WorldWideScience

Sample records for additively colored kcl

  1. Production and conversion of color centers in OH{sup -}-doped KCl polycrystals colored electrolytically

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fen [Department of Physics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Gu Hongen, E-mail: jthgu@163.co [Department of Physics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Qin Fang [Department of Physics, Chengde National Teacher' s College, Chengde 067000 (China); Liu Jia; Chen Weiwei [Department of Physics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2010-02-01

    OH{sup -}-doped KCl polycrystals are colored electrolytically by using a pointed cathode and a flat anode at various temperatures and voltages. Characteristic O{sup -}, OH{sup -}, U, U{sub A} and Cu{sup +} absorption peaks are observed in resolved absorption spectra of uncolored polycrystals. Characteristic V{sub 2}, V{sub 3}, Cu{sup +}, O{sup 2-}-V{sub a}{sup +}, I{sub 2}{sup -}, I{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O{sup -} and F spectral bands are observed at room temperature in Kubelka-Munk functions of colored polycrystals. Current-time curve for electrolytic coloration of an OH{sup -}-doped KCl polycrystal and its relationship with electrolytic coloration process are given. Production and conversion of color centers are explained.

  2. Entrained Flow Reactor Study of KCl Capture by Solid Additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guoliang; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    An option for abating deposition and corrosion caused byalkali species during biomass combustion, is the introduction of additivesinto boilers for transforming harmful gaseous alkali compounds (e.g. KCl,KOH) into less corrosive ash species with a higher melting point. Kaolin andcoal fly ash have...

  3. ARTICLES: Parametric spectroscopy of the kinetics of luminescence from color centers in KCl and KBr crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, V. A.; Strizhevskiĭ, V. L.; Shukirov, Zh; Yashkir, Yu N.

    1982-12-01

    An investigation was made of the kinetics of infrared luminescence from color centers in KCl and KBr crystals using temporal parametric spectroscopy. It was shown that the infrared luminescence spectrum of color centers excited by YAG laser radiation consists of two bands with significantly different lifetimes. Parametric spectroscopy was used to resolve and identify these bands as transitions of the RF →RK and RN →0 types. Investigations were made of optimal Q switching of a laser resonator using a KCl crystal.

  4. Parametric spectroscopy of the kinetics of luminescence from color centers in KCl and KBr crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, V.A.; Strizhevskii, V.L.; Shukirov, Z.; Yashkir, Y.N.

    1982-12-01

    An investigation was made of the kinetics of infrared luminescence from color centers in KCl and KBr crystals using temporal parametric spectroscopy. It was shown that the infrared luminescence spectrum of color centers excited by YAG laser radiation consists of two bands with significantly different lifetimes. Parametric spectroscopy was used to resolve and identify these bands as transitions of the R/sub F/..-->..R/sub N/ and R/sub N/ ..-->..0 types. Investigations were made of optimal Q switching of a laser resonator using a KCl crystal.

  5. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  6. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  7. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  8. Designing for Color in Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Luongo, Andrea; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a color design pipeline for 3D printed or additively manufactured parts. We demonstrate how to characterize and calibrate a commercial printer and how to obtain its forward and backward color transformation models. We present results from our assistive color design tool, ...

  9. Designing for Color in Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Luongo, Andrea; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a color design pipeline for 3D printed or additively manufactured parts. We demonstrate how to characterize and calibrate a commercial printer and how to obtain its forward and backward color transformation models. We present results from our assistive color design tool...

  10. Predicting Color Output of Additive Manufactured Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Pedersen, David Bue; Aanæs, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the colorimetric performance of a multicolor additive manufacturing process. A method on how to measure and characterize color performance of said process is presented. Furthermore, a method on predicting the color output is demonstrated, allowing for previsualization...

  11. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  12. 21 CFR 81.1 - Provisional lists of color additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Provisional lists of color additives. 81.1 Section... GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS AND GENERAL RESTRICTIONS FOR PROVISIONAL COLOR ADDITIVES FOR USE IN FOODS, DRUGS, AND COSMETICS § 81.1 Provisional lists of color additives. The Commissioner of Food and Drugs...

  13. A Simple Experimental Setup for Teaching Additive Colors with Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Paulo Simeão; Hahn, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The result of additive colors is always fascinating to young students. When we teach this topic to 14- to 16-year-old students, they do not usually notice we use maximum light quantities of red (R), green (G), and blue (B) to obtain yellow, magenta, and cyan colors in order to build the well-known additive color diagram of Fig. 1. But how about…

  14. A Simple Experimental Setup for Teaching Additive Colors with Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Paulo Simeão; Hahn, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The result of additive colors is always fascinating to young students. When we teach this topic to 14- to 16-year-old students, they do not usually notice we use maximum light quantities of red (R), green (G), and blue (B) to obtain yellow, magenta, and cyan colors in order to build the well-known additive color diagram of Fig. 1. But how about…

  15. 78 FR 14664 - Food and Color Additives; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... and Color Additives; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final... regulations regarding food and color additives to correct minor errors (such as misspelled chemical names) and... archaic or obsolete office names and replace them with the current Office name ``Office of Food...

  16. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color additives.... (b) Action on a request for exemption for investigational use of a food additive if the food......

  17. A Simple Experimental Setup for Teaching Additive Colors with Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Paulo Simeão; Hahn, Marcelo

    2016-04-01

    The result of additive colors is always fascinating to young students. When we teach this topic to 14- to 16-year-old students, they do not usually notice we use maximum light quantities of red (R), green (G), and blue (B) to obtain yellow, magenta, and cyan colors in order to build the well-known additive color diagram of Fig. 1. But how about using different light intensities for R, G, and B? What colors do we get? This problem of color mixing has been intensively discussed for decades by several authors, as pointed out by Ruiz's "Color Addition and Subtraction Apps" work and the references included therein. An early LED demonstrator for additive color mixing dates back to 1985, and apps to illustrate color mixing are available online. In this work, we describe an experimental setup making use of a microcontroller device: the Arduino Uno. This setup is designed as a game in order to improve students' understanding of color mixing.

  18. Color reproductivity improvement with additional virtual color filters for WRGB image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Shun; Kuroda, Rihito; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2013-02-01

    We have developed a high accuracy color reproduction method based on an estimated spectral reflectance of objects using additional virtual color filters for a wide dynamic range WRGB color filter CMOS image sensor. The four virtual color filters are created by multiplying the spectral sensitivity of White pixel by gauss functions which have different central wave length and standard deviation, and the virtual sensor outputs of those virtual filters are estimated from the four real output signals of the WRGB image sensor. The accuracy of color reproduction was evaluated with a Macbeth Color Checker (MCC), and the averaged value of the color difference ΔEab of 24 colors was 1.88 with our approach.

  19. Additivity of dichromatic color matches to short-wavelength lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, A L

    1984-11-01

    The additivity of color matches to short-wavelength lights was examined in observers who behaved as red-green dichromats under the stimulus conditions used. Color matches were obtained at several luminance levels and on several different adapting backgrounds. The range of mixtures acceptable as a match and the midpoint of this range varied considerably over different conditions. However, for each observer, a set of mixtures that remained a match under all conditions could always be found. Results suggest that the additivity laws hold for these observers in the sense that there is a color match that remains a match under all conditions.

  20. Stereoscopic high-speed imaging using additive colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankin, Georgy N.; Piech, David; Zhong, Pei

    2012-04-01

    An experimental system for digital stereoscopic imaging produced by using a high-speed color camera is described. Two bright-field image projections of a three-dimensional object are captured utilizing additive-color backlighting (blue and red). The two images are simultaneously combined on a two-dimensional image sensor using a set of dichromatic mirrors, and stored for off-line separation of each projection. This method has been demonstrated in analyzing cavitation bubble dynamics near boundaries. This technique may be useful for flow visualization and in machine vision applications.

  1. 37 CFR 1.776 - Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... extension for a food additive or color additive. 1.776 Section 1.776 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a food additive or color additive is eligible for extension, the...

  2. 75 FR 5887 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Astaxanthin Dimethyldisuccinate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Astaxanthin Dimethyldisuccinate; Confirmation of Effective... color additive regulations to provide for the safe use of astaxanthin dimethyldisuccinate as a color... astaxanthin dimethyldisuccinate as a color additive in the feed of salmonid fish to enhance the color of...

  3. 77 FR 65150 - Cryovac North America; Withdrawal of Color Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... Color Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of withdrawal. SUMMARY... filing, of a color additive petition (CAP 4C0276) proposing that the color ] additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of synthetic iron oxide as a color additive in or on cooked...

  4. Fuzzy Filtering Method for Color Videos Corrupted by Additive Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr I. Ponomaryov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for the denoising of color videos corrupted by additive noise is presented in this paper. The proposed technique consists of three principal filtering steps: spatial, spatiotemporal, and spatial postprocessing. In contrast to other state-of-the-art algorithms, during the first spatial step, the eight gradient values in different directions for pixels located in the vicinity of a central pixel as well as the R, G, and B channel correlation between the analogous pixels in different color bands are taken into account. These gradient values give the information about the level of contamination then the designed fuzzy rules are used to preserve the image features (textures, edges, sharpness, chromatic properties, etc.. In the second step, two neighboring video frames are processed together. Possible local motions between neighboring frames are estimated using block matching procedure in eight directions to perform interframe filtering. In the final step, the edges and smoothed regions in a current frame are distinguished for final postprocessing filtering. Numerous simulation results confirm that this novel 3D fuzzy method performs better than other state-of-the-art techniques in terms of objective criteria (PSNR, MAE, NCD, and SSIM as well as subjective perception via the human vision system in the different color videos.

  5. 75 FR 34360 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Bismuth Citrate; Confirmation of Effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 73 Listing of Color Additives Exempt From... March 26, 2010. The final rule amended the color additive regulations by increasing the permitted use level of bismuth citrate as a color additive in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp....

  6. 75 FR 10808 - CIBA Vision Corp.; Withdrawal of Color Additive Petitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ...) CIBA Vision Corp.; Withdrawal of Color Additive Petitions AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... prejudice to a future filing, of three color additive petitions (CAP 5C0278, CAP 5C0279, and CAP 5C0280) proposing that the color additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of Color Index...

  7. 76 FR 47210 - Notices of Filing of Petitions for Food Additives and Color Additives; Relocation in the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Notices of Filing of Petitions for Food Additives and Color Additives; Relocation in the Federal Register AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... petitions for food additives and color additives that are published in accordance with the Federal...

  8. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... color additives (other than hair dyes). (a) General labeling requirements. All color additives shall be... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes). 70.25 Section 70.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  9. 75 FR 5887 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Paracoccus Pigment; Confirmation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Paracoccus Pigment; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY... rule that appeared in the Federal Register of November 16, 2009. The final rule amended the color additive regulations to provide for the safe use of paracoccus pigment as a color additive in the feed...

  10. 75 FR 77645 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping AGENCY: Food and Drug... certification of color additives manufactured for use in foods, drugs, cosmetics or medical devices in the... of information technology. Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping--21 CFR Part...

  11. 78 FR 43093 - Sensient Technologies Corporation; Withdrawal of Color Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... Technologies Corporation; Withdrawal of Color Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... withdrawal, without prejudice to a future filing, of a color additive petition (CAP 8C0261) proposing that the color additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of External D&C Violet No. 2...

  12. 76 FR 59503 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 69; Confirmation of Effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 73 Listing of Color Additives Exempt From... May 4, 2011 (76 FR 25234). The final rule amended the color additive regulations to provide for the...-sulphonate (CAS Reg. No. 70209-99- 3), also known as Reactive Blue 69, as a color additive in contact...

  13. 76 FR 20992 - Sun Chemical Corp.; Filing of Color Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Sun Chemical Corp.; Filing of Color Additive Petition AGENCY... announcing that Sun Chemical Corp. has filed a petition proposing that the color additive regulations for D&C... been filed by Sun Chemical Corp., 5020 Spring Grove Ave., Cincinnati, OH 45232. The petition...

  14. Dielectric, piezoelectric, and pyroelectric anisotropy in KCL- modified grain-oriented bismuth vanadate ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Shantha, K; Varma, KBR

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the additive KCl, on the structural, microstructural, and polar properties of bismuth vanadate (BiV) ceramics is investigated. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies reveal a remarkable modification in the microstructure and the occurrence of high grain-orientation (75%) on KCl addition. The energy dispersive x ray (EDX) analyses indicate the presence of chemically inhomogeneous distribution of KCl, with core-shell-like grain structure. The KCl-modified BiV samples exhi...

  15. INNOVACIONES EN LA ENSEÑANZA DE LA MEZCLA ADITIVA DE COLORES (INNOVATIONS IN THE DIDACTICS OF ADDITIVE COLOR MIXING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroto Centeno José Alberto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El objetivo principal de este trabajo es aportar nuevos puntos de vista y enfoques didácticos para la enseñanza, en el ámbito de la Física, de las mezclas aditiva y sustractiva de colores. Concretamente, se expone un nuevo procedimiento para el diseño e impresión de discos de color de Maxwell, basado en la utilización del programa comercial Corel Photo-Paint 9. Estos discos evidencian con gran precisión y de manera extraordinariamente sugestiva el proceso de mezcla aditiva del color, a diferencia de la mayoría de los discos de color disponibles comercialmente. Este hecho se puso de manifiesto, a través de una demostración práctica, en el curso del “I Encuentro de Físicos de las Universidades de Costa Rica y Jaén. Desarrollo de Materiales Didácticos”. Finalmente, este trabajo analiza una página web que incluye diversos applets muy útiles para entender los mecanismos de las mezclas aditivas y sustractivas de colores.Abstract:The principal aim of this work is to improve the didactics, in the area of the Physics, of the additive and subtractive mixtures of color. Concretly, a new method used for the designing and printing of Maxwell color discs is put forward. This method is based on the use of the commercial program Corel Photo-Paint 9. The Maxwell color discs showed in this work achieves an excellent color reproducing unlike the majority of commercial color discs which do not work well. In fact, a suggestive exhibition based on these Maxwell color discs was carried out in the course of the meeting “I Encuentro de Físicos de las Universidades de Costa Rica y Jaén. Desarrollo de Materiales Didacticos”, which was held in San José de Costa Rica from 16 to 19 February 2009. Finally, a web page which contains interesting applets is analyzed in this work. These applets can be used to understand the mechanism of additive and subtractive mixtures.

  16. 75 FR 17939 - EMD Chemicals, Inc.; Withdrawal of Color Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... pigments prepared from combinations of synthetic iron oxide, titanium dioxide, and mica to color food. FDA... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration (formerly Docket No. 1998C-0790) EMD Chemicals, Inc.; Withdrawal of Color Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  17. 78 FR 57105 - Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company; Filing of Color Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 73 Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company; Filing of Color.... Wrigley Jr. Company, proposing that the color additive regulations be amended to expand the use of... lower the specification limit ] for lead in synthetic iron oxide for human food use. DATES: The...

  18. 78 FR 68713 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Spirulina Extract; Confirmation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... final rule published August 13, 2013 (78 FR 49117), is confirmed as September 13, 2013. FOR FURTHER... the Federal Register of August 13, 2013 (78 FR 49117), we amended the color additive regulations...

  19. Qualitative identification of permitted and non-permitted color additives in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Bermudez, Enio; Harp, Bhakti Petigara; Barrows, Julie N

    2014-01-01

    Color additives are dyes, pigments, or other substances that can impart color when added or applied to foods, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, or the human body. These substances must be pre-approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and listed in the Code of Federal Regulations before they may be used in FDA-regulated products. Both domestic and imported cosmetic products sold in interstate commerce fall under FDA jurisdiction, and FDA's district laboratories use a combination of analytical methods for identifying or confirming the presence of potentially violative color additives. We have developed a qualitative method for identifying 29 water- and methanol-soluble color additives in various types of cosmetic products. The color additives are extracted with combinations of methylene chloride, methanol, acetic acid, and water and are identified by LC with photodiode array detection. Estimated LOD values ranged from 0.1 to 1.5 mg/L. A survey of lip products, nail polishes, eye products, blushes, body glitter, face paints, bath products, creams, and toothpastes identified permitted and non-permitted color additives. Our new LC method is intended to supplement the visible spectrophotometry and TLC methods currently used by FDA's district laboratories and will help optimize the use of time, labor, and solvents.

  20. Stationary Intensity Distribution of Single-Mode Laser Driven by Additive and Multiplicative Colored Noises with Colored Cross-Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAOLi; WANGJun; WuDa-Jin; LIANGGui-Yun

    2003-01-01

    Applying the approximate Fokker-Planck equation we derived, we obtain the analytic expression of the stationary laser intensity distribution Pst(l) by studying the single-mode laser cubic model subject to colored cross-correlation additive and multiplicative noise, each of which is colored. Based on it, we discuss the effects on the stationary laser intensity distribution Pot(I) by cross-correlation between noises and "color" of noises (non-Markovian effect) when the laser system is above the threshold. In detail, we analyze two cases: One is that the three correlation-times (i.e.the self-correlation and cross-correlation times of the additive and multiplicative noise) are chosen to be the same value(Tl=T2=T3=T). For this case, the effect of noise cross-correlation is investigated emphatically, and we detect that only when λ≠ 0 can the noise-induced transition occur in the Pst (I) curve, and only when T≠ 0 and λ≠0, can the "reentrant noise-induced transition" occur. The other case is that the three correlation times are not the same value,T1≠T2≠T3. For this case, we find that the noise-induced transition occurring in the Pst(I) curve is entirely different when the values of T1,T2, and T3 are changed respectively. In particular, when T2 (serf-correlation time of additive noise) is cha~g~g, the ratio of the two maximums of the Pst( I) curve R exhibits an interesting phenomenon,"reentrant noise-induced transition", which demonstrates the effect of noise "color" (non-Markovian effect).

  1. 78 FR 42451 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 73 Listing of Color Additives Exempt From... color additive regulations in Sec. Sec. 73.3100 and 73.3106 (21 CFR 73.3100 and 73.3106), respectively... Blue 246), as color additives in contact lenses. We also corrected the nomenclature for Reactive...

  2. Determination of seven certified color additives in food products using liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, Bhakti Petigara; Miranda-Bermudez, Enio; Barrows, Julie N

    2013-04-17

    This study describes a new method for determining FD&C Blue No. 1, FD&C Blue No. 2, FD&C Green No. 3, FD&C Red No. 3, FD&C Red No. 40, FD&C Yellow No. 5, and FD&C Yellow No. 6 in food products. These seven color additives are water-soluble dyes that are required to be batch certified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before they may be used in food and other FDA-regulated products. In the new method, the color additives are extracted from a product using one of two procedures developed for various product types, isolated from the noncolored components, and analyzed by liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. The method was validated by determining linearity, range, precision, recovery from various matrices, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and relative standard deviation for each color additive. A survey of 44 food products, including beverages, frozen treats, powder mixes, gelatin products, candies, icings, jellies, spices, dressings, sauces, baked goods, and dairy products, found total color additives ranging from 1.9 to 1221 mg/kg. FDA intends to use the new method for conducting a rigorous, comprehensive dietary exposure assessment of certified color additives in products likely to be consumed by children.

  3. Stationary Intensity Distribution of Single-Mode Laser Driven by Additive and Multiplicative Colored Noises with Colored Cross-Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Gui-Yun; CAO Li; WANG Jun; Wu Da-Jin

    2003-01-01

    Applying the approximate Fokker-Planck equation we derived, we obtain the analytic expression of thestationary laser intensity distribution Pst(Ⅰ) by studying the single-mode laser cubic model subject to colored cross-correlation additive and multiplicative noise, each of which is colored. Based on it, we discuss the effects on the stationarylaser intensity distribution Pst(Ⅰ) by cross-correlation between noises and "color" of noises (non-Markovian effect) whenthe laser system is above the threshold. In detail, we analyze two cases: One is that the three correlation-times (i.e.the self-correlation and cross-correlation times of the additive and multiplicative noise) are chosen to be the same value(τ1 = τ2 = τ3 = τ). For this case, the effect of noise cross-correlation is investigated emphatically, and we detect thatonly when λ≠ 0 can the noise-induced transition occur in the Pst(Ⅰ) curve, and only when τ≠ 0 and λ≠ 0, can the"reentrant noise-induced transition" occur. The other case is that the three correlation times are not the same value,τ1 ≠τ2 ≠τ3. For this case, we find that the noise-induced transition occurring in the Pst (Ⅰ) curve is entirely differentwhen the values of τ1, τ2, and τ3 are changed respectively. In particular, when τ2 (self-correlation time of additivenoise) is changing, the ratio of the two maximums of the Pst(Ⅰ) curve R exhibits an interesting phenomenon, "reentrantnoise-induced transition", which demonstrates the effect of noise "color" (non-Markovian effect).

  4. Structural Color for Additive Manufacturing: 3D-Printed Photonic Crystals from Block Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Bret M; French, Tracy A; Pearson, Ryan M; McCarthy, Blaine G; Miyake, Garret M

    2017-03-28

    The incorporation of structural color into 3D printed parts is reported, presenting an alternative to the need for pigments or dyes for colored parts produced through additive manufacturing. Thermoplastic build materials composed of dendritic block copolymers were designed, synthesized, and used to additively manufacture plastic parts exhibiting structural color. The reflection properties of the photonic crystals arise from the periodic nanostructure formed through block copolymer self-assembly during polymer processing. The wavelength of reflected light could be tuned across the visible spectrum by synthetically controlling the block copolymer molecular weight and manufacture parts that reflected violet, green, or orange light with the capacity to serve as selective optical filters and light guides.

  5. 78 FR 54758 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Mica-Based Pearlescent Pigments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 73 Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Mica-Based Pearlescent Pigments; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule; confirmation of effective date. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  6. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 20.61 of this chapter. (3) Adverse reaction reports, product experience reports, consumer complaints... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions. 71.15 Section 71.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. Toxic effects of some synthetic food colorants and/or flavor additives on male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Wahab, Hanan Mohamed Fathy Abd; Moram, Gehan Salah El-Deen

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the broadest toxic effect of some synthetic additives of colorants and/or flavors on different body organs and metabolic aspects in rats. A number of chemical food color and flavor additives are routinely added during processing to improve the aesthetic appearance of the dietary items. However, many of them are toxic after prolonged use. In this experiment, a total of 100 male albino rats of Spargue Dawley strain were divided into 10 groups: G(1) was fed basal diet and served as control, G(2): basal diet + Brilliant blue (blue dye, No. 2, 124 mg/kg diet), G(3): basal diet + carmoisine (red dye, No. 3, 70 mg/kg diet), G(4): basal diet + tartrazine (yellow dye, FD & C yellow No. 5, 75 mg/kg diet), G(5): basal diet + trans-anethole (4.5 g/kg diet) G(6): basal diet + propylene glycol (0.25 g/kg diet), G(7): basal diet + vanillin(1.25 g/kg diet), G(8): basal diet + Brilliant blue + propylene glycol, G(9): basal diet + carmoisine + trans-anethole, G(10): basal diet + tartrazine + vanillin for 42 successive days. All food colorants mixed with or without flavor additives induced a significant decrease in body weight, hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell count. Also there was a significant decrease in reduced glutathione content; glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activities in both blood and liver compared to control group. On the other hand, a significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase activities, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, total protein and albumin were observed in all test groups when compared to control group. Finally, it is advisable to limit the uses of these food colorants and/or food flavor additives especially those used by children.

  8. Assessing the effects of different pectins addition on color quality and antioxidant properties of blackberry jam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiana, Mariana-Atena; Munteanu, Melania-Florina; Bordean, Despina-Maria; Gligor, Ramona; Alexa, Ersilia

    2013-01-01

    In the last years pectin and other hydrocolloids were tested for improving the color stability and the retention of bioactive compounds in gelled fruit-based products. In line with these concerns, our study has been directed to quantify the changes in antioxidant status and color indices of blackberry jam obtained with different types of pectin (degree of esterification: DE, degree of amidation: DA) and doses in response to processing and storage for 1, 3 and 6 months at 20°C. Blackberry jam was obtained by a traditional procedure used in households or small-scale systems with different commercial pectins (HMP: high-methoxyl pectin, LMP: low-methoxyl pectin and LMAP: low-methoxyl amidated pectin) added to three concentrations (0.3, 0.7 and 1.0%) and investigated in terms of total monomeric anthocyanins (TMA), antioxidant capacity expressed as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenolics (TP), color density (CD) and percent of polymeric color, PC (%). Thermal processing resulted in significant depreciation of analyzed parameters reported to the corresponding values of fresh fruit as follows: TMA (69-82%), TP (33-55%) and FRAP (18-52%). Biologically active compounds and color were best retained one day post-processing in jams with LMAP followed by samples with LMP and HMP. Storage for 6 months brings along additional dramatic losses reported to the values recorded one day post-processing as follows: TMA (31-56%), TP (29-51%) and FRAP (20-41%). Also, both processing and storage resulted in significant increases in PC (%). The pectin type and dosage are very influential factors for limiting the alterations occurring in response to processing and storage. The best color retention and the highest TMA, TP and FRAP were achieved by LMAP, followed by LMP and HMP. Additionally, a high level of bioactive compounds in jam could be related to a high dose of pectin. LMAP to a level of 1% is the most indicated to provide the highest antioxidant properties in jam

  9. Kr-KCl exciplex lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenovskii, M. S.; Riives, R. B.; Kel'Man, V. A.; Zhmenyak, Yu. V.; Shpenik, Yu. O.

    2009-07-01

    A new source of UV radiation (excilamp) based on Kr-KCl vapor-gas mixture excited by a longitudinal high-voltage pulsed-periodic discharge is created. The emission spectrum and time characteristic of the discharge radiation are studied. The B → X transition in the KrCl* excimer molecule (λ = 222 nm) is found to dominate in the radiation spectrum of the source. The dependence of the pulse output power of the lamp on various factors is investigated, and the mechanism of B state formation in the excimer molecule is discussed.

  10. Effect of the prefermentative addition of five enological tannins on anthocyanins and color in red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Xia; Liang, Na-Na; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2013-01-01

    The effects of prefermentation addition of 5 exogenous tannins with different-origin anthocyanins and color characteristics were investigated in "Cabernet Sauvignon wines" at the end of alcoholic fermentation and the end of malolactic fermentation, and after 6 mo and 9 mo of bottle aging, respectively. The results showed that the application of GSKT2 could significantly retard the degradation of most anthocyanins in the process of alcoholic fermentation and the decrease of some pyranoanthocyanins during the subsequent 3 stages, thus causing more yellowness of wine in comparison with the control. Three other condensed tannins, GSKT1, QUET, and GSET, had a positive impact only on several anthocyanin components. Four condensed tannins all contributed to more redness, suggesting that the action mechanism might be to protect wine against oxidation or contribute to form copigmented anthocyanidins, or polymeric pigments. The application of FOLT (hydrolysable tannin) did not produce any influence on wine redness even after 9 mo of bottle aging. This work provides some reasons for the reasonable application of tannin additives. The prefermentative application of condensed tannins overall could protect some pigment components from degradation and enhance wine redness. Tannin additives with different origins have different effectiveness. The tannin additive obtained from grape skins, like GSKT2, could produce significant promotion on both redness and yellowness in wine. The prefermentation addition of hydroxylase tannin like FOLT seems not to have a significant effect on wine color. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Risk assessment for the combinational effects of food color additives: neural progenitor cells and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mikyung; Park, Hee Ra; Kim, So Jung; Kim, Min-Sun; Kong, Kyoung Hye; Kim, Hyun Soo; Gong, Ein Ji; Kim, Mi Eun; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung Mu; Lee, Jaewon

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, the Korea Food and Drug Administration reported that combinations of dietary colors such as allura red AC (R40), tartrazine (Y4), sunset yellow FCF (Y5), amaranth (R2), and brilliant blue FCF (B1) are widely used in food manufacturing. Although individual tar food colors are controlled based on acceptable daily intake (ADI), there is no apparent information available for how combinations of these additives affect food safety. In the current study, the potencies of single and combination use of R40, Y4, Y5, R2, and B1 were examined on neural progenitor cell (NPC) toxicity, a biomarker for developmental stage, and neurogenesis, indicative of adult central nervous system (CNS) functions. R40 and R2 reduced NPC proliferation and viability in mouse multipotent NPC, in the developing CNS model. Among several combinations tested in mouse model, combination of Y4 and B1 at 1000-fold higher than average daily intake in Korea significantly decreased numbers of newly generated cells in adult mouse hippocampus, indicating potent adverse actions on hippocampal neurogenesis. However, other combinations including R40 and R2 did not affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Evidence indicates that single and combination use of most tar food colors may be safe with respect to risk using developmental NPC and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the response to excessively high dose combination of Y4 and B1 is suggestive of synergistic effects to suppress proliferation of NPC in adult hippocampus. Data indicated that combinations of tar colors may adversely affect both developmental and adult hippocampal neurogenesis; thus, further extensive studies are required to assess the safety of these additive combinations.

  12. Ionic conductivity in irradiated KCL; Conductiviad ionica de KCL irradiado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignolo Rubio, J.

    1979-07-01

    The ionic conductivity of X and gamma irradiated KCL single crystals has been studied between room temperature and 600 degree centigree. the radiation induced damage resulting in a decrease of the conductivity heals by thermal annealing in two steps which are at about 350 and 550 degree centigree respectively. It has been found that the radiation induced colour centres are not involved in the observed decrease of the ionic conductivity. However. It has been observed that the effects of quenching and plastic deformation on the conductivity of the samples are very similar to the effect induced by irradiation. It is suggested that, samples radiation induced dislocation loops might cause the ionic conductivity decrease observed in irradiated samples. (Author)

  13. 3D filtering technique in presence of additive noise in color videos implemented on DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Montenegro-Monroy, Hector; Palacios, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    A filtering method for color videos contaminated by additive noise is presented. The proposed framework employs three filtering stages: spatial similarity filtering, neighboring frame denoising, and spatial post-processing smoothing. The difference with other state-of- the-art filtering methods, is that this approach, based on fuzzy logic, analyses basic and related gradient values between neighboring pixels into a 7 fi 7 sliding window in the vicinity of a central pixel in each of the RGB channels. Following, the similarity measures between the analogous pixels in the color bands are taken into account during the denoising. Next, two neighboring video frames are analyzed together estimating local motions between the frames using block matching procedure. In the final stage, the edges and smoothed areas are processed differently in a current frame during the post-processing filtering. Numerous simulations results confirm that this 3D fuzzy filter perform better than other state-of-the- art methods, such as: 3D-LLMMSE, WMVCE, RFMDAF, FDARTF G, VBM3D and NLM, in terms of objective criteria (PSNR, MAE, NCD and SSIM) as well as subjective perception via human vision system in the different color videos. An efficiency analysis of the designed and other mentioned filters have been performed on the DSPs TMS320 DM642 and TMS320DM648 by Texas Instruments through MATLAB and Simulink module showing that the novel 3D fuzzy filter can be used in real-time processing applications.

  14. Effect of ascorbic acid on the properties of ammonia caramel colorant additives and acrylamide formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongxing; Gu, Zhengbiao

    2014-09-01

    Ammonia caramels are among the most widely used colorant additives in the food industry. They are commonly prepared through the Maillard reaction and caramelization of mixtures of reducing sugars with ammonia or ammonium salts. Antioxidants are known to inhibit acrylamide formation during the Maillard reaction, and they may affect the properties of the ammonia caramel products. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the antioxidant ascorbic acid on the properties of ammonia caramel. A mixture of glucose and ammonia was allowed to react at 120 °C for 60 min in the presence of ascorbic acid at final concentrations of 0 to 0.08 M. The ammonia caramels obtained from these reactions were all positively charged. As the concentration of ascorbic acid increased, the color intensity of the ammonia caramel showed a decreasing trend, while the intensity of the fluorescence and total amount of pyrazines in the volatiles showed a tendency to increase. The addition of ascorbic acid did not result in obvious changes in the UV-visible spectra of the ammonia caramels and the types of pyrazines in the volatiles were also unchanged. It is noteworthy that the addition of 0.02 to 0.08 M ascorbic acid did reduce the formation of the by-product acrylamide, a harmful substance in food. When the concentration of ascorbic acid added reached 0.04 M, the content of acrylamide in the ammonia caramel was 20.53 μg/L, which was approximately 44% lower than that without ascorbic acid. As a result, ascorbic acid can be considered to improve the quality and safety of ammonia caramels.

  15. Role of quantum dots nanoparticles in the chemical treatment of colored wastewater: Catalysts or additional pollutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hrvoje Kusic; Danuta Leszczynska; Natalija Koprivanac; Igor Peternel

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the presence and the activity of quantum dots nanoparficles in colored wastewaters.The special interest is devoted to the investigation of their role in the typical treatment of water or wastewater,studying their influence on the effectiveness of applied treatments methods.The standard chemical processes for water treatment and disinfection (direct UV photolysis and direct ozonation) were applied for the degradation of colored organic pollutant,reactive azo dye,in the presence/absence of CdSe/ZnS core-shells quantum dots.The obtained results indicated that investigated nanoparticles inhibit the overall efficiency of applied processes,especially in the case of direct UV photolysis,although catalytic effect might be expected in part due to the semiconductor nature of quantum dots.Such results lead to a conclusion that CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles behave as additional pollutants in the system.They should be removed from the system prior the treatment,because their presence could decrease the efficiency,i.e.,prolong the time of treatment and correspondingly increase the costs of the treatment process.

  16. Permeability and mechanical properties of cement mortars colored by nano-mineral additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamali Bernard S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns a preliminary study on issues that relate primarily to the permeability of cementitious materials under the influence of some specific inexpensive additions that can play an important role in preserving the environment. We studied the addition of dyes in the presence of TiO2 on the Portland cement mortar. The used dyes are a yellow powder containing iron oxyhydroxide (FeO (OH, a blue-based powder tellurate manganese (MnTe2O5 and red powder containing iron oxide (Fe2O3. We measure the setting time, permeability and mechanical properties of Portland cement mortars colored with nano-mineral oxides mentioned previously. Test results indicate that the addition of nano-particles has a little influence on the setting time, improves penetration resistance that is due the affinity of the pore structure of mortar and slightly improves the resistance to compression for low levels of nanoparticles of TiO2.

  17. Effects of an Additional Sequence of Color Stimuli on Visuomotor Sequence Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kanji; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2017-01-01

    Through practice, people are able to integrate a secondary sequence (e.g., a stimulus-based sequence) into a primary sequence (e.g., a response-based sequence), but it is still controversial whether the integrated sequences lead to better learning than only the primary sequence. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of a sequence that integrated space and color sequences on early and late learning phases (corresponding to effector-independent and effector-dependent learning, respectively) and how the effects differed in the integrated and primary sequences in each learning phase. In the task, the participants were required to learn a sequence of button presses using trial-and-error and to perform the sequence successfully for 20 trials (m × n task). First, in the baseline task, all participants learned a non-colored sequence, in which the response button always turned red. Then, in the learning task, the participants were assigned to two groups: a colored sequence group (i.e., space and color) or a non-colored sequence group (i.e., space). In the colored sequence, the response button turned a pre-determined color and the participants were instructed to attend to the sequences of both location and color as much as they could. The results showed that the participants who performed the colored sequence acquired the correct button presses of the sequence earlier, but showed a slower mean performance time than those who performed the non-colored sequence. Moreover, the slower performance time in the colored sequence group remained in a subsequent transfer task in which the spatial configurations of the buttons were vertically mirrored from the learning task. These results indicated that if participants explicitly attended to both the spatial response sequence and color stimulus sequence at the same time, they could develop their spatial representations of the sequence earlier (i.e., early development of the effector-independent learning), but might

  18. Stability improvement of natural food colors: Impact of amino acid and peptide addition on anthocyanin stability in model beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Cheryl; Rojanasasithara, Thananunt; Mutilangi, William; McClements, David Julian

    2017-03-01

    Anthocyanins are prone to chemical degradation and color fading in the presence of vitamin C. The potential of three amino acids (l-phenylalanine, l-tyrosine, l-tryptophan) and a polypeptide (ε-poly-l-lysine) in prolonging the color stability of purple carrot anthocyanins (0.025%) in model beverages (0.05% l-ascorbic acid, citric acid, pH 3.0) stored at elevated temperature (40°C/7 days) was examined. In the absence of amino acids or peptides, anthocyanin degraded at first-order reaction rate. Addition of amino acids or peptide (0.1%) increased the color stability of anthocyanins, with the most significant improvement observed for l-tryptophan. The average half-life of anthocyanin color increased from 2 days to 6 days with l-tryptophan addition. Fluorescence quenching measurements revealed that the l-tryptophan interacted with anthocyanins mainly through hydrogen bonding, although some hydrophobic interaction may also have been involved. Overall, this study suggests that amino acid or peptide addition may prolong the color stability of anthocyanin in beverage products.

  19. Assessing the effects of different pectins addition on color quality and antioxidant properties of blackberry jam

    OpenAIRE

    Poiana, Mariana-Atena; Munteanu, Melania-Florina; Bordean, Despina-Maria; Gligor, Ramona; Alexa, Ersilia

    2013-01-01

    Background In the last years pectin and other hydrocolloids were tested for improving the color stability and the retention of bioactive compounds in gelled fruit-based products. In line with these concerns, our study has been directed to quantify the changes in antioxidant status and color indices of blackberry jam obtained with different types of pectin (degree of esterification: DE, degree of amidation: DA) and doses in response to processing and storage for 1, 3 and 6 months at 20°C. Resu...

  20. Correlation function of an optical bistable system with cross-correlated additive white noise and multiplicative colored noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Wang; Shaoping Yan

    2009-01-01

    Considering an optical bistable system with cross-correlated additive white noise and multiplicative colored noise,we study the effects of correlation between the noises on the correlation function C(s)using the unified colored noise approximation and the Stratonovich decoupling ansatz formalism.The effects of the self-correlation time T of the multiplicative colored noise and the correlation intensity A between the two noises are studied with numerical calculation.It is found that C(s)increases with the increase of the self-correlation time r,but decreases with the increase of the correlation intensity A.At large value of T,there is almost no change for C(s)when T changes.

  1. 21 CFR 70.10 - Color additives in standardized foods and new drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Where an application for a new drug is received and this application proposes, for coloring purposes... intended use has not already been established. (2) If an application for a new drug inferentially contains... date of filing of the new-drug application....

  2. Radiation effects on beta 10.6 of pure and europium doped KCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, H. H.; Maisel, J. E.; Hartford, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    Changes in the optical absorption coefficient as a result of X-ray and electron bombardment of pure KCl (monocrystalline and polycrystalline), and divalent europium doped polycrystalline KCl were determined. The optical absorption coefficients were measured by a constant heat flow calorimetric method. Both 300 KV X-irradiation and 2 MeV electron irradiation produced significant increases in beta 10.6, measured at room temperature. The X-irradiation of pure moncrystalline KCl increased beta 10.6 by 0.005/cm for a 113 MR dose. For an equivalent dose, 2 MeV electrons were found less efficient in changing beta 10.6. However, electron irradiation of pure and Eu-doped polycrystalline KCl produced marked increases in adsorption. Beta increased to over 0.25/cm in Eu-doped material for a 30 x 10 to the 14th power electrons/sq cm dose, a factor of 20 increase over unirradiated material. Moreover, bleaching the electron irradiated doped KCl with 649 m light produced and additional factor of 1.5 increase. These findings will be discussed in light of known defect-center properties in KCl.

  3. Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue, colorant food additives, on human blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Esra; Eroglu, Halil Erhan

    2015-01-01

    The synthetic dyes over fifty are used in many areas including the food industry around the world. Sunset Yellow FCF and Brilliant Blue FCF are used as colorant food additives in many food products. The present study investigated the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue. Genotoxic and cytotoxic activities of the food additives were evaluated in lymphocyte cell cultures using mitotic index, replication index and micronucleus assay. Mitotic index frequencies and replication index values were decreased and micronucleus frequency was increased with increasing concentrations of Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue. The changes in mitotic index and micronucleus are statistically significant (pBlue can have cytotoxic and genotoxic potential. It care must be taken when using these materials as a food additive.

  4. 77 FR 54862 - GNT USA, Inc.; Filing of Color Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Nutrition (HFS-265), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740-3835, 240-402-1272. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (section 721(d)(1.... Keefe, Director, Office of Food Additive Safety, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition....

  5. 75 FR 14491 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Bismuth Citrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... action is in response to a petition filed by Combe, Inc. DATES: This rule is effective April 27, 2010... additive petition (CAP 8C0286) had been filed by Combe, Inc., c/o EAS Consulting Group, LLC, 1940 Duke St... per volume (w/v)) to 2.0 percent (w/v). II. Evaluation of Safety A. Determination of Safety...

  6. KCl stimulation increases norepinephrine transporter function in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandela, Prashant; Ordway, Gregory A

    2006-09-01

    The norepinephrine transporter (NET) plays a pivotal role in terminating noradrenergic signaling and conserving norepinephrine (NE) through the process of re-uptake. Recent evidence suggests a close association between NE release and regulation of NET function. The present study evaluated the relationship between release and uptake, and the cellular mechanisms that govern these processes. KCl stimulation of PC12 cells robustly increased [3H]NE uptake via the NET and simultaneously increased [3H]NE release. KCl-stimulated increases in uptake and release were dependent on Ca2+. Treatment of cells with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) or okadaic acid decreased [3H]NE uptake but did not block KCl-stimulated increases in [3H]NE uptake. In contrast, PMA increased [3H]NE release and augmented KCl-stimulated release, while okadaic acid had no effects on release. Inhibition of Ca2+-activated signaling cascades with KN93 (a Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent kinase inhibitor), or ML7 and ML9 (myosin light chain kinase inhibitors), reduced [3H]NE uptake and blocked KCl-stimulated increases in uptake. In contrast, KN93, ML7 and ML9 had no effect on KCl-stimulated [3H]NE release. KCl-stimulated increases in [3H]NE uptake were independent of transporter trafficking to the plasma membrane. While increases in both NE release and uptake mediated by KCl stimulation require Ca2+, different intracellular mechanisms mediate these two events.

  7. Strategies to reduce gaseous KCl and chlorine in deposits during combustion of biomass in fluidised bed boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassman, Haakan

    2012-11-01

    Combustion of a biomass with an enhanced content of alkali and chlorine (Cl) can result in operational problems including deposit formation and superheater corrosion. The strategies applied to reduce such problems include co-combustion and the use of additives. In this work, measures were investigated in order to decrease the risk of superheater corrosion by reducing gaseous KCl and the content of chlorine in deposits. The strategies applied were sulphation of KCl by sulphur/sulphate containing additives (i.e. elemental sulphur (S) and ammonium sulphate (AS)) and co-combustion with peat. Both sulphation of KCl and capture of potassium (K) in ash components can be of importance when peat is used. The experiments were mainly performed in a 12 MW circulation fluidised bed (CFB) boiler equipped for research purposes but also in a full-scale CFB boiler. The results were evaluated by means of IACM (on-line measurements of gaseous KCl), conventional gas analysis, deposit and corrosion probe measurements and ash analysis. Ammonium sulphate performed significantly better than elemental sulphur. Thus the presence of SO{sub 3} (i.e. AS) is of greater importance than that of SO{sub 2} (i.e. S) for sulphation of gaseous KCl and reduction of chlorine in deposits. Only a minor reduction of gaseous KCl was obtained during co-combustion with peat although chlorine in the deposits was greatly reduced. This reduction was supposedly due to capture of K by reactive components from the peat ash in parallel to sulphation of KCl. These compounds remained unidentified. The effect of volatile combustibles on the sulphation of gaseous KCl was investigated. The poorest sulphation was attained during injection of ammonium sulphate in the upper part of the combustion chamber during the lowest air excess ratio. The explanation for this is that SO{sub 3} was partly consumed by side reactions due to the presence of combustibles. These experimental results were supported by modelling, although the

  8. Thermodynamics of the NaCl–KCl system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeev, D., E-mail: sergeevdmn@gmail.com; Kobertz, D.; Müller, M.

    2015-04-20

    Highlights: • The complementary methods of DSC, DTA, DROP and XRD analyses were used. • The heat capacity of solid phase of the NaCl–KCl mixtures was measured. • The heat capacity of liquid phase of the 50NaCl–50KCl mixture was obtained. • The enthalpy of fusion and solid solution formation were determined. • The thermodynamic functions of the 50NaCl–50KCl mixture were calculated. - Abstract: The heat capacity of the solid phase of the NaCl–KCl mixtures was measured by the differential scanning calorimetry. These results and X-ray diffraction data were used for the explanation of the solid solution formation. The heat capacity of the liquid phase of the eutectic 50NaCl–50KCl mixture has been obtained in a closed glass container. The enthalpy increment (H{sup °}{sub T} − H{sup °}{sub 298.15}) and the fusion enthalpy of the 50NaCl–50KCl mixture have been measured by a drop calorimeter. The joint analysis of these values with the heat capacity data allowed the calculation of the enthalpy of the solid solution. As the final result, the thermodynamic functions of the eutectic 50NaCl–50KCl mixture have been obtained.

  9. Effects of maternally exposed coloring food additives on receptor expressions related to learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Betul Mermi; Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul; Kulac, Esin

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to artificial food colors and additives (AFCAs) has been implicated in the induction and severity of some childhood behavioral and learning disabilities. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nACHRs) are thought to be effective in the learning and memory-generating process. In this study, we investigated the effects of intrauterine exposure to AFCAs on subunit concentrations of NMDARs and nAChRs isoforms in rats. We administered a mixture of AFCAs (Eritrosin, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red AC, Sunset Yellow FCF, Tartrazin, Amaranth, Brilliant Blue, Azorubin and Indigotin) to female rats before and during gestation. The concentration of NR2A and NR2B subunits and nAChR α7, α4β2 isoforms in their offspring's hippocampi were measured by Western Blotting. Expressions of NR2B and nAChR β2 were significantly increased (17% and 6.70%, respectively), whereas expression of nAChR α4 was significantly decreased (5.67%) in male experimental group compared to the male control group (p<0.05). In the female experimental group, AFCAs caused a 14% decrease in NR2B expression when compared to the female control group (p<0.05). Our results indicate that exposure to AFCAs during the fetal period may lead to alterations in expressions of NMDARs and nAChRs in adulthood. These alterations were different between male and female genders.

  10. Fast and simultaneous determination of eleven synthetic color additives in flour and meat products by liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detector and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ping; Lin, Zi-hao; Chen, Gui-yun; Xiao, Jian; Liang, Zhi-an; Luo, Li-ni; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Xue-wu

    2015-08-15

    In this study, an efficient, fast and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of eleven synthetic color additives (Allura red, Amaranth, Azo rubine, Brilliant blue, Erythrosine, Indigotine, Ponceau 4R, New red, Sunset yellow, Quinoline yellow and Tartrazine) in flour and meat foodstuffs is developed and validated using HPLC coupled with DAD and MS/MS. The color additives were extracted with ammonia-methanol and was further purified with SPE procedure using Strata-AW column in order to reduce matrix interference. This HPLC-DAD method is intended for a comprehensive survey of color additives in foods. HPLC-MS/MS method was used as the further confirmation and identification. Validation data showed the good recoveries in the range of 75.2-113.8%, with relative standard deviations less than 15%. These methods are suitable for the routine monitoring analysis of eleven synthetic color additives due to its sensitivity, reasonable time and cost. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Color Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. We would like it to match the well-defined algebra of spectral functions describing lights and surface reflectances, but an exact correspondence is impossible after the spectra have been projected to a three-dimensional color space, because of metamerism physically different spectra can produce the same color sensation. Metameric spectra are interchangeable for the purposes of addition, but not multiplication, so any color algebra is necessarily an approximation to physical reality. Nevertheless, because the majority of naturally-occurring spectra are well-behaved (e.g., continuous and slowly-varying), color algebras can be formulated that are largely accurate and agree well with human intuition. Here we explore the family of algebras that result from associating each color with a member of a three-dimensional manifold of spectra. This association can be used to construct a color product, defined as the color of the spectrum of the wavelength-wise product of the spectra associated with the two input colors. The choice of the spectral manifold determines the behavior of the resulting system, and certain special subspaces allow computational efficiencies. The resulting systems can be used to improve computer graphic rendering techniques, and to model various perceptual phenomena such as color constancy.

  12. Surface Morphology and Microstructural Characterization of KCl Crystals Grown in Halite-Sylvite Brine Solutions by Electron Backscattered Diffraction Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, Jiban; Basu, Ritwik; Evitts, Richard William; Besant, Robert William

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a study on the ternary NaCl-KCl-H2O system was carried out by an extractive metallurgy technique from mixed brine solutions of different compositions at room temperature (23°C). The surface morphology and microstructure were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The presence of Na{ }+ was found to reduce the stability of the solutions and increase the crystallization induction period, interfacial energy, energy of formation of the nucleus and greatly reduce the nucleation rate of KCl crystal. The surface morphology of KCl crystals is significantly changed due to presence of 5 to 10% (w/w) of NaCl as impurities in the binary solutions and shows the formation of co-crystals of different crystallographic orientation of NaCl on the KCl surface. In addition X-ray diffraction studies performed on KCl crystals grown in halite-sylvite binary solutions reveals that these crystals are cubic in nature and its lattice constant is 6.2952 Å when the NaCl concentration is small.

  13. A reactive distillation process for the treatment of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt containing rare earth chlorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, H. C.; Choi, J. H.; Kim, N. Y.; Lee, T. K.; Han, S. Y.; Lee, K. R.; Park, H. S.; Ahn, D. H.

    2016-11-01

    The pyrochemical process, which recovers useful resources (U/TRU metals) from used nuclear fuel using an electrochemical method, generates LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt containing radioactive rare earth chlorides (RECl3). It is necessary to develop a simple process for the treatment of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt in a hot-cell facility. For this reason, a reactive distillation process using a chemical agent was achieved as a method to separate rare earths from the LiCl-KCl waste salt. Before conducting the reactive distillation, thermodynamic equilibrium behaviors of the reactions between rare earth (Nd, La, Ce, Pr) chlorides and the chemical agent (K2CO3) were predicted using software. The addition of the chemical agent was determined to separate the rare earth chlorides into an oxide form using these equilibrium results. In the reactive distillation test, the rare earth chlorides in LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were decontaminated at a decontamination factor (DF) of more than 5000, and were mainly converted into oxide (Nd2O3, CeO2, La2O3, Pr2O3) or oxychloride (LaOCl, PrOCl) forms. The LiCl-KCl was purified into a form with a very low concentration (<1 ppm) for the rare earth chlorides.

  14. Determination of Sudan I and a newly synthesized Sudan III positional isomer in the color additive D&C Red No. 17 using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Adrian; James, India C; Tae, Christian J; Ridge, Clark D; Ito, Yoichiro

    2017-07-12

    Specifications in the Code of Federal Regulations for the color additive D&C Red No. 17 (Colour Index 26100) limit the levels of two subsidiary colors, 1-(phenylazo)-2-naphthol (Sudan I) and 1-[[2-(phenylazo)phenyl]azo]-2-naphthalenol (Sudan III o-isomer), to 3% and 2%, respectively. The present work reports the development of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the quantitative determination of these subsidiary colors. Since Sudan III o-isomer needed to be synthesized for use as a reference material, a two-step procedure was devised: (i) preparative-scale synthesis of the intermediate 2-aminoazobenzene (2AAB) and its purification by counter-current chromatography and (ii) diazotization of 2AAB and coupling with 2-naphthol. Characterization of the newly synthesized Sudan III o-isomer is also reported. Sudan I and Sudan III o-isomer were quantified by using five-point calibration curves with data points ranging from 0.108 to 3.240% and 0.077 to 2.227% by weight, respectively. The HPLC method is rapid (14 min for the total analysis cycle) and simple to implement. It was applied to the analysis of test portions from 25 batches of D&C Red No. 17 submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) for certification, and it has recently been implemented by USFDA for routine batch certification of that color additive.

  15. Respon pertumbuhan bibit kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) terhadap pemberian pupuk guano dan KCl

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagukguk, Pispa

    2015-01-01

    Addition of Guano in Cultivation of Cacao Seedling is the one of step to use organic fertilizer that comes from animal feces in the world. For that purpose addition guano aims to increase growth of Cacao in Cultivation of Seedling. This research had been conducted at experimental field of Fakultas Pertanian USU in October 2013 - January 2014 using factorial randomized block design with two factor, i.e. addition dose of Guano (0, 75 , 150 , 225 g/polibag) and dose of KCl (0 , ...

  16. The Effect of ZnO Addition on Microstructure, Phase and Color Developments of Copper Reduction Glaze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. NayebPashaee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects of Zn on microstructure and color developments of the copper reduction glaze were investigated. Structural and colorimetric characteristics of the glaze surface are examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM equipped with electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS and Telespectrophotometery. Results indicate in samples consisted of more than 7 % of zinc amount, crystalline structures containing Willemite and synthesized copper. XRD indicate that, 14 wt% of zinc oxide is enough to form Willemite. In all samples, duration of process was sufficient to form the metallic particles. SEM images confirm presence of copper nanosphere-laths of Willemite and surrounding glaze.

  17. On the electrochemical formation of Pu-Al alloys in molten LiCl-KCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, E.; Malmbeck, R.; Nourry, C.; Souček, P.; Glatz, J.-P.

    2012-01-01

    Properties of Pu-Al alloys were investigated in connection with development of pyrochemical methods for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Electroseparation techniques in molten LiCl-KCl are being developed in ITU to group-selectively recover actinides from the mixture with fission products. In the process, actinides are electrochemically reduced on solid aluminium cathodes, forming solid actinide-aluminium alloys. This article is focused on electro-chemical characterisation of Pu-Al alloys in molten LiCl-KCl, on electrodeposition of Pu on solid Al electrodes and on determination of chemical composition and structure of the formed alloys. Cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry were used to study Pu-Al alloys in the temperature range 400-550 °C. Pu is reduced to metal in one reduction step Pu 3+/Pu 0 on an inert W electrode. On a reactive Al electrode, the reduction of Pu 3+ to Pu 0 occurs at a more positive potential due to formation of Pu-Al alloys. The open circuit potential technique was used to identify the alloys formed. Stable deposits were obtained by potentiostatic electrolyses of LiCl-KCl-PuCl 3 melts on Al plates. XRD and SEM-EDX analyses were used to characterise the alloys, which were composed mainly of PuAl 4 with some PuAl 3. In addition, the preparation of PuCl 3 containing salt by carbochlorination of PuO 2 is described.

  18. Release of mercury halides from KCl denuders in the presence of ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Lyman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available KCl-coated denuders have become a standard method for measurement of gaseous oxidized mercury, but their performance has not been exhaustively evaluated, especially in field conditions. In this study, KCl-coated and uncoated quartz denuders loaded with HgCl2 and HgBr2 lost 29–55% of these compounds, apparently as elemental mercury, when exposed to ozone (range of 6–100 ppb tested. This effect was also observed for denuders loaded with gaseous oxidized mercury at a field site in Nevada (3–37% of oxidized mercury lost. In addition, collection efficiency decreased by 12–30% for denuders exposed to 50 ppb ozone during collection of HgCl2. While data presented were obtained from laboratory tests and as such do not exactly simulate field sampling conditions, these results indicate that the KCl denuder oxidized mercury collection method may not be as robust as previously thought. This work highlights needs for further testing of this method, clear identification of gaseous oxidized mercury compounds in the atmosphere, and development of field calibration methods for these compounds.

  19. Monosodium glutamate, disodium inosinate, disodium guanylate, lysine and taurine improve the sensory quality of fermented cooked sausages with 50% and 75% replacement of NaCl with KCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Bibiana Alves; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; Morgano, Marcelo Antônio; Pollonio, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Fermented cooked sausages were produced by replacing 50% and 75% of NaCl with KCl and adding monosodium glutamate, disodium inosinate, disodium guanylate, lysine and taurine. The manufacturing process was monitored by pH and water activity measurements. The sodium and potassium contents of the resulting products were measured. The color values (L*, a* and b*), texture profiles and sensory profiles were also examined. Replacing 50% and 75% NaCl with KCl depreciated the sensory quality of the products. The reformulated sausages containing monosodium glutamate combined with lysine, taurine, disodium inosinate and disodium guanylate masked the undesirable sensory attributes associated with the replacement of 50% and 75% NaCl with KCl, allowing the production of fermented cooked sausages with good sensory acceptance and approximately 68% sodium reduction.

  20. Uncertainties of Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Measurements Using KCl-Coated Denuders, Cation-Exchange Membranes, and Nylon Membranes: Humidity Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiaoyan; Gustin, Mae Sexauer

    2015-05-19

    Quantifying the concentration of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and identifying the chemical compounds in the atmosphere are important for developing accurate local, regional, and global biogeochemical cycles. The major hypothesis driving this work was that relative humidity affects collection of GOM on KCl-coated denuders and nylon membranes, both currently being applied to measure GOM. Using a laboratory manifold system and ambient air, GOM capture efficiency on 3 different collection surfaces, including KCl-coated denuders, nylon membranes, and cation-exchange membranes, was investigated at relative humidity ranging from 25 to 75%. Recovery of permeated HgBr2 on KCl-coated denuders declined by 4-60% during spikes of relative humidity (25 to 75%). When spikes were turned off GOM recoveries returned to 60 ± 19% of permeated levels. In some cases, KCl-coated denuders were gradually passivated over time after additional humidity was applied. In this study, GOM recovery on nylon membranes decreased with high humidity and ozone concentrations. However, additional humidity enhanced GOM recovery on cation-exchange membranes. In addition, reduction and oxidation of elemental mercury during experiments was observed. The findings in this study can help to explain field observations in previous studies.

  1. Fatty acid profile, color and lipid oxidation of organic fermented sausage during chilling storage as influenced by acid whey and probiotic strains addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Maria Wójciak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic fermented sausages typically spoil during long-term storage due to oxidative rancidity. The application of natural antioxidants to meat stuffing is a major practice intended to inhibit the oxidation process and color changes. This study aimed to assess the effect of two unusual starter cultures: three probiotic strains (Lactobacillus casei LOCK 0900, Lactobacillus casei LOCK 0908 and Lactobacillus paracasei LOCK 0919 and lactic acid bacteria from acid whey on model fermented sausage type products focusing on oxidative stability by measuring instrumental color (L*, a*, b* values, conjugated dienes (CD, TBARS immediately after 21 days of ripening (0 and after 90 and 180 days of refrigerated storage (4 ºC. Determination of fatty acid composition, in meat product was performed after ripening and after 180 days of storage. At the end of the storage period, the salted sausages were characterized by the same content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA compared to cured samples. The addition of acid whey and a mixture of probiotic strains to nitrite-free sausage formulation was barely able to protect lipids against oxidation in comparison to nitrite during vacuum storage. Surprisingly, the use of acid whey has an influence on the desired red-pinkish color of organic fermented sausage after ripening and after 180 days of storage period.

  2. Combined action of time-delay and colored cross-associated multiplicative and additive noises on stability and stochastic resonance for a stochastic metapopulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang-Kang; Zong, De-Cai; Wang, Ya-Jun; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the transition between the stable state of a big density and the extinction state and stochastic resonance (SR) for a time-delayed metapopulation system disturbed by colored cross-correlated noises are investigated. By applying the fast descent method, the small time-delay approximation and McNamara and Wiesenfeld's SR theory, we investigate the impacts of time-delay, the multiplicative, additive noises and colored cross-correlated noise on the SNR and the shift between the two states of the system. Numerical results show that the multiplicative, additive noises and time-delay can all speed up the transition from the stable state to the extinction state, while the correlation noise and its correlation time can slow down the extinction process of the population system. With respect to SNR, the multiplicative noise always weakens the SR effect, while noise correlation time plays a dual role in motivating the SR phenomenon. Meanwhile, time-delay mainly plays a negative role in stimulating the SR phenomenon. Conversely, it could motivate the SR effect to increase the strength of the cross-correlation noise in the SNR-β plot, while the increase of additive noise intensity will firstly excite SR, and then suppress the SR effect.

  3. Equilibrium distribution of actinides including Cm between molten LiCl-KCl eutectic and liquid cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, T.; Kinoshita, K.; Inoue, T. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Ougier, M.; Malmbeck, R.; Glatz, J.P. [Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Transuranium Elements

    2008-07-01

    Equilibrium distribution of actinides both in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic and liquid cadmium were measured from the concentration data obtained in electrorefining tests and reductive extraction tests. Separation factors for U, Np, Am, Cm against Pu were derived in the practical temperature range of 700 K to 783 K. The derived separation factors are consistent with the reported values measured at 773 K and 723 K. The temperature dependence for Cm is different compared to the other actinides (U, Np and Am). This behavior remains unclear and additional experimental measurements of distribution coefficient of Cm are required before ruling on the real behavior. (orig.)

  4. Characterization of Niobium Platings Obtained from NaCl-KCl Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillesberg, Bo; Barner, Jens H. Von; Bjerrum, Niels

    1998-01-01

    oxidation of metallic niobium with NiCl2. The initial valency of niobium was found to 3 when a NaCl-KCl melt was applied as solvent. The deposits were characterised by X-ray analy-sis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) combined with EDX analysis. From both NaCl-KCl and LiCl-KCl melts dense and coherent...

  5. Use of an additive canthaxanthin based and annatto extract in diets of laying hens and its effect on the color of the yolk and the egg shelf life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Rojas V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an additive canthaxanthin based and annatto extract (Bixa orellana L. in diets of laying hens and its effect on the color of the yolk and the egg shelf life. Position 864 hens 34 to 45 weeks old, distributed in a completely randomized design with six replicates per treatment were used. Treatments were T0 (control diet, T1 (T0 + 30 g of canthaxanthin and annatto extract and T2 (T0 + 60 g of canthaxanthin and annatto extract. The results were 88.6; 91.9 and 90.8% for laying percentage; 60.5; 61.6 and 61.5 g for egg weight; 53.6; 56.4 and 55.7 g for egg mass. The yolk color temperature 7 °C for Roche scale was 6, 9 and 12 and colorimetric Minolta was to "L" of 42.10; 40.24 and 39.65; for "a" of 0.07; 3.68 and 6.44 and for "b" of 19.35; 18.36 and 18.18. Shelf life at room temperature 7 °C was 81, 86 and 90 UH. Lipid peroxidation was 0.10; 0.07 and 0.05 μmol MDA.g-1 yolk; for T0, T1 and T2 respectively. In all variables indicated statistically significant differences between treatments (p < 0.05. Food consumption was 103.9; 109.2 and 107.5 g and feed conversion of 1.94; 1.93 and 1.92. It is concluded that the addition of canthaxanthin and annatto extract to 30 and 60 g t-1 feed than the control, improved performance parameters, yolk color and egg shelf life.

  6. KCl -Permeabilized Pancreatic Islets: An Experimental Model to Explore the Messenger Role of ATP in the Mechanism of Insulin Secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pizarro-Delgado

    Full Text Available Our previous work has demonstrated that islet depolarization with KCl opens connexin36 hemichannels in β-cells of mouse pancreatic islets allowing the exchange of small metabolites with the extracellular medium. In this study, the opening of these hemichannels has been further characterized in rat islets and INS-1 cells. Taking advantage of hemicannels'opening, the uptake of extracellular ATP and its effect on insulin release were investigated. 70 mM KCl stimulated light emission by luciferin in dispersed rat islets cells transduced with the fire-fly luciferase gene: it was suppressed by 20 mM glucose and 50 μM mefloquine, a specific connexin36 inhibitor. Extracellular ATP was taken up or released by islets depolarized with 70 mM KCl at 5 mM glucose, depending on the external ATP concentration. 1 mM ATP restored the loss of ATP induced by the depolarization itself. ATP concentrations above 5 mM increased islet ATP content and the ATP/ADP ratio. No ATP uptake occurred in non-depolarized or KCl-depolarized islets simultaneously incubated with 50 μM mefloquine or 20 mM glucose. Extracellular ATP potentiated the secretory response induced by 70 mM KCl at 5 mM glucose in perifused rat islets: 5 mM ATP triggered a second phase of insulin release after the initial peak triggered by KCl-depolarization itself; at 10 mM, it increased both the initial, KCl-dependent, peak and stimulated a greater second phase of secretion than at 5 mM. These stimulatory effects of extracellular ATP were almost completely suppressed by 50 μM mefloquine. The magnitude of the second phase of insulin release due to 5 mM extracellular ATP was decreased by addition of 5 mM ADP (extracellular ATP/ADP ratio = 1. ATP acts independently of KATP channels closure and its intracellular concentration and its ATP/ADP ratio seems to regulate the magnitude of both the first (triggering and second (amplifying phases of glucose-induced insulin secretion.

  7. Improving efficiency and color purity of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) through addition of a high boiling-point solvent of 1-chloronaphthalene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junfei; Yu, Lei; Zhao, Sen; Ying, Lei; Liu, Feng; Yang, Wei; Peng, Junbiao; Cao, Yong

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the β-phase of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) was used as a probe to study the effects of the addition of a high boiling-point solvent of 1-chloronaphthalene on the nanostructures and electroluminescence of PFO films. Both absorption and photoluminescence spectra showed that the content of the β-phase in PFO film was obviously enhanced as a result of the addition of a small amount of 1-chloronaphthalene into the processing solvent of p-xylenes. Apparently rougher morphology associated with the effectively enhanced ordering of polymer chains across the entire film was observed for films processed from p-xylene solutions consisting of a certain amount of 1-chloronaphthalene, as revealed by atomic force microscopy and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements. In addition to the effects on the nanostructures of films, of particular interest is that the performance and color purity of polymer light-emitting devices can be noticeably enhanced upon the addition of 1-chloronaphthalene. These observations highlight the importance of controlling the nanostructures of the emissive layer, and demonstrate that the addition of a low volume ratio of high boiling-point additive can be a promising strategy to attain high-performance polymer light-emitting diodes.

  8. Thermal Properties of LiCl-KCl Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Allen, Todd [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Anderson, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Simpson, Mike [Idaho National Lab., (United States)

    2012-11-30

    This project addresses both practical and fundamental scientific issues of direct relevance to operational challenges of the molten LiCl-KCl salt pyrochemical process, while providing avenues for improvements in the process. In order to understand the effects of the continually changing composition of the molten salt bath during the process, the project team will systematically vary the concentrations of rare earth surrogate elements, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium, which will be added to the molten LiCl-KCl salt. They will also perform a limited number of focused experiments by the dissolution of depleted uranium. All experiments will be performed at 500 deg C. The project consists of the following tasks. Researchers will measure density of the molten salts using an instrument specifically designed for this purpose, and will determine the melting points with a differential scanning calorimeter. Knowledge of these properties is essential for salt mass accounting and taking the necessary steps to prevent melt freezing. The team will use cyclic voltammetry studies to determine redox potentials of the rare earth cations, as well as their diffusion coefficients and activities in the molten LiCl-KCl salt. In addition, the team will perform anodic stripping voltammetry to determine the concentration of the rare earth elements and their solubilities, and to develop the scientific basis for an on-line diagnostic system for in situ monitoring of the cation species concentration (rare earths in this case). Solubility and activity of the cation species are critically important for the prediction of the salt's useful lifetime and disposal.

  9. Electrochemical behaviour of dysprosium in the eutectic LiCl-KCl at W and Al electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrillejo, Y. [Dpto de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail: ycastril@qa.uva.es; Bermejo, M.R. [Dpto de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Barrado, A.I. [Dpto de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Pardo, R. [Dpto de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Barrado, E. [Dpto de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Martinez, A.M. [Department of Materials Technology, Sem Saelands vei 6, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2005-03-15

    The electrochemical behaviour of DyCl{sub 3} was studied in the eutectic LiCl-KCl at different temperatures. The cathodic reaction can be written:Dy(III)+3e-bar Dy(0)which can be divided in two very close cathodic steps:Dy(III)+1e-bar Dy(II)andDy(II)+2e-bar Dy(0)Transient electrochemical techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, and chronoamperometry were used in order to study the reaction mechanism and the transport parameters of electroactive species at a tungsten electrode. The results showed that in the eutectic LiCl-KCl, electrocrystallization of dysprosium seems to be the controlling electrochemical step. Chronoamperometric studies indicated instantaneous nucleation of dysprosium with three dimensional growth of the nuclei whatever the applied overpotential.Mass transport towards the electrode is a simple diffusion process, and the diffusion coefficient of the electroactive species, i.e. Dy(III), has been calculated. The validity of the Arrhenius law was also verified by plotting the variation of the logarithm of the diffusion coefficient versus 1/T.In addition, the electrode reactions of the LiCl-KCl-DyCl{sub 3} solutions at an Al wire were also investigated by cyclic voltammetry and open circuit chronopotentiometry. The redox potential of the Dy(III)/Dy couple at the Al electrode was observed at more positive potentials values than those at the inert electrode. This potential shift was thermodynamically analyzed by a lowering of activity of Dy in the metal phase due to the formation of intermetallic compounds.

  10. Preparative separation and identification of novel subsidiary colors of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (Acid Red 33) using spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Adrian; Ridge, Clark D; Mazzola, Eugene P; Ito, Yoichiro

    2015-02-06

    Three low-level subsidiary color impurities (A, B, and C) often present in batches of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (R33, Acid Red 33, Colour Index No. 17200) were separated from a portion of R33 by spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The separation involved use of a very polar solvent system, 1-BuOH/5mM aq. (NH4)2SO4. Addition of ammonium sulfate to the lower phase forced partition of the components into the upper phase, thereby eliminating the need to add a hydrophobic counterion as was previously required for separations of components from sulfonated dyes. The very polar solvent system used would not have been retained in a conventional multi-layer coil HSCCC instrument, but the spiral configuration enabled retention of the stationary phase, and thus, the separation was possible. A 1g portion of R33 enriched in A, B, and C was separated using the upper phase of the solvent system as the mobile phase. The retention of the stationary phase was 38.1%, and the separation resulted in 4.8 mg of A of >90% purity, 18.3mg of B of >85% purity, and 91 mg of C of 65-72% purity. A second separation of a portion of the C mixture resulted in 7 mg of C of >94% purity. The separated impurities were identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopic techniques as follows: 5-amino-3-biphenyl-3-ylazo-4-hydroxy-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, A; 5-amino-4-hydroxy-6-phenyl-3-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, B; and 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3,6-bis-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, C. The isomers A and B are compounds reported for the first time. Application of the spiral HSCCC method resulted in the additional benefit of yielding 930 mg of the main component of R33, 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, of >97% purity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Preparative separation and identification of novel subsidiary colors of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (Acid Red 33) using spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Adrian; Ridge, Clark D.; Mazzola, Eugene P.; Ito, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    Three low-level subsidiary color impurities (A, B, and C) often present in batches of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (R33, Acid Red 33, Colour Index No. 17200) were separated from a portion of R33 by spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The separation involved use of a very polar solvent system, 1-BuOH/5 mM aq. (NH4)2SO4. Addition of ammonium sulfate to the lower phase forced partition of the components into the upper phase, thereby eliminating the need to add a hydrophobic counterion as was previously required for separations of components from sulfonated dyes. The very polar solvent system used would not have been retained in a conventional multi-layer coil HSCCC instrument, but the spiral configuration enabled retention of the stationary phase, and thus, the separation was possible. A 1 g portion of R33 enriched in A, B, and C was separated using the upper phase of the solvent system as the mobile phase. The retention of the stationary phase was 38.1%, and the separation resulted in 4.8 mg of A of >90% purity, 18.3 mg of B of >85% purity, and 91 mg of C of 65–72% purity. A second separation of a portion of the C mixture resulted in 7 mg of C of >94% purity. The separated impurities were identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopic techniques as follows: 5-amino-3-biphenyl-3-ylazo-4-hydroxy-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, A; 5-amino-4-hydroxy-6-phenyl-3-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, B; and 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3,6-bis-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, C. The isomers A and B are compounds reported for the first time. Application of the spiral HSCCC method resulted in the additional benefit of yielding 930 mg of the main component of R33, 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, of >97% purity. PMID:25591404

  12. Study of thermodynamic properties of Np-Al alloys in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souček, P.; Malmbeck, R.; Mendes, E.; Nourry, C.; Sedmidubský, D.; Glatz, J.-P.

    2009-10-01

    Pyrochemical methods are investigated worldwide within the framework of Partitioning and Transmutation concepts for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Electroseparation techniques in a molten LiCl-KCl are being developed in ITU to recover all actinides from a mixture with fission products. During the process, actinides are selectively electrochemically reduced on a solid aluminium cathode, forming solid actinide-aluminium alloys. This work is focused on the thermodynamic properties of Np-Al alloys in a temperature range of 400-550 °C and on the characterisation of the structure and chemical composition of deposits obtained by electrodeposition of Np on solid Al electrodes in a LiCl-KCl-NpCl 3 melt. Cyclic voltammetry and open circuit chronopotentiometry have been used to examine the electrochemical behaviour of Np on inert W and reactive Al electrodes. Gibbs energies, enthalpy and entropy of formation and standard electrode potentials of Np-Al alloys were evaluated and compared with ab initio calculations. Galvanostatic electrolyses at 450 °C were carried out to recover Np onto Al plates and the solid surface deposits were characterised by XRD and SEM-EDX analyses. Stable and dense deposits consisting of NpAl 3 and NpAl 4 alloys were identified. In addition, the conversion of NpO 2 to NpCl 3 is described, using chlorination of the oxide in a molten salt media by pure chlorine gas.

  13. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emiten Radiación Fraude en la Salud Medicamentos Nutrición Productos Veterinarios Productos de Tabaco Salud Infantil Salud de la Mujer Suplementos Dietéticos Vacunas, Sangre y Productos Biológicos Resources for You Sign up for Consumer ...

  14. [The content of nutrient elements of plant in KCl fertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Rui, Yu-Kui; Lin, Qiang; Zhang, Fu-Suo

    2009-03-01

    Potassium is one of the three most important plant nutrient elements, so many researchers pay attention on its fertilizer efficiency. But fertilizers were all industrial products containing many other nutrient elements in most experiments of fertilizer efficiency. All the other nutrient elements, including necessitous elements and beneficial elements in potassium fertilizer (KCl) were analyzed by method of ICP-MS. The results showed that KCl fertilizer contained many necessitous elements (Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mo), the concentrations of them are 50.51, 1 309.48, 5.44, 500.83 microg x g(-1) and 65.54, 238.85, 212.44, 10.40 ng x g(-1) respectively; beneficial elements (Na, Al, Si, Co and Se) are 25 095.89, 3.83, 3.40 microg x g(-1) and 13.12, 23.25 ng x g(-1) respectively. All the above elements could influence the results of potassium fertilizer efficiency experiments, so pure fertilizer should be used in the future potassium fertilizer efficiency experiments.

  15. First-Principles Calculation of Principal Hugoniot and K-Shell X-ray Absorption Spectra for Warm Dense KCl

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Shijun; Kang, Wei; Li, Zi; Zhang, Ping; He, Xian-Tu

    2015-01-01

    Principal Hugoniot and K-shell X-ray absorption spectra of warm dense KCl are calculated using the first-principles molecular dynamics method. Evolution of electronic structures as well as the influence of the approximate description of ionization on pressure (caused by the underestimation of the energy gap between conduction bands and valence bands) in the first-principles method are illustrated by the calculation. Pressure ionization and thermal smearing are shown as the major factors to prevent the deviation of pressure from global accumulation along the Hugoniot. In addition, cancellation between electronic kinetic pressure and virial pressure further reduces the deviation. The calculation of X-ray absorption spectra shows that the band gap of KCl persists after the pressure ionization of the $3p$ electrons of Cl and K taking place at lower energy, which provides a detailed understanding to the evolution of electronic structures of warm dense matter.

  16. Capture and Solidification of Rare Earth Nuclide (Nd) in LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt Using a Synthetic Inorganic Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Na-Young; Eun, Hee-Chul; Park, Hwan-Seo; Ahn, Do-Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, neodymium (Nd) nuclides in LiCl-KCl eutectic salts were captured and solidified using a synthetic inorganic composite (Li{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}), a process that allows the selective capture of Nd and fabrication of a composite with Nd captured from waste, without additional additives or mixing. The Nd nuclides in the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were mainly captured in the form of LiNdSiO{sub 4}, and it was confirmed that NdSiO{sub 3} can be formed in the composite with captured Nd when the content of Nd in the composite is increased. The capture efficiency was higher than about 98 wt%. It was thought that the salt recovered from the Nd capture test was a renewable form could be reused in the pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel, because the composite has high chemical durability in a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt at 900 ℃. The composite captured Nd was fabricated into a homogeneous glass form and a stable ceramic form.

  17. Embedding Color Watermarks in Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tung-Lin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust watermarking with oblivious detection is essential to practical copyright protection of digital images. Effective exploitation of the characteristics of human visual perception to color stimuli helps to develop the watermarking scheme that fills the requirement. In this paper, an oblivious watermarking scheme that embeds color watermarks in color images is proposed. Through color gamut analysis and quantizer design, color watermarks are embedded by modifying quantization indices of color pixels without resulting in perceivable distortion. Only a small amount of information including the specification of color gamut, quantizer stepsize, and color tables is required to extract the watermark. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking scheme is computationally simple and quite robust in face of various attacks such as cropping, low-pass filtering, white-noise addition, scaling, and JPEG compression with high compression ratios.

  18. Color-induced graph colorings

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive treatment of color-induced graph colorings is presented in this book, emphasizing vertex colorings induced by edge colorings. The coloring concepts described in this book depend not only on the property required of the initial edge coloring and the kind of objects serving as colors, but also on the property demanded of the vertex coloring produced. For each edge coloring introduced, background for the concept is provided, followed by a presentation of results and open questions dealing with this topic. While the edge colorings discussed can be either proper or unrestricted, the resulting vertex colorings are either proper colorings or rainbow colorings. This gives rise to a discussion of irregular colorings, strong colorings, modular colorings, edge-graceful colorings, twin edge colorings and binomial colorings. Since many of the concepts described in this book are relatively recent, the audience for this book is primarily mathematicians interested in learning some new areas of graph colorings...

  19. Measurements of pressure for the TiH/sub x//KClO/sub 4/ system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, C.H.H.; Glaub, J.E.

    1978-04-10

    An investigation was conducted to measure the pressure obtained when the pyrotechnic mixture TiH/sub x//KClO/sub 4/ was ignited in a confined variable-volume system. It was possible to derive an expression of the form PV/sup ..gamma../ = k for the pressure-volume relationship obtained. This expression is a polytropic expansion of the ideal gas equation that best fits the data generated. For this particular work, values of ..gamma.. = 0.53 and k = 69.3 were obtained where P is in megapascals and V is in cubic centimeters. In addition, estimates of the reaction rates were calculated based on the times to achieve maximum pressure for a given volume system. An explicit expression relating rate to pressure was derived by a simplified least-squares fit of the data obtained.

  20. Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rose in full bloom. If you have a color vision defect, you may see these colors differently than most people. There are three main kinds of color vision defects. Red-green color vision defects are the most ...

  1. High concentrations of KCl release noradrenaline from noradrenergic neurons in the rat anococcygeus muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.B.L. Araujo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of high concentrations of KCl in releasing noradrenaline from sympathetic nerves and its actions on postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptors. We measured the isotonic contractions induced by KCl in the isolated rat anococcygeus muscle under different experimental conditions. The contractile responses induced by KCl were inhibited by alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists in 2.5 mM Ca2+ solution. Prazosin reduced the maximum effect from 100 to 53.9 ± 10.2% (P<0.05 while the pD2 values were not changed. The contractile responses induced by KCl were abolished by prazosin in Ca2+-free solution (P<0.05. Treatment of the rats with reserpine reduced the maximum effect induced by KCl as compared to the contractile responses induced by acetylcholine from 339.5 ± 157.8 to 167.3 ± 65.5% (P<0.05, and increased the pD2 from 1.57 ± 0.01 to 1.65 ± 0.006 (P<0.05, but abolished the inhibitory effect of prazosin (P<0.05. In contrast, L-NAME increased the contractile responses induced by 120 mM KCl by 6.2 ± 2.3% (P<0.05, indicating that KCl could stimulate the neurons that release nitric oxide, an inhibitory component of the contractile response induced by KCl. Our results indicate that high concentrations of KCl induce the release of noradrenaline from noradrenergic neurons, which interacts with alpha1-adrenoceptors in smooth muscle cells, producing a contractile response in 2.5 mM Ca2+ (100% and in Ca2+-free solution, part of which is due to a direct effect of KCl on the rat anococcygeus muscle.

  2. Multiple splice variants within the bovine silver homologue (SILV gene affecting coat color in cattle indicate a function additional to fibril formation in melanophores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weikard Rosemarie

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The silver homologue(SILV gene plays a major role in melanosome development. SILV is a target for studies concerning melanoma diagnostics and therapy in humans as well as on skin and coat color pigmentation in many species ranging from zebra fish to mammals. However, the precise functional cellular mechanisms, in which SILV is involved, are still not completely understood. While there are many studies addressing SILV function upon a eumelaneic pigment background, there is a substantial lack of information regarding the further relevance of SILV, e.g. for phaeomelanosome development. Results In contrast to previous results in other species reporting SILV expression exclusively in pigmented tissues, our experiments provide evidence that the bovine SILV gene is expressed in a variety of tissues independent of pigmentation. Our data show that the bovine SILV gene generates an unexpectedly large number of different transcripts occurring in skin as well as in non-pigmented tissues, e.g. liver or mammary gland. The alternative splice sites are generated by internal splicing and primarily remove complete exons. Alternative splicing predominantly affects the repeat domain of the protein, which has a functional key role in fibril formation during eumelanosome development. Conclusion The expression of the bovine SILV gene independent of pigmentation suggests SILV functions exceeding melanosome development in cattle. This hypothesis is further supported by transcript variants lacking functional key elements of the SILV protein relevant for eumelanosome development. Thus, the bovine SILV gene can serve as a model for the investigation of the putative additional functions of SILV. Furthermore, the splice variants of the bovine SILV gene represent a comprehensive natural model to refine the knowledge about functional domains in the SILV protein. Our study exemplifies that the extent of alternative splicing is presumably much higher than

  3. Impact of lysine and liquid smoke as flavor enhancers on the quality of low-fat Bologna-type sausages with 50% replacement of NaCl by KCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Alves, Larissa Aparecida Agostinho; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Gonçalves, Carlos Antonio Alvarenga; Dos Santos, Bibiana Alves; Heck, Rosane Teresinha; Cichoski, Alexandre José; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello

    2017-01-01

    Low-fat Bologna-type sausages were produced with 50% of NaCl replaced by KCl and with addition of lysine and/or liquid smoke as flavor enhancers. The influence of sodium reduction on technological, physicochemical, and microbiological properties was determined. In addition, the sensory properties were evaluated using a Check all that apply questionnaire (CATA) and a consumer study. The partial replacement of NaCl by KCl did not have negative impacts on physicochemical, technological, and microbiological properties. However, the addition of KCl affected the sensory acceptance, as consumers identified by CATA questionnaire a reduction in salty taste and an increase in bitter, astringent, and metallic taste. The isolated or combined addition of lysine and liquid smoke reduced the sensory quality defects caused by the addition of KCl. Therefore, high quality low-fat Bologna-type sausages with sodium reduction close to 50% can be produced by replacing 50% NaCl by KCl and with addition of 1% lysine and/or 0.1% liquid smoke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The importance of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} for sulphation of gaseous KCl - An experimental investigation in a biomass fired CFB boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassman, Haakan [Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Energy Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Baefver, Linda [Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Energy Technology, Boraas (Sweden); Aamand, Lars-Erik [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Energy Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2010-09-15

    This paper is based on results obtained during co-combustion of wood pellets and straw in a 12 MW circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler. Elemental sulphur (S) and ammonium sulphate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}) were used as additives to convert the alkali chlorides (mainly KCl) to less corrosive alkali sulphates. Their performance was then evaluated using several measurement tools including, IACM (on-line measurements of gaseous alkali chlorides), a low-pressure impactor (particle size distribution and chemical composition of extracted fly ash particles), and deposit probes (chemical composition in deposits collected). The importance of the presence of either SO{sub 2} or SO{sub 3} for gas phase sulphation of KCl is also discussed. Ammonium sulphate performed significantly better than elemental sulphur. A more efficient sulphation of gaseous KCl was achieved with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} even when the S/Cl molar ratio was less than half compared to sulphur. Thus the presence of gaseous SO{sub 3} is of greater importance than that of SO{sub 2} for the sulphation of gaseous KCl. (author)

  5. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases…

  6. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases…

  7. The clinical significance of K-Cl cotransport activity in red cells of patients with HbSC disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, David C; Thein, Swee Lay; Osei, Anna; Drasar, Emma; Tewari, Sanjay; Hannemann, Anke; Gibson, John S

    2015-05-01

    HbSC disease is the second commonest form of sickle cell disease, with poorly understood pathophysiology and few treatments. We studied the role of K-Cl cotransport activity in determining clinical and laboratory features, and investigated its potential role as a biomarker. Samples were collected from 110 patients with HbSC disease and 41 with sickle cell anemia (HbSS). K-Cl cotransport activity was measured in the oxygenated (K-Cl cotransport(100)) and deoxygenated (K-Cl cotransport(0)) states, using radioactive tracer studies. K-Cl cotransport activity was high in HbSC and decreased significantly on deoxygenation. K-Cl cotransport activity correlated significantly and positively with the formation of sickle cells. On multiple regression analysis, K-Cl cotransport increased significantly and independently with increasing reticulocyte count and age. K-Cl cotransport activity was increased in patients who attended hospital with acute pain in 2011 compared to those who did not (K-Cl cotransport(100): mean 3.87 versus 3.20, P=0.009, independent samples T-test; K-Cl cotransport(0): mean 0.96 versus 0.68, P=0.037). On logistic regression only K-Cl cotransport was associated with hospital attendance. Increased K-Cl cotransport activity was associated with the presence of retinopathy, but this effect was confounded by age. This study links variability in a fundamental aspect of cellular pathology with a clinical outcome, suggesting that K-Cl cotransport is central to the pathology of HbSC disease. Increased K-Cl cotransport activity is associated with increasing age, which may be of pathophysiological significance. Effective inhibition of K-Cl cotransport activity is likely to be of therapeutic benefit.

  8. EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA BUPIVACAINE 0.5%+ KCL 5 MEQ/L VS BUPIVACAINE 0.5%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F ALAVI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although epidural anesthesia is a Successful method for most surgical procedures on lower extremities and lower abdomen. It is not so favorable because of it's slow onset and differential sensory and motor block. In order to solve this problem effects of additive KCl (5 meq/L into Bupivacaine 0.5 percent according to onset, intensity, duration of block and homodynamic changes during epidural anesthesia will be investigated through the present study. Methods. All the ASA I or II patients at medical centers of Isfahan university of medical sciences throughout 1378, candidate for elective Surgical procedures on lower extremities and lower abdomen with no contraindication for epidural anesthesia were Subdivided into Case (35 patients and Control (35 patients groups in a random manner to perform a double blind clinical trial. Epidural anesthesia applied to cases (by Bupivacaine 0.5 percent+ KCl 5meq/L and controls (by Bupivacaine 0.5 percent. Under identical conditions, data indicating basic MAP, basic heart rate and their changes as well as the onset, duration and intensity of motor and sensory block, were obtained and recorded by the anesthesiologist. Quantitative & qualitative variables were examined by T.test and X2 test respectively. Findings. Sensory onset for cases (8.22±1.43Min was faster than controls (11.56±1.45Min (P<0.005. Motor onset for cases (12.77 ± 1.83Min was faster than controls (20.24±1.71Min (P < 0.005. Sensory duration for cases (l86.34±8.37 Min was longer than controls (162.17±7.47Min (P<0.005. Motor duration for cases (106.25±13.50 Min was longer than controls (77.60 ± 9.94Min (P < 0.005.Intensity of sensory block for cases was greater than controls (P < 0.01. Intensity of motor block for cases was greater than controls (P < 0.001. Mean heart rate changes for cases (7.28±9.37 percent and controls (7 ± 8 percent were not different (P < 0.8. Mean decrease in MAP for cases (20.17 ± 2.10n percent was

  9. Optical vibronic spectra of aggregates in Eu sup 2 sup + -doped KCl and KBr crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, S R; Aceves, R; Rodríguez, R; Barboza, M

    2003-01-01

    The vibronic structure on the optical absorption, emission, and excitation spectra of aggregates in Eu sup 2 sup + -doped KCl and KBr crystals has been obtained. The crystals were annealed at 435 K. During the aggregation process, four groups of narrow bands were found in KCl: Eu sup 2 sup + and two in KBr: Eu sup 2 sup + ,which were considered as the signature of different Eu sup 2 sup + -ion aggregated phases. The vibration frequency for each group is very similar. (Author)

  10. Increasing Oil Concentration Affects Consumer Perception and Physical Properties of Mayonnaise-type Spreads Containing KCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrico, Damir Dennis; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2017-08-01

    Reducing sodium intakes remains a global challenge for the food industry. KCl is a potential salt substitute but imparts bitterness when used at high concentrations. Little is known about how oil concentrations (OC) affect consumers' perception of saltiness and bitterness in emulsion products such as mayonnaise containing KCl. We evaluated consumers' perception and physical properties of mayonnaise-type spreads at various oil and tastant (NaCl or KCl) concentrations. Consumers (N = 306) evaluated saltiness, bitterness, overall taste liking (OTL) and purchase intent (PI). Viscosity, pH, water activity, and consistency/texture were also measured. Oil and tastant (NaCl or KCl) concentrations had significant effects on saltiness, viscosity, and pH. As OC increased, saltiness intensity slightly decreased for spreads. Increasing oil concentration increased viscosity. Generally, spreads containing KCl had higher bitterness and pH than spreads containing NaCl. All spreads containing KCl were penalized for being "too bitter." PI was affected by OTL for all spreads but OC was also a significant factor in the purchase decision of spreads containing NaCl. This study demonstrated that increasing OC affected consumers' taste perception (saltiness and bitterness) and spreads' physical properties including pH and viscosity. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Color Blindness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严双红

    2007-01-01

    About one in 12 boys is color-blind, and one in every 400 girls, so in each school class there are likely to be at least one or two people who are color-blind. Because they are color- blind from birth, most people do not know that they are color-

  12. Influence of partial replacement of NaCl with KCl on profiles of volatile compounds in dry-cured bacon during processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the influence of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl on the formation of volatile compounds in bacons during processing using a purge and trap dynamic headspace GC/MS system. Three substitutions were 0% KCl (I), 40% KCl (II), and 70% KCl (III). The profiles of the volatile ...

  13. Statistical hadronization model analysis of hadron yields in p + Nb and Ar + KCl at SIS18 energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agakishiev, G.; Arnold, O.; Balanda, A.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Chernenko, S.; Destefanis, M.; Dohrmann, F.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Gilardi, C.; Göbel, K.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kuc, H.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lange, J. S.; Lang, S.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Liu, T.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michalska, B.; Mihaylov, D.; Michel, J.; Morinière, E.; Mousa, J.; Müntz, C.; Münzer, R.; Naumann, L.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Rehnisch, L.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Scheib, T.; Schmah, A.; Schuldes, H.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wirth, J.; Wisniowski, M.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The HADES data from p + Nb collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √{s_{NN}} = 3.2 GeV are analyzed employing a statistical hadronization model. The model can successfully describe the production yields of the identified hadrons π0, η, Λ, K 0 s, ω with parameters T_{chem} = (99± 11) MeV and μb = (619± 34) MeV, which fit well into the chemical freeze-out systematics found in heavy-ion collisions. In addition, we reanalyze our previous HADES data from Ar + KCl collisions at √{s_{NN}} = 2.6 GeV with an updated version of the model. We address equilibration in heavy-ion collisions by testing two aspects: the description of yields and the regularity of freeze-out parameters from a statistical model fit as a function of colliding energy and system size. Despite its success, the model fails to describe the observed Ξ- yields in both, p + Nb and Ar + KCl . Special emphasis is put on feed-down contributions from higher-lying resonance states as a possible explanation for the observed excess.

  14. Comparison of gaseous oxidized Hg measured by KCl-coated denuders, and nylon and cation exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiaoyan; Miller, Matthieu B; Weiss-Penzias, Peter; Gustin, Mae Sexauer

    2013-07-02

    The chemical compounds that make up gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) in the atmosphere, and the reactions responsible for their formation, are not well understood. The limitations and uncertainties associated with the current method applied to measure these compounds, the KCl-coated denuder, are not known due to lack of calibration and testing. This study systematically compared the uptake of specific GOM compounds by KCl-coated denuders with that collected using nylon and cation exchange membranes in the laboratory and field. In addition, a new method for identifying different GOM compounds using thermal desorption is presented. Different GOM compounds (HgCl2, HgBr2, and HgO) were found to have different affinities for the denuder surface and the denuder underestimated each of these compounds. Membranes measured 1.3 to 3.7 times higher GOM than denuders in laboratory and field experiments. Cation exchange membranes had the highest collection efficiency. Thermodesorption profiles for the release of GOM compounds from the nylon membrane were different for HgO versus HgBr2 and HgCl2. Application of the new field method for collection and identification of GOM compounds demonstrated these vary as a function of location and time of year. Understanding the chemistry of GOM across space and time has important implications for those developing policy regarding this environmental contaminant.

  15. Effects of temperature, concentration, and uranium chloride mixture on zirconium electrochemical studies in LiClsbnd KCl eutectic salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Robert O.; Yoon, Dalsung; Phongikaroon, Supathorn

    2016-08-01

    Experimental studies were performed to provide measurement and analysis of zirconium (Zr) electrochemistry in LiClsbnd KCl eutectic salt at different temperatures and concentrations using cyclic voltammetry (CV). An additional experimental set with uranium chloride added into the system forming UCl3sbnd ZrCl4sbnd LiClsbnd KCl was performed to explore the general behavior of these two species together. Results of CV experiments with ZrCl4 show complicated cathodic and anodic peaks, which were identified along with the Zr reactions. The CV results reveal that diffusion coefficients (D) of ZrCl4 and ZrCl2 as the function of temperature can be expressed as DZr(IV) = 0.00046exp(-3716/T) and DZr(II) = 0.027exp(-5617/T), respectively. The standard rate constants and apparent standard potentials of ZrCl4 at different temperatures were calculated. Furthermore, the results from the mixture of UCl3 and ZrCl4 indicate that high concentrations of UCl3 hide the features of the smaller concentration of ZrCl4 while Zr peaks become prominent as the concentration of ZrCl4 increases.

  16. Effects of temperature, concentration, and uranium chloride mixture on zirconium electrochemical studies in LiCl−KCl eutectic salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Robert O. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering and Nuclear Engineering Program, University of Idaho, Center for Advanced Energy Studies, 995 University Blvd, Idaho Falls, ID 8340 (United States); Yoon, Dalsung [Department of Mechanical & Nuclear Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, 401 West Main St., Richmond, VA 23284 (United States); Phongikaroon, Supathorn, E-mail: sphongikaroon@vcu.edu [Department of Mechanical & Nuclear Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, 401 West Main St., Richmond, VA 23284 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Experimental studies were performed to provide measurement and analysis of zirconium (Zr) electrochemistry in LiCl−KCl eutectic salt at different temperatures and concentrations using cyclic voltammetry (CV). An additional experimental set with uranium chloride added into the system forming UCl{sub 3}−ZrCl{sub 4}−LiCl−KCl was performed to explore the general behavior of these two species together. Results of CV experiments with ZrCl{sub 4} show complicated cathodic and anodic peaks, which were identified along with the Zr reactions. The CV results reveal that diffusion coefficients (D) of ZrCl{sub 4} and ZrCl{sub 2} as the function of temperature can be expressed as D{sub Zr(IV)} = 0.00046exp(−3716/T) and D{sub Zr(II)} = 0.027exp(−5617/T), respectively. The standard rate constants and apparent standard potentials of ZrCl{sub 4} at different temperatures were calculated. Furthermore, the results from the mixture of UCl{sub 3} and ZrCl{sub 4} indicate that high concentrations of UCl{sub 3} hide the features of the smaller concentration of ZrCl{sub 4} while Zr peaks become prominent as the concentration of ZrCl{sub 4} increases.

  17. Electrodeposition of Mg-Li-Al-La Alloys on Inert Cathode in Molten LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Chen, Qiong; Sun, Yi; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Milin

    2011-12-01

    Electrochemical preparation of Mg-Li-Al-La alloys on inert electrodes was investigated in LiCl-KCl melt at 853 K (580 °C). Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and square wave voltammograms (SWVs) show that the existence of AlCl3 or AlF3 could promote La deposition on an active Al substrate, which is predeposited on inert electrodes. All electrochemical tests show that the reduction of La3+ is a one-step reduction process with three electrons exchanged. The reduction of La(III)→La(0) occurred at -2.04 V, and the underpotential deposition (UPD) of La was detected at -1.55 V ( vs Ag/AgCl). The same phenomena concerning La UPD were observed on two inert cathodes, W and Mo. In addition, Mg-Li-Al-La alloys were obtained by galvanostatic electrolysis on the W cathode from La2O3 in LiCl-KCl-MgCl2-KF melts with aluminum as the anode. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that various phases like the Al2La, Al12Mg17, and βLi phase (LiMg/Li3Mg7) existed in the Mg-Li-Al-La alloys. The distribution of Mg, Al, and La in Mg-Li-Al-La alloys from the analysis of a scan electron micrograph (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) indicated that the elements Mg, Al, and La distributed homogeneously in the alloys.

  18. Color planner for designers based on color emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ka-Man; Xin, John H.; Taylor, Gail

    2002-06-01

    During the color perception process, an associated feeling or emotion is induced in our brains, and this kind of emotion is termed as 'color emotion.' The researchers in the field of color emotions have put many efforts in quantifying color emotions with the standard color specifications and evaluating the influence of hue, lightness and chroma to the color emotions of human beings. In this study, a color planner was derived according to these findings so that the correlation of color emotions and standard color specifications was clearly indicated. Since people of different nationalities usually have different color emotions as different cultural and traditional backgrounds, the subjects in this study were all native Hong Kong Chinese and the color emotion words were all written in Chinese language in the visual assessments. Through the color planner, the designers from different areas, no matter fashion, graphic, interior or web site etc., can select suitable colors for inducing target color emotions to the customers or product-users since different colors convey different meanings to them. In addition, the designers can enhance the functionality and increase the attractiveness of their designed products by selecting suitable colors.

  19. The effect of NaCl substitution by KCl on telemea cheese properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai ANGHELOIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial or total substitution of sodium chloride by potassium chloride on the chemical composition, texture profile and sensory properties of Telemea cheese during 28 days of ripening at 4°C was evaluated in the current study. Telemea cheese was ripened in 4 different brine solutions (20%, wt/wt made from different NaCl:KCl ratios as follows: (NaCl (A, KCl (B, 1NaCl:1KCl (C and 1NaCl:2KCl (D. The physicochemical properties of Telemea cheese (dry matter, fat, protein, ash, pH, total nitrogen (TN, water soluble nitrogen (WSN and ripening degree values were determined after 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of ripening. Dry matter, pH and ripening degree values were significantly (p < 0.05 affected during ripening. The results of this study indicated that replacing 66% NaCl with KCl influenced the texture profile and sensorial characteristics of Telemea cheese.

  20. Hot Corrosion Behavior of High-Chromium, High-Carbon Cast Irons in NaCl-KCl Molten Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vuelvas-Rayo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the corrosion behavior of a series of experimental high-chromium (18.53–30.48 wt.%, high-carbon (3.82–5.17% cast irons in NaCl-KCl (1 : 1 M at 670°C has been evaluated by using weight loss technique and compared with a 304-type stainless steel. It was found that all castings had a higher corrosion rate than conventional 304SS and that the addition of Cr increased the degradation rate of the cast irons. Additionally, corrosion rate increased by increasing the C contents up to 4.29%, but it decreased with a further increase in its contents. Results are discussed in terms of consumption of the Cr2O3 layer by the melt.

  1. KCl-induced high temperature corrosion of selected commercial alloys. Part I: chromia-formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiamehr, Saeed; Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Montgomery, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory testing of selected chromia-forming alloys was performed to rank the materials and gain further knowledge on the mechanism of KCl-induced high temperature corrosion. The investigated alloys were stainless steels EN1.4021, EN1.4057, EN1.4521, TP347H (coarse-grained), TP347HFG (fine...... with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). It was observed that in the salt-free exposure, stainless steels TP347H (coarse-grained) and EN1.4521 failed to form a thin protective oxide layer compared to the oxide formed on the other alloys...... with KCl vapor in static air for the same duration and at the same temperature. This was undertaken to investigate the role of the vapor phase and revealed that KCl vapor at 600 °C can initiate attack....

  2. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - KClO4/Aluminum Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Whinnery, LeRoy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates (ARA), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-01-17

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a Proficiency Test for Small-Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of a mixture of KClO4 and aluminum—KClO4/Al mixture. This material was selected because of the challenge of performing SSST testing of a mixture of two solids. The mixture was found to be: 1) much less sensitive to impact than RDX, (LLNL being the exception) and PETN, 2) more sensitive to friction than RDX and PETN, and 3) extremely sensitive to spark. The thermal analysis showed little or no exothermic character. One prominent endothermic feature was observed in the temperature range studied and identified as a phase transition of KClO4.

  3. Modeling Deactivation of Catalysts for Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx by KCl Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Kjærgaard; Castellino, Francesco; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2017-01-01

    with the catalyst at the surface of the monolith wall, the transport and accumulation of potassium, bound to Brønsted acid sites, throughout the catalyst wall, and the resulting loss in SCR activity. Using an experimentally measured KCl aerosol size distribution as input, the model can replicate the observed...... if the particle size of the incoming aerosol is increased. The model provides, for the first time, a mechanistic framework for understanding and modeling SCR catalyst deactivation by KCl that may be applicable also for deactivation by other salts and at different operating conditions.......A detailed model for the deactivation of a V2O5–WO3/TiO2-based SCR monolith catalyst by potassium poisoning has been developed and validated. The model accounts for deposition of KCl aerosol particles present in the flue gas on the external catalyst surface, the reaction of the deposited particles...

  4. Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  5. Optically stimulated luminescence in KCl:Cu x-irradiated at room temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, P K; Chakrabarti, K

    1999-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has been observed in single crystals of KCl:Cu x-irradiated at room temperature. It is shown that electrons are liberated from anion sites during the OSL process. The OSL predominantly involves emission due to radiative transition (d s) of monovalent copper ions present in the lattice. The OSL emission shows a strong temperature dependence indicating a thermally assisted process. Electron-hole recombination followed by energy transfer to the Cu activator is suggested as a possible OSL mechanism in KCl:Cu. Preliminary results of OSL in KBr:Cu are also presented.

  6. Electrode process of La(Ⅲ) in molten LiCl-KCl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高繁星; 王长水; 刘利生; 郭建华; 常尚文; 常利; 李瑞雪; 欧阳应根

    2009-01-01

    The electrode process of La(Ⅲ) at Mo electrode in the molten LiCl-KCl for temperatures ranging from 683 K to 773 K was studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry,respectively.The results showed that in the molten LiCl-KCl,reduction of La(Ⅲ) occurred in a step with a global exchange of three electrons.Cyclic voltammetry studies indicated that at a sweep rate lower than 0.2 V/s,the electroreduction of La(Ⅲ) to lanthanum metal was reversible and controlled by diffusion of La(Ⅲ).However,the process b...

  7. Entropy, color, and color rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Luke L A

    2012-12-01

    The Shannon entropy [Bell Syst. Tech J.27, 379 (1948)] of spectral distributions is applied to the problem of color rendering. With this novel approach, calculations for visual white entropy, spectral entropy, and color rendering are proposed, indices that are unreliant on the subjectivity inherent in reference spectra and color samples. The indices are tested against real lamp spectra, showing a simple and robust system for color rendering assessment. The discussion considers potential roles for white entropy in several areas of color theory and psychophysics and nonextensive entropy generalizations of the entropy indices in mathematical color spaces.

  8. Color invariance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusebroek, J.M.; van den Boomgaard, R.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Geerts, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the measurement of colored object reflectance, under different, general assumptions regarding the imaging conditions. We exploit the Gaussian scale-space paradigm for color images to define a framework for the robust measurement of object reflectance from color images. Object ref

  9. Interplay between structure and transport properties of molten salt mixtures of ZnCl2-NaCl-KCl: A molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manga, Venkateswara Rao; Swinteck, Nichlas; Bringuier, Stefan; Lucas, Pierre; Deymier, Pierre; Muralidharan, Krishna

    2016-03-01

    Molten mixtures of network-forming covalently bonded ZnCl2 and network-modifying ionically bonded NaCl and KCl salts are investigated as high-temperature heat transfer fluids for concentrating solar power plants. Specifically, using molecular dynamics simulations, the interplay between the extent of the network structure, composition, and the transport properties (viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion) of ZnCl2-NaCl-KCl molten salts is characterized. The Stokes-Einstein/Eyring relationship is found to break down in these network-forming liquids at high concentrations of ZnCl2 (>63 mol. %), while the Eyring relationship is seen with increasing KCl concentration. Further, the network modification due to the addition of K ions leads to formation of non-bridging terminal Cl ions, which in turn lead to a positive temperature dependence of thermal conductivity in these melts. This new understanding of transport in these ternary liquids enables the identification of appropriate concentrations of the network formers and network modifiers to design heat transfer fluids with desired transport properties for concentrating solar power plants.

  10. Effect of heat treatment, pH, sugar concentration, and metal addition on green color retention in homogenized puree of Thompson seedless grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homogenized puree of Thompson seedless (Vitis vinifera ‘Thompson Seedless’) grape was treated under different conditions, including heating time (5-30 min), temperature (20-80°C) and pH (2-10). Treatments with separate additions of glucose, fructose, and sucrose at concentrations of 100-600 g/L and ...

  11. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  12. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  13. The Yin and Yang of Colors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Michael

    2017-01-01

    independent, device dependent, additive and subtractive color systems. In each color system, it is attempted to calculate the Complementary Color to an orange Brand Color (Pantone 151 C). The results are compared to the results from an online Adobe Creative Cloud Service, Adobe Kuler which was chosen because...... it seems to be widespread among design professionals when finding Complementary Colors. It is concluded that it is possible to calculate a Brand Color’s exact Complementary Color by using the technical specifications of the Brand Color as a starting point for this paper’s method. Adobe Kuler’s suggestions...... for Complementary Colors are far from this paper’s calculated Complementary Colors and it is proven that Adobe Kuler’s Complementary Colors are not technically correct according to this paper’s methods. The color difference between this paper’s calculated Complementary Color and Adobe Kuler’s Complementary Color...

  14. Life at high salt concentrations, intracellular KCl concentrations, and acidic proteomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharon eOren

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Extremely halophilic microorganisms that accumulate KCl for osmotic balance (the Halobacteriaceae, Salinibacter have a large excess of acidic amino acids in their proteins. This minireview explores the occurrence of acidic proteomes in halophiles of different physiology and phylogenetic affiliation. For fermentative bacteria of the order Halanaerobiales, known to accumulate KCl, an acidic proteome was predicted. However, this is not confirmed by genome analysis. The reported excess of acidic amino acids is due to a high content of Gln and Asn, which yield Glu and Asp upon acid hydrolysis. The closely related Halorhodospira halophila and Halorhodospira halochloris use different strategies to cope with high salt. The first has an acidic proteome and accumulates high KCl concentrations at high salt concentrations; the second does not accumulate KCl and lacks an acidic proteome. Acidic proteomes can be predicted from the genomes of some moderately halophilic aerobes that accumulate organic osmotic solutes (Halomonas elongata, Chromohalobacter salexigens and some marine bacteria. Based on the information on cultured species it is possible to understand the pI profiles predicted from metagenomic data from hypersaline environments.

  15. Release and transformation of chlorine and potassium during pyrolysis of KCl doped biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yang; Wu, Hao; Sárossy, Zsuzsa

    2017-01-01

    The formation of CH3Cl and the transformation of chlorine and potassium during pyrolysis of biomass were investigated. Model biomass compounds (cellulose, xylan, lignin and pectin) and pine wood doped with KCl were pyrolysed in a TGA at different heating rates (10–1000 °C/min), temperatures (300...

  16. K-capture by Al-Si based Additives in an Entrained Flow Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guoliang; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    A water slurry, consisting of KCl and Al-Si based additives (kaolin and coal fly ash) was fed into an entrained flow reactor (EFR) to study the K-capturing reaction of the additives at suspension-fired conditions. Solid products collected from the reactor were analysed with respect to total...... and water-soluble K content to quantify the extent of the K-capturing reaction. The results showed that under suspension-fired conditions (1100 °C-1450 °C), kaolin and coal fly ash can effectively capture gaseous KCl. When increasing the mass ratio of KCl to Al-Si additives in the reactants, the conversion...

  17. Color Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  18. Microphysics of KCl and ZnS Clouds on GJ 1214 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peter; Benneke, Björn

    2016-10-01

    Clouds are ubiquitous in the atmospheres of exoplanets. However, as most of these planets have temperatures between 600 and 2000 K, their clouds are likely composed of exotic condensates such as salts, sulfides, silicates, and metals. Treatment of these clouds in current exoplanet atmosphere models do not consider the microphysical processes that govern their formation, evolution, and distribution, such as nucleation and condensation/evaporation, thus creating a gulf between the cloud properties retrieved from observations and the cloud composition predictions from condensation equilibrium models. In this work, we apply a 1D microphysical cloud model to GJ 1214 b and investigate the properties of potassium chloride (KCl) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) clouds as a function of atmospheric metallicity, the intensity of vertical mixing, and the mode of nucleation. Our cloud model has been widely applied to planets in our own Solar System, and as such our work bridges a gap between planetary science and exoplanets. Using model background atmospheres calculated by the SCARLET code, we find that (1) the cloud distribution is not significantly affected by metallicity unless [Fe/H] > 2, (2) higher intensities of vertical mixing leads to more extended cloud decks, more cloud particles at all altitudes, and smaller mean particle radii, (3) the high surface energy of solid ZnS prevents the homogeneous nucleation of pure ZnS cloud particles, such that KCl clouds dominate; solid ZnS can only manifest by nucleating onto pre-existing surfaces (heterogeneous nucleation), such as KCl cloud particles, resulting in mixed clouds, and (4) formation of KCl clouds results in a KCl vapor abundance above the cloud deck ~5 orders of magnitude less than that calculated from equilibrium chemistry. We also examine the transmission spectra that would result from these different cases. Extension of this model to other planets and condensates will shed light on the observed continuum in the "cloudiness

  19. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  20. Colored operads

    CERN Document Server

    Yau, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this book is the theory of operads and colored operads, sometimes called symmetric multicategories. A (colored) operad is an abstract object which encodes operations with multiple inputs and one output and relations between such operations. The theory originated in the early 1970s in homotopy theory and quickly became very important in algebraic topology, algebra, algebraic geometry, and even theoretical physics (string theory). Topics covered include basic graph theory, basic category theory, colored operads, and algebras over colored operads. Free colored operads are discussed in complete detail and in full generality. The intended audience of this book includes students and researchers in mathematics and other sciences where operads and colored operads are used. The prerequisite for this book is minimal. Every major concept is thoroughly motivated. There are many graphical illustrations and about 150 exercises. This book can be used in a graduate course and for independent study.

  1. COLOR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Lafon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present specific capabilities and limitations of the use of color digital images in a characterization process. The whole process is investigated, from the acquisition of digital color images to the analysis of the information relevant to various applications in the field of material characterization. A digital color image can be considered as a matrix of pixels with values expressed in a vector-space (commonly 3 dimensional space whose specificity, compared to grey-scale images, is to ensure a coding and a representation of the output image (visualisation printing that fits the human visual reality. In a characterization process, it is interesting to regard color image attnbutes as a set of visual aspect measurements on a material surface. Color measurement systems (spectrocolorimeters, colorimeters and radiometers and cameras use the same type of light detectors: most of them use Charge Coupled Devices sensors. The difference between the two types of color data acquisition systems is that color measurement systems provide a global information of the observed surface (average aspect of the surface: the color texture is not taken into account. Thus, it seems interesting to use imaging systems as measuring instruments for the quantitative characterization of the color texture.

  2. Effects of Additions of Monascus and Laccaic acid on the Color and Quality Properties of Nitrite-Free Emulsion Sausage during Refrigerated Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sung-Sil

    2017-01-01

    This effect of Monascus and Laccaic acid on the chemical composition, physical, texture and sensory properties of sausage were investigated during storage. Eight treatments (T) of sausage such as T1 (12 ppm sodium nitrite), while T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7 were formulated with different ratios of Monascus/Laccaic acid: 63/7.0, 108/12, 135/15, 59.5/10.5, 102/18 and 127.5/22.5 ppm, respectively. The batch formulated without nitrite or Monascus and laccaic acid was served as control (C). The control sausages had higher pH values compared to the treated ones at 3, 10 and 28 d storage (pMonascus and Laccaic acid amounts (T2-T4, T5-T7). The addition of Monascus and Laccaic acid had significantly higher hardness and springiness values (pMonascus and Laccaic acid could improve the redness of the products. PMID:28316466

  3. 7 CFR 51.305 - Color requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color requirements. 51.305 Section 51.305 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Apples Color Requirements § 51.305 Color requirements. In addition to the... percentage of color specified for the variety in table I appearing in this section. All apple varieties...

  4. Multiphased (NaCl){sub x}(KCl){sub y-x}(KBr){sub 1-y} single crystals: ac conductivity activation energy versus bulk properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsika-Tsigourakou, Vassiliki, E-mail: vkatsik@phys.uoa.g [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, 157 84 Zografos (Greece)

    2009-11-01

    The ac electrical measurements have been just reported for alkali halide mixed crystals that were melt grown from NaCl, KCl and KBr starting materials. They showed a nonlinear variation of all the electrical parameters with the bulk composition. In this short paper, we show that these mixed systems, depending on their major constituent, are classified into three categories in each of which, the activation energy for the ac conductivity increases linearly with BOMEGA, where B is the isothermal bulk modulus and OMEGA the mean volume per atom. In addition, the resulting three straight lines are formed to have almost the same slope.

  5. Electronic stopping power of hydrogen in KCl at the stopping maximum and at very low energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primetzhofer, D.; Markin, S. N.; Bauer, P.

    2011-10-01

    The electronic energy loss of hydrogen ions in KCl was investigated in a wide energy range. Thin films of KCl were evaporated on an Au/Si substrate. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was performed with protons and deuterons at energies from 30 to 400 keV/nucleon. At lower energies experiments were performed by Time-Of-Flight Low energy ion scattering (TOF-LEIS) again with proton and deuteron projectiles. Experimental results are compared to calculated/tabulated values for the electronic energy loss. Whereas at energies beyond the stopping maximum very good agreement is found, at lower ion energies discrepancies between experiment and calculations increase. At very low ion velocities the extrapolated stopping cross section ɛ predicts vanishing electronic energy loss at energies below 100 eV/nucleon.

  6. Effect of NaCl and KCl doping on the growth of sulphamic acid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaila, T.; Kumararaman, S.

    2011-11-01

    The nonlinear optical single crystals of doped sulphamic acid (SA) were grown from aqueous solution by doping with NaCl and KCl using slow evaporation method. Powder X-ray diffraction studies confirm that the grown crystals belong to orthorhombic system. The density and melting point measurements of the grown crystals were determined by floatation technique and capillary tube method, respectively. The range of optical transmittance was ascertained by recording the UV-Vis-NIR spectrum. Atomic absorption study reveals the presence of dopants in the doped crystals. The thermal analyses indicated that the doped SA crystals are more stable than pure crystals. The Vicker's microhardness studies revealed that the dopants increased the hardness of the crystals. SHG efficiency studies of the crystals are found to be increased in the presence of NaCl and KCl dopants.

  7. Influence of CNTs on Thermal Behavior and Light Radiation Properties of Zr/KClO 4 Pyrotechnics%碳纳米管对Zr/KClO4烟火剂的热行为和光辐射性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘黎明; 康晓丽; 易勇; 张红芳; 罗江山; 唐永建

    2014-01-01

    To improve the pump efficiency of Zr/KClO4 pyrotechnic reagent used in Solid state laser pump sources,the carbon nanotubes(CNTs)with catalytic property,high specific surface area,strong adsorption capacity and high strength were intro-duced in pyrotechnic reagent Zr/KClO4 . The effect of carbon nanotubes on the thermal decomposition and light radiation perform-ance of Zr/KClO4(60/40)pyrotechnic reagent used in the pump sources was studied by differential thermal analysis technology and photoelectric detection technology. The results show that the addition of CNTs has a significant impact on the thermal decom-position characteristics and light radiation energy of Zr/KClO4 . With increasing of the CNTs,the combustion rate and exothermic quantity of the pyrotechnic reagent gradually increase,and the melting endothermic peak of the pyrotechnic reagent decrease and tend to disappear. However,the light radiation energies reveal the trend of firstly increases and then decreases. When the mass percentage of CNTs in the pyrotechnic reagent is 0.50%,the total radiation energy of the pyrotechnics can reach 1830 J·g-1. The effective radiation energy within the three strong absorption bands of Nd:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet( YAG)laser gain medium, that is(590 ±10)nm,(750±10)nm and(808±10)nm,can be increased by 41%,25% and 31%,respectively.%为了提高烟火固体激光器泵浦源 Zr/KClO4的泵浦效率,在烟火剂 Zr/KClO4中引入具有催化性能、高比表面积、强吸附能力、高强度的碳纳米管(CNTs),借助差热分析技术和光电探测技术研究了碳纳米管对泵浦源用烟火剂 Zr/KClO4(60/40)的热分解和光辐射性能的影响。结果表明:CNTs的加入对 Zr/KClO4的热分解特性和光辐射能均有显著的影响。随着 CNTs 添加量的增加,烟火剂的燃烧速率和放热量均逐渐增加,药剂的融化吸热峰减弱,甚至趋于消失,药剂的光辐射能量却呈现出先

  8. Generation of KCL033 clinical grade human embryonic stem cell line

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The KCL033 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a normal healthy blastocyst donated for research. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment and under current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) standards. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays. The line was also validated for sterility...

  9. Hyperon production in Ar+KCl collisions at 1.76A GeV

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We present transverse momentum spectra, rapidity distribution and multiplicity of Lambda-hyperons measured with the HADES spectrometer in the reaction Ar(1.76A GeV)+KCl. The yield of Xi- is calculated from our previously reported Xi-/(Lambda+Sigma0) ratio and compared to other strange particle multiplicities. Employing a strangeness balance equation the multiplicities of the yet unmeasured charged Sigma hyperons can be estimated. Finally a statistical hadronization model is used to fit the yi...

  10. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - KClO3/Dodecane Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorenson, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Whinnery, LeRoy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-05-23

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small-Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of a mixture of KClO3 and dodecane—KClO3/dodecane mixture. This material was selected because of the challenge of performing SSST testing of a mixture of solid and liquid materials. The mixture was found to: 1) be more sensitive to impact than RDX, and PETN, 2) less sensitive to friction than PETN, and 3) less sensitive to spark than RDX. The thermal analysis showed little or no exothermic features suggesting that the dodecane volatilized at low temperatures. A prominent endothermic feature was observed assigned to melting of KClO3. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), ultimately will put the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives. The study is adding SSST testing results for a broad suite of different HMEs to the literature. Ultimately the study has the potential to suggest new guidelines and methods and possibly establish the SSST testing accuracies needed to develop safe handling practices for HMEs. Each participating testing laboratory uses identical test materials and preparation methods wherever possible. Note, however, the test procedures differ among the laboratories. The results are compared among the laboratories and then compared to historical data from various sources. The testing performers involved for the KClO3/dodecane mixture are Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, (NSWC IHD). These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some consistency in test protocols, procedures, and experiments and to understand

  11. The modern Japanese color lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriki, Ichiro; Lange, Ryan; Muto, Yumiko; Brown, Angela M; Fukuda, Kazuho; Tokunaga, Rumi; Lindsey, Delwin T; Uchikawa, Keiji; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    Despite numerous prior studies, important questions about the Japanese color lexicon persist, particularly about the number of Japanese basic color terms and their deployment across color space. Here, 57 native Japanese speakers provided monolexemic terms for 320 chromatic and 10 achromatic Munsell color samples. Through k-means cluster analysis we revealed 16 statistically distinct Japanese chromatic categories. These included eight chromatic basic color terms (aka/red, ki/yellow, midori/green, ao/blue, pink, orange, cha/brown, and murasaki/purple) plus eight additional terms: mizu ("water")/light blue, hada ("skin tone")/peach, kon ("indigo")/dark blue, matcha ("green tea")/yellow-green, enji/maroon, oudo ("sand or mud")/mustard, yamabuki ("globeflower")/gold, and cream. Of these additional terms, mizu was used by 98% of informants, and emerged as a strong candidate for a 12th Japanese basic color term. Japanese and American English color-naming systems were broadly similar, except for color categories in one language (mizu, kon, teal, lavender, magenta, lime) that had no equivalent in the other. Our analysis revealed two statistically distinct Japanese motifs (or color-naming systems), which differed mainly in the extension of mizu across our color palette. Comparison of the present data with an earlier study by Uchikawa & Boynton (1987) suggests that some changes in the Japanese color lexicon have occurred over the last 30 years.

  12. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.169 Grape color extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape color extract is an aqueous solution of anthocyanin grape pigments made...

  13. Emission of thermally stimulated luminescence in mixed monocrystals KCl-KBr: Pb{sup 2+}, KCl: Pb{sup 2+} and KBr: Pb{sup 2+} exposed at low doses; Emision de luminiscencia estimulada termicamente en monocristales mixtos KCl-KBr:Pb{sup 2+}, KCl:Pb{sup 2+} y KBr:Pb{sup 2+} expuestos a dosis bajas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Z, E.; Ramos B, S. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares UNAM, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Melendrez A, R.; Chernov, V.; Piters, T.M.; Barboza F, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 5-88 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Hernandez A, J.; Murrieta S, H. [Instituto de Fisica UNAM, A.P. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    It is reported the behavior of solid solutions of mixed crystals KCl{sub 1-x} KBr{sub x} doped with divalent lead which were exposed to gamma radiation. The mixtures of KCl-KBr were varied, with x equivalents at 2, 50, 65, and 85 % including the extremes KCl: Pb{sup 2+} and KBr: Pb{sup 2+}. It was maintained a concentration of divalent lead between 20 and 40 ppm in the crystalline lattice. The production of the generated defects by radiation have been correlated with the increase in the brilliance curves depending on the received dose by the mixed doped crystal. It has been used the thermal stimulation (Tl) for obtaining the crystal luminescence depending on the dose until 130 Gy with gammas of cobalt 60. The results shows that this mixed crystalline material of varied composition responds adequately to low doses which indicates that this would be a good detector of ionizing radiation. The results have been correlated with the optical properties of this mixed doped crystal, however it has been found that exists an important loss of luminescence depending on the halogen quantity presents in the mixed crystal. (Author)

  14. Study of effect of quenching and deformation on KCl: Gd3+ crystals by using conductivity measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Saibabu; A Ramachandra Reddy; D Srikanth

    2004-10-01

    The study of ionic conductivity vs reciprocal temperature of pure KCl and KCl crystal doped with 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mole% gadolinium has been carried out in as grown, quenched from elevated temperatures (100, 350 and 500°C) and annealed at various timings i.e. 2–3 h and deformed by different percentages. The plots exhibit three well-known regions, II, III and IV (extrinsic regions). The intrinsic region I was not observed in the plots as the conductivity measurements were taken up to 575°C. From the analysis of these plots, activation energies for the migration of cation vacancy and the association of gadolinium ion with cation vacancy in the lattice of KCl crystals are calculated. These values are compared with previously reported values. Further, an attempt is made to explain the existence of oxidation state of gadolinium ion in + 3 state rather than in + 2 state as reported earlier. The variation in conductivity with effect of concentration of impurity ion, quenching and annealing and deformation with various percentages are explained on the basis of formation of impurity vacancy dipoles, vacancy – vacancy pairs (which appear in the form of precipitation), storage of cation vacancies in the form of defects, introduction of fresh dislocations, etc.

  15. Temperature dependence of the photostimulated luminescence in KCl:Eu{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Zhiyan; Hansel, Rachael; Zhang, Lei; Li, H. Harold, E-mail: hli@radonc.wustl.edu

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this work is to understand the physical mechanism behind the signal stabilization process in KCl:Eu{sup 2+}, a storage phosphor material that has generated renewed interest due to its potential in radiation therapy dosimetry application. The temperature dependency of the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) spectra and intensity vs. time post X-ray irradiation was measured. Commercial BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} materials were included in this study for comparison. Unlike BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+}, broadening of the F(Cl{sup −}) stimulation band and red-shift of the peak were observed for KCl:Eu{sup 2+} with increasing temperature. For irradiations at temperatures lower than 200 K, PSL intensity of KCl:Eu{sup 2+} showed recuperation behavior in the first 2 h post-irradiation and stayed almost constant with time thereafter. Moreover, spatially-correlated storage centers increased from 24% for irradiation at 50 K to 31% at 195 K and almost 100% at room temperature. The data suggest that certain types of charge storage-centers were mobile and contribute to the fast fading in PSL.

  16. Temperature dependence of the photostimulated luminescence in KCl:Eu2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiyan; Hansel, Rachael; Zhang, Lei; Li, H. Harold

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this work is to understand the physical mechanism behind the signal stabilization process in KCl:Eu2+, a storage phosphor material that has generated renewed interest due to its potential in radiation therapy dosimetry application. The temperature dependency of the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) spectra and intensity vs. time post X-ray irradiation was measured. Commercial BaFBr:Eu2+ materials were included in this study for comparison. Unlike BaFBr:Eu2+, broadening of the F(Cl-) stimulation band and red-shift of the peak were observed for KCl:Eu2+ with increasing temperature. For irradiations at temperatures lower than 200 K, PSL intensity of KCl:Eu2+ showed recuperation behavior in the first 2 h post-irradiation and stayed almost constant with time thereafter. Moreover, spatially-correlated storage centers increased from 24% for irradiation at 50 K to 31% at 195 K and almost 100% at room temperature. The data suggest that certain types of charge storage-centers were mobile and contribute to the fast fading in PSL.

  17. Overview of Food Ingredients, Additives and Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Improve Taste, Texture and Appearance: Spices, natural and artificial flavors, and sweeteners are added to enhance the taste of food. ... Q What is the difference between natural and artificial ingredients? Is a naturally ... low-calorie sweeteners cause adverse reactions? Q How do they add ...

  18. Electrochemical study of Np in the molten eutectic LiCl-KCl; Etude electrochimique de Np dans l'eutectique fondu LiCl-KCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordoba, G. de; Laplace, A.; Blairat, L

    2003-07-01

    This collaborative work CEA-CIEMAT deals with the electrochemical behaviour of neptunium, and in particular the Np(III)/Np redox system, in the LiCl-KCl molten eutectic and in the temperature range of 450 to 600 deg C. The overall goal of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of its separation from the rest of actinides and fission products. Neptunium solutions were obtained by two ways: - the first one consisted in converting the oxide NpO{sub 2} into its chloride form. Dissolution was performed either with HCl{sub (g)} or by carbo-chlorination (Cl{sub 2(g)}+C{sub (s))} at 5500 C. A mixture of mostly Np(IV) together with the soluble oxychloride NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(V) in the melt was obtained, which complicates the study of the Np(III)/Np(0) reduction reaction. - in order to obtain Np(III) solutions, an Al-Cu-Np alloy was used and oxidation of Np metal to the salt phase was performed. A Np(III) solution was obtained, which has been shown by cyclic voltammetry. The study of the redox system Np(Ill)/Np(0) was performed by different electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry and chrono-potentiometry. The results for both solutions were compared and found to be similar. Reduction of Np(Ill) ions to metal Np proceeds in a single step with the exchange of three electrons and the electrode reaction shows a quasi-reversible behaviour being controlled by the diffusion of the electro-active species. Apparent standard potential was determined by chrono-potentiometry at zero current technique, from the measurement of the equilibrium potential between a Np electrode, electrodeposited in situ, and a LiCl-KCl-NpCl{sub 3} solution at different temperatures. Also, from those values of potential, standard free energy, enthalpy and entropy of formation of NpCl{sub 3} in LiCl-KCl were determined. A very brief description about the electrochemical behaviour of the redox system Np(IV)/Np(III) was made. Finally, the molten salt bath decontamination

  19. SU-E-T-476: Improving KCl:Eu2+ Dosimeter Sensitivity: The Role of Oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Z [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Mazur, T; Li, H [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Driewer, J [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Recent research has shown that KCl:Eu2+ has great potential for use in megavoltage radiation therapy dosimetry because this material exhibits excellent storage performance and is reusable due to strong radiation hardness. The purpose of this work is to determine if increased signal could be realized in KCl:Eu2+ by incorporating oxygen in the material fabrication process. Methods: The prototype KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters have a physical makeup similar to thermoluminescent dosimeter chips. The photostimulation light source consists of either a He-Ne laser or a UV enhanced Xe arc lamp with wavelength selection provided by a motorized monochromator. X-ray diffraction is used to determine the phase composition of the dosimeters. Photoluminescence (PL) and photostimulated luminescence (PSL) emission spectra are obtained using a Nanolog Spectrofluoremeter. Results: Europium activator is completely incorporated into the KCl parent-matrix without the formation of a noticeable secondary phase. Regardless of synthesis atmosphere, air or pure nitrogen, PSL amplitude shows a maximum at 1.0 mol % Eu. Depending on europium concentration, dosimeters fabricated in air exhibit stronger PSL by a factor of 2 to 4 compared to those made in N2. There is no change in PSL stimulation spectrum while noticeable shifts in both PL and PSL emission spectra are observed for air versus nitrogen. Almost all charge-storage centers are spatially correlated, suggesting oxygen’s stabilization role in the PSL process. KCl:Eu2+ made in oxygen-rich air is capable of measuring a dose-to-water as low as 0.01 cGy from a 6MV photon beam with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 6. Conclusions: Synthesis in a reduction atmosphere, for example, nitrogen, was thought to be mandatory in order to retain europium activator’s divalent status to be PSL active. Fortunately, divalent europium can be well preserved in an oxygen-rich atmosphere. More importantly, oxygen can enhance PSL by a factor of 2 to 4. HL

  20. Color constancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foster, David H

    2011-01-01

    ... despite changes in the spectrum of the illumination. At about the same time, new models of color constancy appeared, along with physiological data on cortical mechanisms and photographic colorimetric measurements of natural scenes...

  1. 用新型KCl/硅酸钠钻井液缓解苏丹页岩钻进过程中的问题%Novel KCl/Silicate Drilling Fluids for Alleviating Problems in Troublesome Shale Formations in Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭健康; 鄢捷年; 范维旺; 张洪静; 王群立; 余志海

    2005-01-01

    For several decades, wells drilled in Block 6, Sudan, have experienced serious hole-instability problems related to drilling fluids due to the highly reactive and dispersive shales that exist in the Aradeiba and Abu Gabra formations. These problems included washout hole sections combined with tight holes, as well as serious sloughing. Frequent wiper trips were required and logging of the wells was not usually successful. Previously, several conventional inhibitive water-based drilling fluids such as KCl/polymer, KCl/lime/polymer and KCl/PHPA (partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide) have been used in this area, but with only marginal improvements in hole stability and drilling performance. Recently, a newly formulated KCl /sodium silicate system, which is characterized by the good rheological properties and filtration control, was developed and used for providing the necessary inhibitive character. The first trial well was drilled with this kind of drilling fluid in Block 6, Sudan, and the following benefits were observed: (1) Excellent integrity exhibited by drilled cuttings for shale formations; (2) Stable borehole kept with lower mud weight; (3) Reduced wiper trips; and (4) In-gauge borehole shown from caliper logs.Later on, five more wells were drilled with the KCl /sodium silicate system in this area. It was found that the KCl/sodium silicate system can fully meet the demands of drilling operations in this area. Case studies are presented in this paper in terms of wiper trips, inhibitive character of cuttings, hole conditions and mud weight.

  2. Color tejido

    OpenAIRE

    Rius Tormo, Palmira

    2010-01-01

    Póster presentado en el IX Congreso Nacional del Color, Alicante, 29-30 junio, 1-2 julio 2010. La exposición que se propone tiene como núcleo principal el color y muestra las posibilidades expresivas que aporta a los diferentes materiales. Las 7 obras presentadas buscan la armonía estética y la fuerza simbólica.

  3. Color vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenfurtner, Karl R; Kiper, Daniel C

    2003-01-01

    Color vision starts with the absorption of light in the retinal cone photoreceptors, which transduce electromagnetic energy into electrical voltages. These voltages are transformed into action potentials by a complicated network of cells in the retina. The information is sent to the visual cortex via the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in three separate color-opponent channels that have been characterized psychophysically, physiologically, and computationally. The properties of cells in the retina and LGN account for a surprisingly large body of psychophysical literature. This suggests that several fundamental computations involved in color perception occur at early levels of processing. In the cortex, information from the three retino-geniculate channels is combined to enable perception of a large variety of different hues. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that color analysis and coding cannot be separated from the analysis and coding of other visual attributes such as form and motion. Though there are some brain areas that are more sensitive to color than others, color vision emerges through the combined activity of neurons in many different areas.

  4. Solubility of NaCl and KCl in aqueous HCl from 20 to 85°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Robert W.; Clynne, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    The solubilities of NaCl and KCl in aqueous HCl solutions were determined from 20 to 85°C at concentrations ranging from 0 to 20 g of HCl/100 g of solution. Equations are given that describe the solubilities over the range of conditions studied. For NaCl and KCl respectively measured solubilities show an average deviation from these equations of ??0.10 and ??0.08 g/100 g of saturated solution.

  5. Color vision test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... Vision test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Bowling B. Hereditary fundus dystrophies. In: ...

  6. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The experim

  7. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The

  8. ADHD Diet: Do Food Additives Cause Hyperactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Huxsahl, M.D. Food additives include artificial colors, artificial sweeteners and preservatives. There's no solid evidence that food additives cause attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, ... reactions to artificial food colors in children. Nutrition Reviews. 2013;71: ...

  9. Priming Letters by Colors: Evidence for the Bidirectionality of Grapheme-Color Synesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Peter H.; Kalckert, Andreas; Fink, Gereon R.

    2009-01-01

    In synesthesia, stimulation of one sensory modality leads to a percept in another nonstimulated modality, for example, graphemes trigger an additional color percept in grapheme-color synesthesia, which encompasses the variants letter-color and digit-color synesthesia. Until recently, it was assumed that synesthesia occurs strictly unidirectional:…

  10. Priming Letters by Colors: Evidence for the Bidirectionality of Grapheme-Color Synesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Peter H.; Kalckert, Andreas; Fink, Gereon R.

    2009-01-01

    In synesthesia, stimulation of one sensory modality leads to a percept in another nonstimulated modality, for example, graphemes trigger an additional color percept in grapheme-color synesthesia, which encompasses the variants letter-color and digit-color synesthesia. Until recently, it was assumed that synesthesia occurs strictly unidirectional:…

  11. Color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  12. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - KClO4/Carbon Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates, Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-01-31

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small- Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of a mixture of KClO4 and activated carbon—KClO4/C mixture. This material was selected because of the challenge of performing SSST testing of a mixture of two solids. The mixture was found to be insensitive to impact, friction, and thermal stimulus, and somewhat sensitive to spark discharge. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), ultimately will put the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives. The study is adding SSST testing results for a broad suite of different HMEs to the literature. Ultimately the study has the potential to suggest new guidelines and methods and possibly establish the SSST testing accuracies needed to develop safe handling practices for HMEs. Each participating testing laboratory uses identical test materials and preparation methods wherever possible. Note, however, the test procedures differ among the laboratories. The results are compared among the laboratories and then compared to historical data from various sources. The testing performers involved for the KClO4/carbon mixture are Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, (NSWC IHD), and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RXQL). These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some consistency in test protocols, procedures, and experiments and to understand how to compare results when these testing variables cannot be made consistent.

  13. Deep subthreshold Xi;{-} production in Ar + KCl reactions at 1.76A GeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agakishiev, G; Balanda, A; Bassini, R; Belver, D; Belyaev, A V; Blanco, A; Böhmer, M; Boyard, J L; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cabanelas, P; Castro, E; Chernenko, S; Christ, T; Destefanis, M; Díaz, J; Dohrmann, F; Dybczak, A; Eberl, T; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O V; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, P; Friese, J; Fröhlich, I; Galatyuk, T; Garzón, J A; Gernhäuser, R; Gil, A; Gilardi, C; Golubeva, M; González-Díaz, D; Guber, F; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kämpfer, B; Kanaki, K; Karavicheva, T; Kirschner, D; Koenig, I; Koenig, W; Kolb, B W; Kotte, R; Krizek, F; Krücken, R; Kühn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Lang, S; Lange, J S; Lapidus, K; Liu, T; Lopes, L; Lorenz, M; Maier, L; Mangiarotti, A; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Michel, J; Mishra, D; Morinière, E; Mousa, J; Müntz, C; Naumann, L; Otwinowski, J; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Parpottas, Y; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; Pietraszko, J; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Reshetin, A; Roy-Stephan, M; Rustamov, A; Sadovsky, A; Sailer, B; Salabura, P; Schmah, A; Sobolev, Yu G; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Ströbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Sudol, M; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Tlusty, P; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Wagner, V; Weber, M; Wisniowski, M; Wojcik, T; Wüstenfeld, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Y V; Zhou, P; Zumbruch, P

    2009-09-25

    We report first results on a deep subthreshold production of the doubly strange hyperon Xi;{-} in a heavy-ion reaction. At a beam energy of 1.76A GeV the reaction Ar + KCl was studied with the High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer at SIS18/GSI. A high-statistics and high-purity Lambda sample was collected, allowing for the investigation of the decay channel Xi;{-} --> Lambdapi;{-}. The deduced Xi;{-}/(Lambda + Sigma;{0}) production ratio of (5.6 +/- 1.2_{-1.7};{+1.8}) x 10;{-3} is significantly larger than available model predictions.

  14. Charged pion production in C+C and Ar+KCl collisions measured with HADES

    CERN Document Server

    Tlustý, P; Balanda, A; Bellia, G; Belver, D; Belyaev, A; Blanco, A; Boehmer, M; Boyard, J L; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cabanelas, P; Castro, E; Chernenko, S; Christ, T; Destefanis, M; Díaz, J; Dohrmann, F; Dybczak, A; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, P; Friese, J; Fröhlich, I; Galatyuk, T; Garzón, J A; Gernhäuser, R; Gil, A; Gilardi, C; Golubeva, M; Gonzalez-Diaz, D; Grosse, E; Guber, F; Heilmann, M; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Ierusalimov, A; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kämpfer, B; Kanaki, K; Karavicheva, T; Kirschner, D; König, I; König, W; Kolb, B W; Kotte, R; Kozuch, A; Krasa, A; Krizek, F; Krücken, R; Kühn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Lamas-Valverde, J; Lang, S; Lange, J S; Lapidus, K; Liu, T; Lopes, L; Lorenz, M; Maier, L; Mangiarotti, A; Marin, J; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Michel, J; Mishra, D; Moriniere, E; Mousa, J; Müntz, C; Naumann, L; Novotny, R; Otwinowski, J; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Parpottas, Y; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; Cavalcanti, T Perez; Pietraszko, J; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Reshetin, A; Rustamov, A; Sadovskii, A; Salabura, P; Schmah, A; Simon, R; Sobolev, Yu G; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Ströbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Sudol, M; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Veretenkin, I; Wagner, V; Weber, M; Wisniowski, M; Wüstenfeld, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Y; Zhou, P; Zumbruch, P

    2009-01-01

    Results of a study of charged pion production in 12C+12C collisions at incident beam energies of 1A GeV and 2A GeV, and 40Ar+natKCl at 1.76AGeV, using the spectrometer HADES at GSI, are presented. We have performed a measurement of the transverse momentum distributions of pi+- mesons covering a fairly large rapidity interval, in case of the C+C collision system for the first time. The yields, transverse mass and angular distributions are compared with a transport model as well as with existing data from other experiments.

  15. An electrochemical study of uranium behaviour in LiCl-KCl-CsCl eutectic melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltsev, D. S.; Volkovich, V. A.; Vasin, B. D.; Vladykin, E. N.

    2015-12-01

    Electrochemical behaviour of uranium was studied in the low melting ternary LiCl-KCl-CsCl eutectic at 573-1073 K employing potentiometry, cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry. Uranium electrode potentials were measured directly and U(III)/U(IV) red-ox potentials were determined from the results of cyclic voltammetry measurements. Formal standard electrode and red-ox potentials of uranium, and thermodynamic properties of uranium chlorides in the studied melt were calculated. Diffusion coefficients of U(III) and U(IV) ions were determined using cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry.

  16. Generation of KCL033 clinical grade human embryonic stem cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liani Devito

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The KCL033 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a normal healthy blastocyst donated for research. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment and under current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP standards. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays. The line was also validated for sterility and specific and non-specific human pathogens.

  17. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program--KClO4/Dodecane Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates, Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-05-11

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small- Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of a mixture of KClO4 and dodecane—KClO4/dodecane mixture. This material was selected because of the challenge of performing SSST testing of a mixture of solid and liquid materials. The mixture was found to: 1) be less sensitive to impact than RDX, and PETN, 2) less sensitive to friction than RDX and PETN, and 3) less sensitive to spark than RDX and PETN. The thermal analysis showed little or no exothermic features suggesting that the dodecane volatilized at low temperatures. A prominent endothermic feature was observed and assigned to a phase transition of KClO4. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), ultimately will put the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives. The study is adding SSST testing results for a broad suite of different HMEs to the literature. Ultimately the study has the potential to suggest new guidelines and methods and possibly establish the SSST testing accuracies needed to develop safe handling practices for HMEs. Each participating testing laboratory uses identical test materials and preparation methods wherever possible. Note, however, the test procedures differ among the laboratories. The results are compared among the laboratories and then compared to historical data from various sources. The testing performers involved for the KClO4/dodecane mixture are Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, (NSWC IHD), and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RXQL). These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some

  18. Dielectron production in Ar + KCl collisions at 1.76A GeV

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    We present results on dielectron production in Ar+KCl collisions at 1.76A GeV. For the first time $\\omega$ mesons could be reconstructed in a heavy-ion reaction at a bombarding energy which is well below the production threshold in free nucleon-nucleon collisions. The omega multiplicity has been extracted and compared to the yields of other particles, in particular of the phi meson. At intermediate e+e- invariant masses, we find a strong enhancement of the pair yield over a reference spectrum...

  19. Activation analysis of indium, KCl, and melamine by using a laser-induced neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungman; Lee, Kitae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Hyungki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    A laser-induced repetitively operated fast neutron source with a neutron yield of 4 x 10{sup 5} n/pulse and a pulse repetition rate of 5 Hz, which was developed using a deuterated polystyrene film target and a 24-TW femtosecond laser, was applied for laser activation analyses of indium, KCl, and melamine samples. The nuclear reactions of the measured gamma spectra for the activated samples were identified as (n, γ), (n, n'), and (n, 2n) reactions. These indicate possible usage of the neutron source for practical activation analyses of various materials.

  20. Electroreduction of Ho3+ on Nickel Cathode in Molten KCl-HoCl3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The cyclic voltammetry, open current potential-time curve after potentiostatic electrolysis, the current-time curve at potential step, XRD, EDAX and EPMA were used to study the electrode process of Ho3+ reduction on nickel electrode in molten KCl-HoCl3 and the phases of surface alloy layer. The Ho-Ni alloys were deposited when Ho3+ was reduced on the nickel electrode. The free energies of formation for the intermetallic compounds between Ho and Ni, the diffusion coefficients and diffusion activation energy of Ho atom in the alloy phase were determined.

  1. Spatial processing in color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Yang, Yongyi; Stark, Henry

    2005-08-01

    We consider the reproduction of color subject to material and neighborhood constraints. By 'material constraints,' we mean any constraints that are applied to the amount of ink, lights, voltages, and currents that are used in the generation of color. In the first instance we consider the problem of reproducing a target color constrained by maximum additive color signals, such as in the phosphorescence process in a cathode ray tube. In the second instance we consider the more difficult problem of reproducing color subject to constraints on the maximum primary color variations in a (spatial) neighborhood. We introduce the idea of adjacent color variance (ACV) and then attempt to reproduce colors subject to an upper bound on the ACV. An algorithm that is suitable for this task is the method of vector space projections (VSP). In order to use VSP for constrained color reproduction, we use a novel approach to linearize nonlinear CIE-Lab space constraints. Experimental results are furnished that demonstrate that using the ACV as a bound helps to reduce reproduction artifacts in a color image.

  2. A novel method for increasing the frequency of somatic embryogenesis in wheat tissue culture by NaCl and KCl supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiba, G; Yamada, Y

    1988-01-01

    The effect of NaCl, KCl and LiCl on the growth and morphogeneis of tissue cultures originating from immature embryos of four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and one triticale (Triticosecale)varieties was investigated. The morphogenetic pathway to plant regeneration in Chinese Spring wheat was determined as incomplete somatic embryogenesis because the differentiation and subsequent germination of the shoot apices happened in the early phase of embryo development. Culture medium supplemented by NaCl suppressed the differentiation of shoot apices resulting in the development of more typical somatic embryoids. Forty mM concentrations of both NaCl or KCl increased the formation of somatic embryos in Chinese Spring. Arthur and GK Kincso wheat varieties while Lasko triticale regenerated well without the addition. The salts inhibited plantlet formation from somatic embryoids so the salts supplement should be omitted. Forty mM LiCl inhibited growth while 10mM LiCl had no effect on growth or embryogenesis.

  3. Colored Preons

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested complementary models of the elementary particles as (a) quantum knots and (b) preonic nuclei that are field and particle descriptions, respectively, of the same particles. This earlier work, carried out in the context of standard electroweak (SU(2) x U(1)) physics, is here extended to the strong interactions by the introduction of color (SU(3)) charges.

  4. Color Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

  5. Impartial coloring games

    CERN Document Server

    Beaulieu, Gabriel; Duchêne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Coloring games are combinatorial games where the players alternate painting uncolored vertices of a graph one of $k > 0$ colors. Each different ruleset specifies that game's coloring constraints. This paper investigates six impartial rulesets (five new), derived from previously-studied graph coloring schemes, including proper map coloring, oriented coloring, 2-distance coloring, weak coloring, and sequential coloring. For each, we study the outcome classes for special cases and general computational complexity. In some cases we pay special attention to the Grundy function.

  6. Heteroepitaxial strain in alkali halide thin films: KCl on NaCl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, J.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1999-01-01

    We have pet-formed Monte Carlo simulations of the properties of a NaCl (001) surface covered by full or partial layers of KCl, for coverages up to 5 monolayers (ML). A wide variety of structures of the film is found. For integer ML coverages we find the continuous, so-called floating mode rumple...... structure, as was previously found in the KBr/NaCl system. However, for a coverage of similar to 2.1 ML, we find a discrete structure of periodicity 3:4 of small regularly spaced KCl pyramids. It has the same scattering characteristics as the structure observed by Henzler et al. [Phys. Rev. B 52, 17 060...... (1995)], but it is two-dimensional modulated, rather than the rowlike stacking fault structure proposed by Henzler et al. Also, at a coverage of similar to 0.8 ML there is a stable 3:4 structure. Other structures are found at intermediate coverages, corresponding to regular arrays of dislocation lines...

  7. Determination of the crystal growth mechanism of KCl in ethanol?water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszi, I.; Hasznosné-Nezdei, M.; Lakatos, B. G.; Sapundzhiev, Ts. J.; Popov, R. G.

    1999-03-01

    The mechanism of crystal growth of KCl in ethanol-water system is studied by Nielsen's map-model, and the growth rate is estimated by the induction time (nucleation rate, growth rate) function in a salting-out crystallization system. In the experiments, the induction time and the particle size distribution of the final product were measured, and the solid-liquid interfacial tension was calculated from the induction period data. The map of rate control of crystal-growth for the KCl-ethanol-water salting out system was constructed by taking into consideration that the liquid-vapour interfacial tension varied with the variation of the ethanol concentration, and, as a consequence, the solid-liquid interfacial tension varied as well. As a result, diffusion controlled crystal growth was obtained as a rate-determining step for supersaturation ratios 0.01<0.45. For determining the crystal growth rate, the nucleation rate was estimated from the experimental average particle number and induction period, applying the assumption that all nuclei were born during the induction period. The results, obtained by using linear and non-linear regressions, have appeared to be in good agreement with the data published in the literature.

  8. Generation of (F+2)_AH Centres in Sodium Ion Doped KCl:CO^{2-3}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaf, M.; Chihi, I.; Hamaïdia, A.; Akrmi, El.

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate that (F+2)AH centres of KCl may be obtained from crystals doped with K{2}CO{3} and NaCl, grown by the Czochralski method in open atmosphere. The optical properties of (F+2)AH centres thus produced are exactly the same as those of (F+2)AH centres prepared by the usual technique, which involves superoxide doping and a controlled atmosphere. Nous montrons que les centres (F+2)AH de KCl peuvent être obtenus à partir de cristaux dopés par K{2}CO{3} et NaCl, fabriqués par la méthode de Czochralski à l'air libre. Les propriétés optiques des centres (F+2)AH ainsi produits sont exactement les mêmes que celles des centres (F+2)AH préparés par la technique habituelle, qui comporte le dopage par un superoxyde et l'emploi d'une atmosphère contrôlée.

  9. LiCl-KCl Induced Corrosion of Copper at Low Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Hoon; Sim, Ji-Hyung; Kim, Yong-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Structural materials for PRIDE system are stainless steel and copper mainly. And these are known for maintaining integrity when there is no oxygen and water. But physicochemical behavior of structural materials of PRIDE system when there is some of oxygen and water is lack of research. And when local corrosion is occurred, it can cause crack, so that it will be a big problem of safety and economic efficiency. So evaluation of thermodynamical and mechanical stabilities of structural materials for PRIDE system is necessary to predict lifetime of materials and time to replace the part of the equipment. There is no research of evaluation of long-term structural stability of structural materials for PRIDE system now. The present work investigates how LiCl-KCl molten salts influence the low temperature corrosion of copper. From the corrosion test, we can confirm that LiCl-KCl salt accelerates the corrosion of copper at low temperature. It was observed by surface analysis and gravimetry. The corrosion pattern is general corrosion and corrosion rate is increased as the temperature and time go up.

  10. Conversion of KCl into KBH4 by Mechano-Chemical Reaction and its Catalytic Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilen, Murat; Gürü, Metin; Çakanyildirim, Çetin

    2017-07-01

    Production of KBH4, in the presence of KCl, B2O3 and MgH2 by means of a mechanical reaction and a dehydrogenation kinetic, constitute the main parts of this study. Operating time and reactant ratio are considered as two parameters for the mechanical reaction to obtain the maximum yield. The production process was carried out in a ball milling reactor, and the product residue was purified with ethylene diamine (EDA) and subsequently characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and x-ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses. Optimum time for mechano-chemical treatment and reactant ratio (MgH2/KCl) were obtained as 1000 min and 1.0, respectively. Synthesized and commercial KBH4 were compared by hydrolysis tests in the presence of Co1-xNix/Al2O3 heterogeneous catalyst. Hydrogen generation rates, activation energy and order of the KBH4 decomposition reaction were obtained as 1578 {mL}_{{{{H}}2 }} \\min^{ - 1} {g}_{{catalyst}}^{ - 1}, 39.2 kJ mol-1 and zero order, respectively.

  11. Experimental observations on electrorefining spent nuclear fuel in molten LiCl-KCl/liquid cadmium system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, T. A.; Laug, D. V.; Li, S. X.; Sofu, T.

    1999-07-14

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is currently performing a demonstration program for the Department of Energy (DOE) which processes spent nuclear fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). One of the key steps in this demonstration program is electrorefining of the spent fuel in a molten LiCl-KCl/liquid cadmium system using a pilot scale electrorefiner (Mk-IV ER). This article summarizes experimental observations and engineering aspects for electrorefining spent fuel in the molten LiCl-KCl/liquid cadmium system. It was found that the liquid cadmium pool acted as an intermediate electrode during the electrorefining process in the ER. The cadmium level was gradually decreased due to its high vapor pressure and vaporization rate at the ER operational temperature. The low cadmium level caused the anode assembly momentarily to touch the ER vessel hardware, which generated a periodic current change at the salt/cathode interface and improved uranium recovery efficiency for the process. The primary current distributions calculated by numerical simulations were used in interpreting the experimental results.

  12. Electrochemical behaviour of gadolinium ion in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravaca, C. [CIEMAT/Nuclear Fission Division/Radioactive Wastes Unit, Avda, Complutense, 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain)]. E-mail: c.caravaca@ciemat.es; Cordoba, G. de [CIEMAT/Nuclear Fission Division/Radioactive Wastes Unit, Avda, Complutense, 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Tomas, M.J. [CIEMAT/Nuclear Fission Division/Radioactive Wastes Unit, Avda, Complutense, 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Rosado, M. [CIEMAT/Nuclear Fission Division/Radioactive Wastes Unit, Avda, Complutense, 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2007-01-15

    This work presents the electrochemical study of GdCl{sub 3} in the molten LiCl-KCl eutectic in the temperature range 723-823 K. Transient electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry, on an inert metallic tungsten working electrode, have been used in order to investigate the reduction mechanism and transport parameters. This study shows that Gd{sup 3+} ions are reduced to Gd metal by a single step mechanism with exchange of three electrons. Diffusion coefficient of GdCl{sub 3} ions was determined at various temperatures, at 723 K the value is D = 0.88 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}. Apparent standard reduction potential of the redox couple Gd{sup 3+}/Gd has been determined by the open-circuit chronopotentiometry technique at several temperatures. Also the Gibbs free energy of GdCl{sub 3} formation was determined and compared with thermodynamic data for pure compounds in the supercooled state in order to estimate the activity coefficient of Gd{sup 3+} in the molten LiCl-KCl eutectic.

  13. Photostimulated luminescence in KBr-KCl mixed matrixes unpurified with Pb{sup 2+}; Luminiscencia fotoestimulada en matrices mixtas KBr-KCl impurificadas con Pb{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Z, E.; Chernov, V.; Barboza F, M.; Melendrez, R.; Piters, T.M.; Hernandez A, J.; Murrieta S, H. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Crystals of alkaline halogenides and in solid solutions are good devices as UV radiation or ionizing radiation detectors, also as optical memory. In alkaline halogenides unpurified with ns2 ions, it has been found that with photons of less energy to the gap energy they can be generated defects as the F centers, this makes to suppose that it is possible to create net defects in a KBr-KCl mixed system unpurified with divalent lead under UV radiation. In this work it is presented measurements of optical absorption, photostimulated luminescence and induced thermoluminescence by gamma and UV radiation in this mixed crystalline system at distinct concentrations. We have found that the thermoluminescent signal due to gamma and UV radiation is found between ambient temperature and 400 Centigrade, the brightness curves for both cases are distinct but the forms and positions of the peaks are very similar. It was observed that Tl information, between 150 and 250 Centigrade, generated by UV decays strongly, it compared with the low temperature peaks. The exact position of the emission and excitation spectra are lightly different, between 3.5 and 4.5 eV respectively and it depends of the mixture composition in the crystal and also of the thermal treatments. (Author)

  14. Growth of NaCl on thin epitaxial KCl films on Ag(100) studied by SPA-LEED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Christian; Paulheim, Alexander; Sokolowski, Moritz

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the growth of NaCl on thin (100)-oriented films of KCl by spot profile analysis of low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). The underlying question of this investigation was how the system accommodates to the misfit of - 10% between the NaCl and KCl lattices. The KCl films (3 atomic layers thick) were epitaxially grown on a Ag(100) single crystal. We studied the heteroepitaxial growth of NaCl on KCl at 300 K and at 500 K, respectively. At 300 K, the first NaCl monolayer (ML) grows pseudomorphically on the KCl film. From the second layer onward, the NaCl lattice relaxes. The NaCl multilayers roughen, and a small rotational disorder (± 4°) of the NaCl domains is observed. The roughening results from the formation of multilayer islands of limited lateral size due to the misfit to the pseudomorphic first NaCl layer. At a growth temperature of 500 K, no pseudomorphic NaCl layer forms, instead relaxed multilayer island growth of NaCl is observed from the first layer onward. Similarly to the growth at 300 K, we find NaCl multilayer islands of limited lateral size. For both temperatures, we explain this growth behavior by the misfit that makes the adsorption sites at the island edges of the first relaxed NaCl layer less favorable for larger islands, promoting nucleation of multilayer islands.

  15. Color Calibration for Colorized Vision System with Digital Sensor and LED Array Illuminator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenmin Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Color measurement by the colorized vision system is a superior method to achieve the evaluation of color objectively and continuously. However, the accuracy of color measurement is influenced by the spectral responses of digital sensor and the spectral mismatch of illumination. In this paper, two-color vision system illuminated by digital sensor and LED array, respectively, is presented. The Polynomial-Based Regression method is applied to solve the problem of color calibration in the sRGB and CIE  L⁎a⁎b⁎ color spaces. By mapping the tristimulus values from RGB to sRGB color space, color difference between the estimated values and the reference values is less than 3ΔE. Additionally, the mapping matrix ΦRGB→sRGB has proved a better performance in reducing the color difference, and it is introduced subsequently into the colorized vision system proposed for a better color measurement. Necessarily, the printed matter of clothes and the colored ceramic tile are chosen as the application experiment samples of our colorized vision system. As shown in the experimental data, the average color difference of images is less than 6ΔE. It indicates that a better performance of color measurement is obtained via the colorized vision system proposed.

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  17. Computational color technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Henry R

    2006-01-01

    Henry Kang provides the fundamental color principles and mathematical tools to prepare the reader for a new era of color reproduction, and for subsequent applications in multispectral imaging, medical imaging, remote sensing, and machine vision. This book is intended to bridge the gap between color science and computational color technology, putting color adaptation, color constancy, color transforms, color display, and color rendition in the domain of vector-matrix representations and theories. Computational Color Technology deals with color digital images on the spectral level using vector-m

  18. Male red throat coloration, pelvic spine coloration, and courtship behaviours in threespine stickleback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, Daniel Shane; Yong, Lengxob; Pierotti, Michele E. R.; McKinnon, Jeffrey S.

    Background: In addition to exhibiting red nuptial throat coloration, male threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) often possess red coloration on their pelvic spines. Although variation in throat colour has been shown to be associated with male reproductive behaviour, limited research has

  19. Interaction between SiO2 and a KF-KCl-K2SiF6 Melt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaykov, Yurii P; Isakov, Andrey V; Zakiryanova, Irina D; Reznitskikh, Olga G; Chemezov, Oleg V; Redkin, Alexander A

    2014-02-13

    The solubility mechanism of silica in a fluoride-chloride melt has been determined in situ using Raman spectroscopy. The spectroscopy data revealed that the silica solubility process involved Si-O bond breakage and Si-F bond formation. The process results in the formation of silicate complexes, fluorine-bearing silicate complexes, and silicon tetrafluoride in the melt. Mass spectrometry of the vapor phase over the KF-KCl-K2SiF6 and KF-KCl-K2SiF6-SiO2 melts and differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermal gravimetric analysis of these melts were performed to verify the silica solubility mechanism.

  20. Perceptual transparency in neon color spreading displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekroll, Vebjørn; Faul, Franz

    2002-08-01

    In neon color spreading displays, both a color illusion and perceptual transparency can be seen. In this study, we investigated the color conditions for the perception of transparency in such displays. It was found that the data are very well accounted for by a generalization of Metelli's (1970) episcotister model of balanced perceptual transparency to tristimulus values. This additive model correctly predicted which combinations of colors would lead to optimal impressions of transparency. Color combinations deviating slightly from the additive model also looked transparent, but less convincingly so.

  1. Carbachol and KCl-induced changes in intracellular free calcium concentration in isolated, fura-2 loaded smooth-muscle cells from the anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, N; Simpson, A W; Ashley, C C

    1988-06-16

    Intracellular free calcium concentration [( Ca2+]1) was measured in suspensions of fura-2 loaded smooth-muscle cells isolated from the anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus edulis. Successive application of 5mM carbachol (CCh) and 100mM KCl to the cells transiently elevated [Ca2+]1 from the resting value of 124 +/- 4.5nM (mean +/- S.E., n = 14) to 295 +/- 15.3 and 383 +/- 20.5 nM, respectively. The response to CCh was concentration-dependent with an ED50 of 10(-5) M. Under the microscope, 67 +/- 3.0 and 83 +/- 1.3 % of fura-2 loaded cells contracted on the addition of 5mM CCh and 100mM KCl, respectively. In Ca2+ -free sea water, the CCh induced change in [Ca2+]1 was partially suppressed whereas that induced by KCl was completely abolished, suggesting an agonist-evoked release of stored Ca2+.

  2. Hyperon production in Ar+KCl collisions at 1.76A GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agakishiev, G.; Belyaev, A.; Chernenko, S.; Fateev, O.; Zanevsky, Y. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Balanda, A.; Dybczak, A.; Michalska, B.; Otwinowski, J.; Przygoda, W.; Salabura, P.; Trebacz, R.; Wisniowski, M.; Wojcik, T. [Jagiellonian University of Cracow, Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Bannier, B.; Dohrmann, F.; Kaempfer, B.; Kanaki, K.; Kotte, R.; Naumann, L.; Wendisch, C.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Zhou, P. [Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Bassini, R.; Iori, I. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Belver, D.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Garzon, J.A. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Blanco, A.; Fonte, P.; Lopes, L.; Mangiarotti, A. [LIP-Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas, Coimbra (Portugal); Boehmer, M.; Christ, T.; Eberl, T.; Friese, J.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Huck, P.; Jurkovic, M.; Kruecken, R.; Maier, L.; Sailer, B.; Weber, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E12, Muenchen (Germany); Boyard, J.L.; Gumberidze, M.; Hennino, T.; Liu, T.; Moriniere, E.; Ramstein, B.; Roy-Stephan, M. [Universite Paris Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire (UMR 8608), CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay Cedex (France); Destefanis, M.; Gilardi, C.; Kirschner, D.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, J.S.; Metag, V.; Mishra, D.; Perez Cavalcanti, T.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B. [Justus Liebig Universitaet Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); Diaz, J.; Gil, A. [Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Lapidus, K.; Siebenson, J. [Excellence Cluster ' ' Origin and Structure of the Universe' ' , Munich (Germany); Finocchiaro, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy)] [and others

    2011-02-15

    We present transverse momentum spectra, rapidity distribution and multiplicity of {lambda} -hyperons measured with the HADES spectrometer in the reaction Ar(1.76AGeV)+KCl. The yield of {xi}{sup -} is calculated from our previously reported {xi}{sup -}/({lambda}+{sigma}{sup 0}) ratio and compared to other strange particle multiplicities. Employing a strangeness balance equation the multiplicities of the yet unmeasured {sigma}{sup {+-}} -hyperons can be estimated. Finally a statistical hadronization model is used to fit the yields of {pi}{sup -}, K{sup +}, K {sup 0} {sub s}, K{sup -}, {phi}, {lambda} and {xi}{sup -}. The resulting chemical freeze-out temperature of T = (76{+-}2) MeV is compared to the measured slope parameters obtained from fits to the transverse mass distributions of the different particles. (orig.)

  3. Hyperon production in Ar+KCl collisions at 1.76A GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Agakishiev, G; Bannier, B; Bassini, R; Belver, D; Belyaev, A; Blanco, A; Böhmer, M; Boyard, J L; Cabanelas, P; Castro, E; Chernenko, S; Christ, T; Destefanis, M; Diaz, J; Dohrmann, F; Dybczak, A; Eberl, T; Epple, E; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, P; Friese, J; Froehlich, I; Galatyuk, T; Garzon, J A; Gernhaeuser, R; Gil, A; Gilardi, C; Golubeva, M; Gonzalez-Diaz, D; Guber, F; Gumberidze, M; Heilmann, M; Heinz, T; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Huck, P; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kaempfer, B; Kanaki, K; Karavicheva, T; Kirschner, D; Koenig, I; Koenig, W; Kolb, B W; Kotte, R; Krizek, F; Kruecken, R; Kuehn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Lang, S; Lange, J S; Lapidus, K; Liu, T; Lopes, L; Lorenz, M; Maier, L; Mangiarotti, A; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Michel, J; Mishra, D; Moriniere, E; Mousa, J; Muentz, C; Naumann, L; Otwinowski, J; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Parpottas, Y; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; Perez-Cavalcanti, T; Pietraszko, J; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Reshetin, A; Roy-Stephan, M; Rustamov, A; Sadovsky, A; Sailer, B; Salabura, P; Schmah, A; Schwab, E; Siebenson, J; Sobolev, Yu G; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Stroebele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Tlusty, P; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Wagner, V; Weber, M; Wendisch, C; Wisniowski, M; Wojcik, T; Wuestenfeld, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Y; Zhou, P; Zumbruch, P

    2010-01-01

    We present transverse momentum spectra, rapidity distribution and multiplicity of Lambda-hyperons measured with the HADES spectrometer in the reaction Ar(1.76A GeV)+KCl. The yield of Xi- is calculated from our previously reported Xi-/(Lambda+Sigma0) ratio and compared to other strange particle multiplicities. Employing a strangeness balance equation the multiplicities of the yet unmeasured charged Sigma hyperons can be estimated. Finally a statistical hadronization model is used to fit the yields of pi-, K+, K0s, K-, phi, Lambda and Xi-. The resulting chemical freeze-out temperature of T=(76+-2) MeV is compared to the measured slope parameters obtained from fits to the transverse mass distributions of the particles.

  4. Dielectron production in Ar+KCl collisions at 1.76A GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Agakishiev, G; Belver, D; Belyaev, A; Blanco, A; Böhmer, M; Boyard, J L; Cabanelas, P; Castro, E; Chernenko, S; Christ, T; Destefanis, M; Dohrmann, F; Dybczak, A; Eberl, T; Epple, E; Fabbbietti, L; Fateev, O; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, P; Friese, J; Fröhlich, I; Galatyuk, T; Garzon, J A; Gernhäuser, R; Gilardi, C; Golubeva, M; Gonzalez-Díaz, D; Guber, F; Gumberidze, M; Heinz, T; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Huck, P; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kämpfer, B; Kanaki, K; Karavicheva, T; Koenig, I; Koenig, W; Kolb, B W; Kotte, R; Krasa, A; Krizek, F; Krücken, R; Kuc, H; Kühn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Lang, S; Lange, J S; Liu, K Lapidus T; Lopes, L; Lorenz, M; Maier, L; Mangiarotti, A; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Michel, J; Moriniere, E; Mousa, J; Müntz, C; Naumann, L; Otwinowski, J; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; Pietraszko, J; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Reshetin, A; Rustamov, A; Sadovsky, A; Sailer, B; Salabura, P; Schmah, A; Schwab, E; Siebenson, J; Sobolev, Yu G; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Ströbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Tlusty, P; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Wagner, V; Weber, M; Wendisch, C; Wisniowski, M; Wüstenfeld, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Y

    2011-01-01

    We present results on dielectron production in Ar+KCl collisions at 1.76A GeV. For the first time $\\omega$ mesons could be reconstructed in a heavy-ion reaction at a bombarding energy which is well below the production threshold in free nucleon-nucleon collisions. The omega multiplicity has been extracted and compared to the yields of other particles, in particular of the phi meson. At intermediate e+e- invariant masses, we find a strong enhancement of the pair yield over a reference spectrum from elementary nucleon-nucleon reactions suggesting the onset of non-trivial effects of the nuclear medium. Transverse-mass spectra and angular distributions have been reconstructed in three invariant mass bins. In the former unexpectedly large slopes are found for high-mass pairs. The latter, in particular the helicity-angle distributions, are largely consistent with expectations for a pair cocktail dominated at intermediate masses by delta Dalitz decays.

  5. Application of aluminum diffusion coatings to mitigate the KCl-induced high-temperature corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiamehr, Saeed; Lomholt, T. N.; Dahl, Kristian Vinter

    2017-01-01

    Pack cementation was used to produce Fe1−xAl and Fe2Al5 diffusion coatings on ferritic-martensitic steel P91 and a Ni2Al3 diffusion coating on pure nickel. The performance of diffusion coatings against high-temperature corrosion induced by potassium chloride (KCl) was evaluated by exposing......-ray diffractometry (XRD) before and after the exposures. It was found that all the diffusion coatings formed protective oxides under salt-free exposure in air. Under the salt deposit, Fe1−xAl showed local failure while on large parts of the sample a protective layer had formed. Fe2Al5 was attacked over the entire...

  6. Hyperon production in Ar + KCl collisions at 1.76A GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agakishiev, G.; Balanda, A.; Bannier, B.; Bassini, R.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Chernenko, S.; Christ, T.; Destefanis, M.; Dıaz, J.; Dohrmann, F.; Dybczak, A.; Eberl, T.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Gil, A.; Gilardi, C.; Golubeva, M.; González-Dıaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heilmann, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Huck, P.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Kanaki, K.; Karavicheva, T.; Kirschner, D.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kotte, R.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Lang, S.; Lange, J. S.; Lapidus, K.; Liu, T.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michalska, B.; Michel, J.; Mishra, D.; Morinière, E.; Mousa, J.; Müntz, C.; Naumann, L.; Otwinowski, J.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pérez Cavalcanti, T.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Roy-Stephan, M.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Sailer, B.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Tsertos, H.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wisniowski, M.; Wojcik, T.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.; Zhou, P.; Zumbruch, P.

    2011-02-01

    We present transverse momentum spectra, rapidity distribution and multiplicity of Λ -hyperons measured with the HADES spectrometer in the reaction Ar(1.76AGeV) + KCl . The yield of Ξ^{{-}}_{} is calculated from our previously reported Ξ^{{-}}_{}/( Λ + Σ^{{0}}_{}) ratio and compared to other strange particle multiplicities. Employing a strangeness balance equation the multiplicities of the yet unmeasured Σ^{{±}}_{} -hyperons can be estimated. Finally a statistical hadronization model is used to fit the yields of π-_{} , K+, K 0 s , K-, φ , Λ and Ξ-_{} . The resulting chemical freeze-out temperature of T = (76±2) MeV is compared to the measured slope parameters obtained from fits to the transverse mass distributions of the different particles.

  7. Dielectron production in Ar + KCl collisions at 1.76A GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agakishiev, G.; Balanda, A.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Chernenko, S.; Christ, T.; Destefanis, M.; Dohrmann, F.; Dybczak, A.; Eberl, T.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Gilardi, C.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Huck, P.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Kanaki, K.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kuc, H.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Lang, S.; Lange, J. S.; Lapidus, K.; Liu, T.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michalska, B.; Michel, J.; Morinière, E.; Mousa, J.; Müntz, C.; Naumann, L.; Otwinowski, J.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Sailer, B.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Tsertos, H.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wisniowski, M.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.

    2011-07-01

    We present results on dielectron production in 40Ar+KCl collisions at 1.76A GeV. For the first time ω mesons could be reconstructed in a heavy-ion reaction at a bombarding energy which is well below the production threshold in free nucleon-nucleon collisions. The ω multiplicity has been extracted and compared to the yields of other particles, in particular of the φ meson. At intermediate e+e- invariant masses, we find a strong enhancement of the pair yield over a reference spectrum from elementary nucleon-nucleon reactions, suggesting the onset of nontrivial effects of the nuclear medium. Transverse-mass spectra and angular distributions have been reconstructed in three invariant mass bins. In the former unexpectedly large slopes are found for high-mass pairs. The latter, in particular the helicity-angle distributions, are largely consistent with expectations for a pair cocktail dominated at intermediate masses by Δ Dalitz decays.

  8. Development of high temperature transport technology for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in pyroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Lee, Hansoo; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Jeong-Guk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daaro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    The development of high-temperature transport technologies for molten salt is a prerequisite and a key issue in the industrialization of pyro-reprocessing for advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The solution of a molten salt centrifugal pump was discarded because of the high corrosion power of a high temperature molten salt, so the suction pump solution was selected. An apparatus for salt transport experiments by suction was designed and tested using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The experimental results of lab-scale molten salt transport by suction showed a 99.5% transport rate (ratio of transported salt to total salt) under a vacuum range of 100 mtorr - 10 torr at 500 Celsius degrees. The suction system has been integrated to the PRIDE (pyroprocessing integrated inactive demonstration) facility that is a demonstrator using non-irradiated materials (natural uranium and surrogate materials). The performance of the suction pump for the transport of molten salts has been confirmed.

  9. High Temperature Corrosion of Inconel 600 in NaCl-KCl Molten Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Salinas-Solano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the corrosion resistance of a high content nickel alloy, Inconel 600, was investigated in mixed NaCl-KCl salts at 700, 800, and 900°C for 100 hours in static air. Investigation was carried out using electrochemical techniques such as polarization curves, rest potential measurements, linear polarization resistance, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Corroded specimens were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. Electrochemical measurements showed an increased degradation rate of Inconel 600 with increasing test temperature. SEM and EDS analysis show that the damage experienced by Inconel 600 is greater than that determined by electrochemical measurements. This damage was identified as internal corrosion due to the reaction of Cl2 with the alloying elements (Cr and Fe; however, at 900°C the internal damage was minor and it was associated with the nickel content in the alloy.

  10. Solubilidade do SrO em NaCl-Kcl fundido a 727ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Combes Richard Louis

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The solubility product value of SrO has been found to be equal to 10-4,2 (molality scale in molten equimolar mixture of NaCl and KCl at 727ºC, using a potentiometric method involving a calcia stabilized zirconia membrane electrode. This value, which is in a logical agreement with other alkaline-earth oxide determined solubilities, is compared to those of 10-5,8, 10-3,0 and 10-3,08 (molality scale found in the litterature 33, 22 and 5 years ago, respectively. Such discrepencies have called the attention of the authors, their possible reasons (methodology, titrating agent are analyzed and a theoretical discussion, for considering the authors' value as more reliable, is given in this paper.

  11. Study of thermodynamic properties of Np-Al alloys in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, E.; Soucek, P.; Malmbeck, R.; Glatz, J. P. [Institute for Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe (Germany); Caravaca, C. [CIEMAT, DE/DFN/URAA, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    This work is focused on chemical characterisation and determination of thermodynamic properties of Np-Al alloys. The alloys are formed on a solid Al electrode during Np electrodeposition in molten LiCl-KCl Eutectic. Open circuit potential measurements, after small depositions of Np metal onto the Al electrode were used to determine thermodynamic properties of the Np-Al alloys formed (G, H, S, activity of Np in Al) by an e.m.f. method. Galvanostatic electrolyses were carried out on an Al plates. Stable Np-Al deposit was obtained and identified, by XRD analysis, as a mixture NpAl{sub 3} and NpAl{sub 4} alloys.

  12. COLORING PROPERTIES OF WOOL FABRIC COLORED BY NEW DYESTUFFS - AZOMETHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJORDJEVIC Dragan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The azomethines have broad applications in food and dyestuff industries, and in analytical chemistry, catalysis and also in the field of agrochemical. These have played an influential part in the improvement of modern coordination chemistry, but also they can also be found at key points in the development of inorganic biochemistry, catalysis and also in optical materials. The present paper describes coloring properties of wool fabric colored by new dyestuffs - azomethines, derivate of isatin. Synthesizing of dyestuffs can often have one to six chromogen, which can be defined as the photoactive components that contain colored or uncolored absorbent components. In addition of monoazo, diazo, poly-azo, anthraquinone, xanthan and similar systems, the azomethines or imines, also includes to the chromogen groups. Azomethines, such as, isatin-3-hydrazone, isatin-3-thiosemicarbazone and isatin-3-phenylhydrazone, were synthesized and their coloring performance on wool fabric assessed. The synthesized azomethines showed very good substantively for wool fibers with good coloring performance according to CIEL*a*b* system which characterized quantitative and qualitative coloring property. Dyestuff 3 or isatin-3-phenylhydrazone bound to woolen textiles to a greater extent and greater intensity (minimum value of L. Dyestuff 2 or isatin-3-thiosemicarbazone linked to the minimum amount for textiles (the largest value of L. Although it must be noted that it is a lighter shade (yellow color as opposed to the dyestuff 3 (red color.

  13. Color blindness and Rorschach color responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsino, B V

    1985-10-01

    Color vision deficits occur in 10% of the American white male population. Thus, color blindness may invalidate diagnostic hypotheses generated from Rorschach data. The Rorschach protocols of 43 white, college male color-blind subjects were compared to the protocols of normally sighted controls. The color-blind group manifested fewer pure "C" responses. No significant between group differences emerged for any of the other primary Rorschach color variables. Pure "C" responses rarely figure prominently in Rorschach evaluations, and the apparent lowered frequency of these responses by the color-blind is insufficient to warrant modification of current Rorschach practice. The data suggest that color blindness is unlikely to confound Rorschach assessment.

  14. Study on electrochemical preparation of Al-Li-Y alloys from Y2O3 in LiCl-KCl-AlCl3 molten salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yaming; WANG Fengli; ZHANG Milin; HAN Wei; TIAN Yang

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical preparaton of Al-Li-Y alloys from LiCl-KCl-A1Cl3-Y2O3 system was studied. The chlorination of Y2O3 by AlCl3 led to the formation of Y (Ⅲ) ions in the molten salts. Cyclic voltammogram (CV) showed that the underpotential deposition (UPD) of yttrium on pre-deposited aluminum caused the formation of Al-Y alloy. Al-Li-Y alloys with different yttriurn contents were obtained by galvanostatic electrolysis and analysed by SEM-EDS and ICP. The ICP results showed that the lithium and yttrium contents in Al-Li-Y alloysdepended on the addition of AlCl3 into the melts.

  15. The KCl cotransporter, KCC2, is highly expressed in the vicinity of excitatory synapses in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyás, A I; Sík, A; Payne, J A; Kaila, K; Freund, T F

    2001-06-01

    Immunocytochemical visualization of the neuron-specific K+/Cl- cotransporter, KCC2, at the cellular and subcellular level revealed an area- and layer-specific diffuse labelling, and a discrete staining outlining the somata and dendrites of some interneurons in all areas of the rat hippocampus. KCC2 was highly expressed in parvalbumin-containing interneurons, as well as in subsets of calbindin, calretinin and metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a-immunoreactive interneurons. During the first 2 postnatal weeks, an increase of KCC2 staining was observed in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, correlating temporally with the arrival of entorhinal cortical inputs. Subcellular localization demonstrated KCC2 in the plasma membranes. Immunoreactivity in principal cells was responsible for the diffuse staining found in the neuropil. In these cells, KCC2 was detected primarily in dendritic spine heads, at the origin of spines and, at a much lower level on the somata and dendritic shafts. KCC2 expression was considerably higher in the somata and dendrites of interneurons, most notably of parvalbumin-containing cells, as well as in the thorny excrescences of CA3 pyramidal cells and in the spines of spiny hilar and stratum lucidum interneurons. The data indicate that KCC2 is highly expressed in the vicinity of excitatory inputs in the hippocampus, perhaps in close association with extrasynaptic GABAA receptors. A high level of excitation is known to lead to a simultaneous net influx of Na+ and Cl-, as evidenced by dendritic swelling. KCC2 located in the same microenvironment may provide a Cl- extrusion mechanism to deal with both ion and water homeostasis in addition to its role in setting the driving force of Cl- currents involved in fast postsynaptic inhibition.

  16. Inclusive Dielectron Production in Ar+KCl Collisions at 1.76 AGeV studied with HADES

    CERN Document Server

    Krizek, F; Balanda, A; Bellia, G; Belver, D; Belyaev, A; Blanco, A; Boehmer, M; Boyard, J L; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cabanelas, P; Castro, E; Chernenko, S; Christ, T; Destefanis, M; Díaz, J; Dohrmann, F; Dybczak, A; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, P; Friese, J; Fröhlich, I; Galatyuk, T; Garzón, J A; Gernhäuser, R; Gil, A; Gilardi, C; Golubeva, M; Gonzalez-Diaz, D; Grosse, E; Guber, F; Heilmann, M; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Ierusalimov, A; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kämpfer, B; Kanaki, K; Karavicheva, T; Kirschner, D; König, I; König, W; Kolb, B W; Kotte, R; Kozuch, A; Krasa, A; Krücken, R; Kühn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Lamas-Valverde, J; Lang, S; Lange, J S; Lapidus, K; Liu, T; Lopes, L; Lorenz, M; Maier, L; Mangiarotti, A; Marin, J; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Michel, J; Mishra, D; Moriniere, E; Mousa, J; Müntz, C; Naumann, L; Novotny, R; Otwinowski, J; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Parpottas, Y; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; Cavalcanti, T Perez; Pietraszko, J; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Reshetin, A; Rustamov, A; Sadovskii, A; Salabura, P; Schmah, A; Simon, R; Sobolev, Yu G; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Ströbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Sudol, M; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Tlustý, P; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Veretenkin, I; Wagner, V; Weber, M; Wisniowski, M; Wüstenfeld, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Y; Zhou, P; Zumbruch, P

    2009-01-01

    Results of the HADES measurement of inclusive dielectron production in Ar+KCl collisions at a kinetic beam energy of 1.76 AGeV are presented. For the first time, high mass resolution spectroscopy was performed. The invariant mass spectrum of dielectrons is compared with predictions of UrQMD and HSD transport codes.

  17. Micro-structural study of the GeS2-In2S3-KCl glassy system by Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haizheng, Tao; Xiujian, Zhao; Wei, Tong; Shun, Mao

    2006-07-01

    Room temperature Raman spectra of samples on three serials within the GeS(2)-In(2)S(3)-KCl glassy system have been investigated systematically. According to XRD patterns and Raman spectra of several pseudo-binary systems, the Cl atoms, which was added into the GeS(2)-In(2)S(3) glasses through KCl, was considered to be leading to the breaking of In-In bonds among the S(3)In-InS(3) ethane-like units and the forming of InS(4-x)Cl(x), InS(6-x)Cl(x) mixed polyhedra. Considering the effect of K(+) ions upon mixed anion units (InS(4-x)Cl(x) and InS(6-x)Cl(x)) and the corresponding micro-structural model, the Raman spectral evolution of the GeS(2)-In(2)S(3)-KCl glasses can be elucidated successfully. The microstructure of the GeS(2)-In(2)S(3)-KCl glasses was considered to be that the potassium atoms, which exist in the form of chlorine atoms as its nearest neighbor, are homogeneously dispersed in the glassy net formed by the micro-structural units such as InS(4), InS(6), InS(4-x)Cl(x), InS(6-x)Cl(x), GeS(4) polyhedra and S(3)In(Ge)-In(Ge)S(3) ethane-like units.

  18. The influence of oxide on the electrochemical processes in K2NbF7-NaCl-KCl melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lantelme, F.; Berghoute, Y.; Barner, Jens H. Von;

    1995-01-01

    Transient electrochemical techniques showed that in NaCl-KCl melts the reduction of K2NbF7 occurs through atwo-step reaction Nb(V) --> Nb(IV) --> Nb. When oxide ions were introduced, cyclic voltammetry indicated that the wavescorresponding to reduction of the complex NbF72- progressively...

  19. Electrochemical extraction of neodymium by co-reduction with aluminum in LiCl-KCl molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yong-De; Xu, Yan-Lu; Zhang, Mi-Lin; Xue, Yun; Han, Wei; Huang, Ying; Chen, Qiong; Zhang, Zhi-Jian

    2013-02-01

    The electrochemical behavior of Nd(III) ions in LiCl-KCl and LiCl-KCl-AlCl3 melts on a Mo electrode at 723 K was studied by various electrochemical techniques. The results showed that Nd(III) ions are reduced to Nd(0) through two consecutive steps, and the underpotential deposition of neodymium on pre-deposited Al electrode formed two kinds of Al-Nd intermetallic compounds in LiCl-KCl-AlCl3 solutions. The electrochemical extraction of neodymium was carried out in LiCl-KCl-AlCl3 melts on a Mo electrode at 873 K by potentiostatic and galvanostatic electrolysis. The extraction efficiency was 99.25% after potentiostatic electrolysis for 30 h. Al-Li-Nd bulk alloy was obtained by galvanostatic electrolysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) suggested that Al2Nd and Al3Nd phases were formed in Al-Li-Nd alloy. The microstructure and micro-zone chemical analysis of Al-Li-Nd alloy were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), respectively.

  20. Densities of L-Glutamic Acid HCl Drug in Aqueous NaCl and KCl Solutions at Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryshetti, Suresh; Raghuram, Noothi; Rani, Emmadi Jayanthi; Tangeda, Savitha Jyostna

    2016-04-01

    Densities (ρ ) of (0.01 to 0.07) {mol}{\\cdot } {kg}^{-1} L-Glutamic acid HCl (L-HCl) drug in water, and in aqueous NaCl and KCl (0.5 and 1.0) {mol}{\\cdot } {kg}^{-1} solutions have been reported as a function of temperature at T = (298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K and atmospheric pressure. The accurate density (ρ ) values are used to estimate the various parameters such as the apparent molar volume (V_{2,{\\upphi }}), the partial molar volume (V2^{∞}), the isobaric thermal expansion coefficient (α 2), the partial molar expansion (E2^{∞}), and Hepler's constant (partial 2V2^{∞}/partial T2)P. The Cosphere overlap model is used to understand the solute-solvent interactions in a ternary mixture (L-HCl drug + NaCl or KCl + water). Hepler's constant (partial 2V2^{∞}/partial T2)_P is utilized to interpret the structure-making or -breaking ability of L-HCl drug in aqueous NaCl and KCl solutions, and the results are inferred that L-HCl drug acts as a structure maker, i.e., kosmotrope in aqueous NaCl solutions and performs as a structure breaker, i.e., chaotrope in aqueous KCl solutions.

  1. Elaboration and characterization of a KCl single crystal doped with nanocrystals of a Sb2O3 semiconductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.Bouhdjer; S.Addala; A.Chala; O.Halimi; B.Boudine; M.Sebais

    2013-01-01

    Undoped and doped KCl single crystals have been successfully elaborated via the Czochralski (Cz)method.The effects of dopant Sb2O3 nanocrystals on structural and optical properties were investigated by a number of techniques,including X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis,UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectrophotometers.An XRD pattern of KCl:Sb2O3 reveals that the Sb2O3 nanocrystals are in the well-crystalline orthorhombic phase.The broadening of diffraction peaks indicated the presence of a Sb2O3 semiconductor in the nanometer size regime.The shift of absorption and PL peaks is observed near 334 nm and 360 nm respectively due to the quantum confinement effect in Sb2O3 nanocrystals.Particle sizes calculated from XRD studies agree fairly well with those estimated from optical studies.An SEM image of the surface KCl:Sb2O3 single crystal shows large quasi-spherical of Sb2O3 crystallites scattered on the surface.The elemental analysis from EDAX demonstrates that the KCl:Sb2O3 single crystal is slightly rich in oxygen and a source of excessive quantities of oxygen is discussed.

  2. Development of flexible, free-standing, thin films for additive manufacturing and localized energy generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Billy; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L., E-mail: michelle.pantoya@ttu.edu [Mechanical Engineering Department, Texas Tech University, Lubbock TX 79409 (United States); Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A. [Idaho National Laboratory, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Film energetics are becoming increasingly popular because a variety of technologies are driving a need for localized energy generation in a stable, safe and flexible form. Aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) composites were mixed into a silicon binder and extruded using a blade casting technique to form flexible free-standing films ideal for localized energy generation. Since this material can be extruded onto a surface it is well suited to additive manufacturing applications. This study examines the influence of 0-35% by mass potassium perchlorate (KClO{sub 4}) additive on the combustion behavior of these energetic films. Without KClO{sub 4} the film exhibits thermal instabilities that produce unsteady energy propagation upon reaction. All films were cast at a thickness of 1 mm with constant volume percent solids to ensure consistent rheological properties. The films were ignited and flame propagation was measured. The results show that as the mass percent KClO{sub 4} increased, the flame speed increased and peaked at 0.43 cm/s and 30 wt% KClO{sub 4}. Thermochemical equilibrium simulations show that the heat of combustion increases with increasing KClO{sub 4} concentration up to a maximum at 20 wt% when the heat of combustion plateaus, indicating that the increased chemical energy liberated by the additional KClO{sub 4} promotes stable energy propagation. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis show that the silicone binder participates as a fuel and reacts with KClO{sub 4} adding energy to the reaction and promoting propagation.

  3. Development of flexible, free-standing, thin films for additive manufacturing and localized energy generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy Clark

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Film energetics are becoming increasingly popular because a variety of technologies are driving a need for localized energy generation in a stable, safe and flexible form. Aluminum (Al and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3 composites were mixed into a silicon binder and extruded using a blade casting technique to form flexible free-standing films ideal for localized energy generation. Since this material can be extruded onto a surface it is well suited to additive manufacturing applications. This study examines the influence of 0-35% by mass potassium perchlorate (KClO4 additive on the combustion behavior of these energetic films. Without KClO4 the film exhibits thermal instabilities that produce unsteady energy propagation upon reaction. All films were cast at a thickness of 1 mm with constant volume percent solids to ensure consistent rheological properties. The films were ignited and flame propagation was measured. The results show that as the mass percent KClO4 increased, the flame speed increased and peaked at 0.43 cm/s and 30 wt% KClO4. Thermochemical equilibrium simulations show that the heat of combustion increases with increasing KClO4 concentration up to a maximum at 20 wt% when the heat of combustion plateaus, indicating that the increased chemical energy liberated by the additional KClO4 promotes stable energy propagation. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis show that the silicone binder participates as a fuel and reacts with KClO4 adding energy to the reaction and promoting propagation.

  4. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    2008-01-01

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a Colo

  5. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  6. Aluminum plasmonic metamaterials for structural color printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Gao, Jie; Stan, Liliana; Rosenmann, Daniel; Czaplewski, David; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-06-01

    We report a structural color printing platform based on aluminum plasmonic metamaterials supporting near perfect light absorption and narrow-band spectral response tunable across the visible spectrum to realize high-resolution, angle-insensitive color printing with high color purity and saturation. Additionally, the fabricated metamaterials can be protected by a transparent polymer thin layer for ambient use with further improved color performance. The demonstrated structural color printing with aluminum plasmonic metamaterials offers great potential for relevant applications such as security marking and information storage.

  7. Reappraisal of Color Change in Women's Wears in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CONG Shan; ZHOU Xu-dong

    2002-01-01

    This paper attempts to quantify color attribute change in women's wear products in China by the computer-aided color design system. A method of classification and analysis of fashion color is proposed. In addition, data from several popular ragazines are classified and tested for evidence of evolving activity of fashion color.

  8. Electrochemical Codeposition of Al-Li-Mg Alloys at Solid Aluminum Electrode from LiCl-KCl-MgCl2 Molten Salt System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ke; Zhang, Mi Lin; Chen, Ye; Han, Wei; de Yan, Yong; Cao, Peng

    2010-06-01

    The electrochemical codeposition of Mg and Li at an aluminium electrode in LiCl-KCl (50:50 wt pct) melts containing different concentrations of MgCl2 at 893 K (620 °C) to form Al-Li-Mg alloys was investigated. Cyclic voltammograms showed that the potential of Li metal deposition at an Al electrode, before the addition of MgCl2, is more positive than that of Li metal deposition at an Mo electrode, which indicated the formation of an Al-Li alloy. The underpotential deposition of magnesium at an aluminium electrode leads to the formation of Al-Mg alloys, and the succeeding underpotential deposition of lithium on predeposited Al-Mg alloys leads to the formation of Al-Li-Mg alloys. Chronopotentiometric measurements indicated that the codeposition of Mg and Li occurs at current densities lower than -0.668 A cm-2 in LiCl-KCl-MgCl2 (8 wt pct) melts at an aluminium electrode. The chronoamperometric studies indicated that the onset potential for the codeposition of Mg and Li is -2.000 V, and the codeposition of Mg and Li at an aluminium electrode is formed into Al-Li-Mg alloys when the applied potentials are more negative than -2.000 V. X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma analysis indicated that Al-Li-Mg alloys with different lithium and magnesium contents were prepared via potentiostatic and galvanostatic electrolysis. The microstructure of typical dual phases of the Al-Li-Mg alloy was characterized by an optical microscope and by scanning electron microscopy. The analysis of energy dispersive spectrometry showed that the elements of Al and Mg distribute homogeneously in the Al-Li-Mg alloy. The lithium and magnesium contents of Al-Li-Mg alloys can be controlled by MgCl2 concentrations and by electrolytic parameters.

  9. 4D porosity evolution during solid-solid replacement reaction in mineral system (KBr, KCl)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Nicolas; Hamilton, Andrea; Koehn, Daniel; Shipton, Zoe

    2017-04-01

    An extensive understanding of the controlling mechanisms of phase transformation is key in geosciences to better predicting the evolution of the physical parameters of rocks (porosity, permeability, and rheology) from centimetre-scale (e.g. fingering in siltstones) to kilometer-scale (e.g. Dolostone geobodies), in both the diagenetic and metamorphic domains. This contribution reports the 4D monitoring of a KBr crystal at different time steps during an experimental, fluid-mediated replacement reaction with KCl. Volumes are reconstructed based on density contrast using non-destructive X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) at a resolution of 3 microns. A sample of KBr was immersed in a static bath of saturated KCl at room temperature and pressure. 5 scans were performed during the reaction at 5, 10, 20, 35 and 55 minutes, until 50% of the original crystal was replaced. As a control experiment, two samples reacted continuously for 15 and 55 minutes, respectively. Each 3D dataset was reconstructed to visualize and quantify the different mineral phases, the porosity distribution and connectivity, along with the reaction front morphology. In the case of successive baths, results show that the front morphology evolves from rough with small fingers to flat and thick during the reaction, suggesting a switch between advection and diffusion controlled reactant distribution through time. This switch is also reflected in the mass evolution and the rate of propagation of the replaced zone, being rapid in the first 20 minutes before reaching steady state. The porosity develops perpendicular to the crystal wall, suggesting a self-organization process governed by advection, before connecting laterally. While the reaction changes from advection controlled to diffusion controlled, the direction of the connected pores becomes parallel to the crystal walls. This phenomenon is not observed when the crystal is reacting discontinuously for 55 minutes. In the latter case, self

  10. 色关联乘性和加性色噪声驱动的多稳态系统的稳态特性%Steady-state analysis of a tristable system driven by a correlated multiplicative and an additive colored noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时培明; 李培; 韩东颖

    2014-01-01

    The steady-state problems of a tristable system are studied under the action of color correlated multiplicative and additive colored noise. Firstly, the expression of the steady-state probability density function is derived based on the uniform colored noise approximation, and then the change regulation of the steady-state probability density function is analyzed with the change of the strength and relevance of multiplicative noise and additive noise. Results show that the non-equilibrium phase transition of the system can be induced by the correlation strength and time of additive noise and multiplicative noise as well as the additive noise strength.%研究了色关联乘性和加性色噪声作用下的三稳态系统的稳态问题。首先利用一致有色噪声近似方法,推导出稳态概率密度函数的表达式,然后分析了乘性噪声和加性噪声的强度以及关联性对稳态概率密度函数的影响,研究结果表明:加性噪声强度、加性噪声和乘性噪声的关联强度和关联时间可以诱导系统的非平衡相变。

  11. Is Color Experience Cognitively Penetrable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, Berit; Gatzia, Dimitria E

    2017-01-01

    Is color experience cognitively penetrable? Some philosophers have recently argued that it is. In this paper, we take issue with the claim that color experience is cognitively penetrable. We argue that the notion of cognitive penetration that has recently dominated the literature is flawed since it fails to distinguish between the modulation of perceptual content by non-perceptual principles and genuine cognitive penetration. We use this distinction to show that studies suggesting that color experience can be modulated by factors of the cognitive system do not establish that color experience is cognitively penetrable. Additionally, we argue that even if color experience turns out to be modulated by color-related beliefs and knowledge beyond non-perceptual principles, it does not follow that color experience is cognitively penetrable since the experiences of determinate hues involve post-perceptual processes. We conclude with a brief discussion of the implications that these ideas may have on debates in philosophy. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. Color vision and color formation in dragonflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futahashi, Ryo

    2016-10-01

    Dragonflies including damselflies are colorful and large-eyed insects, which show remarkable sexual dimorphism, color transition, and color polymorphism. Recent comprehensive visual transcriptomics has unveiled an extraordinary diversity of opsin genes within the lineage of dragonflies. These opsin genes are differentially expressed between aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults, as well as between dorsal and ventral regions of adult compound eyes. Recent topics of color formation in dragonflies are also outlined. Non-iridescent blue color is caused by coherent light scattering from the quasiordered nanostructures, whereas iridescent color is produced by multilayer structures. Wrinkles or wax crystals sometimes enhances multilayer structural colors. Sex-specific and stage-specific color differences in red dragonflies is attributed to redox states of ommochrome pigments.

  13. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  14. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  15. Spatiochromatic Context Modeling for Color Saliency Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Shengping; Li, Xuelong; Wu, Xindong

    2016-06-01

    Visual saliency is one of the most noteworthy perceptual abilities of human vision. Recent progress in cognitive psychology suggests that: 1) visual saliency analysis is mainly completed by the bottom-up mechanism consisting of feedforward low-level processing in primary visual cortex (area V1) and 2) color interacts with spatial cues and is influenced by the neighborhood context, and thus it plays an important role in a visual saliency analysis. From a computational perspective, the most existing saliency modeling approaches exploit multiple independent visual cues, irrespective of their interactions (or are not computed explicitly), and ignore contextual influences induced by neighboring colors. In addition, the use of color is often underestimated in the visual saliency analysis. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective color saliency model that considers color as the only visual cue and mimics the color processing in V1. Our approach uses region-/boundary-defined color features with spatiochromatic filtering by considering local color-orientation interactions, therefore captures homogeneous color elements, subtle textures within the object and the overall salient object from the color image. To account for color contextual influences, we present a divisive normalization method for chromatic stimuli through the pooling of contrary/complementary color units. We further define a color perceptual metric over the entire scene to produce saliency maps for color regions and color boundaries individually. These maps are finally globally integrated into a one single saliency map. The final saliency map is produced by Gaussian blurring for robustness. We evaluate the proposed method on both synthetic stimuli and several benchmark saliency data sets from the visual saliency analysis to salient object detection. The experimental results demonstrate that the use of color as a unique visual cue achieves competitive results on par with or better than 12 state

  16. A quantitative theory of human color choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Natalia L; Jameson, Kimberly A

    2013-01-01

    The system for colorimetry adopted by the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) in 1931, along with its subsequent improvements, represents a family of light mixture models that has served well for many decades for stimulus specification and reproduction when highly controlled color standards are important. Still, with regard to color appearance many perceptual and cognitive factors are known to contribute to color similarity, and, in general, to all cognitive judgments of color. Using experimentally obtained odd-one-out triad similarity judgments from 52 observers, we demonstrate that CIE-based models can explain a good portion (but not all) of the color similarity data. Color difference quantified by CIELAB ΔE explained behavior at levels of 81% (across all colors), 79% (across red colors), and 66% (across blue colors). We show that the unexplained variation cannot be ascribed to inter- or intra-individual variations among the observers, and points to the presence of additional factors shared by the majority of responders. Based on this, we create a quantitative model of a lexicographic semiorder type, which shows how different perceptual and cognitive influences can trade-off when making color similarity judgments. We show that by incorporating additional influences related to categorical and lightness and saturation factors, the model explains more of the triad similarity behavior, namely, 91% (all colors), 90% (reds), and 87% (blues). We conclude that distance in a CIE model is but the first of several layers in a hierarchy of higher-order cognitive influences that shape color triad choices. We further discuss additional mitigating influences outside the scope of CIE modeling, which can be incorporated in this framework, including well-known influences from language, stimulus set effects, and color preference bias. We also discuss universal and cultural aspects of the model as well as non-uniformity of the color space with respect to different

  17. Methanol extracts of Hamelia patens containing oxindole alkaloids relax KCl-induced contraction in rat myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo; Rivera, Jesús; Oropeza, Martha; Mendoza, Pilar; Amekraz, Badia; Jankowski, Christopher; Campos, Maria

    2004-10-01

    Hamelia patens JAQC. (Rubiaceae) is a medicinal bush widely distributed in tropical areas of the American continent. It is used in Mexican Traditional Medicine for the treatment of menstrual disorders, therefore suggesting that its chemical constituents may have some effect on myometrium contractility. Physiological effects might differ due to quantitative variations in the content of alkaloids arising from its wide geographical distribution. To test this hypothesis, the content of oxindole alkaloids in methanol extracts of five different samples collected in Mexico was quantified by GC-MS. Each extract was assayed on contractility of estrogen-primed rat myometrium. Variations in the content of alkaloids were observed among the different samples. All samples relaxed in a concentration-dependent manner the high KCl-induced contraction in rat myometrium. Those which lack rumberine and/or maruquine displayed a higher relaxant effect than samples containing them, suggesting that these alkaloids might counteract the effects of isopteropodine. However, in contrast with verapamil, Hamelia patens metanol extracts are poor relaxants.

  18. On the formation of U Al alloys in the molten LiCl KCl eutectic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassayre, L.; Caravaca, C.; Jardin, R.; Malmbeck, R.; Masset, P.; Mendes, E.; Serp, J.; Soucek, P.; Glatz, J.-P.

    2008-08-01

    U-Al alloy formation has been studied in the temperature range of 400-550 °C by electrochemical techniques in the molten LiCl-KCl eutectic. Cyclic voltammetry showed that underpotential reduction of U(III) onto solid Al occurs at a potential about 0.35 V more anodic than pure U deposition. Open circuit potential measurements, recorded after small depositions of U metal onto the Al electrode, did not allow the distinction between potentials associated with UAl x alloys and the Al rest potential, as they were found to be practically identical. As a consequence, a spontaneous chemical reaction between dissolved UCl 3 and Al is thermodynamically possible and was experimentally observed. Galvanostatic electrolyses were carried out both on Al rods and Al plates. Stable and dense U-Al deposits were obtained with high faradic yields, and the possibility to load the whole bulk of a thin Al plate was demonstrated. The analyses (by SEM-EDX and XRD) of the deposits indicated the formation of different intermetallic phases (UAl 2, UAl 3 and UAl 4) depending on the experimental conditions.

  19. Sites of regulated phosphorylation that control K-Cl cotransporter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Jesse; Maksimova, Yelena D; Tanis, Jessica E; Stone, Kathryn L; Hodson, Caleb A; Zhang, Junhui; Risinger, Mary; Pan, Weijun; Wu, Dianqing; Colangelo, Christopher M; Forbush, Biff; Joiner, Clinton H; Gulcicek, Erol E; Gallagher, Patrick G; Lifton, Richard P

    2009-08-07

    Modulation of intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl(-)](i)) plays a fundamental role in cell volume regulation and neuronal response to GABA. Cl(-) exit via K-Cl cotransporters (KCCs) is a major determinant of [Cl(-)](I); however, mechanisms governing KCC activities are poorly understood. We identified two sites in KCC3 that are rapidly dephosphorylated in hypotonic conditions in cultured cells and human red blood cells in parallel with increased transport activity. Alanine substitutions at these sites result in constitutively active cotransport. These sites are highly phosphorylated in plasma membrane KCC3 in isotonic conditions, suggesting that dephosphorylation increases KCC3's intrinsic transport activity. Reduction of WNK1 expression via RNA interference reduces phosphorylation at these sites. Homologous sites are phosphorylated in all human KCCs. KCC2 is partially phosphorylated in neonatal mouse brain and dephosphorylated in parallel with KCC2 activation. These findings provide insight into regulation of [Cl(-)](i) and have implications for control of cell volume and neuronal function.

  20. On the formation of U-Al alloys in the molten LiCl-KCl eutectic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassayre, L. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique (LGC), Universite Paul Sabatier, UMR CNRS 5503, 31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); Caravaca, C. [CIEMAT, DE/DFN/URAA, Avda. Complutense, 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Jardin, R. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Malmbeck, R. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail: rikard.malmbeck@ec.europa.eu; Masset, P.; Mendes, E.; Serp, J.; Soucek, P.; Glatz, J.-P. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    U-Al alloy formation has been studied in the temperature range of 400-550 deg. C by electrochemical techniques in the molten LiCl-KCl eutectic. Cyclic voltammetry showed that underpotential reduction of U(III) onto solid Al occurs at a potential about 0.35 V more anodic than pure U deposition. Open circuit potential measurements, recorded after small depositions of U metal onto the Al electrode, did not allow the distinction between potentials associated with UAl{sub x} alloys and the Al rest potential, as they were found to be practically identical. As a consequence, a spontaneous chemical reaction between dissolved UCl{sub 3} and Al is thermodynamically possible and was experimentally observed. Galvanostatic electrolyses were carried out both on Al rods and Al plates. Stable and dense U-Al deposits were obtained with high faradic yields, and the possibility to load the whole bulk of a thin Al plate was demonstrated. The analyses (by SEM-EDX and XRD) of the deposits indicated the formation of different intermetallic phases (UAl{sub 2}, UAl{sub 3} and UAl{sub 4}) depending on the experimental conditions.

  1. Digital color imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine; Macaire, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    This collective work identifies the latest developments in the field of the automatic processing and analysis of digital color images.For researchers and students, it represents a critical state of the art on the scientific issues raised by the various steps constituting the chain of color image processing.It covers a wide range of topics related to computational color imaging, including color filtering and segmentation, color texture characterization, color invariant for object recognition, color and motion analysis, as well as color image and video indexing and retrieval. <

  2. KCl:Eu2+ as a solar UV-C radiation dosimeter.Optically stimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.Aguirre de Cáarcer; H.L.D'Antoni; M.Barboza-Flores; V.Correcher; F.Jaque

    2009-01-01

    The KCl:Eu2+ system response to UV-C was investigated by analyzing the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thertoo-luminescence (TL) signal produced by ultraviolet light exposure at room temperature.It was found that after UV-C irradiation,OSL was produced on a wide band of visible wavelengths with decay time that varied by several orders of magnitude depending on the Eu2+ aggregation state.In spite of the low intensity of solar UV-C reaching the Earth's surface in Madrid (40° N,700 m a.s.l.),it was possible to measure the UV-C radiation dose at 6:48 solar time by using the TL response of the KCl:Eu2+ system and differentiate it from the ambient beta radiation dose.

  3. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program — KClO3/Icing Sugar (-100 mesh) Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (IHD-NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorenson, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (IHD-NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (IHD-NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Moran, Jesse S. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (IHD-NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL/RXQF), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Whipple, Richard E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-05-02

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small-Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and scanning calorimetry analysis of a mixture of KClO3 sized through a 100-mesh sieve mixed with icing sugar, also sized through a 100-mesh sieve—KClO3/icing sugar (-100) mixture. This material was selected because of the challenge of performing SSST testing of a mixture of two solid materials. The mixture was found to be: 1) more sensitive to impact than RDX, with sensitivity similar to PETN, 2) the same or more sensitive to friction than PETN, and 3) less sensitive to spark than RDX. The analysis showed that the mixture has thermally stability similar to RDX and is perhaps more energetic upon decomposition but variable results indicate sampling issues.

  4. Prediction of Solid-Liquid Equilibrium for KCl in Mixed Water-Ethanol Solutions Using the LIQUAC Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Yangzheng; LI Jiding; ZENG Chuyi; CHEN Cuixian

    2005-01-01

    The LIQUAC model is often used to predict vapor-liquid equilibria, osmotic coefficients, and mean ion activity coefficients for electrolyte systems. This paper describes a thermodynamic method to analyze solid-liquid equilibrium for electrolytes in mixed solvents solutions using the LIQUAC model. The KCl solubilities in mixed water-ethanol solutions are predicted with the LIQUAC model and its original interaction parameters. This method is also used to obtain new K+-ethanol interaction parameters in the LIQUAC model from the solubility data. The new interaction parameters accurately predict the vapor-liquid equilibrium data of K+ salts (including KCl, KBr, and KCOOCH3) in mixed water-ethanol solutions. The results illustrate the flexibility of the LIQUAC model which can predict not only vapor-liquid equilibrium but also solid-liquid equilibrium in mixed solvent systems.

  5. Galvanic reduction of uranium(III) chloride from LiCl-KCl eutectic salt using gadolinium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagri, Prashant; Zhang, Chao; Simpson, Michael F.

    2017-09-01

    The drawdown of actinides is an important unit operation to enable the recycling of electrorefiner salt and minimization of waste. A new method for the drawdown of actinide chlorides from LiCl-KCl molten salt has been demonstrated here. Using the galvanic interaction between the Gd/Gd(III) and U/U(III) redox reactions, it is shown that UCl3 concentration in eutectic LiCl-KCl can be reduced from 8.06 wt.% (1.39 mol %) to 0.72 wt.% (0.12 mol %) in about an hour via plating U metal onto a steel basket. This is a simple process for returning actinides to the electrorefiner and minimizing their loss to the salt waste stream.

  6. Food colors: Existing and emerging food safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplatowska-Stachowiak, Michalina; Elliott, Christopher T

    2017-02-11

    Food colors are added to different types of commodities to increase their visual attractiveness or to compensate for natural color variations. The use of these additives is strictly regulated in the European Union, the United States, and many other countries worldwide. There is a growing concern about the safety of some commonly used legal food colorants and there is a trend to replace the synthetic forms with natural products. Additionally, a number of dyes with known or suspected genotoxic or carcinogenic properties have been shown to be added illegally to foods. Robust monitoring programs based on reliable detection methods are required to assure the food is free from harmful colors. The aim of this review is to present an up to date status of the various concerns arising from use of color additives in food. The most important food safety concerns in the field of food colors are lack of uniform regulation concerning legal food colors worldwide, possible link of artificial colors to hyperactive behavior, replacement of synthetic colors with natural ones, and the presence of harmful illegal dyes-both known but also new, emerging ones in food. The legal status of food color additives in the EU, United States, and worldwide is summarized. The reported negative health effects of both legal and illegal colors are presented. The European Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed notifications and US import alerts concerning food colors are analyzed and trends in fraudulent use of color additives identified. The detection methods for synthetic colors are also reviewed.

  7. Electrochemical investigation on the redox chemistry of niobium in LiCl-KCl-KF-Na2O melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillesberg, Bo; Bjerrum, Niels; Barner, Jens H. Von

    1997-01-01

    The system LiCl-KCl-KF-1 mole percent K2NbF7 (molar ration F-/Nb = 8) has been investigated in-the temperature range 370 to 725 degrees C by cyclic and square wave voltammetry. In the temperature range from 370 to 520 degrees C Nb(V) was reduced to Nb(III) in two reversible steps: Nb(V) --> Nb(IV...

  8. Generation of KCL035 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in HBB gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heema Hewitson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The KCL035 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried a mutation in the HBB gene, which is linked to the β-thalassemia syndrome. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays.

  9. An upper limit on hypertriton production in collisions of Ar(1.76 A GeV) + KCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agakishiev, G.; Belver, D.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Chernenko, S.; Destefanis, M.; Dohrmann, F.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Gilardi, C.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kuc, H.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Lang, S.; Lange, J. S.; Lapidus, K.; Liu, T.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michalska, B.; Michel, J.; Morinière, E.; Mousa, J.; Müntz, C.; Naumann, L.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Rehnisch, L.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Scheib, T.; Schmah, A.; Schuldes, H.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Tsertos, H.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wisniowski, M.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.

    2013-11-01

    A high-statistic data sample of Ar(1.76 AGeV)+KCl events recorded with HADES is used to search for a hypertriton signal. An upper production limit per centrality-triggered event of on the 3 level is derived. Comparing this value with the number of successfully reconstructed hyperons allows to determine an upper limit on the ratio , which is confronted with statistical and coalescence-type model calculations.

  10. Loss of K-Cl co-transporter KCC3 causes deafness, neurodegeneration and reduced seizure threshold

    OpenAIRE

    Boettger, Thomas; Rust, Marco B.; Maier, Hannes; Seidenbecher, Thomas; Schweizer, Michaela; Damien J. Keating; Faulhaber, Jörg; Ehmke, Heimo; Pfeffer, Carsten; Scheel, Olaf; Lemcke, Beate; Horst, Jürgen; Leuwer, Rudolf; Pape, Hans-Christian; Völkl, Harald

    2003-01-01

    K-Cl co-transporters are encoded by four homologous genes and may have roles in transepithelial transport and in the regulation of cell volume and cytoplasmic chloride. KCC3, an isoform mutated in the human Anderman syndrome, is expressed in brain, epithelia and other tissues. To investigate the physiological functions of KCC3, we disrupted its gene in mice. This severely impaired cell volume regulation as assessed in renal tubules and neurons, and moderately raised intraneuronal Cl– concentr...

  11. Lattice Associative Memories for Segmenting Color Images in Different Color Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urcid, Gonzalo; Valdiviezo-N., Juan Carlos; Ritter, Gerhard X.

    This paper describes a technique for segmenting color images in different color spaces based on lattice auto-associative memories. Basically, the min- or max auto-associative memories can be used to determine tetrahedra enclosing different subsets of image pixels. The column vectors of either memory, additively scaled, correspond to the most saturated color pixels that are the vertices of a specified tetrahedron, and any other color pixel can be considered a linear mixture of these points. The non-negative least square method is used to linearly unmix color pixels and provides the fundamental step in the unsupervised segmentation of a given input color image. We give illustrative examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method as well as the color separation results in four different color spaces.

  12. Quaternion Diffusion for Color Image Filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Xuan Liu; Shi-Guo Lian; Zhen Ren

    2006-01-01

    How to combine color and multiscale information is a fundamental question for computer vision, and quite a few color diffusion techniques have been presented. Most of these proposed techniques do not consider the direct interactions between color channel pairs. In this paper, a new method of color diffusion considering these effects is presented, which is based on quaternion diffusion (QD) equation. In addition to showing the solution to linear QD and its analysis, one form of nonlinear QD is discussed. Compared with other color diffusion techniques, considering the interactions between channel pairs, QD has the following advantages: 1) staircasing effect is avoided; 2) as diffusion tensor, the image derivative is regu larized without requiring additional convolution; 3) less time is needed. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of linear and nonlinear QD applied to natural color images for denoising by both visual and quantitative evaluations.

  13. Determination of Exchange Current Density of U{sup 3+}/U Couple in LiCl-KCl Eutectic Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Inkyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-Daero, Yuseong, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Serrano, Brenda E.; Li, Selly X.; Hermann, Steven [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Phongikaroon, Supathorn [University of Idaho, Idaho Falls, 1776 Science Center Dr. Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    During the spent metallic fuel electrorefining process, uranium is electrochemically dissolved from the anode basket to produce U{sup 3+} ion, which are then selectively reduced at the solid cathode. These anodic and cathodic reactions are assumed to be simple oxidation and reduction reactions of the U{sup 3+}/U couple. Despite numerous studies in this area, the basic electrochemical properties of this redox couple such as the exchange current density and charge transfer coefficient have not been thoroughly investigated, thus providing a motivation for this study. In the reported experiment, the exchange current density of the U{sup 3+}/U couple was measured in LiCl-KCl eutectic mixture at 500 deg. C by applying a linear polarization resistance technique. The UCl{sub 3} concentration was 1.54 x 10{sup -4} mol/cm{sup 3} and 0.51 wt% of Cd was present in the salt. This is due to the reaction of U metal with CdCl{sub 2} used to generate UCl{sub 3} in the salt. Four different metal wires - tungsten, carbon steel, stainless steel, and zirconium - were employed as the working electrode. Since the U{sup 3+}/U couple was assumed to be a one step reaction, obtained exchange current density values were anticipated to be almost identical. However, the results indicated that they were 584, 398, 204, and 202 A/m{sup 2} for tungsten, carbon steel, stainless steel, and zirconium, respectively. Though it is still not clear why these values were different, it may be due to the differences in the interaction between electrode materials and uranium metal. To evaluate the charge transfer coefficient of the U{sup 3+}/U couple, Tafel measurements were also carried out for each electrode material, but there were difficulties encountered with calculating the exact values. By applying the exchange current densities to Tafel results, however, the charge transfer coefficients of this couple for each electrode material could be calculated and were found to be in the range of 0.3 to 0.5. In

  14. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program — KClO3 (as received)/Icing Sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorenson, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL/RXQL), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates, Inc., Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Whipple, Richard E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-05-23

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small-Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of a mixture of KClO3 as received from the manufacturer mixed with icing sugar, sized through a 100-mesh sieve—KClO3/icing sugar (AR) mixture. This material was selected because of the challenge of performing SSST testing of a mixture of two solid materials. The mixture was found to: 1) be more sensitive to impact than RDX, similar to PETN, 2) be the same or less sensitive to friction than PETN, and 3) to be less sensitive to spark than RDX. The thermal analysis showed that the mixture has thermally stability similar to RDX and is perhaps more energetic upon decomposition but variable results indicate sampling issues. Compared to the 100-mesh sieved counter part, the KClO3/icing sugar (-100) mixture, the AR mixture was found to be about the same sensitivity towards impact, friction and ESD.

  15. Protective roles of bacterioruberin and intracellular KCl in the resistance of Halobacterium salinarium against DNA-damaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahmohammadi, H.R.; Asgarani, E.; Terato, Hiroaki; Saito, Takeshi; Ohyama, Yoshihiko; Gekko, Kunihiko; Yamamoto, Osamu; Ide, Hiroshi [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1998-12-01

    Halobacterium salinarium, a member of the extremely halophilic archaebacteria, contains a C{sub 50}-carotenoid namely bacterioruberin. We have previously reported the high resistance of this organism against the lethal actions of DNA-damaging agents including ionizing radiation and ultraviolet light (UV). In this study, we have examined whether bacterioruberin and the highly concentrated salts in this bacterium play protective roles against the lethal actions of ionizing radiation, UV, hydrogen peroxide, and mitomycin-C (MMC). The colourless mutant of H. salinarium deficient in bacterioruberin was more sensitive than the red-pigmented wild-type to all tested DNA-damaging agents except MMC. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of H. salinarium chromosomal DNA at various concentrations of KCl (0-3.5 M) were similar to that of B-DNA, indicating that no conformational changes occurred as a result of high salt concentrations. However, DNA strand-breaks induced by ionizing radiation were significantly reduced by the presence of either bacterioruberin or concentrated KCl, presumably due to scavenging of free radicals. These results suggest that bacterioruberin and intracellular KCl of H. salinarium protect this organism against the lethal effects of oxidative DNA-damaging agents. (author)

  16. Electrochemical Extraction of Nd from NaCl-KCl Melt by Formation of Cu-Nd Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhong-Lin; Zhou, Lin-Zong; Ji, De-Bin; Yan, Yong-De; Hong, Wei; Liu, Yu-Hui; Wang, Pu; Yin, Tai-Qi; Zheng, Jia-Ning; Xue, Yun; Ye, Yuan-Feng

    2017-10-01

    Electrochemical behavior of Nd was studied in NaCl-KCl melt on W and Cu electrodes via cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry. Generally, the reduction of Nd3+ takes place in two consecutive steps in molten chlorides, such as LiCl-CaCl2, LiCl-BaCl2, CaCl2-NaCl, LiCl-KCl melts. However, the reduction of Nd3+ ions was found to be through a one-step process: Nd3+ + 3e- → Nd. The co-reduction behavior of Nd3+ and Cu2+ ions and the mechanisms of alloy formation were investigated in NaCl-KCl melt on W electrodes at 988 K (715 °C). Four potential plateaus corresponding to four different kinds of Cu-Nd intermetallic compounds were detected. Cu-Nd alloys were prepared on Cu electrodes at 988 K (715 °C) and 1143 K (870 °C). At 988 K (715 °C), Cu5Nd phase was identified by X-ray diffraction. The morphology and micro-zone chemical analysis of the alloys were characterized by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive spectrometry. The alloy film was observed on the Cu electrodes. Moreover, at 1143 K (870 °C), a globate bulk Cu-Nd alloy with Cu5Nd, Cu4Nd, Cu2Nd, CuNd, and Cu phases, as liquid in the melt, was obtained at the bottom of the crucible.

  17. Corrosion behavior induced by LiCl-KCl in type 304 and 316 stainless steel and copper at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Jee Hyung; Kim, Yong Soo; Cho, Il Je [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The corrosion behavior of stainless steel (304 and 316 type) and copper induced by LiCl-KCl at low temperatures in the presence of sufficient oxygen and moisture was investigated through a series of experiments (at 30°C, 40°C, 60°C, and 80°C for 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, and 96 hours). The specimens not coated on one side with an aqueous solution saturated with LiCl-KCl experienced no corrosion at any temperature, not even when the test duration exceeded 96 hours. Stainless steel exposed to LiCl-KCl experienced almost no corrosion below 40°C, but pitting corrosion was observed at temperatures above 60°C. As the duration of the experiment was increased, the rate of corrosion accelerated in proportion to the temperature. The 316 type stainless steel exhibited better corrosion resistance than did the 304 type. In the case of copper, the rate of corrosion accelerated in proportion to the duration and temperature but, unlike the case of stainless steel, the corrosion was more general. As a result, the extent of copper corrosion was about three times that of stainless steel.

  18. EVALUATION OF FOOD COLOR CONSUMPTION AND DETERMINING COLOR TYPE BY THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Farzianpour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the role of the social demographic parameters of the people in charge of the facilities producing pastry, poolak (a type of coin-shaped candy and rock candy in the consumption of food colors and to determine color type by thin layer chromatography in Shahr-e-kord city in 2011. This research was an interventional-analytical study and its target population is the people in charge of the facilities producing pastry, poolak and rock candy in Shahr-e-kord city. Social demographic data of the participants were collected using checklists and 720 samples of pastry, poolak and rock candy weighing at least 250 gr were randomly taken over a period of 10 months. With respect to color additives, the samples were analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC in four groups: natural colors permitted artificial colors, forbidden artificial colors and without colors. 48.47% contained food color and 6.52% contained forbidden artificial food color. Sunset Yellow was the color the most consumed among the colors used. Regarding the results obtained, there is a high rate of consumption of artificial colors (41.22%, sunset Yellow being the most consumed. Therefore, it is of great importance to raise the awareness and change the attitude of the people in charge in these jobs as well as the consumers with regard to the side effects of artificial colors, which can be done through the mass media and NGOs.

  19. Entrained Flow Reactor Study of K-Capture by Solid Additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guoliang; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    A method to simulate the reaction between gaseous K-species and solid additives, at suspension fired conditions has been developed, using an entrained flow reactor (EFR). A water slurry containing solid additives (kaolin or coal fly ash) and KCl, is injected into the EFR and the solid products...... are collected from the cyclone and filter. The K-capture reaction is evaluated by determining the fraction of water-insoluble K in the products. The results showed that KCl can effectively be captured by kaolin and coal fly ash, forming water-insoluble K-aluminosilicates. The amount of K, captured per gram...

  20. Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl under rapid compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chuanlong; Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Park, Changyong; Kono, Yoshio; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Rod, Eric; Shen, Guoyin, E-mail: gshen@ciw.edu [HPCAT, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-01-28

    Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl has been investigated under various compression rates (0.03–13.5 GPa/s) in a dynamic diamond anvil cell using time-resolved x-ray diffraction and fast imaging. Our experimental data show that the volume fraction across the transition generally gives sigmoidal curves as a function of pressure during rapid compression. Based upon classical nucleation and growth theories (Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov theories), we propose a model that is applicable for studying kinetics for the compression rates studied. The fit of the experimental volume fraction as a function of pressure provides information on effective activation energy and average activation volume at a given compression rate. The resulting parameters are successfully used for interpreting several experimental observables that are compression-rate dependent, such as the transition time, grain size, and over-pressurization. The effective activation energy (Q{sub eff}) is found to decrease linearly with the logarithm of compression rate. When Q{sub eff} is applied to the Arrhenius equation, this relationship can be used to interpret the experimentally observed linear relationship between the logarithm of the transition time and logarithm of the compression rates. The decrease of Q{sub eff} with increasing compression rate results in the decrease of the nucleation rate, which is qualitatively in agreement with the observed change of the grain size with compression rate. The observed over-pressurization is also well explained by the model when an exponential relationship between the average activation volume and the compression rate is assumed.

  1. Protonation and Solvation Thermodynamics of Some Naphthol Derivatives in KCl Aqueous Solution of Different Ionic Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid I. El-Dossoki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The acid-base properties of naphthalen-1-ol (L1, naphthalene-1,5-diol (L2, and 4-amino-3-hydroxynaphthalene-1-sulphonic acid (L3 were characterized from pH-metric measurements in pure water and in different concentrations (0–4 mol kg−1 of aqueous KCl solutions at the temperature range of T = (293.15 to 213.15 K at 5 K intervals. The results reveal that naphthalen-1-ol and naphthalene-1,5-diol molecules have two ionisable protons (of the hydroxyl groups while 4-amino-3-hydroxynaphthalene-1-sulphonic acid has three ionisable protons (hydrogen ion of the hydroxyl group, SO3H, and NH3+. Modeling of the data was done by applying Debye-Hückel model. The protonation and the solvation processes of all studied ligands are spontaneous and endothermic processes. Also the solubilities of naphthalen-1-ol, naphthalene-1,5-diol, and 4-amino-3-hydroxynaphthalene-1-sulphonic acid were determined. The data were analyzed using Setschenow equation and the values of Setschenow coefficients (km were determined. From the solubility data, the activity coefficients were obtained. The values of the total solubilities (ST for naphthalen-1-ol and naphthalene-1,5-diol were found equal to the values of their neutral species (S0. On the other hand, the total solubility for 4-amino-3-hydroxynaphthalene-1-sulphonic acid is different from that of its neutral species. The results also indicate solubility decrease in pure water from L1-L2-L3.

  2. Color identification testing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, E. L.; Martin, R.; Pate, W.

    1970-01-01

    Testing device, which determines ability of a technician to identify color-coded electric wires, is superior to standard color blindness tests. It tests speed of wire selection, detects partial color blindness, allows rapid testing, and may be administered by a color blind person.

  3. Texture affects color emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.; Gijsenij, A.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have recorded color emotions in subjects viewing uniform color (UC) samples. We conduct an experiment to measure and model how these color emotions change when texture is added to the color samples. Using a computer monitor, our subjects arrange samples along four scales: warm-cool,

  4. Texture affects color emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.; Gijsenij, A.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have recorded color emotions in subjects viewing uniform color (UC) samples. We conduct an experiment to measure and model how these color emotions change when texture is added to the color samples. Using a computer monitor, our subjects arrange samples along four scales: warm-cool,

  5. Magnetoresponsive Photonic Microspheres with Structural Color Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yeol; Choi, Jongkook; Jeong, Jong-Ryul; Shin, Jung H; Kim, Shin-Hyun

    2017-02-06

    Photonic Janus particles are created by alternately sputtering silica and titania on microspheres in order to obtain a structural color gradient. In addition, the microspheres are rendered magnetoresponsive. The Janus microspheres with optical and magnetic anisotropy enable on-demand control over orientation and structural color through manipulation of an external magnetic field, thereby being useful as active color pigments for reflection-mode displays.

  6. Modeling the Use of Sulfate Additives for Potassium Chloride Destruction in Biomass Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll;

    2014-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4 and HCl. In the present study, the rate constants for decomposition of ammonium sulfate and aluminum...... sulfate were obtained from experiments in a fast heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer. The yields of SO2 and SO3 from the decomposition were investigated in a tube reactor at 600–900 °C, revealing a constant distribution of about 15% SO2 and 85% SO3 from aluminum sulfate decomposition and a temperature......-dependent distribution of SO2 and SO3 from ammonium sulfate decomposition. On the basis of these data as well as earlier results, a detailed chemical kinetic model for sulfation of KCl by a range of sulfate additives was established. Modeling results were compared to biomass combustion experiments in a bubbling...

  7. Sensory Drive, Color, and Color Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Trevor D

    2017-08-01

    Colors often appear to differ in arbitrary ways among related species. However, a fraction of color diversity may be explained because some signals are more easily perceived in one environment rather than another. Models show that not only signals but also the perception of signals should regularly evolve in response to different environments, whether these primarily involve detection of conspecifics or detection of predators and prey. Thus, a deeper understanding of how perception of color correlates with environmental attributes should help generate more predictive models of color divergence. Here, I briefly review our understanding of color vision in vertebrates. Then I focus on opsin spectral tuning and opsin expression, two traits involved in color perception that have become amenable to study. I ask how opsin tuning is correlated with ecological differences, notably the light environment, and how this potentially affects perception of conspecific colors. Although opsin tuning appears to evolve slowly, opsin expression levels are more evolutionarily labile but have been difficult to connect to color perception. The challenge going forward will be to identify how physiological differences involved in color vision, such as opsin expression levels, translate into perceptual differences, the selection pressures that have driven those differences, and ultimately how this may drive evolution of conspecific colors.

  8. Industrial Color Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Georg A

    2010-01-01

    This unique book starts with a short historical overview of the development of the theories of color vision and applications of industrial color physics. The three dominant factors producing color - light source, color sample, and observer - are described in detail. The standardized color spaces are shown and related color values are applied to characteristic color qualities of absorption as well as of effect colorants. The fundamentals of spectrometric and colorimetric measuring techniques together with specific applications are described. Theoretical models for radiative transfer in transparent, translucent, and opaque layers are detailed; the two, three, and multi-flux approximations are presented for the first time in a coherent formalism. These methods constitute the fundamentals not only for the important classical methods, but also modern methods of recipe prediction applicable to all known colorants. The text is supplied with 52 tables, more than 200 partially colored illustrations, an appendix, and a...

  9. Color segmentation in the HSI color space using the K-means algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Arthur R.; Hague, G. Eric

    1997-04-01

    Segmentation of images is an important aspect of image recognition. While grayscale image segmentation has become quite a mature field, much less work has been done with regard to color image segmentation. Until recently, this was predominantly due to the lack of available computing power and color display hardware that is required to manipulate true color images (24-bit). TOday, it is not uncommon to find a standard desktop computer system with a true-color 24-bit display, at least 8 million bytes of memory, and 2 gigabytes of hard disk storage. Segmentation of color images is not as simple as segmenting each of the three RGB color components separately. The difficulty of using the RGB color space is that it doesn't closely model the psychological understanding of color. A better color model, which closely follows that of human visual perception is the hue, saturation, intensity model. This color model separates the color components in terms of chromatic and achromatic information. Strickland et al. was able to show the importance of color in the extraction of edge features form an image. His method enhances the edges that are detectable in the luminance image with information from the saturation image. Segmentation of both the saturation and intensity components is easily accomplished with any gray scale segmentation algorithm, since these spaces are linear. The modulus 2(pi) nature of the hue color component makes its segmentation difficult. For example, a hue of 0 and 2(pi) yields the same color tint. Instead of applying separate image segmentation to each of the hue, saturation, and intensity components, a better method is to segment the chromatic component separately from the intensity component because of the importance that the chromatic information plays in the segmentation of color images. This paper presents a method of using the gray scale K-means algorithm to segment 24-bit color images. Additionally, this paper will show the importance the hue

  10. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  11. Harmonious colors: from alchemy to science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Giordano B.; Moroney, Nathan M.

    2012-01-01

    There is a very long tradition in designing color palettes for various applications, going back to at least the Upanishad. Although color palettes have been influenced by the available colorants, starting with the advent of aniline dyes in the late 1850s there have been few physical limits on the choice of individual colors. This abundance of choices exacerbates the problem of limiting the number of colors in a palette, i.e., in keeping them into a manageable quantity. For example, it is not practical for a car company to offer each model in hundreds of colors. Instead, for each model year a small number of color palettes is offered, each containing the colors for the body, trim, interior, etc. Another example is the fashion industry, where in addition to solid colors there are also patterns, leading to a huge variety of combinations that would be impossible to stock. The traditional solution is that of "color forecasting." Color consultants assess the sentiment or affective state of a target customer class and compare it with new colorants offered by the industry. They assemble a limited color palette, name the colors according to the sentiment, and publish their result. Textile manufacturers will produce fabrics in these colors and fashion designers will design clothes, accessories, and furniture based on these fabrics. Eventually, the media will communicate these forecasts to the consumers, who will be admired by their cohorts when they choose colors from the forecast palette, which by then is widely diffused. The color forecasting business is very labor intensive and difficult, thus for years computer engineers have tried to come up with algorithms to design harmonious color palettes, alas with little commercial success. For example, Johannes Itten's color theory has been implemented many times, but despite Itten's success in the Bauhaus artifacts, the computer tools have been of little utility. Indeed, contrary to the auditory sense, there is no known

  12. Color matters: color as trustworthiness cue in web sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, Wouter A.; van der Geest, Thea

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In today's increasingly technological world, the first impression of an orgnization is often based on a user's judgment of the corporate Web site's trustworthiness. This study investigates whether color as a Web site element can serve as a trustworthiness cue. In addition, the context of

  13. Natural Enhancement of Color Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shaohua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new algorithm of Natural Enhancement of Color Image (NECI is proposed. It is inspired by multiscale Retinex model. There are four steps to realize this enhancement. At first, the image appearance is rendered by content-dependent global mapping for light cast correction, and then a modified Retinex filter is applied to enhance the local contrast. Histogram rescaling is used afterwards for normalization purpose. At last, the texture details of image are enhanced by emphasizing the high-frequency components of image using multichannel decomposition of Cortex Transform. In the contrast enhancement step, luminance channel is firstly enhanced, and then a weighing map is calculated by collecting luminance enhancement information and applied to chrominance channel in color space CIELCh which enables a proportional enhancement of chrominance. It avoids the problem of unbalanced enhancement in classical RGB independent channel operation. In this work, it is believed that image enhancement should avoid dramatic modifications to image such as light condition changes, color temperature alteration, or additional artifacts introduced or amplified. Disregarding light conditions of the scene usually leads to unnaturally sharpened images or dramatic white balance changes. In the proposed method, the ambience of image (warm or cold color impression is maintained after enhancement, and no additional light sources are added to the scene, and no halo effect and blocking effect are amplified due to overenhancement. It realizes a Natural Enhancement of Color Image. Different types of natural scene images have been tested and an encouraging performance is obtained for the proposed method.

  14. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in... additive, or articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in which the color... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date...

  15. The color space of a graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.R.; Thomassen, Carsten

    2000-01-01

    If k is a prime power, and G is a graph with n vertices, then a k-coloring of G may be considered as a vector in GF(k)(n). We prove that the subspace of GF(3)(n) spanned by all 3-colorings of a planar triangle-free graph with n vertices has dimension n. In particular, any such graph has at least n...... - 1 nonequivalent 3-colorings, and the addition of any edge or any vertex of degree 3 results in a 3-colorable graph. (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc....

  16. Purification of used eutectic (LiCl-KCl) salt electrolyte from pyroprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yung-Zun; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Eun, Hee-Chul; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Kim, In-Tae; Park, Geun-Il

    2013-06-01

    The separation characteristics of surrogate rare-earth fission products in a eutectic (LiCl-KCl) molten salt were investigated. This system is based on the eutectic salt used for the pyroprocessing treatment of used nuclear fuel (UNF). The investigation was performed using an integrated rare-earth separation apparatus comprising a precipitation reactor, a solid detachment device, and a layer separation device. To separate rare-earth fission products, a phosphate precipitation method using both Li3PO4 and K3PO4 as a precipitant was performed. The use of an equivalent phosphate precipitant composed of 0.408 molar ratio-K3PO4 and 0.592 molar ratio-Li3PO4 can preserve the original eutectic ratio, LiCl-0.592 molar ratio (or 45.2 wt%), as well as provide a high separation efficiency of over 99.5% under conditions of 550 °C and Ar sparging when using La, Nd, Ce, and Pr chlorides. The mixture of La, Nd, Ce, and Pr phosphate had a typical monoclinic (or monazite) structure, which has been proposed as a reliable host matrix for the permanent disposal of a high-level waste form. To maximize the reusability of purified eutectic waste salt after rare-earth separation, the successive rare-earth separation process, which uses both phosphate precipitation and an oxygen sparging method, were introduced and tested with eight rare-earth (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) chlorides. In the successive rare-earth separation process, the phosphate reaction was terminated within 1 h at 550 °C, and a 4-8 h oxygen sparging time were required to obtain over a 99% separation efficiency at 700-750 °C. The mixture of rare-earth precipitates separated by the successive rare-earth separation process was found to be phosphate, oxychloride, and oxide. Through the successive rare-earth separation process, the eutectic ratio of purified salt maintained its original value, and impurity content including the residual precipitant of purified salt can be minimized.

  17. Balanço de potássio e desempenho de frangos de corte suplementados com KCl no verão Potassium balance and performance of broilers supplemented with KCl in summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonifácio Benicio de Souza

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o efeito da suplementação de cloreto de potássio (KCl sobre o balanço de potássio e o desempenho de frangos de corte no verão. Foram utilizados 288 frangos de corte, da linhagem Hubbard, sexados, alojados em baterias no período de 28 a 49 dias de idade, distribuídos segundo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 6 x 2, com 6 níveis de KCl (0,0; 0,4; 0,8; 1,2; 1,6; 2,0% e 2 sexos, com 4 repetições de 6 aves cada uma. As temperaturas máxima e mínima, umidade relativa do ar e o índice de temperatura do globo negro e umidade (ITGU, durante o período experimental, foram de 31,5ºC e 20,5ºC, 68% e 77%, respectivamente. As aves receberam ração "ad libitum", com dietas formuladas à base de milho e farelo de soja. Quando as aves atingiram a idade de 35 dias, foi realizado o balanço de potássio, durante um período de 96 horas. A elevação na suplementação de KCl na dieta aumentou linearmente (PThis experiment was conducted to verify the effect of KCl on potassium balance and performance of broilers in summer. A total of 288 broiler chickens aged 28 to 49 days was utilized, allocated according to a completely randomized design in a 6 x 2 factorial scheme 6 levels of KCl (0,0; 0,4; 0,8; 1,2; 1,6; 2,0 % and 2 sexes, with four replications of 6 birds each. The maximum and minimum temperatures, relative humidity and black globe-humidity index (BGHI were of 31,5ºC and 20ºC, 68% and of 73%, respectability. With the growing supplementation of KCl, there was a linear increase (P<0.01 in the intake, excretion and retention of the potassium, concentration of potassium in the plasma and water consumption. There was a linear reduction (P<0.01 of the excreta dry matter. The males overcame the females (P<0.01 in the intake and excretion of potassium. However, the females overcame the males (P<0.01 in the retention of the potassium. There was a positive balance of potassium for

  18. Video tonal stabilization via color states smoothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinting; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xiang; Song, Mingli; Bu, Jiajun; Tan, Ping

    2014-11-01

    We address the problem of removing video color tone jitter that is common in amateur videos recorded with hand-held devices. To achieve this, we introduce color state to represent the exposure and white balance state of a frame. The color state of each frame can be computed by accumulating the color transformations of neighboring frame pairs. Then, the tonal changes of the video can be represented by a time-varying trajectory in color state space. To remove the tone jitter, we smooth the original color state trajectory by solving an L1 optimization problem with PCA dimensionality reduction. In addition, we propose a novel selective strategy to remove small tone jitter while retaining extreme exposure and white balance changes to avoid serious artifacts. Quantitative evaluation and visual comparison with previous work demonstrate the effectiveness of our tonal stabilization method. This system can also be used as a preprocessing tool for other video editing methods.

  19. Structural colors: from plasmonic to carbon nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Shi, Haofei; Wu, Yi-Kuei; Kaplan, Alex F; Ok, Jong G; Guo, L Jay

    2011-11-18

    In addition to colorant-based pigmentation, structure is a major contributor to a material's color. In nature, structural color is often caused by the interaction of light with dielectric structures whose dimensions are on the order of visible-light wavelengths. Different optical interactions including multilayer interference, light scattering, the photonic crystal effect, and combinations thereof give rise to selective transmission or reflection of particular light wavelengths, which leads to the generation of structural color. Recent developments in nanofabrication of plasmonic and carbon nanostructures have opened another efficient way to control light properties at the subwavelength scale, including visible-light wavelength selection, which can produce structural color. In this Concept, the most relevant and representative achievements demonstrated over the last several years are presented and analyzed. These plasmonic and carbon nanostructures are believed to offer great potential for high-resolution color displays and spectral filtering applications.

  20. Application of Graph Coloring to Biological Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khor, Susan

    2009-01-01

    We explore the application of graph coloring to biological networks, specifically protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. First, we find that given similar conditions (i.e. number of nodes, number of links, degree distribution and clustering), fewer colors are needed to color disassortative (high degree nodes tend to connect to low degree nodes and vice versa) than assortative networks. Fewer colors create fewer independent sets which in turn imply higher concurrency potential for a network. Since PPI networks tend to be disassortative, we suggest that in addition to functional specificity and stability proposed previously by Maslov and Sneppen (Science 296, 2002), the disassortative nature of PPI networks may promote the ability of cells to perform multiple, crucial and functionally diverse tasks concurrently. Second, since graph coloring is closely related to the presence of cliques in a graph, the significance of node coloring information to the problem of identifying protein complexes, i.e. dense subg...

  1. Coloring mixed hypergraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Voloshin, Vitaly I

    2002-01-01

    The theory of graph coloring has existed for more than 150 years. Historically, graph coloring involved finding the minimum number of colors to be assigned to the vertices so that adjacent vertices would have different colors. From this modest beginning, the theory has become central in discrete mathematics with many contemporary generalizations and applications. Generalization of graph coloring-type problems to mixed hypergraphs brings many new dimensions to the theory of colorings. A main feature of this book is that in the case of hypergraphs, there exist problems on both the minimum and th

  2. Color Measurement and Color Spaces Analysis for TV Using the (Commission International D’Éclairage CIE System Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad Mitieb Mahmod

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Color is a perceived phenomenon and not a physical dimension like length ortemperature, although the electromagnetic radiation of the visible wavelength spectrum is measurable as a physical quantity. A suitable form of representation must be found for storing, displaying, and processing color images. This representation must be well suited to the mathematical demands of a color image processing algorithm, to the technical conditions of a camera, printer, or television, and to human color perception as well. These various demands cannot be met equally well simultaneously. For this reason, differing representations are used in color image processing according to the processing goal. Color spaces indicate color coordinate systems in which the image values of a color image are represented. The standard color system, established by the International Lighting Commission CIE (Commission Internationale de I ’Eclairage, will be described. This system represents the international reference system of color measurement. The contribution deals with the Matlab application used for television and color spaces analysis. All of the color spaces can be derived from the RGB information supplied by devices such as cameras and scanners. There is a list of common color spaces. The application allows selection of input color image, direct and backward transformation into the selected space including CIE diagram picture analysis and NTSC system. The additional functions of this research are evaluation of histogram of colors. The Color Spaces application outputs are introduced on various test pictures.

  3. Modeling of sulfation of potassium chloride by ferric sulfate addition during grate-firing of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Aho, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from critical ash-forming elements released during combustion may lead to severe ash deposition and corrosion problems in biomass-fired boilers. Ferric sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 is an effective additive, which produces sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3) to convert KCl to the less...... harmful K2SO4. In the present study the decomposition of ferric sulfate is studied in a fast-heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and a kinetic model is proposed to describe the decomposition process. The yields of SO2 and SO3 from ferric sulfate decomposition are investigated in a laboratory......-scale tube reactor. It is revealed that approximately 40% of the sulfur is released as SO3, the remaining fraction being released as SO2. The proposed decomposition model of ferric sulfate is combined with a detailed gas phase kinetic model of KCl sulfation, and a simplified model of K2SO4 condensation...

  4. Electroweak Baryogenesis and Colored Scalars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Timothy; /SLAC /Michigan U., MCTP; Pierce, Aaron; /Michigan U., MCTP

    2012-02-15

    We consider the 2-loop finite temperature effective potential for a Standard Model-like Higgs boson, allowing Higgs boson couplings to additional scalars. If the scalars transform under color, they contribute 2-loop diagrams to the effective potential that include gluons. These 2-loop effects are perhaps stronger than previously appreciated. For a Higgs boson mass of 115 GeV, they can increase the strength of the phase transition by as much as a factor of 3.5. It is this effect that is responsible for the survival of the tenuous electroweak baryogenesis window of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. We further illuminate the importance of these 2-loop diagrams by contrasting models with colored scalars to models with singlet scalars. We conclude that baryogenesis favors models with light colored scalars. This motivates searches for pair-produced di-jet resonances or jet(s) + = E{sub T}.

  5. Extensive Gustatory Cortex Lesions Significantly Impair Taste Sensitivity to KCl and Quinine but Not to Sucrose in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Michelle B; Schier, Lindsey A; Blonde, Ginger D; Spector, Alan C

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported that large bilateral gustatory cortex (GC) lesions significantly impair taste sensitivity to salts in rats. Here we extended the tastants examined to include sucrose and quinine in rats with ibotenic acid-induced lesions in GC (GCX) and in sham-operated controls (SHAM). Presurgically, immediately after drinking NaCl, rats received a LiCl or saline injection (i.p.), but postsurgical tests indicated a weak conditioned taste aversion (CTA) even in controls. The rats were then trained and tested in gustometers to discriminate a tastant from water in a two-response operant taste detection task. Psychometric functions were derived for sucrose, KCl, and quinine. Our mapping system was used to determine placement, size, and symmetry of the lesions (~91% GC damage on average). For KCl, there was a significant rightward shift (ΔEC50 = 0.57 log10 units; pquinine sensitivity. Surprisingly, taste sensitivity to sucrose was unaffected by the extensive lesions and was comparable between GCX and SHAM rats. The fact that such large bilateral GC lesions did not shift sucrose psychometric functions relative to SHAM, but did significantly compromise quinine and KCl sensitivity suggests that the neural circuits responsible for the detection of specific taste stimuli are partially dissociable. Lesion-induced impairments were observed in expression of a postsurgical CTA to a maltodextrin solution as assessed in a taste-oriented brief-access test, but were not reflected in a longer term 46-h two-bottle test. Thus, deficits observed in rats after extensive damage to the GC are also dependent on the test used to assess taste function. In conclusion, the degree to which the GC is necessary for the maintenance of normal taste detectability apparently depends on the chemical and/or perceptual features of the stimulus.

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir ... Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored contact lenses without ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ... from dry eye now have a completely new, drug-free alternative to lubricating eye drops and topical ...

  8. Color chiral solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Novozhilov, V Yu; Novozhilov, Victor; Novozhilov, Yuri

    2002-01-01

    We discuss specific features of color chiral solitons (asymptotics, possibility of confainment, quantization) at example of isolated SU(2) color skyrmions, i.e. skyrmions in a background field which is the vacuum field forming the gluon condensate.

  9. Color vision: retinal blues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jamie; Esposti, Federico; Lagnado, Leon

    2012-08-21

    Two complementary studies have resolved the circuitry underlying green-blue color discrimination in the retina. A blue-sensitive interneuron provides the inhibitory signal required for computing green-blue color opponency.

  10. Colors Can Affect Us!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊斌

    2006-01-01

    Different colors affect us differently.The following will show us how they work. Experiment proves that math problems worked on yellow paper have fewer mistakes than problems written on other colors of paper.

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vision and Daily Eye Drops After One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume Contacts May Contain Chemicals ...

  12. Perception of color emotions for single colors in red-green defective observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Keiko; Inoue, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that inherited red-green color deficiency, which involves both the protan and deutan deficiency types, is common in men. For red-green defective observers, some reddish colors appear desaturated and brownish, unlike those seen by normal observers. Despite its prevalence, few studies have investigated the effects that red-green color deficiency has on the psychological properties of colors (color emotions). The current study investigated the influence of red-green color deficiency on the following six color emotions: cleanliness, freshness, hardness, preference, warmth, and weight. Specifically, this study aimed to: (1) reveal differences between normal and red-green defective observers in rating patterns of six color emotions; (2) examine differences in color emotions related to the three cardinal channels in human color vision; and (3) explore relationships between color emotions and color naming behavior. Thirteen men and 10 women with normal vision and 13 men who were red-green defective performed both a color naming task and an emotion rating task with 32 colors from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP). Results revealed noticeable differences in the cleanliness and hardness ratings between the normal vision observers, particularly in women, and red-green defective observers, which appeared mainly for colors in the orange to cyan range, and in the preference and warmth ratings for colors with cyan and purple hues. Similarly, naming errors also mainly occurred in the cyan colors. A regression analysis that included the three cone-contrasts (i.e., red-green, blue-yellow, and luminance) as predictors significantly accounted for variability in color emotion ratings for the red-green defective observers as much as the normal individuals. Expressly, for warmth ratings, the weight of the red-green opponent channel was significantly lower in color defective observers than in normal participants. In addition, the analyses for individual warmth ratings in

  13. Perception of color emotions for single colors in red-green defective observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Sato

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that inherited red-green color deficiency, which involves both the protan and deutan deficiency types, is common in men. For red-green defective observers, some reddish colors appear desaturated and brownish, unlike those seen by normal observers. Despite its prevalence, few studies have investigated the effects that red-green color deficiency has on the psychological properties of colors (color emotions. The current study investigated the influence of red-green color deficiency on the following six color emotions: cleanliness, freshness, hardness, preference, warmth, and weight. Specifically, this study aimed to: (1 reveal differences between normal and red-green defective observers in rating patterns of six color emotions; (2 examine differences in color emotions related to the three cardinal channels in human color vision; and (3 explore relationships between color emotions and color naming behavior. Thirteen men and 10 women with normal vision and 13 men who were red-green defective performed both a color naming task and an emotion rating task with 32 colors from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP. Results revealed noticeable differences in the cleanliness and hardness ratings between the normal vision observers, particularly in women, and red-green defective observers, which appeared mainly for colors in the orange to cyan range, and in the preference and warmth ratings for colors with cyan and purple hues. Similarly, naming errors also mainly occurred in the cyan colors. A regression analysis that included the three cone-contrasts (i.e., red-green, blue-yellow, and luminance as predictors significantly accounted for variability in color emotion ratings for the red-green defective observers as much as the normal individuals. Expressly, for warmth ratings, the weight of the red-green opponent channel was significantly lower in color defective observers than in normal participants. In addition, the analyses for individual warmth

  14. Generation of KCL025 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in NF1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heema Hewitson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The KCL025 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried an autosomal dominant mutation in the NF1 gene encoding neurofibromin (c.3739–3742 ΔTTTG. Mutations in this gene have been linked to neurofibromatosis type 1, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and Watson syndrome. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays.

  15. Deep sub-threshold $\\Xi^-$ production in Ar+KCl reactions at 1.76A GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Agakichiev, G; Bassini, R; Belver, D; Belyaev, A V; Blanco, A; Böhmer, M; Boyard, J L; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cabanelas, P; Castro, E; Chernenko, S; Christ, T; Destefanis, M; Díaz, J; Dohrmann, F; Dybczak, A; Eberl, T; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O V; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, P; Friese, J; Fröhlich, I; Galatyuk, T; Garzón, J A; Gernhäuser, R; Gil, A; Gilardi, C; Golubeva, M; González-Díaz, D; Guber, F; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kämpfer, B; Kanaki, K; Karavicheva, T; Kirschner, D; König, I; König, W; Kolb, B W; Kotte, R; Krizek, F; Krücken, R; Kühn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Lang, S; Lange, J S; Lapidus, K; Liu, T; Lopes, L; Lorenz, M; Maier, L; Mangiarotti, A; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Michel, J; Mishra, D; Morinière, E; Mousa, J; Müntz, C; Naumann, L; Otwinowski, J; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Parpottas, Y; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; Pietraszko, J; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Reshetin, A; Roy-Stephan, M; Rustamov, A; Sadovskii, A; Sailer, B; Salabura, P; Schmah, A; Sobolev, Yu G; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Ströbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Sudol, M; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Tlustý, P; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Wagner, V; Weber, M; Wisniowski, M; Wojcik, T; Wüstenfeld, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Yu V; Zhou, P

    2009-01-01

    We report first results on a deep sub-threshold production of the doubly strange hyperon $\\Xi^-$ in a heavy-ion reaction. At a beam energy of 1.76A GeV the reaction Ar+KCl was studied with the High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer (HADES) at SIS18/GSI. A high-statistics and high-purity $\\Lambda$ sample was collected, allowing for the investigation of the decay channel $\\Xi^- \\to \\Lambda \\pi^-$. The deduced $\\Xi^-/(\\Lambda+\\Sigma^0)$ production ratio of $(5.6 \\pm 1.2 ^{+1.8}_{-1.7})\\cdot 10^{-3}$ is significantly larger than available model predictions.

  16. An upper limit on hypertriton production in collisions of Ar(1.76 A GeV) + KCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agakishiev, G.; Chernenko, S.; Fateev, O.; Zanevsky, Y. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Belver, D.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Garzon, J.A. [Univ. de Santiago de Compostela, LabCAF. F. Fisica, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Blanco, A.; Fonte, P.; Lopes, L.; Mangiarotti, A. [LIP-Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas, Coimbra (Portugal); Boehmer, M.; Friese, J.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Jurkovic, M.; Kruecken, R.; Maier, L.; Weber, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E12, Garching (Germany); Boyard, J.L.; Hennino, T.; Liu, T.; Moriniere, E.; Ramstein, B. [Universite Paris Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire (UMR 8608), CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay Cedex (France); Destefanis, M.; Gilardi, C.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, J.S.; Metag, V.; Spruck, B. [Justus Liebig Universitaet Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); Dohrmann, F.; Kaempfer, B.; Kotte, R.; Naumann, L.; Wendisch, C.; Wuestenfeld, J. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, Dresden (Germany); Dybczak, A.; Michalska, B.; Palka, M.; Przygoda, W.; Salabura, P.; Trebacz, R.; Wisniowski, M. [Jagiellonian University of Cracow, Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Lapidus, K.; Siebenson, J. [Excellence Cluster ' ' Origin and Structure of the Universe' ' , Garching (Germany); Finocchiaro, P.; Schmah, A.; Spataro, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Froehlich, I.; Lorenz, M.; Markert, J.; Michel, J.; Muentz, C.; Pachmayer, Y.C.; Pechenova, O.; Rehnisch, L.; Rustamov, A.; Scheib, T.; Schuldes, H.; Stroebele, H.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K. [Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Frankfurt (Germany); Galatyuk, T.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Ivashkin, A.; Karavicheva, T.; Kurepin, A.; Reshetin, A.; Sadovsky, A. [Russian Academy of Science, Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gumberidze, M. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Universite Paris Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire (UMR 8608), CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay Cedex (France); Heinz, T.; Holzmann, R.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B.W.; Lang, S.; Pechenov, V.; Pietraszko, J.; Schwab, E.; Sturm, C.; Traxler, M.; Yurevich, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Iori, I. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Krasa, A.; Krizek, F.; Kugler, A.; Sobolev, Yu.G.; Tlusty, P.; Wagner, V. [Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Nuclear Physics Institute, Rez (Czech Republic); Kuc, H. [Jagiellonian University of Cracow, Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Universite Paris Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire (UMR 8608), CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay Cedex (France); Mousa, J.; Tsertos, H. [University of Cyprus, Department of Physics, Nicosia (Cyprus); Stroth, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: HADES Collaboration

    2013-11-15

    A high-statistic data sample of Ar(1.76 AGeV)+KCl events recorded with HADES is used to search for a hypertriton signal. An upper production limit per centrality-triggered event of 1.04 x 10{sup -3} on the 3 {sigma} level is derived. Comparing this value with the number of successfully reconstructed {Lambda} hyperons allows to determine an upper limit on the ratio N{sub 3{sub {Lambda}H}}/N{sub {Lambda}}, which is confronted with statistical and coalescence-type model calculations. (orig.)

  17. An upper limit on hypertriton production in collisions of Ar(1.76 AGeV)+KCl

    CERN Document Server

    Agakishiev, G; Blanco, A; Böhmer, M; Boyard, J L; Cabanelas, P; Castro, E; Chernenko, S; Destefanis, M; Dohrmann, F; Dybczak, A; Epple, E; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, P; Friese, J; Fröhlich, I; Galatyuk, T; Garzón, J A; Gernhäuser, R; Gilardi, C; Golubeva, M; González-Díaz, D; Guber, F; Gumberidze, M; Heinz, T; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kämpfer, B; Karavicheva, T; Koenig, I; Koenig, W; Kolb, B W; Kotte, R; Krása, A; Krizek, F; Krücken, R; Kuc, H; Kühn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Lang, S; Lange, J S; Lapidus, K; Liu, T; Lopes, L; Lorenz, M; Maier, L; Mangiarotti, A; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Miche, J; Morinière, E; Mousa, J; Müntz, C; Naumann, L; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; Pietraszko, J; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Rehnisch, L; Reshetin, A; Rustamov, A; Sadovsky, A; Salabura, P; Scheib, T; Schmah, A; Schuldes, H; Schwab, E; Siebenson, J; Sobolev, Yu G; Spatarof, S; Spruck, B; Ströbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Tlusty, P; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Wagner, V; Weber, M; Wendisch, C; Wisniowski, M; Wüstenfeld, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Y

    2013-01-01

    A high-statistic data sample of Ar(1.76 AGeV)+KCl events recorded with HADES is used to search for a hypertriton signal. An upper production limit per centrality-triggered event of 1.04 x $10^{-3}$ on the $3\\sigma$ level is derived. Comparing this value with the number of successfully reconstructed $\\Lambda$ hyperons allows to determine an upper limit on the ratio $N_{_{\\Lambda}^3H}/N_{\\Lambda}$, which is confronted with statistical and coalescence-type model calculations.

  18. Composition dependence of glow peak temperature in KCl{sub 1-x}Br{sub x} doped with divalent cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Salas, R [Departamento de Investigacion en FIsica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora, 83190 (Mexico); Aceves, R [Departamento de Investigacion en FIsica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora, 83190 (Mexico); RodrIguez-Mijangos, R [Departamento de Investigacion en FIsica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora, 83190 (Mexico); Riveros, H G [Instituto de FIsica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20/364, Mexico, DF 01000, Mexico (Mexico); Duarte, C [Departamento de GeologIa, Universidad de Sonora, Rosales y Boulevard Luis E, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83000 (Mexico)

    2004-01-28

    Thermoluminescence measurements of {beta}-irradiated Eu{sup 2+} - and Ca{sup 2+} - doped KCl{sub 1-x}KBr{sub x} solid solutions excited at room temperature have been carried out to identify the effect of composition on the glow peaks. A typical glow peak has been distinguished for each composition. A linear dependence of its temperature on the composition x has been found. These results indicate that for divalent impurity-doped alkali halide solid solutions these glow peak temperatures are mostly dependent on the lattice constant of the host than on the size of the anion or impurity cation.

  19. Generation of KCL018 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in the DMPK gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Miere

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The KCL018 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried an autosomal dominant mutation affecting one allele of the DMPK gene encoding the dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (2200 trinucleotide repeats; 14 for the normal allele. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays.

  20. Generation of KCL028 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in the HTT gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laureen Jacquet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The KCL028 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried an autosomal dominant mutation affecting one allele of the HTT gene encoding huntingtin (43 trinucleotide repeats; 21 for the normal allele. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro and in vivo assays.

  1. Color: Implications in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikri Vimal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of restorative dentistry is determined on the basis of functional and esthetic results. To achieve esthetics, four basic determinants are required in sequence; viz., position, contour, texture and color. The knowledge of the concept of color is essential for achieving good esthetics. This review compiles the various aspects of color, its measurements and shade matching in dentistry.

  2. Measurement of Color Texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, M.A.; Geusebroek, J.M.; Chantler, M.

    2002-01-01

    In computer vision, measurement of image properties such as color or texture is essential. In this paper, we propose a solid framework for the local measurement of texture in color images. We give a physical basis for the integration of the well-known Gabor filters with the measurement of color. Our

  3. Reimagining the Color Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Color wheels are a traditional project for many teachers. The author has used them in art appreciation classes for many years, but one problem she found when her pre-service art education students created colored wheels was that they were boring: simple circles, with pie-shaped pieces, which students either painted or colored in. This article…

  4. Characteristics of K2TiCl6 synthesis from KCl and TiCl4; KCl to TiCl4 kara no K2TiCl6 no gosei hanno tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, T.; Konda, S.; Sasaki, T.; Ishikawa, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1997-07-10

    Reaction characteristics were examined for synthesis of K2TiCl6 from KCl particles and TiCl4 gas. The reaction experiments were carried out exposing different sizes of KCI particles to a TiCl4 gas stream at 683 K. The mass gain due to formation of K2TiCl6 was measured as a function of time and morphology of the product was observed by SEM and EPMA. The apparent reaction rate decreases rapidly with the progress of the reaction, and the reaction is virtually terminated before its completion EPMA analysis on the particle cross-section reveals that the products are distributed around an unreacted KCl core within the particle, and the termination of the reaction takes place when the thickness of the outer product layer grows up to about 6{mu}m. The reaction kinetics are explained well on the basis of an unreacted-core model which assumes that the rate determining step is the intra-particle TiCl4 gas diffusion. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. NaCl-KCl-Na2WO4共融体系的方波伏安法分析%Square wave voltammetry analysis of NaCl-KCl-Na 2WO4 communion system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖春发; 房孟钊; 王旭; 汤浩; 罗林生

    2015-01-01

    采用三电极体系,应用方波伏安法分析NaCl-KCl-Na2WO4共融体系的电化学特性,重点研究了钨(Ⅵ)离子的电化学行为,结果表明:W(Ⅵ)→W(Ⅳ)还原过程的特征峰与 W(Ⅳ)→W的特征峰发生相互重叠, W(Ⅵ)离子的还原过程分2步,即:W(Ⅵ)→W(Ⅳ)→W,其中第1步W(Ⅵ)→W(Ⅳ)过程可逆,第2步W(Ⅳ)→W 过程不可逆。%Characteristics of NaCl-KCl-Na2WO4 communion system was analyzed by three-electrode system and square wave voltammetry, focusing on the electrochemical behavior of the tungsten ion (VI). The results show that the characteristic peak of reduction process of W (Ⅵ)→W (Ⅳ)and W (Ⅳ)→W is overlapping, and the reduction process of tungsten ion(VI) is divided into two steps, that is W (Ⅵ)→W(Ⅳ)→W, of which the first step is reversible, while the second step,W(IV)→W, is irreversible.

  6. Color rendering of art paintings under CIE illuminants for normal and color deficient observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel Linhares, João Manuel; Araújo Pinto, Paulo Daniel; Cardoso Nascimento, Sérgio Miguel

    2009-07-01

    Color rendering indices are used to access the quality of lighting but, in addition to other well-known limitations, are not defined for color deficient observers. We evaluated the quality of lighting for normal and color deficient observers in the context of art paintings by estimating the number of colors they perceive when looking at the paintings. Hyperspectral data from 11 oil paintings were analyzed to compute the number of discernible colors when the paintings were assumed rendered under 55 CIE illuminants. Models of color perception for normal and color deficient observers were applied in the estimates. It was found that the number of discernible colors for normal and color deficient observers had low correlation with traditional color rendering indices and that some three-band illuminants, like HP4, were found to be good for most cases, except for tritanopes. These results suggest that it may be possible to obtain good lighting conditions for normal and color deficient observers with an appropriate choice of the light source.

  7. The gel-forming behaviour of dextran in the presence of KCl: a quantitative 13C and pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, L; Schiller, J; Kaufmann, J; Stallmach, F; Kärger, J; Arnold, K

    2003-05-01

    Although the gel forming ability of certain polysaccharides in the presence of ions is a well-known phenomenon, detailed physicochemical mechanisms of such processes are still unknown. In this investigation high resolution 13C NMR as well as 1H pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR were used to investigate the mobility of dextran in the sol and in the gel state. Gel-formation of dextran can be easily induced by the addition of large amounts of potassium chloride. No major differences in the T(1) relaxation times of dextran in the sol and in the gel state could be observed. Accordingly, the analysis of the 13C NMR spectroscopic data did not provide any indication of an observable line-broadening upon gel-formation. However, a KCl concentration dependent decrease of signal intensity in comparison to an internal standard was detected. On the other hand, the PFG NMR studies clearly indicated a gradual diminution of the self-diffusion coefficient of the dextran with increasing molecular weight as well as in the presence of potassium chloride. These measurements revealed in agreement with spectroscopic data that at least one potassium ion per monomer subunit (i.e. one glycopyranose residue) is necessary for gel formation.

  8. Early color deprivation and subsequent color vision in a dichromatic monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, S; Neitz, J; Jacobs, G H

    1987-01-01

    A squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) was reared for the first 4 months of life in a dim, colorless environment. Following an additional 10 months of normal visual experience, tests of color vision and spectral sensitivity were run on this animal and a control subject. The results suggest that the adult expression of dichromatic color vision does not depend on color experience during the first 4 months of life.

  9. Facial expression recognition in perceptual color space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajevardi, Seyed Mehdi; Wu, Hong Ren

    2012-08-01

    This paper introduces a tensor perceptual color framework (TPCF) for facial expression recognition (FER), which is based on information contained in color facial images. The TPCF enables multi-linear image analysis in different color spaces and demonstrates that color components provide additional information for robust FER. Using this framework, the components (in either RGB, YCbCr, CIELab or CIELuv space) of color images are unfolded to two-dimensional (2- D) tensors based on multi-linear algebra and tensor concepts, from which the features are extracted by Log-Gabor filters. The mutual information quotient (MIQ) method is employed for feature selection. These features are classified using a multi-class linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. The effectiveness of color information on FER using low-resolution and facial expression images with illumination variations is assessed for performance evaluation. Experimental results demonstrate that color information has significant potential to improve emotion recognition performance due to the complementary characteristics of image textures. Furthermore, the perceptual color spaces (CIELab and CIELuv) are better overall for facial expression recognition than other color spaces by providing more efficient and robust performance for facial expression recognition using facial images with illumination variation.

  10. Modeling the use of sulfate additives for potassium chloride destruction in biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll;

    2013-01-01

    was affected by the decomposition temperature. Based on the experimental data, a model was proposed to simulate the sulfation of KCl by different sulfate addition, and the simulation results were compared with pilot-scale experiments conducted in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor. The simulation results...

  11. Tanslation of Color Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丹

    2009-01-01

    Being a minor part in the translation field,the translation of color words is far more complex than people may have imagined.Apart from the literal meaning of color words in the target language,there are other factors that affect the understanding.This paper mainly focuses on three main characteristics of color words that make the translation work difficult-color words'variations and combinations,rich symbolic meanings and culture differences.It also provides possible ways to deal with the prickly problem of finding equivalents,the complexity of transferring symbolic meanings and the subtle problem of crossing culture boundaries in translation of color words.

  12. Color of Meat and Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or freezer, color changes are normal for fresh meat and poultry. 2. Does a change in color indicate spoilage? Change in color alone does not mean the product is spoiled. Color changes are normal for fresh ...

  13. Color prediction in textile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia, Maurizio; Buonopane, Massimo

    2004-09-01

    Nowadays production systems of fancy yarns for knits allow the creation of extremely complex products in which many effects are obtained by means of color alteration. Current production technique consists in defining type and quantity of fibers by making preliminary samples. This samples are then compared with a reference one. This comparison is based on operator experience. Many samples are required in order to achieve a sample similar to the reference one. This work requires time and then additional costs for a textile manufacturer. In addition, the methodology is subjective. Nowadays, spectrophotometers are the only devices that seem to be able to provide objective indications. They are based on a spectral analysis of the light reflected by the knit material. In this paper the study of a new method for color evaluation of a mix of wool fibers with different colors is presented. First of all fiber characterization were carried out through scattering and absorption coefficients using the Kubelka-Munk theory. Then the estimated color was compared with a reference item, in order to define conformity by means of objective parameters. Finally, theoretical characterization was compared with the measured quantity. This allowed estimation of prediction quality.

  14. Exploring Io's atmospheric composition with APEX: first measurement of 34SO2 and tentative detection of KCl

    CERN Document Server

    Moullet, A; Moreno, R; Gurwell, M; Black, J; Butler, B

    2013-01-01

    The composition of Io's tenuous atmosphere is poorly constrained. Only the major species SO2 and a handful of minor species have been positively identified, but a variety of other molecular species should be present, based on thermochemical equilibrium models of volcanic gas chemistry and the composition of Io's environment. This paper focuses on the spectral search for expected yet undetected molecular species (KCl, SiO, S2O) and isotopes (34SO2). We analyze a disk-averaged spectrum of a potentially line-rich spectral window around 345 GHz, obtained in 2010 at the APEX-12m antenna (Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment). Using different models assuming either extended atmospheric distributions or a purely volcanically-sustained atmosphere, we tentatively measure the KCl relative abundance with respect to SO2 and derive a range of 4x10^{-4}-8x10^{-3}. We do not detect SiO or S2O and present new upper limits on their abundances. We also present the first measurement of the 34S/32S isotopic ratio in gas phase on Io, wh...

  15. Iridoid and aromatic glycosides from Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. and their inhibition of [Ca2+](i) increase induced by KCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Liu, Yan; Liu, Hong-Wei; Wang, Nai-Li; Yang, Bao-Feng; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2008-09-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of EtOH extract of the roots of Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. resulted in the isolation of three new iridoid glycosides, i.e., 6''-O-caffeoylharpagide (1), 6''-O-feruloylharpagide (2), and 6''-O-beta-glucopyranosylharpagoside (3), and five new aromatic glycosides, i.e., 2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl O-alpha-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6)-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-beta-glucopyranoside (4), phenyl O-beta-xylopyranosyl-(1-->6)-O-beta-glucopyranoside (5), 3-methylphenyl O-beta-xylopyranosyl-(1-->6)-O-beta-glucopyranoside (6), 6-O-cinnamoyl beta-fructofuranosyl-(2-->1)-O-alpha-glucopyranosyl-(6-->1)-O-alpha-glucopyranoside (7), and 6-O-feruloyl beta-fructofuranosyl-(2-->1)-O-alpha-glucopyranosyl-(6-->1)-O-alpha-glucopyranoside (8), together with four known compounds, i.e., 6''-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl harpagoside (9), 6''-O-(p-coumaroyl) harpagide (10), harpagoside (11), and angoroside C (12). Activity of the isolated compounds on [Ca2+](i) increase induced by KCl was evaluated on rat cardiac myocytes using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Iridoid glycosides 1, 10, and 11, and aromatic glycosides 5 and 6 significantly inhibited the increase of [Ca2+](i) induced by KCl at 100 microM.

  16. Electrochemical measurements of diffusion coefficients and activity coefficients for MnCl2 in molten eutectic LiCl-KCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, D.; Rappleye, D.; Bagri, P.; Simpson, M. F.

    2017-09-01

    An electrochemical study of manganese chloride in molten salt mixtures of eutectic LiCl-KCl was carried out using a variety of electrochemical methods in a high temperature cell including cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronopotentiometry (CP), chronoamperometry (CA), and open circuit potentiometry. Single step reduction from Mn2+ to Mn(0) was observed on both W and Mo working electrodes. Using a combination of these methods, measurements were made of activity coefficient and diffusion coefficient for MnCl2 in LiCl-KCl as a function of concentration (3.54 × 10-4 to 3.60 × 10-3 mol fraction of MnCl2) at 773K. From OCP measurements, values for activity coefficient varied from 0.014 to 0.0071. Diffusion coefficients varied with concentration and differed based on measurement method (CV, CA, or CP). Based on cyclic Mn(II) ranged from 1.1 to 2.8 × 10-5 cm2/s depending on concentration.

  17. Deafness and renal tubular acidosis in mice lacking the K-Cl co-transporter Kcc4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettger, Thomas; Hübner, Christian A; Maier, Hannes; Rust, Marco B; Beck, Franz X; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2002-04-25

    Hearing depends on a high K(+) concentration bathing the apical membranes of sensory hair cells. K(+) that has entered hair cells through apical mechanosensitive channels is transported to the stria vascularis for re-secretion into the scala media(). K(+) probably exits outer hair cells by KCNQ4 K(+) channels(), and is then transported by means of a gap junction system connecting supporting Deiters' cells and fibrocytes() back to the stria vascularis. We show here that mice lacking the K(+)/Cl(-) (K-Cl) co-transporter Kcc4 (coded for by Slc12a7) are deaf because their hair cells degenerate rapidly after the beginning of hearing. In the mature organ of Corti, Kcc4 is restricted to supporting cells of outer and inner hair cells. Our data suggest that Kcc4 is important for K(+) recycling() by siphoning K(+) ions after their exit from outer hair cells into supporting Deiters' cells, where K(+) enters the gap junction pathway. Similar to some human genetic syndromes(), deafness in Kcc4-deficient mice is associated with renal tubular acidosis. It probably results from an impairment of Cl(-) recycling across the basolateral membrane of acid-secreting alpha-intercalated cells of the distal nephron.

  18. Rancang Bangun Dan Pengujian Alat Penjatah (Metering Device Tipe Edge Cell Untuk Penyaluran Pupuk Butiran Urea, TSP dan KCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafriandi Syafriandi

    2015-04-01

    Abstract. This study aims to design a fertilizer granules allotment (metering device type of cell edge that can control the fertilizer output by regulating the rotational speed of the motor is assembled with electronic circuits and test the prototypes performance using a metering device with 3 types of fertilizers ie Urea, TSP and KCl. Research tools are designed only able to drain urea and TSP , while KCL fertilizer have trouble escaping from the gap hopper . The average amount of urea metering device 1 output to the voltage 12.16 and 20 volts, respectively for 81.33 g /min, 130.33 g/min and 169.00 g/min. In metering device 2 each fertilizer output voltage feed all values in a row at 75,67 g/min, 129.00 g/min and 168.20 g/min. The average number of TSP output to metering device 1 at the 12.16 and 20 volts, respectively for 121.20 g/min, 181.53 g/min and 244.67 g/min. In metering device 2 each fertilizer output voltage feed all values in a row of 119.27 g/min, 180.53 g/min and 243.73 g/min.

  19. Electrochemical formation of holmium-copper alloys on copper cathode in molten KCl-HoCl3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yu-zhi; YANG Qi-qin; LIU Guan-kun

    2006-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry, open circuit potential-time curve after potentiostatic electrolysis and potential step chronoamperometry were used to investigate the electrochemical formation processes of holmium-copper alloys on copper cathode in molten HoCl3-KCl. Intermetallic compounds HoCu5, HoCu4, HoCu2 and HoCu are formed in sequence and then the metallic Ho is deposited when Ho3+ is reduced on copper electrode in molten KCl-HoCl3 at 1 066 K. The first charge-transfer reaction is reversible. The structure of holmium-copper alloy film deposited on copper electrode by potentiostatic electrolysis was characterized by X-ray diffraction. The standard free energies of formation for the intermetallic compounds HoCu5, HoCu4, HoCu2 and HoCu are -95.5, -92.6, -73.8 and -44.0 kJ/mol, respectively. The diffusion coefficient and diffusion activation energy of Ho atom in the alloy are estimated to be 10-10-10-11 cm2/s and 75.35 kJ/mol, respectively, from the chronoamperometry data.

  20. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  1. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo eUccula

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e. who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g. color, shape or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12-14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature.

  2. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  3. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  4. Color of bulk-fill composite resin restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutcigil, Çağatay; Barutcigil, Kubilay; Özarslan, Mehmet Mustafa; Dündar, Ayşe; Yilmaz, Burak

    2017-09-28

    To evaluate the color stability of novel bulk-fill composite resins. Color measurements of a nanohybrid composite resin (Z550) and 3 bulk-fill composite resins (BLK, AFX, XTF; n = 45) were performed before polymerization. After polymerization, color measurements were repeated and specimens were immersed in distilled water or red wine, or coffee. Color change [CIEDE2000 (ΔE00 )] was calculated after 24 h, 1 and 3 weeks. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05). Color changes observed after polymerization were significant for all groups. Color changes observed in distilled water for Z550 and AFX were significant. Color changes after stored in red wine and coffee were significant for all groups. Bulk-fill composite resin color change increased over time for all groups in red wine and coffee (P composite resin and bulk-fill composite resins. AFX had the highest color change in distilled water. The color of tested bulk-fill composite resins significantly changed after immersion in beverages and over time. Color change observed with the nanohybrid composite resin after 1 week was stable. Clinicians should keep in mind that tested composite resins may change color when exposed to water and significantly change color immediately after they are polymerized. In addition, the color change continues over time should the patient is a coffee and/or red wine consumer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Male red throat coloration, pelvic spine coloration, and courtship behaviours in threespine stickleback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, Daniel Shane; Yong, Lengxob; Pierotti, Michele E. R.; McKinnon, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In addition to exhibiting red nuptial throat coloration, male threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) often possess red coloration on their pelvic spines. Although variation in throat colour has been shown to be associated with male reproductive behaviour, limited research has b

  6. Male red throat coloration, pelvic spine coloration, and courtship behaviours in threespine stickleback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, Daniel Shane; Yong, Lengxob; Pierotti, Michele E. R.; McKinnon, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In addition to exhibiting red nuptial throat coloration, male threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) often possess red coloration on their pelvic spines. Although variation in throat colour has been shown to be associated with male reproductive behaviour, limited research has b

  7. Colored halos around faces and emotion-evoked colors: a new form of synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Vilayanur S; Miller, Luke; Livingstone, Margaret S; Brang, David

    2012-01-01

    The claim that some individuals see colored halos or auras around faces has long been part of popular folklore. Here we report on a 23-year-old man (subject TK) diagnosed with Asperger's disorder, who began to consistently experience colors around individuals at the age of 10. TK's colors are based on the individual's identity and emotional connotation. We interpret these experiences as a form of synesthesia, and confirm their authenticity through a target detection paradigm. Additionally, we investigate TK's claim that emotions evoke highly specific colors, allowing him, despite his Asperger's, to introspect on emotions and recognize them in others.

  8. 饲料中鱼油添加量对观赏性红鲫鱼生长和体色的影响%Influence of Additive Amount of Fish Oil on Growth and Body Color of Carassius auratus red variety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁媛; 李明云; 贾福怀

    2015-01-01

    为研究鱼油添加量对观赏性红鲫鱼生长和体色的影响,在喂养红鲫鱼的饲料中分别添加质量分数0%、2.5%、5%、10%的鱼油,投喂49 d,并将其与空白组分别进行对照.结果表明:添加2.5%的鱼油喂养红鲫鱼对红鲫鱼的生长最佳.随着鱼油喂养量的不断增加,红鲫鱼体重和体长的增加率呈一定的下降趋势.以观赏鱼的红度、白度、黄度作为重要的评判标准,5%鱼油添加量更有助于提高红鲫鱼的红度值,降低白度值和黄度值.%In order to investigate the impact of fish oil on growth and body color of Carassius auratus red variety, the diet of Carassius auratus red variety is added with fish oil of different concentration level (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%) and fed for 49 days. The results show that 2.5%additional fish oil is the best diet for the growth of Carassius auratus red variety. The more the fish oil feeding is given, the more slowly the weight and length of Carassius auratus red variety increase. Body color is an important factor for ornamental fish, which is standardized with the degree of red, white, yellow. It is found that 5%fish oil helps increase the red color index of Carassius auratus red variety, while reduce that of white and yellow.

  9. Affective Image Colorization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hui Wang; Jia Jia; Han-Yu Liao; Lian-Hong Cai

    2012-01-01

    Colorization of gray-scale images has attracted many attentions for a long time.An important role of image color is the conveyer of emotions (through color themes).The colorization with an undesired color theme is less useful,even it is semantically correct.However this has been rarely considered.Automatic colorization respecting both the semantics and the emotions is undoubtedly a challenge.In this paper,we propose a complete system for affective image colorization.We only need the user to assist object segmentation along with text labels and an affective word.First,the text labels along with other object characters are jointly used to filter the internet images to give each object a set of semantically correct reference images.Second,we select a set of color themes according to the affective word based on art theories.With these themes,a generic algorithm is used to select the best reference for each object,balancing various requirements.Finally,we propose a hybrid texture synthesis approach for colorization.To the best of our knowledge,it is the first system which is able to efficiently colorize a gray-scale image semantically by an emotionally controllable fashion.Our experiments show the effectiveness of our system,especially the benefit compared with the previous Markov random field (MRF) based method.

  10. The nature of colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Pos, Osvaldo

    2002-06-01

    Color is a visible aspect of objects and lights, and as such is an objective characteristic of our phenomenal world. Correspondingly also objects and lights are objective, although their subjectivity cannot be disregarded since they belong to our phenomenal world. The distinction between perception and sensation deals with colors seen either in complex displays or in isolation. Reality of colors is apparently challenged by virtual reality, while virtual reality is a good example of what colors are. It seems difficult to combine that aspect of reality colors have in our experience and the concept that colors represent something in the external environment: the distinction between stimulation and perceived object is crucial for understanding the relationships between phenomenal world and physical reality. A modern concept of isomorphism seems useful in interpreting the role of colors. The relationship between the psychological structure of colors and the physical stimulation is enlightened by the analysis of pseudocolors. The perceptual, subjective characteristics of colors go along with the subjectivity of scientific concepts. Colors, emotions, and concepts are all in some people's mind: none of them is independent of the subject mind. Nevertheless they can be communicated from person to person by an appropriate scientific terminology.

  11. Selection of small color palette for color image quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Wing K.; Wong, S. K. M.; Yang, Xuedong; Wan, Shijie J.

    1992-05-01

    Two issues are involved in color image quantization: color palette selection and color mapping. A common practice for color palette selection is to minimize the color distortion for each pixel (the median-cut, the variance-based and the k-means algorithms). After the color palette has been chosen, a quantized image may be generated by mapping the original color of each pixel onto its nearest color in the color palette. Such an approach can usually produce quantized images of high quality with 128 or more colors. For 32 - 64 colors, the quality of the quantized images is often acceptable with the aid of dithering techniques in the color mapping process. For 8 - 16 color, however, the above statistical method for color selection becomes no longer suitable because of the great reduction of color gamut. In order to preserve the color gamut of the original image, one may want to select the colors in such a way that the convex hull formed by these colors in the RGB color space encloses most colors of the original image. Quantized images generated in such a geometrical way usually preserve a lot of image details, but may contain too much high frequency noises. This paper presents an effective algorithm for the selection of very small color palette by combining the strengths of the above statistical and geometrical approaches. We demonstrate that with the new method images of high quality can be produced by using only 4 to 8 colors.

  12. Perceptual issues for color helmet-mounted displays: luminance and color contrast requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Thomas H.; Rash, Clarence E.; Lattimore, Morris R.; Statz, Jonathan; Martin, John S.

    2016-05-01

    Color is one of the latest design characteristics of helmet-mounted displays (HMDs). It's inclusion in design specifications is based on two suppositions: 1) color provides an additional method of encoding information, and 2) color provides a more realistic, and hence more intuitive, presentation of information, especially pilotage imagery. To some degree, these two perceived advantages have been validated with head-down panel-mounted displays, although not without a few problems associated with visual physiology and perception. These problems become more prevalent when the user population expands beyond military aviators to a general user population, of which a significant portion may have color vision deficiencies. When color is implemented in HMDs, which are eyes-out, see-through displays, visual perception issues become an increased concern. A major confound with HMDs is their inherent see-through (transparent) property. The result is color in the displayed image combines with color from the outside (or in-cockpit) world, possibly producing a false perception of either or both images. While human-factors derived guidelines based on trial and error have been developed, color HMD systems still place more emphasis on colorimetric than perceptual standards. This paper identifies the luminance and color contrast requirements for see-through HMDs. Also included is a discussion of ambient scene metrics and the choice of symbology color.

  13. Simulation of NaCl and KCl mass transfer during salting of Prato cheese in brine with agitation: a numerical solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bona

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The association of dietary NaCl with arterial hypertension has led to a reduction in the levels of this salt in cheeses. For salting, KCl has been used as a partial substitute for NaCl, which cannot be completely substituted without affecting product acceptability. In this study a sensorially adequate saline solution (NaCl/KCl was simultaneously diffused during salting of Prato cheese in brine with agitation. The simultaneous multicomponent diffusion during the process was modeled with Fick’s second generalized law. The system of partial differential equations formed was solved by the finite element method (FEM. In the experimental data concentration the deviation for NaCl was of 7.3% and for KCl of 5.4%, both of which were considered acceptable. The simulation of salt diffusion will allow control and modulation of salt content in Prato cheese, permitting the prediction of final content from initial conditions.

  14. Mengkaji Penggunaan Software Apple Color untuk Color Grading saat Pasca Produksi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Faisal Choiril Anam Fathoni

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In post-production process, there is one process that is not as well known as the video editing process, the addition of animation, special effects enrichment, motion graphics or audio editing and audio mixing, an important process which is rarely realized called Color Correction or Color Grading. Various software have been made to handle this process, ranging from additional filters are already available for free in any editing software, to high-end devices worth billions of dollars dedicated for specifically conducting Color Correction. Apple Color is one of the software included in the purchase of Final Cut Studio package which also include Final Cut Pro for Video Editing, Soundtrack Pro for Sound Editing and Mixing, and Motion for compositing. Apple's Color is specially designed for color correction tasks after previously edited in Final Cut Pro. This paper is designed to introduce Apple's software as well as analyze the feasibility of Apple Color as a professional device in the world of production, especially post-production. Some professional color correction software will be compared briefly with Apple Color to get an objective conclusion. 

  15. Development of colored alumilite dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Yagi, Toshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Yokoo, Noriko [Radiation Application Development Association, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    In the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), in-vessel components such as blanket and divertor, which are installed in the vacuum vessel of the ITER, are maintained by remote handling equipment (RH equipment). The RH equipment for maintenance is operated under sever environmental conditions, such as high temperature (50{approx}100 degC), high gamma-ray radiation ({approx}1 kGy/h) in an atmosphere of inert gas or vacuum; therefore many components of the RH equipment must have a suitable radiation resistance efficiency for long time operation (10{approx}100 MGy). Typical components of the RH equipment have been extensively tested under an intensive gamma-ray radiation. Monitoring of the radiation dose of the components of the RH equipment is essential to control the operation period of the RH equipment considering radiation resistance. However, the maximum measurable radiation dose of the conventional dosimeters, such as ionization chamber, liquid, glass and plastic dosimeters are limited to be approximately 1MGy which is too low to monitor the RH equipment for the ITER. In addition, these conventional dosimeters do not involve sufficient radiation resistance against the high gamma-ray radiation as well as are not easy handling and low cost. Based on the above backgrounds, a new dosimeter with bleaching of an azo group dye to be applied to a radiation monitor has been developed for high gamma-ray radiation use. The colored alumilite dosimeter is composed of the azo group dye (-N=N-) in an anodic oxidation layer of aluminum alloy (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). It can monitor the radiation dose by measuring the change of the bleaching of azo dye in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer due to gamma-ray irradiation. The degree of bleaching is measured as the change of hue (color) and brightness based on the Munsell's colors with a three dimensional universe using spectrophotometer. In the tests, the dependencies such as colors, anodized layer thickness, type of azo

  16. NaCl-KCl-IrCl3熔盐体系中电沉积Ir层的机理%Electrodeposition of Ir on platinum in NaCl-KCl molten salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱建刚; 赵天

    2012-01-01

    在NaCl-KCl-IrCl3熔盐体系中利用循环伏安法和计时电位法研究Ir的沉积机理并通过恒电位法在Pt基体上制备出Ir层.利用扫描电子、显微镜(SEM)能谱仪(EDS)和X射线衍射仪(XRD)对Ir层的表面形貌和成分进行分析.结果表明:在NaCl-KCl-IrCl3熔盐体系中Ir的电沉积过程为Ir3+获得3个电子一步沉积为Ir,并且Ir(Ⅲ)→Ir(0)的电极反应过程为可逆扩散控制过程;在1063、1113、1143和1183 K下Ir(Ⅲ)离子的扩散系数分别为0.60×10-4、1.23×10-4、2.77×10-4和4.40×10-4 cm2/s,Ir(Ⅲ)在NaCl-KCl-IrCl3熔盐体系中电极反应的活化能Ea=162.61kJ/mol;沉积电位对所获得的Ir层的形貌有较大影响,其中在峰值电位下所获得的Ir层较厚;熔盐温度对电沉积Ir层的形貌也有较大影响,在较低熔盐温度下获得的Ir层较薄,较高熔盐温度获得的Ir层的孔隙较多.%The reduction mechanism of Ir in the NaCl-KCl-IrCl3 molten salt was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry,and Ir film was deposited effectively on platinum in potentiostatic mode.The morphology and constitution of Ir film were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM),energy dispersivc spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).It is found that the reduction mechanism of Ir(Ⅲ) is a three-electron step and electro reaction is a reversible diffusion controlled process; the diffusion coefficients of Ir(Ⅲ) at 1083,1113,1143 and 1183 K are 1.56×10-4,2.23×10 4,2.77×10-4 and 4.40×10-4cm2/s,respectively,while the activation energy of the electrode reaction is 102.95 k J/mol.The compacted Ir film reveals that the applied potential greatly affects the deposition of Ir,the thickness of Ir film deposited at the potential of reduction peak is the highest,the temperature of the molten salt also exerts an influence on deposition,the film formed at a lower temperature is thinner,but more micropores would occur on film when the temperature went too high.

  17. The road coloring problem

    CERN Document Server

    Trahtman, A N

    2007-01-01

    The synchronizing word of deterministic automaton is a word in the alphabet of colors (considered as letters) of its edges that maps the automaton to a single state. A coloring of edges of a directed graph is synchronizing if the coloring turns the graph into deterministic finite automaton possessing a synchronizing word. The road coloring problem is a problem of synchronizing coloring of directed finite strongly connected graph with constant outdegree of all its vertices if the greatest common divisor of lengths of all its cycles is one. The problem was posed by Adler, Goodwyn and Weiss over 30 years ago and evoked a noticeable interest among the specialists in theory of graphs, deterministic automata and symbolic dynamics. The problem is described even in "Vikipedia" - the popular Internet Encyclopedia. The positive solution of the road coloring problem is presented.

  18. Laser color recording unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E.

    1984-05-01

    A color recording unit was designed for output and control of digitized picture data within computer controlled reproduction and picture processing systems. In order to get a color proof picture of high quality similar to a color print, together with reduced time and material consumption, a photographic color film material was exposed pixelwise by modulated laser beams of three wavelengths for red, green and blue light. Components of different manufacturers for lasers, acousto-optic modulators and polygon mirrors were tested, also different recording methods as (continuous tone mode or screened mode and with a drum or flatbed recording principle). Besides the application for the graphic arts - the proof recorder CPR 403 with continuous tone color recording with a drum scanner - such a color hardcopy peripheral unit with large picture formats and high resolution can be used in medicine, communication, and satellite picture processing.

  19. Extensive Gustatory Cortex Lesions Significantly Impair Taste Sensitivity to KCl and Quinine but Not to Sucrose in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle B Bales

    Full Text Available Recently, we reported that large bilateral gustatory cortex (GC lesions significantly impair taste sensitivity to salts in rats. Here we extended the tastants examined to include sucrose and quinine in rats with ibotenic acid-induced lesions in GC (GCX and in sham-operated controls (SHAM. Presurgically, immediately after drinking NaCl, rats received a LiCl or saline injection (i.p., but postsurgical tests indicated a weak conditioned taste aversion (CTA even in controls. The rats were then trained and tested in gustometers to discriminate a tastant from water in a two-response operant taste detection task. Psychometric functions were derived for sucrose, KCl, and quinine. Our mapping system was used to determine placement, size, and symmetry of the lesions (~91% GC damage on average. For KCl, there was a significant rightward shift (ΔEC50 = 0.57 log10 units; p<0.001 in the GCX psychometric function relative to SHAM, replicating our prior work. There was also a significant lesion-induced impairment (ΔEC50 = 0.41 log10 units; p = 0.006 in quinine sensitivity. Surprisingly, taste sensitivity to sucrose was unaffected by the extensive lesions and was comparable between GCX and SHAM rats. The fact that such large bilateral GC lesions did not shift sucrose psychometric functions relative to SHAM, but did significantly compromise quinine and KCl sensitivity suggests that the neural circuits responsible for the detection of specific taste stimuli are partially dissociable. Lesion-induced impairments were observed in expression of a postsurgical CTA to a maltodextrin solution as assessed in a taste-oriented brief-access test, but were not reflected in a longer term 46-h two-bottle test. Thus, deficits observed in rats after extensive damage to the GC are also dependent on the test used to assess taste function. In conclusion, the degree to which the GC is necessary for the maintenance of normal taste detectability apparently depends on the chemical and

  20. Production of strangeness in Ar+KCl reactions at 1.756 AGeV with HADES; Produktion von Seltsamkeit in Ar+KCl Reaktionen bei 1.756 AGeV mit HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmah, Alexander Marc

    2008-05-15

    In september/october 2005 the first of heavier colliding systems was investigated with the HADES spectrometer by using an Ar projectile and a KCl target at a bombarding energy of 1.756 AGeV. With 850 million semi-central reactions in the colliding system Ar+KCl the opportunity was given for one of the most extensive hadron analyses in the SIS energy regime. The results of these analyses are presented in this thesis. The main focal point is the production of particles with strangeness content. The particle ratios of {lambda} and K{sup 0}{sub S} are comparable to those of other experiments. The corrections of acceptance, detector-, cut- and reconstruction efficiency is done using the simulation packages PLUTO, UrQMD and GEANT. With the corrected transverse mass spectra rapidity distributions and particle multiplicities are calculated. Due to the nearly full sample of reconstructed particles carrying strangeness, one can conclude to the missing part, which is connected to the charged {sigma}-hyperons. Within the error bars the fraction of {sigma}{sup {+-}}{sup ,0} is at least 12 % of the {lambda} multiplicity. The detection of the {phi} vector meson far below the nucleon-nucleon production threshold in the decay channel {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} exceeds with 168 {+-} 18 the only up to now published data by more than a factor 7. The extracted effective temperature of T{sub eff}=80{+-}9{sup +2}{sub -3} is a brand-new result. The determined {phi}/K{sup -} ratio is 0.59{sup +0.30}{sub -0.29}. (orig.)

  1. Conventional high-performance liquid chromatography versus derivative spectrophotometry for the determination of 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt and 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt in the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (Pyranine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitian, Simion; White, Samuel R; Yang, H-H Wendy; Weisz, Adrian

    2014-01-10

    Specifications in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations for the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (Colour Index No. 59040) limit the levels of the subsidiary colors 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt (P3S) and 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt (P4S). The present paper describes a comparative study of two possible methods to replace the currently used multi-step TLC/spectrophotometry method of separating and quantifying the minor components P3S and P4S in G8. One of the new approaches uses conventional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the other, derivative spectrophotometry. While the derivative spectrophotometric method was shown to be inadequate for the analysis of minor components overwhelmed by components of much higher concentration, the HPLC method was proven highly effective. The closely related, very polar compounds P3S and P4S were separated by the new HPLC method in less than 4 min using a conventional HPLC instrument. P3S and P4S were quantified by using five-point calibration curves with data points that ranged from 0.45 to 7.63% and from 0.13 to 1.82%, by weight, for P3S and P4S, respectively. The HPLC method was applied to the analysis of test portions from 20 batches of D&C Green No. 8 submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for certification.

  2. Micro-Expression Recognition Using Color Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-Jing; Yan, Wen-Jing; Li, Xiaobai; Zhao, Guoying; Zhou, Chun-Guang; Fu, Xiaolan; Yang, Minghao; Tao, Jianhua

    2015-12-01

    Micro-expressions are brief involuntary facial expressions that reveal genuine emotions and, thus, help detect lies. Because of their many promising applications, they have attracted the attention of researchers from various fields. Recent research reveals that two perceptual color spaces (CIELab and CIELuv) provide useful information for expression recognition. This paper is an extended version of our International Conference on Pattern Recognition paper, in which we propose a novel color space model, tensor independent color space (TICS), to help recognize micro-expressions. In this paper, we further show that CIELab and CIELuv are also helpful in recognizing micro-expressions, and we indicate why these three color spaces achieve better performance. A micro-expression color video clip is treated as a fourth-order tensor, i.e., a four-dimension array. The first two dimensions are the spatial information, the third is the temporal information, and the fourth is the color information. We transform the fourth dimension from RGB into TICS, in which the color components are as independent as possible. The combination of dynamic texture and independent color components achieves a higher accuracy than does that of RGB. In addition, we define a set of regions of interests (ROIs) based on the facial action coding system and calculated the dynamic texture histograms for each ROI. Experiments are conducted on two micro-expression databases, CASME and CASME 2, and the results show that the performances for TICS, CIELab, and CIELuv are better than those for RGB or gray.

  3. The Translation Of Colors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰

    2012-01-01

    Different nations have different or even opposite perception of color, which results in non-equivalence of color words in mutual translation between Chinese and English. This paper is to discuss non-equivalence of color words between Chinese and English on the two aspects and emphasizes the importance of transmitting cultural message accurately in the mutual translation between Chinese and English. Studying the cultural connotations of the words is of great importance for successful communication.

  4. KCl含量对乳化炸药压力减敏的影响%Influences of KCl content on pressure desensitization of emulsion explosives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜明燃; 汪旭光; 颜事龙

    2015-01-01

    在相同的乳胶基质中分别添加0%、2%、4%、6%和8%的KCl,再分别用膨胀珍珠岩和化学发泡剂敏化制备2组乳化炸药.测试各乳化炸药水中爆炸冲击波,得出它们未受压和受压后的爆炸冲击波压力峰值,利用波峰值计算乳化炸药的压力减敏度.依据压力减敏度数值,分析KCl含量对乳化炸药压力减敏作用的影响,并测试不同KCl含量下分散相的析晶点,分析不同KCl含量造成压力减敏变化的原因.结果表明:KCl含量在0%~2%之间时,乳化炸药的压力减敏度无明显变化,KCl含量在2%~8%之间时,KCl含量对乳化炸药的压力减敏度有较大影响,而且呈现出正线形相关性.%An emulsion matrix was mixed with 0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% by the mass of KCl separately, and then expanded perlite and chemical foaming agent as sensitizing agent were used separately to make two groups of emulsion explosives. Their explosion shock waves were tested in water before and after compression by shock waves produced by the host charge underwater. The pressure desensitization degrees of these emulsion explosives were calculated with the peak pressure values of tested shock waves and compared, and the influence of KCl content was analyzed. Results show that when KCl content is between 0% and 2%, the pressure desensitization degrees of the emulsion explosives are unchanged; when KCl content is between 2% and 8%, KCl content shows strong influence, desensitization degree increases with the KCl content. It means that the anti-pressing performance of explosives is worse with the increase of KCl content, the change of the quality and crystallization point of dispersed phase is a factor to change the pressure desensitization degree. These results can provide reference for coal mine blasting and further study on mechanism of pressure desensitization.

  5. IMPURITY EFFECTS AND RADIATION DAMAGE.Kinetics of U2 to H2O- defects conversion in OH- doped KCl and KBr

    OpenAIRE

    Morato,S.; Gomes, L.

    1980-01-01

    A stepwise annealing procedure after a UV photodecomposition of OH- defects in KCl and KBr showed that a U2 center assumes an intermediate configuration before finally forming a H2O- defect. This configuration is characterized by an optical absorption band at 45 000 cm-1 in KCl and at 40 000 cm-1 in KBr. From experimental observations it is proposed that this configuration is formed by a U2 · OH- pair with the U2 center having an independent characteristic optical absorption. A complete cycle...

  6. Color sensing under microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Debesh

    2013-09-01

    Inspired by recent results of artificial color due to Caulfield, we carry out intuitive experimental investigations on color sensing under microwave illumination. Experiemnts have been carried out using a Gunn diode as the microwave source and a microwave diode as a detector. More precise experimental studies have also been carried out utilizing a vector network analyzer. Preliminary results of the experiments validate the feasibility of sensing and discriminating otherwise visual colors under microwave illumination. Caulfield's presumption possibly paves the way for artificial color perception using microwaves.

  7. Surveillance on Artificial Colors in Different Confectionary Products by

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalda Arast

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food color additives, which are used to give a good look to foodstuff, are very effective in the consumers’ satisfaction but they can leave toxic effects on body. With respect to their extensive application, the present research aims to examine the condition of the colorings consumed in confectionary products of the city of Qom. Materials and Methods: 398 items of confectionary products were sampled randomly and their types of colorings were analyzed through the Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC method.Results: Fifty-two percent of the samples were free from coloring, 26.7 percent had illegal artificial coloring, and 21.3 contained approved artificial coloring. It was reported that yellow coloring was most consumed.Conclusion: The scientific introduction and replacement of the natural colorings to the public and emphasis on their advantages play a crucial role in the health of society and can increase enthusiasm of producers and consumers.

  8. Color removal from distillery spent wash through coagulation using Moringa oleifera seeds: use of optimum response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, R Krishna

    2009-06-15

    The effects of dosage, pH and concentration of salts were investigated for an optimized condition of color removal from the distillery spent wash. The optimization process was analyzed using custom response surface methodology (RSM). The design was employed to derive a statistical model for the effect of parameters studied on removal of color using Moringa oleifera coagulant (MOC). The dosage (20 and 60 ml), pH (7 and 8.5) and concentration of 0.25 M had been found to be the optimum conditions for maximum 56% and 67% color removal using sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) salts respectively. The actual color removal at optimal conditions was found to be 53% and 64% respectively for NaCl and KCl salts which confirms close to RSM results. The effects of storage duration and temperature on MOC studied reveal that coagulation efficiency of MOC kept at room temperature was effective for 3 days and at 4 degrees C it performed coagulation up to 5 days.

  9. Electrodeposition of Zr and electrochemical formation of Mg-Zr alloys from the eutectic LiCl-KCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zeng [College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang Milin [College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)], E-mail: milinzhang@126.com; Han Wei; Wang Xiaolei; Tang Dingxiang [College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2008-07-14

    To investigate the electrodeposition mechanism of Zr(IV), the electrochemistry of a LiCl-KCl-K{sub 2}ZrF{sub 6} melt at molybdenum and tungsten electrodes was studied at the temperature between 773 K and 973 K. Transient eletrochemical techniques, such as cyclic volatmmetry and chronopotentiometry were used. The results showed that Zr(IV) was reduced to Zr metal by a two-step mechanism corresponding to the Zr(IV)/Zr(II) and Zr(II)/Zr transitions. The intermediate product was identified as ZrCl{sub 2} by X-ray diffraction. At a liquid magnesium electrode, Mg-Zr alloy was obtained by potentiostatic electrolysis, and the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray detector. The zirconium concentration in samples was about 0.8 mass% determined by an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer.

  10. Equilibrium between titanium ions and high-purity titanium electrorefining in a NaCl-KCl melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-xun Song; Qiu-yu Wang; Guo-jing Hu; Xiao-bo Zhu; Shu-qiang Jiao; Hong-min Zhu

    2014-01-01

    TiClx (x=2.17) was prepared by using titanium sponge to reduce the concentration of TiCl4 in a NaCl−KCl melt under negative pressure. The as-prepared NaCl−KCl−TiClx melt was employed as the electrolyte, and two parallel crude titanium plates and one high-purity titanium plate were used as the anode and cathode, respectively. A series of electrochemical tests were performed to investigate the influence of electrolytic parameters on the current efficiency and quality of cathodic products. The results indicated that the quality of cathodic prod-ucts was related to the current efficiency, which is significantly dependent on the current density and the initial concentration of titanium ions. The significance of this study is the attainment of high-purity titanium with a low oxygen content of 30 × 10−6.

  11. Electrochemical Study of Ni20Cr Coatings Applied by HVOF Process in ZnCl2-KCl at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcayo-Calderón, J.; Sotelo-Mazón, O.; Casales-Diaz, M.; Ascencio-Gutierrez, J. A.; Salinas-Bravo, V. M.; Martinez-Gomez, L.

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion behavior of Ni20Cr coatings deposited by HVOF (high velocity oxygen-fuel) process was evaluated in ZnCl2-KCl (1 : 1 mole ratio) molten salts. Electrochemical techniques employed were potentiodynamic polarization curves, open circuit potential, and linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements. Experimental conditions included static air and temperatures of 350, 400, and 450°C. 304-type SS was evaluated in the same conditions as the Ni20Cr coatings and it was used as a reference material to assess the coatings corrosion resistance. Coatings were evaluated as-deposited and with a grinded surface finished condition. Results showed that Ni20Cr coatings have a better corrosion performance than 304-type SS. Analysis showed that Ni content of the coatings improved its corrosion resistance, and the low corrosion resistance of 304 stainless steel was attributed to the low stability of Fe and Cr and their oxides in the corrosive media used. PMID:25210645

  12. Thermoluminescence dependence on the wavelength of monochromatic UV-radiation in Cu-doped KCl and KBr at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez R, A.; Piters, T.; Aceves, R.; Rodriguez M, R.; Perez S, R., E-mail: rperez@cifus.uson.mx [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigaciones en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    Thermoluminescence (Tl) dependence on the UV irradiation wavelengths from 200 to 500 nm in Cu-doped KCl and KBr crystals with different thermal treatment has been analyzed. Spectrum of the Tl intensity of each material show lower intensity at wavelengths longer than 420 nm. The Tl intensity depends on the irradiation wavelength. Structure of the Tl intensity spectrum of each sample is very similar to the structure of its optical absorption spectrum, indicating that at each wavelength, monochromatic radiation is absorbed to produce electronic transitions and electron hole pairs. Thermoluminescence of materials with thermal treatment at high temperature shows electron-hole trapping with less efficiency. The results show that Cu-doped alkali-halide materials are good detectors of a wide range of UV monochromatic radiations and could be used to measure UV radiation doses. (Author)

  13. Multiple neural mechanisms for coloring words in synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Takemasa; Noguchi, Yasuki; Koga, Hiroki; Tachibana, Ryosuke; Saiki, Jun; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Kita, Shinichi

    2014-07-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a phenomenon in which achromatic letters/digits automatically induce particular colors. When multiple letters are integrated into a word, some synesthetes perceive that all those letters are changed into the same color, reporting lexical color to that word. Previous psychological studies found several "rules" that determine those lexical colors. The colors to most words are determined by the first letters of the words, while some words in ordinal sequences have their specific colors. Recent studies further reported the third case where lexical colors might be influenced by semantic information of words. Although neural mechanisms determining those lexical colors remained unknown, here we identified three separate neural systems in the synesthete's brain underlying three rules for illusory coloring of words. In addition to the occipito-temporal and parietal regions previously found to be associated with the grapheme-color synesthesia, neural systems for lexical coloring extended to linguistic areas in the left inferior frontal and anterior temporal regions that were engaged in semantic analyses of words. Those results indicate an involvement of wider and higher neural networks than previously assumed in a production of synesthetic colors to visual stimuli and further showed a multiplicity of synesthetic mechanisms represented in the single brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ecological influences on individual differences in color preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Karen B; Hawthorne-Madell, Daniel; Palmer, Stephen E

    2015-11-01

    How can the large, systematic differences that exist between individuals' color preferences be explained? The ecological valence theory (Palmer & Schloss, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:8877-8882, 2010) posits that an individual's preference for each particular color is determined largely by his or her preferences for all correspondingly colored objects. Therefore, individuals should differ in their color preferences to the extent that they have different preferences for the same color-associated objects or that they experience different objects. Supporting this prediction, we found that individuals' color preferences were predicted better by their own preferences for correspondingly colored objects than by other peoples' preferences for the same objects. Moreover, the fit between color preferences and affect toward the colored objects was reliably improved when people's own idiosyncratic color-object associations were included in addition to a standard set of color-object associations. These and related results provide evidence that individual differences in color preferences are reliably influenced by people's personal experiences with colored objects in their environment.

  15. Encyclopedia of color science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology provides an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the concepts of color to all fields of science and technology, including artistic and historical aspects of color. Many topics are discussed in this timely reference, including an introduction to the science of color, and entries on the physics, chemistry and perception of color. Color is described as it relates to optical phenomena of color and continues on through colorants and materials used to modulate color and also to human vision of color. The measurement of color is provided as is colorimetry, color spaces, color difference metrics, color appearance models, color order systems and cognitive color. Other topics discussed include industrial color, color imaging, capturing color, displaying color and printing color. Descriptions of color encodings, color management, processing color and applications relating to color synthesis for computer graphics are included in this work. The Encyclo...

  16. Molecular characterization of a putative K-Cl cotransporter in rat brain. A neuronal-specific isoform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J A; Stevenson, T J; Donaldson, L F

    1996-07-05

    Using a combination of data base searching, polymerase chain reaction, and library screening, we have identified a putative K-Cl cotransporter isoform (KCC2) in rat brain that is specifically localized in neurons. A cDNA of 5566 bases was obtained from overlapping clones and encoded a protein of 1116 amino acids with a deduced molecular mass of 123.6 kDa. Over its full length, the amino acid sequence of KCC2 is 67% identical to the widely distributed K-Cl cotransporter isoform (KCC1) identified in rat brain and rabbit kidney (Gillen, C., Brill, S., Payne, J.A., and Forbush, B., III(1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 16237-16244) but only approximately25% identical to other members of the cation-chloride cotransporter gene family, including "loop" diuretic-sensitive Na-K-Cl cotransport and thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransport. Based on analysis of the primary structure as well as homology with other cation-chloride cotransporters, we predict 12 transmembrane segments bounded by N- and C-terminal cytoplasmic regions. Four sites for N-linked glycosylation are predicted on an extracellular intermembrane loop between putative transmembrane segments 5 and 6. Northern blot analysis using a KCC2-specific cDNA probe revealed a very highly expressed approximately5.6-kilobase transcript only in brain. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that KCC1 was present in rat primary astrocytes and rat C6 glioma cells but that KCC2 was completely absent from these cells, suggesting KCC2 was not of glial cell origin. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated that the KCC2 transcript was expressed at high levels in neurons throughout the central nervous system, including CA1-CA4 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus, granular cells and Purkinje neurons of the cerebellum, and many groups of neurons throughout the brainstem.

  17. Hyperexcitability and epilepsy associated with disruption of the mouse neuronal-specific K-Cl cotransporter gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Nam-Sik; Lu, Jianming; England, Roger; McClellan, Robert; Dufour, Samuel; Mount, David B; Deutch, Ariel Y; Lovinger, David M; Delpire, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Four genes encode electroneutral, Na+-independent, K-Cl cotransporters. KCC2, is exclusively expressed in neurons where it is thought to drive intracellular Cl- to low concentrations and shift the reversal potential for Cl- conductances such as GABA(A) or glycine receptor channels, thus participating in the postnatal development of inhibitory mechanisms in the brain. Indeed, expression of the cotransporter is low at birth and increases postnatally, at a time when the intracellular Cl- concentration in neurons decreases and gamma-aminobutyric acid switches its effect from excitatory to inhibitory. To assert the significance of KCC2 in neuronal function, we disrupted the mouse gene encoding this neuronal-specific K-Cl cotransporter. We demonstrate that animals deficient in KCC2 exhibit frequent generalized seizures and die shortly after birth. We also show upregulation of Fos, the product of the immediate early gene c-fos, and the significant loss of parvalbumin-positive interneurons, both indicative of brain injury. The regions most affected are the hippocampus and temporal and entorhinal cortices. Extracellular field potential measurements in the CA1 hippocampus exhibited hyperexcitability. Application of picrotoxin, a blocker of the GABA(A) receptor, further increased hyperexcitability in homozygous hippocampal sections. Pharmacological treatment of pups showed that diazepam relieved the seizures while phenytoin prevented them between postnatal ages P4-P12. Finally, we demonstrate that adult heterozygote animals show increased susceptibility for epileptic seizure and increased resistance to the anticonvulsant effect of propofol. Taken together, these results indicate that KCC2 plays an important role in controlling CNS excitability during both postnatal development and adult life.

  18. Electrochemical behavior of Pb(Ⅱ) in LiCl-KCl-MgCl2-PbCl2 melts on Mo electrode%Pb(Ⅱ)在LiCl-KCl-MgCl2-PbCl2熔盐体系中的电化学行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张密林; 陈丽军; 韩伟; 颜永得; 曹鹏

    2012-01-01

    在LiCl-KCl-PbCl2-MgCl2熔盐体系中借助循环伏安和计时电位技术对Pb(Ⅱ)的电化学行为以及Pb、Mg、Li的共沉积过程进行探讨,用不同的方法测算得到铅离子在熔盐中的扩散系数.循环伏安和计时电位的研究结果均表明,Li在先析出的Pb上发生欠电位沉积,生成液态的Li-Pb合金,而在熔盐中加入MgCl2后,会有相应的Mg-Li-Pb合金生成.用恒电流密度(6.2l A/cm2)电解2h制备Mg-Li-Pb合金,并运用XRD对所得合金进行分析测试.结果表明,在Mg-Li-Pb合金中存在β-Li、PbLi3、Mg2Pb等合金相,并可以通过控制熔盐中PbCl2和MgCl2的浓度来改变合金相的组成.%Cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry were used to study the reaction mechanism of Pb(Ⅱ) and the co-deposition of Pb,Mg and Li on molybdenum electrodes in LiCl-KCl-PbCl2-MgCl2 melts.The diffusion coefficient of lead ions in the melts was determined by different electrochemical techniques.The results obtained by cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry indicated that the underpotential deposition of lithium on pre-deposited Pb leads to the formation of a liquid Li-Pb alloy,and the Mg-Li-Pb alloys are formed after the addition of MgCl2.X-ray diffraction confirmed that in the Mg-Li-Pb alloy,PbLi3,Mg2Pb and Li7Pb2 phases exist by galvanostatic electrolysis at 6.21 A/cm2 for 2 h at 873 K and the phases can be controlled by changing the concentration of PbCl2 and MgCl2.

  19. Additivity dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Judgments of naturalness of foods tend to be more influenced by the process history of a food, rather than its actual constituents. Two types of processing of a ``natural'' food are to add something or to remove something. We report in this study, based on a large random sample of individuals from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, UK and USA that additives are considered defining features of what makes a food not natural, whereas ``subtractives'' are almost never mentioned. In support of this, skim milk (with major subtraction of fat is rated as more natural than whole milk with a small amount of natural vitamin D added. It is also noted that ``additives'' is a common word, with a synonym reported by a native speaker in 17 of 18 languages, whereas ``subtractive'' is lexicalized in only 1 of the 18 languages. We consider reasons for additivity dominance, relating it to omission bias, feature positive bias, and notions of purity.

  20. The Color of Lobsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, Arjan van

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis of 13C-enriched carotenoids. Carotenoids are natural colorants, ranging in color from pale yellow to deep purple, with important biological functions. Carotenoids in the human diet have a beneficial health effect, playing a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. To ge

  1. List coloring with requests

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák, Zdeněk; Norin, Sergey; Postle, Luke

    2016-01-01

    Let G be a graph with a list assignment L. Suppose a preferred color is given for some of the vertices; how many of these preferences can be respected when L-coloring G? We explore several natural questions arising in this context, and propose directions for further research.

  2. Measurement of Color Texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, M.A.; Geusebroek, J.M.; Deprettere, E.F.; Belloum, A.; Heijnsdijk, J.W.J.; van der Stappen, F.

    2002-01-01

    In computer vision, measurement of image properties such as color or texture is essential. However, existing methods for measuring color and texture in combination are not well-defined neither from a measurement theoretical basis nor from a physical point of view. We propose a solid framework for th

  3. Plasmonic color tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungho; Yun, Hansik; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Hwi

    2016-03-01

    In general, color filter is an optical component to permit the transmission of a specific color in cameras, displays, and microscopes. Each filter has its own unchangeable color because it is made by chemical materials such as dyes and pigments. Therefore, in order to express various colorful images in a display, one pixel should have three sub-pixels of red, green, and blue colors. Here, we suggest new plasmonic structure and method to change the color in a single pixel. It is comprised of a cavity and a metal nanoaperture. The optical cavity generally supports standing waves inside it, and various standing waves having different wavelength can be confined together in one cavity. On the other hand, although light cannot transmit sub-wavelength sized aperture, surface plasmons can propagate through the metal nanoaperture with high intensity due to the extraordinary transmission. If we combine the two structures, we can organize the spatial distribution of amplitudes according to wavelength of various standing waves using the cavity, and we can extract a light with specific wavelength and amplitude using the nanoaperture. Therefore, this cavity-aperture structure can simultaneously tune the color and intensity of the transmitted light through the single nanoaperture. We expect that the cavity-apertures have a potential for dynamic color pixels, micro-imaging system, and multiplexed sensors.

  4. The Color of Lobsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, Arjan van

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis of 13C-enriched carotenoids. Carotenoids are natural colorants, ranging in color from pale yellow to deep purple, with important biological functions. Carotenoids in the human diet have a beneficial health effect, playing a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. To ge

  5. 3-D Color Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The blending of information from an academic class with projects from art class can do nothing but strengthen the learning power of the student. Creating three-dimensional color wheels provides the perfect opportunity to combine basic geometry knowledge with color theory. In this article, the author describes how her seventh-grade painting…

  6. Quorum Colorings of Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Heditniemi (Sandra); R.C. Laskar (R.C.); H.M. Mulder (Martyn)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLet $G = (V,E)$ be a graph. A partition $\\pi = \\{V_1, V_2, \\ldots, V_k \\}$ of the vertices $V$ of $G$ into $k$ {\\it color classes} $V_i$, with $1 \\leq i \\leq k$, is called a {\\it quorum coloring} if for every vertex $v \\in V$, at least half of the vertices in the closed neighborhood

  7. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow...

  8. Dynamic egg color mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Daniel; Šulc, Michal; Brennan, Patricia L R; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš; Honza, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses regarding the function of eggshell phenotypes, from solar protection through mimicry, have implicitly assumed that eggshell appearance remains static throughout the laying and incubation periods. However, recent research demonstrates that egg coloration changes over relatively short, biologically relevant timescales. Here, we provide the first evidence that such changes impact brood parasite-host eggshell color mimicry during the incubation stage. First, we use long-term data to establish how rapidly the Acrocephalus arundinaceus Linnaeus (great reed warbler) responded to natural parasitic eggs laid by the Cuculus canorus Linnaeus (common cuckoo). Most hosts rejected parasitic eggs just prior to clutch completion, but the host response period extended well into incubation (~10 days after clutch completion). Using reflectance spectrometry and visual modeling, we demonstrate that eggshell coloration in the great reed warbler and its brood parasite, the common cuckoo, changes rapidly, and the extent of eggshell color mimicry shifts dynamically over the host response period. Specifically, 4 days after being laid, the host should notice achromatic color changes to both cuckoo and warbler eggs, while chromatic color changes would be noticeable after 8 days. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the perceived match between host and cuckoo eggshell color worsened over the incubation period. These findings have important implications for parasite-host coevolution dynamics, because host egg discrimination may be aided by disparate temporal color changes in host and parasite eggs.

  9. The Colored Jones Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN You-fa; YAN Xin-ming; LV Li-li

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we discuss the properties of the colored Jones function of knots.Particularly,we calculate the colored Jones function of some knots(31,41,51,52).Furthermore,one can compute the Kashaev's invariants and study some properties of the Kashaev's conjecture.

  10. 3-D Color Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The blending of information from an academic class with projects from art class can do nothing but strengthen the learning power of the student. Creating three-dimensional color wheels provides the perfect opportunity to combine basic geometry knowledge with color theory. In this article, the author describes how her seventh-grade painting…

  11. The color of money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Einarsdóttir, Kristin Vala

    2014-01-01

    of attention are affected by reward, and whether the effect involves general enhancement or is specific to discrete components of attention. Observers viewed brief displays of differentially colored letters and reported their identity. Each color signified a consistent monetary value and we measured...

  12. Image color reduction method for color-defective observers using a color palette composed of 20 particular colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a color enhancement method that uses a color palette especially designed for protan and deutan defects, commonly known as red-green color blindness. The proposed color reduction method is based on a simple color mapping. Complicated computation and image processing are not required by using the proposed method, and the method can replace protan and deutan confusion (p/d-confusion) colors with protan and deutan safe (p/d-safe) colors. Color palettes for protan and deutan defects proposed by previous studies are composed of few p/d-safe colors. Thus, the colors contained in these palettes are insufficient for replacing colors in photographs. Recently, Ito et al. proposed a p/dsafe color palette composed of 20 particular colors. The author demonstrated that their p/d-safe color palette could be applied to image color reduction in photographs as a means to replace p/d-confusion colors. This study describes the results of the proposed color reduction in photographs that include typical p/d-confusion colors, which can be replaced. After the reduction process is completed, color-defective observers can distinguish these confusion colors.

  13. Nature's palette: the search for natural blue colorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Andrew G; Culver, Catherine A; van Breemen, Richard B

    2014-07-16

    The food and beverage industry is seeking to broaden the palette of naturally derived colorants. Although considerable effort has been devoted to the search for new blue colorants in fruits and vegetables, less attention has been directed toward blue compounds from other sources such as bacteria and fungi. The current work reviews known organic blue compounds from natural plant, animal, fungal, and microbial sources. The scarcity of blue-colored metabolites in the natural world relative to metabolites of other colors is discussed, and structural trends common among natural blue compounds are identified. These compounds are grouped into seven structural classes and evaluated for their potential as new color additives.

  14. Aspects of Color Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, D K

    2001-01-01

    I discuss some aspects of recent developments in color superconductivity in high density quark matter. I calculate the Cooper pair gap and the critical points at high density, where magnetic gluons are not screened. The ground state of high density QCD with three light flavors is shown to be a color-flavor locking state, which can be mapped into the low-density hadronic phase. The meson mass at the CFL superconductor is also calculated. The CFL color superconductor is bosonized, where the Fermi sea is identified as a $Q$-matter and the gapped quarks as topological excitations, called superqualitons, of mesons. Finally, as an application of color supercoductivity, I discuss the neutrino interactions in the CFL color superconductor.

  15. Color Medical Image Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 20th century, medical imaging has been dominated by monochrome imaging modalities such as x-ray, computed tomography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. As a result, color information has been overlooked in medical image analysis applications. Recently, various medical imaging modalities that involve color information have been introduced. These include cervicography, dermoscopy, fundus photography, gastrointestinal endoscopy, microscopy, and wound photography. However, in comparison to monochrome images, the analysis of color images is a relatively unexplored area. The multivariate nature of color image data presents new challenges for researchers and practitioners as the numerous methods developed for monochrome images are often not directly applicable to multichannel images. The goal of this volume is to summarize the state-of-the-art in the utilization of color information in medical image analysis.

  16. Color vision and dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, W; Schuman, N

    1992-05-01

    Color vision is a critical component of restorative and esthetic dentistry, but dentists, as a group, do not have their color vision tested at any time during their careers. A study was undertaken to ascertain the color-vision status of practicing dental personnel at the University of Tennessee, College of Dentistry. One hundred fifty individuals, 75 men and 75 women, were screened. The results corroborated the existing medical data for the general population. It was found that 9.3% of the men and none of the women exhibited color-vision defect. Since most dentists are male, this study demonstrates an area of potential weakness for some practitioners. Once a color-vision problem is found, it is simple to remedy by employing a team approach to shade matching or mechanical means of matching shades (by the practitioner). No ethnic or racial distinctions were detected, although these have been reported in other studies.

  17. High temperature corrosion of thermally sprayed NiCr- and amorphous Fe-based coatings covered with a KCl-K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varis, T.; Suhonen, T.; Tuurna, S.; Ruusuvuori, K.; Holmstroem, S.; Salonen, J. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Bankiewicz, D.; Yrjas, P. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland)

    2010-07-01

    New process conditions due to the requirement of higher efficiency together with the use of high-chlorine and alkali containing fuels such as biomass and waste fuels for heat and electricity production will challenge the resistance and life of tube materials. In conventional materials the addition of alloying elements to increase the corrosion resistance in aggressive combustion conditions increases costs relatively rapidly. Thermally sprayed coating offer promising, effective, flexible and cost efficient solutions to fulfill the material needs for the future. Some heat exchanger design alteractions before global commercialization have to be overcome, though. High temperature corrosion in combustion plants can occur by a variety of mechanisms including passive scale degradation with subsequent rapid scaling, loss of adhesion and scale detachment, attack by melted or partly melted deposits via fluxing reactions and intergranular-/interlamellar corrosion. A generally accepted model of the ''active oxidation'' attributes the responsibility for inducing corrosion to chlorine. The active oxidation mechanism plays a key role in the thermally sprayed coatings due to their unique lamellar structure. In this study, the corrosion behaviour of NiCr (HVOF and Wire Arc), amorphous Fe-based, and Fe13Cr (Wire Arc) thermally sprayed coatings, were tested in the laboratory under simplified biomass combustion conditions. The tests were carried out by using a KCl-K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} salt mixture as a synthetic biomass ash, which was placed on the materials and then heat treated for one week (168h) at two different temperatures (550{sup 0}C and 600 C) and in two different gas atmospheres (air and air+30%H{sub 2}O). After the exposures, the metallographic cross sections of the coatings were studied with SEM/EDX analyzer. The results showed that the coatings behaved relatively well at the lower test temperature while critical corrosion through the lamella boundaries

  18. Prediction of object detection, recognition, and identification [DRI] ranges at color scene images based on quantifying human color contrast perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, Ephi; Levin, Ilia; Yaron, Ofer

    2016-10-01

    We propose a novel approach to predict, for specified color imaging system and for objects with known characteristics, their detection, recognition, identification (DRI) ranges in a colored dynamic scene, based on quantifying the human color contrast perception. The method refers to the well established L*a*b*, 3D color space. The nonlinear relations of this space are intended to mimic the nonlinear response of the human eye. The metrics of L*a*b* color space is such that the Euclidian distance between any two colors in this space is approximately proportional to the color contrast as perceived by the human eye/brain. The result of this metrics leads to the outcome that color contrast of any two points is always greater (or equal) than their equivalent grey scale contrast. This meets our sense that looking on a colored image, contrast is superior to the gray scale contrast of the same image. Yet, color loss by scattering at very long ranges should be considered as well. The color contrast derived from the distance between the colored object pixels and to the nearby colored background pixels, as derived from the L*a*b* color space metrics, is expressed in terms of gray scale contrast. This contrast replaces the original standard gray scale contrast component of that image. As expected, the resulted DRI ranges are, in most cases, larger than those predicted by the standard gray scale image. Upon further elaboration and validation of this method, it may be combined with the next versions of the well accepted TRM codes for DRI predictions. Consistent prediction of DRI ranges implies a careful evaluation of the object and background color contrast reduction along the range. Clearly, additional processing for reconstructing the objects and background true colors and hence the color contrast along the range, will further increase the DRI ranges.

  19. On the impedance of galvanic cells—XVI The impedance of the dropping mercury electrode in aqueous 1 M KCl with K+ discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluyters-Rehbach, M.; Sluyters, J.H.

    1966-01-01

    The discharge of K+ ions at the dropping mercury electrode (dme) in 1 M KCl solution at 25°C has been studied by means of analysis of the electrode impedance at different frequencies, using the complex plane method. It is shown that the electrode reaction is almost entirely diffusion-controlled, but

  20. On the impedance of galvanic cells XXIV. The impedance of the In3+/In(Hg) electrode reaction in KSCN and KCl solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, B.; Sluyters-Rehbach, M.; Sluyters, J.H.

    1968-01-01

    The In3+/In(Hg) system in KSCN and KCl solutions has been investigated using both d.c. and a.c. measurements. The experimental data are analysed and interpreted according to theoretical equations presented recently. It is shown that the specific adsorption of indium from 1 M KSCN follows a linear a

  1. Chemical mechanical planarization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 using KClO4 as oxidizer in acidic slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Aodong; Song, Zhitang; Bo, Liu; Zhong, Min; Weili, Liu; Wang, Liangyong; Yan, Weixia; Lei, Yu; Wu, Guangping

    Amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 (a-GST) chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) using KClO4 as the oxidizer in an acidicslurry is investigated in the present work. It is shown that the removal rate (RR ) of the a-GST firstly increases and thentends to saturate when the KClO4 concentration is greater than 0.8 wt%, but the static etch rate (SER) linearly increasesfrom low to high KClO4 concentration. To understand the oxidation-reaction capability of Ge, Sb and Te, depth profilesof composition of elements and etch morphology of a-GST immersed in the slurry for some time are measured,respectively. It is found that selective corrosion occurs among Ge, Sb and Te, and an accumulation of Te and loss of Gein a-GST surface region are obvious observed, especially at high KClO4 concentrations. Temperature dependent sheetresistance measurements of all the samples pre- and post-CMP reveal a similar trend, which implies a-GST CMP is ableto keep its characteristic well.

  2. Measurements of the salt-removal of NaCl, KCl and MgCl using a carbon electrode prepared with freezing thawing method in capacitive deionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endarko, Sari, Intan Permata; Fatimah, Iim

    2016-04-01

    Carbon electrodes prepared with freezing thawing method for desalination purpose has been synthesized and characterized. The carbon electrodes were prepared with an activated carbon (700 - 1400 m2/g) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a binder using freezing thawing method with 3 and 4 cycles (1 cycle is 12 hours for freezing and 12 hours for thawing). Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were used to analyze their electrochemical properties. The main study was to measure the salt-removal of 180 µS/cm NaCl, MgCl and KCl using a capacitive deionization (CDI) unit cell with five pairs of carbon electrodes. The applied potential of 2.0 V and a flow rate of 25 mL/min were used to desalination tests, the result showed that the salt-removal percentage of KCl solution has greater than NaCl and MgCl. The highest value for the salt-removal of NaCl, KCl and MgCl can be achieved for the freezing thawing method with 4 cycles. The salt-removal percentage of KCl was achieved at 64.10% whilst resulted in 54.30 and 54.47 % for NaCl and MgCl, respectively.

  3. Thermodynamic description of the AgCl–CoCl{sub 2}–InCl{sub 3}–KCl system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kun, E-mail: wangkun@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201800 (China); Fei, Zejie [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201800 (China); Wang, Jian [Center for Research in Computational Thermochemistry (CRCT), Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3A7 (Canada); Wu, Zhu [Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050 (China); Li, Chonghe [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy & Materials Processing, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200072 (China); Xie, Leidong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201800 (China)

    2015-08-01

    The present investigation is aimed at deriving a set of self-consistent thermodynamic functions for the AgCl–CoCl{sub 2}–InCl{sub 3}–KCl quaternary system within the framework of the CALPHAD approach. All the previous reported thermodynamic parameters for the binary subsystems were initially reviewed and adopted, and critical thermodynamic evaluations and optimizations were later performed on the unavailable AgCl–KCl and InCl{sub 3}–KCl systems in terms of the required phase equilibria and thermochemical data from experimental measurements and theoretical predictions (First-principles method and empirical equation). The Modified Quasi-Chemical model were applied to describing the molten salt phase, while all the intermediate phases were treated as the stoichiometric compounds due to no observation of the homogeneity composition range. Various phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties in the ternary and quaternary systems could be facilely calculated based upon the ultimate thermodynamic database established in this case, which will support beneficial instructions in the related industrial processes. - Highlights: • The modified quasi-chemical model was used to describe the liquid phase. • First principles method was applied to assist model parameters optimization of the intermediate phase. • The complete phase diagram of the InCl{sub 3}–KCl system was calculated for the first time in the present work.

  4. Application of the rotating cylinder electrode in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic containing uranium(III)- and magnesium(II)-chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappleye, Devin; Simpson, Michael F.

    2017-04-01

    The application of the rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) to molten LiCl-KCl eutectic mixtures for electroanalytical measurements is presented. This enabled the measurement of the limiting current which was observed to follow a linear trend with the rotational rate raised to 0.64-0.65 power on average, which closely agrees with existing RCE mass-transfer correlations. This is the first publication of electroanalytical RCE measurements in LiCl-KCl eutectic based molten salt mixtures, to our knowledge. These measurements were made in mixtures of molten LiCl-KCl eutectic containing UCl3 and MgCl2. Kinetic parameters were calculated for Mg2+ in LiCl-KCl eutectic. The exchange current density (io) of Mg2+ deposition varied with mole fraction (x) according to io(A cm-2) = 1.64x0.689. The parameters from RCE measurements were also applied in an electrochemical co-deposition model entitled DREP to detect and predict the deposition rate of U and Mg. DREP succeeded in detecting the co-deposition of U and Mg, even when Mg constituted less than 0.5 wt% of the deposit.

  5. Potlining Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  6. Additivity dominance

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Judgments of naturalness of foods tend to be more influenced by the process history of a food, rather than its actual constituents. Two types of processing of a ``natural'' food are to add something or to remove something. We report in this study, based on a large random sample of individuals from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, UK and USA) that additives are considered defining features of what makes a food not natural, whereas ``subtractives'' are almost never mentioned....

  7. Sulfite Additives

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    The CMA recommends that sulfites be banned as food preservatives when satisfactory and safe alternatives are available. When there is no suitable substitute strict labelling requirements on foods should be imposed for sulfite additives. The association supports the efforts of the Health Protection Branch of the Department of National Health and Welfare to regulate sulfites in the food and drug industry to prevent adverse reactions in people sensitive to sulfites. The CMA recommends that the D...

  8. ROS activate KCl cotransport in nonadherent Ehrlich ascites cells but K+ and Cl- channels in adherent Ehrlich Lettré and NIH3T3 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Klausen, Thomas Kjær; Bergdahl, Andreas;

    2009-01-01

    the electrochemical driving force for K(+). On the other hand, the H2O2-induced cell shrinkage was impaired in the presence of the KCl cotransport inhibitor DIOA, following substitution of NO3(-) for Cl(-), and when the driving force for KCl cotransport was omitted. It is suggested that H2O2 activates electro neutral...

  9. Spectroscopy of virtual photons in Ar+KCl collisions at E{sub kin}=1.76 AGeV; Spektroskopie virtueller Photonen in Ar+KCl Stoessen bei E{sub kin}=1,76 AGeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurkovic, Martin

    2010-01-14

    The objective of this thesis is the analysis of virtual photon emission originating from the decays of the short lived hadrons produced in Ar+KCl collisions at E{sub kin}=1.76 AGeV. The measured observables were the reconstructed e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs and their kinematic distributions. The data were recorded with the HADES spectrometer assembled at GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH in Darmstadt, Germany. Due to the considerably higher combinatorial background originating from the {gamma}-conversion as compared to that from light collision systems (p+p,C+C) investigated so far with HADES, a new method for identification and suppression of conversion electrons using the signal pattern in the RICH-detector was studied. An improvement of signal to background ratio (S/B) reaching 30% was achieved. For the procedure of calculating the e{sup +}/e{sup -} track efficiencies a detailed study of RICH detector signals was performed, leading to an overall improved description of ring observables in the simulation. In total, 32545pm 385 e{sup +}e{sup -} signal pairs with an opening angle {alpha}{sub ee} > 15 and 0.1 < p{sub e} < 1.1 GeV/c were identified, with 7402{+-}222 pairs in the so-called {eta} mass region (0.15 < M{sub ee} < 0.55 GeV/c{sup 2}) and 253{+-}25 for masses M{sub ee} > 0.55 GeV/c{sup 2}. A clear signal from direct {omega} decay with S/B {proportional_to}1 was identified for the first time in the SIS18 energy regime. The extraction of the {omega} yield per produced {pi}{sup 0} results in N({omega})/N({pi}{sup 0}) {approx} (4,5 {+-} 2,5(stat) {+-} 2(sys)) .10{sup -8}. The e{sup +}e{sup -} production in the {eta} mass region was compared to the expected {eta} Dalitz decay {eta}{yields}{gamma}e{sup +}e{sup -} contribution. The measured e{sup +}e{sup -} yield is higher by a factor F = 3.4{+-}0.2(stat){+-}0.6(sys){+-}0.9({eta}) as compared to the {eta} production. The excitation function of the extra e{sup +}/e{sup -} sources shows similar energy

  10. Stool Color: When to Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool color: When to worry Yesterday, my stool color was bright green. Should I be concerned? Answers from Michael ... M.D. Stool comes in a range of colors. All shades of brown and even green are ...

  11. Nano-Sized Natural Colorants from Rocks and Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, W. Y. W.; Ruznan, W. S.; Hamid, H. A.; Kadir, M. I. A.; Yusoh, M. K. M.; Ahmad, M. R.

    2010-03-01

    Colored rocks (lateritic) and soils (shales) are available in abundant all around Malaysia and they are from natural sources. The colorants will be useful if they can be transferred to substrates using dyeing, printing or brushing with acceptable fastness. First of all the rocks need to be crushed into powder form before coloration can take place. The sizes of the colorants particles obtained with coffee grinder were of 7-8 microns. They can be reduced to 3-5 micron using fluidized bed jetmill and to nano sizes with the help of planetary mono mill grinders. The experiment was conducted in both dyeing and printing of textiles using all three sizes (7-8 microns, 3-5 microns and nano sizes) of colorants on silk fabric. The colorants were applied on silk fabrics by dyeing and tie and dye techniques. In addition, the colorants can also be applied by brushing technique as in batik canting or batik block as well as silk screen printing. The evaluations of colored materials were based on the levelness of dyeing, fastness properties (washing, light and rubbing fastness) and color strength. The wash fastness testing shows that all colorants sizes have more or less the same fastness to washing but nano sized colorants produced better uniform dyes distribution (levelness of dyeing) and higher color strength.

  12. Chromatic settings and the structural color constancy index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Vila, Jordi; Parraga, C Alejandro; Vanrell, Maria

    2013-03-11

    Color constancy is usually measured by achromatic setting, asymmetric matching, or color naming paradigms, whose results are interpreted in terms of indexes and models that arguably do not capture the full complexity of the phenomenon. Here we propose a new paradigm, chromatic setting, which allows a more comprehensive characterization of color constancy through the measurement of multiple points in color space under immersive adaptation. We demonstrated its feasibility by assessing the consistency of subjects' responses over time. The paradigm was applied to two-dimensional (2-D) Mondrian stimuli under three different illuminants, and the results were used to fit a set of linear color constancy models. The use of multiple colors improved the precision of more complex linear models compared to the popular diagonal model computed from gray. Our results show that a diagonal plus translation matrix that models mechanisms other than cone gain might be best suited to explain the phenomenon. Additionally, we calculated a number of color constancy indices for several points in color space, and our results suggest that interrelations among colors are not as uniform as previously believed. To account for this variability, we developed a new structural color constancy index that takes into account the magnitude and orientation of the chromatic shift in addition to the interrelations among colors and memory effects.

  13. Simultaneous Determination of Acetaminophen and Synthetic Color(s) by Derivative Spectroscopy in Syrup Formulations and Validation by HPLC: Exposure Risk of Colors to Children

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi, Shanya Das; Dixit, Sumita; Tripathi, Anurag; Das, Mukul

    2014-01-01

    Color additives are used in pediatric syrup formulations as an excipient; though not pre-requisite, but pediatric syrup formulations are normally colored. An attempt has been made to measure simultaneously the single drug, acetaminophen (AT), along with the colors, carmoisine (CA), erythrosine (ET), and sunset yellow FCF (SSY) added in it by three derivative spectroscopy methods namely, 1st order, ratio, and differential derivative methods. Moreover, evaluation has been made for the exposure ...

  14. Colorimetric characterization for comparative analysis of fungal pigments and natural food colorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapari, Sameer A S; Meyer, Anne S; Thrane, Ulf

    2006-09-20

    Exogenous pigments produced by ascomycetous filamentous fungi belonging to the genera Penicillium, Epicoccum, and Monascus, preselected based on chemotaxonomic knowledge, have been extracted and characterized by quantitative colorimetry. The color characteristics of the fungal extracts were compared to water soluble natural colorants derived from sources currently in use. The tested fungal extracts also included some commercially available Monascus colorants. The a values for the fungal extracts were found to be both positive and negative, the b values were found to be positive, while the hue angles of the fungal color extracts ranged from 40 to 110 indicating the color distribution of fungal extracts over the red-orange-yellow region of the CIELAB color space. The fungal extracts exhibited additional color hues in the red spectrum and similar hues in the yellow spectrum as compared to the reference natural colorants. They were also found to be similar or brighter in terms of chroma to some of the reference natural colorants. Principal component analysis was performed to group and distinguish different colors based on the a and b values. The fungal color extracts could be grouped in accordance with the similarity or difference in the color to those of the existing natural colorants. The diversity of colors was not only found among different fungal genera and/or species but also within the same species on changing the media. There was a marked change in the color composition of the extracts resulting in relatively different hues. Our results, thus, indicate that there exists pigment-producing genera of ascomycetous fungi other than Monascus that produce color shades in the red and the yellow spectra in addition or similar to reference colorants. These color shades could add to the color palette of the natural colorants currently in use. In addition, the multivariate approach in distinguishing and classifying the colorants was shown to be a very useful tool in

  15. Impaired acquisition of novel grapheme-color correspondences in synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brang, David; Ghiam, Michael; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2013-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which letters and numbers (graphemes) consistently evoke particular colors (e.g., A may be experienced as red). These sensations are thought to arise through the cross-activation of grapheme processing regions in the fusiform gyrus and color area V4, supported by anatomical and functional imaging. However, the developmental onset of grapheme-color synesthesia remains elusive as research in this area has largely relied on self-report of these experiences in children. One possible account suggests that synesthesia is present at or near birth and initially binds basic shapes and forms to colors, which are later refined to grapheme-color associations through experience. Consistent with this view, studies show that similarly shaped letters and numbers tend to elicit similar colors in synesthesia and that some synesthetes consciously associate basic shapes with colors; research additionally suggests that synesthetic colors can emerge for newly learned characters with repeated presentation. This model further predicts that the initial shape-color correspondences in synesthesia may persist as implicit associations, driving the acquisition of colors for novel characters. To examine the presence of latent color associations for novel characters, synesthetes and controls were trained on pre-defined associations between colors and complex shapes, on the assumption that the prescribed shape-color correspondences would on average differ from implicit synesthetic associations. Results revealed synesthetes were less accurate than controls to learn novel shape-color associations, consistent with our suggestion that implicit form-color associations conflicted with the learned pairings.

  16. Impaired acquisition of novel grapheme-color correspondences in synesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eBrang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which letters and numbers (graphemes consistently evoke particular colors (e.g. A may be experienced as red. These sensations are thought to arise through the cross-activation of grapheme processing regions in the fusiform gyrus and color area V4, supported by anatomical and functional imaging. However, the developmental onset of grapheme-color synesthesia remains elusive as research in this area has largely relied on self-report of these experiences in children. One possible account suggests that synesthesia is present at or near birth and initially binds basic shapes and forms to colors, which are later refined to grapheme-color associations through experience. Consistent with this view, studies show that similarly shaped letters and numbers tend to elicit similar colors in synesthesia and that some synesthetes consciously associate basic shapes with colors; research additionally suggests that synesthetic colors can emerge for newly learned characters with repeated presentation. This model further predicts that the initial shape-color correspondences in synesthesia may persist as implicit associations, driving the acquisition of colors for novel characters. To examine the presence of latent color associations for novel characters, synesthetes and controls were trained on pre-defined associations between colors and complex shapes, on the assumption that the prescribed shape-color correspondences would on average differ from implicit synesthetic associations. Results revealed synesthetes were less accurate than controls to learn novel shape-color associations, consistent with our suggestion that implicit form-color associations conflicted with the learned pairings.

  17. Color-avoiding percolation

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Sebastian M; Zlatić, Vinko

    2016-01-01

    Many real world networks have groups of similar nodes which are vulnerable to the same failure or adversary. Nodes can be colored in such a way that colors encode the shared vulnerabilities. Using multiple paths to avoid these vulnerabilities can greatly improve network robustness. Color-avoiding percolation provides a theoretical framework for analyzing this scenario, focusing on the maximal set of nodes which can be connected via multiple color-avoiding paths. In this paper we extend the basic theory of color-avoiding percolation that was published in [Krause et. al., Phys. Rev. X 6 (2016) 041022]. We explicitly account for the fact that the same particular link can be part of different paths avoiding different colors. This fact was previously accounted for with a heuristic approximation. We compare this approximation with a new, more exact theory and show that the new theory is substantially more accurate for many avoided colors. Further, we formulate our new theory with differentiated node functions, as s...

  18. 氯化钾团簇的成核和重结晶的分子动力学模拟%Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Nucleation and Recrystalization of KCl Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国勋; 朱小蕾; 邵景玲; 杨操

    2009-01-01

    利用Born-Mayer-Huggins 势函数对(KCl)256、(KCl)500和(KCl)864团簇的成核和重结晶进行了分子动力学(MD)模拟.根据MD模拟结果和经典成核理论估算和讨论了KCl团簇的熔化温度、熔化焓、平均离子扩散系数、成核速率、固液界面自由能和临界核大小.另一方面,在MD模拟中,观察到了(KCl)864的热退火过程中的固态重结晶,并获得了250~400K温度范围内(KCl)864团簇重结晶的成核速率.

  19. Theoretical aspects of color vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbarsht, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    The three color receptors of Young-Helmholtz and the opponent colors type of information processing postulated by Hering are both present in the human visual system. This mixture accounts for both the phenomena of color matching or hue discrimination and such perceptual qualities of color as the division of the spectrum into color bands. The functioning of the cells in the visual system, especially within the retina, and the relation of this function to color perception are discussed.

  20. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects.

  1. Compressing Color Data for Voxelized Surface Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolonius, Dan; Sintorn, Erik; Kampe, Viktor; Assarsson, Ulf

    2017-08-18

    We explore the problem of decoupling color information from geometry in large scenes of voxelized surfaces and of compressing the array of colors without introducing disturbing artifacts. In this extension of our I3D paper with the same title, we first present a novel method for connecting each node in a sparse voxel DAG to its corresponding colors in a separate 1D array of colors, with very little additional information stored to the DAG. Then, we show that by mapping the 1D array of colors onto a 2D image using a space-filling curve, we can achieve high compression rates and good quality using conventional, modern, hardware-accelerated texture compression formats such as ASTC or BC7. We additionally explore whether this method can be used to compress voxel colors for off-line storage and network transmission using conventional off-line compression formats such as JPG and JPG2K. For real-time decompression, we suggest a novel variable bitrate block encoding that consistently outperforms previous work, often achieving two times the compression at equal quality.

  2. Medium-induced color flow softens hadronization

    CERN Document Server

    Beraudo, A; Wiedemann, U A

    2012-01-01

    Medium-induced parton energy loss, resulting from gluon exchanges between the QCD matter and partonic projectiles, is expected to underly the strong suppression of jets and high-$p_T$ hadron spectra observed in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Here, we present the first color-differential calculation of parton energy loss. We find that color exchange between medium and projectile enhances the invariant mass of energetic color singlet clusters in the parton shower by a parametrically large factor proportional to the square root of the projectile energy. This effect is seen in more than half of the most energetic color-singlet fragments of medium-modified parton branchings. Applying a standard cluster hadronization model, we find that it leads to a characteristic additional softening of hadronic spectra. A fair description of the nuclear modification factor measured at the LHC may then be obtained for relatively low momentum transfers from the medium.

  3. Colors of Dynamically Associated Asteroid Pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Moskovitz, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Recent dynamical studies have identified pairs of asteroids that reside in nearly identical heliocentric orbits. Possible formation scenarios for these systems include dissociation of binary asteroids, collisional disruption of a single parent body, or spin-up and rotational fission of a rubble-pile. Aside from detailed dynamical analyses and measurement of rotational light curves, little work has been done to investigate the colors or spectra of these unusual objects. A photometric and spectroscopic survey was conducted to determine the reflectance properties of asteroid pairs. New observations were obtained for a total of 34 individual asteroids. Additional photometric measurements were retrieved from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Moving Object Catalog. Colors or spectra for a total of 42 pair components are presented here. The main findings of this work are: (1) the components in the observed pair systems have the same colors within the uncertainties of this survey, and (2) the color distribution of asteroi...

  4. Coloration mechanisms and phylogeny of Morpho butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, M A; Yoshioka, S; Liu, C; Stavenga, D G

    2016-12-15

    Morpho butterflies are universally admired for their iridescent blue coloration, which is due to nanostructured wing scales. We performed a comparative study on the coloration of 16 Morpho species, investigating the morphological, spectral and spatial scattering properties of the differently organized wing scales. In numerous previous studies, the bright blue Morpho coloration has been fully attributed to the multi-layered ridges of the cover scales' upper laminae, but we found that the lower laminae of the cover and ground scales play an important additional role, by acting as optical thin film reflectors. We conclude that Morpho coloration is a subtle combination of overlapping pigmented and/or unpigmented scales, multilayer systems, optical thin films and sometimes undulated scale surfaces. Based on the scales' architecture and their organization, five main groups can be distinguished within the genus Morpho, largely agreeing with the accepted phylogeny.

  5. A new method for colors characterization of colored stainless steel using CIE and Munsell color systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Keming; Xue, Yongqiang; Cui, Zixiang

    2015-09-01

    It is important to establish an accurate and comprehensive method of characterizing colors of colored stainless steel and understand the changing mechanism and the regularity of colors for the research, production and application of colored stainless steel. In this work, the method which combines reflectance-wavelength with both CIE and Munsell color systems is studied, the changing regularity of hue, brightness and saturation with increasing coloring potential differences is investigated, and the mechanism of color changing is discussed. The results show that by using this method the colors of colored stainless steel can be accurately and comprehensively characterized; with coloring potential differences and colored film thickness increasing, the peaks and troughs of the reflectance curves in visible region move toward long wave, causing the cyclically changing of hue and brightness; the amplitude of reflectance curves increases, resulting in growing of the saturation; the CIE 1931 coordinate curve of colors counterclockwise and cyclically changes around the equal energy light spot.

  6. Thermoluminescent monitoring of the solar ultraviolet radiation with KCl: Eu{sup 2+} crystals; Monitoreo termoluminiscente de la radiacion solar ultravioleta con cristales de KCl: Eu{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernov, V.; Melendrez, R.; Barboza F, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 5-88, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In this work it has been investigating the Tl properties of KCl: Eu{sup 2+} subjected to solar direct radiation. Also it was realized irradiation with the Deuterium and Xenon lamps. It was used a set of filters and a Katos monochromator 0.25 M to determine the spectral response to Tl peaks and a study of them with respect to the duration of the Sun irradiation. After of the Sun irradiation the Tl curves show several peaks between the ambient temperature and 673 K. The relation between peaks depends strongly of the irradiation time and the different solar light wavelength. It is possible to divide the Tl peaks in two groups. The first one (T<473 K) is very sensitive to ultraviolet radiation but it is strongly affected by visible light. The second one (T>473 K) is not too sensitive but is more stable under optical whitening. Here the obtained results are discussed with respect to UV dosemeters development for environment which facilitate to obtain direct measurements of the UV index. (Author)

  7. Three-flavor color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malekzadeh, H.

    2007-12-15

    I investigate some of the inert phases in three-flavor, spin-zero color-superconducting quark matter: the CFL phase (the analogue of the B phase in superfluid {sup 3}He), the A and A{sup *} phases, and the 2SC and sSC phases. I compute the pressure of these phases with and without the neutrality condition. Without the neutrality condition, after the CFL phase the sSC phase is the dominant phase. However, including the neutrality condition, the CFL phase is again the energetically favored phase except for a small region of intermediate densities where the 2SC/A{sup *} phase is favored. It is shown that the 2SC phase is identical to the A{sup *} phase up to a color rotation. In addition, I calculate the self-energies and the spectral densities of longitudinal and transverse gluons at zero temperature in color-superconducting quark matter in the CFL phase. I find a collective excitation, a plasmon, at energies smaller than two times the gap parameter and momenta smaller than about eight times the gap. The dispersion relation of this mode exhibits a minimum at some nonzero value of momentum, indicating a van Hove singularity. (orig.)

  8. Naturally Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Instead of using dye to color cotton, an Arizona cotton breeder is letting nature do the work. Through crossbreeding, Sally Fox of Natural Cotton Colours in Wickenberg is creating plants that yield fiber in an array

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to my eye like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored ... at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems ...

  11. Chemistry, Color, and Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orna, Mary Virginia

    2001-01-01

    Describes pigments and artists' colors from a chronological perspective. Explains how chemical analysis can be used to distinguish the differences between artists' palettes, identify the evolution of art, and lead to restoration of an art work. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 000 per violation. "Many of the lenses found online or in beauty salons, novelty shops or in ... de contacto de color Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Ask an Ophthalmologist Browse Answers Free Newsletter Get ...

  13. Colors of the Sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.; Fraser, Alistair B.

    1985-01-01

    Explains the physical principles which result in various colors of the sky. Topics addressed include: blueness, mystical properties of water vapor, ozone, fluctuation theory of scattering, variation of purity and brightness, and red sunsets and sunrises. (DH)

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... shop, but 10 hours after she first put in a pair of colored contact lenses, Laura Butler of Parkersburg, W.Va., had "extreme pain in both eyes," she said. "Because I had not ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir ... Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored contact lenses without ...

  16. Facts About Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... perception of its employees, such as graphic design, photography, and food quality inspection. The Farnsworth Lantern Test ... a green chalkboard when yellow chalk is used. Art classes, which require selecting appropriate colors of paint ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ... wear costume contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los ... contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lentes de contacto de color Find an ... Link your website to EyeSmart Embed EyeSmart videos on your website Promotional materials for eye health observances EyeSmart resources are also ...

  20. Food Coloring and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1994-01-01

    The association between the ingestion of tartrazine synthetic food coloring and behavioral change in children referred for assessment of hyperactivity was investigated at the Royal Children’s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia.

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... popping touch. But colored contact lenses are popular year-round, not just at Halloween. But few know ... contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye exam from ...

  2. A Colorful Equatorial Wonderland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Papua New Guinea (PNG) is one of the least visited countries in the world... a last frontier for international travelers. PNG is a colorful equatorial wonderland as well as a living example of human's culture 1000 years ago.

  3. Relighting multiple color textures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DIAO Chang-yu; LU Dong-ming; LIU Gang

    2005-01-01

    With the development of digital library technology, library books made of paper can be digital released and read, and Endangered Cultural Heritages can be preserved. Traditional library's contents and functions can be greatly enhanced by digital technologies. For these new library objects, the primary key problem is precisely reconstructing their 3D models. When constructing complete 3D models, multiple color texture maps are often necessary. A commonly encountered problem uncounted during fusing of textures from multiple color images is color distortion. Each texture of a single 3D model may be obtained under possibly different lighting conditions and color response of the camera. To remove any visible seam and improve color consistency between the textures while avoiding color distortion, we propose a new efficient algorithm to relight all the texture images globally,spread residual light difference, and recolor each image by homogeneous transformation. A relative illumination model was adopted to obtain the relighting function. We choose lαβ color space with minimal correlation between channels for many natural scenes, for calculating the relighting result. Looking into two overlapped images A and B, we can pairwise relight B into A's luminosity condition in two steps. We first scale B's l channel by the lA/lB ratio of the overlapped region. We can assume A and B are in a same color plane now. Then a homogeneous transformation is applied to B's α and β channels which moves B into A's hue and saturation condition. For multiple overlapped color textures, a patch based weighted global relighting method was proposed to minimize the total color difference. The pairwise relighting method was used between each two overlapped images, and the difference in every overlapped region after relighting was weighted and summed up to construct an energy value. We used Nelder-Mead method to find a minimal energy value and the relighting parameters for every image. After

  4. The locus of color sensation: Cortical color loss and the chromatic visual evoked potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crognale, Michael A.; Duncan, Chad S.; Shoenhard, Hannah; Peterson, Dwight J.; Berryhill, Marian E.

    2013-01-01

    Color losses of central origin (cerebral achromatopsia and dyschromatopsia) can result from cortical damage and are most commonly associated with stroke. Such cases have the potential to provide useful information regarding the loci of the generation of the percept of color. One available tool to examine this issue is the chromatic visual evoked potential (cVEP). The cVEP has been used successfully to objectively quantify losses in color vision capacity in both congenital and acquired deficiencies of retinal origin but has not yet been applied to cases of color losses of cortical origin. In addition, it is not known with certainty which cortical sites are responsible for the generation of the cVEP waveform components. Here we report psychophysical and electrophysiological examination of a patient with color deficits resulting from a bilateral cerebral infarct in the ventral occipitotemporal region. Although this patient demonstrated pronounced color losses of a general nature, the waveform of the cVEP remains unaffected. Contrast response functions of the cVEP are also normal for this patient. The results suggest that the percept of color arises after the origin of the cVEP and that normal activity in those areas that give rise to the characteristic negative wave of the cVEP are not sufficient to provide for the normal sensation of color. PMID:23986535

  5. Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1987-04-01

    A color laser microscope utilizing a new color laser imaging system has been developed for the visual inspection of semiconductors. The light source, produced by three lasers (Red; He-Ne, Green; Ar, Blue; He-Cd), is deflected horizontally by an AOD (Acoustic Optical Deflector) and vertically by a vibration mirror. The laser beam is focused in a small spot which is scanned over the sample at high speed. The light reflected back from the sample is reformed to contain linear information by returning to the original vibration mirror. The linear light is guided to the CCD image sensor where it is converted into a video signal. Individual CCD image sensors are used for each of the three R, G, or B color image signals. The confocal optical system with its laser light source yields a color TV monitor image with no flaring and a much sharper resolution than that of the conventional optical microscope. The AOD makes possible a high speed laser scan and a NTSC or PAL TV video signal is produced in real time without any video memory. Since the light source is composed of R, G, and B laser beams, color separation superior to that of white light illumination is achieved. Because of the photometric linearity of the image detector, the R, G, and B outputs of the system are most suitably used for hue analysis. The CCD linear image sensors in the optical system produce no geometrical distortion, and good color registration is available principally. The output signal can be used for high accuracy line width measuring. The many features of the color laser microscope make it ideally suited for the visual inspection of semiconductor processing. A number of these systems have already been installed in such a capacity. The Color Laser Microscope can also be a very useful tool for the fields of material engineering and biotechnology.

  6. Color Blind Affirmative Action

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework for understanding the consequences of the widespread adoption of race-neutral alternatives' to conventional racial affirmative action policies in college admissions. A simple model of applicant competition with endogenous effort is utilized to show that, in comparison to color-conscious affirmative action, these color-blind alternatives can significantly lower the efficiency of the student selection process in equilibrium. We examine data on matricul...

  7. The Computation of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    patches of random colors, named Mondrians after the twentieth-century Dutch painter Piet Mondrian . In one demon- stration, Land illuminates a Mondrian with...Hsien-Che Lee, for his meticulous reading of thesis drafts, insights into color science, and inspiring collaboration on the " Mondrian -sphere" ex...Heinrich for his es- sential contributions to the " Mondrian -spheres" experiments. Special thanks to Nikos for the hours and hours he spent helping me

  8. Static Filtered Sky Color Constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alkhalifah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In Computer Vision, the sky color is used for lighting correction, image color enhancement, horizon alignment, image indexing, and outdoor image classification and in many other applications. In this article, for robust color based sky segmentation and detection, usage of lighting correction for sky color detection is investigated. As such, the impact of color constancy on sky color detection algorithms is evaluated and investigated. The color correction (constancy algorithms used includes Gray-Edge (GE, Gray-World (GW, Max-RGB (MRGB and Shades-of-Gray (SG. The algorithms GE, GW, MRGB, and SG, are tested on the static filtered sky modeling. The static filter is developed in the LAB color space. This evaluation and analysis is essential for detection scenarios, especially, color based object detection in outdoor scenes. From the results, it is concluded that the color constancy before sky color detection using LAB static filters has the potential of improving sky color detection performance. However, the application of the color constancy can impart adverse effects on the detection results. For images, the color constancy algorithms depict a compact and stable representative of the sky chroma loci, however, the sky color locus might have a shifting and deviation in a particular color representation. Since the sky static filters are using the static chromatic values, different results can be obtained by applying color constancy algorithms on various datasets.

  9. Novikov Color Algebra and Tortken Color Algebra%Novikov Color 代数与 Tortken Color 代数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高秀娟; 徐丽媛

    2016-01-01

    Three concepts of Novikov color algebra,Tortken color algebra and Jordan color algebra were defined,then the relations among three algebras were discussed.We gave the basic properties of Novikov color algebra and Tortken color algebra.Then we proved a Tortken color algebra with an identity element is both associative and color commutative.We also showed how to use Novikov color algebra to construct a Tortken color algebra.%给出 Novikov color 代数、Tortken color 和 Jordan color 代数的定义,并讨论它们之间的关系,证明了有单位元的 Tortken color 代数是结合的,也是 color 交换的。给出 Novikov color 代数和 Tortken color 代数的基本性质以及利用 Novikov color 代数构造 Tortken color代数的方法。

  10. Liquidus Temperatures and Thermodynamic Properties of the KCl-{KNO}2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qiang; Ding, Jing; Yang, Xiaoxi; Wei, Xiaolan; Yang, Jianping

    2013-05-01

    Potassium nitrite is very sensitive to temperature, humidity, and the atmosphere, so few studies have been made in this field for the thermodynamic properties of molten salt with nitrite salt. In this article, the liquidus curves of NaCl-{NaNO}2 are calculated by a simple "hard-sphere" ionic interaction model. The calculated liquidus temperatures show good agreement with experimental values, which implies an ideal mixing enthalpy and entropy for the liquid binary systems. In addition to the phase equilibrium data and experimental thermochemical properties of molten salt systems, the activities of these binary systems are determined by the phase diagrams and the analytical integration of the classical Gibbs-Duhem equation.

  11. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and 'real' colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anstis, S.; Vergeer, M.L.T.; Lier, R.J. van

    2012-01-01

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The c

  12. Color measurement and discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Theories of color measurement attempt to provide a quantative means for predicting whether two lights will be discriminable to an average observer. All color measurement theories can be characterized as follows: suppose lights a and b evoke responses from three color channels characterized as vectors, v(a) and v(b); the vector difference v(a) - v(b) corresponds to a set of channel responses that would be generated by some real light, call it *. According to theory a and b will be discriminable when * is detectable. A detailed development and test of the classic color measurement approach are reported. In the absence of a luminance component in the test stimuli, a and b, the theory holds well. In the presence of a luminance component, the theory is clearly false. When a luminance component is present discrimination judgements depend largely on whether the lights being discriminated fall in separate, categorical regions of color space. The results suggest that sensory estimation of surface color uses different methods, and the choice of method depends upon properties of the image. When there is significant luminance variation a categorical method is used, while in the absence of significant luminance variation judgments are continuous and consistant with the measurement approach.

  13. The single-electrode Peltier heats of Li-Al alloy electrodes in LiCl-KCl eutectic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amezawa, Koji; Ito, Yasuhiko; Tomii, Yoichi (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

    1994-11-01

    This paper presents the single-electrode Peltier heat of cathodic (or anodic) reaction of Li-Al alloy electrode in a coexisting phase state, or an intermetallic compound phase state estimated by thermoelectric-power measurement. The thermoelectric-power measurements of Li-Al alloys in various coexisting phase states were carried out with both potentiometric and potential-sweep methods in the LiCl-KCl eutectic system between 673 and 843 K. The values of the thermoelectric power of Li-Al alloys calculated by using thermodynamic literature data were in good agreement with those obtained by experiment. The single-electrode Peltier heat changes drastically with change of its phase state, and it was found that the formation reactions of [beta] (Li[sub 0.5]Al[sub 0.5]) and [gamma] (Li[sub 0.6]Al[sub 0.4]) phases are exothermic, and those of liquid phase from [beta] and [gamma] phase are endothermic. The single-electrode Peltier heat for the cathodic formation reaction of Li-Al alloy in intermetallic compound [gamma] phase is estimated to be exothermic by using the measured values of thermoelectric powers of Li-Al alloys in ([beta] + [gamma]) and ([gamma] + liq.) regions.

  14. With no lysine L-WNK1 isoforms are negative regulators of the K+-Cl- cotransporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Adriana; de Los Heros, Paola; Melo, Zesergio; Chávez-Canales, María; Murillo-de-Ozores, Adrián R; Moreno, Erika; Bazúa-Valenti, Silvana; Vázquez, Norma; Hadchouel, Juliette; Gamba, Gerardo

    2016-07-01

    The K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporters (KCC1-KCC4) encompass a branch of the SLC12 family of electroneutral cation-coupled chloride cotransporters that translocate ions out of the cell to regulate various factors, including cell volume and intracellular chloride concentration, among others. L-WNK1 is an ubiquitously expressed kinase that is activated in response to osmotic stress and intracellular chloride depletion, and it is implicated in two distinct hereditary syndromes: the renal disease pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII) and the neurological disease hereditary sensory neuropathy 2 (HSN2). The effect of L-WNK1 on KCC activity is unknown. Using Xenopus laevis oocytes and HEK-293 cells, we show that the activation of KCCs by cell swelling was prevented by L-WNK1 coexpression. In contrast, the activity of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter NKCC1 was remarkably increased with L-WNK1 coexpression. The negative effect of L-WNK1 on the KCCs is kinase dependent. Elimination of the STE20 proline-alanine rich kinase (SPAK)/oxidative stress-responsive kinase (OSR1) binding site or the HQ motif required for the WNK-WNK interaction prevented the effect of L-WNK1 on KCCs, suggesting a required interaction between L-WNK1 molecules and SPAK. Together, our data support that NKCC1 and KCCs are coordinately regulated by L-WNK1 isoforms.

  15. Vibrational-rotational dependence of molecular properties. Electric field gradients for HCl, LiCl, NaCl and KCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Michael; Pernpointner, Markus; Bowmaker, Graham A.; Schwerdtfeger, Peter

    The vibrational-rotational dependence of the nuclear quadrupole coupling constant (NQCC) for the isotopes 2H, 7Li, 23Na, 39K, and 35Cl is analysed in detail for the diatomic Group 1 chlorides HCl, LiCl, NaCl and KCl. The potential energy curves were calculated pointwise by using coupled cluster techniques. The electric field gradients (EFGs) and dipole moments were obtained analytically from a QCISD procedure using the Z vector method. Generally the calculated spectroscopic properties are in very good agreement with experimental data. Relativistic effects taken into account by a coupled cluster Douglas-Kroll procedure can safely be neglected for the electric field gradients up to potassium. The Inglis model which explains the trend and magnitudes of EFGs within an ionic model of weakly polarized atoms is analysed. According to this model the derivatives of the EFG, ∂nq (R)/∂Rn , with respect to the internuclear distance R should show alternating sign behaviour with increasing power n. Hence, the mechanical anharmonicity (deviation from Hooke's law potential) and the electrical anharmonicity (curvature of q(R)) are of different sign, and we expect partial cancellation of anharmonicity effects in the vibrational dependence of the NQCCs. Nevertheless, a perturbative vibrational-rotational analysis reveals a strong dependence of the chlorine and Group 1 element NQCCs on the vibrational level due to dominating mechanical anharmonicity.

  16. Lambda-p femtoscopy in collisions of Ar+KCl at 1.76 AGeV

    CERN Document Server

    Agakishiev, G; Bassini, R; Belver, D; Belyaev, A V; Blanco, A; Böhmer, M; Boyard, J L; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cabanelas, P; Castro, E; Chernenko, S; Christ, T; Destefanis, M; Díaz, J; Dohrmann, F; Dybczak, A; Eberl, T; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O V; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, P; Friese, J; Fröhlich, I; Galatyuk, T; Garzón, J A; Gernhäuser, R; Gil, A; Gilardi, C; Golubeva, M; González-Díaz, D; Guber, F; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kämpfer, B; Kanaki, K; Karavicheva, T; Kirschner, D; Koenig, I; Koenig, W; Kolb, B W; Kotte, R; Krizek, F; Krücken, R; Kühn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Lang, S; Lange, J S; Lapidus, K; Liu, T; Lopes, L; Lorenz, M; Maier, L; Mangiarotti, A; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Michel, J; Mishra, D; Morinière, E; Mousa, J; Müntz, C; Naumann, L; Otwinowski, J; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Parpottas, Y; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; Pietraszko, J; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Reshetin, A; Roy-Stephan, M; Rustamov, A; Sadovsky, A; Sailer, B; Salabura, P; Schmah, A; Sobolev, Yu G; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Ströbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Sudol, M; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Tlusty, P; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Wagner, V; Weber, M; Wendisch, C; Wisniowski, M; Wojcik, T; Wüstenfeld, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Y V; Zhou, P; Zumbruch, P

    2010-01-01

    Results on $\\Lambda$p femtoscopy are reported at the lowest energy so far. At a beam energy of 1.76A~GeV, the reaction Ar+KCl was studied with the High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer (HADES) at SIS18/GSI. A high-statistics and high-purity $\\Lambda$ sample was collected, allowing for the investigation of $\\Lambda$ p correlations at small relative momenta. The experimental correlation function is compared to corresponding model calculations allowing the determination of the space-time extent of the $\\Lambda$p emission source. The $\\Lambda$p source radius is found slightly smaller than the pp correlation radius for a similar collis ion system. The present $\\Lambda$p radius is significantly smaller than that found for Au+Au/Pb+Pb collisio ns in the AGS, SPS and RHIC energy domains, but larger than that observed for electroproduction from He. Taking into account all available data, we find the $\\Lambda$p source radius to increase almost linearly with the number of participants to the power of one-third.

  17. Thermally stimulated luminescence of mixed sintered KCl-KBr: EuCl{sub 3} pellets exposed to gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, B.; Bernal, R.; Barboza F, M.; Cruz V, C.; Burruel I, S.E. [Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Cruz Z, E. [ICN-UNAM, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Europium-doped pellets of mixed composition type KCI{sub x}Br{sub 1-x}: EuCl{sub 3} were obtained by sintering. Some of these polycrystalline samples were exposed to cobalt-60 gamma rays at 0.56 Gy/min dose rate. The higher TL efficiencies were observed for that phosphors with higher concentration of KCI ions in the composition lattice. The integrated TL as a function of dose were investigated in the 0.25-150 Gy dose range and it showed an increase when increasing dose, and a close linear behavior for the lower doses. Mixed composition samples have a reproducibility of the TL signals better than the end compositions KBr: EuCI{sub 3} and KCl: EuCI{sub 3}. The characteristic fading depends strongly on the relative composition. The kinetics parameters were calculated by the Initial Rise method and showed an important increase of the values of the activation energy with the absorption dose increased. (Author)

  18. Role of the neuronal K-Cl co-transporter KCC2 in inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid eChamma

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The K-Cl co-transporter KCC2 plays multiple roles in the physiology of central neurons and alterations of its function and/or expression are associated with several neurological conditions. By regulating intraneuronal chloride homeostasis, KCC2 strongly influences the efficacy and polarity of the chloride-permeable -aminobutyric acid (GABA type A and glycine receptor (GlyR mediated synaptic transmission. This appears particularly critical for the development of neuronal circuits as well as for the dynamic control of GABA and glycine signaling in mature networks. The activity of the transporter is also associated with transmembrane water fluxes which compensate solute fluxes associated with synaptic activity. Finally, KCC2 interaction with the actin cytoskeleton appears critical both for dendritic spine morphogenesis and the maintenance of glutamatergic synapses. In light of the pivotal role of KCC2 in the maturation and function of central synapses, it is of particular importance to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying its regulation. These include development- and activity-dependent modifications both at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. We emphasize the importance of post-translational mechanisms such as phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, oligomerization, cell surface stability, clustering and membrane diffusion for the rapid and dynamic regulation of KCC2 function.

  19. Electrochemical Study of Ni20Cr Coatings Applied by HVOF Process in ZnCl2-KCl at High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Porcayo-Calderón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion behavior of Ni20Cr coatings deposited by HVOF (high velocity oxygen-fuel process was evaluated in ZnCl2-KCl (1 : 1 mole ratio molten salts. Electrochemical techniques employed were potentiodynamic polarization curves, open circuit potential, and linear polarization resistance (LPR measurements. Experimental conditions included static air and temperatures of 350, 400, and 450°C. 304-type SS was evaluated in the same conditions as the Ni20Cr coatings and it was used as a reference material to assess the coatings corrosion resistance. Coatings were evaluated as-deposited and with a grinded surface finished condition. Results showed that Ni20Cr coatings have a better corrosion performance than 304-type SS. Analysis showed that Ni content of the coatings improved its corrosion resistance, and the low corrosion resistance of 304 stainless steel was attributed to the low stability of Fe and Cr and their oxides in the corrosive media used.

  20. Estimation of the composition of intermetallic compounds in LiCl-KCl molten salt by cyclic voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya L; Liu, Kui; Yuan, Li Y; Chai, Zhi F; Shi, Wei Q

    2016-08-15

    In this work, the compositions of Ce-Al, Er-Al and La-Bi intermetallic compounds were estimated by the cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. At first, CV measurements were carried out at different reverse potentials to study the co-reduction processes of Ce-Al, Er-Al and La-Bi systems. The CV curves obtained were then re-plotted with the current as a function of time, and the coulomb number of each peak was calculated. By comparing the coulomb number of the related peaks, the compositions of the Ce-Al, Er-Al and La-Bi intermetallic compounds formed in the co-reduction process could be estimated. The results showed that Al11Ce3, Al3Ce, Al2Ce and AlCe could be formed by the co-reduction of Ce(iii) and Al(iii). For the co-reduction of Er(iii) and Al(iii), Al3Er2, Al2Er and AlEr were formed. In a La(iii) and Bi(iii) co-existing system in LiCl-KCl melts, LaBi2, LaBi and Li3Bi were the major products as a result of co-reduction.

  1. A Glial K/Cl Transporter Controls Neuronal Receptive Ending Shape by Chloride Inhibition of an rGC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhvi, Aakanksha; Liu, Bingqian; Friedman, Christine J; Fong, Jennifer; Lu, Yun; Huang, Xin-Yun; Shaham, Shai

    2016-05-05

    Neurons receive input from the outside world or from other neurons through neuronal receptive endings (NREs). Glia envelop NREs to create specialized microenvironments; however, glial functions at these sites are poorly understood. Here, we report a molecular mechanism by which glia control NRE shape and associated animal behavior. The C. elegans AMsh glial cell ensheathes the NREs of 12 neurons, including the thermosensory neuron AFD. KCC-3, a K/Cl transporter, localizes specifically to a glial microdomain surrounding AFD receptive ending microvilli, where it regulates K(+) and Cl(-) levels. We find that Cl(-) ions function as direct inhibitors of an NRE-localized receptor-guanylyl-cyclase, GCY-8, which synthesizes cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). High cGMP mediates the effects of glial KCC-3 on AFD shape by antagonizing the actin regulator WSP-1/NWASP. Components of this pathway are broadly expressed throughout the nervous system, suggesting that ionic regulation of the NRE microenvironment may be a conserved mechanism by which glia control neuron shape and function.

  2. Electrochemical extraction of neodymium by co-reduction with aluminum in LiCl–KCl molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yong-De, E-mail: y5d2006@hrbeu.edu.cn [Key Discipline Laboratory of Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Xu, Yan-Lu [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang, Mi-Lin, E-mail: zhangmilin@hrbeu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Xue, Yun [Key Discipline Laboratory of Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Han, Wei; Huang, Ying; Chen, Qiong [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang, Zhi-Jian [Key Discipline Laboratory of Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2013-02-15

    The electrochemical behavior of Nd(III) ions in LiCl–KCl and LiCl–KCl–AlCl{sub 3} melts on a Mo electrode at 723 K was studied by various electrochemical techniques. The results showed that Nd(III) ions are reduced to Nd(0) through two consecutive steps, and the underpotential deposition of neodymium on pre-deposited Al electrode formed two kinds of Al–Nd intermetallic compounds in LiCl–KCl–AlCl{sub 3} solutions. The electrochemical extraction of neodymium was carried out in LiCl–KCl–AlCl{sub 3} melts on a Mo electrode at 873 K by potentiostatic and galvanostatic electrolysis. The extraction efficiency was 99.25% after potentiostatic electrolysis for 30 h. Al–Li–Nd bulk alloy was obtained by galvanostatic electrolysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) suggested that Al{sub 2}Nd and Al{sub 3}Nd phases were formed in Al–Li–Nd alloy. The microstructure and micro-zone chemical analysis of Al–Li–Nd alloy were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), respectively.

  3. Loss of K-Cl co-transporter KCC3 causes deafness, neurodegeneration and reduced seizure threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettger, Thomas; Rust, Marco B; Maier, Hannes; Seidenbecher, Thomas; Schweizer, Michaela; Keating, Damien J; Faulhaber, Jörg; Ehmke, Heimo; Pfeffer, Carsten; Scheel, Olaf; Lemcke, Beate; Horst, Jürgen; Leuwer, Rudolf; Pape, Hans-Christian; Völkl, Harald; Hübner, Christian A; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2003-10-15

    K-Cl co-transporters are encoded by four homologous genes and may have roles in transepithelial transport and in the regulation of cell volume and cytoplasmic chloride. KCC3, an isoform mutated in the human Anderman syndrome, is expressed in brain, epithelia and other tissues. To investigate the physiological functions of KCC3, we disrupted its gene in mice. This severely impaired cell volume regulation as assessed in renal tubules and neurons, and moderately raised intraneuronal Cl(-) concentration. Kcc3(-/-) mice showed severe motor abnormalities correlating with a progressive neurodegeneration in the peripheral and CNS. Although no spontaneous seizures were observed, Kcc3(-/-) mice displayed reduced seizure threshold and spike-wave complexes on electrocorticograms. These resembled EEG abnormalities in patients with Anderman syndrome. Kcc3(-/-) mice also displayed arterial hypertension and a slowly progressive deafness. KCC3 was expressed in many, but not all cells of the inner ear K(+) recycling pathway. These cells slowly degenerated, as did sensory hair cells. The present mouse model has revealed important cellular and systemic functions of KCC3 and is highly relevant for Anderman syndrome.

  4. Following the electroreduction of uranium dioxide to uranium in LiCl–KCl eutectic in situ using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.D.; Abdulaziz, R.; Jervis, R.; Bharath, V.J. [Electrochemical Innovation Lab, Dept. Chemical Engineering, UCL, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Atwood, R.C.; Reinhard, C.; Connor, L.D. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Simons, S.J.R.; Inman, D.; Brett, D.J.L. [Electrochemical Innovation Lab, Dept. Chemical Engineering, UCL, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Shearing, P.R., E-mail: p.shearing@ucl.ac.uk [Electrochemical Innovation Lab, Dept. Chemical Engineering, UCL, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We investigated the electroreduction of UO{sub 2} to U in LiCl/KCL eutectic molten salt. • Combined electrochemical measurement and in situ XRD is utilised. • The electroreduction appears to occur in a single, 4-electron-step, process. • No intermediate compounds were observed. - Abstract: The electrochemical reduction of uranium dioxide to metallic uranium has been investigated in lithium chloride–potassium chloride eutectic molten salt. Laboratory based electrochemical studies have been coupled with in situ energy dispersive X-ray diffraction, for the first time, to deduce the reduction pathway. No intermediate phases were identified using the X-ray diffraction before, during or after electroreduction to form α-uranium. This suggests that the electrochemical reduction occurs via a single, 4-electron-step, process. The rate of formation of α-uranium is seen to decrease during electrolysis and could be a result of a build-up of oxygen anions in the molten salt. Slow transport of O{sup 2−} ions away from the UO{sub 2} working electrode could impede the electrochemical reduction.

  5. Nonrandom Associations of Graphemes with Colors in Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M; Dingemanse, Mark; Todil, Büşra; Agameya, Amira; Majid, Asifa

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate people associate colors with letters and numbers in systematic ways. But most of these studies rely on speakers of English, or closely related languages. This makes it difficult to know how generalizable these findings are, or what factors might underlie these associations. We investigated letter-color and number-color associations in Arabic speakers, who have a different writing system and unusual word structure compared to Standard Average European languages. We also aimed to identify grapheme-color synaesthetes (people who have conscious color experiences with letters and numbers). Participants associated colors with 28 basic Arabic letters and ten digits by typing color names that best fit each grapheme. We found language-specific principles determining grapheme-color associations. For example, the word formation process in Arabic was relevant for color associations. In addition, psycholinguistic variables, such as letter frequency and the intrinsic order of graphemes influenced associations. Contrary to previous studies we found no evidence for sounds playing a role in letter-color associations for Arabic, and only a very limited role for shape influencing color associations. These findings highlight the importance of linguistic and psycholinguistic features in cross-modal correspondences, and illustrate why it is important to play close attention to each language on its own terms in order to disentangle language-specific from universal effects.

  6. Color differences and perceptive properties of prints made with microcapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raša Urbas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to establish whether addition on fragranced microcapsules influences on color values and perceptive properties of prints. For this purpose, three types of printing inks were used on two sets of the paper substrate. Color properties were measured by standard methods while perceptive properties were determined by subjective method. Research has shown that microcapsules cause small color differences while perceptive analyses gave very interesting results.

  7. The interaction of synesthetic and print color and its relation to visual imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Bryan D; Robertson, Lynn C

    2013-11-01

    Synesthetic color induced by graphemes is well understood to be an automatic perceptual phenomenon paralleling print color in some ways, but also differing in others. We addressed this juxtaposition by asking how synesthetes are affected by synesthetic and print colors that are the same. We tested two groups of grapheme-color synesthetes using a basic color-priming method in which a grapheme prime was presented, followed by a color patch (probe), the color of which was to be named as quickly and accurately as possible. The primes induced either no color, print color only, synesthetic color only, or both forms of color (e.g., a letter "A" printed in red that also triggered synesthetic red). As expected, responses to name the probe color were faster if it was congruent with the prime color than if it was incongruent. The new finding (Exp. 1) was that a prime that induced the same print and synesthetic colors led to substantially larger priming effects than did either type of color individually, an effect that could not be attributed to semantic priming (Exp. 2). In addition, the synesthesia effects correlated with a standard measure of visual imagery. These findings are discussed as being consistent with the hypothesis that print and synesthetic color converge on similar color mechanisms.

  8. Animal coloration research: why it matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Tim; Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2017-07-05

    While basic research on animal coloration is the theme of this special edition, here we highlight its applied significance for industry, innovation and society. Both the nanophotonic structures producing stunning optical effects and the colour perception mechanisms in animals are extremely diverse, having been honed over millions of years of evolution for many different purposes. Consequently, there is a wealth of opportunity for biomimetic and bioinspired applications of animal coloration research, spanning colour production, perception and function. Fundamental research on the production and perception of animal coloration is contributing to breakthroughs in the design of new materials (cosmetics, textiles, paints, optical coatings, security labels) and new technologies (cameras, sensors, optical devices, robots, biomedical implants). In addition, discoveries about the function of animal colour are influencing sport, fashion, the military and conservation. Understanding and applying knowledge of animal coloration is now a multidisciplinary exercise. Our goal here is to provide a catalyst for new ideas and collaborations between biologists studying animal coloration and researchers in other disciplines.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Artificial color perception using microwaves

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Debesh

    2013-01-01

    We report the feasibility of artificial color perception under microwave illumination using a standard microwave source and an antenna. We have sensed transmitted microwave power through color objects and have distinguished the colors by analyzing the sensed transmitted power. Experiments are carried out using a Gunn diode as the microwave source, some colored liquids as the objects and a microwave diode as the detector. Results are presented which open up an unusual but new way of perceiving colors using microwaves.

  10. Volumetric display containing multiple two-dimensional color motion pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, R.; Shiraki, A.; Nakayama, H.; Kakue, T.; Shimobaba, T.; Ito, T.

    2014-06-01

    We have developed an algorithm which can record multiple two-dimensional (2-D) gradated projection patterns in a single three-dimensional (3-D) object. Each recorded pattern has the individual projected direction and can only be seen from the direction. The proposed algorithm has two important features: the number of recorded patterns is theoretically infinite and no meaningful pattern can be seen outside of the projected directions. In this paper, we expanded the algorithm to record multiple 2-D projection patterns in color. There are two popular ways of color mixing: additive one and subtractive one. Additive color mixing used to mix light is based on RGB colors and subtractive color mixing used to mix inks is based on CMY colors. We made two coloring methods based on the additive mixing and subtractive mixing. We performed numerical simulations of the coloring methods, and confirmed their effectiveness. We also fabricated two types of volumetric display and applied the proposed algorithm to them. One is a cubic displays constructed by light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in 8×8×8 array. Lighting patterns of LEDs are controlled by a microcomputer board. The other one is made of 7×7 array of threads. Each thread is illuminated by a projector connected with PC. As a result of the implementation, we succeeded in recording multiple 2-D color motion pictures in the volumetric displays. Our algorithm can be applied to digital signage, media art and so forth.

  11. Precision of Synesthetic Color Matching Resembles That for Recollected Colors Rather than Physical Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Derek H.; Wegener, Signy V.; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2012-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but "hearing" the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to…

  12. Precision of Synesthetic Color Matching Resembles That for Recollected Colors Rather than Physical Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Derek H.; Wegener, Signy V.; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2012-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but "hearing" the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to…

  13. Color Memory of University Students: Influence of Color Experience and Color Characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Carlisle; Epps, Helen H.; Kaya, Naz

    2006-01-01

    The ability to select a previously viewed color specimen from an array of specimens that differ in hue, value, or chroma varies among individuals, and may be related to one's basic color discrimination ability or to prior experience with color. This study investigated short-term color memory of 40 college students, 20 of whom were interior design…

  14. 氯化钾施用量在烤烟生产上研究%Study on Consumption of KCl in Flue-Cured Tobacco Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘坤华; 谭雪庆; 张文建; 谢孔华

    2012-01-01

    2010年余庆县开展了氯化钾肥料施用量的田间试验工作,结果表明:氯化钾施用量为45.0~60.0 kg/hm2范围内,能显著提高烟叶产量和经济效益,烟叶外观质量、内在质量明显改善,化学成分较为协调,评吸质量较优。%The work of consumption of KCl in flue-cured tobacco production in Yuqing county in 2010 was carried out.The result showed that when fertilizing amount of KCl was 45.0~60.0 kg/hm2,it could increase tobacco production and economic benefits,improve appearance and quality of tobacco leaves,make chemical composition more harmonious and smoking quality more excellent

  15. Dynamic Fluctuation of U(3+) Coordination Structure in the Molten LiCl-KCl Eutectic via First Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuejiao; Song, Jia; Shi, Shuping; Yan, Liuming; Zhang, Zhaochun; Jiang, Tao; Peng, Shuming

    2017-01-26

    The dynamic fluctuation of the U(3+) coordination structure in a molten LiCl-KCl mixture was studied using first principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulations. The radial distribution function, probability distribution of coordination numbers, fluctuation of coordination number and cage volume, self-diffusion coefficient and solvodynamic mean radius of U(3+), dynamics of the nearest U-Cl distances, and van Hove function were evaluated. It was revealed that fast exchange of Cl(-) occurred between the first and second coordination shells of U(3+) accompanied with fast fluctuation of coordination number and rearrangement of coordination structure. It was concluded that 6-fold coordination structure dominated the coordination structure of U(3+) in the molten LiCl-KCl-UCl3 mixture and a high temperature was conducive to the formation of low coordinated structure.

  16. Investigation of concentration-dependence of thermodynamic properties of lanthanum, yttrium, scandium and terbium in eutectic LiCl-KCl molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafei; Zhou, Wentao; Zhang, Jinsuo

    2016-09-01

    Thermodynamic properties of rare earth metals in LiCl-KCl molten salt electrolyte are crucial to the development of electrochemical separation for the treatment of used nuclear fuels. In the present study, activity coefficient, apparent potential, and diffusion coefficient of lanthanum, yttrium, scandium, and terbium in the molten salt (58 at% LiCl and 42 at% KCl) were calculated by the method of molecular dynamics simulation up to a concentration around 3 at% at temperatures of 723 K and 773 K. It was found that the activity coefficient and the apparent potential increase with the species concentration while diffusion coefficient shows a trend of increase followed by decrease. The calculated results were validated by available measurement data of dilution cases. This research extends the range of data to a wide component and would provide further insight to the pyroprocessing design and safeguards.

  17. Experimental investigation on moving chemical reaction boundary theory for weak-acid-strong-base system with background electrolyte KCl in large concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, C X; Zhou, S L; Qian, Y A; He, Y Z; Yang, L; Qu, Q S; Chen, W K

    2001-07-13

    In this report, the moving chemical reaction boundary (MCRB) was formed with the weak acid of acetic acid (HAc) and the strong alkali of NaOH, coupled with the excess of background electrolyte KCl. The experiments were compared with the predictions by the moving chemical reaction boundary equation (MCRBE). It is very interesting that (1) the experimental results are in good agreement with the predictions with the original MCRBE if the MCRB is an anodic moving boundary, (2) however, the experiments are extremely far away from the predictions with the original MCRBE if a cathodic moving boundary. Hence, the original MCRBE must be corrected under the later situation of cathodic moving MCRB. The corrected MCRBE was well quantitatively proved to be valid for the cathodic moving MNRB formed with the same electrolytes of HAc, NaOH and KCl.

  18. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER: Influence of Ca and Pb impurities on the bulk optical strength of ultrapure NaCl and KCl crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, An V.; Voszka, R.; Kovalev, Valerii I.; Faĭzullov, F. S.; Janszky, J.

    1987-06-01

    A significant increase (by a factor of about 3) of the bulk damage threshold in the case of interaction of CO2 laser radiation pulses with ultrapure NaCl and KCl crystals grown in a reactive atmosphere was observed on introduction of divalent metal ions Ca and Pb in concentrations of 10-5-10-6 mol/mol. Impurities were introduced in concentrations of 10-8-10-3 and 2×10-7-10-4 mol/mol into the melts of KCl and NaCl, respectively. The concentration of other impurities (including OH) did not exceed ~10-6 mol/mol. A physical model was developed to account for the observed dependence on the basis of an analogy between a system of colloidal particles and F centers in a crystal and a liquid-vapor system.

  19. The chemical stability of L-isoleucine, L-threonine, and L-serine in aqueous solutions of KCl at 298.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sanjay; Dolui, Bijoy Krishna

    2016-06-01

    The experimental saturated solubilities of L-isoleucine, L-threonine, and L-serine in aqueous mixtures of a KCl solution at 298.15 K are presented in this article. The solubilities are measured by gravimetric method. In the present study the theoretical calculation of the standard transfer Gibbs free energy, cavity forming enthalpy of transfer, cavity forming transfer Gibbs free energy, dipole-dipole interaction effect have been computed. The chemical effects of the transfer Gibbs energies for the present amino acids have been obtained by subtracting the cavity effects and dipole-dipole interaction effects from the Δ G t 0 ( i). The stability of the experimental amino acids in aqueous KCl in terms of thermodynamic parameters is explained.

  20. The color "fruit": object memories defined by color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David E; Pearson, Joel; Khuu, Sieu K

    2013-01-01

    Most fruits and other highly color-diagnostic objects have color as a central aspect of their identity, which can facilitate detection and visual recognition. It has been theorized that there may be a large amount of overlap between the neural representations of these objects and processing involved in color perception. In accordance with this theory we sought to determine if the recognition of highly color diagnostic fruit objects could be facilitated by the visual presentation of their known color associates. In two experiments we show that color associate priming is possible, but contingent upon multiple factors. Color priming was found to be maximally effective for the most highly color diagnostic fruits, when low spatial-frequency information was present in the image, and when determination of the object's specific identity, not merely its category, was required. These data illustrate the importance of color for determining the identity of certain objects, and support the theory that object knowledge involves sensory specific systems.

  1. Color control of the multi-color printing device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-hua; XIU Xiao-jie; ZHU Wen-hua; TANG Hong-jun

    2006-01-01

    Conventional color-printing systems often use inks of three hues, such as CMY, CMYK and CMYKLcLm, but in order to obtain more realistic color reproductions, the ink set of more than three hues has been adopted by some color-printing systems. It is difficult, however, to model the composed color with the multiple inks when the number of the output ink hues exceeds three due to the none-unique mapping between the color spaces of the CIE Lab and the multi-color printing device. In this paper, we propose a fine color-printing method for multi-color printing device with the ink set of more than three hues. The proposed approach has good color expression ability and provides fine control of the printed color. By dividing the output color space into several subspaces, our method allows one-to-one mapping between the standard color space and the multi-color output color space. It has been proved effective when applied to the digital inkjet printer-Mutoh8000.

  2. Cyclic Voltammetric Experiment - Simulation. Comparisons of the Complex Mechanism Associated with Electrochemical Reduction of Zr4+ in LiCl-KCl Eutectic Molten Salt

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian, Cesimiro P.; Luca, Vittorio; Le, Than H.; Bond, Alan M.; Chamelot, Pierre; Massot, Laurent; Caravaca, Concepción; Hanley, Tracey L.; Lumpkin, Gregory R.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Nuclear energy increasingly represents an important option for generating largely clean CO2-free electricity and zirconium is a fission product that is expected to be present in irradiated fuels. The present investigation addresses the electrochemical reduction of Zr4+ to Zro in LiCl - KCl eutectic molten salt in the temperature range 425-550◦C using cyclic voltammetry (CV), square-wave voltammetry (SWV) and bulk electrolysis. Simulations of the CV data indicate that t...

  3. The biology of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthill, Innes C; Allen, William L; Arbuckle, Kevin; Caspers, Barbara; Chaplin, George; Hauber, Mark E; Hill, Geoffrey E; Jablonski, Nina G; Jiggins, Chris D; Kelber, Almut; Mappes, Johanna; Marshall, Justin; Merrill, Richard; Osorio, Daniel; Prum, Richard; Roberts, Nicholas W; Roulin, Alexandre; Rowland, Hannah M; Sherratt, Thomas N; Skelhorn, John; Speed, Michael P; Stevens, Martin; Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Talas, Laszlo; Tibbetts, Elizabeth; Caro, Tim

    2017-08-04

    Coloration mediates the relationship between an organism and its environment in important ways, including social signaling, antipredator defenses, parasitic exploitation, thermoregulation, and protection from ultraviolet light, microbes, and abrasion. Methodological breakthroughs are accelerating knowledge of the processes underlying both the production of animal coloration and its perception, experiments are advancing understanding of mechanism and function, and measurements of color collected noninvasively and at a global scale are opening windows to evolutionary dynamics more generally. Here we provide a roadmap of these advances and identify hitherto unrecognized challenges for this multi- and interdisciplinary field. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  4. I-NERI ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT: 2006-002-K, Separation of Fission Products from Molten LiCl-KCl Salt Used for Electrorefining of Metal Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Frank

    2009-09-01

    An attractive alternative to the once-through disposal of electrorefiner salt is to selectively remove the active fission products from the salt and recycle the salt back to the electrorefiner (ER). This would allow salt reuse for some number of cycles before ultimate disposal of the salt in a ceramic waste form. Reuse of ER salt would, thus, greatly reduce the volume of ceramic waste produced during the pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. This final portion of the joint I-NERI research project is to demonstrate the separation of fission products from molten ER salt by two methods previously selected during phase two (FY-08) of this project. The two methods selected were salt/zeolite contacting and rare-earth fission product precipitation by oxygen bubbling. The ER salt used in these tests came from the Mark-IV electrorefiner used to anodically dissolved driver fuel from the EBR-II reactor on the INL site. The tests were performed using the Hot Fuel Dissolution Apparatus (HFDA) located in the main cell of the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Materials and Fuels complex on the INL site. Results from these tests were evaluated during a joint meeting of KAERI and INL investigators to provide recommendations as to the future direction of fission product removal from electrorefiner salt that accumulate during spent fuel treatment. Additionally, work continued on kinetic measurements of surrogate quaternary salt systems to provide fundamental kinetics on the ion exchange system and to expand the equilibrium model system developed during the first two phases of this project. The specific objectives of the FY09 I-NERI research activities at the INL include the following: • Perform demonstration tests of the selected KAERI precipitation and INL salt/zeolite contacting processes for fission product removal using radioactive, fission product loaded ER salt • Continue kinetic studies of the quaternary Cs/Sr-LiCl-KCl system to determine the rate of ion

  5. Sensory characterisation and consumer acceptability of small calibre fermented sausages with 50% substitution of NaCl by mixtures of KCl and potassium lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guàrdia, M D; Guerrero, L; Gelabert, J; Gou, P; Arnau, J

    2008-12-01

    The effect of six mixtures with 50% molar substitution of KCl (0-50%) and potassium lactate (0-50%) as NaCl substitutes in small calibre fermented sausages on some sensory parameters and on the acceptability was studied. Also, the relationship between sensory profile and consumer acceptability using external preference mapping was investigated. The results showed that as the K-lactate substitution increased, pH, sweetness, crumbliness and pastiness also increased, and piquantness, hardness, cohesiveness, ripened flavour, acid taste and saltiness decreased. However, the treatments prepared with a high level of salt substitution by KCl showed scores of sensory attributes similar to those of the control. Consumer segmentation showed differences in acceptability between genders, place of residence, educational level and age group. Consumers rejected fermented sausages with high K-lactate substitution but not those with a high KCl substitution. External preference mapping split consumers up into four clusters with different preference patterns. According to these results and from a sensory point of view, it is possible to achieve a reduction of 50% of NaCl in small calibre fermented sausages and to obtain a product acceptable to most consumers.

  6. 1090K下MgCl2-KCl-CaCl2三元熔盐体系的密度预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵飞; 陈志远; 陈洪智; 赵世强

    2014-01-01

    镁电解工艺中使用的电解质需要具有合适的密度范围.MgCl2-KCl-CaCl2三元熔盐体系是镁电解质的重要基础三元系.使用了新一代溶液几何模型,预测了这一三元系在1 090 K下的密度.首先勘正了标准数据库中的MgCl2-CaCl2熔盐二元系的密度表达式.对已知3个二元系KCl-CaCl2、MgCl2-CaCl2、KCl-MgCl2数据,采用三次式表达的Redlich-Kister关系式拟合得到了它们的超额密度函数.并计算各组分之间的相似系数.最终获得全组分范围内的三元熔盐体系密度分布图.已知成分点的实验值与预测值之间相对误差在2.21%~0.99%之间,这表明了预测结果的可靠性.

  7. Potentiometric determination of the thermodynamic properties for the ternary system (KCl + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O) at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghalami-Choobar, Bahram, E-mail: B-Ghalami@guilan.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 19141, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghimi, Majid; Mahmoodi, Nosratollah; Mohammadian, Mohsen [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 19141, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    In this work, the potentiometric measurements were performed for the ternary (KCl + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O) systems on the galvanic cell of the type: Ag|AgCl|KCl (m{sub 1}), KNO{sub 3} (m{sub 2}), H{sub 2}O|K-ISE over total ionic strengths from (0.001 to 3.000) mol . kg{sup -1} for different series of salt molal ratios r (r = m{sub 1}/m{sub 2} = 0.20, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0). The electrodes used in this work were prepared in our laboratory and had a reasonably good Nernst response. The activity coefficients data were interpreted by using Pitzer model. The unknown Pitzer mixing interaction parameters have been evaluated for the system under investigation (theta{sub Cl,NO{sub 3}}=0.0186, psi{sub KClNO{sub 3}}=-0.0066). Then, the parameters obtained were used to calculate the values of the mean activity coefficients of KNO{sub 3}, the osmotic coefficients, the solvent activity, the surface tension, and the excess Gibbs free energies for the whole series of the studied mixed electrolyte systems.

  8. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  9. Future of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladson, Jack A.; Turner, Laraine B.; Green-Armytage, Paul; Hunt, Robert W. G.

    2002-06-01

    We live in a world in which styles and technologies are nearly the same from place to place, but change daily. This changing global culture is unprecedented, and reinforced by emerging new technologies that affect us all. The Future of Color, examines new technologies, how they will affect the selection and promulgation of color in the near future, and their impact upon us. We examine this topic from many perspectives - technological, business and commercial. Most importantly, as we understand how our world is emerging, we can position ourselves strategically for tomorrow.

  10. Behavior of skin color under varying illumination seen by different cameras at different color spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinkauppi, J. Birgitta; Soriano, Maricor N.; Laaksonen, Mika V.

    2001-04-01

    The appearance of skin colors in the images depends among other things, on the camera, the calibration of the camera, and the illumination under which the image was taken. In this study, we investigate how the skin colors appear in the chromaticity coordinates of different color spaces like HSV/HSL, normalized rgb, YES and TSL. For this purpose, we have taken images of faces under 16 different illumination/camera calibration conditions using simulated illuminants (Horizon, A, fluorescent TL84 and daylight) with different RGB cameras (1CCD web cameras and a 3CCD camera). In the making of this series of 16 images, first the selected camera was calibrated to one of the four light sources and an image was taken. After that the light source was changed to the other light sources and at each time the person was imaged. The process was repeated to the other two light sources. The same procedure was done for all four light sources and for each camera. The skin regions were extracted from these images and this skin data was then converted to different color spaces. We inspected how the chromaticities of different skin color groups in these color spaces overlap in images taken in all 16 different cases and only in those cases in which the selected camera was calibrated to the current illuminant. These investigations were also made between different cameras. In addition to this, we examined the overlapping of all skin chromaticities from the different skin color groups between cameras.

  11. Availability of color calibration for consistent color display in medical images and optimization of reference brightness for clinical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Daiki; Suganami, Haruka; Hosoba, Minoru; Ohno, Kazuko; Emoto, Yutaka; Tabata, Yoshito; Matsui, Norihisa

    2013-03-01

    Color image consistency has not been accomplished yet except the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) Supplement 100 for implementing a color reproduction pipeline and device independent color spaces. Thus, most healthcare enterprises could not check monitor degradation routinely. To ensure color consistency in medical color imaging, monitor color calibration should be introduced. Using simple color calibration device . chromaticity of colors including typical color (Red, Green, Blue, Green and White) are measured as device independent profile connection space value called u'v' before and after calibration. In addition, clinical color images are displayed and visual differences are observed. In color calibration, monitor brightness level has to be set to quite lower value 80 cd/m2 according to sRGB standard. As Maximum brightness of most color monitors available currently for medical use have much higher brightness than 80 cd/m2, it is not seemed to be appropriate to use 80 cd/m2 level for calibration. Therefore, we propose that new brightness standard should be introduced while maintaining the color representation in clinical use. To evaluate effects of brightness to chromaticity experimentally, brightness level is changed in two monitors from 80 to 270cd/m2 and chromaticity value are compared with each brightness levels. As a result, there are no significant differences in chromaticity diagram when brightness levels are changed. In conclusion, chromaticity is close to theoretical value after color calibration. Moreover, chromaticity isn't moved when brightness is changed. The results indicate optimized reference brightness level for clinical use could be set at high brightness in current monitors .

  12. Activity-dependent regulation of the K/Cl transporter KCC2 membrane diffusion, clustering, and function in hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamma, Ingrid; Heubl, Martin; Chevy, Quentin; Renner, Marianne; Moutkine, Imane; Eugène, Emmanuel; Poncer, Jean Christophe; Lévi, Sabine

    2013-09-25

    The neuronal K/Cl transporter KCC2 exports chloride ions and thereby influences the efficacy and polarity of GABA signaling in the brain. KCC2 is also critical for dendritic spine morphogenesis and the maintenance of glutamatergic transmission in cortical neurons. Because KCC2 plays a pivotal role in the function of central synapses, it is of particular importance to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying its regulation. Here, we studied the impact of membrane diffusion and clustering on KCC2 function. KCC2 forms clusters in the vicinity of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Using quantum-dot-based single-particle tracking on rat primary hippocampal neurons, we show that KCC2 is slowed down and confined at excitatory and inhibitory synapses compared with extrasynaptic regions. However, KCC2 escapes inhibitory synapses faster than excitatory synapses, reflecting stronger molecular constraints at the latter. Interfering with KCC2-actin interactions or inhibiting F-actin polymerization releases diffusion constraints on KCC2 at excitatory but not inhibitory synapses. Thus, F-actin constrains KCC2 diffusion at excitatory synapses, whereas KCC2 is confined at inhibitory synapses by a distinct mechanism. Finally, increased neuronal activity rapidly increases the diffusion coefficient and decreases the dwell time of KCC2 at excitatory synapses. This effect involves NMDAR activation, Ca(2+) influx, KCC2 S940 dephosphorylation and calpain protease cleavage of KCC2 and is accompanied by reduced KCC2 clustering and ion transport function. Thus, activity-dependent regulation of KCC2 lateral diffusion and clustering allows for a rapid regulation of chloride homeostasis in neurons.

  13. Electrochemical studies and analysis of 1-10 wt% UCl3 concentrations in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Robert O.; Shaltry, Michael R.; Martin, Sean; Sridharan, Kumar; Phongikaroon, Supathorn

    2014-09-01

    Three electrochemical methods - cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronopotentiometry (CP), and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) - were applied to solutions of up to 10 wt% UCl3 in the molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt at 500 °C to determine electrochemical properties and behaviors and to help provide a scientific basis for the development of an in situ electrochemical probe for determining the concentration of uranium in a used nuclear fuel electrorefiner. Diffusion coefficients of UCl4 and UCl3 were calculated to be (6.72 ± 0.360) × 10-6 cm2/s and (1.04 ± 0.17) × 10-5 cm2/s, respectively. Apparent standard reduction potentials were determined to be (-0.381 ± 0.013) V and (-1.502 ± 0.076) V vs. 5 mol% Ag/AgCl or (-1.448 ± 0.013) V and (-2.568 ± 0.076) V vs. Cl2/Cl- for the U(IV)/U(III) and U(III)/U redox couples, respectively. In comparing this data with supercooled thermodynamic data to determine activity coefficients, the thermodynamic database used was important with resulting activity coefficients ranging from 2.34 × 10-3 to 1.08 × 10-2 for UCl4 and 4.94 × 10-5 to 4.50 × 10-4 for UCl3. Of anodic stripping voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry anodic or cathodic peaks, the CV cathodic peak height divided by square root of scan rate was shown to be the most reliable method of determining UCl3 concentration in the molten salt.

  14. Colorfulness Enhancement Using Image Classifier Based on Chroma-histogram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moon-cheol KIM; Kyoung-won LIM

    2010-01-01

    The paper proposes a colorfulness enhancement of pictorial images using image classifier based on chroma histogram.This ap-poach firstly estimates strength of colorfulness of images and their types.With such determined information,the algorithm automatically adjusts image colorfulness for a better natural image look.With the help of an additional detection of skin colors and a pixel chroma adaptive local processing,the algorithm produces more natural image look.The algorithm performance had been tested with an image quality judgment experiment of 20 persons.The experimental result indicates a better image preference.

  15. Music-color associations are mediated by emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E; Schloss, Karen B; Xu, Zoe; Prado-León, Lilia R

    2013-05-28

    Experimental evidence demonstrates robust cross-modal matches between music and colors that are mediated by emotional associations. US and Mexican participants chose colors that were most/least consistent with 18 selections of classical orchestral music by Bach, Mozart, and Brahms. In both cultures, faster music in the major mode produced color choices that were more saturated, lighter, and yellower whereas slower, minor music produced the opposite pattern (choices that were desaturated, darker, and bluer). There were strong correlations (0.89 emotional associations of the music and those of the colors chosen to go with the music, supporting an emotional mediation hypothesis in both cultures. Additional experiments showed similarly robust cross-modal matches from emotionally expressive faces to colors and from music to emotionally expressive faces. These results provide further support that music-to-color associations are mediated by common emotional associations.

  16. Locally identifying coloring of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Esperet, Louis; Montassier, Mickael; Ochem, Pascal; Parreau, Aline

    2010-01-01

    A vertex-coloring of a graph G is said to be locally identifying if for any pair (u,v) of adjacent vertices of G, with distinct closed neighborhood, the set of colors that appears in the closed neighborhoods of u and v are distinct. In this paper, we give several bounds on the minimum number of colors needed in such a coloring for different families of graphs (planar graphs, some subclasses of perfect graphs, graphs with bounded maximum degree) and prove that deciding whether a subcubic bipartite graph with large girth has a locally identifying coloring with 3 colors is an NP-complete problem.

  17. Dinosaurs' True Colors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ On March 10,the Beijing Museum of Natural History(BMNH)announced scientists from China and abroad had decoded the full-body color patterns of a dinosaur,a small theropod named as anchiomis huxleyi,for the first time.

  18. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  19. "Color-Blind" Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Leslie G.

    Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

  20. Transparency and imaginary colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, W.; Koenderink, J.J.; Van Doorn, A.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the Metelli monochrome transparencies, when overlays and their backgrounds have chromatic content, the inferred surface colors may not always be physically realizable, and are in some sense “imaginary.” In these cases, the inferred chromatic transmittance or reflectance of the overlay lies ou

  1. Local Color Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gabriel Gomila Salas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a local algorithm for contrast enhancement developed by N. Moroney at Hewlett-Packard Laboratories and presented at the IS&T/SID Eight Color Imaging Conference, in 2000. The algorithm uses a non-linear masking, is fast and does not require any manual parameter adjustments.

  2. "Color-Blind" Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Leslie G.

    Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

  3. Color discrimination data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, M.A.; Walraven, P.L.

    1972-01-01

    The sense of sight provides us with information on how the radiance of the environment is distributed in time and space. Such information pertains to both the energy and the spectral distribution of the radiance. Researchers in the field of color vision generally assume that, as attributes of visual

  4. Colorful Kindergarten Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobick, Bryna; Wheeler, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Developing kindergarten lessons can be very challenging, especially at the beginning of the school year when many students are just learning to cut paper and hold crayons. The author's favorite beginning unit of the year is "mice paintings," a practical introduction to drawing, color theory, and painting. This unit also incorporates children's…

  5. Color Wheel Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  6. Social Property of Colors and Translation of Color Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾慧彬

    2013-01-01

    The paper is about the social property of colors andtranslationofcolorwords.Colorsareveryimportantinour sociallife,accordingtothispaperwecanknowsomerelations aboutsocialandcolor.EspeciallyaboutthedifferencesofChinese and English color words. Through the differences, three basic translatingmethodsaregeneralized.

  7. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy T. Woods

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white. In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  8. Geometric invariance in describing color features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Linh Viet; Lenz, Reiner

    2003-01-01

    We present a projective geometry framework for color invariants using the Extended Dichromatic Reflection Model, in which more realistic and complicated illuminations are considered. Many assumptions which have been used by other methods are relaxed in our framework. Specifically some of the proposed invariants do not require any additional assumption except the ones assumed by the Extended Dichromatic Reflection Model. By putting the color invariance into the projective geometry framework, we can generate different types of invariants and clarify the assumptions under which they are valid. Experiments are presented that illustrate the results derived within our framework.

  9. Color matching in facial prosthetics: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranabhatt, Rani; Singh, Kamleshwar; Siddharth, Ramashanker; Tripathi, Shuchi; Arya, Deeksha

    2017-01-01

    Color matching to the surrounding skin is extremely important in patients wearing maxillofacial prostheses. It is of utmost importance to know the different techniques of color matching and coloring in maxillofacial prostheses. The purpose of this study is to review the literature data with regard to color matching in maxillofacial prosthetics. An electronic search of peer review restricted to English language dental literature was conducted to identify the relevant scientific article on color matching and coloring in maxillofacial prostheses. The publication year was up to December 2015 so that the search could include all the articles provided in that particular database. Two independent observers independently read the abstracts and later preselected full-text articles. A full-text review was carried out only for 15 articles. Out of the 15 articles, 7 were related to coloring using tinting, spraying, milling, and use of commercial cosmetics. Three studies were related to shade matching in maxillofacial prostheses. Two studies conducted the measurement of color in maxillofacial prostheses. Only one study had explained color and its relevance in maxillofacial prosthetics. Only one study was done for reproducing silicone shade guide matching Indian skin color. In addition, a single pilot study was done to measure facial skin and lip color in a human population sample stratified by race, gender, and age. Currently, there is no evidence discussing the best technique available for perfectly matching the color for the fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses. However, the latest instruments such as spectrophotometer and colorimeters are believed to have improved efficiency in matching the color.

  10. How bees distinguish colors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horridge A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrian Horridge Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia Abstract: Behind each facet of the compound eye, bees have photoreceptors for ultraviolet, green, and blue wavelengths that are excited by sunlight reflected from the surrounding panorama. In experiments that excluded ultraviolet, bees learned to distinguish between black, gray, white, and various colors. To distinguish two targets of differing color, bees detected, learned, and later recognized the strongest preferred inputs, irrespective of which target displayed them. First preference was the position and measure of blue reflected from white or colored areas. They also learned the positions and a measure of the green receptor modulation at vertical edges that displayed the strongest green contrast. Modulation is the receptor response to contrast and was summed over the length of a contrasting vertical edge. This also gave them a measure of angular width between outer vertical edges. Third preference was position and a measure of blue modulation. When they returned for more reward, bees recognized the familiar coincidence of these inputs at that place. They cared nothing for colors, layout of patterns, or direction of contrast, even at black/white edges. The mechanism is a new kind of color vision in which a large-field tonic blue input must coincide in time with small-field phasic modulations caused by scanning vertical edges displaying green or blue contrast. This is the kind of system to expect in medium-lowly vision, as found in insects; the next steps are fresh looks at old observations and quantitative models. Keywords: vision, honey bee, visual processing, optimum system, picture sorting

  11. Analysis of electron pair production in the collision system Ar+KCl at 1.76 AGeV; Analyse der Elektronpaarproduktion im Stosssystem Ar+KCl bei 1,76 AGeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Simon Martin

    2008-06-30

    The HADES-spectrometer at GSI is used to measure the production of the light vector mesons {rho}, {omega} and {phi} at SIS energies. Therefore, the medium sized collision system Ar+KCl was measured at 1.76 AGeV kinetic energy of beam particles. In this system the density of particle tracks is much larger as compared to the formerly used collision system C+C, making it necessary to upgrade the data analysis. The previous method of hard-cuts - used for particle identification - was replaced by a newly developed multi-variate analysis based on an artificial neural network. This algorithm has the benefit, that it is more robust against fluctuations in one or more of the used detector observables. This increases the overall efficiency and purity of the analysis procedure. Furthermore, the reconstruction of particle tracks inside the HADES spectrometer is based on a few position information, only. During analysis of raw data, these information are combined to a artificially large manifold of tracks. This leads to the general problem that one has to select the maximum number of true physical tracks out of this set of tracks per event. A new method of track selection is used to filter the data not only to select single tracks, but also to identify electron pairs created during Dalitz-decay of {pi}{sup 0} mesons, which build the bulk of combinatorial background. The result of the analysis is an efficiency corrected invariant mass spectrum of electron pairs, normalized to the mean number of pions per event. The spectrum consists of more than 16,000 pairs with an invariant mass larger than 150 MeV. In total more than 150000 pairs were found. A first comparison with the spectra calculated by using the old analysis approach shows a 30% enhancement in yield of reconstructed electron pairs. A first comparison with a simple thermal model implemented by the Pluto event generator, opens the possibility to compare the measured pair yield of {omega} and {phi} mesons via m{sub T

  12. Characterization of incomplete fusion in the reactions Ar + KCl at 32,40,52 and 74 MeV/u; Caracterisation de la fusion incomplete dans les reactions Ar + KCl a 32,40,52 et 74 Mev/u

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisquer, E. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire]|[Universite Claude Bernard, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1996-12-20

    Heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies (10 to 100 A.MeV) have been investigated and gave evidence to the persistence of so-called low energy mechanisms such as incomplete fusion. This thesis aims at determining the energy threshold beyond which such a mechanism does not occur any more. First we investigated the so-called conventional incomplete fusion. This mechanism is well known from low energy studies: a thermalized compound nucleus is formed which further de-excites by evaporating particles. Residues will be therefore detected in coincidence with mainly light particles. Ar + KCl at incident energies of 32, 40, 52 and 74 A.MeV has been selected for this analysis. These experiments have been performed using the INDRA multidetector in GANIL (Caen). The detection performance of INDRA allowed to use new analysis methods via global variables. In a first step, global variables have been compared in order to find the one that is the most appropriate to our study. Then incomplete fusion events have been extracted from raw events recorded at incident energies of 32, 40 and 52 A.MeV. It turned out that the contribution of this mechanisms was very weak at 52. A.MeV. It turned out that the contribution of this mechanism was very weak at 52 A.MeV and even zero at 74 A.MeV. We then investigated events in which three fragments were detected which could possibly sign multifragmentation. We did not find instantaneous multifragmentation with any expansion contribution. We also performed BNV simulations in order to compare our experimental results to model predictions, solving in a semi-classical way the Vlasov transport equation. A good agreement has been obtained on the size of the compound nucleus formed. However the excitation energy has not been reproduced, as the code seems to overestimate the energy taken away by preequilibrium particles. Incomplete fusion decreases as a function of energy but is not replaced by instantaneous multifragmentation with any expansion

  13. Human preference for individual colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  14. Natural-color maps via coloring of bivariate grid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbyshire, Jane E.; Jenny, Bernhard

    2017-09-01

    Natural ground color is useful for maps where a representation of the Earth's surface matters. Natural color schemes are less likely to be misinterpreted, as opposed to hypsometric color schemes, and are generally preferred by map readers. The creation of natural-color maps was once limited to manual cartographic techniques, but they can now be created digitally with the aid of raster graphics editing software. However, the creation of natural-color maps still requires many steps, a significant time investment, and fairly detailed digital land cover information, which makes this technique impossible to apply to global web maps at medium and large scales. A particular challenge for natural-color map creation is adjusting colors with location to create smoothly blending transitions. Adjustments with location are required to show land cover transitions between climate zones with a natural appearance. This study takes the first step in automating the process in order to facilitate the creation of medium- and large-scale natural-color maps covering large areas. A coloring method based on two grid inputs is presented. Here, we introduce an algorithmic method and prototype software for creating maps with this technique. The prototype software allows the map author to interactively assign colors to design the appearance of the map. This software can generate web map tiles at a global level for medium and large scales. Example natural-color web maps created with this coloring technique are provided.

  15. An innovative color LCD using three color bank scrolling backlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Chang; Lin, Jui-Lung

    2009-02-01

    In order to improve the approach of the conventional LCD colored image display that has been using color filter, this research is to lead a unique innovative design by using three colors bank scrolling backlight. The backlight scrolling uses Light-Emitting-Diodes (LEDs) to replace the conventional cold cathode fluorescent lamp for fleetly light alternating between Red, Green, and Blue. Images with bank segments can be displayed in terms of RGB colors in time series. According to the human persistence of vision effect, a colorful image can be demonstrated. The advantages of this three color bank scrolling can provide a cost saving because there is no color-filter of the display, resolution tripling with RGB on the same pixel, and abundant in color saturation for the selection of dedicating wavelength LEDs color mixture. Practically, this research contents the experiments of three color bank scrolling, a building up of the prototype for backlight system, optics adjustment for a proper color mixture. The results of this research show the system not only could displace the color filter but also triple the resolution. Consequently, the system is practicable and can be proposed as a new innovation to LCD industry.

  16. A color management system for multi-colored LED lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Thorseth, Anders; Jepsen, Jørgen;

    2015-01-01

    A new color control system is described and implemented for a five–color LED light engine, covering a wide white gamut. The system combines a new way of using pre-calibrated look-up tables and a rule-based optimization of chromaticity distance from the Planckian locus with a calibrated color sens...

  17. Color fringe projection profilometry using geometric constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Teng; Du, Qingyu; Jiang, Yaxi

    2017-09-01

    A recently proposed phase unwrapping method using geometric constraints performs well without requiring additional camera, more patterns or global search. The major limitation of this technique is the confined measurement depth range (MDR) within 2π in phase domain. To enlarge the MDR, this paper proposes using color fringes for three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement. Each six fringe periods encoded with six different colors are treated as one group. The local order within one group can be identified with reference to the color distribution. Then the phase wrapped period-by-period is converted into the phase wrapped group-by-group. The geometric constraints of the fringe projection system are used to determine the group order. Such that the MDR is extended from 2π to 12π by six times. Experiment results demonstrate the success of the proposed method to measure two isolated objects with large MDR.

  18. Effects of propolis addition in dietary on the production performance and skin color of weaning piglets%日粮中添加蜂胶制剂对断奶仔猪生产性能和皮肤颜色的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕忠蕾; 李成云

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was to study of the application effects of propolis on piglets. A total of 90 crossed piglets (DurocxLandracexLarge White) were randomly divided into control group, experimental group 1, experimental group 2.Each group had three replications, 10 piglets per replication. The control group was fed with basic diet. The experimental group 1 was fed with basic diet + 0.03% propolis. The experimental group 2 was fed with basic diet + 0.05% propolis. The period of this experiment was 30 days. The result showed that the propolis addition in diets could obviously improve the production performance of piglets and skin color, reduce diarrhoea rate of piglets.%试验旨在研究蜂胶在仔猪上的应用效果.试验采用90头杜×长×大三元杂交仔猪,随机分成对照组、试验1组、试验2组,每组设3个重复,每个重复10头,对照组饲喂基础日粮,试验1组饲喂基础日粮+0.03%蜂胶制剂,试验2组饲喂基础+0.05%蜂胶制剂,试验期为30 d.结果表明,在日粮中添加蜂胶制剂能够明显提高仔猪的生产性能和皮肤颜色,降低仔猪腹泻率.

  19. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas

    2016-06-24

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.

  20. Color and appearance metrology facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIST Physical Measurement Laboratory has established the color and appearance metrology facility to support calibration services for 0°/45° colored samples, 20°,...