Zoonoses are a group of diseases with the same pathogens and close relationships in epidemiology between humans and animals, which usually cause heavy disasters and huge losses to human beings. Zoonoses are characterized by the situation that old zoonoses are reappearing and new zoonoses are constantly emerging, especially the outbreak and prevalence of emerging zoonoses have made the public health and safety increasingly prominent, which causes its prevention and control situation to be more severe. The authors summarize the history lessons, current main problems and strategies for prevention and control of zoonoses in order to provide reference for establishing a scientific and effective prevention and control system, which integrates human medicine and veterinary medicine in China.%人兽共患病是由共同的病原体引起、在流行病学方面密切相关的人与动物疾病的总称,常给人类带来深重的灾难和巨大的损失。人兽共患病疫情呈现老病疫情常反弹、新病不断涌现的特点,尤其是近年来新发人兽共患病的暴发与流行,令公共卫生安全问题日益突出,使得防控形势更加严峻。本文概括介绍了人兽共患病防控的历史教训、当前存在的主要问题以及对策建议,以期为我国建立科学有效的人医与兽医一体化的人兽共患病防控体系提供参考。

  9. Fish-borne parasitic zoonoses: status and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Darwin Murrell, K; Lymbery, Alan J

    2005-10-01

    The fish-borne parasitic zoonoses have been limited for the most part to populations living in low- and middle-income countries, but the geographical limits and populations at risk are expanding because of growing international markets, improved transportation systems, and demographic changes such as population movements. While many in developed countries will recognize meat-borne zoonoses such as trichinellosis and cysticercosis, far fewer are acquainted with the fish-borne parasitic zoonoses which are mostly helminthic diseases caused by trematodes, cestodes and nematodes. Yet these zoonoses are responsible for large numbers of human infections around the world. The list of potential fish-borne parasitic zoonoses is quite large. However, in this review, emphasis has been placed on liver fluke diseases such as clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis and metorchiasis, as well as on intestinal trematodiasis (the heterophyids and echinostomes), anisakiasis (due to Anisakis simplex larvae), and diphyllobothriasis. The life cycles, distributions, epidemiology, clinical aspects, and, importantly, the research needed for improved risk assessments, clinical management and prevention and control of these important parasitic diseases are reviewed.

  10. [A complexity-based approach to zoonoses in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Suárez, Angela N

    2012-01-01

    The present reflection was aimed at making a contribution towards improving control policy and programs integrality and efficacy in an attempt to answer the following question, "How can understanding zoonoses in Colombia be approached from a complexity-based approach?" The first part of this article examines zoonoses as a complex problem and the reiterated tendency of control policy and programs to deal with them as a simple problem, involving unidisciplinary and reductionist responses. The current status of complexity is synthesized as a paradigm, as are the advantages of using it in analysis and formulating policy and interventions. Possible fields of work are proposed for development when approaching zoonoses in Colombia from a complexity science viewpoint.

  11. Address Points, Point addresses represent site addresses issued by the Towns, Villages, and Cities in Manitowoc County. The points are used for emergency dispatching., Published in 2013, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Manitowoc County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Address Points dataset current as of 2013. Point addresses represent site addresses issued by the Towns, Villages, and Cities in Manitowoc County. The points are...

  12. An overview of food safety and bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food production animals in the Caribbean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Maria Manuela Mendes; de Almeida, Andre M; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2016-08-01

    Foodborne diseases (FBDs) in the Caribbean have a high economic burden. Public health and tourism concerns rise along with the increasing number of cases and outbreaks registered over the last 20 years. Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Campylobacter spp. are the main bacteria associated with these incidents. In spite of undertaking limited surveillance on FBD in the region, records related to bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food-producing animals and their associated epidemiologic significance are poorly documented, giving rise to concerns about the importance of the livestock, food animal product sectors, and consumption patterns. In this review, we report the available published literature over the last 20 years on selected bacterial foodborne zoonoses in the Caribbean region and also address other food safety-related aspects (e.g., FBD food attribution, importance, surveillance), mainly aiming at recognizing data gaps and identifying possible research approaches in the animal health sector.

  13. Food-borne parasitic zoonoses in China: perspective for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Chen, Ning; Zhang, Ren-Li; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2008-04-01

    Food-borne parasitic zoonoses (FBPZs) cause death and serious diseases in humans and animals worldwide, and are of both public health significance and socioeconomic importance. The FBPZ problem is severe in mainland China, where approximately 150 million people are suffering from FBPZs and more people are at risk. Here, the current status of the FBPZ problem in mainland China is reviewed and strategies and measures for effective control of FBPZs are proposed. Major parasitic zoonoses transmitted through consumption of infected or contaminated meat, fish, plants and/or water will be discussed.

  14. Vector-borne parasitic zoonoses: emerging scenarios and new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Douglas D; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

    2011-11-24

    Changing climate is not the only driver for alterations in the dynamic interaction between arthropod vectors of zoonotic parasites and their hosts, including humans. A suite of other factors ranging from urbanization and deforestation to changing demographics in both developing and developed countries, the impact of the recent economic crisis, increased global movement of people and animals and follow-on effects of major catastrophes. This article reviews the most important vector-borne parasites of zoonotic concern that are changing/expanding their distribution patterns in both endemic and/or previously non-endemic areas. We include the discussion of the changing aspects of malaria, leishmaniasis, babesiosis, Chagas disease as well as of some spirurid and filarioid nematodes.

  15. Major Parasitic Zoonoses Associated with Dogs and Cats in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baneth, G.; Thamsborg, S M; Otranto, D

    2016-01-01

    Some of the most important zoonotic infectious diseases are associated with parasites transmitted from companion animals to man. This review describes the main parasitic zoonoses in Europe related to dogs and cats, with particular emphasis on their current epidemiology. Toxoplasmosis, leishmanios...

  16. The Burden of Parasitic Zoonoses in Nepal : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Ale, Anita; Torgerson, Paul; Praet, Nicolas; Maertens de Noordhout, Charline; Dev Pandey, Basu; Pun, Sher Bahadur; Lake, Rob; Vercruysse, Jozef; Datt Joshi, Duga; Havelaar, Arie H.; Duchateau, Luc; Dorny, Pierre; Speybroeck, Niko

    2014-01-01

    Background:Parasitic zoonoses (PZs) pose a significant but often neglected threat to public health, especially in developing countries. In order to obtain a better understanding of their health impact, summary measures of population health may be calculated, such as the Disability-Adjusted Life Year

  17. The Highland Health Advocates: a preliminary evaluation of a novel programme addressing the social needs of emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losonczy, Lia Ilona; Hsieh, Dennis; Wang, Michael; Hahn, Christopher; Trivedi, Tarak; Rodriguez, Marcela; Fahimi, Jahan; Alter, Harrison

    2017-09-01

    Patients commonly come to the emergency department (ED) with social needs. To address this, we created the Highland Health Advocates (HHA), an ED-based help desk and medical-legal partnership using undergraduate volunteers to help patients navigate public resources and provide onsite legal and social work referrals. We were able to provide these services in English and Spanish. We aimed to determine the social needs of the patients who presented to our ED and the potential impact of the programme in resolving those needs and connecting them to a 'medical home' (defined as a consistent, primary source of medical care such as a primary care doctor or clinic). ED patients at a US safety net hospital were enrolled in a 1:2 ratio in a quasi-experiment comparing those who received intervention from the HHA during a limited access rollout with controls who received usual care on days with no help desk. We collected a baseline social needs evaluation, with follow-up assessments at 1 and 6 months. Primary outcomes were linkages for the primary identified need and to a medical home within 1 month. Other outcomes at 6 months included whether a patient (1) felt helped; 2) had a decreased number of ED visits; (3) had the primary identified need met; (4) had a primary doctor; and (5) had a change in self-reported health status. We enrolled 459 subjects (intervention=154, control=305). Housing (41%), employment (23%) and inability to pay bills (22%) were participants' top identified needs. At baseline, 32% reported the ED as their medical home, with the intervention cohort having higher ED utilisation (>1 ED visit in the prior month: 49% vs 24%). At 1 month, 185 (40%) subjects were reached for follow-up, with more HHA subjects linked to a resource (59% vs 37%) and a medical home (92% vs 76%). At 6 months, 75% of subjects felt HHA was helpful and more subjects in the HHA group had a doctor (93% v 69%). No difference was found in ED utilisation, primary need resolution or self

  18. Perspectives on Emerging Zoonotic Disease Research and Capacity Building in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses are fundamental determinants of community health. Preventing, identifying and managing these infections must be a central public health focus. Most current zoonoses research focuses on the interface of the pathogen and the clinically ill person, emphasizing microbial detection, mechanisms of pathogenicity and clinical intervention strategies, rather than examining the causes of emergence, persistence and spread of new zoonoses. There are gaps in the understanding of the animal determinants of emergence and the capacity to train highly qualified individuals; these are major obstacles to preventing new disease threats. The ability to predict the emergence of zoonoses and their resulting public health and societal impacts are hindered when insufficient effort is devoted to understanding zoonotic disease epidemiology, and when zoonoses are not examined in a manner that yields fundamental insight into their origin and spread.

  19. A review of parasitic zoonoses in a changing Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, James V; Sripa, Banchob; Attwood, Stephen; Newton, Paul N

    2011-11-24

    Parasitic zoonoses are common and widely distributed in the Southeast Asian region. However, the interactions between parasites, hosts and vectors are influenced by environmental, socio-cultural and livestock production changes that impact on the distribution, prevalence and severity of disease. In this review we provide an update on new knowledge in the context of ongoing changes for the food-borne pig associated zoonoses Taenia solium and Trichinella spp., the food-borne trematodes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis, the water-borne trematodes Schistosoma spp., the vector-borne zoonotic protozoa Plasmodium knowlesi and Leishmania spp. and the soil-borne zoonotic hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum. These various changes need to be considered when assessing or developing regional control programs or devising new research initiatives in a changing SE Asia.

  20. Zoonosis emergence linked to agricultural intensification and environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bryony A; Grace, Delia; Kock, Richard; Alonso, Silvia; Rushton, Jonathan; Said, Mohammed Y; McKeever, Declan; Mutua, Florence; Young, Jarrah; McDermott, John; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2013-05-21

    A systematic review was conducted by a multidisciplinary team to analyze qualitatively best available scientific evidence on the effect of agricultural intensification and environmental changes on the risk of zoonoses for which there are epidemiological interactions between wildlife and livestock. The study found several examples in which agricultural intensification and/or environmental change were associated with an increased risk of zoonotic disease emergence, driven by the impact of an expanding human population and changing human behavior on the environment. We conclude that the rate of future zoonotic disease emergence or reemergence will be closely linked to the evolution of the agriculture-environment nexus. However, available research inadequately addresses the complexity and interrelatedness of environmental, biological, economic, and social dimensions of zoonotic pathogen emergence, which significantly limits our ability to predict, prevent, and respond to zoonotic disease emergence.

  1. An Internet-based exercise as a component of an overall training program addressing medical aspects of radiation emergency management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, K; Aghababian, R V; Hirsch, E F; Screnci, D; Boshyan, A; Ricks, R C; Samiei, M

    2000-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation and radioactive materials continues to increase worldwide in industry, medicine, agriculture, research, electrical power generation, and nuclear weaponry. The risk of terrorism using weapons of mass destruction or simple radiological devices also has increased, leading to heightened concerns. Radiation accidents occur as a consequence of errors in transportation of radionuclides, use of radiation in medical diagnosis and therapy, industrial monitoring and sterilization procedures, and rarely, nuclear power generation. Compared to other industries, a small number of serious radiation accidents have occurred over the last six decades with recent cases in the Republic of Georgia, Peru, Japan, and Thailand. The medical, psychological, and political consequences of such accidents can be considerable. A number of programs designed to train medical responders in the techniques of radiation accident management have been developed and delivered in many countries. The low frequency of serious radiation accidents requires constant re-training, as skills are lost and medical staff turnover occurs. Not all of the training involves drills or exercises in which responders demonstrate learning or communication over the broad spectrum of medical response capabilities. Medical preparedness within the context of a total emergency response program is lacking in many parts of the world, particularly in Central and Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States. This paper describes an effort to enhance medical preparedness in the context of a total program of international cooperation and conventions facilitated by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The paper concludes that novel application of telecommunications technology as part of a training activity in radiation accident preparedness can help address gaps in training in this field in which preparedness is essential but experience and practical field exercises are lacking.

  2. The Italian information system on zoonoses data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangeli, P; Iannetti, S; Ruocco, L; Forlizzi, L; Cioci, D; Calistri, P

    2013-03-01

    In the framework of the international obligations subscribed by the Italian government, the Italian Ministry of Health should provide the European Union (EU) (European Commission, European Food Safety Authority - EFSA) with a set of data and information related to the report and the spread of zoonoses and to the activities put in place for monitoring and control of zoonoses. In 2008, the Italian Ministry of Health commissioned the Istituto G. Caporale (ICT) to implement an information system able to provide information and data on the monitoring and control of zoonoses in the national territory, in accordance with the national and community legislation. The system is part of the e-Government process that involves all public administrations of the EU and refers to the use of information and communication technologies for the digital processing of documents in order to obtain simplification and interoperability of administrative procedures through the Internet, as defined in the strategic lines published by the National Centre for Information Systems in Public Administration (DigitPA) in 2009-2011.

  3. The neglected zoonoses--the case for integrated control and advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welburn, S C; Beange, I; Ducrotoy, M J; Okello, A L

    2015-05-01

    The neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs) have been all but eradicated in wealthier countries, but remain major causes of ill-health and mortality across Africa, Asia, and Latin America. This neglect is, in part, a consequence of under-reporting, resulting in an underestimation of their global burden that downgrades their relevance to policy-makers and funding agencies. Increasing awareness about the causes of NZDs and how they can be prevented could reduce the incidence of many endemic zoonoses. Addressing NZDs by targeting the animal reservoir can deliver a double benefit, as enhanced animal health means a reduced risk of infection for humans, as well as improved livelihoods through increased animal productivity. Advocacy for NZD control is increasing, but with it comes a growing awareness that NZD control demands activities both in the short term and over a long period of time. Moreover, despite the promise of cheap, effective vaccines or other control tools, these endemic diseases will not be sustainably controlled in the near future without long-term financial commitment, particularly as disease incidence decreases and other health priorities take hold. NZD intervention costs can seem high when compared with the public health benefits alone, but these costs are easily outweighed when a full cross-sector analysis is carried out and monetary/non-monetary benefits--particularly regarding the livestock sector--are taken into account. Public-private partnerships have recently provided advocacy for human disease control, and could prove equally effective in addressing endemic zoonoses through harnessing social impact investments. Evidence of the disease burdens imposed on communities by the NZDs and demonstration of the cost-effectiveness of integrated control can strengthen the case for a One Health approach to endemic zoonotic disease control.

  4. Animal helminths in human archaeological remains: a review of zoonoses in the past Helmintos animais em vestígios arqueológicos humanos: revisão de zoonoses no passado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Sianto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a review of records of intestinal parasitic helminths from animals in human archaeological remains, reported since the emergence of paleopathological studies. The objective was to relate paleoparasitological findings to geographic, biotic, and abiotic factors from the environment in which the prehistoric populations lived, and understand some aspects related to the process of human dispersion and biological and cultural evolution. Modification of eating habits and the incorporation of new cultural practices are analyzed from the perspective of zoonoses from prehistory to the present day, especially in Brazilian indigenous populations. Three tables identifying the helminths, their natural hosts, dates, and sites of archaeological findings complete this review. In conclusion, various zoonoses known today have occurred since antiquity, and these data, combined with studies on the emergence and reemergence of diseases, could make possible to compose scenarios for the future.São revistos os registros de ocorrência de helmintos intestinais parasitos de animais em vestígios arqueológicos humanos, relatados desde o surgimento dos estudos paleopatológicos. Busca-se relacionar os achados em paleoparasitologia com fatores geográficos, bióticos e abióticos do ambiente em que as populações pré-históricas viviam, e com aspectos do processo de dispersão e evolução biológica e cultural humana. A modificação de hábitos alimentares e a incorporação de novas práticas culturais são analisadas sob o ponto de vista das zoonoses desde a pré-história até a atualidade, em especial em populações indígenas brasileiras. Três tabelas identificando os helmintos, seus hospedeiros naturais, datações e local dos achados arqueológicos complementam esta revisão. Conclui-se que várias zoonoses conhecidas hoje ocorrem desde a antiguidade e que estes dados, combinados a estudos de emergência e reemergência de doenças, podem

  5. Food Safety: at the center of a One Health approach for combating zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielinga, Peter R; Schlundt, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Food Safety is at the center of One Health. Many, if not most, of all important zoonoses relate in some way to animals in the food production chain. Therefore, the food becomes an important vehicle for many, but not all, of these zoonotic pathogens. One of the major issues in food safety over the latest decennia has been the lack of cross-sectoral collaboration across the food production chain. Major food safety events have been significantly affected by the lack of collaboration between the animal health, the food control, and the human health sector. Examples range from BSE and E. coli outbreaks over dioxin crises to intentional melamine contamination. One Health formulates clearly both the need for and the benefit of cross-sectoral collaboration. In this chapter, we will focus on the human health risk related to zoonotic microorganisms present both in food animals and food from these animals, and typically transmitted to humans through food. We focus on these issues because they are very important in relation to the human disease burden, but also because this is the area where some experience of cross-sectoral collaboration already exist. Food related zoonoses can be separated in three major classes: parasites, bacteria, and viruses. While parasites often relate to very specific animal hosts and contribute significantly to the human disease burden, virus have often been related to major, well-published global outbreaks, e.g. SARS and avian- and swine-influenza. The bacterial zoonoses on the other hand often result in sporadic, but very wide-spread disease cases, resulting in a major disease burden in all countries, e.g. Salmonella and Campylobacter. Next to these traditional zoonotic problems, the use of antimicrobials in (food) animals has also caused the emergence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) zoonotic bacteria. It is important to realize the difference in the nature of disease epidemiology, as well as, in society's reaction to these diseases in different

  6. Zoonoses and zoonotic agents in humans, food, animals and feed in the Netherlands 2003-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburgh S; Oosterom R van; Stenvers O; Aalten M; Braks M; Schimmer B; Giessen A van de; Pelt W van; Langelaar M; Voedsel en Waren Autoriteit VWS; LZO; EPI

    2007-01-01

    The report 'Zoonoses and Zoonotic Agents in Humans, Food, Animals and Feed in The Netherlands 2003 - 2006' is based on data that is reported annually to the European Commission, in accordance with the Directive 2003/99/EC on the monitoring of zoonoses and zoonotic agents. They are supplemented with

  7. Zoonoser er andet og mere end fødevarebårne sygdomme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Bisgaard, Magne

    2007-01-01

    Ingen af de bedst kendte zoonoser i historien er fødevarebårne - reelt har det vist sig, at mange nye infektionssygdomme hos mennesker stammer fra dyr.......Ingen af de bedst kendte zoonoser i historien er fødevarebårne - reelt har det vist sig, at mange nye infektionssygdomme hos mennesker stammer fra dyr....

  8. [Human hantavirus diseases - still neglected zoonoses?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbovská, V; Chalupa, P; Straková, P; Hubálek, Z; Rudolf, I

    2015-10-01

    Hantavirus disease is the most common rodent-borne viral infection in the Czech Republic, with a mean annual incidence of 0.02 cases per 100 000 population and specific antibodies detected in 1% of the human population. Four hantaviruses (Puumala, Dobrava-Belgrade, Tula, and Seewis) circulate in this country, of which Puumala virus (responsible for a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome called nephropathia epidemica) and Dobrava-Belgrade virus (causing haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) have been proven to cause human disease. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive review of the hantaviruses occurring in the Czech Republic, based on the literature published during the past three decades, including their geographical distribution and clinical symptoms. The recent detection of Tula virus in an immunocompromised person as well as reports of Seoul virus infections in Europe highlight the possible emergence of neglected hantavirus infections in the foreseeable future.

  9. Zoonoses, public health, and the backyard poultry flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunkemeyer, Vanessa L

    2011-09-01

    Raising a small flock of poultry for eggs, meat, and possibly companionship is becoming an increasingly popular hobby in the United States. Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus, forma domestica), turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo, forma domestica), and members of the family Anatidae including ducks, geese, and swans are commonly kept in these privately owned backyard flocks. Multiple bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic diseases which affect poultry are known zoonotic pathogens. This article reviews these zoonoses and gives recommendations for flock biosecurity, as well as for prevention of infection in both birds and humans. Diseases associated with other gallinaceous birds are only selectively discussed.

  10. One Health and the neglected zoonoses: turning rhetoric into reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna L; Gibbs, E Paul J; Vandersmissen, Alain; Welburn, Susan C

    2011-09-10

    Successful adoption of a One Health approach could have far-reaching impacts on poverty alleviation, health and food security, particularly in developing countries through integrated control of neglected zoonoses. However, the practical implementation of this approach presents many challenges. Anna Okello and colleagues argue that, for effective implementation, lessons learned and 'best practice' must be led by national and regional stakeholders drawn from a variety of disciplines. High-profile regional and international institutions can play an important role in the global governance of One Health by encouraging individual countries to devise appropriate tailored solutions that are workable within their own context.

  11. Zoonoses in pet birds: review and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boseret, Geraldine; Losson, Bertrand; Mainil, Jacques G; Thiry, Etienne; Saegerman, Claude

    2013-05-20

    Pet birds are a not-so-well known veterinarian's clientship fraction. Bought individually or in couples, as families often do (which is a lucrative business for pet shops or local breeders) or traded (sometimes illegally) for their very high genetic or exotic value, these birds, commonly canaries, parakeets or parrots, are regularly sold at high prices. These animals, however, are potential carriers and/or transmitters of zoonotic diseases. Some of them could have an important impact on human health, like chlamydophilosis, salmonellosis or even highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1. This review paper, although non exhaustive, aims at enlightening, by the description of several cases of bird-human transmission, the risks encountered by bird owners, including children. Public health consequences will be discussed and emphasis will be made on some vector-borne diseases, known to be emergent or which are underestimated, like those transmitted by the red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. Finally, biosecurity and hygiene, as well as prevention guidelines will be developed and perspectives proposed.

  12. Zoonoses in pet birds: review and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Pet birds are a not-so-well known veterinarian’s clientship fraction. Bought individually or in couples, as families often do (which is a lucrative business for pet shops or local breeders) or traded (sometimes illegally) for their very high genetic or exotic value, these birds, commonly canaries, parakeets or parrots, are regularly sold at high prices. These animals, however, are potential carriers and/or transmitters of zoonotic diseases. Some of them could have an important impact on human health, like chlamydophilosis, salmonellosis or even highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1. This review paper, although non exhaustive, aims at enlightening, by the description of several cases of bird-human transmission, the risks encountered by bird owners, including children. Public health consequences will be discussed and emphasis will be made on some vector-borne diseases, known to be emergent or which are underestimated, like those transmitted by the red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. Finally, biosecurity and hygiene, as well as prevention guidelines will be developed and perspectives proposed. PMID:23687940

  13. 单个应急服务设施点选址模型分析%Analysis of Address Choosing Model of Single Emergency Service Facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景良竹; 吴穷

    2011-01-01

    从应急服务设施选址模型--绝对中心点模型入手,考虑到当应急地点发生事故时,在满足时间紧迫性的前提下,提出了应急服务设施的优化选址,建立了到达各个事故顶点的距离之和最小的模型,具有一定的实用价值.%Starting from the address choosing model of an emergency service facility,that is,the absolutely central point model, we have considered the accident happening in an emergency location. The optimal choice of the places for emergency service facilities is very important so as to meet the urgency of time. The model has been provided in order to cover the distance at the shortest time..

  14. Knowledge of zoonoses among those affiliated with the ontario Swine industry: a questionnaire administered to selected producers, allied personnel, and veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, Dawn M; Dewey, Catherine E; Rajić, Andrijana; Poljak, Zvonimir; Young, Beth

    2010-02-01

    Zoonoses are diseases caused by infectious agents that are transmitted from animals to humans. Some zoonoses have been associated with the pig and pork industry. To ensure the safety of pigs and pork and to improve public health it is essential to understand the level of knowledge of those affiliated with the swine industry. The purpose of our study was to assess the knowledge of and attitude toward zoonotic and other microbial hazards among targeted groups of stakeholders associated with the Ontario swine industry. A postal questionnaire was sent to 409 individuals representing producers, veterinarians, and allied industry personnel. The questionnaire included seven dichotomous and Likert-scale type questions on microbial hazards, addressing topics on familiarity, concern, presence, antimicrobial resistance, and knowledge transfer. The overall response rate was 53% (218/409). More respondents were concerned about the zoonotic potential of Salmonella spp. (53-94%) and swine influenza virus (64-75%) than other hazards. The group of veterinarians were more familiar (>89%) with all microbial hazards than other occupation groups. Additionally, antimicrobial resistance was reported as a problem by more (60%) veterinarians than producers (20%). Educational efforts should focus on preferred methods of knowledge transfer (e.g., producer meetings, magazine) to update swine industry personnel about zoonoses in an attempt to improve food safety and public health.

  15. Prioritizing zoonoses: a proposed one health tool for collaborative decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rist, Cassidy Logan; Arriola, Carmen Sofia; Rubin, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases pose a threat to both humans and animals. This common threat is an opportunity for human and animal health agencies to coordinate across sectors in a more effective response to zoonotic diseases. An initial step in the collaborative process is identification of diseases or pathogens of greatest concern so that limited financial and personnel resources can be effectively focused. Unfortunately, in many countries where zoonotic diseases pose the greatest risk, surveillance information that clearly defines burden of disease is not available. We have created a semi-quantitative tool for prioritizing zoonoses in the absence of comprehensive prevalence data. Our tool requires that human and animal health agency representatives jointly identify criteria (e.g., pandemic potential, human morbidity or mortality, economic impact) that are locally appropriate for defining a disease as being of concern. The outcome of this process is a ranked disease list that both human and animal sectors can support for collaborative surveillance, laboratory capacity enhancement, or other identified activities. The tool is described in a five-step process and its utility is demonstrated for the reader.

  16. In search for the lost antibiotic: a multidisciplinary approach to address the problem of the emergence of antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Cangemi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The resistance to antibiotics, appeared in the 50s, at the same time of the introduction of these drugs, has become today a public health emergency of international importance. This problem is extremely complex because it is based on many factors, including inappropriate use of antibiotics and their massive presence in the feed of farm animals. Today this problem has become a real public health priority not only for the clinical implications (increased morbidity, mortality and duration of disease, the possibility of developing complications and infections, but also for the economic impact of infections by bacteria resistant, due to the additional cost for more expensive drugs and procedures and for stretching the hospitalization. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDPC in Stockholm has recently estimated that the bacteria with multiple resistances are responsible for about half of thirty-seven thousand deaths per year in the twenty member countries of the European Union. The importance of this phenomenon has prompted several surveillance systems based on the collection of laboratory data to local or national level. To standardize and interpret the data collected and to facilitate comparison between different realities, in 1998 the EU has decided to finance a European surveillance network (EARSS: European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System, which involves several national surveillance networks. Despite the increase of antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of both gram positive and gram negative, there are very few new antimicrobial agents in development. Only a multidisciplinary approach, combining various skills in medicine, can help us cope with this emergency and to use the resources available.

  17. The trauma patient in hemorrhagic shock: how is the C-priority addressed between emergency and ICU admission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiniger Sigune

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma is the leading cause of death in young people with an injury related mortality rate of 47.6/100,000 in European high income countries. Early deaths often result from rapidly evolving and deteriorating secondary complications e.g. shock, hypoxia or uncontrolled hemorrhage. The present study assessed how well ABC priorities (A: Airway, B: Breathing/Ventilation and C: Circulation with hemorrhage control with focus on the C-priority including coagulation management are addressed during early trauma care and to what extent these priorities have been controlled for prior to ICU admission among patients arriving to the ER in states of moderate or severe hemorrhagic shock. Methods A retrospective analysis of data documented in the TraumaRegister of the ‘Deutsche Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie’ (TR-DGU® was conducted. Relevant clinical and laboratory parameters reflecting status and basic physiology of severely injured patients (ISS ≥ 25 in either moderate or severe shock according to base excess levels (BE -2 to -6 or BE  Results A total of 517 datasets was eligible for analysis. Upon ICU admission shock was reversed to BE > -2 in 36.4% and in 26.4% according to the subgroups. Two of three patients with initially moderate shock and three out of four patients with severe shock upon ER arrival were still in shock upon ICU admission. All patients suffered from coagulation dysfunction upon ER arrival (Quick’s value ≤ 70%. Upon ICU admission 3 out of 4 patients in both groups still had a disturbed coagulation function. The number of patients with significant thrombocytopenia had increased 5-6 fold between ER and ICU admission. Conclusion The C-priority including coagulation management was not adequately addressed during primary survey and initial resuscitation between ER and ICU admission, in this cohort of severely injured patients.

  18. Major Parasitic Zoonoses Associated with Dogs and Cats in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneth, G; Thamsborg, S M; Otranto, D; Guillot, J; Blaga, R; Deplazes, P; Solano-Gallego, L

    2016-07-01

    Some of the most important zoonotic infectious diseases are associated with parasites transmitted from companion animals to man. This review describes the main parasitic zoonoses in Europe related to dogs and cats, with particular emphasis on their current epidemiology. Toxoplasmosis, leishmaniosis, giardiosis, echinococcosis, dirofilariosis and toxocariosis are described from the animal, as well as from the human host perspectives, with an emphasis on parasite life cycle, transmission, pathogenicity, prevention and identification of knowledge gaps. In addition, priorities for research and intervention in order to decrease the risks and burden of these diseases are presented. Preventing zoonotic parasitic infections requires an integrated multidisciplinary 'One Health' approach involving collaboration between veterinary and medical scientists, policy makers and public health officials.

  19. A review of foodborne bacterial and parasitic zoonoses in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrique-Mas, Juan J; Bryant, J E

    2013-12-01

    Vietnam has experienced unprecedented economic and social development in recent years, and the livestock sector is undergoing significant transformations. Although food animal production is still dominated by small-scale 'backyard' enterprises with mixed crop-livestock or livestock-aquatic systems, there is a trend towards more intensive and vertically integrated operations. Changes in animal production, processing and distribution networks for meat and animal products, and the shift from wet markets to supermarkets will undoubtedly impact food safety risks in Vietnam in unforeseen and complex ways. Here, we review the available published literature on bacterial and parasitic foodborne zoonoses (FBZ) in Vietnam. We report on clinical disease burden and pathogen prevalence in animal reservoirs for a number of important FBZ, and outline opportunities for future research.

  20. Zoonoses from dogs with special reference to Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Abdel-Hameed A; Morsy, Ayman T A; Morsy, Tosson A

    2012-12-01

    A zoonosis is an animal disease that is transmissible to humans. Humans are usually an accidental host that acquires disease through close contact with an infected animal, who may or may not be symptomatic. Children are at highest risk for infection because they are more likely to have close contact with pets. Dogs are responsible for transmission of an extensive array of bacterial and parasitic zoonotic pathogens. The route of transmission can be through the feces, urine, saliva (eg, bites or contaminated scratches), or respiratory secretions of the animal, or by the dog or cat acting as a vehicle and source of tick or flea exposure or reservoir for vector borne disease. Although dogs have been implicated in transmission of zoonoses to their owners, risk of transmission from contact with dogs is low and may be further reduced by simple precautions.

  1. Development of an interinstitutional collaboration to support community-partnered research addressing the health of emerging Latino populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Yaggy, Susan D; Lyn, Michelle; Green, Melissa; Ornelas, India J; Simmons, Tia; Perez, Georgina; Blumenthal, Connie

    2010-04-01

    Collaborative and participatory research approaches have received considerable attention as means to understanding and addressing disparities in health and health care. In this article, the authors describe the process of building a three-way partnership among two academic health centers-Duke University and the University of North Carolina-and members of the Latino community in North Carolina to develop and pilot test a lay health advisor program to improve Latina immigrants' mental health and coping skills. The authors applied the principles of participatory research to engage community and academic partners, to select the health topic and population, and to develop program goals and objectives. Key challenges were negotiating administrative structures and learning institutional cultures, as well as dealing with contextual issues such as mental health reform and antiimmigrant sentiment in the state.Some important lessons learned are to seek opportunities for taking advantage of existing relationships and expertise at each academic institution, to be respectful of the burden of research on vulnerable communities, and to involve community partners at all stages of the process.

  2. Zoonoses in Veterinary Students: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Antonio; Prats-van der Ham, Miranda; Tatay-Dualde, Juan; Paterna, Ana; de la Fe, Christian; Gómez-Martín, Ángel; Corrales, Juan C.; Contreras, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background Veterinary students face diverse potential sources of zoonotic pathogens since the first years of their academic degree. Such sources include different animal species and pathologic materials which are used at university facilities as well as commercial clinics, farms and other external facilities. Objectives The present study utilizes a systematic review of the literature to identify zoonoses described in veterinary students. Data sources Web of Science and PubMed. Results Of the 1,254 titles produced by the bibliographic search, 62 were included in this review. Whereas 28 of these articles (45.2%) described individual cases or outbreaks, the remaining 34 (54.8%) reported serological results. The zoonotic etiological agents described were bacteria, in 39 studies (62.9%), parasites, in 12 works (19.4%), virus, in 9 studies (14.5%) and fungi, in 2 (3.2%) of the selected articles. The selected literature included references from 24 different countries and covered the time period of the last 55 years. Limitations The fact that common cases of disease or cases of little clinical importance without collective repercussions are not usually published in peer-reviewed journals limits the possibility to reach conclusions from a quantitative point of view. Furthermore, most of the selected works (66.1%) refer to European or North American countries, and thus, the number of cases due to pathogens which could appear more frequently in non-occidental countries might be underestimated. Conclusions/implications The results of the present systematic review highlight the need of including training in zoonotic diseases since the first years of Veterinary Science degrees, especially focusing on biosecurity measures (hygienic measures and the utilization of the personal protective equipment), as a way of protecting students, and on monitoring programs, so as to adequately advise affected students or students suspicious of enduring zoonoses. PMID:28052113

  3. Sushi delights and parasites: the risk of fishborne and foodborne parasitic zoonoses in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawa, Yukifumi; Hatz, Christoph; Blum, Johannes

    2005-11-01

    Because of the worldwide popularization of Japanese cuisine, the traditional Japanese fish dishes sushi and sashimi that are served in Japanese restaurants and sushi bars have been suspected of causing fishborne parasitic zoonoses, especially anisakiasis. In addition, an array of freshwater and brackish-water fish and wild animal meats, which are important sources of infection with zoonotic parasites, are served as sushi and sashimi in rural areas of Japan. Such fishborne and foodborne parasitic zoonoses are also endemic in many Asian countries that have related traditional cooking styles. Despite the recent increase in the number of travelers to areas where these zoonoses are endemic, travelers and even infectious disease specialists are unaware of the risk of infection associated with eating exotic ethnic dishes. The aim of this review is to provide practical background information regarding representative fishborne and foodborne parasitic zoonoses endemic in Asian countries.

  4. Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Antimicrobial resistance in the European Union in 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte

    EFSA's Community Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Antimicrobial resistance in the European Union in 2004 was published in December 2005. The zoonoses, meaning infectious diseases transmissible from animals to humans, affected over 380,000 EU citizens in 2004....... Often the human form of the disease is acquired through contaminated food. According to the report, the two most frequently reported zoonotic diseases in humans were Salmonella and Campylobacter infections. These bacteria were also commonly found in food and animals. The report includes information...... of 11 zoonoses, antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic agents as well as foodborne outbreaks. The national zoonoses country reports which have been used as a basis for this Summary report are below. The utmost effort was made to keep the information in the Summary Report and the national reports identical...

  5. Zoonoses in the European Union: origin, distribution and dynamics - the EFSA-ECDC summary report 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahuerta, A; Westrell, T; Takkinen, J; Boelaert, F; Rizzi, V; Helwigh, B; Borck, B; Korsgaard, H; Ammon, A; Makela, P

    2011-03-31

    We present a summary of the main findings of the latest report of the European Food Safety Authority and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control on zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in the European Union (EU), based on data from 2009. Zoonoses are prevalent and widely distributed across several countries in the EU. The most important highlight of this report was the continuous decrease of human salmonellosis since 2005, probably due to effective control programmes in livestock.

  6. Pentastomiasis and other parasitic zoonoses from reptiles and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantchev, Nikola; Tappe, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Reptiles are growing in popularity as pets.The colonization of reptiles and amphibians by parasites and the resulting disease conditions are the most common problems seen in captive animals.This review focuses on pentastomiasis and sparganosis, important parasitic zoonoses of reptiles and amphibians, respectively, and free living-amoebae. Humans are suitable accidental hosts for some pentastomid species (particularly Armillifer and Porocephalus). In geographical areas with special ethnics, such as in West and Central Africa, and East Asia, 8-45% of the human population can be affected. Usually the larvae are coincidentally found during abdominal surgeries. However, fatalities have been described. Extreme caution is necessary when handling infected reptiles. Ocular or cerebral sparganosis is not uncommonly found in humans in East Asia. This disease is caused by spargana, tapeworm larvae (plerocercoids) of Spirometra sp. The infection occurs when uncooked meat from reptiles or amphibians is applied to wounds or eyes and the parasites migrate directly to human tissue, or by consumption of contaminated food or water. As a consequence of the reptile's predatory behaviour, the full spectrum of endo- and ectoparasites from potential prey animals can be found as transiting parasites in the intestinal tract, e. g. Hymenolepis nana, Cryptosporidium (C.) muris, C parvum or Capillaria hepatica. Occasionally, free-living amoebae are also found in reptile faeces (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Hartmanella, Vahlkampfia or Echinamoeba sp.).

  7. Public health problem of zoonoses with emphasis on Q fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beslagić, E; Hamzić, S; Beslagić, O; Zvizdić, S

    2006-10-01

    Zoonoses are animal and human diseases. Q fever is primarily a zoonosis-an animal disease that can be transmitted to humans under certain conditions. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that Q fever should be considered as a public health problem in many countries where it is present, but unrecognizable due to inadequate disease controls. Through specific serological diagnosis of clinically suspected human Q fever cases, we are trying to determine a level of general Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) exposition among populations in different regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This would be a contribution in controlling the present and the future disease outbreaks, as well as its prevention, which is one of the prime objectives of public health. During the period from January to June 2004, in the Laboratory of the Department for Microbiology in the Medical Faculty of the University of Sarajevo, of 58 tested sera from 48 clinically suspected individuals, we confirmed the presence of specific anti-C. burnetii antibodies in 30 sera (51.7%), from 25 seropositive individuals (52.0%), by means of indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) testing. Urgent steps must be taken in public education to help decrease the risk of C. burnetii infection among at-risk populations in regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  8. [Assessment and prevention of zoonoses: "one health approach"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonizzi, Luigi; Guarino, Marcella; Roncada, Paola; Colosio, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Zoonotic pathologies represent diseases that can be transmittable from animals to humans and vice versa. In most cases zoonotic agents are bacteria or viruses and represent a huge problem for health. Zoonosis could represent easily solvable diseases such as simple infections or even deathly such as prion infections. They could be directly transmittable as tuberculosis or brucellosis or indirectly transmittable through vectors as biological fluids or foods from animal production. The increasing production and the globalization of animal food production have caused the spread of zoonosis worldwide turning this topic into a global problem. It is necessary to enforce the actual scientific collaboration between all countries in order to counteract the spread of these pathologies. About this topic WHO, FAO and OIE took part to the world project "one health" highlighting as most important topics the research on Rabies virus, influenza virus and on antibiotic resistance. In particular antibiotic resistance represents one of the most important topics of the last decade due to the inappropriate use of antibiotics, from animal production to human health. This last topic represents a serious problem for health system worldwide. This paper is mainly based on zoonoses such as avian flu, BSE and brucellosis and will describe the strategies used to limit their expansion.

  9. A survey of the risk of zoonoses for veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J; Villarroel, A

    2012-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify factors associated with zoonotic infections in veterinarians, the incidence of physician consultation and treatment and the incidence of diagnostic and treatment errors. Veterinarians in any area of practice were solicited to participate in an online survey through an invitation letter sent to the Oregon Veterinary Medical Association. Proportions of respondents to various factors were analyzed for differences among gender, age, time since graduation and type of practice in which they worked. In all, 216 complete responses were received. In all, 13.9% of respondents had never been vaccinated against rabies, and 20.8% had been exposed to suspect rabid animals, mostly (64.4%) a single time. Other zoonoses were reported by 47.2% of respondents: mostly diseases transmitted via contact (57.4%) especially ringworm, followed by those with oral transmission (21.7%). Most zoonotic infections were reportedly acquired by young veterinarians working in primary care veterinary practice. Cats were the species most commonly reported as the animal source of a zoonotic infection. Veterinarians likely self-diagnosed zoonotic diseases, especially those transmitted by contact. Medical care providers were consulted for diagnosis of more serious diseases. Diagnosis and treatment errors were uncommon. Results of this study emphasize the need to educate future veterinarians during their early years in veterinary school about the risks associated with their future jobs.

  10. Old problems on a new playing field: Helminth zoonoses transmitted among dogs, wildlife, and people in a changing northern climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Emily J; Schurer, Janna M; Gesy, Karen M

    2011-11-24

    Although surveillance is limited, indigenous residents at latitudes ranging from 53 to 73°N in Canada appear to have a higher occurrence of infection with some zoonotic parasites than the general population. Conversely, they are relatively naïve to other zoonotic parasites that have previously been unable to establish at northern latitudes. For those parasites that circulate among dogs, wildlife, and people, potential risk factors in the North include limited availability of veterinary services, presence of free-roaming dog populations, and consumption of locally harvested fish and wildlife. These regions are also experiencing some of the greatest impacts of climate change in North America, including increased temperature, precipitation, and frequency and severity of extreme weather. We review the current taxonomy, genetic diversity, host and geographic distributions, epidemiology and risk factors for 3 genera of helminths (Diphyllobothrium spp., Echinococcus spp., and Toxocara sp.) in Canada's North in order to identify climate-sensitive aspects of their ecology. Free-living stages of parasitic zoonoses endemic in the Arctic (such as Diphyllobothrium dendriticum, the cervid strain of Echinococcus granulosus, and Arctic strains of Echinococcus multilocularis) will experience trade-offs between enhanced survival under wetter conditions and increased mortality under warmer conditions. Climate change might also lead to the introduction and establishment in the Arctic of parasitic zoonoses previously restricted to the sub-Arctic, such as Diphyllobothrium latum, Toxocara canis, and the prairie strain of E. multilocularis. Molecular techniques applied in broad geographic surveys are needed to address critical knowledge gaps in the geographic distribution, genetic diversity, and public health significance of zoonotic helminths already in the circumpolar North, and to determine the current barriers to range expansion of temperate-adapted parasites into the North. Dogs

  11. Zoonoses and information of the public: the role of media, with special reference to Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Baldelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The significance of zoonoses varies depending on many socio-economic factors and on the specific situation that prevails in a specific area. The role of the media often determines the importance given to a disease. In resource-rich countries, a zoonosis may be perceived as being important due to inaccurate information that has been circulated by mass media on the risk of infection for animals and humans and on the possible use of the agent for terrorist actions. Images of sick or dead people and animals, drastic methods of control and others, can contribute to an overestimation of the significance of a disease. Information can be lacking or absent in regard to socio-economic factors that clarify occurrence and also on geographic distribution. Therefore, the sensitivity of people can be influenced rapidly and negative socio-economic consequences can occur. These zoonoses can be named ‘media-oriented (emphasised zoonoses’. On the contrary, some zoonoses are scarcely considered for several reasons, for instance: occurrence in poverty-stricken areas and populations, risks of infection for people not considered important enough to deserve medical care, little interest from the media, decision-makers and health services, lack of information and official reports. These zoonoses can be named ‘neglected zoonoses’. Some examples of zoonoses included in the above categories are described.

  12. DNA barcoding of sigmodontine rodents: identifying wildlife reservoirs of zoonoses.

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    Lívia Müller

    Full Text Available Species identification through DNA barcoding is a tool to be added to taxonomic procedures, once it has been validated. Applying barcoding techniques in public health would aid in the identification and correct delimitation of the distribution of rodents from the subfamily Sigmodontinae. These rodents are reservoirs of etiological agents of zoonoses including arenaviruses, hantaviruses, Chagas disease and leishmaniasis. In this study we compared distance-based and probabilistic phylogenetic inference methods to evaluate the performance of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI in sigmodontine identification. A total of 130 sequences from 21 field-trapped species (13 genera, mainly from southern Brazil, were generated and analyzed, together with 58 GenBank sequences (24 species; 10 genera. Preliminary analysis revealed a 9.5% rate of misidentifications in the field, mainly of juveniles, which were reclassified after examination of external morphological characters and chromosome numbers. Distance and model-based methods of tree reconstruction retrieved similar topologies and monophyly for most species. Kernel density estimation of the distance distribution showed a clear barcoding gap with overlapping of intraspecific and interspecific densities < 1% and 21 species with mean intraspecific distance < 2%. Five species that are reservoirs of hantaviruses could be identified through DNA barcodes. Additionally, we provide information for the description of a putative new species, as well as the first COI sequence of the recently described genus Drymoreomys. The data also indicated an expansion of the distribution of Calomys tener. We emphasize that DNA barcoding should be used in combination with other taxonomic and systematic procedures in an integrative framework and based on properly identified museum collections, to improve identification procedures, especially in epidemiological surveillance and ecological assessments.

  13. DNA barcoding of sigmodontine rodents: identifying wildlife reservoirs of zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lívia; Gonçalves, Gislene L; Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro; Marinho, Jorge R; Althoff, Sérgio L; Testoni, André F; González, Enrique M; Freitas, Thales R O

    2013-01-01

    Species identification through DNA barcoding is a tool to be added to taxonomic procedures, once it has been validated. Applying barcoding techniques in public health would aid in the identification and correct delimitation of the distribution of rodents from the subfamily Sigmodontinae. These rodents are reservoirs of etiological agents of zoonoses including arenaviruses, hantaviruses, Chagas disease and leishmaniasis. In this study we compared distance-based and probabilistic phylogenetic inference methods to evaluate the performance of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) in sigmodontine identification. A total of 130 sequences from 21 field-trapped species (13 genera), mainly from southern Brazil, were generated and analyzed, together with 58 GenBank sequences (24 species; 10 genera). Preliminary analysis revealed a 9.5% rate of misidentifications in the field, mainly of juveniles, which were reclassified after examination of external morphological characters and chromosome numbers. Distance and model-based methods of tree reconstruction retrieved similar topologies and monophyly for most species. Kernel density estimation of the distance distribution showed a clear barcoding gap with overlapping of intraspecific and interspecific densities < 1% and 21 species with mean intraspecific distance < 2%. Five species that are reservoirs of hantaviruses could be identified through DNA barcodes. Additionally, we provide information for the description of a putative new species, as well as the first COI sequence of the recently described genus Drymoreomys. The data also indicated an expansion of the distribution of Calomys tener. We emphasize that DNA barcoding should be used in combination with other taxonomic and systematic procedures in an integrative framework and based on properly identified museum collections, to improve identification procedures, especially in epidemiological surveillance and ecological assessments.

  14. DNA Barcoding of Sigmodontine Rodents: Identifying Wildlife Reservoirs of Zoonoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lívia; Gonçalves, Gislene L.; Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro; Marinho, Jorge R.; Althoff, Sérgio L.; Testoni, André. F.; González, Enrique M.; Freitas, Thales R. O.

    2013-01-01

    Species identification through DNA barcoding is a tool to be added to taxonomic procedures, once it has been validated. Applying barcoding techniques in public health would aid in the identification and correct delimitation of the distribution of rodents from the subfamily Sigmodontinae. These rodents are reservoirs of etiological agents of zoonoses including arenaviruses, hantaviruses, Chagas disease and leishmaniasis. In this study we compared distance-based and probabilistic phylogenetic inference methods to evaluate the performance of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) in sigmodontine identification. A total of 130 sequences from 21 field-trapped species (13 genera), mainly from southern Brazil, were generated and analyzed, together with 58 GenBank sequences (24 species; 10 genera). Preliminary analysis revealed a 9.5% rate of misidentifications in the field, mainly of juveniles, which were reclassified after examination of external morphological characters and chromosome numbers. Distance and model-based methods of tree reconstruction retrieved similar topologies and monophyly for most species. Kernel density estimation of the distance distribution showed a clear barcoding gap with overlapping of intraspecific and interspecific densities < 1% and 21 species with mean intraspecific distance < 2%. Five species that are reservoirs of hantaviruses could be identified through DNA barcodes. Additionally, we provide information for the description of a putative new species, as well as the first COI sequence of the recently described genus Drymoreomys. The data also indicated an expansion of the distribution of Calomys tener. We emphasize that DNA barcoding should be used in combination with other taxonomic and systematic procedures in an integrative framework and based on properly identified museum collections, to improve identification procedures, especially in epidemiological surveillance and ecological assessments. PMID:24244670

  15. Risk perception about zoonoses in immigrants and Italian workers in Northwestern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Cediel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: To assess factors associated with a low risk perception of zoonoses and to identify the gaps in knowledge about transmission and prevention of zoonoses in immigrant and Italian workers. MÉTODOS: A cross-sectional study with 175 workers in the agro-livestock and agro-food industry in Piemonte, Italy, was carried out. Data were collected with a semi-structured questionnaire based on knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP survey. We calculated proportions and used chi-square tests and odds ratios to assess associations. Eight individual interviews with key informants on immigration and public health in Piemonte were carried out. RESULTADOS: Participants were 82 (47% Italians and 93 (53% immigrants. Immigrants were from Romania, Morocco, Albania, India, China, Argentina, Peru, Macedonia, Ivory Coast, Ukraine and Colombia. The study revealed significant differences in risk perception at work (p = 0.001. We found associations between "not having correct knowledge about zoonoses" and the following variables: i. "being immigrant" OR = 4.1 (95%CI 1.7;9.8 p ≤ 0.01; ii. "working in the livestock industry" OR = 2.9 (95%CI 1.2;15.4 p = 0.01; and iii. "being an unqualified worker" OR = 4.4 (95%CI 2.9;15.4 p ≤ 0.01. Another strong association was found between being immigrant and having a low job qualification OR = 6.7 (IC95% 2.9 - 15.4 p ≤ 0.01. Asian immigrants were the group with the highest frequency of risky behaviours and the lowest level of knowledge about zoonoses. CONCLUSÕES: Our results indicate that there were differences in risk perception of zoonoses between the groups participating in our study. These results suggest that immigrant status can be considered a risk factor for having lower risk perception and lower level of knowledge of zoonoses at work. There is a relationship between this specific knowledge of zoonoses and lack of training and instruction among migrant populations. Our results stress the need for developing

  16. Milk producers' awareness of milk-borne zoonoses in selected smallholder and commercial dairy farms of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosalagae, Diphetogo; Pfukenyi, Davies Mubika; Matope, Gift

    2011-03-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted to assess milk producers' awareness of milk-borne zoonoses in selected smallholder and commercial dairy farms of Zimbabwe. The questionnaire was designed to obtain information on dairy breeds, milk production, dairy farmers' knowledge and awareness of zoonoses with particular emphasis on milk-borne zoonoses and farmers' behavioural practices that may lead to increased risk of milk-borne zoonoses transmission. A total of 119 dairy farmers were interviewed, and 41.5% were aware of milk-borne zoonoses with a significantly (Pzoonoses transmission were; consumption of raw milk (68.1%), sale of raw milk to the local public (25.2%), lack of cooling facilities by smallholder farmers (98%), and no routine testing (84.9%) and medical check-ups (89.1%) for milk-borne zoonoses. General hygienic and disease control practices need to be integrated in the milk production process particularly at the smallholder level. Awareness, teaching and training programmes for smallholder dairy farmers can improve disease control in animals and reduce the public health risk of milk-borne zoonoses.

  17. [Which zoonoses should the general population be more awareness of ? Qualitative research targeted at veterinarians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Itsuko; Ishikawa, Naoko; Feng, Qiaolian; Kigawa, Mika; Marui, Eiji

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which zoonoses should the general population be more aware of. We conducted qualitative research (Delphi method) on thirty veterinarians who were selected from the whole country. Twenty-four diseases were selected. The reasons for their selection were classified into three categories: "Amount of knowledge, attitude and behavior", "Clinicoepidemiologic characteristics" and "Social characteristics". More than half of the top ten zoonoses are those that are not transmitted from humans to humans, with rabies in the first place, avian influenza (with its high pathogenicity) in the second place and psittacosis in the third place. From the top ten diseases, it is considered that the prevention of animal-to-human transmission should be emphasized. In addition, from the reasons for the selection, it is suggested that it is necessary to review social characteristics, such as the inadequacy of quarantine and the insufficiencies of legal systems. As for the zoonoses that are transmitted from humans to humans, it will be indispensable in the future to widely spread information on zoonoses and enlighten the general population about them. It is thought that this survey can be a basis for selecting a zoonosis that should be given priority in enlightening the general population.

  18. Animal health care seeking behavior of pets or livestock owners and knowledge and awareness on zoonoses in a university community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel J. Awosanya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We investigated the attitude of pets or livestock owning households in a university community to animal health care services and assessed the knowledge and awareness level of the residents on zoonoses. Materials and Methods: Structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on demography, pet or livestock ownership, animal health care seeking behavior, awareness and knowledge of zoonoses from 246 households. We did descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis to determine the level of association in discrete variables between owners and non-owners of pets or livestock at a significant level of p<0.05. Results: Of the 246 respondents, 80 (32.5% were either pet or livestock owners. The animal health care seeking behavior of the 80 pets or livestock owners in terms of treatment and vaccination was 70%. Of the 56 (70% who provided health care services for their animals, about 48 (85.7% engaged the services of a veterinarian. Dog owning households (42 had the highest frequency of treating their pets against endoparasites (97.6%; ectoparasites (81% and vaccination against diseases (73.8%. Of the 246 respondents, only 47 (19.1% have heard of the term zoonoses. Of the considered zoonoses; their awareness of rabies (79.3% was the highest, followed by Lassa fever (66.3%, the least was pasteurellosis with 18.7%. Having pets or livestock was significantly associated (p=0.04 with rabies awareness. However, there is no significant difference in the level of awareness of zoonoses; knowledge of zoonoses, knowledge of prevention of zoonoses and knowledge of risk of zoonoses between owners and non-owners of pets or livestock. Conclusion: The animal health care seeking behavior of households with pets or livestock is good and should be encouraged. Public education should be created for other zoonoses aside from rabies, Lassa fever, and avian influenza.

  19. Narrative overview of animal and human brucellosis in Morocco: intensification of livestock production as a driver for emergence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Marie J; Ammary, Khaoula; Ait Lbacha, Hicham; Zouagui, Zaid; Mick, Virginie; Prevost, Laura; Bryssinckx, Ward; Welburn, Susan C; Benkirane, Abdelali

    2015-12-22

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world caused by several species of the genus Brucella. The disease, eradicated in many developed countries, is a re-emerging neglected zoonosis endemic in several zones especially in the Mediterranean region, impacting on human health and livestock production. A One Health approach could address brucellosis control in Morocco but scarcity of reliable epidemiological data, as well as underreporting, hinders the implementation of sustainable control strategies. Surveillance and control policies implemented by the Moroccan government in domestic animals (cattle and small ruminants) in the last few decades are assessed for disease impact. This study considers the origins of animal brucellosis in Morocco and the potential for emergence of brucellosis during a shift from extensive to intensive livestock production.

  20. The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) Network - Data and Technological Resources to Address Current and Emerging Issues in Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Wienhold, B.; Suyker, A.; Erickson, G.; Hayes, M. J.; Awada, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) is one of 18 established Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) networks across the US. PR-HPA is a partnership between the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), the USDA-ARS Agroecosystem Management Research Unit (AMRU) in Lincoln, and the USDA-ARS Environmental Management Research Unit (EMRU) in Clay Center, NE. The PR-HPA network encompasses 27,750 ha of research sites with data going back to the early 1900s. A partial list of on-going research projects include those encompassing long-term manuring and continuous corn (Est. 1912), dryland tillage plots (Est. 1970), soil nutrients and tillage (Est. 1983), biofuel feedstock studies (Est. 2001), and carbon sequestration study (Est. 2000). Affiliated partners include the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) that develops measures to improve preparedness and adaptation to climate variability and drought; the High Plains Regional Climate Center (HPRCC) that coordinates data acquisition from over 170 automated weather stations and around 50 automated soil moisture network across NE and beyond; the AMERIFLUX and NEBFLUX networks that coordinate the water vapor and carbon dioxide flux measurements across NE with emphasis on rainfed and irrigated crop lands; the ARS Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network (GRACEnet) and the Resilient Economic Agricultural Practices (REAP) project; and the Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT) that assists with the use of geospatial technologies for agriculture and natural resource applications. Current emphases are on addressing present-day and emerging issues related to profitability and sustainability of agroecosystems. The poster will highlight some of the ongoing and planned efforts in research pertaining to climate variability and change, water sustainability, and ecological and agronomic challenges associated

  1. Bacterial zoonoses transmitted by Household pets: State of the Art and Future perspectives for targeted research and policy actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damborg, P.; Broens, E.M.; Chomel, B.B.; Guenther, S.; Pasmans, F.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Weese, J.S.; Wieler, L.H.; Windahl, U.; Vanrompay, D.; Guardabassi, L.

    2016-01-01

    The close contact between household pets and people offers favourable conditions for bacterial transmission. In this article, the aetiology, prevalence, transmission, impact on human health and preventative measures are summarized for selected bacterial zoonoses transmissible by household pets. Six

  2. Harvested white-tailed deer as sentinel hosts for early establishing Ixodes scapularis populations and risk from vector-borne zoonoses in southeastern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, C; Leighton, P A; Beauchamp, G; Nguon, S; Trudel, L; Milord, F; Lindsay, L R; Bélanger, D; Ogden, N H

    2013-03-01

    Due to recent establishment of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, in southeastern Canada, tick-borne zoonoses (Lyme disease, human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis) are of growing concern for public health. Using white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) culled in southwestern Quebec during 2007-2008, we investigated whether hunter-killed deer could act as sentinels for early establishing tick populations and for tick-borne pathogens. Accounting for environmental characteristics of culling sites, and age and sex of deer, we investigated whether their tick infestation levels could identify locations of known tick populations detected in active surveillance, presumed tick populations detected by passive surveillance, or both. We also used spatial cluster analyses to identify spatial patterns of tick infestation and occurrence of tick-borne zoonoses infection in ticks collected from the deer. Adult ticks were found on 15% of the 583 deer examined. Adult male deer had the greatest number (approximately 90%) of adult ticks. Overall, 3, 15, and 0% of the ticks collected were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti, respectively. Our statistical analyses suggest that sex and age of deer, temperature, precipitation, and an index of tick dispersion by migratory birds were significantly associated with tick infestation levels. Cluster analysis identified significant clusters of deer carrying ticks PCR-positive for A. phagocytophilum, and for deer carrying two or more I. scapularis. Our study suggests that hunter-killed deer may be effective as sentinels for emerging areas of tick-borne anaplasmosis. They may have limited use as sentinels for early emerging I. scapularis tick populations and emerging Lyme disease risk.

  3. A construção do conhecimento do indivíduo no processo de sensibilização-conscientização -ação sobre a hantavirose e a oportunidade para o controle e a prevenção de zoonoses emergentes: a experiência da hantavirose em Santa Catarina/Brasil The construction of the individual's knowledge in the process of sensitization-awareness raising-action about hantavirus disease and the opportunity to control and prevent emerging zoonoses: the experience of hantavirus disease in Santa Catarina/Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Andreatta Carvalho Schmidt

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve a trajetória da descoberta da Hantavirose no estado de Santa Catarina, no Município de Seara, no ano de 2000. Uma investigação epidemiológica dessa primeira ocorrência proveu dados e informações para pesquisa realizada a posteriori. O estudo realizado teve o intuito de analisar a Hantavirose como caso específico de doença emergente, relacionando-a com as suas condições de surgimento, passíveis de intervenção. Por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas com atores envolvidos na investigação, foram identificados aspectos relevantes para práticas da Saúde Pública. O pequeno aproveitamento dos dados de uma investigação epidemiológica; o pouco investimento em ações preventivas pelo Estado após a emergência; e a impessoalidade dos profissionais de saúde envolvidos a contribuir para a responsabilização dos indivíduos afetados constituíram elementos indicativos de que não há orientação e controle de forma contínua ou mesmo um auxílio real aos indivíduos/comunidades necessitadas. Dessa forma é praticamente impossível que as ações sanitárias sejam bem-sucedidas. Conclui-se que o Programa de Saúde na Família, de estratégia dinâmica e participativa, é um dos elementos fundamentais no processo de construção do conhecimento de cada indivíduo com importância inegável nas orientações diante da emergência da Hantavirose. Paralelo ao programa faz-se necessária a elaboração de projetos educacionais direcionados às escolas e de um cronograma de palestras para as associações de bairros, visando um processo de sensibilização - conscientização-ação no auto-cuidado, em caráter permanente e não somente por ocasião de epidemias.This article describes the path of the discovery of Hantavirus disease in the state of Santa Catarina, where the first case occurred in the Municipal district of Seara in 2000. This occurrence provided data used in the present study. The main objective of

  4. Knowledge of causes, clinical features and diagnosis of common zoonoses among medical practitioners in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mfinanga Godfrey S

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many factors have been mentioned as contributing to under-diagnosis and under-reporting of zoonotic diseases particularly in the sub-Sahara African region. These include poor disease surveillance coverage, poor diagnostic capacity, the geographical distribution of those most affected and lack of clear strategies to address the plight of zoonotic diseases. The current study investigates the knowledge of medical practitioners of zoonotic diseases as a potential contributing factor to their under-diagnosis and hence under-reporting. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. Semi-structured open-ended questionnaire was administered to medical practitioners to establish the knowledge of anthrax, rabies, brucellosis, trypanosomiasis, echinococcosis and bovine tuberculosis in selected health facilities within urban and rural settings in Tanzania between April and May 2005. Frequency data were analyzed using likelihood ratio chi-square in Minitab version 14 to compare practitioners' knowledge of transmission, clinical features and diagnosis of the zoonoses in the two settings. For each analysis, likelihood ratio chi-square p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Fisher's exact test was used where expected results were less than five. Results Medical practitioners in rural health facilities had poor knowledge of transmission of sleeping sickness and clinical features of anthrax and rabies in humans compared to their urban counterparts. In both areas the practitioners had poor knowledge of how echinococcosis is transmitted to humans, clinical features of echinococcosis in humans, and diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in humans. Conclusion Knowledge of medical practitioners of zoonotic diseases could be a contributing factor to their under-diagnosis and under-reporting in Tanzania. Refresher courses on zoonotic diseases should be conducted particularly to practitioners in rural areas. More emphasis

  5. Parasite zoonoses and climate change: molecular tools for tracking shifting boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polley, Lydden; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2009-06-01

    For human, domestic animal and wildlife health, key effects of directional climate change include the risk of the altered occurrence of infectious diseases. Many parasite zoonoses have high potential for vulnerability to the new climate, in part because their free-living life-cycle stages and ectothermic hosts are directly exposed to climatic conditions. For these zoonoses, climate change can shift boundaries for ecosystem components and processes integral to parasite transmission and persistence, and these shifts can impact host health. Vulnerable boundaries include those for spatial distributions, host-parasite assemblages, demographic rates, life-cycle phenologies, associations within ecosystems, virulence, and patterns of infection and disease. This review describes these boundary shifts and how molecular techniques can be applied to defining the new boundaries.

  6. [Knowledge of zoonoses transmission routes and of the species concerned among rural workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineri, Ana I; Signorini, Marcelo L; Tarabla, Héctor D

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of awareness of zoonoses among rural workers and their potential associations with socio-demographic factors. A cross-sectional study was performed by holding personal interviews (N=110, n=94) using a structured questionnaire. The statistical analysis included the χ(2) test, the Student's t test and Pearson and Spearman correlations. The highest level of awareness was found for trichinosis, rabies and scabies. Species transmitting brucellosis, tuberculosis and anthrax were well known, but not their modes of transmission. The least known diseases were toxocariasis and hydatidosis, followed by leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis. Significant associations were found (pzoonoses. Awareness of zoonoses among rural workers is inadequate. Veterinarians in conjunction with risk insurers may play a key role in providing information to people at risk.

  7. Feasibility and Acceptability of Screening and Brief Interventions to Address Alcohol and Other Drug Use among Patients Presenting for Emergency Services in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Myers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence from high income countries, it is not known whether screening and brief interventions (SBI for alcohol and other drug (AOD use are feasible to implement in low and middle income countries. This paper describes the feasibility and acceptability of a peer-led SBI for AOD-using patients presenting with injuries at emergency services in Cape Town, South Africa. Data were extracted from program records on the number of eligible patients screened and the number of program refusals. A questionnaire examined preliminary responses to the intervention for 30 patients who had completed the program and 10 emergency personnel. Peer counselors were also interviewed to identify barriers to implementation. Of the 1458 patients screened, 21% (305 met inclusion criteria, of which 74% (225 were enrolled in the intervention. Of the 30 patients interviewed, most (83% found the program useful. Emergency personnel were supportive of the program but felt that visibility and reach could improve. Peer counselors identified the need for better integration of the program into emergency services and for additional training and support. In conclusion, with limited additional resources, peer-led SBIs for AOD use are feasible to conduct in South African emergency services and are acceptable to patients and emergency personnel.

  8. Endemic zoonoses in the tropics: a public health problem hiding in plain sight

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Zoonotic diseases are a significant burden on animal and human health, particularly in developing countries. Despite recognition of this fact, endemic zoonoses often remain undiagnosed in people, instead being mistaken for febrile diseases such as malaria. Here, as part of Veterinary Record's ongoing series of articles on One Health, a multidisciplinary team of researchers from Scotland, Tanzania and New Zealand argues that a One Health approach is needed to effectively combat these diseases

  9. 人兽共患病的流行及控制%Prevalence and control of Zoonoses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵生

    2009-01-01

    本文重点介绍了近年来全球人兽共患病的流行及控制形势,扼要分析了中国人兽共患病防控的经验与教训,特别指出,近年来,全球一个共同的问题是人类越来越面临着人兽共患病的威胁,中国也经历了禽流感的侵袭、非典的暴虐、口蹄疫的惶恐、手足口病的纷扰、甲型H1N1流感的侵入等人兽共患病公共卫生安全事件,人兽共患病已不仅仅是一个医学问题,而且更是一个重大的社会问题,也不仅仅是一个地区、一个国家的问题,而是全人类要共同面对的问题.%s: This article focused on the recent situation of prevalence and control of zoonoses all over the world, analyzed briefly the experience and lessons of prevalence and control of zoonoses in China, and especially pointed out that more and more people axe faced with the threat of zoonosos all over the world in recent years and China has also experienced the invasion of avian flu, SARS , foot and mouth disease, hand-foot-mouth disease, H1N1 influenza and other public health security incidents of zoonoses. Zoonoses have been more than a medical problem, it is a major social problem, and it is not only a problem of a region or a country, but a problem of all mankind.

  10. The potential role of migratory birds in the transmission of zoonoses

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The instinct for survival leads migratory birds to exploit seasonal opportunities for breeding habitats and food supplies. Consequently, they travel across national and international borders. These birds are distinguished in local migrants, short-distance, long-distance and vagrant and nomadic migrants. They can transfer micro-organisms across the globe and play a significant role in the ecology and circulation of pathogenic organisms. They are implicated in the transmission of zoonoses as bi...

  11. Endemic zoonoses in the tropics: a public health problem hiding in plain sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Jo E B; Allan, Kathryn J; Ekwem, Divine; Cleaveland, Sarah; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Crump, John A

    2015-02-28

    Zoonotic diseases are a significant burden on animal and human health, particularly in developing countries. Despite recognition of this fact, endemic zoonoses often remain undiagnosed in people, instead being mistaken for febrile diseases such as malaria. Here, as part of Veterinary Record's ongoing series of articles on One Health, a multidisciplinary team of researchers from Scotland, Tanzania and New Zealand argues that a One Health approach is needed to effectively combat these diseases.

  12. Scientometrics of zoonoses transmitted by the giant African snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanelli, Gilberto Cezar; Yamaguchi, Mirian Ueda; Calaça, Elaine Alves; Oda, Fabrício Hiroiuki

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The dissemination of the giant African snail Achatina fulica in several countries has triggered a great number of studies on the mollusk, including those on zoonoses related to health in humans. The current research is a scientific survey on articles published in four databases, namely, PubMed, Bireme, Scielo and Lilacs. Results indicate that Brazil has a prominent position in international scientific production on this subject, with focus on Angiostrongylus cantonensis occurrences. PMID:28423090

  13. Toxicants exposures as novel zoonoses: reflections on sustainable development, food safety and veterinary public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazzoli, C; Mantovani, A

    2010-12-01

    The modern concept of zoonosis considers any detriment to the health and/or quality of human life resulting from relationships with (other) vertebrate or edible or toxic invertebrate animals. Whereas exposure to toxicants through foods of animal origin (a.o.) is a well-established issue, hereby we discuss it as novel zoonoses, from the standpoints of health implications as well as similarities and differences with classical zoonoses caused by biological agents. Novel toxicant-related zoonoses are linked with new issues in food safety, such as the environment-feed-food chain. In fact, the potential effect of the combined and repeated exposure to dietary toxicants is generally long-term and not readily discernible. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in staple foods of a.o. are discussed as a telling example of a food safety issue summing up critical points covered by the definition of sustainable development, also implicating health risks for generations to come. We suggest some critical points to implement the veterinary public health action in sustainable food safety, such as enhancement of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points systems for toxicological risk management.

  14. Risks of Zoonosic Disease transmission in pets in Sancti Spíritus City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odmara M. Castellanos Yero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available For the development of this work the urban zone of Sancti Spíritus was taken as a sample. The main objective was to identify the risk factors associated to the ignorance of zoonosis transmitted by pet animals. The tests were applied to 50 homes in 5 People’s Council, having as a total 250 housings. Dogs were the animals which predominated in houses (66.6%.The risks of Zoonosis showed that 393 persons are in direct contact with the animals, 330 played with them and 234 bathe them. The 64.0 % of the persons that were tested knew about the risk of animals for the human health, the lowest knowledge was obtained in the People’s Council of kilo 12 and Jesus Maria. Tested persons agreed that animals have lowest risk of transmitting disease to human. The 62 % of tested persons said that the most common way of zoonosic disease transmission is by bites. For the tested population the most known zoonosic diseases were: Leptospirosis, Brucellosis, Rabia and Salmonellosis, the population showed great desire for being training about zoonosic diseases, giving more responsibility in this task to Veterinarian Service (75.2 %.

  15. Welcome Address

    OpenAIRE

    Shantanu Sengupta

    1983-01-01

    This article is part of the NEDA-PIDS Seminar-Workshop on the Philippine System of National Accounts. It outlines the seminar’s major objectives and the problems and issues that need to be addressed. It argues that coordination among institutions can lead to effective resolution to sensitive issues.

  16. Concluding Address

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Giovannelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Before I offcially conclude this workshop - far be it from me to attempt to compete with some concluding remarks already delivered at the meeting with various levels of passion by Gennady Bisnovatyi-Kogan, Giulio Auriemma and Sergio Colafrancesco - I would like to comment on some of the highlights emerging from our fruitful week of discussions about Multifrequency Behaviour of High Energy Cosmic Sources, without any pretension of completeness.

  17. Looking beyond first-world problems: an emerging global workplace is encouraging more biomedical engineers to address the health issues of the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Each year, the developed world is flooded with complex new medical technologies, from robotic prosthetics to remote-controlled aspirin implants. Meanwhile, only about 10% of health research funds are spent addressing the pressing problems of developing nations, although these countries make up 93% of the worldwide burden of disease. In short, while a small fraction of the world pops brand-name pharmaceuticals, the majority suffers from poor sanitation, contaminated drinking water, preventable disease, and child mortality.

  18. Welcome Address

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@  On behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute, I welcome you to Beijing and to the Third Asian Conference on Food Safety and Nutrition. Many of you will remember the first Asian conference on Food Safety held in Kuala Lumpur in 1990 and the second held in Bangkok in 1994. These meetings have been so successful that ILSI made the commitment to host such a conference periodically in order to provide a forum to share the latest information and to set new goals and priorities.   This year, we have broadened the scope of the agenda to include issues on nutrition. I want to thank all of our co-sponsors and members of the Planning Committee for preparing such a comprehensive and timely program. Some of the issues and challenges facing Asia that will be addressed at this meeting are:

  19. Inaugural address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  20. Molecular epidemiology: a multidisciplinary approach to understanding parasitic zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, R J; Monis, P T; Robertson, I D

    2005-10-01

    Sound application of molecular epidemiological principles requires working knowledge of both molecular biological and epidemiological methods. Molecular tools have become an increasingly important part of studying the epidemiology of infectious agents. Molecular tools have allowed the aetiological agent within a population to be diagnosed with a greater degree of efficiency and accuracy than conventional diagnostic tools. They have increased the understanding of the pathogenicity, virulence, and host-parasite relationships of the aetiological agent, provided information on the genetic structure and taxonomy of the parasite and allowed the zoonotic potential of previously unidentified agents to be determined. This review describes the concept of epidemiology and proper study design, describes the array of currently available molecular biological tools and provides examples of studies that have integrated both disciplines to successfully unravel zoonotic relationships that would otherwise be impossible utilising conventional diagnostic tools. The current limitations of applying these tools, including cautions that need to be addressed during their application are also discussed.

  1. Factors associated with milk producer's awareness and practices in relation to zoonoses in northern Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanly Fon Tebug

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many diseases are known to be naturally transmissible between vertebrate animals, including cattle and humans. Currently, much effort is being made to promote dairy farming in Malawi but there is limited information about zoonotic diseases including public awareness and practices. This study was designed to determine factors associated with dairy producer's awareness and practices with regard to zoonoses in Northern Region of Malawi. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was used to collect information from 140 randomly selected dairy producers between January and June 2011. Level of awareness and practices with respect to zoonotic infections was evaluated using a score ranging from 0 to 11. Chi-squared test followed by a multivariable logistic model were used to assess potential factors associated farmer's awareness and practices. Results: Awareness and practice level was unsatisfactory. Significantly higher number of respondents (75.7 vs. 32.9%,x2 = 51.81, df =1, p< 0.001 had satisfactory level of awareness when compared to those who practiced preventive measures. Awareness of the existence of zoonotic infections and practices was higher in farmers who acquired animals through loan (p =0.008, farmers with above primary education (p = 0.002 and farmers with more than six years of dairy farming experience (p= 0.010. Most farmers (59.3% received information about zoonoses through Agricultural extension services. Conclusion: Awareness and practices with respect to zoonotic infections was dependent on farmer's formal educational level, dairy farming experience and means of acquiring parent stock. Regular disease surveillance and promotion of education on the risk associated with zoonotic infections through dairy extension and medical services should result in increased awareness and efficient control of zoonoses in Malawi. [Vet World 2013; 6(5.000: 249-253

  2. The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

    2013-08-01

    The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts.

  3. Crossing institutional boundaries: mapping the policy process for improved control of endemic and neglected zoonoses in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna; Welburn, Susan; Smith, James

    2015-07-01

    The recent adoption of the World Health Assembly Resolution 66.12 for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in May 2013 is an important turning point for advocacy regarding a number of endemic zoonotic infections, defined by the World Health Organization as the neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs). In addition to NTD-listed zoonoses such as rabies, echinococcosis (hydatid disease), leishmaniasis, Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) and Taenia solium cysticercosis, the NZDs also include important bacterial zoonoses such as anthrax, bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis. To date, analysis of the processes that prioritize, develop and deliver zoonoses control programmes in many low- and middle-income countries is lacking, despite its potential to highlight significant evidence gaps and institutional constraints to the intersectoral approach required for their control. Policy process analysis was conducted via a series of semi-structured interviews with key policy actors within various ministries and institutes in Uganda and Nigeria. The study concluded that despite the rhetoric around 'linear' models of health policy development promoting consultation with a wide range of national stakeholders, the decision-making process for zoonotic disease control appears instead overtly influenced by the external political economy of trending pandemic threats, often overlooking national and regional zoonoses priorities. The inclusion of political systems remains a key factor in the zoonoses analysis matrix, enhancing our understanding of the intersectoral and transdisciplinary approaches required for their control. The authors consider policy process analysis to be a fundamental first step of any attempt to holistically strengthen human and animal health systems in a development context, particularly regarding the promotion of integrated control policies for regionally important zoonoses under the growing One Health movement.

  4. Presidential address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  5. Multidisciplinary and evidence-based method for prioritizing diseases of food-producing animals and zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humblet, Marie-France; Vandeputte, Sébastien; Albert, Adelin; Gosset, Christiane; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Haubruge, Eric; Fecher-Bourgeois, Fabienne; Pastoret, Paul-Pierre; Saegerman, Claude

    2012-04-01

    To prioritize 100 animal diseases and zoonoses in Europe, we used a multicriteria decision-making procedure based on opinions of experts and evidence-based data. Forty international experts performed intracategory and intercategory weighting of 57 prioritization criteria. Two methods (deterministic with mean of each weight and probabilistic with distribution functions of weights by using Monte Carlo simulation) were used to calculate a score for each disease. Consecutive ranking was established. Few differences were observed between each method. Compared with previous prioritization methods, our procedure is evidence based, includes a range of fields and criteria while considering uncertainty, and will be useful for analyzing diseases that affect public health.

  6. Infectious prion diseases in humans: cannibalism, iatrogenicity and zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haïk, Stéphane; Brandel, Jean-Philippe

    2014-08-01

    In contrast with other neurodegenerative disorders associated to protein misfolding, human prion diseases include infectious forms (also called transmitted forms) such as kuru, iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The transmissible agent is thought to be solely composed of the abnormal isoform (PrP(Sc)) of the host-encoded prion protein that accumulated in the central nervous system of affected individuals. Compared to its normal counterpart, PrP(Sc) is β-sheet enriched and aggregated and its propagation is based on an autocatalytic conversion process. Increasing evidence supports the view that conformational variations of PrP(Sc) encoded the biological properties of the various prion strains that have been isolated by transmission studies in experimental models. Infectious forms of human prion diseases played a pivotal role in the emergence of the prion concept and in the characterization of the very unconventional properties of prions. They provide a unique model to understand how prion strains are selected and propagate in humans. Here, we review and discuss how genetic factors interplay with strain properties and route of transmission to influence disease susceptibility, incubation period and phenotypic expression in the light of the kuru epidemics due to ritual endocannibalism, the various series iatrogenic diseases secondary to extractive growth hormone treatment or dura mater graft and the epidemics of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease linked to dietary exposure to the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

  7. Welcome Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  8. Listeria monocytogenes infection in poultry and its public health importance with special reference to food borne zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Verma, Amit Kumar; Rajagunalan, S; Kumar, Amit; Tiwari, Ruchi; Chakraborty, Sandip; Kumar, Rajesh

    2013-04-01

    Listeriosis is a disease that causes septicemia or encephalitis in humans, animals and birds. Although, the disease is rare and sporadic in poultry but if occurs then causes septicemia or sometimes localized encephalitis. Occasionally, the disease is seen in young chicks and the causative agent, like in humans and animals, is Listeria monocytogenes. The organism is capable to infect almost all animals and poultry; however, outbreaks of listeriosis are infrequent in birds. It is widely distributed among avian species and chickens, turkeys, waterfowl (geese, ducks), game birds, pigeons, parrots, wood grouse, snowy owl, eagle, canaries, which appear to be the most commonly affected. Chickens are thought to be the carriers of Listeria and also the prime reservoirs for the infection and thus contaminate the litter and environment of the poultry production units. Listeriosis is often noticed along with other poultry diseases such as coccidiosis, infectious coryza, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and parasitic infections, signifying the opportunistic nature of the organism. Intestinal colonization of poultry and the presence of L. monocytogenes in feces represent a potential source of the organism for listeriosis in ruminants. Man gets infection from raw broiler meat due to Listeria contamination and unhygienic conditions of the processing area, rather than acquiring direct infection from birds. With the changing food habits of the people, the health consciousness is also increasing and since listeriosis has now been recognized as an emerging food borne zoonoses. Therefore, this review has been compiled to make aware the poultry producers and the consumers of poultry meat/products regarding the importance of the disease and its public health significance.

  9. Analysing how negative emotions emerge and are addressed in veterinary consultations, using the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijfhuizen, Malou; Bok, Harold; Matthew, Susan M; Del Piccolo, Lidia; McArthur, Michelle

    2017-04-01

    To explore the applicability, need for modifications and reliability of the VR-CoDES in a veterinary setting while also gaining a deeper understanding of clients' expressions of negative emotion and how they are addressed by veterinarians. The Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences for client cues and concerns (VR-CoDES-CC) and health provider responses (VR-CoDES-P) were used to analyse 20 audiotaped veterinary consultations. Inter-rater reliability was established. The applicability of definitions of the VR-CoDES was identified, together with the need for specific modifications to suit veterinary consultations. The VR-CoDES-CC and VR-CoDES-P generally applied to veterinary consultations. Cue and concern reliability was found satisfactory for most types of cues, but not for concerns. Response reliability was satisfactory for explicitness, and for providing and reducing space for further disclosure. Modifications to the original coding system were necessary to accurately reflect the veterinary context and included minor additions to the VR-CoDES-CC. Using minor additions to the VR-CoDES including guilt, reassurance and cost discussions it can be reliably adopted to assess clients' implicit expressions of negative emotion and veterinarians' responses. The modified VR-CoDES could be of great value when combined with existing frameworks used for teaching and researching veterinary communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Management of opioid use disorders among veterans in subacute rehab: Use of an interdisciplinary task force to address an emerging concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Kate L. M.; Sharma, Samata; Thurston, Joe; Sivashanker, Karthik; Chang, Grace H.

    2016-01-01

    There is both rapidly growing need, and limited evidence-based guidelines, for the management of opioid use disorders in subacute rehab and other nonaddiction medical settings. Following 2 unintentional opioid overdoses within the Community Living Center (CLC), a VA (Veterans Administration) subacute rehab setting, an interdisciplinary CLC Addictions Task Force was created to address a critical issue: how to best meet the combined neuropsychiatric and medical needs of the opiate use disorder patient through a multifaceted treatment approach. The goals of the task force were to develop and institute educational initiatives for providers; create patient care guidelines; increase safety on the unit; improve provider confidence when caring for this high-risk population; and mitigate the risk of unintentional overdose. The task force divided into 4 working groups to meet these aims. Process and outcomes are discussed. We found that in-services by addiction specialists improved clinician comfort in caring for this high-risk patient group. Specific areas that yielded the greatest clinician satisfaction ratings included didactics on how to identify at-risk patients and techniques on how to manage the patient in a general rehab setting. Utilizing an interdisciplinary approach, and an iterative process, at all stages was critical to the success of the CLC Addictions Task Force, as it improved buy-in and motivation from all disciplines. Improvements have been made to enhance patient safety, improve communication amongst providers, and provide a foundation to improve patient outcomes. Our preliminary work to enhance the identification and management of opioid use disorders at our CLC is an important first step towards a standardized curriculum that could be applied to other VA and non-VA subacute rehab settings. PMID:26672391

  11. Management of opioid use disorders among veterans in subacute rehab: Use of an interdisciplinary task force to address an emerging concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Kate L M; Sharma, Samata; Thurston, Joe; Sivashanker, Karthik; Chang, Grace H

    2016-01-01

    There is both rapidly growing need, and limited evidence-based guidelines, for the management of opioid use disorders in subacute rehab and other nonaddiction medical settings. Following 2 unintentional opioid overdoses within the Community Living Center (CLC), a VA (Veterans Administration) subacute rehab setting, an interdisciplinary CLC Addictions Task Force was created to address a critical issue: how to best meet the combined neuropsychiatric and medical needs of the opiate use disorder patient through a multifaceted treatment approach. The goals of the task force were to develop and institute educational initiatives for providers; create patient care guidelines; increase safety on the unit; improve provider confidence when caring for this high-risk population; and mitigate the risk of unintentional overdose. The task force divided into 4 working groups to meet these aims. Process and outcomes are discussed. We found that in-services by addiction specialists improved clinician comfort in caring for this high-risk patient group. Specific areas that yielded the greatest clinician satisfaction ratings included didactics on how to identify at-risk patients and techniques on how to manage the patient in a general rehab setting. Utilizing an interdisciplinary approach, and an iterative process, at all stages was critical to the success of the CLC Addictions Task Force, as it improved buy-in and motivation from all disciplines. Improvements have been made to enhance patient safety, improve communication amongst providers, and provide a foundation to improve patient outcomes. Our preliminary work to enhance the identification and management of opioid use disorders at our CLC is an important first step towards a standardized curriculum that could be applied to other VA and non-VA subacute rehab settings.

  12. Zoonoses and marginalised infectious diseases of poverty: where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, David; Hallaj, Zuhair; Keusch, Gerald T; McManus, Donald P; Ngowi, Helena; Cleaveland, Sarah; Ramos-Jimenez, Pilar; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Kar, Kamal; Sanchez, Ana; Garba, Amadou; Carabin, Helene; Bassili, Amal; Chaignat, Claire L; Meslin, Francois-Xavier; Abushama, Hind M; Willingham, Arve L; Kioy, Deborah

    2011-06-14

    Despite growing awareness of the importance of controlling neglected tropical diseases as a contribution to poverty alleviation and achieving the Millennium Development Goals, there is a need to up-scale programmes to achieve wider public health benefits. This implementation deficit is attributable to several factors but one often overlooked is the specific difficulty in tackling diseases that involve both people and animals - the zoonoses. A Disease Reference Group on Zoonoses and Marginalised Infectious Diseases (DRG6) was convened by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), a programme executed by the World Health Organization and co-sponsored by UNICEF, UNDP, the World Bank and WHO. The key considerations included: (a) the general lack of reliable quantitative data on their public health burden; (b) the need to evaluate livestock production losses and their additional impacts on health and poverty; (c) the relevance of cross-sectoral issues essential to designing and implementing public health interventions for zoonotic diseases; and (d) identifying priority areas for research and interventions to harness resources most effectively. Beyond disease specific research issues, a set of common macro-priorities and interventions were identified which, if implemented through a more integrated approach by countries, would have a significant impact on human health of the most marginalised populations characteristically dependent on livestock.

  13. Zoonoses and marginalised infectious diseases of poverty: Where do we stand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaignat Claire L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite growing awareness of the importance of controlling neglected tropical diseases as a contribution to poverty alleviation and achieving the Millennium Development Goals, there is a need to up-scale programmes to achieve wider public health benefits. This implementation deficit is attributable to several factors but one often overlooked is the specific difficulty in tackling diseases that involve both people and animals - the zoonoses. A Disease Reference Group on Zoonoses and Marginalised Infectious Diseases (DRG6 was convened by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR, a programme executed by the World Health Organization and co-sponsored by UNICEF, UNDP, the World Bank and WHO. The key considerations included: (a the general lack of reliable quantitative data on their public health burden; (b the need to evaluate livestock production losses and their additional impacts on health and poverty; (c the relevance of cross-sectoral issues essential to designing and implementing public health interventions for zoonotic diseases; and (d identifying priority areas for research and interventions to harness resources most effectively. Beyond disease specific research issues, a set of common macro-priorities and interventions were identified which, if implemented through a more integrated approach by countries, would have a significant impact on human health of the most marginalised populations characteristically dependent on livestock.

  14. The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekonnen Sissay M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the present situation and problems towards the control of cestode zoonoses. As the meeting was simultaneously for the establishment of joint international, either bilateral or multilateral collaboration projects, the main purposes were directed to 1 how to detect taeniasis/cysticercosis infected patients, 2 how to differentiate Taenia solium from two other human Taenia species, T. saginata and T. asiatica, 3 how to evaluate T. asiatica based on the evidence of hybrid and hybrid-derived adult tapeworms from Thailand and China, 4 how to evaluate T. solium and T. hyaenae and other Taenia species from the wild animals in Ethiopia, and 5 how to detect echinococcosis patients and 6 how to differentiate Echinococcus species worldwide. Such important topics are summarized in this meeting report.

  15. Economic Assessment of Zoonoses Surveillance in a 'One Health' Context: A Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2016-08-01

    Collaboration between animal and public health sectors has been highlighted as a means to improve the management of zoonotic threats. This includes surveillance systems for zoonoses, where enhanced cross-sectoral integration and sharing of information are seen as key to improved public health outcomes. Yet, there is a lack of evidence on the economic returns of such collaboration, particularly in the development and implementation of surveillance programmes. The economic assessment of surveillance in this context needs to be underpinned by the understanding of the links between zoonotic disease surveillance in animal populations and the wider public health disease mitigation process and how these relations impact on the costs and benefits of the surveillance activities. This study presents a conceptual framework of these links as a basis for the economic assessment of cross-sectoral zoonoses surveillance with the aim of supporting the prioritization of resource allocation to surveillance. In the proposed framework, monetary, non-monetary and intermediate or intangible cost components and benefit streams of three conceptually distinct stages of zoonotic disease mitigation are identified. In each stage, as the final disease mitigation objective varies so does the use of surveillance information generated in the animal populations for public health decision-making. Consequently, the associated cost components and benefit streams also change. Building on the proposed framework and taking into account these links, practical steps for its application are presented and future challenges are discussed.

  16. Integrated health messaging for multiple neglected zoonoses: Approaches, challenges and opportunities in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, M J; Yahyaoui Azami, H; El Berbri, I; Bouslikhane, M; Fassi Fihri, O; Boué, F; Petavy, A F; Dakkak, A; Welburn, S; Bardosh, K L

    2015-12-01

    Integrating the control of multiple neglected zoonoses at the community-level holds great potential, but critical data is missing to inform the design and implementation of different interventions. In this paper we present an evaluation of an integrated health messaging intervention, using powerpoint presentations, for five bacterial (brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis) and dog-associated (rabies, cystic echinococcosis and leishmaniasis) zoonotic diseases in Sidi Kacem Province, northwest Morocco. Conducted by veterinary and epidemiology students between 2013 and 2014, this followed a process-based approach that encouraged sequential adaptation of images, key messages, and delivery strategies using auto-evaluation and end-user feedback. We describe the challenges and opportunities of this approach, reflecting on who was targeted, how education was conducted, and what tools and approaches were used. Our results showed that: (1) replacing words with local pictures and using "hands-on" activities improved receptivity; (2) information "overload" easily occurred when disease transmission pathways did not overlap; (3) access and receptivity at schools was greater than at the community-level; and (4) piggy-backing on high-priority diseases like rabies offered an important avenue to increase knowledge of other zoonoses. We conclude by discussing the merits of incorporating our validated education approach into the school curriculum in order to influence long-term behaviour change.

  17. The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Okamoto, Munehiro; Li, Tiaoying; Wandra, Toni; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Swastika, Kadek I; Dekumyoy, Paron; Kusolsuk, Teera; Davvajav, Abmed; Davaasuren, Anu; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; Mekonnen, Sissay M; Negasi, Zerihun H; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Lavikainen, Antti J; Nkouawa, Agathe; Mohammadzadeh, Tahereh

    2011-06-21

    The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT) for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the present situation and problems towards the control of cestode zoonoses. As the meeting was simultaneously for the establishment of joint international, either bilateral or multilateral collaboration projects, the main purposes were directed to 1) how to detect taeniasis/cysticercosis infected patients, 2) how to differentiate Taenia solium from two other human Taenia species, T. saginata and T. asiatica, 3) how to evaluate T. asiatica based on the evidence of hybrid and hybrid-derived adult tapeworms from Thailand and China, 4) how to evaluate T. solium and T. hyaenae and other Taenia species from the wild animals in Ethiopia, and 5) how to detect echinococcosis patients and 6) how to differentiate Echinococcus species worldwide. Such important topics are summarized in this meeting report.

  18. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal and Blood Parasites of Rodents in Tabriz, Iran, with Emphasis on Parasitic Zoonoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garedaghi Yagoob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rodents as reservoirs of many common human diseases (zoonoses are the cause of health and economic problems in society. Because of the prevalence of parasitic infections of mice in different parts of Iran, this study was performed to investigate the gastrointestinal and blood parasitic zoonoses of rodents in Tabriz, Iran, between 2011 and 2012. Materials and Methods: A total of 57 rodents including 36 Rattus norvegicus, 11 Rattus rattus, 8 Mus musculus, and 2 unknown species of rodents were captured alive from different parts of Tabriz city and studied. The rodents were examined for helminth and blood infection. Results: Helminth and blood infection were only observed in Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus species and other species were not contaminated. There was no blood parasite in rodents. Different gastrointestinal worm species identified in Rattus norvegicus consisted of Trichosomoides crassicauda (51.2%, Hymenolepis diminuta (22.3%, Gongylonema pulchrum (12.1%, Hymenolepis Nana (4.31% and Trichocephal Spp. (2.18%. Different gastrointestinal worm species identified in Rattus rattus consisted of Gongylonema pulchrum (21.17%, and Trichosomoides crassicauda (28.24%. Conclusion: Due to the presence of zoonotic parasitic agents in the studied rodents that easily enter human dwellings, controlling these animals and improvement of the sewerage system of the study area are of particular importance.

  19. Seroprevalence survey of zoonoses in Extremadura, southwestern Spain, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asencio, Maria Angeles; Herraez, Oscar; Tenias, Jose Maria; Garduño, Eugenio; Huertas, Maria; Carranza, Rafael; Ramos, Julian Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Our aims were to determine the seroprevalence rates for the most common types of zoonosis among the population of Extremadura (southwestern Spain) and to identify the associated risk factors. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey to collect information on family background and the habits of people residing in Extremadura between 2002 and 2003. Antibodies to Brucella were determined by Rose Bengal staining and a standard tube agglutination test; a titer of 1/80 was considered to be positive. Antibody titers for spotted fever, leishmaniasis, echinococcosis, and toxoplasmosis were determined by enzyme-immunoassays. Independent risk factors identified were age (younger age for brucellosis), male gender (brucellosis, spotted fever, and toxoplasmosis), occupation and contact with animals (brucellosis and spotted fever for those in contact with goats, hydatidosis for those in contact with sheep, leishmaniasis for those in contact with dogs, and toxoplasmosis for those in contact with cats and pigs), and consuming contaminated food (brucellosis by eating fresh cheese, hydatidosis by eating homemade sausages, and toxoplasmosis by eating pork). Except for leishmaniasis, the other zoonoses were more prevalent in rural areas, and, with the exception of brucellosis, they were all more prevalent in Badajoz. The distribution of zoonoses in Extremadura was strongly influenced by keeping livestock and eating habits. Thus, brucellosis was more prevalent in Caceres (associated with cheese consumption), while toxoplasmosis (pork consumption) and spotted fever (from hunting) were more common in Badajoz.

  20. A survey of pet ownership, awareness and public knowledge of pet zoonoses with particular reference to roundworms and hookworms in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfukenyi, Davies Mubika; Chipunga, S L; Dinginya, L; Matenga, E

    2010-02-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was carried out in Harare to assess pet ownership and public awareness with regard to pet zoonoses. The questionnaire was designed to obtain information on pet ownership, health and welfare of pets, pet owners' knowledge and awareness of pet zoonoses with particular emphasis on hookworms and roundworms. The results demonstrated that the proportion of pet owners who knew helminths as zoonoses in dogs (21.3%) and cats (1.1%) was low compared to rabies (95.7%) with ancylostomosis (4.3%) and toxocariosis (2.1%) being the specific parasitic zoonoses known to occur in dogs and toxoplasmosis (2.1%) in cats. More than 50% of the pet owners indicated that veterinarians never discussed the potential hazards of zoonoses or discussed it only when asked and 33% indicated that veterinarians initiated discussion of the subject whenever zoonoses were diagnosed in pets. Over 90% of the pet owners indicated that veterinarians should discuss zoonoses with them. Further investigations are necessary to determine the current prevalence of intestinal nematode infections in dogs and cats in the various regions of the country.

  1. Bacterial zoonoses of fishes: a review and appraisal of evidence for linkages between fish and human infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, David T

    2015-01-01

    Human contact with and consumption of fishes presents hazards from a range of bacterial zoonotic infections. Whereas many bacterial pathogens have been presented as fish-borne zoonoses on the basis of epidemiological and phenotypic evidence, genetic identity between fish and human isolates is not frequently examined or does not provide support for transmission between these hosts. In order to accurately assess the zoonotic risk from exposure to fishes in the context of aquaculture, wild fisheries and ornamental aquaria, it is important to critically examine evidence of linkages between bacteria infecting fishes and humans. This article reviews bacteria typically presented as fish-borne zoonoses, and examines the current strength of evidence for this classification. Of bacteria generally described as fish-borne zoonoses, only Mycobacterium spp., Streptococcus iniae, Clostridium botulinum, and Vibrio vulnificus appear to be well-supported as zoonoses in the strict sense. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, while transmissible from fishes to humans, does not cause disease in fishes and is therefore excluded from the list. Some epidemiological and/or molecular linkages have been made between other bacteria infecting both fishes and humans, but more work is needed to elucidate routes of transmission and the identity of these pathogens in their respective hosts at the genomic level.

  2. Multi-criteria decision analysis as an innovative approach to managing zoonoses: results from a study on Lyme disease in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aenishaenslin, Cécile; Hongoh, Valérie; Cissé, Hassane Djibrilla; Hoen, Anne Gatewood; Samoura, Karim; Michel, Pascal; Waaub, Jean-Philippe; Bélanger, Denise

    2013-09-30

    Zoonoses are a growing international threat interacting at the human-animal-environment interface and call for transdisciplinary and multi-sectoral approaches in order to achieve effective disease management. The recent emergence of Lyme disease in Quebec, Canada is a good example of a complex health issue for which the public health sector must find protective interventions. Traditional preventive and control interventions can have important environmental, social and economic impacts and as a result, decision-making requires a systems approach capable of integrating these multiple aspects of interventions. This paper presents the results from a study of a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach for the management of Lyme disease in Quebec, Canada. MCDA methods allow a comparison of interventions or alternatives based on multiple criteria. MCDA models were developed to assess various prevention and control decision criteria pertinent to a comprehensive management of Lyme disease: a first model was developed for surveillance interventions and a second was developed for control interventions. Multi-criteria analyses were conducted under two epidemiological scenarios: a disease emergence scenario and an epidemic scenario. In general, we observed a good level of agreement between stakeholders. For the surveillance model, the three preferred interventions were: active surveillance of vectors by flagging or dragging, active surveillance of vectors by trapping of small rodents and passive surveillance of vectors of human origin. For the control interventions model, basic preventive communications, human vaccination and small scale landscaping were the three preferred interventions. Scenarios were found to only have a small effect on the group ranking of interventions in the control model. MCDA was used to structure key decision criteria and capture the complexity of Lyme disease management. This facilitated the identification of gaps in the scientific literature

  3. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  4. Food Safety: At the Center of a One Health Approach for Combating Zoonoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielinga, Pieter; Schlundt, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Food Safety is at the center of One Health. Many, if not most, of all important zoonoses relate in some way to animals in the food production chain. Therefore, the food becomes an important vehicle for many, but not all, of these zoonotic pathogens. One of the major issues in food safety over...... the latest decennia has been the lack of cross-sectoral collaboration across the food production chain. Major food safety events have been significantly affected by the lack of collaboration between the animal health, the food control, and the human health sector. Examples range from BSE and E. coli...... outbreaks over dioxin crises to intentional melamine contamination. One Health formulates clearly both the need for and the benefit of cross-sectoral collaboration. In this chapter, we will focus on the human health risk related to zoonotic microorganisms present both in food animals and food from...

  5. Bacterial infections from aquatic species: potential for and prevention of contact zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenen, O L M; Evans, J J; Berthe, F

    2013-08-01

    As aquaculture production and the consumption of aquaculture products increase, the possibility of contracting zoonotic infections from either handling or ingesting these products also increases. The principal pathogens acquired topically from fish or shellfish through spine/pincer puncture or open wounds are Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Mycobacterium marinum, Streptococcus iniae, Vibrio vulnificus and V. damsela. These pathogens, which are all indigenous to the aquatic environment, have also been associated with disease outbreaks in food fish. Outbreaks are often related to management factors, such as the quality and quantity of nutrients in the water and high stocking density, which can increase bacterial loads on the external surface of the fish. As a result, diseased fish are more likely to transmit infection to humans. This review provides an account of human cases of zoonoses throughout the world from the principal zoonotic pathogens of fish and shellfish.

  6. Stakeholder prioritization of zoonoses in Japan with analytic hierarchy process method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadohira, M; Hill, G; Yoshizaki, R; Ota, S; Yoshikawa, Y

    2015-05-01

    There exists an urgent need to develop iterative risk assessment strategies of zoonotic diseases. The aim of this study is to develop a method of prioritizing 98 zoonoses derived from animal pathogens in Japan and to involve four major groups of stakeholders: researchers, physicians, public health officials, and citizens. We used a combination of risk profiling and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Profiling risk was accomplished with semi-quantitative analysis of existing public health data. AHP data collection was performed by administering questionnaires to the four stakeholder groups. Results showed that researchers and public health officials focused on case fatality as the chief important factor, while physicians and citizens placed more weight on diagnosis and prevention, respectively. Most of the six top-ranked diseases were similar among all stakeholders. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, severe acute respiratory syndrome, and Ebola fever were ranked first, second, and third, respectively.

  7. Lassa fever or lassa hemorrhagic fever risk to humans from rodent-borne zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Megahed, Laila Abdel-Mawla; Abdalla Saleh, Hala Ahmed; Morsy, Tosson A

    2015-04-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) typically manifest as rapidly progressing acute febrile syndromes with profound hemorrhagic manifestations and very high fatality rates. Lassa fever, an acute hemorrhagic fever characterized by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and chest and abdominal pain. Rodents are important reservoirs of rodent-borne zoonosis worldwide. Transmission rodents to humans occur by aerosol spread, either from the genus Mastomys rodents' excreta (multimammate rat) or through the close contact with infected patients (nosocomial infection). Other rodents of the genera Rattus, Mus, Lemniscomys, and Praomys are incriminated rodents hosts. Now one may ask do the rodents' ectoparasites play a role in Lassa virus zoonotic transmission. This paper summarized the update knowledge on LHV; hopping it might be useful to the clinicians, nursing staff, laboratories' personals as well as those concerned zoonoses from rodents and rodent control.

  8. Zoonoses from pets horses, donkeys and mules: with special references to Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Ayman T A; Saleh, Mostafa S M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2014-04-01

    A zoonosis is an animal disease that is transmissible to humans. Humans are usually an accidental host that acquires disease through close contact with an infected animal, who may or may not be symptomatic. Children are at highest risk for infection because they are more likely to have close contact with pets. Pets are responsible for transmission of an extensive array of bacterial, fungal, and parasitic zoonotic pathogens. The route of transmission can be through the saliva (e.g., bites or contaminated scratches), feces, respiratory secretions, direct contact, or by the animal acting as a vehicle and source of tick or flea exposure. Although pets have been implicated in transmission of zoonoses to their owners, risk of transmission from contact with pets is low and may be further reduced by simple precautions.

  9. Population viscosity suppresses disease emergence by preserving local herd immunity

    OpenAIRE

    RELUGA, TIMOTHY C.; Shim, Eunha

    2014-01-01

    Animal reservoirs for infectious diseases pose ongoing risks to human populations. In this theory of zoonoses, the introduction event that starts an epidemic is assumed to be independent of all preceding events. However, introductions are often concentrated in communities that bridge the ecological interfaces between reservoirs and the general population. In this paper, we explore how the risks of disease emergence are altered by the aggregation of introduction events within bridge communitie...

  10. Emerging and reemerging neglected tropical diseases: a review of key characteristics, risk factors, and the policy and innovation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A; Cuomo, Raphael; Hafen, Ryan; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Lee, Daniel E

    2014-10-01

    In global health, critical challenges have arisen from infectious diseases, including the emergence and reemergence of old and new infectious diseases. Emergence and reemergence are accelerated by rapid human development, including numerous changes in demographics, populations, and the environment. This has also led to zoonoses in the changing human-animal ecosystem, which are impacted by a growing globalized society where pathogens do not recognize geopolitical borders. Within this context, neglected tropical infectious diseases have historically lacked adequate attention in international public health efforts, leading to insufficient prevention and treatment options. This subset of 17 infectious tropical diseases disproportionately impacts the world's poorest, represents a significant and underappreciated global disease burden, and is a major barrier to development efforts to alleviate poverty and improve human health. Neglected tropical diseases that are also categorized as emerging or reemerging infectious diseases are an even more serious threat and have not been adequately examined or discussed in terms of their unique risk characteristics. This review sets out to identify emerging and reemerging neglected tropical diseases and explore the policy and innovation environment that could hamper or enable control efforts. Through this examination, we hope to raise awareness and guide potential approaches to addressing this global health concern. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Food-borne zoonoses, the EU zoonosis legislation and the prospects for food safety and consumer protection during primary animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulders, Frans J M; Vågsholm, Ivar; Korkeala, Hannu

    2008-01-01

    Zoonoses are diseases that are transmitted naturally between animals and humans. The control of food-borne zoonoses within the European Union is a prerequisite for assuring a functional internal market and consequently represents an important item on the political agenda. Unfortunately, until recently, gaining a clear view of the current incidence of food-borne zoonoses and the prevalence of its causative agents has been frustrated by the absence of reliable monitoring and reporting systems. Similarly, it has become clear that, Europe wide, one has witnessed only limited success with regard to the control of important food-borne agents such as Salmonella spp. The European Union has adopted legislation to remedy this situation and to control food-borne zoonoses in primary production. This contribution discusses the incentives for introducing EU Directive 2003/99/EC and EU Regulation No. 2160/2003, summarises their essentials and discusses major ramifications of both pieces of legislation for the prevention of food-borne zoonoses. It is concluded that there is reason for cautious optimism concerning human salmonellosis, while for other food-borne zoonoses there should be a call for action.

  12. Management of the slowly emerging zoonosis, Hendra virus, by private veterinarians in Queensland, Australia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Diana H; Kelly, Jenny; Buttner, Petra; Nowak, Madeleine; Speare, Rick

    2014-09-17

    Veterinary infection control for the management of Hendra virus (HeV), an emerging zoonosis in Australia, remained suboptimal until 2010 despite 71.4% (5/7) of humans infected with HeV being veterinary personnel or assisting a veterinarian, three of whom died before 2009. The aim of this study was to identify the perceived barriers to veterinary infection control and HeV management in private veterinary practice in Queensland, where the majority of HeV outbreaks have occurred in Australia. Most participants agreed that a number of key factors had contributed to the slow uptake of adequate infection control measures for the management of HeV amongst private veterinarians: a work culture characterised by suboptimal infection control standards and misconceptions about zoonotic risks; a lack of leadership and support from government authorities; the difficulties of managing biosecurity and public health issues from a private workforce perspective; and the slow pattern of emergence of HeV. By 2010, some infection control and HeV management changes had been implemented. Participants interviewed agreed that further improvements remained necessary; but also cautioned that this was a complex process which would require time. Private veterinarians and government authorities prior to 2009 were unprepared to handle new slowly emerging zoonoses, which may explain their mismanagement of HeV. Slowly emerging zoonoses may be of low public health significance but of high significance for specialised groups such as veterinarians. Private veterinarians, who are expected to fulfil an active biosecurity and public health role in the frontline management of such emerging zoonoses, need government agencies to better recognise their contribution, to consult with the veterinary profession when devising guidelines for the management of zoonoses and to provide them with greater leadership and support. We propose that specific infection control guidelines for the management of slowly emerging

  13. Awareness and attitude toward zoonoses with particular reference to anthrax among cattle owners in selected rural communities of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikerema, S M; Matope, G; Pfukenyi, D M

    2013-04-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess cattle owners' awareness, perceptions, and attitudes toward zoonoses, with particular emphasis regarding anthrax. Data on awareness of zoonoses, clinical signs of anthrax in animals and human, its routes of transmission and methods of prevention, the families' consumption habits of anthrax-infected carcasses, and other family activities that increase exposure to anthrax were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 41.4% (135/326) of the farmers were from high-anthrax-risk districts, whereas 28.5% and 30.1% were from medium- and low-risk districts, respectively. Overall, the level of awareness amongst the farmers for the named zoonoses were rabies (88.7%), anthrax (71.5%), and brucellosis (20.9%). Except for anthrax, awareness of other zoonoses did not differ significantly (p>0.05) among the district categories. Farmers from anthrax high-risk districts were significantly more aware of anthrax compared to those from moderate- (p=0.000) and low- (p=0.000) risk districts. All of the farmers were aware that anthrax occurs in cattle, and 73% indicated the presence of unclotting blood oozing from natural orifices as a consistent finding in cattle that died of anthrax, whereas 86.7% of them indicated the presence of skin lesions as the most common sign of the disease in humans. The good efficacy of human anthrax treatment (58.3%), slaughter of moribund cattle and selling of meat from cattle found dead to unsuspecting consumers (59.8%), reluctance to lose animals (47.9%), and forgetting about anthrax (41.1%) were cited as the major reasons for consuming anthrax-infected carcasses. Given that 75.2% of cattle owners indicated that they would not consume meat from cattle found dead, because they were discouraged by veterinary authorities, introducing meat inspection services is likely to have a positive impact in preventing human anthrax outbreaks in Zimbabwe.

  14. Prevalence of Endemic Pig-Associated Zoonoses in Southeast Asia: A Review of Findings from the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna L; Burniston, Stephanie; Conlan, James V; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Welburn, Susan C; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Allen, John; Blacksell, Stuart D

    2015-05-01

    The increasing intensification of pork production in southeast Asia necessitates an urgent requirement to better understand the dual impact of pig-associated zoonotic disease on both pig production and human health in the region. Sharing porous borders with five countries and representing many regional ethnicities and agricultural practices, the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) appears well placed to gauge the levels of pig-associated zoonoses circulating in the wider region. Despite this, little is known about the true impact of zoonotic pathogens such as leptospirosis, Trichinella, hepatitis E virus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis (JE), and Taenia solium on human health and livestock production in the country. A comprehensive review of the published prevalences of these five pig-associated zoonoses in Lao PDR has demonstrated that although suspicion remains high of their existence in pig reservoirs across the country, epidemiological data are scarce; only 31 epidemiological studies have been undertaken on these diseases in the past 25 years. A greater understanding of the zoonoses prevalence and subsequent risks associated with pork production in the southeast Asian region could help focus public health and food safety interventions at key points along the value chain, benefiting both livestock producers and the broader animal and human health systems in the region.

  15. Brucellosis and Tuberculosis in Arsi-Negele District Ethiopia: Prevalence in Ruminants and People's Behaviour towards Zoonoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amenu, K.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out in Arsi-Negele District of Southern Ethiopia to estimate the prevalence of brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis in livestock and to identify risk behaviours that would facilitate the transmission of zoonoses to humans. The study involved testing some 400 cattle, 200 sheep and 170 goats for tuberculosis and brucellosis and interviewing 98 livestock keepers. Single comparative intradermal tuberculin test and Rose Bengal plate test were used for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and brucellosis, respectively. Tuberculosis was recorded in 27 cattle, 1 goat and 1 sheep. In cattle, the estimated individuallevel and herd-level tuberculosis prevalence was 5.9% and 35%, respectively. The individual-level and herdlevel brucellosis prevalence in cattle was 2.6% and 12%, respectively. The questionnaire survey showed that most respondents had no accurate knowledge about the transmission of zoonoses. It was also found that some of their behaviours would potentially facilitate the transmission of zoonotic pathogens to human, such as raw animal product consumption and backyard slaughtering. Even though the prevalence of the two diseases was relatively low, surveillance and prevention may be warranted taking into account possible animal genetic improvement programs, unrestricted animal movement in the area and low awareness of the community about zoonoses, which might result in an increased transmission to humans.

  16. Knowledge and attitude towards zoonoses among animal health workers and livestock keepers in Arusha and Tanga, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swai, Emanuel S; Schoonman, Luuk; Daborn, Chris J

    2010-10-01

    Zoonoses are infections naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and humans. An exploratory questionnaire-based survey of animal health workers(n=36) and livestock keepers(n=43) was carried out from April 2001 to March 2002 in Tanga and Arusha regions, northern Tanzania, to assess local knowledge, attitudes and public awareness for animal zoonoses. A combination of closed and open-ended questions, focus group discussions and ranking techniques were employed to gather information on perceptions concerning the type of zoonotic diseases prevalent in the study area, level of risk, mode of transmission and methods of preventing disease transmission from animals to humans. The results demonstrated that rabies, tuberculosis and anthrax were considered the three most common zoonotic diseases. Sharing living accommodation with animals, consumption of un-treated livestock products (i.e. milk, meat or eggs) and attending to parturition were perceived as routes of transmission. Knowledge about zoonosis was higher in smallholder dairy (92%; 33/36) than traditional livestock keepers (Pzoonosis was significantly higher in traditional livestock (86%; 6/7) than smallholder dairy keepers (Pzoonosis by farm location revealed that rural farms (85%; 7/8) were considered significantly at a higher risk when compared to peri or urban located farms (P<0.05). Most of the respondents stated cooking of meat or boiling of milk as a way to prevent transmission. However, there was a significant difference in the perception of the risk posed by contact with potentially infected animals /or animal products with animal health workers having a much higher level of perception compared to livestock keepers. These results suggest that in the Tanga and Arusha, Tanzania, patchy awareness and knowledge of zoonoses, combined with food consumption habits and poor animal husbandry are likely to expose respondents to an increased risk of contracting zoonoses. Public health promotion on education and

  17. Study on ticks and tick-borne zoonoses in public parks in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrain, R; Drigo, M; Fenati, M; Menandro, M L; Mondin, A; Pasotto, D; Martini, M

    2012-11-01

    A survey on tick density and on tick-borne zoonoses was carried out in four public parks in the outskirts of Imola (northern Italy) from June to October 2006. All stages of Ixodes ricinus and only larvae of Riphicephalus sanguineus were recovered by dragging, performed on 100-m transects. Almost all ticks (99%) were harvested in one park. I. ricinus density (nymphs/100 m(2) ) ranged from 0 in park L to 6.3 in park F. Nymphs and adults of I. ricinus were subjected to PCR for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. and Rickettsia spp. The observed prevalences were 38.3% for Bartonella henselae, 5.2% for Bartonella clarridgeiae, 10.4% for B. burgdorferi s. l., 2.6% for Rickettsia helvetica and 13% for Rickettsia monacensis, respectively. No DNA of A. phagocytophilum was found. Acarological risks (AR) were calculated as probabilities of collecting at least one infected nymph per transect. The AR values calculated for the various zoonotic agents were 11.4% for R. helvetica, 27.7% for B. clarridgeiae, 49.7% for B. burgdorferi s. l., 57.2% for R. monacensis and 90.4% for B. henselae, respectively. In this study, B. clarridgeiae was for the first time identified in I. ricinus ticks.

  18. The potential role of migratory birds in the transmission of zoonoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilios Tsiouris

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The instinct for survival leads migratory birds to exploit seasonal opportunities for breeding habitats and food supplies. Consequently, they travel across national and international borders. These birds are distinguished in local migrants, short-distance, long-distance and vagrant and nomadic migrants. They can transfer micro-organisms across the globe and play a significant role in the ecology and circulation of pathogenic organisms. They are implicated in the transmission of zoonoses as biological and mechanical carriers and as hosts and carriers of infected ectoparasites. They can cause water-borne, tick-borne and insect-borne diseases. Favourable agents, such as seasonality and stress due to migration, influence the transmission of pathogens. The migration of birds is a natural phenomenon that is followed by the unavoidable repercussions of the participation of these birds as carriers or hosts in the transmission of pathogens. It is not possible to interrupt this sequence but risks can be minimised by controlling and preventing perilous situations. Surveillance of wetlands, ‘stopovers’, places of destination and wintering regions can be done. Furthermore, the implementation strict biosecurity measures that reduce contact with migratory birds will limit the transmission of pathogens.

  19. Targeting cattle-borne zoonoses and cattle pathogens using a novel trypanosomatid-based delivery system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Adam Mott

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomatid parasites are notorious for the human diseases they cause throughout Africa and South America. However, non-pathogenic trypanosomatids are also found worldwide, infecting a wide range of hosts. One example is Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum theileri, a ubiquitous protozoan commensal of bovids, which is distributed globally. Exploiting knowledge of pathogenic trypanosomatids, we have developed Trypanosoma theileri as a novel vehicle to deliver vaccine antigens and other proteins to cattle. Conditions for the growth and transfection of T. theileri have been optimised and expressed heterologous proteins targeted for secretion or specific localisation at the cell interior or surface using trafficking signals from Trypanosoma brucei. In cattle, the engineered vehicle could establish in the context of a pre-existing natural T. theileri population, was maintained long-term and generated specific immune responses to an expressed Babesia antigen at protective levels. Building on several decades of basic research into trypanosomatid pathogens, Trypanosoma theileri offers significant potential to target multiple infections, including major cattle-borne zoonoses such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Brucella abortus and Mycobacterium spp. It also has the potential to deliver therapeutics to cattle, including the lytic factor that protects humans from cattle trypanosomiasis. This could alleviate poverty by protecting indigenous African cattle from African trypanosomiasis.

  20. Owner-collected swabs of pets: a method fit for the purpose of zoonoses research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möbius, N; Hille, K; Verspohl, J; Wefstaedt, P; Kreienbrock, L

    2013-09-01

    As part of the preparation of a large cohort study in the entire German population, this study examined the feasibility of cat and dog owners collecting nasal and oral swabs of their animals at home as a method of assessing exposure to zoonoses. In veterinary clinics in Hannover, Germany, 100 pet owners were recruited. Nasal and oral swabs of pets were taken by a veterinarian at the clinic and owners took swabs at home. Swabs were analysed regarding bacterial growth and compared (owner vs. vet) using Cohen's kappa and McNemar's test. The return rate of kits was 92%, and 77% of owners thought it unnecessary to have veterinarian assistance to swab the mouth. McNemar's test results: oral swabs 78% agreement with Gram-positive bacterial growth, 87% agreement with Gram-negative bacterial growth; with similar results for nasal swabs. Although sample quality differed, this method allowed the receipt of swabs from pets in order to obtain information about colonization with zoonotic pathogens.

  1. The potential role of migratory birds in the transmission of zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulou, Ioanna; Tsiouris, Vasilios

    2008-01-01

    The instinct for survival leads migratory birds to exploit seasonal opportunities for breeding habitats and food supplies. Consequently, they travel across national and international borders. These birds are distinguished in local migrants, short-distance, long-distance and vagrant and nomadic migrants. They can transfer micro-organisms across the globe and play a significant role in the ecology and circulation of pathogenic organisms. They are implicated in the transmission of zoonoses as biological and mechanical carriers and as hosts and carriers of infected ectoparasites. They can cause water-borne, tick-borne and insect-borne diseases. Favourable agents, such as seasonality and stress due to migration, influence the transmission of pathogens. The migration of birds is a natural phenomenon that is followed by the unavoidable repercussions of the participation of these birds as carriers or hosts in the transmission of pathogens. It is not possible to interrupt this sequence but risks can be minimised by controlling and preventing perilous situations. Surveillance of wetlands, 'stopovers', places of destination and wintering regions can be done. Furthermore, the implementation strict biosecurity measures that reduce contact with migratory birds will limit the transmission of pathogens.

  2. Economics of zoonoses surveillance in a 'One Health' context: an assessment of Campylobacter surveillance in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2017-04-01

    Cross-sectorial surveillance and general collaboration between the animal and the public health sectors are increasingly recognized as needed to better manage the impacts of zoonoses. From 2009, the Swiss established a Campylobacter mitigation system that includes human and poultry surveillance data-sharing within a multi-sectorial platform, in a 'One Health' approach. The objective of this study was to explore the economics of this cross-sectorial approach, including surveillance and triggered interventions. Costs and benefits of the One Health and of the uni-sectorial approach to Campylobacter surveillance were identified using an economic assessment framework developed earlier. Cost information of surveillance activities and interventions was gathered and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with the disease estimated for 2008 and 2013. In the first 5 years of this One Health approach to Campylobacter mitigation, surveillance contributed with information mainly used to perform risk assessments, monitor trends and shape research efforts on Campylobacter. There was an increase in costs associated with the mitigation activities following integration, due mainly to the allocation of additional resources to research and implementation of poultry surveillance. The overall burden of campylobacteriosis increased by 3·4-8·8% to 1751-2852 DALYs in 2013. In the timing of the analysis, added value associated with this cross-sectorial approach to surveillance of Campylobacter in the country was likely generated through non-measurable benefits such as intellectual capital and social capital.

  3. Mixed Production of Filamentous Fungal Spores for Preventing Soil-Transmitted Helminth Zoonoses: A Preliminary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Arias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Helminth zoonoses are parasitic infections shared by humans and animals, being the soil-transmitted helminths (STHs mainly caused by roundworms (ascarids and hookworms. This study was aimed to assess the individual and/or mixed production of two helminth-antagonistic fungi, one ovicide (Mucor circinelloides and other predator (Duddingtonia flagrans. Fungi were grown both in Petri plates and in a submerged culture (composed by water, NaCl, Na2HPO4 · 12 H2O, and wheat (Triticum aestivum. A Fasciola hepatica recombinant protein (FhrAPS was incorporated to the cultures to improve fungal production. All the cultured plates showed fungal growth, without difference in the development of the fungi when grown alone or mixed. High counts of Mucor spores were produced in liquid media cultures, and no significant differences were achieved regarding single or mixed cultures, or the incorporation of the FhrAPS. A significantly higher production of Duddingtonia spores after the incorporation of the FhrAPS was observed. When analyzing the parasiticide efficacy of the fungal mixture, viability of T. canis eggs reduced to 51%, and the numbers of third stage cyathostomin larvae reduced to 4%. It is concluded, the capability of a fungal mixture containing an ovicide (Mucor and a predator species (Duddingtonia for growing together in a submerged medium containing the FhrAPS offers a very interesting tool for preventing STHs.

  4. Parasitic zoonoses at the rodent-captive primate-human health interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Clayton, Samantha J; Morsy, Tosson A; Yon, Lisa K

    2009-08-01

    Parasitic diseases at the wildlife/primate/human interface are of particular importance in zoological gardens. Better understanding of the types of wildlife parasites that do persist in zoological gardens, and drives that lead to increases in prevalence or impacts, can point to new strategies for limiting the risk of human and captive primates' exposure in zoo centres. Also, it improves our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that influence the emergence of parasitic diseases. As wild animals and humans come into greater contact with each other, the risk posed by multi-host parasites for humans, captive primates, and wildlife populations increases. Despite strong public awareness of the fact that wildlife constitutes a large and often unknown reservoir of most emerging infectious diseases, animal-human interaction has not been addressed. Herein, the potential for cross-species parasite transmission between the wild rodents, captive primates and humans is considered using the current literature and medical records. Additionally, some aspects of the interface among wildlife, captive primates and humans and its impacts on human health are discussed. Finally, priorities for future research are identified, including identifying those parasites for which multi-host interaction is likely to have the greatest impact.

  5. Developing a targeted, theory-informed implementation intervention using two theoretical frameworks to address health professional and organisational factors: a case study to improve the management of mild traumatic brain injury in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavender, Emma J; Bosch, Marije; Gruen, Russell L; Green, Sally E; Michie, Susan; Brennan, Sue E; Francis, Jill J; Ponsford, Jennie L; Knott, Jonathan C; Meares, Sue; Smyth, Tracy; O'Connor, Denise A

    2015-05-25

    Despite the availability of evidence-based guidelines for the management of mild traumatic brain injury in the emergency department (ED), variations in practice exist. Interventions designed to implement recommended behaviours can reduce this variation. Using theory to inform intervention development is advocated; however, there is no consensus on how to select or apply theory. Integrative theoretical frameworks, based on syntheses of theories and theoretical constructs relevant to implementation, have the potential to assist in the intervention development process. This paper describes the process of applying two theoretical frameworks to investigate the factors influencing recommended behaviours and the choice of behaviour change techniques and modes of delivery for an implementation intervention. A stepped approach was followed: (i) identification of locally applicable and actionable evidence-based recommendations as targets for change, (ii) selection and use of two theoretical frameworks for identifying barriers to and enablers of change (Theoretical Domains Framework and Model of Diffusion of Innovations in Service Organisations) and (iii) identification and operationalisation of intervention components (behaviour change techniques and modes of delivery) to address the barriers and enhance the enablers, informed by theory, evidence and feasibility/acceptability considerations. We illustrate this process in relation to one recommendation, prospective assessment of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) by ED staff using a validated tool. Four recommendations for managing mild traumatic brain injury were targeted with the intervention. The intervention targeting the PTA recommendation consisted of 14 behaviour change techniques and addressed 6 theoretical domains and 5 organisational domains. The mode of delivery was informed by six Cochrane reviews. It was delivered via five intervention components : (i) local stakeholder meetings, (ii) identification of local opinion

  6. Difficulties experienced by veterinarians when communicating about emerging zoonotic risks with animal owners: the case of Hendra virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Diana H; Büttner, Petra; Kelly, Jenny; Nowak, Madeleine; Speare Posthumously, Rick

    2017-02-18

    . Warning horse owners about health and safety issues that may affect them when present in a veterinary work environment is a legal requirement for veterinarians. However, emerging zoonoses are unpredictable events that may require a different communication approach. Future training programs addressing veterinary communication skills should take into account the particular issues inherent to managing an emerging zoonosis and emphasise the importance of maintaining human safety. Veterinary communication skills and approaches required when dealing with emerging zoonoses should be further investigated.

  7. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  8. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  9. Zoonoses research in the German National Cohort : feasibility of parallel sampling of pets and owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hille, Katja; Möbius, Nadine; Akmatov, Manas K; Verspohl, Jutta; Rabold, Denise; Hartmann, Maria; Günther, Kathrin; Obi, Nadia; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2014-11-01

    Cats and dogs live in more than 20 % of German households and the contact between these pets and their owners can be very close. Therefore, a transmission of zoonotic pathogens may occur. To investigate whether zoonotic research questions can be examined in the context of population-based studies like the German National Cohort (GNC), two studies on different study populations were conducted as part of the feasibility tests of the GNC. The aim of the first study was to quantify the actual exposure of participants of the GNC to cats and dogs. In the second study summarised here the feasibility of the sampling of cats and dogs by their owners was tested. To quantify the exposure of participants of the GNC to cats and dogs 744 study participants of the Pretests of the GNC were asked whether they had contact with animals. Currently 10 % have a dog and 14 % have a cat in their household. These figures confirm that a large proportion of the German population has contact with pets and that there is a need for further zoonoses research. To establish the collection of biological samples from cats and dogs in the context of large-scale population-based studies feasible methods are needed. Therefore, a study was conducted to test whether pet owners can take samples from their cats and dogs and whether the quality of these samples is comparable to samples taken by a qualified veterinarian. A total of 82 dog and 18 cat owners were recruited in two veterinary practices in Hannover and the Clinic for Small Animals at the University of Veterinary Medicine in Hannover. Sampling instructions and sample material for nasal and buccal swabs, faecal samples and, in the case of cat owners, a brush for fur samples, were given to the pet owners. The pet owners were asked to take the samples from their pets at home and to send the samples by surface mail. Swab samples were cultured and bacterial growth was quantified independent of bacterial species. The growth of Gram-positive and

  10. Zoonoses in humans from small rural properties in Jataizinho, Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dib Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a serological survey for Lyme diseases, brucellosis, leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis and identify the risk variables related to these zoonoses in humans living in the rural area of Jataizinho, state of Parana, Brazil. A total of 63 rural properties were surveyed. Additionally, 207 serum samples collected from these rural area inhabitants were tested for indirect immunofluorescence (IFI and western blots (WB were performed to detect Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato; a tamponated acidified antigen test (AAT and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME were used to detect antibodies of Brucella abortus; the microscopic agglutination test (MAT was carried out to detect antibodies anti-Leptospira spp. and IFI was used to find antibodies of Toxoplasma gondii. Two of the samples (0.96% were reactive for Lyme borreliosis, three (1.4% for brucellosis, 25 (12.1% for leptospirosis and 143 (69.1% for toxoplasmosis. Although the town of Jataizinho has a human development index (IDH that was considered to be average (0.733 in the state of Parana, the low social, economic and cultural conditions of the population from small rural properties have resulted in lack of basic information on animal health and direct or indirect contact with the various species of domestic animals, wildlife and ticks have probably contributed to the prevalence levels found. These results show the need for additional regional studies in order to determine the epidemiological characteristics of these diseases as well as their respective vectors and reservoirs so that effective prophylaxis can be administered in the human population.

  11. A survey of Tennessee veterinarian and physician attitudes, knowledge, and practices regarding zoonoses prevention among animal owners with HIV infection or AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, William Allen; Petty, Gregory C; Erwin, Paul C; Souza, Marcy J

    2012-06-15

    To examine the attitudes, knowledge, and practices of Tennessee veterinarians and physicians engaged in clinical practice regarding the risk for and prevention of zoonoses in people with HIV infection or AIDS. Cross-sectional survey. Licensed Tennessee veterinarians and physicians engaged in clinical practice. A survey was mailed in January 2010 to 454 licensed veterinarians and 1,737 licensed physicians. 181 of 419 (43.20%) eligible veterinarians and 201 of 1,376 (14.61%) eligible physicians responded to the survey. A majority of both veterinarians (131/179 [73.18%]) and physicians (97/192 [50.52%]) indicated that veterinarians should always or almost always be involved in advising clients with HIV infection or AIDS. The majority of veterinarians (120/173 [69.36%]) indicated they always or almost always discussed with clients the potential risk to immune-compromised persons after diagnosing a zoonosis. A high proportion (88/94 [93.62%]) of physicians indicated they never or rarely initiated discussions about zoonoses with patients with HIV infection or AIDS. All physicians (94/94 [100%]) indicated they never or rarely contacted veterinarians for advice on zoonoses. Similarly, 174 of 180 (96.76%) veterinarians had never or rarely contacted physicians for advice on zoonoses risks. Only 25.97% of veterinarians and 33.33% of physicians were correctly able to identify zoonotic pathogens of greatest concern to people with HIV infection or AIDS. We identified several implications for veterinary medical and medical practice that may reduce zoonoses transmission risks for people with HIV infection or AIDS, including increased communication between veterinarians and physicians, increased communication between people with HIV infection or AIDS and health-care providers, increased availability of client educational materials, and increased participation in zoonoses continuing education opportunities by health-care providers.

  12. Use of a Systems Approach and Evidence-Based One Health for Zoonoses Research%用系统方法和同一个健康理念研究种间传染病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.V.Asokan; Vanitha Asokan; Zbys Fedorowicz; Prathap Tharyan

    2011-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that 259% of the 57 million annual deaths that occur globall are caused by microbes. A study reported 1 415 species of infectious organisms are known to be pathogenic to humans. Zoonoses constitute 61% of all known infectious diseases, with humans serving as the primary reservoir for only 3% of them. Of the 175 infectious species considered to be emerging, 75% are zoonotic. Zoonotic diseases and their impact on human and animal health are not monitored, prevented, and treated in an integrated way, despite the fact that etiologies and treatments are similar across species. The efficacy and resistance of a drug in one species has a bearing on others, in the context of zoonoses. Further, an RCT involving many species is effective in a natural setting, is robust, and may require fewer human volunteers. One Health is based on a systems approach and a collaborative effort of multiple disciplines - working locally, nationally, and globally - to attain optimal health for people, animals, and the environment. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have so far been independent and discipline oriented. Pooling of results for diagnostic test accuracies and treatment effects of drugs for zoonoses across species has to be done, since the results of preclinical trials emanate from laboratory animals. The Cochrane Collaboration is the platform of choice to initiate a new group on zoonoses to carry out systematic meta-analyses of diagnostic tests and drug efficacies without bias, thus underpinning the systems approach and One Health.%世界卫生组织估计,全球每年5 700万例死亡中有25%是由微生物引起.研究报道有1 415种传染性生物可使人类致病.种间传染病占所有已知传染性疾病的61%,但人类作为初始病原者仅占3%.在175个被认为是新的传染性生物中,有75%可致人畜共染.尽管不同物种间病因和治疗方法相似,但种间传染病及其对人类和动物健康的影

  13. Humans, dogs and parasitic zoonoses--unravelling the relationships in a remote endemic community in northeast India using molecular tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, R J; Robertson, I D; Irwin, P; Mencke, N; Monis, P; Thompson, R C A

    2003-07-01

    Canine parasitic zoonoses pose a continuing public health problem, especially in developing countries and communities that are socioeconomically disadvantaged. Our study combined the use of conventional and molecular epidemiological tools to determine the role of dogs in transmission of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites such as hookworms, Giardiaand Ascarisin a parasite endemic tea-growing community in northeast India. A highly sensitive and specific PCR-RFLP was developed to detect and differentiate the zoonotic species of canine hookworm eggs directly from faeces. This allowed epidemiological screening of canine hookworm species in this community to be conducted with ease and accuracy. Seventy two percent of dogs were found to harbour A. caninum, 60% A. braziliense and 37% harboured mixed infections with both hookworms. No A. ceylanicum was detected in the dog population. The zoonotic potential of canine Giardiawas also investigated by characterising Giardia duodenalisrecovered from humans and dogs living in the same locality and households, at three different loci. Phylogenetic and epidemiological analysis provided compelling evidence to support the zoonotic transmission of canine Giardia. Molecular tools were also used to identify the species of Ascarisegg present in over 30% of dog faecal samples. The results demonstrated the role of dogs as a significant disseminator and environmental contaminator of Ascaris lumbricoidesin communities where promiscuous defecation practices exist. Our study demonstrated the usefulness of combining conventional and molecular parasitological and epidemiological tools to help solve unresolved relationships with regards to parasitic zoonoses.

  14. Development and delivery of evidence-based messages to reduce the risk of zoonoses in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang'ethe, Erastus; Kimani, Violet; Grace, Delia; Mitoko, Grace; McDermott, Brigid; Ambia, Julie; Nyongesa, Concepta; Mbugua, Gabriel; Ogara, William; Obutu, Peninnah

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes a trans-disciplinary process of co-generating and disseminating evidence-based messages for reducing the risk from cryptosporidiosis and other zoonoses in an urban community in Nairobi. Research findings about disease prevalence, risk factors and observed risky and risk-mitigating practices were analysed by a team comprising researchers, community members and local policy- and decision-makers. Using participatory planning, multiple strategies were developed for disseminating key information. We identified five vulnerable groups at higher risk of exposure to cryptosporidiosis and other cattle zoonoses with similar transmission pathways (women, children, elderly people, immunosuppressed people and male farm workers). For each group, targeted messages were developed. Good practices already in use, as were also practices as practices to improve environmental conditions. These messages were disseminated through printed material, in a workshop, through community campaigners and also an edutainment soap opera episode broadcast on Kenyan television. In conclusion, a participatory and trans-disciplinary process can help transform the findings of research into messages that are targeted, attractive and understandable.

  15. Subclinical infection and asymptomatic carriage of gastrointestinal zoonoses: occupational exposure, environmental pathways, and the anonymous spread of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliam, R S; Cross, P; Williams, A Prysor; Edwards-Jones, G; Salmon, R L; Rigby, D; Chalmers, R M; Thomas, D Rh; Jones, D L

    2013-10-01

    Asymptomatic carriage of gastrointestinal zoonoses is more common in people whose profession involves them working directly with domesticated animals. Subclinical infections (defined as an infection in which symptoms are either asymptomatic or sufficiently mild to escape diagnosis) are important within a community as unknowing (asymptomatic) carriers of pathogens do not change their behaviour to prevent the spread of disease; therefore the public health significance of asymptomatic human excretion of zoonoses should not be underestimated. However, optimal strategies for managing diseases where asymptomatic carriage instigates further infection remain unresolved, and the impact on disease management is unclear. In this review we consider the environmental pathways associated with prolonged antigenic exposure and critically assess the significance of asymptomatic carriage in disease outbreaks. Although screening high-risk groups for occupationally acquired diseases would be logistically problematical, there may be an economic case for identifying and treating asymptomatic carriage if the costs of screening and treatment are less than the costs of identifying and treating those individuals infected by asymptomatic hosts.

  16. Integrated data collection on zoonoses in the European Union, from animals to humans, and the analyses of the data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammon, Andrea; Makela, Pia

    2010-05-30

    The European Community (EC) has been collecting for 15 years data on zoonoses and agents thereof that integrate the information from human cases and their occurrence in food and animals. The current data collection covers 11 zoonotic agents: Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria, verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC), Yersinia spp., Brucella, Mycobacterium bovis, Trichinella and Echinoccoccus, as well as rabies and food-borne outbreaks. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is assigned the tasks of examining the data collected and publishing the Community Summary Report. This Report is prepared in close collaboration with the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) responsible for the surveillance of the communicable diseases in humans, and with EFSA's Zoonoses Collaboration Centre (ZCC, in the Technical University of Denmark). Member States report the data on animals, feed, food and food-borne outbreaks to EFSA's web-based reporting system and the data on the human cases are reported to ECDC's web-application for The European Surveillance System (TESSy). The flow and analysis of data are described as well as an outline of the future plans to improve the comparability of the data.

  17. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  18. License Address List

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Address list generated from National Saltwater Angler Registry. Used in conjunction with an address-based sample as per survey design.

  19. Seroprevalence of parasitic zoonoses and their relationship with social factors among the Canadian Inuit in Arctic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyette, Stephanie; Cao, Zhirong; Libman, Michael; Ndao, Momar; Ward, Brian J

    2014-04-01

    Residents of Arctic communities are at increased risk of contracting infectious diseases transmitted by wildlife. Data collected from the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey were used to determine the seroprevalence of 4 parasitic zoonoses in three Inuit jurisdictions of the Canadian Arctic and to assess risk factors of infection. To date, this is the most comprehensive survey of its kind. Immunoenzymatic methods were used for the detection of antibodies against Toxocara canis, Echinococcus granulosus, Trichinella sp., and Toxoplasma gondii. We determined the weighted prevalence of parasitic infections in 36 Inuit communities across the Inuvialuit settlement region, Nunavut, and Nunatsiavut. Our results indicate infrequent exposure to Toxocara and Echinococcus (1.7 and 6.3%, respectively). Exposure to T. gondii (27.2%) and Trichinella (18.6%) was more prevalent and was generally higher in Nunavut compared to other northern regions. Overall, seropositivity was related to age, education, and consumption of marine mammals and seafood.

  20. Evidence from the UK Zoonoses Action Plan in favour of localised anomalies of Salmonella infection on United Kingdom pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Helen E; Fenton, Sarah E; French, Nigel P; Miller, Alexander J; Cook, Alasdair J C

    2009-05-01

    Salmonella spp. are important food-borne pathogens. Abattoir studies demonstrated that almost a quarter of British finisher pigs might carry Salmonella, which led to the introduction by the British Pig Executive of their Zoonoses Action Plan (ZAP) to monitor the Salmonella status of United Kingdom pig farms by testing meat juice samples using an ELISA system. We used the K-function and approaches from the field of geostatistics to study routine data from ZAP. We demonstrated that there is statistical evidence that geographically localized anomalies of Salmonella infection were present in one of three regions studied. The physical mechanisms underlying this structure remain unclear: spatial structure might be present as a result of shared spatially structured (second-order) or non-spatially structured (first-order) risk factors, transmission processes, or a combination of both. We have demonstrated a way to use routinely collected surveillance data to enhance the knowledge of spatial disease epidemiology.

  1. Food Safety Hazards and Microbiological Zoonoses in European Meat Imports Detected in Border Inspection in the Period 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, W; Grabowski, N; Gerulat, B; Klein, G

    2016-02-01

    Microbiological contaminations and other food safety hazards are omnipresent within the European Union (EU) and a considerable risk for consumers, particularly in imported meat and meat products. The number of rejections at external EU borders has been increasing in recent years. Official authorities in each member state are therefore obliged to notify border rejections of food and animal feed due to a direct or indirect risk to human or animal health. This study explored the trends and temporal and spatial distribution of notifications on food safety hazards between January 2008 and December 2013 with a special emphasis on microbiological zoonoses in meat and meat products including poultry at border checks resulting from the rapid alert system for food and feed (RASFF). Results indicated that border rejection notifications are increasing exponentially, frequently due to Salmonella in poultry and shiga-toxin-producing E. coli in meat and meat products. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Integrating market chain assessments with zoonoses risk analysis in two cross-border pig value chains in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna; Tiemann, Tassilo Tamino; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Phengvilaysouk, Ammaly; Keonouchanh, Soukanh; Keokhamphet, Chattouphone; Somoulay, Virasack; Blaszak, Kate; Blacksell, Stuart; Okello, Walter; Allen, John

    2017-03-25

    Lao PDR's recent accession to the World Trade Organization necessitates a greater understanding of the patterns and risk of livestock production in order to better align national policy with the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. This eco-health study describes the integration of market chain and zoonoses risk analyses at two strategic cross border points between Lao PDR, Thailand and Viet Nam. Information gained from smallholder farmer/trader interviews was integrated with serological surveys for pig-associated zoonoses - including hepatitis E virus, Taenia solium and Trichinella - to identify potential linkages between disease risk and pig production and slaughter in low input systems common across the country. Trichinella and HEV exposure was high in both humans and pigs in both study areas, significantly associated with pig slaughter and the subsequent consumption and handling of raw pork products. T. solium demonstrated a strong geographical and ethnic association with the northern study area bordering Vietnam. With the right knowledge and accessible, affordable inputs, the majority of smallholder farmers indicated a willingness to invest more in pig production, which could simultaneously improve livelihoods and decrease exposure to HEV, Trichinella and T. solium through increased access to formal markets and an improved slaughter processes. Assessing disease risk in the context of potential economic and cultural drivers of transmission highlights the importance of a systems-based approach to the detection and control of zoonotic disease, improving the understanding of the Lao PDR livestock sector in accordance with the country's recent accession to the World Trade Organization.

  3. Emerging bacterial pathogens: the past and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouga, M; Greub, G

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1950s, medical communities have been facing with emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, and emerging pathogens are now considered to be a major microbiologic public health threat. In this review, we focus on bacterial emerging diseases and explore factors involved in their emergence as well as future challenges. We identified 26 major emerging and reemerging infectious diseases of bacterial origin; most of them originated either from an animal and are considered to be zoonoses or from water sources. Major contributing factors in the emergence of these bacterial infections are: (1) development of new diagnostic tools, such as improvements in culture methods, development of molecular techniques and implementation of mass spectrometry in microbiology; (2) increase in human exposure to bacterial pathogens as a result of sociodemographic and environmental changes; and (3) emergence of more virulent bacterial strains and opportunistic infections, especially affecting immunocompromised populations. A precise definition of their implications in human disease is challenging and requires the comprehensive integration of microbiological, clinical and epidemiologic aspects as well as the use of experimental models. It is now urgent to allocate financial resources to gather international data to provide a better understanding of the clinical relevance of these waterborne and zoonotic emerging diseases.

  4. Developing a targeted, theory-informed implementation intervention using two theoretical frameworks to address health professional and organisational factors: a case study to improve the management of mild traumatic brain injury in the emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    Tavender, E. J.; M. Bosch; Gruen, R. L.; Green, S. E.; Michie, S; Brennan, S. E.; Francis, J.; Ponsford, J L; Knott, J. C.; Meares, S.; Smyth, T.; O Connor, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background\\ud Despite the availability of evidence-based guidelines for the management of mild traumatic brain injury in the emergency department (ED), variations in practice exist. Interventions designed to implement recommended behaviours can reduce this variation. Using theory to inform intervention development is advocated; however, there is no consensus on how to select or apply theory. Integrative theoretical frameworks, based on syntheses of theories and theoretical constructs relevant...

  5. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  6. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  7. Extratos vegetais usados no controle de dípteros vetores de zoonoses Plant extracts used in the control of dipteran vectors of zoonosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V Maciel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os insetos são importantes transmissores de doenças que cada vez mais ocorrem em áreas periurbanas ou urbanas, devido à introdução ou reaparecimento de seus respectivos vetores. As estratégias de controle das doenças transmissíveis por vetores biológicos são de difícil execução, principalmente quando associadas à existência de reservatórios domésticos e silvestres e aos aspectos ambientais. O uso de inseticidas direcionado ao combate de formas adultas de dípteros vetores tem sido freqüente. Entretanto, o amplo uso dos inseticidas sintéticos desde a descoberta do DDT para o controle de pragas domésticas e da agricultura, como também de vetores que transmitem doenças ao homem, levou a uma maior preocupação em relação à toxicidade e impacto ambiental destes agentes. Além disso, a resistência a inseticidas tornou-se uma preocupação crescente na agricultura, economia e na saúde pública. Um grande número de diferentes espécies de plantas representando diferentes áreas geográficas ao redor do mundo tem se mostrado capaz de causar efeitos letais e subletais sobre insetos. Esta revisão aborda a utilização de extratos de plantas com potencial no controle de dípteros vetores de zoonoses.Insects are important transmitters of diseases increasingly occurring in peri-urban or urban areas due to the introduction or the reemergence of their respective vectors. Strategies to control diseases transmitted by biological vectors are difficult to implement, especially when associated with the existence of domestic and wild reservoirs and environmental aspects. The use of insecticides against adult forms of dipteran vectors has been frequent. However, the widespread use of synthetic insecticides since the discovery of DDT to control domestic and agricultural pests, as well as vectors that transmit diseases to humans, has led to greater concern for the toxicity and environmental impact of these agents. Moreover, resistance to

  8. Serological survey of five zoonoses, scrub typhus, Japanese spotted fever, tularemia, Lyme disease, and Q fever, in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kai; Kabeya, Hidenori; Fujita, Hiromi; Makino, Takashi; Asano, Makoto; Inoue, Satoshi; Inokuma, Hisashi; Nogami, Sadao; Maruyama, Soichi

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the seroprevalence of five tick- or mite-borne zoonoses, scrub typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi), Japanese spotted fever (Rickettsia japonica), tularemia (Francisella tularensis), Lyme disease (Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii), and Q fever (Coxiella burnetii), in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) captured in Hokkaido and Kanagawa Prefectures in Japan. Of the 559 raccoons captured in Hokkaido, 8 (1.4%), 3 (0.5%), 1 (0.2%), and 1 (0.2%) carried antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi (Gilliam type), F. tularensis, B. afzelii, and B. garinii, respectively. Of the 193 animals investigated in Kanagawa, 31 (16.1%) and 14 (7.3%) carried antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi and R. japonica, respectively, and the major serotype (27/31) of O. tsutsugamushi was Kuroki. No antibodies against C. burnetii were detected in either area examined. Therefore, feral raccoons could be an indicator of the prevalence of these four tick- or mite-borne zoonoses in the peridomestic environment in Japan.

  9. Rats, cities, people, and pathogens: a systematic review and narrative synthesis of literature regarding the ecology of rat-associated zoonoses in urban centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Parsons, Kirbee L; Jardine, Claire; Patrick, David M

    2013-06-01

    Urban Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) are the source of a number of pathogens responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in cities around the world. These pathogens include zoonotic bacteria (Leptospira interrogans, Yersina pestis, Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella spp., Streptobacillus moniliformis), viruses (Seoul hantavirus), and parasites (Angiostrongylus cantonensis). A more complete understanding of the ecology of these pathogens in people and rats is critical for determining the public health risks associated with urban rats and for developing strategies to monitor and mitigate those risks. Although the ecology of rat-associated zoonoses is complex, due to the multiple ways in which rats, people, pathogens, vectors, and the environment may interact, common determinants of human disease can still be identified. This review summarizes the ecology of zoonoses associated with urban rats with a view to identifying similarities, critical differences, and avenues for further study.

  10. The characteristics of wild rat (Rattus spp.) populations from an inner-city neighborhood with a focus on factors critical to the understanding of rat-associated zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Jardine, Claire M; Parsons, Kirbee L; Feng, Alice Y T; Patrick, David M

    2014-01-01

    Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) are among the most ubiquitous urban wildlife species and are the source of a number of zoonotic diseases responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in cities around the world. Rodent ecology is a primary determinant of the dynamics of zoonotic pathogens in rodent populations and the risk of pathogen transmission to people, yet many studies of rat-associated zoonoses do not account for the ecological characteristics of urban rat populations. This hinders the development of an in-depth understanding of the ecology of rat-associated zoonoses, limits comparability among studies, and can lead to erroneous conclusions. We conducted a year-long trapping-removal study to describe the ecological characteristics of urban rat populations in an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. The study focused on factors that might influence the ecology of zoonotic pathogens in these populations and/or our understanding of that ecology. We found that rat population density varied remarkably over short geographical distances, which could explain observed spatial distributions of rat-associated zoonoses and have implications for sampling and data analysis during research and surveillance. Season appeared to influence rat population composition even within the urban environment, which could cause temporal variation in pathogen prevalence. Body mass and bite wounds, which are often used in epidemiologic analyses as simple proxies for age and aggression, were shown to be more complex than previously thought. Finally, we found that factors associated with trapping can determine the size and composition of sampled rat population, and thus influence inferences made about the source population. These findings may help guide future studies of rats and rat-associated zoonoses.

  11. Establishment of serological herd profiles for zoonoses and production diseases in pigs by "meat juice multi-serology".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meemken, Diana; Tangemann, Anna Helene; Meermeier, Dieter; Gundlach, Susanne; Mischok, Dieter; Greiner, Matthias; Klein, Guenter; Blaha, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The most important pork-borne zoonotic diseases in humans such as Salmonelloses and Yersinioses cause only latent infections in pigs. Thus, the infection of pigs does not result in apparent or palpable alterations in the pig carcasses. This is the major reason, why the traditional meat inspection with adspection, palpation and incision is not able to control the food safety risks of today. The objective of this paper is to evaluate a set of serological tests, which provides a classification of pig herds into "zoonoses risk categories" as demanded by EU law and into "herd health risk categories" by using meat juice as diagnostic specimen for ELISA tests. Serological data that were obtained by testing meat juice samples from various pig herds were analyzed as proof of the "meat juice multi-serology" concept. For that, at least 60 meat juice samples from 49 pig herds each were taken between September 2010 and March 2011 and tested for antibodies against zoonotic pathogens (Salmonella spp., Trichinella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica and Toxoplasma gondii) and against pathogens causing production diseases (Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, influenza A virus subtype H1N1, influenza A virus subtype H3N2 and PRRSV). Apparent and true animal prevalence, herd prevalence values and intra-herd seroprevalence values as well as the predictive values for the herd and the animal prevalence values were calculated for each pathogen and each of the 49 randomly selected herds. The herd seroprevalence values (one seropositive sample per herd determined a "positive herd") for Y. enterocolitica, Salmonella spp., T. gondii, M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV were higher than 80%, respectively, for the influenza A viruses between 60% and 14% and for Trichinella spp. 0%. Although all herds were located in the same area in the Northwest of Germany within a radius of 250 km, the intra-herd seroprevalence values for all tested pathogens, except for Trichinella spp., varied remarkably from herd to herd. In the

  12. Tradition and transition: parasitic zoonoses of people and animals in Alaska, northern Canada, and Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoonotic parasites have been recognized as important causes of endemic and emerging human disease in northern North America and Greenland, with increased prevalence of some parasites in Indigenous and northern residents as compared to the general North American population. This is in part due to tr...

  13. Addressing mathematics & statistics anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Kotecha, Meena

    2015-01-01

    This paper should be of interest to mathematics and statistics educators ranging from pre-university to university education sectors. It will discuss some features of the author’s teaching model developed over her longitudinal study conducted to understand and address mathematics and statistics anxiety, which is one of the main barriers to engaging with these subjects especially in non-specialist undergraduates. It will demonstrate how a range of formative assessments are used to kindle, as w...

  14. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications.

  15. The spread of zoonoses and other infectious diseases through the international trade of animals and animal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimenis, Aristarhos M

    2008-01-01

    For trade purposes, ever increasing quantities of food animals and animal products that are transported more rapidly than ever before are contributing to the spread of zoonoses and are creating threats on a permanent basis. Most countries in south-eastern Europe, the Mediterranean and the Middle East are increasing imports of food animals and meat and products of animal origin. They can become potential sources of zoonotic and other infectious diseases if controls are not performed under the most effective conditions. Developing countries with their organisational weakness are particularly vulnerable to fraudulent international trade practices of animals and animal products. To prevent such risks, the World Trade Organization, the World Organisation for Animal Health and their member countries support the measures stipulated in the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement which targets the liberalisation of trade in animals and animal products under specific conditions while protecting public health and national economies. Vigilance must be exercised and appropriate inspection made at points of entry by veterinary and other authorities to ensure the strict implementation of international and national regulations. National legislation, appropriate infrastructures and the respect of international regulations can become barriers to avoid animal trade, contributing to the spread of zoonotic and other infectious diseases.

  16. [Sanitary situation of the Senegal River Basin in 2010. Part II: vector-borne diseases and zoonoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, R; Sondaz, D; Philip, J M; Calvet, F; Daoud, W

    2011-06-01

    In recent decades, the Senegal River Basin has witnessed an increase in the prevalence of water-borne human and animal diseases. The "Organization for the Development of the Senegal River" (French acronym, OMVS) decided to establish a "Water Resource Development and Management Framework Project" (French acronym, SDAGE) for the Senegal River Basin. The purpose of SDAGE is to avoid overuse of natural resources while allowing development of human activities in the Senegal River Basin. This project document is intended to provide guidance for mobilizing resources and understanding impact on the environment and local population through to 2025. Within the framework of the first phase of the SDAGE, a survey to assess water-borne diseases in the Senegal River Basin was carried out in 2009. This assessment of the medical situation was based on documents obtained by bibliographic research. The purpose of this report is to summarize the main findings with regard firstly to vector-borne diseases along with corresponding national or regional control programs in the area and, secondly to zoonoses. Findings with regard to diseases directly related to water have been described in another report.

  17. Parasitic, fungal and prion zoonoses: an expanding universe of candidates for human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akritidis, N

    2011-03-01

    Zoonotic infections have emerged as a burden for millions of people in recent years, owing to re-emerging or novel pathogens often causing outbreaks in the developing world in the presence of inadequate public health infrastructure. Among zoonotic infections, those caused by parasitic pathogens are the ones that affect millions of humans worldwide, who are also at risk of developing chronic disease. The present review discusses the global effect of protozoan pathogens such as Leishmania sp., Trypanosoma sp., and Toxoplasma sp., as well as helminthic pathogens such as Echinococcus sp., Fasciola sp., and Trichinella sp. The zoonotic aspects of agents that are not essentially zoonotic are also discussed. The review further focuses on the zoonotic dynamics of fungal pathogens and prion diseases as observed in recent years, in an evolving environment in which novel patient target groups have developed for agents that were previously considered to be obscure or of minimal significance.

  18. Lung Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at ... should be considered an emergency. Symptoms of sudden lung collapse (pneumothorax) Symptoms of a sudden lung collapse ...

  19. Parasitic zoonoses associated with dogs and cats: a survey of Portuguese pet owners' awareness and deworming practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, André; Martins, Ângela; Brancal, Hugo; Vilhena, Hugo; Silva, Pedro; Pimenta, Paulo; Diz-Lopes, Duarte; Neves, Nuno; Coimbra, Mónica; Alves, Ana Catarina; Cardoso, Luís; Maia, Carla

    2016-05-10

    Parasitic diseases of companion animals comprise a group of globally distributed and rapidly spreading illnesses that are caused by a wide range of arthropods, helminths and protozoa. In addition to their veterinary importance, many of these parasites can also affect the human population, due to their zoonotic potential. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the knowledge of Portuguese pet owners regarding the zoonotic potential of parasites that dogs and cats can harbour, most common drugs, frequency of use and reasons for endo- and ectoparasite control. Seventy hundred and fifty multiple-choice questionnaires designed to obtain data knowledge about the meaning of zoonosis, knowledge about parasitic diseases and perception regarding their zoonotic potential, as well as the drugs, frequency and reason for deworming their animals were delivered to dog and/or cat owners from non-rural (i.e. urban or semi-urban) and rural parishes who attended veterinary medical centres from continental Portugal. A total of 536 (71.5 %) questionnaires were retrieved. Two hundred and ninety five (56.5 %) responders had heard of zoonosis/zoonoses, but only 184 (35.2 %) knew their meaning. Tick fever, mange, leishmaniosis and ascaridiosis/roundworms were the parasitic diseases from pets most frequently identified. The number of owners who recognized the different parasitoses, who stated to have heard about zoonoses and who were aware of the potential transmission of parasites from animals to humans was significantly higher in those with intermediate (i.e. ≥9 and ≤ 12 years of schooling) and/or higher academic degree (i.e. licentiate, master's and/or doctorate degrees). The combinations of febantel-pyrantel-praziquantel (23.5 %) and milbemycin-praziquantel (34.5 %) were the most widely endoparasitic drugs used in dogs and in cats, respectively. The most common ectoparasiticide used in dogs was a combination of imidacloprid-permethrin (33.4 %), while in cats it was

  20. TRANSMISSÃO DO CONHECIMENTO DE ALGUMAS ZOONOSES PARA ALUNOS DE ESCOLAS PÚBLICAS NOS MUNICÍPIOS DE APODI, FELIPE GUERRA E SEVERIANO MELO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faviano Ricelli da Costa Moreira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o conhecimento de alunos da rede pública de ensino sobre algumas Zoonoses, através de palestras ministradas por alunos do curso de Técnico em Zootecnia. Foram aplicados 677 questionários para alunos de escolas públicas de Apodi, Felipe Guerra e Severiano Melo. Os questionários foram aplicados antes e após as palestras. Os dados foram discutidos através de uma análise descritiva. Os principais resultados demonstraram que os conteúdos relativos à transmissão e prevenção de algumas zoonoses foram fixados. Antes das palestras 20,8% dos alunos conheciam o conceito de Zoonoses e após, esse percentual passou para 88,3%. Houve um aumento no conhecimento da forma de transmissão da Larva migrans, Toxoplasmose e Leptospirose, onde antes das palestras o percentual era de 91,8, 1,9 e 29,4% e após as apresentações foi de 100,0, 57,8 e 72,4%, respectivamente. Para a forma de transmissão das Verminoses, o percentual de fixação do conhecimento não foi alterado, de maneira significativa, antes (86,5% e após (87,9% as palestras. Como conclusão, tem-se que a metodologia de palestras para alunos da rede pública de ensino é uma ferramenta que pode ser utilizada como forma de educação e prevenção de doenças.

  1. The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2013 in 32 European countries (28 Member States and four non-Member States. Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis. After several years of an increasing European Union (EU trend, the human campylobacteriosis notification rate has stabilised. In food and animals no EU trends were observed and the occurrence of Campylobacter continued to be high in broiler meat at EU level. The decreasing EU trend in confirmed human salmonellosis cases observed in recent years continued. Most Member States met their Salmonella reduction targets for poultry. In foodstuffs, the reported EU-level Salmonella non-compliance in fresh poultry meat decreased. Human listeriosis increased further, showing an increasing EU trend in 2009-2013. In ready-to-eat foods Listeria was seldom detected above the legal safety limit. Also during 2009-2013, a decreasing EU trend was observed in confirmed yersiniosis cases. Positive findings for Yersinia were mainly reported in pig meat and products thereof. The number of confirmed verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC infections in humans increased. VTEC was reported from food and animals. A total of 5,196 food-borne outbreaks, including water-borne outbreaks, were reported in the EU. Most food-borne outbreaks were caused by Salmonella, followed by viruses, bacterial toxins and Campylobacter, whereas in 28.9 % of all outbreaks the causative agent was unknown. Important food vehicles in strong-evidence food-borne outbreaks were eggs and egg products, followed by mixed food, and fish and fish products. The report further summarises trends and sources along the food chain of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma, rabies, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever, West Nile Virus and tularaemia.

  2. Dirofilariose canina na Ilha de São Luís, Nordeste do Brasil: uma zoonose potencial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria Mendes Ahid

    Full Text Available Um inquérito sobre a prevalência da dirofilariose canina foi realizado entre 1.495 cães de 64 localidades na Ilha de São Luís, de 1991 a 1994, através da pesquisa de microfilárias. Desses, 1.358 cães (12,8% positivos não tinham história pregressa conhecida, sendo 1.265 errantes (10,3% microfilarêmicos e 93 domiciliados (37,8%. A dirofilariose foi detectada em 46 das localidade, porém a prevalência da infecção aumenta consideravelmente quando se trata de cães da orla marítima, de onde procederam 47% dos animais positivos. Em alguns bairros costeiros, a prevalência é elevada, como em Olho d'Água e Calhau (46% e 43% positivos, respectivamente. A pesquisa de microfilárias em 137 cães estritamente domiciliados (DO e com história pregressa conhecida (43% microfilarêmicos permitiu a comprovação da existência de transmissão na Ilha. Este estudo é o primeiro dessa natureza e abrangência realizado no Nordeste do País. Sabendo-se que a dirofilariose é uma zoonose, e diante da elevada prevalência de cães microfilarêmicos, particularmente os domiciliados da orla marítima da Ilha, chama-se a atenção para que se considere tal parasitose como possível causa de lesões pulmonares solitárias na população humana local e naquelas assentadas em áreas com clima e paisagem semelhantes no Nordeste.

  3. Dirofilariose canina na Ilha de São Luís, Nordeste do Brasil: uma zoonose potencial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahid Silvia Maria Mendes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Um inquérito sobre a prevalência da dirofilariose canina foi realizado entre 1.495 cães de 64 localidades na Ilha de São Luís, de 1991 a 1994, através da pesquisa de microfilárias. Desses, 1.358 cães (12,8% positivos não tinham história pregressa conhecida, sendo 1.265 errantes (10,3% microfilarêmicos e 93 domiciliados (37,8%. A dirofilariose foi detectada em 46 das localidade, porém a prevalência da infecção aumenta consideravelmente quando se trata de cães da orla marítima, de onde procederam 47% dos animais positivos. Em alguns bairros costeiros, a prevalência é elevada, como em Olho d'Água e Calhau (46% e 43% positivos, respectivamente. A pesquisa de microfilárias em 137 cães estritamente domiciliados (DO e com história pregressa conhecida (43% microfilarêmicos permitiu a comprovação da existência de transmissão na Ilha. Este estudo é o primeiro dessa natureza e abrangência realizado no Nordeste do País. Sabendo-se que a dirofilariose é uma zoonose, e diante da elevada prevalência de cães microfilarêmicos, particularmente os domiciliados da orla marítima da Ilha, chama-se a atenção para que se considere tal parasitose como possível causa de lesões pulmonares solitárias na população humana local e naquelas assentadas em áreas com clima e paisagem semelhantes no Nordeste.

  4. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control analysed information submitted by 27 European Union Member States on the occurrence of zoonoses and food-borne outbreaks in 2012. Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis, with 214,268 confirmed human cases. The occurrence of Campylobacter continued to be high in broiler meat at EU level. The decreasing trend in confirmed salmonellosis cases in humans continued with a total of 91,034 cases reported in 2012. Most Member States met their Salmonella reduction targets for poultry. In foodstuffs, Salmonella was most often detected in meat and products thereof. The number of confirmed human listeriosis cases increased to 1,642. Listeria was seldom detected above the legal safety limit from ready-to-eat foods. A total of 5,671 confirmed verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC infections were reported. VTEC was also reported from food and animals. The number of human tuberculosis cases due to Mycobacterium bovis was 125 cases, and 328 cases of brucellosis in humans were reported. The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle increased, and the prevalence of brucellosis in cattle, sheep or goats decreased. Trichinella caused 301 human cases and was mainly detected in wildlife. One domestically acquired human case and one imported human case of rabies were reported. The number of rabies cases in animals increased compared with 2011. A total of 643 confirmed human cases of Q fever were reported. Almost all reporting Member States found Coxiella burnetii (Q fever positive cattle, sheep or goats. A total of 232 cases of West Nile fever in humans were reported. Nine Member States reported West Nile virus findings in solipeds. Most of the 5,363 reported food-borne outbreaks were caused by Salmonella,bacterial toxins, viruses and Campylobacter, and the main food sources were eggs, mixed foods and fish and fishery products.

  5. Occupational zoonoses in zoo and wildlife veterinarians in India: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Chethan Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Zoos and biological parks are considered as a hub for public ecreation and education. This is highlighted by the fact that visitors to the zoos are increasing year by year and they generate sizeable revenue. Veterinary professionals play a pivotal role in health management of wild animals in zoos and biological parks. Since veterinarians work in close contact with wild animals, there is a potential risk of transmission of zoonotic diseases from wild animals to humans and vice versa. There are approximately 1415 infectious agents causing diseases in humans, out of which 868 (61% are known to be zoonotic in nature. It is also important to note that more than 70% of the emerging zoonotic diseases have wild animals as reservoir hosts. The major zoonotic diseases that are transmitted from wild animals to humans include rabies, anthrax, leptospirosis, Q-fever, psittacosis, hendra virus, nipah virus, herpes B encephalitis, toxoplasmosis, etc. Hence, it is imperative for veterinarians and zoo staff to be fully aware of the knowledge pertaining to the source, transmission, pathogenicity, treatment and control of zoonotic diseases. In this manuscript, we provide key information regarding zoonotic diseases and also recommend important measures for their control and prevention. The information provided here will be highly beneficial for personnel who work in close association with wild animals

  6. Viral Metagenomics on Animals as a Tool for the Detection of Zoonoses Prior to Human Infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Temmam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many human viral infections have a zoonotic, i.e., wild or domestic animal, origin. Several zoonotic viruses are transmitted to humans directly via contact with an animal or indirectly via exposure to the urine or feces of infected animals or the bite of a bloodsucking arthropod. If a virus is able to adapt and replicate in its new human host, human-to-human transmissions may occur, possibly resulting in an epidemic, such as the A/H1N1 flu pandemic in 2009. Thus, predicting emerging zoonotic infections is an important challenge for public health officials in the coming decades. The recent development of viral metagenomics, i.e., the characterization of the complete viral diversity isolated from an organism or an environment using high-throughput sequencing technologies, is promising for the surveillance of such diseases and can be accomplished by analyzing the viromes of selected animals and arthropods that are closely in contact with humans. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of viral diversity within such animals (in particular blood-feeding arthropods, wildlife and domestic animals using metagenomics and present its possible future application for the surveillance of zoonotic and arboviral diseases.

  7. Viral metagenomics on animals as a tool for the detection of zoonoses prior to human infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmam, Sarah; Davoust, Bernard; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

    2014-06-10

    Many human viral infections have a zoonotic, i.e., wild or domestic animal, origin. Several zoonotic viruses are transmitted to humans directly via contact with an animal or indirectly via exposure to the urine or feces of infected animals or the bite of a bloodsucking arthropod. If a virus is able to adapt and replicate in its new human host, human-to-human transmissions may occur, possibly resulting in an epidemic, such as the A/H1N1 flu pandemic in 2009. Thus, predicting emerging zoonotic infections is an important challenge for public health officials in the coming decades. The recent development of viral metagenomics, i.e., the characterization of the complete viral diversity isolated from an organism or an environment using high-throughput sequencing technologies, is promising for the surveillance of such diseases and can be accomplished by analyzing the viromes of selected animals and arthropods that are closely in contact with humans. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of viral diversity within such animals (in particular blood-feeding arthropods, wildlife and domestic animals) using metagenomics and present its possible future application for the surveillance of zoonotic and arboviral diseases.

  8. Characteristics and Risk Perceptions of Ghanaians Potentially Exposed to Bat-Borne Zoonoses through Bushmeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamins, Alexandra O; Rowcliffe, J Marcus; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa; Cunningham, Andrew A; Wood, James L N; Restif, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    Emerging zoonotic pathogens from wildlife pose increasing public health threats globally. Bats, in particular, host an array of zoonotic pathogens, yet there is little research on how bats and humans interact, how people perceive bats and their accompanying disease risk, or who is most at risk. Eidolon helvum, the largest and most abundant African fruit bat species, is widely hunted and eaten in Ghana and also carries potentially zoonotic pathogens. This combination raises concerns, as hunting and butchering bushmeat are common sources of zoonotic transmission. Through a combination of interviews with 577 Ghanaians across southern Ghana, we identified the characteristics of people involved in the bat-bushmeat trade and we explored their perceptions of risk. Bat hunting, selling and consumption are widely distributed across regional and ethnic lines, with hotspots in certain localities, while butchering is predominantly done by women and active hunters. Interviewees held little belief of disease risk from bats, saw no ecological value in fruit bats and associated the consumption of bats with specific tribes. These data can be used to inform disease and conservation management plans, drawing on social contexts and ensuring that local voices are heard within the larger global effort to study and mitigate outbreaks.

  9. An ecological and conservation perspective on advances in the applied virology of zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegrift, Kurt J; Wale, Nina; Epstein, Jonathan H

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this manuscript is to describe how modern advances in our knowledge of viruses and viral evolution can be applied to the fields of disease ecology and conservation. We review recent progress in virology and provide examples of how it is informing both empirical research in field ecology and applied conservation. We include a discussion of needed breakthroughs and ways to bridge communication gaps between the field and the lab. In an effort to foster this interdisciplinary effort, we have also included a table that lists the definitions of key terms. The importance of understanding the dynamics of zoonotic pathogens in their reservoir hosts is emphasized as a tool to both assess risk factors for spillover and to test hypotheses related to treatment and/or intervention strategies. In conclusion, we highlight the need for smart surveillance, viral discovery efforts and predictive modeling. A shift towards a predictive approach is necessary in today's globalized society because, as the 2009 H1N1 pandemic demonstrated, identification post-emergence is often too late to prevent global spread. Integrating molecular virology and ecological techniques will allow for earlier recognition of potentially dangerous pathogens, ideally before they jump from wildlife reservoirs into human or livestock populations and cause serious public health or conservation issues.

  10. Difteria pelo Corynebacterium ulcerans: uma zoonose emergente no Brasil e no mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Alves de Souza de Oliveira Dias

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo revisa a literatura sobre a emergência de infecções humanas causadas por Corynebacterium ulcerans em diversos países, incluindo o Brasil. Foi realizada análise de artigos publicados entre 1926 e 2011 nas bases Medline/PubMed e SciELO, bem como artigos e informes do Ministério da Saúde. Apresenta-se um esquema de triagem, rápido, econômico e de fácil execução, capaz de permitir a realização do diagnóstico presuntivo de C. ulcerans e C. diphtheriae na maioria dos laboratórios brasileiros públicos e privados. A circulação de C. ulcerans em vários países, aliada aos recentes casos de isolamento do patógeno no Rio de Janeiro, é um alerta a clínicos, veterinários e microbiologistas sobre a ocorrência de difteria zoonótica e a circulação do C. ulcerans em regiões urbanas e rurais do território nacional e/ou da América Latina.

  11. Why public health might address the emerging role of vaccinomics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Boccia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The greatest public health benefit of the advances brought about by the understanding of the human genome, completely sequenced in 2000, will likely occur as genomic medicine expands its focus from rare genetic disorders towards the inclusion of more common diseases also, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer and infectious disease. Advances in Genomics hold the promise of improving the delivery of health care, particularly that of preventive medicine, and of tailoring drug treatment.

  12. Prevention policies addressing packaging and packaging waste: Some emerging trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tencati, Antonio; Pogutz, Stefano; Moda, Beatrice; Brambilla, Matteo; Cacia, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    Packaging waste is a major issue in several countries. Representing in industrialized countries around 30-35% of municipal solid waste yearly generated, this waste stream has steadily grown over the years even if, especially in Europe, specific recycling and recovery targets have been fixed. Therefore, an increasing attention starts to be devoted to prevention measures and interventions. Filling a gap in the current literature, this explorative paper is a first attempt to map the increasingly important phenomenon of prevention policies in the packaging sector. Through a theoretical sampling, 11 countries/states (7 in and 4 outside Europe) have been selected and analyzed by gathering and studying primary and secondary data. Results show evidence of three specific trends in packaging waste prevention policies: fostering the adoption of measures directed at improving packaging design and production through an extensive use of the life cycle assessment; raising the awareness of final consumers by increasing the accountability of firms; promoting collaborative efforts along the packaging supply chains.

  13. Essential veterinary education in emerging infections, modes of introduction of exotic animals, zoonotic diseases, bioterrorism, implications for human and animal health and disease manifestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, B B; Marano, N

    2009-08-01

    A fundamental role of the veterinary profession is the protection of human health through wholesome food and control of diseases of animal origin, especially zoonoses. Therefore, training of veterinary students worldwide needs to face the new challenges posed by emerging infections, both from wildlife and domestic animals, as well as risks from bio/agroterrorism. New courses emphasising recognition, response, recovery and prevention must be developed to respond to natural or intentionally induced emerging diseases and zoonoses. Training programmes in applied epidemiology, zoonoses and foreign animal diseases are crucial for the development of a strong workforce to deal with microbial threats. Students should learn the reporting pathways for reportable diseases in their countries or states. Knowledge of the principles of ecology and ecosystems should be acquired during pre-veterinary studies. Elective classes on wildlife diseases, emphasising wildlife zoonotic diseases, should be offered during the veterinary curriculum, as well as a course on risk communication, since veterinarians are frequently in the position of having to convey complex information under adverse circumstances.

  14. Nonneurologic emergencies in boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Domenic F

    2009-10-01

    Professional boxing has done an admirable job in promoting safety standards in its particular sport. However, injuries occur during the normal course of competition and, unfortunately, an occasional life-threatening emergency may arise. Although most common medical emergencies in boxing are injuries from closed head trauma, in this article those infrequent but potentially catastrophic nonneurologic conditions are reviewed along with some less serious emergencies that the physician must be prepared to address.

  15. Scientific Opinion on Review of the European Union Summary Report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks—Terms of reference 2 to 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW Panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has evaluated the European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks by EFSA and ECDC (the report with regard to data needs and subsequent analyses that will minimise the impact of existing data gaps and inconsistencies. Specific assessments performed for bovine tuberculosis, echinococcosis, Q fever, brucellosis, rabies, cysticercosis and tularaemia show that the report gives an accurate picture of the epidemiological situation for the infections which have an EU harmonised monitoring system. Generally the data analysis is descriptive; further analysis for specific purposes and quantification of the trends should be considered. Specific information for each disease should contain (i a clear case definition, (ii a clear description of sampling techniques and diagnostic tests used, (iii relevant epidemiological characteristics and (iv relevant control measures or surveillance. Prioritisation of diseases from a public health viewpoint is not in the remit of the AHAW Panel. Proposed criteria to assess the value of including additional diseases in the report are (1 the disease is reported regularly in animals and humans in some EU Member States; (2 the disease is considered a serious public health issue; and (3 monitoring in animals is epidemiologically justifiable. The first two criteria are inclusion criteria; the third is used to prioritise diseases for inclusion in the report. The last section of the opinion addresses the value of the data included in the report for AHAW risk assessment. Their usefulness is often compromised by missing case definition, insufficient metadata or outdated data. It is recommended that data needs are further analysed to improve the preparedness of the AHAW Panel to answer risk questions, via some readily available and stable data as well as good knowledge of ad-hoc data models

  16. Addressing psychiatric comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, G E; McLellan, A T; O'Brien, C P; Luborsky, L

    1991-01-01

    Research studies indicate that addressing psychiatric comorbidity can improve treatment for selected groups of substance-abusing patients. However, the chances for implementing the necessary techniques on a large scale are compromised by the absence of professional input and guidance within programs. This is especially true in public programs, which treat some of the most disadvantaged, disturbed, and socially destructive individuals in the entire mental health system. One starting point for upgrading the level of knowledge and training of staff members who work in this large treatment system could be to develop a better and more authoritative information dissemination network. Such a system exists in medicine; physicians are expected to read appropriate journals and to guide their treatment decisions using the data contained in the journals. Standards of practice and methods for modifying current practice are within the tradition of reading new facts, studying old ones, and comparing treatment outcome under different conditions with what is actually being done. No such general system of information-gathering or -sharing exists, particularly in public treatment programs. One of the most flagrant examples of this "educational shortfall" can be found among those methadone programs that adamantly insist on prescribing no more than 30 to 35 mg/day for all patients, in spite of the overwhelming evidence that these dose levels generally are inadequate. In some cases, program directors are unaware of studies that have shown the relationship between dose and outcome. In other cases, they are aware of the studies but do not modify their practices accordingly. This example of inadequate dosing is offered as an example of one situation that could be improved by adherence to a system of authoritative and systematic information dissemination. Many issues in substance abuse treatment do not lend themselves to information dissemination as readily as that of methadone dosing

  17. A scoping review of the evidence for public health risks of three emerging potentially zoonotic viruses: hepatitis E virus, norovirus, and rotavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Barbara; Waddell, Lisa; Greig, Judy; Rajić, Andrijana; Houde, Alain; McEwen, Scott A

    2015-04-01

    Emerging zoonoses are defined as those newly recognized, or increasing in incidence or geographic range. Hepatitis E virus (HEV), norovirus (NoV), and rotavirus (RV), while well known to be transmitted person-person, have also been hypothesized to be emerging zoonoses. Our objective was to investigate their potential public health risks from animal reservoirs. Given the diversity of evidence sources, a scoping review incorporating a mixed methods synthesis approach was used. A broad search was conducted in five electronic databases. Each citation was appraised independently by two reviewers using screening tools designed and tested a priori. Level 1 relevance screening excluded irrelevant citations; level 2 confirmed relevance and categorized. At level 3 screening, data were extracted to support a risk profile. A stakeholder group provided input on study tools and knowledge translation and transfer. Level 1 screening captured 2471 citations, with 1270 advancing to level 2 screening, and 1094 to level 3. We defined criteria for case attribution to zoonosis for each virus. Using these criteria, we identified a small number of zoonotic cases (HEV n=3, NoV=0, RV=40 (zoonoses=3; human-animal re-assortants=37)) categorized as 'likely'. The available evidence suggests the following potential HEV human exposure sources: swine, other domestic animals, wildlife, surface waters, and asymptomatic human shedders. Possible at-risk groups include the immunocompromised and the elderly. Reports of NoV intergenogroup recombinants suggest potential for human-animal recombination. Greatest public health impact for RV zoonoses may be the potential effect of human-animal reassortants on vaccination efficacy.

  18. Address Points, Addressing, Published in 2008, Taylor County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as 'Addressing'. Data by this publisher are often...

  19. UN PARADIGMA HOLÍSTICO Y TRANSDISCIPLINARIO PARA EL ESTUDIO DE LAS ZOONOSIS: MEDICINA DE LA CONSERVACIÓN A holistic and transdisciplinary paradigm for studying zoonoses: conservation medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Andrés Rojas Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El sesenta por ciento de las enfermedades emergentes que afectan al ser humano son zoonosis; la mayoría (cerca del 75% tienen su origen en la fauna silvestre. Muchas de estas patologías son comunes a los animales domésticos de carácter productivo, debido a las múltiples interrelaciones existentes y la habilidad de muchos microorganismos de mutar para colonizar nuevos huéspedes. Las zoonosis inciden directamente en el sector agropecuario y en la salud pública, y se constituyen en una seria limitante a la exportación de productos de origen animal y al comercio internacional; comprometen seriamente la seguridad alimentaria y causan cada año un alto impacto socioeconómico en naciones agroexportadoras como son la mayoría de países latinoamericanos. Organizaciones internacionales como la FAO, OIE y OMS a través de su iniciativa conjunta ´´One Health Approach´´ reconocen la necesidad de cambiar la visión tradicional del médico veterinario, y proponen afincar los servicios sanitarios de salud animal en la prevención epidemiológica temprana de las zoonosis; a través de la investigación holística y transdiciplinaria. Este artículo trata sobre las implicaciones que las zoonosis de origen silvestre pueden tener en la sanidad animal y en la salud pública. Así mismo, toca el tema de medicina de la conservación con algunas perspectivas para Costa Rica.Sixty percent of emergent diseases affecting human beings are zoonoses; most of them (around 75% originate in wild fauna. Many zoonotic diseases are common in domesticated animals used for production (meat, milk, eggs, rearing due to the multiple interrelationships involved and many microorganisms’ ability to mutate so as to colonize new hosts. Zoonoses directly affect livestock and public health and have become a serious limitation on exporting animal products and thus international trade. They seriously compromise food security, causing a high socioeconomic impact on agroexporting

  20. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control analysed the information submitted by 27 European Union Member States on the occurrence of zoonoses and food-borne outbreaks in 2011. Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis with 220,209 confirmed human cases. The occurrence of Campylobacter continued to be high in broiler meat at EU level. The decreasing trend in confirmed salmonellosis cases in humans continued with a total of 95,548 cases in 2011. Most Member States met their Salmonella reduction targets for poultry, and Salmonella is declining in these populations. In foodstuffs, Salmonella was most often detected in meat and products thereof. The number of confirmed human listeriosis cases decreased to 1,476. Listeria was seldom detected above the legal safety limit from ready-to-eat foods. A total of 9,485 confirmed verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC infections were reported. This represents an increase of 159.4 % compared with 2010 as a result of the large STEC/VTEC outbreak that occurred in 2011 in the EU, primarily in Germany. VTEC was also reported from food and animals. The number of human yersiniosis cases increased to 7,017 cases. Yersinia enterocolitica was isolated also from pig meat and pigs; 132 cases of Mycobacterium bovis and 330 cases of brucellosis in humans were also reported. The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle increased, and the prevalence of brucellosis decreased in cattle and sheep and goat populations. Trichinellosis and echinococcosis caused 268 and 781 human cases, respectively and these parasites were mainly detected in wildlife. The numbers of alveolar and of cystic echinococcosis respectively increased and decreased in the last five years. One imported human case of rabies was reported. The number of rabies cases in animals continued to decrease. Most of the 5,648 reported food-borne outbreaks were caused by Salmonella,bacterial toxins

  1. Diabetic Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Diabetic Emergencies It is estimated that more than 20 ... they have it. The best way to prevent diabetic emergencies is to effectively manage the disease through ...

  2. Childhood Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emergency physicians. They receive comprehensive training in treating childhood emergencies and have more training in pediatric emergencies than other physicians, including pediatricians. Does Your Child's School Know About Food Allergies? - 8/10/2015 The nation's emergency physician ...

  3. Anonymous-address-resolution model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-jia SONG; Zhen-zhou JI

    2016-01-01

    Address-resolution protocol (ARP) is an important protocol of data link layers that aims to obtain the corresponding relationship between Internet Protocol (IP) and Media Access Control (MAC) addresses. Traditional ARPs (address-resolution and neighbor-discovery protocols) do not consider the existence of malicious nodes, which reveals destination addresses in the resolution process. Thus, these traditional protocols allow malicious nodes to easily carry out attacks, such as man-in-the-middle attack and denial-of-service attack. To overcome these weaknesses, we propose an anonymous-address-resolution (AS-AR) protocol. AS-AR does not publicize the destination address in the address-resolution process and hides the IP and MAC addresses of the source node. The malicious node cannot obtain the addresses of the destination and the node which initiates the address resolution; thus, it cannot attack. Analyses and experiments show that AS-AR has a higher security level than existing security methods, such as secure-neighbor discovery.

  4. CONTENT-ADDRESSABLE MEMORY SYSTEMS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utility of content -addressable memories (CAM’s) within a general purpose computing system is investigated. Word cells within CAM may be...addressed by the character of all or a part of cell contents . Multimembered sets of word cells may be addressed simultaneously. The distributed logical...capabilities of CAM are extended to allow simultaneous transformation of multimembered sets and to allow communication between neighboring word cells. A

  5. Reclaiming unused IPv4 addresses

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information).   Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...

  6. 2015 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  7. Prevalence situation of emerging parasitic zoonoses in China%我国新发人畜共患寄生虫病的流行现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宏儒; 刘璐; 杨国静

    2013-01-01

    本文介绍了我国主要的新发人畜共患寄生虫病的流行特征,分析了其影响因素,指出当前一些新发病种尚缺乏系统研究和防治措施,具有较大的潜在流行风险,需要引起公共卫生部门进一步的重视.

  8. 人兽共患寄生虫学教学改革与体会%Experience revising the teaching of parasitic zoonoses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包敏; 刘孝刚

    2011-01-01

    The content of a course in parasitic zoonoses was modified to solve practical problems as part of efforts to reform higher education, improve the quality of instruction, and stimulate student interest in learning. The method of instruction was vastly revised and a satisfactory level of effective teaching has been achieved.%为解决高等教学改革中的现实问题,提高教学质量、激发学生的学习兴趣,对人兽共患寄生虫学的教学内容进行了调整,对教学方法进行了大胆的改革与尝试,取得了满意的教学效果.

  9. Introduction to Several Common and Important Zoonoses%常见几种重要人畜共患传染病介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志红; 史喜菊

    2010-01-01

    @@ 人兽共患病一词是自英文Zoonosis(复数Zoonoses)翻译而来.按此词构成的原意来讲是指在自然条件下动物(主要指家畜)的某些传染性疾病可以传染给人的一类疾病.上世纪五六十年代经联合国世界粮农组织(FAO)和世界卫生组织(WHO)的专家委员会的讨论研究,对Zoonoses一词所下的定义是:"Those disease and infections that are:naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and man"(那些在脊椎动物和人之间自然地传播的疾病和感染).

  10. Percepção do risco de zoonoses em pacientes atendidos no Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Martins,Ana Cristina da Costa

    2014-01-01

    As zoonoses Leishmanioses e Esporotricose representam um problema de Saúde Pública no Brasil. Seus fatores epidemiológicos relacionam-se às condições de transmissão como fatores sociodemográficos, culturais, ambientais e geográficos. Desenvolver estratégias de intervenção e investigação coletiva é um enorme desafio, particularmente em países em desenvolvimento, onde as práticas requerem conscientização e participação ativa da população na redução das desigualdades em saúde. Avaliamos a percep...

  11. Entrepreneurship, Emerging Technologies, Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thukral, Inderpreet S.; Von Ehr, James; Groen, Aard J.; Sijde, van der Peter; Adham, Khairul Akmaliah

    2008-01-01

    Academics and practitioners alike have long understood the benefits, if not the risks, of both emerging markets and emerging technologies.Yet it is only recently that foresighted firms have embraced emerging technologies and emerging markets through entrepreneurial activity. Emerging technologies an

  12. Population viscosity suppresses disease emergence by preserving local herd immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reluga, Timothy C; Shim, Eunha

    2014-12-01

    Animal reservoirs for infectious diseases pose ongoing risks to human populations. In this theory of zoonoses, the introduction event that starts an epidemic is assumed to be independent of all preceding events. However, introductions are often concentrated in communities that bridge the ecological interfaces between reservoirs and the general population. In this paper, we explore how the risks of disease emergence are altered by the aggregation of introduction events within bridge communities. In viscous bridge communities, repeated introductions can elevate the local prevalence of immunity. This local herd immunity can form a barrier reducing the opportunities for disease emergence. In some situations, reducing exposure rates counterintuitively increases the emergence hazards because of off-setting reductions in local immunity. Increases in population mixing can also increase emergence hazards, even when average contact rates are conserved. Our theory of bridge communities may help guide prevention and explain historical emergence events, where disruption of stable economic, political or demographic processes reduced population viscosity at ecological interfaces.

  13. A Pedagogy to Address Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Elaine E.

    1993-01-01

    Presents strategies and methods by which writing teachers can openly address the potential problem of plagiarism. Details specific methods used by one teacher to train students how to quote and cite materials without plagiarizing. (HB)

  14. Guidance for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document addresses the types of asbestos issues that may arise during catastrophic events and how EPA has addressed such issues. It replaces the Guidelines for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos which was issued in 1992.

  15. Emerging food-borne parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorny, P; Praet, N; Deckers, N; Gabriel, S

    2009-08-07

    -borne trematode is the lungfluke (Paragonimus spp.). Traditionally, these parasitic zoonoses are most common in Asia because of the particular food practices and the importance of aquaculture. However, some of these parasites may emerge in other continents through aquaculture and improved transportation and distribution systems. Because of inadequate systems for routine diagnosis and monitoring or reporting for many of the zoonotic parasites, the incidence of human disease and parasite occurrence in food is underestimated. Of particular concern in industrialised countries are the highly resistant waterborne protozoal infections as well as the increased travel and immigration, which increase the exposure to exotic diseases. The increased demand for animal proteins in developing countries will lead to an intensification of the production systems in which the risk of zoonotic infections needs to be assessed. Overall, there is an urgent need for better monitoring and control of food-borne parasites using new technologies.

  16. Emergency in Burn; Burn in Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Bayram

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Physicians who first meet with burned patients are often emergency service employees. When the patient was admitted to emergency service, especially in patients with major burn injury, is a matter should be dealt with strongly. Before sending the patients to a burn center, some interventions could became life saving which should be done as a first line treatment. Herein, review of the literature related to emergency burn treatment was performed and presented to all physicians as a summary guide. In addition, some questions such as how should be physician, who first meet with the burned patient, evaluated the patient, what should be physician paid attention, which principles should be employed for fluid replacement, how should be approached to burn wound are tried to be addressed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 365-368

  17. EFSA and ECDC (European Food Safety Authority and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2015. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte

    This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2013 in 32 European countries (28 Member States and four non-Member States). Campylobacter iosis was the most comm...... chain of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma , rabies, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), West Nile Virus and tularaemia....

  18. Evolution and Emergence of Pathogenic Viruses: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Mohammad K; Parveen, Shama

    2017-01-01

    Incidences of emerging/re-emerging deadly viral infections have significantly affected human health despite extraordinary progress in the area of biomedical knowledge. The best examples are the recurring outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya fever in tropical and sub-tropical regions, the recent epidemic of Zika in the Americas and the Caribbean, and the SARS, MERS, and influenza A outbreaks across the globe. The established natural reservoirs of human viruses are mainly farm animals, and, to a lesser extent, wild animals and arthropods. The intricate "host-pathogen-environment" relationship remains the key to understanding the emergence/re-emergence of pathogenic viruses. High population density, rampant constructions, poor sanitation, changing climate, and the introduction of anthropophilic vectors create selective pressure on host-pathogen reservoirs. Nevertheless, the knowledge and understanding of such zoonoses and pathogen diversity in their known non-human reservoirs are very limited. Prevention of arboviral infections using vector control methods has not been very successful. Currently, new approaches to protect against food-borne infections, such as consuming only properly cooked meats and animal products, are the most effective control measures. Though significant progress in controlling human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis viruses has been achieved, the unpredictable nature of evolving viruses and the rare occasions of outbreaks severely hamper control and preventive modalities. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Introduction to IP address management

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Tim

    2010-01-01

    "The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--

  20. Emergency contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morning-after pill; Postcoital contraception; Birth control - emergency; Plan B; Family planning - emergency contraception ... prevents pregnancy in the same way as regular birth control pills: By preventing or delaying the release of an ...

  1. Emerging Hopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China looks to strategically important emerging industries for innovation-driven economic growthc hina will soon announce a decision to rev up seven strategically impor- tant emerging industries,said the National

  2. Emergent Expertise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivern, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The concept of emergence appears in various places within the literature on expertise and expert practice. Here, I examine some of these applications of emergence in the light of two prominent accounts of emergence from the philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. I evaluate these accounts with respect to several specific contexts in which…

  3. 44 CFR 206.119 - Financial assistance to address other needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... address other needs. 206.119 Section 206.119 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY... Assistance to Individuals and Households § 206.119 Financial assistance to address other needs. (a) Purpose... disaster-related necessary expenses or serious needs. To qualify for assistance under this section,...

  4. Geocoding Patient Addresses for Biosurveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Karen L; Kenneth D Mandl

    2002-01-01

    New biosurveillance information systems are being developed to detect clusters of disease using temporal and spatial characteristics. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can use patient addresses stored in hospital information systems to assign latitude and longitude coordinates, enabling the detection of spatial clusters. However, inaccuracy can be introduced during the geocoding process and this could have a profound adverse effect on detection sensitivity. In an analysis of three years ...

  5. Atomic clusters with addressable complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, David J.

    2017-02-01

    A general formulation for constructing addressable atomic clusters is introduced, based on one or more reference structures. By modifying the well depths in a given interatomic potential in favour of nearest-neighbour interactions that are defined in the reference(s), the potential energy landscape can be biased to make a particular permutational isomer the global minimum. The magnitude of the bias changes the resulting potential energy landscape systematically, providing a framework to produce clusters that should self-organise efficiently into the target structure. These features are illustrated for small systems, where all the relevant local minima and transition states can be identified, and for the low-energy regions of the landscape for larger clusters. For a 55-particle cluster, it is possible to design a target structure from a transition state of the original potential and to retain this structure in a doubly addressable landscape. Disconnectivity graphs based on local minima that have no direct connections to a lower minimum provide a helpful way to visualise the larger databases. These minima correspond to the termini of monotonic sequences, which always proceed downhill in terms of potential energy, and we identify them as a class of biminimum. Multiple copies of the target cluster are treated by adding a repulsive term between particles with the same address to maintain distinguishable targets upon aggregation. By tuning the magnitude of this term, it is possible to create assemblies of the target cluster corresponding to a variety of structures, including rings and chains.

  6. Address burnout with a caring, nurturing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    With their hectic schedules and demanding work responsibilities, emergency physicians are particularly vulnerable to symptoms of burnout. One study showed that more than half of emergency providers reported at least one symptom of burnout when they were asked to fill out a survey tool used to measure burnout--more than any other type of provider. It's a concern because physicians experiencing burnout may be less attentive to their patients, and some ultimately choose to leave medicine because they are no longer satisfied with their work. However, there are steps health systems and administrators can take to help physicians who are struggling, and prevent isolated problems from escalating into larger issues. When a national sample of more than 7,200 physicians agreed to take the Maslach Burnout Inventory, a survey tool used to measure burnout, nearly half (45.8%) reported at least one symptom of burnout, and 65% of the emergency providers reported symptoms of burnout. Burnout is not just fatigue. It involves disappointment in a relationship or relationships, and lack of satisfaction or fulfillment with work, according to experts. Symptoms may include moodiness, irritability, sarcasm, and may result in performance issues as well. Further, there may be physical changes such as weight loss or changes in appetite. To prevent or address burnout, experts advise health systems to nurture a caring, collaborative environment, and to make sure that providers have mentors or resources to reach out to if they are experiencing any work-related problems. They also advise administrators to make sure that burnout is a safe topic of conversation.

  7. Emergent arboviruses in Brazil Arboviroses emergentes no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a large tropical country (8,514,215km² with 185,360,000 inhabitants. More than one third of its territory is covered by tropical forests or other natural ecosystems. These provide ideal conditions for the existence of many arboviruses, which are maintained in a large variety of zoonotic cycles. The risk that new arboviruses might emerge in Brazil is related to the existence of large, densely populated cities that are infested by mosquitoes such as Culex and the highly anthropophilic Aedes aegypti. Infected humans or animals may come into these cities from ecological-epidemiological settings where arbovirus zoonoses occur. This study analyzes the risk of emergence of the alphaviruses Mayaro, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Eastern equine encephalitis and Chikungunya; the flaviviruses yellow fever, Rocio, Saint Louis encephalitis and West Nile; and the orthobunyavirus Oropouche.O Brasil é país tropical de grande extensão territorial (8.514.215km² e com 185.360.000 habitantes. Mais de 1/3 deste território é recoberto por florestas tropicais ou outros ecossistemas naturais com condições ideais para a ocorrência de diversas arboviroses as quais são mantidas em uma grande variedade de ciclos zoonóticos. O risco para a emergência de novos arbovirus no Brasil relaciona-se à existência de cidades grandes, populosas e infestadas por mosquitos Culex bem como o altamente antropofílico Aedes aegypti. Nas cidades poderiam ser introduzidos seres humanos ou animais infectados oriundos de sítios eco-epidemiológicos onde existem zoonoses arbovíricas. Neste trabalho, analisa-se o risco de emergência dos alphavirus Mayaro, da encefalite eqüina venezuelana, da encefalite eqüina do leste e Chikungunya, dos flavivirus, da febre amarela, Rocio, da encefalite de Saint Louis e do Nilo Ocidental, e do orthobunyavirus Oropouche.

  8. Wide exposure to Coxiella burnetii in ruminant and feline species living in a natural environment: zoonoses in a human-livestock-wildlife interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, M G; Caballol, A; Atance, P M

    2017-02-01

    Assessment of the role of wild and domestic hosts as potential reservoirs of misdiagnosed zoonoses, such as Q fever by Coxiella burnetii, is an important public health issue today both for wildlife conservation and management of disease in human-livestock-wildlife interface. This study used ELISA, an indirect antibody, to research (2003-2013) C. burnetii infection in seven free-living wild and domestic ruminant species and in European wildcats (Felis silvestris). The animals studied were 0 European wildcats, 21 Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica), 314 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 556 fallow deer (Dama dama), 211 European mouflon (Ovis aries musimon), eight roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 407 bovines (Bos taurus) and 3739 sheep (Ovis aries). All the animals shared the same habitat in the Serranía de Cuenca Natural Park (Castile-La Mancha, Spain). The study area is an example of human-domestic-wildlife interface where people and domestic animals live in close proximity to wildlife. Observed C. burnetii seropositive frequencies were: 33·3% European wildcats, 23·8% Spanish ibex, 22·5% domestic sheep 1·5% red deer, 1·4% European mouflon, 0·24% cattle, 0·18% fallow deer and 0% roe deer. The study found a wide C. burnetii prevalence of previous and present exposure in wild and domestic ruminant hosts in the Serranía de Cuenca Natural Park and reports the first evidence of C. burnetii exposure in free-living European wildcats.

  9. Emergency Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Apel

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for emergency endoscopy is a matter of debate. The time interval for emergency procedures remains to be defined. Most authors propose a time span of 24 h as emergency time, while some define a period of 72 h (especially in acute pancreatitis. Several studies have shown a possible benefit for a select group of patients. Four main indications are established for emergency endoscopy: acute gastrointestinal bleeding (variceal and nonvariceal, acute biliary pancreatitis and acute cholangitis. In the case of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, emergency endoscopy enables exact diagnosis and appropiate therapy, and provides important prognostic information. There is some evidence that emergent endoscopic injection therapy improves clinical outcome and reduces mortality in patients with acute ulcer bleeding. Patients do not benefit if endoscopy is performed only as a diagnostic procedure. Controversial results were published recently for emergency endoscopy in acute biliary pancreatitis. There is good evidence that emergency endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is helpful in patients with severe pancreatitis and stone impaction if performed within the first 24 h after onset of symptoms. However, emergency endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is not benefical for patients with mild pancreatitis if performed later than 72 h (or 24 h after onset of symptoms. There is a limited number of well established evidence-based indications for emergency endoscopy. Some other indications are still a matter of debate, and controversial opinions have been published.

  10. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  11. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating.

  12. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  13. Emergency surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoneham, M; Murray, D; Foss, N

    2014-01-01

    National reports recommended that peri-operative care should be improved for elderly patients undergoing emergency surgery. Postoperative mortality and morbidity rates remain high, and indicate that emergency ruptured aneurysm repair, laparotomy and hip fracture fixation are high-risk procedures...... undertaken on elderly patients with limited physiological reserve. National audits have reported variations in care quality, data that are increasingly being used to drive quality improvement through professional guidance. Given that the number of elderly patients presenting for emergency surgery is likely...

  14. Dental Emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    Domb, Ivor

    1982-01-01

    Emergency dental problems can result from trauma, dental pathology, or from dental treatment itself. While the physician can treat many instances of dental trauma, the patient should see a dentist as soon as possible so that teeth can be saved. Emergency treatment of dental pathology usually involves relief of pain and/or swelling. Bleeding is the most frequent post-treatment emergency. The physician should be able to make the patient comfortable until definitive dental treatment can be avail...

  15. Emerging therapies in rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Alison; Thiboutot, Diane

    2013-12-01

    Rosacea is a common skin disorder with multiple symptoms. The emergence of research that furthers understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms has created new targets for disease treatment. Specifically, there is a need for new treatments that address the various erythematic symptoms associated with rosacea. Systemic and topical therapies have both yielded positive results in treating rosacea with various medications. Subantimicrobial-dose doxycycline is one such promising treatment. Development of novel products in the near future should help achieve more satisfactory outcomes for patients.

  16. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Antimicrobial Resistance and Millennium Development Goals: Resolving the Challenges through One Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, which could severely hamper reaching the targets of millennium development goals (MDG. Five out of the total eight MDG’s are strongly associated with the Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs. Recent emergence and dissemination of drug-resistant pathogens has accelerated and prevent reaching the targets of MDG, with shrinking of therapeutic arsenal, mostly due to antimicrobial resistance (AMR. World Health Organization (WHO has identified AMR as 1 of the 3 greatest threats to global health. Until now, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE have been observed in hospital-acquired infections. In India, within a span of three years, New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase prevalence has risen from three percent in hospitals to twenty- fifty percent and is found to be colistin resistant as well. Routine use of antimicrobials in animal husbandry accounts for more than 50% in tonnage of all antimicrobial production to promote growth and prophylaxis. This has consequences to human health and environmental contamination with a profound impact on the environmental microbiome, resulting in resistance. Antibiotic development is now considered a global health crisis. The average time required to receive regulatory approval is 7.2 years. Moreover, the clinical approval success is only 16%. To overcome resistance in antimicrobials, intersectoral partnerships among medical, veterinary, and environmental disciplines, with specific epidemiological, diagnostic, and therapeutic approaches are needed. Joint efforts under “One Health”, beyond individual professional boundaries are required to stop antimicrobial resistance against zoonoses (EID and reach the MDG.

  17. Chagas' disease: an emergent urban zoonosis. The caracas valley (Venezuela) as an epidemiological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdaneta-Morales, Servio

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented emergence of important public health and veterinary zoonoses is usually a result of exponential population growth and globalization of human activities. I characterized Chagas' disease as an emergent zoonosis in the Caracas Valley (Venezuela) due to the following findings: the presence of reservoirs (Didelphis marsupialis, Rattus rattus) and vectors (Panstrongylus geniculatus, Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus) infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in urbanized or marginalized areas; the elevated contact between P. geniculatus and human beings detected by parasitological and molecular examinations of triatomine feces demonstrated the possibility of transmission risks; a study of outbreaks of urban Chagas' disease reported the first proven case of oral transmission of T. cruzi to human beings; the risk of transmission of glandular metacyclic stages from marsupials by experimental ocular and oral instillation; mice genitalia infected with T. cruzi contaminated blood resulted in the formation of amastigotes very close to the lumen suggesting that there may be a possibility of infection via their release into the urine and thence to the exterior; the ubiquitous histotropism and histopathology of T. cruzi was demonstrated using a mouse model; the presence of experimental T. cruzi pseudocysts in adipose, bone-cartilage, and eye tissue indicated a potential risk for transplants. Socio-sanitary programs that include improvements in housing, vector control, and access to medical treatment, as well as strategies aimed at combating social inequalities, poverty, and underdevelopment should be undertaken in those areas where zoonoses are most prevalent. Disciplines, such as Ecology, Epidemiology, Medical Entomology, Human and Veterinary Medicine, Environmental Studies, Public Health, Social and Political Studies, Immunology, Microbiology, and Pharmacology could all provide important contributions that aim to reduce the occurrence of factors governing the spread of

  18. Chagas’ Disease: An Emergent Urban Zoonosis. The Caracas Valley (Venezuela) as an Epidemiological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdaneta-Morales, Servio

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented emergence of important public health and veterinary zoonoses is usually a result of exponential population growth and globalization of human activities. I characterized Chagas’ disease as an emergent zoonosis in the Caracas Valley (Venezuela) due to the following findings: the presence of reservoirs (Didelphis marsupialis, Rattus rattus) and vectors (Panstrongylus geniculatus, Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus) infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in urbanized or marginalized areas; the elevated contact between P. geniculatus and human beings detected by parasitological and molecular examinations of triatomine feces demonstrated the possibility of transmission risks; a study of outbreaks of urban Chagas’ disease reported the first proven case of oral transmission of T. cruzi to human beings; the risk of transmission of glandular metacyclic stages from marsupials by experimental ocular and oral instillation; mice genitalia infected with T. cruzi contaminated blood resulted in the formation of amastigotes very close to the lumen suggesting that there may be a possibility of infection via their release into the urine and thence to the exterior; the ubiquitous histotropism and histopathology of T. cruzi was demonstrated using a mouse model; the presence of experimental T. cruzi pseudocysts in adipose, bone-cartilage, and eye tissue indicated a potential risk for transplants. Socio-sanitary programs that include improvements in housing, vector control, and access to medical treatment, as well as strategies aimed at combating social inequalities, poverty, and underdevelopment should be undertaken in those areas where zoonoses are most prevalent. Disciplines, such as Ecology, Epidemiology, Medical Entomology, Human and Veterinary Medicine, Environmental Studies, Public Health, Social and Political Studies, Immunology, Microbiology, and Pharmacology could all provide important contributions that aim to reduce the occurrence of factors governing the spread of

  19. Chagas’ disease: an emergent urban zoonosis. The Caracas Valley (Venezuela as an epidemiological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servio eUrdaneta-Morales

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The unprecedented emergence of important public health and veterinary zoonoses is usually a result of exponential population growth and globalization of human activities. I characterized Chagas´ disease as an emergent zoonosis in the Caracas Valley (Venezuela due to the following findings: the presence of reservoirs (Didelphis marsupialis, Rattus rattus and vectors (Panstrongylus geniculatus, P. rufotuberculatus infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in urbanized or marginalized areas; the elevated contact between P. geniculatus and humans detected by parasitological and molecular examinations of triatomine faeces demonstrated the possibility of transmission risks; a study of outbreaks of urban Chagas´ disease reported the first proven cases of oral transmission of T. cruzi to humans; the risk of transmission of glandular metacyclic stages from marsupials by experimental ocular and oral instillation; mice genitalia infected with T. cruzi contaminated blood resulted in the formation of amastigotes very close to the lumen suggesting that there may be a possibility of infection via their release into the urine and thence to the exterior; the ubiquitous histotropism and histopathology of T. cruzi was demonstrated using a mouse model; the presence of experimental T. cruzi pseudocysts in adipose, bone-cartilage and eye tissue indicated a potential risk for transplants. Socio-sanitary programs that include improvements in housing, vector control and access to medical treatment, as well as strategies aimed at combating social inequalities, poverty and underdevelopment should be undertaken in those areas where zoonoses are most prevalent. Disciplines such as Ecology, Epidemiology, Medical Entomology, Human and Veterinary Medicine, Environmental Studies, Public Health, Social and Political Studies, Immunology, Microbiology and Pharmacology, could all provide important contributions that aim to reduce the occurrence of factors governing the spread of emergent

  20. Emergency Shelters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic Larsen, Olga; Lee, Daniel Sang-Hoon; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen;

    2013-01-01

    The report gives all the research, teaching, seminars carried in the duration of the shelter cluster. It concludes with proposing relevant research agendas in the field of emergency architecture......The report gives all the research, teaching, seminars carried in the duration of the shelter cluster. It concludes with proposing relevant research agendas in the field of emergency architecture...

  1. Vascular emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semashko, D C

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews the initial assessment and emergent management of several common as well as uncommon vascular emergencies. Aortic dissection, aneurysms, and arterial occlusive disease are familiar but challenging clinical entities. Less frequently encountered conditions are also discussed including an aortic enteric fistula, mesenteric venous thrombosis, phlegmasia alba dolens, and subclavian vein thrombosis.

  2. Luncheon address: Overcoming communications barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwieger, R.G. [McGraw Hill Energy (USA)

    1999-07-01

    Considering a power plant as more than a fuel-to-electricity station can raise its economic value to its owner and the community at large and solve emissions and discharge problems more holistically. The emerging field of industrial ecology offers a set of organizing principles to do this. This paper reviews the basis for industrial ecology and specifically its relevance to solving problems in the removal of particulates, SO{sub 2} and NOx from power plant flue gas. Highlights from one successful example of industrial ecology worldwide is provided (namely the eco-industrial park in Kalundborg, Denmark with the Asnaes coal-fired power station), along with references to regulatory and technical developments.

  3. Emergency medical services: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelenko, C.; Frey, C.F.

    1976-01-01

    The organization and delivery of emergency care are reviewed in a book based on the judgments of 28 national leaders in various fields. It is noted that acute illness has become a major health problem due to the rapid growth of the United States and the increased demands of consumers for improved medical care. Critical needs in the field of emergency care are identified as communications, prompt and proper rescue handling, rapid and careful transportation of victims, and adequate emergency care at hospitals. The long-term solution to the problem of injury is viewed as prevention through efforts made by educators, industrialists, engineers, public health officials, and private citizens. The statement is made that accidents are exceeded only by heart disease, neoplasms, and cerebral vascular disease as a major cause of death in the United States. The dimensions of the accident problem are explored. Other topics addressed are: motor vehicle trauma and emergency medical services; the provision of emergency care to cardiac patients; medicolegal implications of emergency care; and field treatment and transport of emergency victims. The importance of telecommunications, emergency medical technician training, and public education is stressed. Hospital education and training for emergency department personnel are detailed for physicians and nurses. Functional and design aspects of hospital emergency departments are described, and the role of community planning in the provision of emergency health services is considered. A checklist for airport disaster planning and a Michigan law regarding emergency medical services are appended.

  4. Internationalization of Emerging Economies and Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A contribution to the scarce body of literature on internationalization of emerging economies and their firms. Using a large variety of national contexts, it addresses the advancing business development of new emerging economies and their impact on the process of internationalization of emerging ...... are brought under scrutiny in this volume. The chapters provide insights from diverse contexts ranging from Brazil to Malaysia....

  5. Building Footprints - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Structures/Addresses Framework is a statewide spatial database of structure and address points in the State of Montana. The Montana Structures/Addresses...

  6. Emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Look, P F; von Hertzen, H

    1993-01-01

    The term 'emergency contraception', as employed in this paper, refers to methods that are used as emergency procedures to prevent pregnancy following unprotected intercourse. Alternative, less appropriate, terms are postcoital and 'morning-after' contraception. References to postcoital preparations can be found as far back as 1500 BC in Egyptian papyri, but it was not until fairly recently that contraceptive research has been able to at least partially fulfill that need. The development of hormonal methods of emergency contraception goes back to the 1960s when the first human trials of postcoitally administered high-dose oestrogens were undertaken. Combined oestrogen- progestogen combination therapy (the so-called Yuzpe regimen) was introduced in the early 1970s, while the postcoital insertion of an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) for emergency contraception was first reported in 1976. Other compounds that have been tested more recently include levonorgestrel, the antiprogestogen mifepristone, and danazol. Although there is some debate about the magnitude of the protective effect, few people question the important role that emergency contraception can play in preventing unwanted pregnancy and hence maternal mortality and morbidity resulting from unsafe abortion. Given that the most often used methods of emergency contraception, namely the Yuzpe regimen and postcoital insertion of an IUD, rely on technology that has been available for some 30 years, family planning programmes that claim to be concerned with improving women's reproductive health, cannot really be excused if they do not provide emergency contraception as part of their routine services.

  7. Serological survey of selected canine viral pathogens and zoonoses in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) from Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; Chappuis, G; Soulier, M; Kikuchi, Y

    1998-12-01

    Between 1988 and 1991, 644 serum samples were collected from 480 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and 40 black bears (Ursus americanus) from Alaska, United States of America, and were tested for selected canine viral infections and zoonoses. Antibody prevalence in grizzly bears was 0% for parvovirus, 8.3% (40/480) for distemper, 14% (68/480) for infectious hepatitis, 16.5% (79/480) for brucellosis, 19% (93/480) for tularaemia and 47% (225/478) for trichinellosis. In black bears, prevalence ranged from 0% for distemper and parvovirus to 27.5% for trichinellosis and 32% for tularaemia. Antibody prevalence for brucellosis (2.5%) and tularaemia (32%) were identical for grizzly bears and black bears from the geographical area of interior Alaska. Links between differences in prevalence and the origin of the grizzly bears were observed. Antibodies to canine distemper virus and infectious hepatitis virus were mainly detected in grizzly bears from Kodiak Island and the Alaskan Peninsula. Brucellosis antibodies were prevalent in grizzly bears from western and northern Alaska, whereas tularaemia antibodies were detected in grizzly bears from interior Alaska and the Arctic. There was a strong gradient for antibodies to Trichinella spp. from southern to northern Alaska. For most diseases, antibody prevalence increased with age. However, for several infections, no antibodies were detected in grizzly bears aged from 0 to 2 years, in contrast to the presence of those infections in black bears. Grizzly bears served as excellent sentinels for surveillance of zoonotic infections in wildlife in Alaska.

  8. Eye emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eds. Duane's Foundations of Clinical Ophthalmology . Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2013:vol. 3, chap 6. ... Practice of Emergency Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009:chap 54-61. Sharma R, ...

  9. Emergency Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the pill that contains ulipristal acetate reduces the risk of pregnancy more effectively than pills that contain levonorgestrel.It is important to remember that emergency contraceptive pills will not prevent pregnancy if you have ...

  10. Big data, little security: Addressing security issues in your platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Thomas; Mathews, Joseph

    2017-05-01

    This paper describes some patterns for information security problems that consistently emerge among traditional enterprise networks and applications, both with respect to cyber threats and data sensitivity. We draw upon cases from qualitative studies and interviews of system developers, network operators, and certifiers of military applications. Specifically, the problems discussed involve sensitivity of data aggregates, training efficacy, and security decision support in the human machine interface. While proven techniques can address many enterprise security challenges, we provide additional recommendations on how to further improve overall security posture, and suggest additional research thrusts to address areas where known gaps remain.

  11. Viral metagenomics as an emerging and powerful tool in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomström, Anne-Lie

    2011-09-01

    New diseases continue to emerge in both human and animal populations, and the importance of animals, as reservoirs for viruses that can cause zoonoses are evident. Thus, an increased knowledge of the viral flora in animals, both in healthy and diseased individuals, is important both for animal and human health. Viral metagenomics is a culture-independent approach that is used to investigate the complete viral genetic populations of a sample. This review describes and discusses the different possible steps of a viral metagenomic study utilizing sequence-independent amplification, high-throughput sequencing, and bioinformatics to identify viruses. With this technology, multiple viruses can be detected simultaneously and novel and highly divergent viruses can be discovered and genetically characterized for the first time. This review also briefly discusses the applications of viral metagenomics in veterinary science and lists some of the viruses discovered within this field.

  12. Emerging boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a processual ontology for the emergence of man-made, linear boundaries across northwestern Europe, particularly in the first millennium BC. Over a significant period of time, these boundaries became new ways of organizing the landscape and settlements—a phenomenon that has...... of this phenomenon emerged along equivalent trajectories. At the same time, variation in the regional incorporation of these linear phenomena points toward situation-specific applications and independent development....

  13. Dermatologic emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Simón Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatologic emergencies represent about 8–20% of the diseases seen in the Emergency Department of hospitals. It is often a challenge for primary care physicians to differentiate mundane skin ailments from more serious, life threatening conditions that require immediate intervention. In this review we included the following conditions: Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrosis, pemphigus vulgaris, toxic shock syndrome, fasciitis necrotising, angioedema/urticaria, meningococcemia, Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

  14. Emerging images

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.

    2009-01-01

    Emergence refers to the unique human ability to aggregate information from seemingly meaningless pieces, and to perceive a whole that is meaningful. This special skill of humans can constitute an effective scheme to tell humans and machines apart. This paper presents a synthesis technique to generate images of 3D objects that are detectable by humans, but difficult for an automatic algorithm to recognize. The technique allows generating an infinite number of images with emerging figures. Our algorithm is designed so that locally the synthesized images divulge little useful information or cues to assist any segmentation or recognition procedure. Therefore, as we demonstrate, computer vision algorithms are incapable of effectively processing such images. However, when a human observer is presented with an emergence image, synthesized using an object she is familiar with, the figure emerges when observed as a whole. We can control the difficulty level of perceiving the emergence effect through a limited set of parameters. A procedure that synthesizes emergence images can be an effective tool for exploring and understanding the factors affecting computer vision techniques. © 2009 ACM.

  15. EMERGENCY CALLS

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    IN URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVA EMERGENCY SERVICES GENEVA AND VAUD 144 FIRE BRIGADE 118 POLICE 117 CERN FIREMEN 767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 01-251-51-51 Patient not fit to be moved, call family doctor, or: GP AT HOME, open 24h/24h 748-49-50 Association Of Geneva Doctors Emergency Doctors at home 07h-23h 322 20 20 Patient fit to be moved: HOPITAL CANTONAL CENTRAL 24 Micheli-du-Crest 372-33-11 ou 382-33-11 EMERGENCIES 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy-Donzé 372-33-11 MATERNITY 32 bvd.de la Cluse 382-68-16 ou 382-33-11 OPHTHALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 MEDICAL CENTRE CORNAVIN 1-3 rue du Jura 345 45 50 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin EMERGENCIES 719-61-11 URGENCES PEDIATRIQUES 719-61-00 LA TOUR MEDICAL CENTRE 719-74-00 European Emergency Call 112 FRANCE EMERGENCY SERVICES 15 FIRE BRIGADE 18 POLICE 17 CERN FIREMEN AT HOME 00-41-22-767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 04-72-11-69-11 All doctors ...

  16. Anorectal emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2016-07-14

    Anorectal emergencies refer to anorectal disorders presenting with some alarming symptoms such as acute anal pain and bleeding which might require an immediate management. This article deals with the diagnosis and management of common anorectal emergencies such as acutely thrombosed external hemorrhoid, thrombosed or strangulated internal hemorrhoid, bleeding hemorrhoid, bleeding anorectal varices, anal fissure, irreducible or strangulated rectal prolapse, anorectal abscess, perineal necrotizing fasciitis (Fournier gangrene), retained anorectal foreign bodies and obstructing rectal cancer. Sexually transmitted diseases as anorectal non-surgical emergencies and some anorectal emergencies in neonates are also discussed. The last part of this review dedicates to the management of early complications following common anorectal procedures that may present as an emergency including acute urinary retention, bleeding, fecal impaction and anorectal sepsis. Although many of anorectal disorders presenting in an emergency setting are not life-threatening and may be successfully treated in an outpatient clinic, an accurate diagnosis and proper management remains a challenging problem for clinicians. A detailed history taking and a careful physical examination, including digital rectal examination and anoscopy, is essential for correct diagnosis and plan of treatment. In some cases, some imaging examinations, such as endoanal ultrasonography and computerized tomography scan of whole abdomen, are required. If in doubt, the attending physicians should not hesitate to consult an expert e.g., colorectal surgeon about the diagnosis, proper management and appropriate follow-up.

  17. Programming chemistry in DNA-addressable bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellermann, Harold; Cardelli, Luca

    2014-10-06

    We present a formal calculus, termed the chemtainer calculus, able to capture the complexity of compartmentalized reaction systems such as populations of possibly nested vesicular compartments. Compartments contain molecular cargo as well as surface markers in the form of DNA single strands. These markers serve as compartment addresses and allow for their targeted transport and fusion, thereby enabling reactions of previously separated chemicals. The overall system organization allows for the set-up of programmable chemistry in microfluidic or other automated environments. We introduce a simple sequential programming language whose instructions are motivated by state-of-the-art microfluidic technology. Our approach integrates electronic control, chemical computing and material production in a unified formal framework that is able to mimic the integrated computational and constructive capabilities of the subcellular matrix. We provide a non-deterministic semantics of our programming language that enables us to analytically derive the computational and constructive power of our machinery. This semantics is used to derive the sets of all constructable chemicals and supermolecular structures that emerge from different underlying instruction sets. Because our proofs are constructive, they can be used to automatically infer control programs for the construction of target structures from a limited set of resource molecules. Finally, we present an example of our framework from the area of oligosaccharide synthesis.

  18. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  19. Brucellosis as an emerging threat in developing economies: lessons from Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie J Ducrotoy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, has a large proportion of the world's poor livestock keepers, and is a hotspot for neglected zoonoses. A review of the 127 accessible publications on brucellosis in Nigeria reveals only scant and fragmented evidence on its spatial and temporal distribution in different epidemiological contexts. The few bacteriological studies conducted demonstrate the existence of Brucella abortus in cattle and sheep, but evidence for B. melitensis in small ruminants is dated and unclear. The bulk of the evidence consists of seroprevalence studies, but test standardization and validation are not always adequately described, and misinterpretations exist with regard to sensitivity and/or specificity and ability to identify the infecting Brucella species. Despite this, early studies suggest that although brucellosis was endemic in extensive nomadic systems, seroprevalence was low, and brucellosis was not perceived as a real burden; recent studies, however, may reflect a changing trend. Concerning human brucellosis, no studies have identified the Brucella species and most reports provide only serological evidence of contact with Brucella in the classical risk groups; some suggest brucellosis misdiagnoses as malaria or other febrile conditions. The investigation of a severe outbreak that occurred in the late 1970s describes the emergence of animal and human disease caused by the settling of previously nomadic populations during the Sahelian drought. There appears to be an increasing risk of re-emergence of brucellosis in sub-Saharan Africa, as a result of the co-existence of pastoralist movements and the increase of intensive management resulting from growing urbanization and food demand. Highly contagious zoonoses like brucellosis pose a threat with far-reaching social and political consequences.

  20. Brucellosis as an emerging threat in developing economies: lessons from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Marie J; Bertu, Wilson J; Ocholi, Reuben A; Gusi, Amahyel M; Bryssinckx, Ward; Welburn, Sue; Moriyón, Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, has a large proportion of the world's poor livestock keepers, and is a hotspot for neglected zoonoses. A review of the 127 accessible publications on brucellosis in Nigeria reveals only scant and fragmented evidence on its spatial and temporal distribution in different epidemiological contexts. The few bacteriological studies conducted demonstrate the existence of Brucella abortus in cattle and sheep, but evidence for B. melitensis in small ruminants is dated and unclear. The bulk of the evidence consists of seroprevalence studies, but test standardization and validation are not always adequately described, and misinterpretations exist with regard to sensitivity and/or specificity and ability to identify the infecting Brucella species. Despite this, early studies suggest that although brucellosis was endemic in extensive nomadic systems, seroprevalence was low, and brucellosis was not perceived as a real burden; recent studies, however, may reflect a changing trend. Concerning human brucellosis, no studies have identified the Brucella species and most reports provide only serological evidence of contact with Brucella in the classical risk groups; some suggest brucellosis misdiagnoses as malaria or other febrile conditions. The investigation of a severe outbreak that occurred in the late 1970s describes the emergence of animal and human disease caused by the settling of previously nomadic populations during the Sahelian drought. There appears to be an increasing risk of re-emergence of brucellosis in sub-Saharan Africa, as a result of the co-existence of pastoralist movements and the increase of intensive management resulting from growing urbanization and food demand. Highly contagious zoonoses like brucellosis pose a threat with far-reaching social and political consequences.

  1. Addressing resistance to antibiotics in systematic reviews of antibiotic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovici, Leonard; Paul, Mical; Garner, Paul; Sinclair, David J; Afshari, Arash; Pace, Nathan Leon; Cullum, Nicky; Williams, Hywel C; Smyth, Alan; Skoetz, Nicole; Del Mar, Chris; Schilder, Anne G M; Yahav, Dafna; Tovey, David

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotics are among the most important interventions in healthcare. Resistance of bacteria to antibiotics threatens the effectiveness of treatment. Systematic reviews of antibiotic treatments often do not address resistance to antibiotics even when data are available in the original studies. This omission creates a skewed view, which emphasizes short-term efficacy and ignores the long-term consequences to the patient and other people. We offer a framework for addressing antibiotic resistance in systematic reviews. We suggest that the data on background resistance in the original trials should be reported and taken into account when interpreting results. Data on emergence of resistance (whether in the body reservoirs or in the bacteria causing infection) are important outcomes. Emergence of resistance should be taken into account when interpreting the evidence on antibiotic treatment in randomized controlled trials or systematic reviews.

  2. A stakeholder-informed approach to the identification of criteria for the prioritization of zoonoses in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Ng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zoonotic diseases account for over 60% of all communicable diseases causing illness in humans and 75% of recently emerging infectious diseases. As limited resources are available for the control and prevention of zoonotic diseases, it is necessary to prioritize diseases in order to direct resources into those with the greatest needs. The selection of criteria for prioritization has traditionally been on the basis of expert opinion; however, details of the methods used to identify criteria from expert opinion often are not published and a full range of criteria may not be captured by expert opinion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used six focus groups to identify criteria for the prioritization of zoonotic diseases in Canada. Focus groups included people from the public, animal health professionals and human health professionals. A total of 59 criteria were identified for prioritizing zoonotic diseases. Human-related criteria accounted for the highest proportion of criteria identified (55%, followed by animal-related criteria (26% then pathogen/disease-related criteria (19%. Similarities and differences were observed in the identification and scoring of criteria for disease prioritization between groups; the public groups were strongly influenced by the individual-level of disease burden, the responsibility of the scientific community in disease prioritization and the experiences of recent events while the professional groups were influenced by the societal- and population-level of disease burden and political and public pressure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This was the first study to describe a mixed semi-quantitative and qualitative approach to deriving criteria for disease prioritization. This was also the first study to involve the opinion of the general public regarding disease prioritization. The number of criteria identified highlights the difficulty in prioritizing zoonotic diseases. The method presented in this

  3. A WiFi public address system for disaster management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Nicholas; Palmer, Douglas A; Lenert, Leslie A

    2006-01-01

    The WiFi Bullhorn is designed to assist emergency workers in the event of a disaster situation by offering a rapidly configurable wireless of public address system for disaster sites. The current configuration plays either pre recorded or custom recorded messages and utilizes 802.11b networks for communication. Units can be position anywhere wireless coverage exists to help manage crowds or to recall first responders from dangerous areas.

  4. Hematologic emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Vallisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the surprising progress made in other areas of hematology (advances in the understanding of leukemogenesis, improved transplant techniques has been conspicuously absent in the management of hematologic emergencies. And yet, every step toward greater knowledge, every new treatment option will be of little value unless we are able to manage the acute complications of hematologic diseases. These complications are better defined as hematologic emergencies, and they are characterized by a high rate of mortality. This review is based on a search of the literature that was initially confined to articles published in the journal Hematology from 2000 to 2009. The search was then extended to the Cochrane Library and to Pub Med in February 2010 with the following Keywords emergencies; urgencies; hematology. The same key words were employed in a search of the archives of Blood and the New England Journal of Medicine from 2000 to 2010. The results confirm that hematologic emergencies can be caused by hematologic malignancies as well as by non-neoplastic hematologic diseases. Within the former category; this review examines the causes; manifestations; treatment and prevention of disseminated intravascular coagulation; superior vena caval syndrome; spinal cord compression; tumor lysis syndrome; hyperleukocytosis; and hypercalcemia. We also review emergency situations associated with non-neoplatic haematological diseases; such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; drug-induced hemolytic anemia; and acute sickle-cell crisis.

  5. Transformation of accounting business processes in emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Gritsyshen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the transformation of the accounting business processes in emergency situations. The models identify the consequences of emergencies, which is the basis for the transformation of the elements method of accounting, to address the consequences of emergencies isolation from the totality of objects of accounting and determine the properties that affect decision-making. Designed identify complex patterns of consequences of emergencies, allows accounting system to generate information that allows for a set of properties consequences of emergencies, and management decisions taking into account complex factors. Determined the possible consequences of emergency situations for individual objects accounting, information resources, which are accounts of accounting and financial reporting indicators.

  6. Emergency preparedness

    CERN Document Server

    Cennini, E; Oortman Gerlings, P

    2009-01-01

    On September 19th 2008, a technical fault was at the centre of a sequence of events which hampered the performance of certain equipments of the LHC 3-4 sector. Once the first effects of this sequence of events were detected, the behaviour of the CERN staff confronted to this complex and critical situation became the centre of the risk control process. During such a downward spiral the preparation of all stakeholders is essential and should respect the (apparently) basic principles of emergency preparedness. Preparedness towards normal operation of CERN facilities towards minor up to major emergency situations will be presented. The main technical, organisational and legal frameworks of the CERN emergency preparedness will be recalled, highlighting the CERN risk management and risk control strategy. Then, the sequence of events experienced by different stakeholders on September 19th will be reported, thus starting the learned lessons process.

  7. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    multi-platform drilling of the Nankai seismogenic zone. Scientific initiatives are flourishing to drive IODP towards the study of submarine geohazards. In the last three years international workshops, were held to address the topic: ESF-ECORD sponsored a Magellan Workshop focussed on submarine landslides (Barcelona, Spain, 2006); IODP sponsored a world-wide Geohazard Workshop (Portland, Oregon, 2007); ESF-ECORD sponsored another Magellan Workshop focussed on Mediterranean submarine geohazards (Luleå, Sweden, 2008). In addition, following the ECORD-Net Conference on the Deep Sea Frontier (Naples, Italy, 2006), the history, monitoring and prediction of geohazards was identified as one of the 6 major areas for a European science plan to integrate Ocean Drilling, Ocean Margin, and Seabed research. More than 200 scientists and private companies representatives have been mobilized world-wide to attend these meetings, from where it emerged that Ocean Drilling will play a key role in the future to answer the following basic open questions on submarine geohazards: - What is the frequency, magnitude, and distribution of geohazard events? - Do precursory phenomena exist and can they be recognized? - What are the physical and mechanical properties of materials prone to failure? - What are the roles of preconditioning vs. triggering in rapid seafloor deformation? - Can the tsunamigenic potential of past and future events be assessed? Within the global-ocean geohazards, worth of note is the attention given in this preparatory phase to submarine geohazards in the Mediterranean basin, a miniature ocean often called a "natural laboratory" because of the diversity of geological environments it contains. The coastline is very densely-populated, totalling 160 million inhabitants sharing 46,000 km of coastline. The Mediterranean is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving an average of 135 million visitors annually. Submarine landslides, volcanic flank collapses, volcanic island

  8. EMERGING MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE CARALICEA-MĂRCULESCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The emerging markets are winning the currency war, because at this very moment its the battle of global financial institutions , as to who is more vulnerable and more exposed to the debt crisis and have their hands in more risky assets. US and Euro with their intertwining the financial stuff of the nation, the banks and the corporations are in a deep mess. One goes down, takes the other ones too. Right now , they all are struggling and getting beaten up , while the emerging markets are quiet and not really expressing their stands on the current situation except are reacting by all only putting their own houses in order.

  9. 75 FR 28810 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Addressing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... Concerns in India, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) GH10-002, Initial Review In accordance with... to ``Addressing Emerging Infectious Diseases and Related Public Health Concerns in India,'' FOA...

  10. What is an address in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available numbers inside the security estate and therefore these addresses are not necessarily part of the municipal address database. If a person inside such a security estate wants to open a financial account, how can one verify that their address is valid? A... African addresses’, subsequently given the designation SANS 1883. The aim of the standard is not to devise a new system of addressing or to build a national address database, but rather to enable interoperability in address data sets and geographical...

  11. Threats and Re-emergence of Chickungunya Fever in Indian Sub-continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahajan S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses are among the most frequent and dreaded risk to which mankind is exposed today, human health is inextricably linked to animal health and production. Over the past 6 years, a number of zoonotic and vector borne viral diseases were recorded in South-east Asia and the Western Pacific and there was sudden upsurge in the number of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases in Indian Sub-continent and Chikungunya fever is one of them. The precise reasons for the re-emergence of Chikungunya in the Indian subcontinent as well as the other small countries in the southern Indian Ocean are an enigma. Although, it is well recognized that re-emergence of viral infections are due to a variety of social, environmental, behavioural and biological changes, which of these contributed to the re-emergence of Chikungunya virus would be interesting to unravel. Chikungunya is generally spread through bites of infected mosquitoes; mosquitoes become infected when they feed on a animal infected with CHIK virus. Monkey and possibly other wild animals may serve as reservoirs of infection. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 40-42

  12. Emergency management: e-learning as an immediate response to veterinary training needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Alessandrini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary training plays a crucial role in increasing effectiveness of veterinary response to epidemic and non-epidemic emergencies. Being able to assess learning needs and to deliver training is acknowledged as a strategic priority in veterinary public health activities. The validation of an e-learning system that is able to respond to the urgent needs of veterinary professionals to ensure the despatch of rapid teaching methods on emerging and re-emerging animal diseases and zoonoses was the core of a research project developed in the Mediterranean Basin between 2005 and 2009. The project validated a new transferable, sustainable and repeatable learning model, the main components of which are described. The model is applied to an emergency situation that occurred in Italy in 2008, when West Nile disease outbreaks were reported in northern Italy. Approximately 450 official veterinarians were trained, using an e-learning system that showed adaptability and effectiveness in transferring knowledge, skills and competence to face the situation. The case was used to validate the effectiveness of the model and proved that it can be applied in any emergency situation, i.e. every time that rapid dissemination of knowledge and skills is required.

  13. Emerging Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Breinbjerg, Morten; Pold, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine how materiality emerges from complex chains of mediation in creative software use. The primarily theoretical argument is inspired and illustrated by interviews with two composers of electronic music. The authors argue that computer mediated activity should not primarily...

  14. Emergency control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Caprio, U.

    1982-01-01

    The main trends in the development of techniques presently used for emergency control of electric power systems are illustrated, from load-shedding to islanding, generator control, automatic reclosure of circuits, reactive power control and auxiliary aids in the control centers. Methods for improving the design criteria are reviewed. 61 refs.

  15. Emergency Preparedness

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The trends of RPC work in the area of preparedness for nuclear and radiological accidents are listed. RPC in cooperation with Swedish Government developed the project on preparation for iodine prophylaxis in case of accident at Ignalina NPP and arranged seminar on emergency preparedness issues in 2001.

  16. Emergency Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It works because the copper prevents sperm from swimming or functioning well. While more expensive than ECPs, an IUD is the most effective type of emergency contraception. It also can prevent future pregnancies for up to 12 years after insertion. How ...

  17. Thyroid emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Joanna; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2012-03-01

    This review presents current knowledge about the thyroid emergencies known as myxedema coma and thyrotoxic storm. Understanding the pathogenesis of these conditions, appropriate recognition of the clinical signs and symptoms, and their prompt and accurate diagnosis and treatment are crucial in optimizing survival.

  18. Studying Emerge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; Selin, Cynthia; Rodegher, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The Emerge event, held in Tempe, AZ in March 2012, brought together a range of scientists, artists, futurists, engineers and students in order to experiment with innovative methods for thinking about the future. These methodological techniques were tested through nine workshops, each of which made...

  19. Emergence delirium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Louise; Andersen, Lars Peter Holst; Gögenur, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Emergence delirium (ED) is a well-known phenomenon in the postoperative period. However, the literature concerning this clinical problem is limited. This review evaluates the literature with respect to epidemiology and risk factors. Treatment strategies are discussed. The review concludes...

  20. Postmodern Emergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a work-in-progress in which the author will begin to articulate the elements of a new methodology that she is calling, for the moment, a methodology of postmodern emergence. She explores this approach through examples from her own research journals that follow her research-in-process and from observing student work-in-progress. She…

  1. Public health approach to address maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sanjay K; Anand, K; Misra, Puneet; Kant, Shashi; Upadhyay, Ravi Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Reducing maternal mortality is one of the major challenges to health systems worldwide, more so in developing countries that account for nearly 99% of these maternal deaths. Lack of a standard method for reporting of maternal death poses a major hurdle in making global comparisons. Currently much of the focus is on documenting the "number" of maternal deaths and delineating the "medical causes" behind these deaths. There is a need to acknowledge the social correlates of maternal deaths as well. Investigating and in-depth understanding of each maternal death can provide indications on practical ways of addressing the problem. Death of a mother has serious implications for the child as well as other family members and to prevent the same, a comprehensive approach is required. This could include providing essential maternal care, early management of complications and good quality intrapartum care through the involvement of skilled birth attendants. Ensuring the availability, affordability, and accessibility of quality maternal health services, including emergency obstetric care (EmOC) would prove pivotal in reducing the maternal deaths. To increase perceived seriousness of the community regarding maternal health, a well-structured awareness campaign is needed with importance be given to avoid adolescent pregnancy as well. Initiatives like Janani Surakhsha Yojna (JSY) that have the potential to improve maternal health needs to be strengthened. Quality assessments should form an essential part of all services that are directed toward improving maternal health. Further, emphasis needs to be given on research by involving multiple allied partners, with the aim to develop a prioritized, coordinated, and innovative research agenda for women's health.

  2. Public health approach to address maternal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K Rai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing maternal mortality is one of the major challenges to health systems worldwide, more so in developing countries that account for nearly 99% of these maternal deaths. Lack of a standard method for reporting of maternal death poses a major hurdle in making global comparisons. Currently much of the focus is on documenting the "number" of maternal deaths and delineating the "medical causes" behind these deaths. There is a need to acknowledge the social correlates of maternal deaths as well. Investigating and in-depth understanding of each maternal death can provide indications on practical ways of addressing the problem. Death of a mother has serious implications for the child as well as other family members and to prevent the same, a comprehensive approach is required. This could include providing essential maternal care, early management of complications and good quality intrapartum care through the involvement of skilled birth attendants. Ensuring the availability, affordability, and accessibility of quality maternal health services, including emergency obstetric care (EmOC would prove pivotal in reducing the maternal deaths. To increase perceived seriousness of the community regarding maternal health, a well-structured awareness campaign is needed with importance be given to avoid adolescent pregnancy as well. Initiatives like Janani Surakhsha Yojna (JSY that have the potential to improve maternal health needs to be strengthened. Quality assessments should form an essential part of all services that are directed toward improving maternal health. Further, emphasis needs to be given on research by involving multiple allied partners, with the aim to develop a prioritized, coordinated, and innovative research agenda for women′s health.

  3. 77 FR 48429 - Commission Address Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION 29 CFR Parts 2700, 2701, 2702, 2704, 2705, 2706 Commission Address Change AGENCY... to inform the public of the address change. DATES: This final rule will take effect on August 27... because the amendments are of a minor and administrative nature dealing with only a change in address....

  4. Financial Services and Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Karreman (Bas)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis study addresses the organization and strategy of firms in emerging markets with an explicit application to financial services. Given the relevance of a well-functioning financial system for economic growth, understanding the organization and strategy of firms contributing to the dev

  5. Workplace violence in emergency medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chatterjee*

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Violence against ED health care workers is a real problem with significant implications to the victims, patients, and departments/institutions. ED WPV needs to be addressed urgently by stakeholders through continued research on effective interventions specific to Emergency Medicine. Coordination, cooperation, and active commitment to the development of such interventions are critical.

  6. 46 CFR 199.80 - Muster list and emergency instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assigned to members of the crew in relation to passengers and other persons on board in case of an... the general emergency alarm system and public address system; (2) The emergency signals; (3)...

  7. Emerging Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter

    South Korean and Taiwanese brands have long been household names. Today, however, the names of transnational companies (TNCs) from an increasingly diverse set of emerging and developing economies are regularly making if not the dinner table conversation then at least the headlines of the internat......South Korean and Taiwanese brands have long been household names. Today, however, the names of transnational companies (TNCs) from an increasingly diverse set of emerging and developing economies are regularly making if not the dinner table conversation then at least the headlines......859 billion in 2003, up from USD129 billion in 1990, and has increased 11 times since 1985. A limited number of recent studies do exist, though (e.g. Cai 1999; Lecraw 1993; van Hoesel 1999; Tolentino 1993; Andreff 2003; Chudnovsky and López 2000; Bulatov 1998, Yeung 2000). Furthermore, academic...

  8. Emergency Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemzell-Danielsson K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been numerous attempts to control fertility after unprotected sexual intercourse. From very bizarre methods like the vaginal application of Coca Cola to the more serious attempts using calcium antagonists influencing fertility parameters in sperm to hormonal methods or intrauterine devices. So far, hormonal methods preventing or delaying ovulation have proved to be the most popular starting with the combination of ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel, known as the Yuzpe regimen. The first dose had to be taken within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse, a second one 12 hours later. Later on, levonorgestrel alone, at first in a regimen similar to the Yuzpe method (2 × 0.75 mg 12 hours apart showed to be more successful, eventually resulting in the development of a 1.5 mg levonorgestrel pill that combined good efficacy with a high ease of use. It has become the standard method used up to this day in most countries. Since the mid 1970s copper IUDs have been used for emergency contraception, which show a high efficacy. Their disadvantages lie in the fact that emergency contraception is considered an off label use and that they might not be acceptable for every patient. Mifepristone in doses of 10 or 25 mg is being used successfully as an emergency contraceptive in China, but has never received any significant consideration in Western countries. The most recent development is the approval of the selective progesterone receptor modulator ulipristal acetate in the dosage of 30 mg for emergency contraception up to 5 days after unprotected intercourse, combining the safe and easy application of the single dose levonorgestrel pill with an even higher efficacy. Several efficacious and easy to use methods for emergency contraception are available on the market today with the most widely spread being levonorgestrel in a single dose of 1.5 mg (given as one tablet of 1.5 mg or 2 tablets of 0.75 mg each for administration up to 3 days after

  9. The New ASERVIC Competencies for Addressing Spiritual and Religious Issues in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashwell, Craig S.; Watts, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, leaders in the Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling (ASERVIC) developed new competencies for addressing spiritual and religious issues in counseling. This article briefly addresses the need for new ASERVIC competencies, provides an overview of the process whereby the new competencies emerged, and concludes…

  10. Emerging Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Salgar, S. M.

    2004-01-01

    Phenomenal advancements have taken place in the field of Information and communication technologies in the last decade. Spectacular and innovative changes are expected to take place in these fields in coming decade. Networking technologies are going through a sea change. This paper enumerates the likely networking technologies which are emerging, particularly WLANs. Most of the personal communication in the country will be through cellular/ mobile technologies, which are also covered in the p...

  11. Emerging jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Weiler, Andreas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  12. Emerging Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Schwaller, Pedro; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilit...

  13. Professional Emergence on Transnational Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    they are conceptually linked by actors and organizations. A linked ecologies approach asks us to displace locating known actors within structures and instead pays attention to professional interactions on how ‘issue distinctions’ are made, the relationship between issue distinctions and professional tasks, and who......Addressing complex transnational problems requires coordination from different professionals. The emergence of new actors and issues has been addressed by those interested in studies of organizations through concepts and methods that highlight the importance of communities, fields, and networks....... These approaches are important in identifying the sources of what becomes established, but less geared to identifying interactions that are emergent. This article extends a linked ecologies approach to emergence, arguing that interaction on transnational issues should first be understood by how...

  14. Emerging Technologies for Software-Reliant Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    2011 Carnegie Mellon University Emerging Technologies for Software -Reliant Systems Grace A. Lewis glewis@sei.cmu.edu SEI Webinar February 24, 2011...FEB 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Emerging Technologies for Software -Reliant Systems 5a...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Carnegie Mellon University , Software Engineering Institute,Pittsburgh,PA,15213 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  15. Bats and Emerging Infections: An Ecological and Virological Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Cobo, Jordi; López-Roig, Marc

    2016-10-09

    More than 200 viruses have been detected in bats. Some unique bat characteristics can explain the roles played in the maintenance and transmission of viruses: long phylogenetic history can have originated coevolution processes, great number of species are adapted to live in different environments, big mobility, long lifespan and gregarious behaviour of many species.To analyse zoonoses long longitudinal studies are needed with a multidisciplinary approximation to obtain the following eco-epidemiological data: colony size, number of bats per species, population structure, behaviour of each species, degree of contact between bats, social structure, remaining time of bats in the colony, colony type, foraging area, turnover rate of individuals, shelter temperature, relationship with other colonies and co-infection processes. These data allows assessing the epidemiological risk and which preventive measures are necessary to take.The structure and functionality of ecosystems are changing worldwide at an unprecedented rate and can modify the interactions between humans and infected bats. There are more or less local factors that can affect the emergence and spread of diseases (environmental alterations, changes in land use, human population growth, changes in human socioeconomic behavior or social structure, people mobility increase, trade increase, forest fires, extreme weather events, wars, breakdown in public health infrastructure, etc.).Twenty-three percent of all bat species in the world are decreasing. How does the regression of bat species affect the dynamic of viruses? The dichotomy between health risk and bat preservation is compatible with a preventive task based on more information and training.

  16. Is it an Emergency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency 101 Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Is it an Emergency? Medical emergencies can be frightening and ... situation. Here you can find information about emergencies. It is essential to know how to recognize the ...

  17. Emerging Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter

    South Korean and Taiwanese brands have long been household names. Today, however, the names of transnational companies (TNCs) from an increasingly diverse set of emerging and developing economies are regularly making if not the dinner table conversation then at least the headlines...... of the international business press. This reflects that companies such as Mittal and Tata (India), China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), Haier and Lenovo (PRC), Embraer (Brazil), SAPMiller (South Africa), and Cemex (Mexico) are foraying ever deeper into the international economy and increasingly investing...

  18. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution.

  19. IP Address Management Principles and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    This book will be the first covering the subject of IP address management (IPAM). The practice of IPAM includes the application of network management disciplines to IP address space and associated network services, namely DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) and DNS (Domain Name System). The consequence of inaccurately configuring DHCP is that end users may not be able to obtain IP addresses to access the network. Without proper DNS configuration, usability of the network will greatly suffer as the name-to-address lookup process may fail. Imagine having to navigate to a website or send a

  20. Avian zoonoses – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozdruń Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Birds are one of the most interesting and most colourful groups of animals, but they can also be a source of zoonotic factors dangerous for humans. This paper describes the threats to human health from contact with birds. The most vulnerable occupational groups associated with birds are veterinarians, owners of poultry farms, breeders of ornamental birds, zoo personnel, and poultry slaughterhouse workers. Ornithosis is the most dangerous zoonosis of the avian bacterial diseases. Among other hazardous bacterial factors, Salmonella and Campylobacter are responsible for gastrointestinal diseases. Avian influenza is the most dangerous of the viral diseases. It should be noted, however, that avian influenza is a disease of birds, not humans. The recent threat which has appeared is infection with West Nile virus. The results of serological examinations of birds and humans indicate that the virus exists in our ecosystem. Allergic alveolitis connected with the pigeon tick and the Dermanyssus gallinae mite also merits mention. In any case, where people have contact with birds or their droppings and secretions, special precautions should be taken. This way the negative effects of birds on human health can be minimised or eliminated

  1. Addressing Maternal and Newborn Health: A Leadership Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Leslie; Johnson, Peter; Hart, Leah; Austin, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Globally, each year 289,000 mothers die in childbirth and three million infants die in the first four weeks of life. The shortcomings in maternal and newborn health are particularly devastating in low-resource countries. This qualitative study describes the experience of an international nongovernmental organization, Jhpiego, which has been implementing public health programs to address maternal and newborn health outcomes for more than 40 years. Themes emerged from interviews with leaders of offices in a variety of countries with unique challenges related to health systems, human resources and infrastructure. Results emphasized the importance of partnerships with governments and international agencies for long-term program impact, as well as the recruitment of local talent for improving health systems to address problems that are best understood by the people who live and work in these countries. The discussion of program successes and challenges may inform best practices for promoting the health and wellness of women and families around the world.

  2. Addressing the Addressee: Shakespeare and Early Modern Epistolary Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Gilbert-Cooke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the emergence of epistolary theory in mid-sixteenth-century England, its value and function, the article attempts to show how these theories helped to construct, in contemporary correspondence, the addressee’s identity. One of the most important precepts was, as Angel Day states in his manual The English Secretorie, that, when composing a letter, writers tailored their text to the addressee. Even invented letters in Shakespeare’s plays reveal that, while correctly addressing the addressee does not necessarily guarantee success, address was considered the most important tool at the writer’s disposal when attempting to secure the addressee’s good will. Importantly, the observance of this precept even in drama indicates that epistolary theory had a more pervasive influence in early modern England than previously thought.

  3. A New Method of Chinese Address Extraction Based on Address Tree Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANG Mengjun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Address is a spatial location encoding method of individual geographical area. In China, address planning is relatively backward due to the rapid development of the city, resulting in the presence of large number of non-standard address. The space constrain relationship of standard address model is analyzed in this paper and a new method of standard address extraction based on the tree model is proposed, which regards topological relationship as consistent criteria of space constraints. With this method, standard address can be extracted and errors can be excluded from non-standard address. Results indicate that higher math rate can be obtained with this method.

  4. [Urological emergencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danuser, H; Ackermann, D K; Studer, U E

    1993-04-17

    Every general practitioner has to deal with urologic emergencies. The most frequent illnesses are urinary retention, acute scrotum, priapism, macrohematuria, nephritic colic, obstructive pyelonephritis and pyonephrosis. Whereas urinary retention, as well as acute ureteric stone colic must generally be treated by the practitioner, the urologist must often be consulted in case of an acute scrotum or for priapism. Testicular torsion is one situation, where surgical treatment needs to be performed within 6 hours. Of utmost importance is his timely assistance with the obstructive pyelonephritis and pyonephrosis. These are initially often not recognized, especially because the first ultrasound examination of the intrarenal pyelone may not show a dilatation of the collecting system despite obstruction. If the adequate treatment with drainage and antibiotics is applied too late, this can result in serious and potentially lethal consequences.

  5. Image compression using address-vector quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu

    1990-12-01

    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  6. A Novel Approach for TNA Address Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Wang; Yaohui Jin; Weishen Hu; Shenli Zhu

    2003-01-01

    We present a new scheme to allocate/de- allocate Transport Network Assigned (TNA) address using Link ManagementProtocol (LMP) and to register/resolution these addresses using Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) forAutomatically Switched Optical Network (ASON).

  7. State of industry, environment, human resources addressed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yergin, D.; Brookes, W.; DeArment, R.

    1991-07-01

    The article is based on three addresses to the AMC Coal Convention '91. Yergin examines the impact of the Gulf crisis on the world energy market. Brookes is sceptical about the 'green industry' and calls for better scientific evidence. DeArment addresses the MSAA's Job Safety Analysis program and other health and safety matters.

  8. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding…

  9. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  10. Evolutionary ecology of virus emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, John J

    2017-02-01

    The cross-species transmission of viruses into new host populations, termed virus emergence, is a significant issue in public health, agriculture, wildlife management, and related fields. Virus emergence requires overlap between host populations, alterations in virus genetics to permit infection of new hosts, and adaptation to novel hosts such that between-host transmission is sustainable, all of which are the purview of the fields of ecology and evolution. A firm understanding of the ecology of viruses and how they evolve is required for understanding how and why viruses emerge. In this paper, I address the evolutionary mechanisms of virus emergence and how they relate to virus ecology. I argue that, while virus acquisition of the ability to infect new hosts is not difficult, limited evolutionary trajectories to sustained virus between-host transmission and the combined effects of mutational meltdown, bottlenecking, demographic stochasticity, density dependence, and genetic erosion in ecological sinks limit most emergence events to dead-end spillover infections. Despite the relative rarity of pandemic emerging viruses, the potential of viruses to search evolutionary space and find means to spread epidemically and the consequences of pandemic viruses that do emerge necessitate sustained attention to virus research, surveillance, prophylaxis, and treatment. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. International Federation for Emergency Medicine model curriculum for emergency medicine specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherri Hobgood

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To meet a critical and growing need for emergency physicians and emergency medicine resources worldwide, physicians must be trained to deliver time-sensitive interventions and lifesaving emergency care. Currently, there is no globally recognized, standard curriculum that defines the basic minimum standards for specialist trainees in emergency medicine. To address this deficit, the International Federation for Emergency Medicine (IFEM convened a committee of international physicians, health professionals, and other experts in emergency medicine and international emergency medicine development to outline a curriculum for training of specialists in emergency medicine. This curriculum document represents the consensus of recommendations by this committee. The curriculum is designed to provide a framework for educational programs in emergency medicine. The focus is on the basic minimum emergency medicine educational content that any emergency medicine physician specialist should be prepared to deliver on completion of a training program. It is designed not to be prescriptive but to assist educators and emergency medicine leadership to advance physician education in basic emergency medicine no matter the training venue. The content of this curriculum is relevant not just for communities with mature emergency medicine systems but in particular for developing nations or for nations seeking to expand emergency medicine within the current educational structure. We anticipate that there will be wide variability in how this curriculum is implemented and taught. This variability will reflect the existing educational milieu, the resources available, and the goals of the institutions’ educational leadership with regard to the training of emergency medicine specialists.

  12. Emergency Physicians Think in Spirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, Tia; Whalen, Desmond; Pollard, Megan; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-11-17

    As adult learners, junior clerks on core rotations in emergency medicine (EM) are expected to "own" their patients and follow them from presentation to disposition in the Emergency Department (ED). Traditionally, we teach clerks to present an exhaustive linear list of symptoms and signs to their preceptors. This does not apply well to the fast-paced ED setting. Mnemonics have been developed to teach clerks how to present succinctly and cohesively. To address the need for continual patient reassessment throughout the patient's journey in the ED, we propose a complimentary approach called SPIRAL.

  13. Address forms in Chinese audit opinions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziye; Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Although forms of address are widely used in textual and other types of disclosure,empirical evidence of their effects is rare.China provides a unique setting in which to test the economic consequences of the forms of address used in audit reports.From 2003 to 2011,about 60%of auditors surveyed addressed their clients by their real names in audit opinions,while the others used honorifics.Based on a sample of Chinese audit opinions,I report the following findings.First,the announcement of an audit opinion that uses the client’s real name elicits a greater market response than the announcement of an opinion featuring an honorific form of address.Second,the effects of real-name forms of address are stronger in firms with weak board governance.Third,the association between audit fees and audit risk factors,such as loss-making,is stronger in firms that are addressed by their real names in audit reports.I conclude from these findings that the forms of address used in audit opinions may reveal private information on audit quality.The results of this study are consistent with the power-solidarity effect described by sociolinguists.

  14. Economic growth, urbanization, globalization, and the risks of emerging infectious diseases in China: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tong; Perrings, Charles; Kinzig, Ann; Collins, James P; Minteer, Ben A; Daszak, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Three interrelated world trends may be exacerbating emerging zoonotic risks: income growth, urbanization, and globalization. Income growth is associated with rising animal protein consumption in developing countries, which increases the conversion of wild lands to livestock production, and hence the probability of zoonotic emergence. Urbanization implies the greater concentration and connectedness of people, which increases the speed at which new infections are spread. Globalization-the closer integration of the world economy-has facilitated pathogen spread among countries through the growth of trade and travel. High-risk areas for the emergence and spread of infectious disease are where these three trends intersect with predisposing socioecological conditions including the presence of wild disease reservoirs, agricultural practices that increase contact between wildlife and livestock, and cultural practices that increase contact between humans, wildlife, and livestock. Such an intersection occurs in China, which has been a "cradle" of zoonoses from the Black Death to avian influenza and SARS. Disease management in China is thus critical to the mitigation of global zoonotic risks.

  15. Emerging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shin-yee

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Emerging Technologies thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is to help individuals establish technology areas that have national and commercial impact, and are outside the scope of the existing thrust areas. We continue to encourage innovative ideas that bring quality results to existing programs. We also take as our mission the encouragement of investment in new technology areas that are important to the economic competitiveness of this nation. In fiscal year 1992, we have focused on nine projects, summarized in this report: (1) Tire, Accident, Handling, and Roadway Safety; (2) EXTRANSYT: An Expert System for Advanced Traffic Management; (3) Odin: A High-Power, Underwater, Acoustic Transmitter for Surveillance Applications; (4) Passive Seismic Reservoir Monitoring: Signal Processing Innovations; (5) Paste Extrudable Explosive Aft Charge for Multi-Stage Munitions; (6) A Continuum Model for Reinforced Concrete at High Pressures and Strain Rates: Interim Report; (7) Benchmarking of the Criticality Evaluation Code COG; (8) Fast Algorithm for Large-Scale Consensus DNA Sequence Assembly; and (9) Using Electrical Heating to Enhance the Extraction of Volatile Organic Compounds from Soil.

  16. Agricultural intensification, priming for persistence and the emergence of Nipah virus: a lethal bat-borne zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliam, Juliet R C; Epstein, Jonathan H; Dushoff, Jonathan; Rahman, Sohayati A; Bunning, Michel; Jamaluddin, Aziz A; Hyatt, Alex D; Field, Hume E; Dobson, Andrew P; Daszak, Peter

    2012-01-07

    Emerging zoonoses threaten global health, yet the processes by which they emerge are complex and poorly understood. Nipah virus (NiV) is an important threat owing to its broad host and geographical range, high case fatality, potential for human-to-human transmission and lack of effective prevention or therapies. Here, we investigate the origin of the first identified outbreak of NiV encephalitis in Malaysia and Singapore. We analyse data on livestock production from the index site (a commercial pig farm in Malaysia) prior to and during the outbreak, on Malaysian agricultural production, and from surveys of NiV's wildlife reservoir (flying foxes). Our analyses suggest that repeated introduction of NiV from wildlife changed infection dynamics in pigs. Initial viral introduction produced an explosive epizootic that drove itself to extinction but primed the population for enzootic persistence upon reintroduction of the virus. The resultant within-farm persistence permitted regional spread and increased the number of human infections. This study refutes an earlier hypothesis that anomalous El Niño Southern Oscillation-related climatic conditions drove emergence and suggests that priming for persistence drove the emergence of a novel zoonotic pathogen. Thus, we provide empirical evidence for a causative mechanism previously proposed as a precursor to widespread infection with H5N1 avian influenza and other emerging pathogens.

  17. A framework for the study of zoonotic disease emergence and its drivers: spillover of bat pathogens as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, James L. N.; Leach, Melissa; Waldman, Linda; MacGregor, Hayley; Fooks, Anthony R.; Jones, Kate E.; Restif, Olivier; Dechmann, Dina; Hayman, David T. S.; Baker, Kate S.; Peel, Alison J.; Kamins, Alexandra O.; Fahr, Jakob; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa; Suu-Ire, Richard; Breiman, Robert F.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Field, Hume E.; Cunningham, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    Many serious emerging zoonotic infections have recently arisen from bats, including Ebola, Marburg, SARS-coronavirus, Hendra, Nipah, and a number of rabies and rabies-related viruses, consistent with the overall observation that wildlife are an important source of emerging zoonoses for the human population. Mechanisms underlying the recognized association between ecosystem health and human health remain poorly understood and responding appropriately to the ecological, social and economic conditions that facilitate disease emergence and transmission represents a substantial societal challenge. In the context of disease emergence from wildlife, wildlife and habitat should be conserved, which in turn will preserve vital ecosystem structure and function, which has broader implications for human wellbeing and environmental sustainability, while simultaneously minimizing the spillover of pathogens from wild animals into human beings. In this review, we propose a novel framework for the holistic and interdisciplinary investigation of zoonotic disease emergence and its drivers, using the spillover of bat pathogens as a case study. This study has been developed to gain a detailed interdisciplinary understanding, and it combines cutting-edge perspectives from both natural and social sciences, linked to policy impacts on public health, land use and conservation. PMID:22966143

  18. VT E911 road address range geocoder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VT E911 road address range geocoder. VCGI, in collaboration with the VT E911 Board, has created a suite of geocoding services that can be used to batch geocode...

  19. Address Points, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Geographic coordinate system; in a Not Sure projection; The extent of these...

  20. Addressing Transition Issues in Languages Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigler-Peters, Susi; Moran, Wendy; Piccioli, Maria Teresa; Chesterton, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on what has been learned from the implementation and evaluation of the Australian Language and Continuity Initiative (LCI) in relation to addressing transition issues in language education. (Author/VWL)

  1. An Efficient Reconfigurable Content Addressable Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswathy Sekharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an efficient reconfigurable Content Addressable memory (CAMs which is a hardware search engine that are much faster than other algorithmic approaches for search intensive applications. Content Addressable Memories are composed of conventional semiconductor memory (usually SRAM with added comparison circuitry that enables a search operation to complete in a single clock cycle. To understand more about Content Addressable Memory, it helps to contrast it with RAM. A RAM is an integrated circuit that stores data temporarily. In CAM, the user supplies the data and gets back the address.In this paper we introduce a temporary memory called Cache. The cache-CAM (C-CAM saves 80% power over a conventional CAM. Compared with existing software search engines proposed hardware search engine can do multiple searches at a time with more flexibility.

  2. VT E911 ESITE geocoder - address points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VT E911 ESITE geocoder - address points. VCGI, in collaboration with the VT E911 Board, has created a suite of geocoding services that can be used to batch geocode...

  3. Mechanical Containment in Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Carcoba Rubio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The restraint is a therapeutic measure aimed at blocking partial or widespread in most of the body of a patient to try to ensure the safety of himself or others. In most cases it forces to act against their will, and in a common context of urgency; in such a way that its use applies a therapeutic plan without the consent of the patient and is temporally deprived of freedom of movement. A literature review of the issue has been performed consulting surveillance systems and protocols developed at hospitals in several spanish cities. Also the current legal regulations on health matters relating to the subject are checked.After the analysis of data and evidence, is created a protocol of restraint in emergency and the various functions of the components of the team, to address the situation with greater efficiency and safe as possible.

  4. Chemical Address Tags of Fluorescent Bioimaging Probes

    OpenAIRE

    Shedden, Kerby; Rosania, Gus R.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical address tags can be defined as specific structural features shared by a set of bioimaging probes having a predictable influence on cell-associated visual signals obtained from these probes. Here, using a large image dataset acquired with a high content screening instrument, machine vision and cheminformatics analysis have been applied to reveal chemical address tags. With a combinatorial library of fluorescent molecules, fluorescence signal intensity, spectral, and spatial features c...

  5. The importance of veterinary policy in preventing the emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic disease: examining the case of human african trypanosomiasis in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna L; Welburn, Susan C

    2014-01-01

    Rapid changes in human behavior, resource utilization, and other extrinsic environmental factors continue to threaten the current distribution of several endemic and historically neglected zoonoses in many developing regions worldwide. There are numerous examples of zoonotic diseases which have circulated within relatively localized geographical areas for some time, before emerging into new regions as a result of changing human, environmental, or behavioral dynamics. While the world's focus is currently on the Ebola virus gaining momentum in western Africa, another pertinent example of this phenomenon is zoonotic human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), endemic to south and eastern Africa, and spread via infected cattle. In recent years, the ongoing northwards spread of this disease in the country has posed a serious public health threat to the human population of Uganda, increasing the pressure on both individual families and government services to control the disease. Moreover, the emergence of HAT into new areas of Uganda in recent years exemplifies the important role of veterinary policy in mitigating the severe human health and economic impacts of zoonotic disease. The systemic challenges surrounding the development and enforcement of veterinary policy described here are similar across sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting the necessity to consider and support zoonotic disease control in broader human and animal health systems strengthening and associated development programs on the continent.

  6. Emerging trends in metalloprotein inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouffet, Matthieu; Cohen, Seth M

    2011-04-14

    Numerous metalloproteins are important therapeutic targets that are gaining increased attention in the medicinal and bioinorganic chemistry communities. This Perspective article describes some emerging trends and recent findings in the area of metalloprotein inhibitor discovery and development. In particular, increasing recognition of the importance of the metal-ligand interactions in these systems calls for more input and consideration from the bioinorganic community to address questions traditionally confined to the medicinal chemistry community.

  7. South African address standard and initiatives towards an international address standard

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Various countries and international organizations have address standards or are developing them. An address is needed for many more applications than just postal delivery, such as: goods delivery; connecting utilities; opening bank accounts; voting...

  8. South African address standard and initiatives towards an international address standard.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Anthony K

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Various countries and international organizations have address standards or are developing them. An address is needed for many more applications than just postal delivery, such as: goods delivery; connecting utilities; opening bank accounts; voting...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, rural addressing does collect address points, Published in unknown, Gibson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'rural addressing does collect address points'. The extent of these data is generally Gila...

  10. Address Points, Address points, Published in 2008, Norton County Appraisal Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as 'Address points'. Data by this publisher are...

  11. Emergency department overcrowding: the Emergency Department Cardiac Analogy Model (EDCAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Sandra K; Ardagh, Michael; Gee, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Increasing patient numbers, changing demographics and altered patient expectations have all contributed to the current problem with 'overcrowding' in emergency departments (EDs). The problem has reached crisis level in a number of countries, with significant implications for patient safety, quality of care, staff 'burnout' and patient and staff satisfaction. There is no single, clear definition of the cause of overcrowding, nor a simple means of addressing the problem. For some hospitals, the option of ambulance diversion has become a necessity, as overcrowded waiting rooms and 'bed-block' force emergency staff to turn patients away. But what are the options when ambulance diversion is not possible? Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand is a tertiary level facility with an emergency department that sees on average 65,000 patients per year. There are no other EDs to whom patients can be diverted, and so despite admission rates from the ED of up to 48%, other options need to be examined. In order to develop a series of unified responses, which acknowledge the multifactorial nature of the problem, the Emergency Department Cardiac Analogy model of ED flow, was developed. This model highlights the need to intervene at each of three key points, in order to address the issue of overcrowding and its associated problems.

  12. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application for...) Whenever the address of the managing owner changes, the managing owner shall notify the Director, National... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to...

  13. The consideration of emergency management issues in spatial planning practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuvel, J.M.M.; Brink, van den A.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial planning can play an important role in increasing the possibilities for emergency response. Nevertheless, little research has been done that explicitly looks at the way emergency management issues are addressed in predisaster spatial planning. We explore the consideration of emergency manage

  14. Emergency Protocol and Violence Prevention in a University Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Dylan

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the emergency protocol and violence prevention methods utilized at an American university. The four research questions were: (1) What are the sources of violence at the university? a. How has the university addressed these sources? (2) What constitutes an emergency in the eyes of the university? (3) How do emergency protocols…

  15. Ergonomics guidelines for designing electronic mail addresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, P L; Salvendy, G

    2001-03-15

    The aim was to design a human-centred electronic mail (e-mail) address system based on networking technology and cognitive ergonomics. Based on the background literature and the results of users' survey, a conceptual model is developed for designing e-mail addresses. This model consists of e-mail address components of formats, domain length, meaningfulness, orientation and information type pertaining to recall, information association and categorization. Five hypotheses were proposed to test the conceptual model, and four experiments were conducted with 85 participants to test the hypotheses. The dependent variables were performance time, error rate and degree of satisfaction, and the independent variables were components of the e-mail addresses. The main results indicate that for a recall task, significantly lower total performance time (26.2%) and error rate (75%) were found for the hybrid formats (digits and letters) than for the letter format, and up to four characters was the best single domain length. For an information association task, embedding both geographical and organizational information significantly decreased the response time (10.9%) in comparison with only embedding organizational information. For a categorization task, embedding both geographical information and organizational information significantly decreased response time (40.7%) in comparison with only embedding organizational information. This research demonstrates the importance of human-centred design and provides guidelines in effectively designing e-mail addresses.

  16. Addressing the Issue: Bullying and LGBTQ Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Allen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Each day, thousands of youth experience bullying and as many of 70% of all youth report having experienced bullying, either directly or indirectly (Cantor, 2005. For Gay, Lesbian, Bi-sexual, Transgender and Questioning (LGBTQ youth, the chances of experiencing bullying are much higher than for youth in the general population (Russell, Horn, Kosciw, & Saewyc, 2010. Although many youth serving organizations have begun to address the issue of bullying with bullying prevention programs, there is a deficit of information and a lack of inclusion of prevention efforts that specifically address LGBTQ youth. This article address the role of youth organizations in creating safe and inclusive environments for all youth, with specific attention paid to resources and strategies for inclusive environments for LGBTQ youth.

  17. The development of an educational intervention to address workplace bullying: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipps, Esther Maria; McRury, Mary

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of research on workplace bullying which addresses the detrimental consequences of bullying in nursing has emerged. This quasi-experimental pilot study was aimed at examining the effect of an educational program provided to nursing staff on workplace bullying. The development of an educational program and use of a registered nurse educator in a group setting is an effective method for addressing workplace bullying.

  18. Strategies for Addressing Spreadsheet Compliance Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Brandon

    2006-01-01

    Most organizations today use spreadsheets in some form or another to support critical business processes. However the financial resources, and developmental rigor dedicated to them are often minor in comparison to other enterprise technology. The increasing focus on achieving regulatory and other forms of compliance over key technology assets has made it clear that organizations must regard spreadsheets as an enterprise resource and account for them when developing an overall compliance strategy. This paper provides the reader with a set of practical strategies for addressing spreadsheet compliance from an organizational perspective. It then presents capabilities offered in the 2007 Microsoft Office System which can be used to help customers address compliance challenges.

  19. Welfare work addressing immigrants and refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine

    these integrationist visions in their quest to protect immigrants’ and refugees’ fundamental wellbeing and status as human beings with equal rights, group life and history. These opposing elements generate ambiguity and contradiction within integrationist welfare work. The ambition of the presentation is to enquire......In this presentation I will discuss the ways in which welfare workers addressing immigrants and refugees (re)produce integrationist visions, symbolizing society as an integrated whole and immigrants/refugees as a distraction to that whole. Paradoxically, welfare workers also oppose......, nurses and more) addressing immigrants and refugees and their families and descendants in the Danish welfare nation-state....

  20. Shared address collectives using counter mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocksome, Michael; Dozsa, Gabor; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R; Miller, Douglas

    2014-02-18

    A shared address space on a compute node stores data received from a network and data to transmit to the network. The shared address space includes an application buffer that can be directly operated upon by a plurality of processes, for instance, running on different cores on the compute node. A shared counter is used for one or more of signaling arrival of the data across the plurality of processes running on the compute node, signaling completion of an operation performed by one or more of the plurality of processes, obtaining reservation slots by one or more of the plurality of processes, or combinations thereof.

  1. Addressing techniques of liquid crystal displays

    CERN Document Server

    Ruckmongathan, Temkar N

    2014-01-01

    Unique reference source that can be used from the beginning to end of a design project to aid choosing an appropriate LCD addressing technique for a given application This book will be aimed at design engineers who are likely to embed LCD drivers and controllers in many systems including systems on chip. Such designers face the challenge of making the right choice of an addressing technique that will serve them with best performance at minimal cost and complexity. Readers will be able to learn about various methods available for driving matrix LCDs and the comparisons at the end of each chap

  2. Prevalence and Control Strategies of Zoonoses in Dogs and Cats in China%我国人与犬、猫共患病防控存在的主要问题与对策建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淼洁; 王立林; 曲萍; 遇秀玲; 翟新验; 田克恭

    2012-01-01

    随着社会经济的发展、城市化进程的加速及人们生活水平的不断提高,越来越多的宠物走进了人们的家庭,在人类社会生活中发挥了积极作用.但同时,宠物也是人兽共患病的重要传染源和传播媒介.与人类关系最为密切的犬、猫在人兽共患病的防控中具有重要的意义.在已报道的200多种主要的人兽共患病中,与宠物犬、猫有直接或间接关系的有70余种.随着宠物犬猫数量的大幅攀升和宠物业的飞速发展,我国人与犬猫共患病可能会出现逐步高发的趋势,疫病防控工作面临着许多问题.为了完善宠物管理制度,建立有效的防疫监督体系,对人与犬猫共患病实行有效的防控,本文就完善法律法规、形成综合管理机制,加强卫生监督、强化无害化处理、培养专业人才以及广泛开展宣传教育等6个方面提出了相关建议.%Along with the socio-economic development, acceleration of urbanization process and continuous improvement of living standard, more and more pets are bred in urban households and playing an important role in people's everyday life. However,many pets are important carriers of infectious zoonotic diseases, especially dogs and cats. In more than 200 kinds of major reported zoonoses, there are over 70 kinds directly or indirectly related to dogs and cats. With the rapid development of pet industry and increasing number of dogs and cats, the incidence of pet-derived zoonoses are increasing, which cause some problems to their prevention and control. In order to improve the pet management system, establish an efficient epidemic prevention and supervision system, and effectively prevent and control the zoonoses in dogs and cats, strategies are discussed in this article, including perfecting the laws and regulations, forming a comprehensive management system, strengthening the health supervision and safty disposal, training professional personnel and intensifying

  3. Addressing the "Essences": Making English Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Larissa McLean; Grant, Ashleigh; Hehir, Emily; Matthews, Hagan; May, Caitlin; Thiel, Philip; Sparrow, Catherine; Trevaskis, Glen; Barton, Katherine; Elliot, Amelia; Ogden, Trent

    2013-01-01

    Garth Boomer's democratic and often provocative vision for English teaching continues to play an important part in the professional development of English teachers. In particular, Boomer's work is often used by Teacher Educators in preservice degrees to introduce emerging English teachers to key ideas such as curriculum negotiation and…

  4. Addressing Violations of International Criminal Procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitcher, K.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the law and practice of the ICTY, ICTR and ICC with respect to procedural violations, including how such international criminal tribunals have dealt with the unique severity of the crimes falling within their jurisdiction in this context. The picture that emerges

  5. Addressing Student Cynicism through Transformative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Fernanda

    2010-01-01

    This paper reflects on insights that emerged from the findings of a qualitative study conducted by the author in 2007 with third year management students from an Australian university on their perceptions in relation to business ethics. The findings revealed an attitude of cynicism with regard to the application of ethical principles beyond…

  6. Transition through Teamwork: Professionals Address Student Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bube, Sue Ann; Carrothers, Carol; Johnson, Cinda

    2016-01-01

    Prior to 2013, there was no collaboration around the transition services for deaf and hard of hearing students in Washington State. Washington had numerous agencies providing excellent support, but those agencies were not working together. It was not until January 29, 2013, when pepnet 2 hosted the Building State Capacity to Address Critical…

  7. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  8. Addressing Psychosocial Factors with Library Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Bridget; Alabi, Jaena; Whaley, Pambanisha; Jenda, Claudine

    2017-01-01

    The majority of articles on mentoring in the library and information science field address career development by emphasizing the orientation process for new librarians and building the requisite skills for a specific job. Few articles deal with the psychological and social challenges that many early-career and minority librarians face, which can…

  9. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  10. Parallel Memory Addressing Using Coincident Optical Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-15

    defined for Al and M, respectively, and at each does not have to be the same for every pair of adjacent destination nodeje D, u D2, the number of...system, a register SKIP may be used at each nodej has to skip before reading the messages addressed node to indicate the number of messages to be

  11. Road Map to Address Cognitive Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-09

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Lynda Anderson highlights the important roles that states and communities can play in addressing cognitive health as part of overall health.  Created: 6/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/9/2014.

  12. Problem Solvers: Solutions--The Inaugural Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dause, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Fourth graders in Miss Dause's and Mrs. Hicks's mathematics classes at South Mountain Elementary School in Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, worked with the data from the Inauagural Address problem that was previously published published in the February 2013 issue of "Teaching Children Mathematics". This activity allowed students to showcase…

  13. assessing nutrition intervention programmes that addressed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-02

    Apr 2, 2012 ... address short-term hunger and improve active learning capacity of children in ... evaluation report of 2000 recommended that school feeding should ... were, however, anecdotal accounts of improved school attendance and classroom .... question of what type of food is best suited for the supplementation ...

  14. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  15. Addressing Measurement Issues Related to Bullying Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Deborah M.; Meter, Diana J.; Card, Noel A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we address measurement issues related to select aspects of bullying involvement with the goal of moving psychometrically sound measurement practices toward applied bullying research. We first provide a nontechnical introduction to psychometric considerations in measuring bullying involvement, highlighting the importance of…

  16. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops......, and gives examples of the unique challenges faced by the SME food industry....

  17. Mapping virtual addresses to different physical addresses for value disambiguation for thread memory access requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gala, Alan; Ohmacht, Martin

    2014-09-02

    A multiprocessor system includes nodes. Each node includes a data path that includes a core, a TLB, and a first level cache implementing disambiguation. The system also includes at least one second level cache and a main memory. For thread memory access requests, the core uses an address associated with an instruction format of the core. The first level cache uses an address format related to the size of the main memory plus an offset corresponding to hardware thread meta data. The second level cache uses a physical main memory address plus software thread meta data to store the memory access request. The second level cache accesses the main memory using the physical address with neither the offset nor the thread meta data after resolving speculation. In short, this system includes mapping of a virtual address to a different physical addresses for value disambiguation for different threads.

  18. Emergency teams in Danish emergency departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafrenz, Thomas; Lindberg, Søren Østergaard; La Cour, Jeppe Lerche;

    2012-01-01

    The use of designated emergency teams for cardiac arrest and trauma patients is widely implemented. However, the use of designated teams in Danish emergency departments (EDs) has not been investigated. Our aim was to investigate the use and staffing of emergency teams in Danish EDs....

  19. Addressing the emergence of pediatric vaccination concerns: recommendations from a Canadian policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kumanan; Barakat, Meredith; Mills, Edward; Ritvo, Paul; Boon, Heather; Vohra, Sunita; Jadad, Alejandro R; McGeer, Allison

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the advent of pediatric vaccination, individuals have expressed concerns about both its risks and benefits. These concerns have once again resurfaced among some segments of the population and could potentially undermine national vaccination programs. The views of the public, however, must be considered and respected in the formulation of vaccination policy. We have conducted an analysis of the pediatric vaccination "debate" in the Canadian context. We believe that there is common ground between those who support pediatric vaccination and those who are concerned about these programs. Based on our findings, we believe that the goal of public health authorities should be to maintain trust in vaccines by continuing to meet certain reciprocal responsibilities. To do so, we recommend the following: 1) increased investment in adverse event reporting systems; 2) request for proposals for consideration of a no-fault compensation program; 3) developing pre-emptive strategies to deal with potential vaccine risks; 4) further examination of mechanisms to improve communication between physicians and parents concerned about vaccination. All of these approaches would require additional investment in pediatric vaccination. However, such an investment is easy to justify given the benefits offered by pediatric vaccination and the ramifications of failing to maintain confidence in vaccination programs or missing a vaccine-related adverse event.

  20. Radio Interoperability: Addressing the Real Reasons We Don’t Communicate Well During Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    This is an issue we cannot simply “ buy ” our way out of by merely deploying more equipment. 4 Newsday...platforms, thus enabling agency-specific communications to continue?) First responders will tend to revert to daily habits in times of crisis, instead of...recognition of the need for improved human interoperability 16 Y2K refers to millennial change of

  1. Addressing the unmet needs of patients with persistent negative symptoms of schizophrenia: emerging pharmacological treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chue P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pierre Chue,1 Justine K Lalonde21Department of Psychiatry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 2Roche SAS, Medical Affairs Department, Boulogne-Billancourt, FranceAbstract: The negative symptoms of schizophrenia represent an impairment of normal emotional responses, thought processes and behaviors, and include blunting or flattening of affect, alogia/aprosody, avolition/apathy, anhedonia, and asociality. Negative symptoms contribute to a reduced quality of life, increased functional disability, increased burden of illness, and poorer long-term outcomes, to a greater degree than positive symptoms. Primary negative symptoms are prominent and persistent in up to 26% of patients with schizophrenia, and they are estimated to occur in up to 58% of outpatients at any given time. Negative symptoms respond less well to medications than positive symptoms, and to date treatment options for negative symptoms have been limited, with no accepted standard treatment. Modest benefits have been reported with a variety of different agents, including second-generation antipsychotics and add-on therapy with antidepressants and other pharmacological classes. Recent clinical research focusing on negative symptoms target novel biological systems, such as glutamatergic neurotransmission. Different approaches include: enhancing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function with agents that bind directly to the glycine ligand site or with glycine reuptake inhibitors; influencing the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2/3 with positive allosteric modulators; and stimulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In conclusion, the lack of clearly efficacious pharmacological treatments for the management of negative symptoms represents a significant unmet need, especially considering the importance of these symptoms on patient outcomes. Hence, further research to identify and characterize novel pharmacological treatments for negative symptoms is greatly needed.Keywords: negative symptoms, schizophrenia, NMDA receptor, glycine reuptake inhibitors, metabotropic glutamate receptor-2 (mGluR2, 7-alpha nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists

  2. 77 FR 43481 - Taking Additional Steps to Address the National Emergency With Respect to Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... ] maiming, sexual and gender-based violence, attacks on schools and hospitals, taking hostages, and forced... of violence committed against civilians in Somalia, all of which contribute to the deterioration of the security situation and the persistence of violence in Somalia, hereby order: Section 1. Section 1...

  3. EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES. Actions Needed to Address the Challenges of Responding to Zika Virus Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    required urgent and coordinated research.12 The Secretary of Health and Human Services...technical mechanism is required to manage the global response. However, the Zika virus and associated health outcomes remain a significant public health ...associated adverse health outcomes. Most of the 5,197 Zika virus disease cases reported by April 5, 2017 in the United States were associated with

  4. Peer Review of Online Learning and Teaching: Harnessing Collective Intelligence to Address Emerging Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Denise; Friedel, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In 1983 Donald Schon argued for the development of "an epistemology of practice which places technical problem-solving within a broader context of reflective inquiry" (Schon, 1983, p. 69) in response to the complexity, uncertainty and instability of professional knowledge. This paper reports on a collaborative project led by the…

  5. KEYNOTE ADDRESS: The role of standards in the emerging optical digital data disk storage systems market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Ross C.

    1984-09-01

    The Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology at the National Bureau of Standards is pleased to cooperate with the International Society for Optical Engineering and to join with the other distinguished organizations in cosponsoring this conference on applications of optical digital data disk storage systems.

  6. Denmark's Energy Cooperation with Emerging Powers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira; Schvartzman, Yonatan; Jørgensen, Knud Erik

    2015-01-01

    This chapter addresses the energy cooperation between Denmark and South Africa, China and other emerging economic powers. It conducts an empirical analysis departing from the theoretical concept of multi-level energy governance, inquiring the way international transactions within the realm...... and vectors. The following section covers the international dimension of the energy policy pursued by Denmark by exploring the way it cooperates with Emerging Powers. Afterwards, the chapter addresses the role played by the EU in these dynamics, in the context of EU’s proclaimed preference for multilateral...

  7. Recruitment and Retention of Patients into Emergency Medicine Clinical Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Cofield,Stacey; Conwit, Robin; Barsan, William; Quinn, James

    2010-01-01

    The emergency medicine and pre-hospital environments are unlike any other clinical environments and require special consideration to allow the successful implementation of clinical trials. This article reviews the specific issues involved in Emergency Medicine Clinical Trials (EMCT), and provides strategies from emergency medicine and non-emergency medicine trials to maximize recruitment and retention. While the evidence supporting some of these strategies is deficient, addressing recruitment...

  8. Ecological and Genetic Determinants of Pepino Mosaic Virus Emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Pérez, Manuel Guillermo; Pagán Muñoz, Jesús Israel; Aragón Caballero, Liliana; Cáceres, Fátima; Fraile Pérez, Aurora; García Arenal, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Virus emergence is a complex phenomenon, which generally involves spread to a new host from a wild host, followed by adaptation to the new host. Although viruses account for the largest fraction of emerging crop pathogens, knowledge about their emergence is incomplete. We address here the question of whether Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) emergence as a major tomato pathogen worldwide could have involved spread from wild to cultivated plant species and host adaptation. For this, we surveyed natu...

  9. Addressing the sluggish progress in reducing maternal mortality in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Tulchinsky, Theodore Herzl

    2015-03-01

    Although some progress has been made in India, achievement of the Fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG5; ie, 75% reduction in maternal mortality ratio [MMR] from 1990 by 2015) target seems to be unattainable by 2015. Failure of the National Population Policy, 2000, and the National Health Policy, 2002, to reduce the MMR demanded a new direction, leading to the establishment of a National Rural Health Mission in 2005. This commentary addresses both the real achievements and the hurdles faced in India's stagnating progress in maternal health. Promotion of maternal nutrition and health education, with greater attention to emergency obstetrical care at the district subcenter and primary health care center levels, must be prioritized. These changes of focus are vital to make prenatal, delivery, and postnatal care safer with increased resources allotted to adolescents, the poor, and women living in rural areas in order to enhance maternal health and achieve the MDG target.

  10. [Pediatric emergencies in the emergency medical service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbereisen, C; Hoffmann, F

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-hospital pediatric emergencies occur rarely but are feared among medical personnel. The particular characteristics of pediatric cases, especially the unaccustomed anatomy of the child as well as the necessity to adapt the drug doses to the little patient's body weight, produce high cognitive and emotional pressure. In an emergency standardized algorithms can facilitate a structured diagnostic and therapeutic approach. The aim of this article is to provide standardized procedures for the most common pediatric emergencies. In Germany, respiratory problems, seizures and analgesia due to trauma represent the most common emergency responses. This article provides a practical approach concerning the diagnostics and therapy of emergencies involving children.

  11. Bioethics and Emergency Medicine: problems and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Mori

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Before examining the specific problems of emergency medicine, the article identifies the cardinal points for orientation in bioethics, in the conviction that the knowledge of the basic aspects of the subject allow the reader to make more conscious and suitable choices. The questions of moral relativism and the consequences of the biomedical revolution are addressed in detail in order to support the argument for a new ethical base for healthcare in general and for emergency medicine.

  12. Emergency Medical Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and need help right away, you should use emergency medical services. These services use specially trained people and specially equipped facilities. You may need care in the hospital emergency room (ER). Doctors and nurses there treat emergencies, ...

  13. Emergency care toolkits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Steven

    2004-06-01

    Emergency care services are the focus of a series of toolkits developed by the NHS National electronic Library for Health to provide resources for emergency care leads and others involved in modernising emergency care, writes Steven Black.

  14. Image Coding Based on Address Vector Quantization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yushu

    Image coding is finding increased application in teleconferencing, archiving, and remote sensing. This thesis investigates the potential of Vector Quantization (VQ), a relatively new source coding technique, for compression of monochromatic and color images. Extensions of the Vector Quantization technique to the Address Vector Quantization method have been investigated. In Vector Quantization, the image data to be encoded are first processed to yield a set of vectors. A codeword from the codebook which best matches the input image vector is then selected. Compression is achieved by replacing the image vector with the index of the code-word which produced the best match, the index is sent to the channel. Reconstruction of the image is done by using a table lookup technique, where the label is simply used as an address for a table containing the representative vectors. A code-book of representative vectors (codewords) is generated using an iterative clustering algorithm such as K-means, or the generalized Lloyd algorithm. A review of different Vector Quantization techniques are given in chapter 1. Chapter 2 gives an overview of codebook design methods including the Kohonen neural network to design codebook. During the encoding process, the correlation of the address is considered and Address Vector Quantization is developed for color image and monochrome image coding. Address VQ which includes static and dynamic processes is introduced in chapter 3. In order to overcome the problems in Hierarchical VQ, Multi-layer Address Vector Quantization is proposed in chapter 4. This approach gives the same performance as that of the normal VQ scheme but the bit rate is about 1/2 to 1/3 as that of the normal VQ method. In chapter 5, a Dynamic Finite State VQ based on a probability transition matrix to select the best subcodebook to encode the image is developed. In chapter 6, a new adaptive vector quantization scheme, suitable for color video coding, called "A Self -Organizing

  15. Overview of an address and purpose of the workshop [ISO Workshop on address standards: Considering the issues related to an international address standard

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This workshop was conceived with the aim of discussing what an address actually is and exploring the possibility of developing an international address standard across the various domains that use addresses. This paper attempts to provide...

  16. Characterization of addressability by simultaneous randomized benchmarking

    CERN Document Server

    Gambetta, Jay M; Merkel, S T; Johnson, B R; Smolin, John A; Chow, Jerry M; Ryan, Colm A; Rigetti, Chad; Poletto, S; Ohki, Thomas A; Ketchen, Mark B; Steffen, M

    2012-01-01

    The control and handling of errors arising from cross-talk and unwanted interactions in multi-qubit systems is an important issue in quantum information processing architectures. We introduce a benchmarking protocol that provides information about the amount of addressability present in the system and implement it on coupled superconducting qubits. The protocol consists of randomized benchmarking each qubit individually and then simultaneously, and the amount of addressability is related to the difference of the average gate fidelities of those experiments. We present the results on two similar samples with different amounts of cross-talk and unwanted interactions, which agree with predictions based on simple models for the amount of residual coupling.

  17. Improving student learning by addressing misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Carol A.; Huntoon, Jacqueline E.

    2011-12-01

    Students—and often those who teach them—come to class with preconceptions and misconceptions that hinder their learning. For instance, many K-12 students and teachers believe groundwater exists in the ground in actual rivers or lakes, but in fact, groundwater is found in permeable rock layers called aquifers. Such misconceptions need to be addressed before students can learn scientific concepts correctly. While other science disciplines have been addressing preconceptions and misconceptions for many years, the geoscience community has only recently begun to concentrate on the impact these have on students' learning. Valuable research is being done that illuminates how geologic thinking evolves from the "novice" to "expert" level. The expert is defined as an individual with deep understanding of Earth science concepts. As research progresses, geoscientists are realizing that correcting preconceptions and misconceptions can move teachers and students closer to the "expert" level [Libarkin, 2005].

  18. World Federation of Vascular Societies: presidential address

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Henrik Hegaard

    2010-01-01

    The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally imp...... throughout the world. In addition, for introduction of new treatments, training issues and dissemination of science a global organisation like the WFVS is needed.......The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally....... Similar, in order to be able to train with relevant case mix and numbers, and in order always to have both complex open and endovascular skills on call 24 hours per day, 365 days a year, centralisation into larger units is necessary. The WFVS is important simply looking at the huge demographic differences...

  19. Forms of Address as Discrete Modal Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Paweł Sosnowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Forms of Address as Discrete Modal Operators The category of expressions of politeness includes, among others, forms of address. Forms of address express honorification. Honorification can be defined as a special type of meaning that consists of information about the social and interpersonal relations between the speaker and the addressee, the speaker and the hearer, and the speaker and the protagonist of the predication. As far as their place in the syntactic structure is concerned, forms of address can either be integrated with the other elements of a predication or not. However, they are always part of a predication’s semantic structure. Moreover, forms of address convey the speaker’s attitude to the meaning of the predicate that they want to convey, which consequently means that forms of address also carry a modal element. Modality can be defined as a situation in which an individual is in a particular mental state, i.e. exhibits some kind of attitude to a situation or a type of situations. Forms of address can be categorised as modal operators conveying imperatives, requests, suppositions, etc. The term "operator" can be used for a unit of language when it changes the semantic structure of the predication. My research on honorification is mainly based on contemporary corpora, both monolingual and multilingual. In the present study, I analyse forms of address which carry imperative and optative meanings.   Formy adresatywne jako dyskretne operatory modalne W obrębie wyrażeń realizujących funkcje grzecznościowe znajduje się grupa form adresatywnych. Są one częścią kategorii honoryfikatywności rozumianej jako szczególny rodzaj znaczenia zawartego w treści wypowiedzi, informację o towarzysko-społecznej relacji między nadawcą a odbiorcą, nadawcą a słuchaczem oraz nadawcą a bohaterem wypowiedzi. Gramatycznie formy adresatywne mogą być zarówno zintegrowane, jak i niezintegrowane syntaktycznie z resztą wypowiedzi, ale

  20. CANE: The Content Addressed Network Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner-Stephen, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The fragmented nature and asymmetry of local and remote file access and network access, combined with the current lack of robust authenticity and privacy, hamstrings the current internet. The collection of disjoint and often ad-hoc technologies currently in use are at least partially responsible for the magnitude and potency of the plagues besetting the information economy, of which spam and email borne virii are canonical examples. The proposed replacement for the internet, Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), does little to tackle these underlying issues, instead concentrating on addressing the technical issues of a decade ago. This paper introduces CANE, a Content Addressed Network Environment, and compares it against current internet and related technologies. Specifically, CANE presents a simple computing environment in which location is abstracted away in favour of identity, and trust is explicitly defined. Identity is cryptographically verified and yet remains pervasively open in nature. It is argued tha...

  1. Addressing food waste reduction in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Clement, Jesper; Kornum, Niels

    2014-01-01

    and environmental challenge. Using the case of Denmark, this paper analyses causes of food waste, and discusses how different stakeholders address the prevention and reuse of the €1.18. billion of annual edible food waste. Currently, the majority of food waste is still incinerated with energy recovery. However......Global food demand is driven by population and economic growth, and urbanization. One important instrument to meet this increasing demand and to decrease the pressure on food production is to minimize food losses and food waste. Food waste and loss is a major societal, economic, nutritional......, improvements in technology have made it more efficient to utilize food waste for biogas and compost, which improves nutrient cycling through the food system. Major efforts to address food waste in Denmark have mainly been promoted through civil society groups with governmental support, as well as by industry...

  2. Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI) database contains emerging pathogens information from the local Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The EPI software...

  3. Sending and Addressing Messages in Web Services

    OpenAIRE

    Borkowski, Piotr

    2007-01-01

    This thesis provides an overview of Web Services technology. The concept of Web Services and Service Oriented Architecture are explained. The thesis focuses on the mechanisms for transporting and addressing messages in web services, especially SOAP. It presents the development history of SOAP, an overview of the SOAP 1.2 specification, and the differences between SOAP in version 1.1 and 1.2. Further, the thesis presents two web servers for development and deployment of web services using Java...

  4. Design of an addressable memory controller.

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Byung Woon.

    1987-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. The main memory is an essential subsystem in a Von Neumann type of stored program machine. Because of the speed gap existence between the processor and the main memor>% there has been a constant need to improve the main memor\\' to achieve a better throughput. One method is to use a CAM(Content Addressable Memorv'). It is known as a \\ery powerful facility for searching a particular item from a data array rather than from...

  5. Addressing spiritual leadership: an organizational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Lisa; Solari-Twadell, P Ann; Haas, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Commission requires health systems to address spiritual care. Research indicates that spirituality is associated with better physical, psychological, and social health and that culturally diverse populations and individuals at end-of-life often request spiritual care. The authors report the results of a consensus conference of 21 executives representing 10 large faith-based health systems who discussed the input, process, and outcomes of a corporate model for spiritual leadership. Specific initiatives are highlighted.

  6. Matrix-addressable electrochromic display cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beni, G.; Schiavone, L. M.

    1981-04-01

    We report an electrochromic display cell with intrinsic matrix addressability. The cell, based on a sputtered iridium oxide film (SIROF) and a tantalum-oxide hysteretic counterelectrode, has electrochromic parameters (i.e., response times, operating voltages, and contrast) similar to those of other SIROF display devices, but in addition, has short-circuit memory and voltage threshold. Memory and threshold are sufficiently large to allow, in principle, multiplexing of electrochromic display panels of large-screen TV pixel size.

  7. Politeness Strategies in American Presidential Inaugural Addresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立文; 朱琳靓

    2008-01-01

    American presidential inaugural address(PIA)a very important variety with worldwide influence and long-lasting significance.Its main task and purpose is to outline the main policies of the new government and win people's support.However.the prerequisite of winning people's sympathy and support lies in people's good relationship with and trust in the government.Therefore almost all the speakers resort to"approached-based" positive politeness strategy quite often which performs this function very well.

  8. Forest Policies Addressing Climate Change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As a developing country with a large population and a fragile ecological environment, China is particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. Beginning with the Rio Conference of 1992 China has played a progressively enhanced role in combating climate change. A series of policies and measures to address climate change have been taken in the overall context of national sustainable development strategy, making positive contributions to the mitigation and adaptation to climate change, among ...

  9. Matching Alternative Addresses: a Semantic Web Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariannamazi, S.; Karimipour, F.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI) provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature's literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  10. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution. Copyright 2013, NMJI.

  11. Evolving prehospital, emergency department, and "inpatient" management models for geriatric emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Christopher R; Platts-Mills, Timothy F

    2013-02-01

    Alternative management methods are essential to ensure high-quality and efficient emergency care for the growing number of geriatric adults worldwide. Protocols to support early condition-specific treatment of older adults with acute severe illness and injury are needed. Improved emergency department care for older adults will require providers to address the influence of other factors on the patient's health. This article describes recent and ongoing efforts to enhance the quality of emergency care for older adults using alternative management approaches spanning the spectrum from prehospital care, through the emergency department, and into evolving inpatient or outpatient processes of care.

  12. Addressing the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in inheritable arrhythmia syndromes: with emphasis on the pediatric population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chockalingam, P.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis addresses some of the most pressing issues and challenges in the management of congenital long QT syndrome and loss-of-function sodium channelopathies, with a special focus on the pediatric population. With inheritable arrhythmia syndromes emerging as an important piece in the puzzle of

  13. Digital Media Education and Advocacy: Addressing Attitudes toward Disability on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Michael T.; Mapes, Aimee C.; Taylor, Aryn; Bourgeois, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    As digital information becomes the preferred mode of communication, media applications have become an emerging context to address attitudes toward disability. This practice brief details digital media as one method to critically frame ableism on college campuses, promoting a more inclusive campus environment. Coordinated by the disability service…

  14. Grid-Integrated Distributed Solar: Addressing Challenges for Operations and Planning, Greening the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, Michael; Miller, Mackay; Katz, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document introduces a brief overview of common technical impacts of PV on distribution systems and operations, as well as emerging strategies for successfully addressing some of the priority issues.

  15. Tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Cestoda--neglected or emerging human parasite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Kuchta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A total number of 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium tapeworms have been described in literature to be capable of causing diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum being the major causative agent of all human infections. However, recent data indicate that some of these infections, especially when diagnosed solely on the basis of morphology, have been identified with this causative agent incorrectly, confusing other Diphyllobothrium species with D. latum. Another widely distributed species, D. dendriticum, has never been considered as a frequent parasite of man, even though it is found commonly throughout arctic and subarctic regions parasitizing piscivorous birds and mammals. Recent cases of Europeans infected with this cestode called into question the actual geographic distribution of this tapeworm, largely ignored by medical parasitologists. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: On the basis of revision of more than 900 available references and a description and revision of recent European human cases using morphological and molecular (cox1 data supplemented by newly characterized D. dendriticum sequences, we updated the current knowledge of the life-cycle, geographic distribution, epidemiological status, and molecular diagnostics of this emerging causal agent of zoonotic disease of man. CONCLUSIONS: The tapeworm D. dendriticum represents an example of a previously neglected, probably underdiagnosed parasite of man with a potential to spread globally. Recent cases of diphyllobothriosis caused by D. dendriticum in Europe (Netherlands, Switzerland and Czech Republic, where the parasite has not been reported previously, point out that causative agents of diphyllobothriosis and other zoonoses can be imported throughout the world. Molecular tools should be used for specific and reliable parasite diagnostics, and also rare or non-native species should be considered. This will considerably help improve our knowledge of the distribution and epidemiology of

  16. MATCHING ALTERNATIVE ADDRESSES: A SEMANTIC WEB APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ariannamazi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature’s literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  17. Programming chemistry in DNA-addressable bioreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, H.; Cardelli, L.

    2014-01-01

    We present a formal calculus, termed the chemtainer calculus, able to capture the complexity of compartmentalized reaction systems such as populations of possibly nested vesicular compartments. Compartments contain molecular cargo as well as surface markers in the form of DNA single strands...... of the subcellular matrix. We provide a non-deterministic semantics of our programming language that enables us to analytically derive the computational and constructive power of our machinery. This semantics is used to derive the sets of all constructable chemicals and supermolecular structures that emerge from...

  18. Emergency care of raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer E; Heatley, J Jill

    2007-05-01

    Raptors may present with a variety of conditions, such as trauma, debilitation, and disease, that necessitate emergency care. Emergency treatment should prioritize stabilization of the patient. Diagnostic testing should be delayed until feasible based on patient status. This article reviews emergency medicine in raptors, including appropriate handling and restraint, hospitalization, triage and patient assessment, sample collection, supportive care, and common emergency presentations.

  19. Perspectives on housing among homeless emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Tiffany N; Thompson, Sanna J

    2013-02-01

    Homeless emerging adults need the safety and stability of housing programs if they are to avoid the elements and victimization of the streets, however, barriers to obtaining housing are numerous. This study identified factors associated with perspectives of housing services among 29 homeless emerging adults (ages 18-23 years) through one-on-one interviews. Data were gathered and analyzed using grounded theory methodology for qualitative information. Major themes of peer support and positive personal and programmatic interactions in the context of emerging adult development were noted as important factors in housing service utilization. These major themes should be taken into consideration for current housing programs, due to homeless emerging adults' oscillation between their desire for formal support and personal independence. Greater emphasis on services that do not require long term commitments and are more flexible in addressing specific barriers to housing for homeless emerging adults may increase use.

  20. Grid Added Value to Address Malaria

    CERN Document Server

    Breton, V; Hofmann, M

    2008-01-01

    Through this paper, we call for a distributed, internet-based collaboration to address one of the worst plagues of our present world, malaria. The spirit is a non-proprietary peer-production of information-embedding goods. And we propose to use the grid technology to enable such a world wide "open source" like collaboration. The first step towards this vision has been achieved during the summer on the EGEE grid infrastructure where 46 million ligands were docked for a total amount of 80 CPU years in 6 weeks in the quest for new drugs.