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Sample records for additive antioxidant therapy

  1. Antioxidant therapy for patients with chronic pancreatitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Zhou, Dongkai; Wang, Weilin; Cheng, Xiaofei; Wei, Jianfeng; Zheng, Shusen

    2015-08-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive, inflammatory disease of pancreas characterized by significant abdominal pain, malabsorption, and diabetes mellitus. Antioxidant therapy has been proposed as an effective treatment for painful chronic pancreatitis. We performed a meta-analysis of trials in which antioxidant therapy was compared with placebo in chronic pancreatitis. We searched six databases to identify relevant trials. Results are expressed as risk ratio (RR) or standardized mean difference (SMD) with accompanying 95% confidence intervals (CI). The meta-analysis was performed with the fixed-effects model or random-effects model according to heterogeneity. Eight studies including 573 patients met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of these studies revealed that the intervention of antioxidants was associated with a significant increase in patients with pain relief (RR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.72-2.69; P chronic pancreatitis patients (SMD: -0.41; 95% CI: -0.83 to -0.10; P = 0.0005). Additionally, antioxidants may cause some adverse reactions (RR, 4.22; 95% CI: 2.17-8.20; P pathophysiology of chronic pancreatitis, and administration of antioxidants to patients with painful chronic pancreatitis is effective in relieving pain. Antioxidant supplements may be advocated as one medical therapy for chronic pancreatitis patients with low antioxidant capacity in their blood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Food additives reducing volatility of antioxidants at frying temperature

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    At frying temperature, antioxidants are lost not only by reaction with radicals formed by oil oxidation, but also by decomposition and evaporation before they are able to exert antioxidant activity. In this study it was hypothesized that an additive that can bind or interact with an antioxidant coul...

  3. Antioxidant therapies in traumatic brain injury: a review

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    Romero-Rivera Hector Rolando

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress constitute one of the commonest mechanism of the secondary injury contributing to neuronal death in traumatic brain injury cases. The oxidative stress induced secondary injury blockade may be considered as to be a good alternative to improve the outcome of traumatic brain injury (TBI treatment. Due to absence of definitive therapy of traumatic brain injury has forced researcher to utilize unconventional therapies and its roles investigated in the improvement of management and outcome in recent year. Antioxidant therapies are proven effective in many preclinical studies and encouraging results and the role of antioxidant mediaction may act as further advancement in the traumatic brain injury management it may represent aonr of newer moadlaity in neurosurgical aramamentorium, this kind of therapy could be a good alternative or adjuct to the previously established neuroprotection agents in TBI.

  4. Alternative and antioxidant therapies used by a sample of infertile males in Jordan: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used in the Middle East, especially to treat chronic diseases such as infertility. We aimed to examine the prevalence, characteristics, and determinants of CAM use, particularly herbs and antioxidant therapies, among infertile males presenting for infertility evaluation in Jordan. Methods Demographic information, use of alternative and antioxidant therapies for infertility treatment, and patients’ belief in efficacy and safety of the therapies used were collected using a face-to-face questionnaire. Data were collected from 428 infertile male patients presenting at infertility clinics in Amman, the capital city of Jordan. The study was conducted between April 2013 and September 2013. Results Of the 428 men who completed the questionnaire, 184 (43%) used at least one of the alternative and antioxidant therapies specified in the questionnaire. Nutritional regime; vitamins, such as vitamins C and E; and medicinal herbs, such as ginger, saw palmetto, and ginseng were the most commonly used therapies reported. A correlation between the use of alternative and antioxidant therapies versus infertility duration was found. Additionally, the majority of males using CAM did not inform their health care providers about their usage. Conclusions The high prevalence of CAM use among infertile male patients underscores the urge to assimilate CAM into the education and training of health professionals, as well as to improve infertile patients’ knowledge of the safe use of CAM modalities. PMID:25026980

  5. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RECOVERY OF SPINAL CORD INJURY WITH ANTIOXIDANT THERAPY

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    MARCO ANTONIO EDUARDO KOFF

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of the paper is to analyze the frequency and efficacy of experimental studies with antioxidant therapy. A search was conducted in the pubmed.gov database using the keywords "antioxidants" AND "spinal cord injury", from January 2000 to December 2015, resulting in 686 articles. Studies of non-traumatic injuries, non-antioxidant therapies, absence of neurological and functional evaluation, and non-experimental studies were excluded, leaving a total of 43 articles. The most used therapies were melatonin (16.2%, quercetin (9.3%, epigallocatechin and edaravone (6.9%. The most frequent route of administration was intraperitoneal (72.09%. The dose and mode of administration varied greatly, with a single dose being the most commonly used (39.53%. The time elapsed from trauma to treatment was 0-15 minutes (41.8%, 15-60 minutes (30% and over 60 minutes (10.6%. Histological analysis was performed in 32 studies (74.41%. The BBB scale was the main functional measure applied (55.8%, followed by the inclined plane test (16.2% and the Tarlov scale (13.9%. Positive outcomes were observed in 37 studies (86.04%. The heterogeneity of antioxidant therapy, with different types, doses, and measurements observed, limits the comparison of efficacy. Standardized protocols are required to make clinical translation possible.

  6. Antioxidant therapy for pain relief in patients with chronic pancreatitis: systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Cai, Guo-Hong; Huang, Jing; Zhao, Yan; Chen, Jing; Wu, Huang-Hui; Dong, Yu-Lin; Smith, Howard S; Li, Yun-Qing; Wang, Wen; Wu, Sheng-Xi

    2013-01-01

    Currently, there is no specific therapy for chronic pancreatitis (CP). The treatment of micronutrient antioxidant therapy for painful CP has been sporadically used for more than 30 years, however, its efficacy are still poorly understood. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to investigate the safety and efficacy of antioxidant therapy for pain relief in patients with CP. University Hospital in China Systematic review and meta-analysis Two authors independently reviewed the search results and extracted data and disagreements were resolved by discussion. Effects were summarized using standardized mean differences (SMDs), weighted mean differences, or odds ratio (OR) according to the suitable effect model. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials  were searched from 1980 through December 2012. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that studied antioxidant supplementation for pain relief in patients with CP were analyzed. Nine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 390 patients were included. Overall, there was no association of antioxidant therapy with pain reduction in CP patients (SMD, -0.55; 95% CI, -1.22 to 0.12; P = 0.67). However, antioxidant therapy significantly increased blood levels of antioxidants in CP patients versus the placebo group (SMD, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.43; P pain relief (SMD, -0.93; 95% CI, -1.72 to -0.14; P = 0.02), while the trials in which a single antioxidant was used revealed no significant pain relief (SMD, -0.12; 95% CI, -1.23 to 0.99; P = 0.83) in CP patients. Strong evidence was obtained that the antioxidants increased adverse effects (OR, 6.09; 95% CI, 2.29 to 16.17, P pain relief in CP patients. Measures of total antioxidant status may not help to monitor the efficacy of antioxidant therapy for patients with CP.

  7. Antioxidant Intake and Antitumor Therapy: Toward Nutritional Recommendations for Optimal Results

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    Mut-Salud, Nuria; Álvarez, Pablo Juan; Garrido, Jose Manuel; Carrasco, Esther; Aránega, Antonia; Rodríguez-Serrano, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The role of the induction of oxidative stress as the mechanism of action of many antitumor drugs is acquiring an increasing interest. In such cases, the antitumor therapy success may be conditioned by the antioxidants present in our own body, which can be synthesized de novo (endogenous) or incorporated through the diet and nutritional supplements (exogenous). In this paper, we have reviewed different aspects of antioxidants, including their classification, natural sources, importance in diet, consumption of nutritional supplements, and the impact of antioxidants on health. Moreover, we have focused especially on the study of the interaction between antioxidants and antitumor therapy, considering both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In this regard, we found that the convenience of administration of antioxidants during cancer treatment still remains a very controversial issue. In general terms, antioxidants could promote or suppress the effectiveness of antitumor treatment and even protect healthy tissues against damage induced by oxidative stress. The effects may depend on many factors discussed in the paper. These factors should be taken into consideration in order to achieve precise nutritional recommendations for patients. The evidence at the moment suggests that the supplementation or restriction of exogenous antioxidants during cancer treatment, as appropriate, could contribute to improving its efficiency. PMID:26682013

  8. Antioxidant Intake and Antitumor Therapy: Toward Nutritional Recommendations for Optimal Results

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    Nuria Mut-Salud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the induction of oxidative stress as the mechanism of action of many antitumor drugs is acquiring an increasing interest. In such cases, the antitumor therapy success may be conditioned by the antioxidants present in our own body, which can be synthesized de novo (endogenous or incorporated through the diet and nutritional supplements (exogenous. In this paper, we have reviewed different aspects of antioxidants, including their classification, natural sources, importance in diet, consumption of nutritional supplements, and the impact of antioxidants on health. Moreover, we have focused especially on the study of the interaction between antioxidants and antitumor therapy, considering both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In this regard, we found that the convenience of administration of antioxidants during cancer treatment still remains a very controversial issue. In general terms, antioxidants could promote or suppress the effectiveness of antitumor treatment and even protect healthy tissues against damage induced by oxidative stress. The effects may depend on many factors discussed in the paper. These factors should be taken into consideration in order to achieve precise nutritional recommendations for patients. The evidence at the moment suggests that the supplementation or restriction of exogenous antioxidants during cancer treatment, as appropriate, could contribute to improving its efficiency.

  9. Long-term outcome of patients with chronic pancreatitis treated with micronutrient antioxidant therapy.

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    Rupasinghe, Sukitha Namal; Siriwardena, Ajith K

    2017-04-01

    Micronutrient antioxidant therapy did not relieve pain in a European randomized trial of patients with chronic pancreatitis without malnutrition. However, intervention was undertaken only for 6 months leaving unanswered the question of whether long-term antioxidant therapy may modulate chronic pancreatitis. The aim of this study is to assess the outcome of long-term use of micronutrient antioxidant therapy in patients with chronic pancreatitis. This is a single center clinical cohort report of patients with chronic pancreatitis prescribed micronutrient antioxidant therapy and followed for up to 10 years. Data were collected on demographic detail, clinic pain assessment, insulin requirements, interventions and outcome. A group of 30 patients with a diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis constitute the study population. Median age at time of diagnosis was 40 years (range 14-66); 19 (63%) were male and the median duration of symptoms was 2 years (range 0-18). Alcohol was the dominant cause in 22 (73%) patients and 16 (53%) patients were Cambridge stage 1. Twenty-four (80%) patients had pain at presentation. During antioxidant treatment of 4 years (range 1-10), pain decreased but the proportion with abdominal pain compared to those who were pain-free remained constant (P=0.16; two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni correction). There was a significant increase in requirement for insulin (P=0.028) with time together with use of both endoscopic and surgical interventions. This is the first study to report long-term disease-specific outcome in patients with chronic pancreatitis prescribed micronutrient antioxidant therapy. There appears to be no effect of intervention on outcome.

  10. Diabetic nephropathy and antioxidants.

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    Tavafi, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress has crucial role in pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Despite satisfactory results from antioxidant therapy in rodent, antioxidant therapy showed conflicting results in combat with DN in diabetic patients. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar,Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. Treatment of DN in human are insufficient with rennin angiotensin system (RAS) blockers, so additional agent ought to combine with this management. Meanwhile based on DN pathogenesis and evidences in experimental and human researches, the antioxidants are the best candidate. New multi-property antioxidants may be improved human DN that show high power antioxidant capacity, long half-life time, high permeability to mitochondrion, improve body antioxidants enzymes activity and anti-inflammatory effects. Based on this review and our studies on diabetic rats, rosmarinic acid a multi-property antioxidant may be useful in DN patients, but of course, needs to be proven in clinical trials studies.

  11. An assessment of calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel fuelled diesel engine characteristics using novel antioxidant additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok, B.; Nanthagopal, K.; Jeevanantham, A.K.; Bhowmick, Pathikrit; Malhotra, Dhruv; Agarwal, Pranjal

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel antioxidant Ethanox was used for the present investigation. • Effect of two antioxidants on biodiesel fuelled engine characteristics were studied. • Brake thermal efficiency increased by 5.3% for Ethanox 1000 ppm with biodiesel. • 21% reduction in oxides of nitrogen for Butylated hydroxytoluene 500 ppm addition. • Higher hydrocarbon and smoke emissions were observed for all treated fuels. - Abstract: In this present study, the effect of antioxidant additives with pure Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics has been investigated. New antioxidant additive namely Ethanox was added to the Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel at concentrations of 200 ppm, 500 ppm and 1000 ppm for oxides of nitrogen reductions and the experimental results were compared to Butylated hydroxytoluene antioxidant at same concentrations. An experimental study was done on a twin cylinder, four stroke diesel engine at a constant speed of 1500 rpm with two different antioxidants, Ethanox and Butylated hydroxytoluene individually mixed with pure Calophyllum inophyllum at concentrations of 200 ppm, 500 ppm and 1000 ppm by weight. The experimental results showed that the addition of antioxidants with Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel produced higher brake specific fuel consumption and higher brake thermal efficiency compared to pure biodiesel. Significant reductions in oxides of nitrogen emissions were observed with Ethanox and Butylated hydroxytoluene addition with biodiesel at all concentrations compared to neat biodiesel. The reduction oxides of nitrogen emission was 12.6% for Ethanox 1000 ppm and 21% for Butylated hydroxytoluene 500 ppm compared to neat biodiesel. Comparable combustion characteristics were obtained by addition of Ethanox with biodiesel than Butylated hydroxytoluene antioxidant. Moreover, the addition of Ethanox and Butylated hydroxytoluene antioxidants with neat biodiesel increase the carbon

  12. Delayed Posthypoxic Leukoencephalopathy: Improvement with Antioxidant Therapy

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    Franklin King

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Delayed posthypoxic leukoencephalopathy (DPHL may result from a variety of hypoxic insults, including respiratory depression from an opiate overdose. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism of DPHL remains uncertain. We describe a patient with a typical case of DPHL who responded clinically to antioxidant treatment. Methods: Clinical, serological, and radiographic investigations were undertaken in the evaluation of the patient. Results: A 63-year-old man developed altered mental status 10 days following recovery from an opiate overdose and aspiration pneumonia that required intubation. The clinical course and brain imaging were consistent with DPHL. Initiation of antioxidant therapy with vitamin E, vitamin C, B-complex vitamins, and coenzyme Q10 coincided with the prompt reversal of clinical deterioration. Conclusions: The potential therapeutic effect of antioxidants on DPHL needs to be explored in future cases. If this relationship indeed holds true, it would be consistent with the hypothesis that formation of reactive oxygen species during reperfusion plays a role in the pathophysiology of this disorder.

  13. Antioxidant therapy in idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia

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    Ahmad Majzoub

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Additional randomized controlled studies are required to confirm the efficacy and safety of antioxidant supplementation in the medical treatment of idiopathic male infertility as well as the dosage required to improve semen parameters, fertilization rates, and pregnancy outcomes in iOAT.

  14. Effects of Honey Addition on Antioxidative Properties of Different Herbal Teas

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    Toydemir Gamze

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tea and herbal infusions are among the major contributors of phenolic compounds, specifically flavonoids, in our daily diet. Honey is another antioxidant-rich food that is widely used as a natural sweetener. In this work, the effects of honey addition on antioxidant properties of different herbal teas were investigated. For this purpose, 2 different types of honey (flower and pine honey were added into 9 different herbal teas (melissa, green tea, rosehip, sage, echinacea, fennel, linden, daisy, and ginger at 4 different temperatures (55°C, 65°C, 75°C, and 85°C, and the changes in the content of total pheolics, total flavonoids, and total antioxidant capacity were determined. The total phenolic content and the total antioxidant capacity of the honey-added-tea samples were found to be increased (up to 57% for both, especially with pine honey and at higher temperatures of honey addition. The findings of this study supported the use of honey as a natural sweetener in tea in order to be able to benefit from the health-enhancing antioxidative properties of these two promising food products.

  15. Oxidative stress and food supplementation with antioxidants in therapy dogs.

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    Sechi, Sara; Fiore, Filippo; Chiavolelli, Francesca; Dimauro, Corrado; Nudda, Anna; Cocco, Raffaella

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a long-term antioxidant-supplemented diet to regulate the oxidative stress and general health status of dogs involved in animal-assisted intervention (AAI) programs. Oxidative stress is a consequence of the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exercise-induced oxidative stress can increase muscle fatigue and fiber damage and eventually leads to impairment of the immune system. A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical evaluation was conducted with 11 healthy therapy dogs: 6 females and 5 males of different breeds and with a mean age of 2.7 ± 0.8 y (mean ± SEM). The dogs were divided into 2 groups, 1 fed a high quality commercial diet without antioxidants (CD) and the other a high quality commercial diet supplemented with antioxidants (SD) for 18 wk. After the first 18 wk, metabolic parameters, reactive oxygen metabolite-derivatives (d-ROMs), and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) levels were monitored and showed a significant reduction of d-ROMs, triglycerides, and creatinine values in the SD group ( P < 0.05) and a significant increase in amylase values in the CD group ( P < 0.01). At the end of this period, groups were crossed over and fed for another 18 wk. A significant decrease in amylase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) values was observed in the CD and SD group, respectively ( P < 0.05). In conclusion, a controlled, balanced antioxidant diet may be a valid approach to restoring good cell metabolism and neutralizing excess free radicals in therapy dogs.

  16. Site-Specific Antioxidative Therapy for Prevention of Atherosclerosis and Cardiovascular Disease

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    Hajime Otani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated in pathophysiology of aging and age-associated disease. Antioxidative medicine has become a practice for prevention of atherosclerosis. However, limited success in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD in individuals with atherosclerosis using general antioxidants has prompted us to develop a novel antioxidative strategy to prevent atherosclerosis. Reducing visceral adipose tissue by calorie restriction (CR and regular endurance exercise represents a causative therapy for ameliorating oxidative stress. Some of the recently emerging drugs used for the treatment of CVD may be assigned as site-specific antioxidants. CR and exercise mimetic agents are the choice for individuals who are difficult to continue CR and exercise. Better understanding of molecular and cellular biology of redox signaling will pave the way for more effective antioxidative medicine for prevention of CVD and prolongation of healthy life span.

  17. The Antioxidant Additive Approach for Alzheimer's Disease Therapy: New Ferulic (Lipoic) Acid Plus Melatonin Modified Tacrines as Cholinesterases Inhibitors, Direct Antioxidants, and Nuclear Factor (Erythroid-Derived 2)-Like 2 Activators.

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    Benchekroun, Mohamed; Romero, Alejandro; Egea, Javier; León, Rafael; Michalska, Patrycja; Buendía, Izaskun; Jimeno, María Luisa; Jun, Daniel; Janockova, Jana; Sepsova, Vendula; Soukup, Ondrej; Bautista-Aguilera, Oscar M; Refouvelet, Bernard; Ouari, Olivier; Marco-Contelles, José; Ismaili, Lhassane

    2016-11-10

    Novel multifunctional tacrines for Alzheimer's disease were obtained by Ugi-reaction between ferulic (or lipoic acid), a melatonin-like isocyanide, formaldehyde, and tacrine derivatives, according to the antioxidant additive approach in order to modulate the oxidative stress as therapeutic strategy. Compound 5c has been identified as a promising permeable agent showing excellent antioxidant properties, strong cholinesterase inhibitory activity, less hepatotoxicity than tacrine, and the best neuroprotective capacity, being able to significantly activate the Nrf2 transcriptional pathway.

  18. Oregano Essential Oil as an Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Additive in Food Products.

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    Rodriguez-Garcia, I; Silva-Espinoza, B A; Ortega-Ramirez, L A; Leyva, J M; Siddiqui, M W; Cruz-Valenzuela, M R; Gonzalez-Aguilar, G A; Ayala-Zavala, J F

    2016-07-26

    Food consumers and industries urged the need of natural alternatives to assure food safety and quality. As a response, the use of natural compounds from herbs and spices is an alternative to synthetic additives associated with toxic problems. This review discusses the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of oregano essential oil (OEO) and its potential as a food additive. Oregano is a plant that has been used as a food seasoning since ancient times. The common name of oregano is given to several species: Origanum (family: Lamiaceae) and Lippia (family: Verbenaceae), amongst others. The main compounds identified in the different OEOs are carvacrol and thymol, which are responsible for the characteristic odor, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activity; however, their content may vary according to the species, harvesting season, and geographical sources. These substances as antibacterial agents make the cell membrane permeable due to its impregnation in the hydrophobic domains, this effect is higher against gram positive bacteria. In addition, the OEO has antioxidant properties effective in retarding the process of lipid peroxidation in fatty foods, and scavenging free radicals. In this perspective, the present review analyzes and discusses the state of the art about the actual and potential uses of OEO as an antimicrobial and antioxidant food additives.

  19. Antiwear and antioxidant studies of cardanol phosphate ester additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzetto, S.E.; Oliveira, L.D.M.; Lomonaco, D.; Veloso, P.A., E-mail: selma@ufc.br [Lab. de Produtos e Tecnologia em Processos (LPT), Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    In the search for new applications and products derived from Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL), we report herein the synthesis and characterization (GC/MS and {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 31}P NMR) of four phosphate esters derived from hydrogenated cardanol, including their applications as antiwear additives for diesel (S500) and as antioxidant additives for mineral oils, evaluated through the HFRR test and oxidative stability analyses, respectively. The results obtained showed very good to excellent performances promoted by the bioadditives evaluated, especially for the thiophosphorylated derivative, which notably reduced the sludge residue and the acidity index of the oxidized oil (0.52 mg NaOH/g sample) and also improved the diesel lubricity, reducing the wear of metal parts by more than 50% (330 {Mu}m). Keywords: Cardanol; Antiwear; Antioxidant; Diesel; Mineral oil. (author)

  20. Free radicals and lipid peroxidation mediated injury in burn trauma: the role of antioxidant therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, Jureta W.

    2003-01-01

    Burn trauma produces significant fluid shifts that, in turn, reduce cardiac output and tissue perfusion. Treatment approaches to major burn injury include administration of crystalloid solutions to correct hypovolemia and to restore peripheral perfusion. While this aggressive postburn volume replacement increases oxygen delivery to previously ischemic tissue, this restoration of oxygen delivery is thought to initiate a series of deleterious events that exacerbate ischemia-related tissue injury. While persistent hypoperfusion after burn trauma would produce cell death, volume resuscitation may exacerbate the tissue injury that occurred during low flow state. It is clear that after burn trauma, tissue adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels gradually fall, and increased adenosine monophosphate (AMP) is converted to hypoxanthine, providing substrate for xanthine oxidase. These complicated reactions produce hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, clearly recognized deleterious free radicals. In addition to xanthine oxidase related free radical generation in burn trauma, adherent-activated neutrophils produce additional free radicals. Enhanced free radical production is paralleled by impaired antioxidant mechanisms; as indicated by burn-related decreases in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, alpha tocopherol, and ascorbic acid levels. Burn related upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) may produce peripheral vasodilatation, upregulate the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and promote transcription and translation of numerous inflammatory cytokines. NO may also interact with the superoxide radical to yield peroxynitrite, a highly reactive mediator of tissue injury. Free radical mediated cell injury has been supported by postburn increases in systemic and tissue levels of lipid peroxidation products such as conjugated dienes, thiobarbituric acid reaction products, or malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Antioxidant therapy in burn therapy

  1. Fortification of yogurts with different antioxidant preservatives: A comparative study between natural and synthetic additives.

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    Caleja, Cristina; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Carocho, Márcio; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-11-01

    Consumers demand more and more so-called "natural" products and, therefore, the aim of this work was to compare the effects of natural versus synthetic antioxidant preservatives in yogurts. Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) decoctions were tested as natural additives, while potassium sorbate (E202) was used as a synthetic additive. The fortification of yogurts with natural and synthetic antioxidants did not cause significant changes in the yoghurt pH and nutritional value, in comparison with control samples (yogurt without any additive). However, the fortified yogurts showed higher antioxidant activity, mainly the yogurts with natural additives (and among these, the ones with chamomile decoction). Overall, it can be concluded that plant decoctions can be used to develop novel yogurts, by replacing synthetic preservatives and improving the antioxidant properties of the final product, without changing the nutritional profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vitamin E and N-Acetylcysteine as Antioxidant Adjuvant Therapy in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

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    Youssef Al-Tonbary

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cancer therapies have experienced great success nowadays, yet the associated toxic response and free radicals formation have resulted in significant number of treatment-induced deaths rather than disease-induced fatalities. Complications of chemotherapy have forced physicians to study antioxidant use as adjunctive treatment in cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant role of vitamin E and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC in overcoming treatment-induced toxicity in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL during the intensive period of chemo-/radiotherapy, almost the first two months of treatment. Forty children newly diagnosed with ALL were enrolled in this study. Twenty children (group I have taken vitamin E and NAC supplementations with chemotherapy and the other twenty children (group II have not taken any adjuvant antioxidant therapy. They were evaluated clinically for the occurrence of complications and by the laboratory parameters (blood levels of glutathione peroxidase (Glu.PX antioxidant enzyme, malondialdehyde (MDA, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-, liver enzymes, and bone marrow picture. Results revealed reduced chemotherapy and radiotherapy toxicity as evidenced by decreasing level of MDA, increasing level of Glu.Px and decreased occurrence of toxic hepatitis, haematological complications, and need for blood and platelet transfusions in group I compared to group II. We can conclude that vitamin E and NAC have been shown to be effective as antioxidant adjuvant therapy in children with ALL to reduce chemo-/radiotherapy-related toxicities during the initial period of treatment.

  3. Vitamin E and N-Acetylcysteine as Antioxidant Adjuvant Therapy in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

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    Al-Tonbary, Youssef; Al-Haggar, Mohammad; EL-Ashry, Rasha; EL-Dakroory, Sahar; Azzam, Hanan; Fouda, Ashraf

    2009-01-01

    Although cancer therapies have experienced great success nowadays, yet the associated toxic response and free radicals formation have resulted in significant number of treatment-induced deaths rather than disease-induced fatalities. Complications of chemotherapy have forced physicians to study antioxidant use as adjunctive treatment in cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant role of vitamin E and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) in overcoming treatment-induced toxicity in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) during the intensive period of chemo-/radiotherapy, almost the first two months of treatment. Forty children newly diagnosed with ALL were enrolled in this study. Twenty children (group I) have taken vitamin E and NAC supplementations with chemotherapy and the other twenty children (group II) have not taken any adjuvant antioxidant therapy. They were evaluated clinically for the occurrence of complications and by the laboratory parameters (blood levels of glutathione peroxidase (Glu.PX) antioxidant enzyme, malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), liver enzymes, and bone marrow picture). Results revealed reduced chemotherapy and radiotherapy toxicity as evidenced by decreasing level of MDA, increasing level of Glu.Px and decreased occurrence of toxic hepatitis, haematological complications, and need for blood and platelet transfusions in group I compared to group II. We can conclude that vitamin E and NAC have been shown to be effective as antioxidant adjuvant therapy in children with ALL to reduce chemo-/radiotherapy-related toxicities during the initial period of treatment. PMID:19960046

  4. Yoghurts with addition of selected vegetables: acidity, antioxidant properties and sensory quality.

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    Najgebauer-Lejko, Dorota; Grega, Tadeusz; Tabaszewska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Yoghurt is a fermented milk of unique sensory, nutritive and dietetic value offered in a variety of types and in different flavours. Vegetables belong to the group of food products rich in antioxidant substances (e.g., vitamin C, carotenoids, tocopherols, polyphenols) which regular consumption lowers the risk of many diseases including cancers and cardiovascular disorders. The aim of the present work was to manufacture and assess the acidity, sensory quality and antioxidant capacity of yoghurts with addition of selected vegetables during 2-week refrigerated storage. The vegetable preparations (carrot, pumpkin, broccoli and red sweet pepper) were added to the cow's milk fermented using DVS type yoghurt culture after initial cooling to 15-20°C in the amount of 10% (w/w). The following analyses were performed: determination of pH, titratable acidity, antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method as well as sensory evaluation and were conducted after 1, 7 and 14 days of cold storage. The yoghurt supplementation with selected vegetables had no significant effect on the pH and titratable acidity level. The highest ability to scavenge DPPH radicals was stated for yoghurts with broccoli and red sweet pepper. The latter treatment gained the highest notes in sensory evaluation. All vegetable yoghurts were characterised by higher than the natural yoghurt FRAP values measured directly after production. However, the level of this parameter significantly decreased after storage. The red sweet pepper additive was the most beneficial regarding antioxidant properties and organoleptic acceptance of the studied yoghurts.

  5. Effect of Addition of Natural Antioxidants on the Shelf-Life of “Chorizo”, a Spanish Dry-Cured Sausage

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    Mirian Pateiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dose effect of the addition of natural antioxidants (tea, chestnut, grape seed and beer extracts on physicochemical, microbiological changes and on oxidative stability of dry-cured “chorizo”, as well as their effect during the storage under vacuum conditions was evaluated. Color parameters were significantly (p < 0.05 affected by the addition of antioxidants so that samples that contained antioxidants were more effective in maintaining color. The improving effects were dose-dependent with highest values with the dose of 50 mg/kg during ripening and depend on the extract during vacuum packaging. Addition of antioxidants decreased (p < 0.05 the oxidation, showing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS values below 0.4 mg MDA/kg. Natural antioxidants matched or even improved the results obtained for butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. Regarding texture profile analysis (TPA analysis, hardness values significantly (p < 0.001 decreased with the addition of antioxidants, obtaining the lower results with the dose of 200 mg/kg both during ripening and vacuum packaging. Antioxidants reduced the counts of total viable counts (TVC, lactic acid bacteria (LAB, mold and yeast. Free fatty acid content during ripening and under vacuum conditions showed a gradual and significant (p < 0.05 release as a result of lipolysis. At the end of ripening, the addition of GRA1000 protected chorizos from oxidative degradation.

  6. Some azine and azole derivatives as antioxidant additives for lithium lubricating grease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda M. Fikry

    2013-06-01

    The structure of these compounds has been confirmed using elemental analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. On the other hand, lithium lubricating grease was prepared and evaluated according to the National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI and Egyptian Standard (ES. The antioxidant compounds were tested for the prepared grease with concentration 0.1 wt.%. The efficiency of these compounds has been determined using total acid number. It was found that the prepared lithium grease resists oxidation reaction in the presence of these compounds. A correlation between the chemical structure of these compounds and their efficiency as antioxidants additives was discussed. Data showed that the efficiency of these compounds as antioxidants decreases in the order: compound I > compound II > compound III.

  7. Quantum-chemical study of antioxidant additives for jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletaeva, O.Yu. [Ufa State Petroleum Technological Univ., Ufa (Russian Federation); Karimova, R.I. [Bashkir State Agrarian Univ., Ufa (Russian Federation); Movsumzade, E.M. [Institute of Education of Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples of the North RAE, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    To obtain the necessary quality of jet fuels it can be used technological methods (hydrocracking, deep hydration, hydrogenation) that increases the cost of the finished product. The second way is to use less purified raw materials with the introduction of effective additives. Fuels obtained by direct distillation, in ambient air are oxidized with great difficulty and oxidation products accumulate in them is very slow. Fuels derived by hydrogenation processes, have high susceptibility to oxidation, as a result in 1-2 years of storage considerably reduced their quality. Antioxidant additives play an important role in improving the quality of jet fuel. (orig.)

  8. Applicability of the DPPH assay for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of food additives - inter-laboratory evaluation study -.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Tomoko; Sumikura, Yoshihiro; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tada, Atsuko; Kashiwagi, Takehiro; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Matsui, Toshiro; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ukeda, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    An inter-laboratory evaluation study was conducted in order to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of food additives by using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Four antioxidants used as existing food additives (i.e., tea extract, grape seed extract, enju extract, and d-α-tocopherol) and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) were used as analytical samples, and 14 laboratories participated in this study. The repeatability relative standard deviation (RSD(r)) of the IC50 of Trolox, four antioxidants, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were 1.8-2.2%, 2.2-2.9%, and 2.1-2.5%, respectively. Thus, the proposed DPPH assay showed good performance within the same laboratory. The reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSD(R)) of IC50 of Trolox, four antioxidants, and TEAC were 4.0-7.9%, 6.0-11%, and 3.7-9.3%, respectively. The RSD(R)/RSD(r) values of TEAC were lower than, or nearly equal to, those of IC50 of the four antioxidants, suggesting that the use of TEAC was effective for reducing the variance among the laboratories. These results showed that the proposed DPPH assay could be used as a standard method to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of food additives.

  9. Oxidative Stress-Related Mechanisms and Antioxidant Therapy in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is one of the most common microvascular complications of diabetes and is the leading cause of blindness in young adults. Oxidative stress has been implicated as a critical cause of DR. Metabolic abnormalities induced by high-glucose levels are involved in the development of DR and appear to be influenced by oxidative stress. The imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS production and the antioxidant defense system activates several oxidative stress-related mechanisms that promote the pathogenesis of DR. The damage caused by oxidative stress persists for a considerable time, even after the blood glucose concentration has returned to a normal level. Animal experiments have proved that the use of antioxidants is a beneficial therapeutic strategy for the treatment of DR, but more data are required from clinical trials. The aims of this review are to highlight the improvements to our understanding of the oxidative stress-related mechanisms underlying the development of DR and provide a summary of the main antioxidant therapy strategies used to treat the disease.

  10. Effect of Addition of Natural Antioxidants on the Shelf-Life of “Chorizo”, a Spanish Dry-Cured Sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateiro, Mirian; Bermúdez, Roberto; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Franco, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The dose effect of the addition of natural antioxidants (tea, chestnut, grape seed and beer extracts) on physicochemical, microbiological changes and on oxidative stability of dry-cured “chorizo”, as well as their effect during the storage under vacuum conditions was evaluated. Color parameters were significantly (p antioxidants so that samples that contained antioxidants were more effective in maintaining color. The improving effects were dose-dependent with highest values with the dose of 50 mg/kg during ripening and depend on the extract during vacuum packaging. Addition of antioxidants decreased (p antioxidants matched or even improved the results obtained for butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Regarding texture profile analysis (TPA) analysis, hardness values significantly (p antioxidants, obtaining the lower results with the dose of 200 mg/kg both during ripening and vacuum packaging. Antioxidants reduced the counts of total viable counts (TVC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mold and yeast. Free fatty acid content during ripening and under vacuum conditions showed a gradual and significant (p < 0.05) release as a result of lipolysis. At the end of ripening, the addition of GRA1000 protected chorizos from oxidative degradation. PMID:26785337

  11. Effect of radiation therapy on lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity of blood and saliva in oral cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Aswin D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy is reported to induce oxidative stress in oral cancer patients. Saliva as a diagnostic tool has received increasing attention in recent years. Saliva analysis is proposed to be a noninvasive, sensitive tool for the evaluation of biological effects of radiation therapy in oral cancer. We aimed to assess the effect of radiation therapy on malondialdehyde, the marker of lipid peroxidation, and total antioxidant capacity in blood and saliva of oral cancer patients. We also aimed to assess the correlation between blood and saliva with respect to malonaldehyde (MDA) level and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Thirty, clinically diagnosed oral cancer patients visiting the Oncology Department were the subjects. Thirty age- and sex-matched normal, healthy controls were included. Blood and saliva samples were collected from controls, and from oral cancer patients before and after radiation therapy. The samples were analyzed for MDA and TAC by standard spectrophotometric methods. Oral cancer patients showed significantly higher MDA level and lower TAC in blood and saliva when compared to controls. One week after radiation therapy, there was significant increase in MDA and decrease in TAC in oral cancer patients. After the completion of radiation therapy of six weeks, MDA level decreased and TAC increased, restoring the values near-to-controls. The pattern of change in MDA and TAC was similar between blood and saliva. There was significant correlation between blood and saliva with respect to MDA and TAC in oral cancer patients. Oral cancer patients showed increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant capacity. After radiation therapy of one week, oxidative stress increased further, and after six weeks of radiation therapy there was amelioration of antioxidant status. Saliva could be a sensitive and convenient laboratory tool for diagnosis of oral cancer and evaluation of biological effects of radiation therapy. (author)

  12. Immune and antioxidizing response in cancer patients to photodynamic therapy with photohem and photosens as photosensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubovskaya, Raisa I.; Sokolov, Victor V.; Nemtzova, H. R.; Oganezov, Victor K.; Scherbitskaya, I. Y.; Filonenko, H. V.; Aristarkhova, E. I.; Chissov, Valery I.

    1996-01-01

    Free radicals are the main basis of anticancer effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT). At the same time, they cause different complications. The goal of this study is to investigate the changes in homeostasis of cancer patients under the influence of PDT. It was shown, as a result of study of antioxidizing and immune status of these patients, that there are significant deviations in their indices even before PDT. The treatment leads to further development of disbalance in these systems which demands correction. Several remedies have been offered for correction therapy. The application of these remedies causes the reduction of overstrain in antioxidizing defence and leads to decrease in cases of complications.

  13. Combined Therapy of Iron Chelator and Antioxidant Completely Restores Brain Dysfunction Induced by Iron Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripetchwandee, Jirapas; Pipatpiboon, Noppamas; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive iron accumulation leads to iron toxicity in the brain; however the underlying mechanism is unclear. We investigated the effects of iron overload induced by high iron-diet consumption on brain mitochondrial function, brain synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. Iron chelator (deferiprone) and antioxidant (n-acetyl cysteine) effects on iron-overload brains were also studied. Methodology Male Wistar rats were fed either normal diet or high iron-diet consumption for 12 weeks, after which rats in each diet group were treated with vehicle or deferiprone (50 mg/kg) or n-acetyl cysteine (100 mg/kg) or both for another 4 weeks. High iron-diet consumption caused brain iron accumulation, brain mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired brain synaptic plasticity and cognition, blood-brain-barrier breakdown, and brain apoptosis. Although both iron chelator and antioxidant attenuated these deleterious effects, combined therapy provided more robust results. Conclusion In conclusion, this is the first study demonstrating that combined iron chelator and anti-oxidant therapy completely restored brain function impaired by iron overload. PMID:24400127

  14. Studies on the Food Additive Propyl Gallate: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Jorge; Garrido, E. Manuela; Borges, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are additives largely used in industry for delaying, retarding, or preventing the development of oxidative deterioration. Propyl gallate (E310) is a phenolic antioxidant extensively used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. A series of lab experiments have been developed to teach students about the importance and…

  15. Combination of nitric oxide therapy, anti-oxidative therapy, low level laser therapy, plasma rich platelet therapy and stem cell therapy as a novel therapeutic application to manage the pain and treat many clinical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Salaheldin; Dickinson, Eva

    2014-02-01

    From hypertension to diabetes, cancer to HIV, stroke to memory loss and learning disorders to septic shock, male impotence to tuberculosis, there is probably no pathological condition where nitric oxide does not play an important role. Nitric oxide is an analgesic, immune-modulator, vasodilator, anti-apoptotic, growth modulator, angiogenetic, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory and neuro-modulator. Because of the above actions of nitric oxide, many clinical conditions associated with abnormal Nitric oxide (NO) production and bioavailability. Our novel therapeutic approach is to restore the homeostasis of nitric oxide and replace the lost cells by combining nitric oxide therapy, anti-oxidative therapy, low level laser therapy, plasma rich platelet therapy and stem cell therapy.

  16. [Nootropics and antioxidants in the complex therapy of symptomatic posttraumatic epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenkov, A A; Badalian, O L; Avakian, G N

    2013-01-01

    To study the possibility of application of nootropics and antioxidants in the complex antiepileptic therapy, we examined 75 patients with symptomatic focal posttraumatic epilepsy. A statistically significant reduction in the number of epileptic seizures, improvement of cognitive function and quality of life of the patients as well as a decrease in the severity of depression and epileptic changes in the EEG were identified. The potentiation of antiepileptic activity of basic drugs, normalization of brain's electrical activity and reduction in EEG epileptiform activity, in particular coherent indicators of slow-wave activity, were noted after treatment with the antioxidant mexidol. A trend towards the improvement of neuropsychological performance and quality of life was observed. There was a lack of seizure aggravation typical of many nootropic drugs. Thus, phenotropil and mexidol can be recommended for complex treatment of symptomatic posttraumatic epilepsy.

  17. Effect of spa therapy with saline balneotherapy on oxidant/antioxidant status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a single-blind randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagülle, Mine; Kardeş, Sinan; Karagülle, Oğuz; Dişçi, Rian; Avcı, Aslıhan; Durak, İlker; Karagülle, Müfit Zeki

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been shown to play a contributory role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent studies have provided evidence for antioxidant properties of spa therapy. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether spa therapy with saline balneotherapy has any influence on the oxidant/antioxidant status in patients with RA and to assess clinical effects of spa therapy. In this investigator-blind randomized controlled trial, we randomly assigned 50 patients in a 1:1 ratio to spa therapy plus standard drug treatment (spa group) or standard drug treatment alone (control group). Spa group followed a 2-week course of spa therapy regimen consisting of a total of 12 balneotherapy sessions in a thermal mineral water pool at 36-37 °C for 20 min every day except Sunday. All clinical and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline and after spa therapy (2 weeks). The clinical parameters were pain intensity, patient global assessment, physician global assessment, Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI), Disease Activity Score for 28-joints based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-4[ESR]). Oxidative status parameters were malondialdehyde (MDA), nonenzymatic superoxide radical scavenger activity (NSSA), antioxidant potential (AOP), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The NSSA levels were increased significantly in the spa group ( p = 0.003) but not in the control group ( p = 0.509); and there was a trend in favor of spa therapy for improvements in NSSA levels compared to control ( p = 0.091). Significant clinical improvement was found in the spa group compared to the control in terms of patient global assessment ( p = 0.011), physician global assessment ( p = 0.043), function (HAQ-DI) ( p = 0.037), disease activity (DAS28-4[ESR]) (0.044) and swollen joint count (0.009), and a trend toward improvement in pain scores (0.057). Spa therapy with saline balneotherapy exerts antioxidant effect in patients with RA as reflected by the

  18. Effects of antioxidant additives on engine performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with canola oil methyl ester–diesel blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    İleri, Erol; Koçar, Günnur

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • BHA, BHT, TBHQ, EHN synthetic antioxidants were employed in the study. • Antioxidant additives are a promising candidate for improving cetane number, oxidation stability and decreasing NO x emissions • Cetane number improving efficiency of the antioxidants was ordered as EHN>BHA>BHT>TBHQ. • Formation of CO emissions has been increased with addition of each of the antioxidants to B20. - Abstract: An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the effect of antioxidants on engine performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with B20 (20 vol.% canola oil methyl ester and 80 vol.% diesel fuel blend). The four synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN), were tested on a Land Rover turbocharged direct injection (TDI) 110 type diesel engine with water cooled, 4-cycl and 4-cylinder. The addition of antioxidants to B20 did not cause any negative effect on basic fuel properties of B20. According to engine performance test results, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of B20 with antioxidants decreased compared to those of B20 without antioxidants. A 1000 ppm concentration of TBHQ was optimal as BSFC values were considerably reduced (10.19%) in the whole engine speeds when compared to B20. EHN antioxidant with B20 presented the best mean oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) with a reduction of 4.63%. However, formation of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions has been increased with addition of each of the antioxidants to B20

  19. A Metadata Analysis of Oxidative Stress Etiology in Preclinical Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Benefits of Antioxidant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Bond

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress, induced by an imbalance of free radicals, incites neurodegeneration in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS. In fact, a mutation in antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 accounts for 20% of familial ALS cases. However, the variance among individual studies examining ALS oxidative stress clouds corresponding conclusions. Therefore, we construct a comprehensive, temporal view of oxidative stress and corresponding antioxidant therapy in preclinical ALS by mining published quantitative experimental data and performing metadata analysis of 41 studies. In vitro aggregate analysis of innate oxidative stress inducers, glutamate and hydrogen peroxide, revealed 70–90% of cell death coincides to inducer exposure equivalent to 30–50% peak concentration (p < 0.05. A correlative plateau in cell death suggests oxidative stress impact is greatest in early-stage neurodegeneration. In vivo SOD1-G93A transgenic ALS mouse aggregate analysis of heat shock proteins (HSPs revealed HSP levels are 30% lower in muscle than spine (p < 0.1. Overall spine HSP levels, including HSP70, are mildly upregulated in SOD1-G93A mice compared to wild type, but not significantly (p > 0.05. Thus, innate HSP compensatory responses to oxidative stress are simply insufficient, a result supportive of homeostatic system instability as central to ALS etiology. In vivo aggregate analysis of antioxidant therapy finds SOD1-G93A ALS mouse survival duration significantly increases by 11.2% (p << 0.001 but insignificantly decreases onset age by 2%. Thus, the aggregate antioxidant treatment effect on survival in preclinical ALS is not sufficient to overcome clinical heterogeneity, which explains the literature disparity between preclinical and clinical antioxidant survival benefit. The aggregate effect sizes on preclinical ALS survival and onset illustrate that present antioxidants, alone, are not sufficient to halt ALS, which underscores its multi-factorial nature

  20. Antioxidant Effects of Potassium Ascorbate with Ribose Therapy in a Case with Prader Willi Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Anichini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS is involved in several human diseases, including obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, carcinogenesis, as well as genetic diseases. We previously found that OS occurs in Down Syndrome as well as in Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS. Here we describe the clinical case of a female patient with Prader Willi Syndrome (PWS, a genomic imprinting disorder, characterized by obesity, atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus type 2, pathologies in which a continuous and important production of free radicals takes place. We verified the presence of OS by measuring a redox biomarkers profile including total hydroperoxides (TH, non protein-bound iron (NPBI, thiols (SH, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP and isoprostanes (IPs. Thus we introduced in therapy an antioxidant agent, namely potassium ascorbate with ribose (PAR, in addition to GH therapy and we monitored the redox biomarkers profile for four years. A progressive decrease in OS biomarkers occurred until their normalization. In the meantime a weight loss was observed together with a steady growth in standards for age and sex.

  1. Addition of mushroom powder to pasta enhances the antioxidant content and modulates the predictive glycaemic response of pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xikun; Brennan, Margaret A; Serventi, Luca; Liu, Jianfu; Guan, Wenqiang; Brennan, Charles S

    2018-10-30

    This study reports the effects of addition of mushroom powder on the nutritional properties, predictive in vitro glycaemic response and antioxidant potential of durum wheat pasta. Addition of the mushroom powder enriched the pasta as a source of protein, and soluble and insoluble dietary fibre compared with durum wheat semolina. Incorporation of mushroom powder significantly decreased the extent of starch degradation and the area under the curve (AUC) of reducing sugars released during digestion, while the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of samples increased. A mutual inhibition system between the degree of starch gelatinisation and antioxidant capacity of the pasta samples was observed. These results suggest that mushroom powder could be incorporated into fresh semolina pasta, conferring healthier characteristics, namely lowering the potential glycaemic response and improving antioxidant capacity of the pasta. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Elevation of antioxidant enzymes in the clinical effects of radon and thermal therapy for bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsunobu, Fumihiro; Hosaki, Yasuhiro; Ashida, Kozo; Tanizaki, Yoshiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Hanamoto, Katsumi; Sugita, Katsuhiro; Kojima, Shuji

    2003-01-01

    An increased systemic production of oxygen-free radicals by activated inflammatory cells is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of asthma. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical effects of radon and thermal therapy on asthma in relation to antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxide. Radon and thermal therapy were performed once a week. All subjects went to a hot bathroom with a high concentration of radon, and nasal inhalation of vapor from a hot spring was performed for 40 min once a day under conditions of high humidity. The room temperature was 48 deg C; the room radon concentration was 2,080 Bq/m 3 . Blood samples were collected at 2 h, 14, and 28 days after the first therapy. A blood sample also was collected before the first therapy (at body temperature and background radon level) to be used as the control. The forced expiratory volume in one second (%FEV 1 ) was significantly increased 28 days after the first therapy. On day 28, the catalase (CAT) activity was significantly increased in comparison with the control. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significantly increased compared to the control after first inhalation. On days 14 and 28, the lipid peroxide level was significantly decreased in comparison with the control. In conclusion, the present pilot study has shown that radon and thermal therapy improved the pulmonary function of asthmatics by increasing the reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes. (author)

  3. DRAGON FRUIT JUICE ADDITION IN PALM OIL-PUMPKIN EMULSION: PANELIST ACCEPTANCE AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Rahmadi*

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Addition of dragon juice to emulsion products formulated from olein fraction of red palm oil and pumpkin juice was conducted as an effort to improve the taste thus it can be accepted by consumers. This study aims to (1 observe the acceptance of 60 panelists aged 17-21 years on the parameters of taste, aroma, mouthfeel, color, flavor and aroma of each contributing components of dragon fruit, palm oil, and raspberry flavor with the addition of dragon fruit juice at level 0 (control, 25, 50, and 75% (v/v, and (2 observe the changes in chemical components i.e. vitamin C and total titrable acids, total carotenoid by spectrophotometry, and antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl (DPPH reduction method. The best formula was the one containing 75% (v/v of red dragon juice in fresh condition with vitamin C content of 19.32±0.62 mg/100 mL, antioxidant activity of 354.25±0.77 ppm, hedonic color, taste, and viscosity between favorable and very favorable. After 2 weeks of storage at room temperature (28±2ºC, the vitamin C, total carotene, and antioxidant activity of the mixture decreased by 29.72, 15.44, and 46.59%, res-pectively.

  4. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Therapy in Critically Ill Polytrauma Patients with Severe Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Loredana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI is one of the leading causes of death among critically ill patients from the Intensive Care Units (ICU. After primary traumatic injuries, secondary complications occur, which are responsible for the progressive degradation of the clinical status in this type of patients. These include severe inflammation, biochemical and physiological imbalances and disruption of the cellular functionality. The redox cellular potential is determined by the oxidant/antioxidant ratio. Redox potential is disturbed in case of TBI leading to oxidative stress (OS. A series of agression factors that accumulate after primary traumatic injuries lead to secondary lesions represented by brain ischemia and hypoxia, inflammatory and metabolic factors, coagulopathy, microvascular damage, neurotransmitter accumulation, blood-brain barrier disruption, excitotoxic damage, blood-spinal cord barrier damage, and mitochondrial dysfunctions. A cascade of pathophysiological events lead to accelerated production of free radicals (FR that further sustain the OS. To minimize the OS and restore normal oxidant/antioxidant ratio, a series of antioxidant substances is recommended to be administrated (vitamin C, vitamin E, resveratrol, N-acetylcysteine. In this paper we present the biochemical and pathophysiological mechanism of action of FR in patients with TBI and the antioxidant therapy available.

  5. Orange juice as dietary source of antioxidants for patients with hepatitis C under antiviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Danielle; Lima, Claudia; Ferreira, Paula; Costa, Paulo; Costa, Angela; Figueiredo, Walter; Cesar, Thais

    2017-01-01

    Background: HCV causes alterations in liver metabolism, resulting in biochemical and nutritional disorders. Supplementation with antioxidants has been suggested to minimize the diseases effects. Objective: This study assessed whether orange juice, a source of citrus flavonoids and vitamin C, may contribute to the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C. Design: Anthropometric, hemodynamic, dietary, and biochemical parameters, CRP and liver enzymes were measured in 43 adult patients of both genders who were diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C and were under antiviral therapy. Twenty-three patients were supplemented with orange juice for eight consecutive weeks, while 20 were enrolled as control group. Results: Following regular use of orange juice, no alterations were found in body mass, fat, and waist circumference. The serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, CRP and parameters of oxidative stress decreased in the orange juice group. Furthermore, the levels of the liver enzyme AST decreased in those who had high levels before the intervention. Conclusion: The orange juice was a convenient food in the diet of patients due to the increase in antioxidant capacity and decreased inflammation and cholesterol in blood serum, in addition to maintaining body mass, which protect against the harmful effects caused by the chronic hepatitis C virus.​​​.

  6. Antioxidant therapy: myth or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez-Selles, Alberto J.

    2005-01-01

    New terms such as oxidative stress, antioxidant products or pro-oxidant risks are becoming familiar and an increasing number of international scientific conferences and the publication of thousands of scientific articles is an indication of the growing interest that the subject awakens. The most publicized example is perhaps the French paradox, based on the apparent compatibility of a high fat diet with a low incidence of coronary atherosclerosis attributed to the regular consumption, by the French, of red wine and/or grape juice. Flavonoids, and other phenolic substances contained in red wine, are assigned with antioxidant properties, which lower the oxidation of low density lipoproteins and consequently, the risk of atherogenic diseases. Other examples are the aging process and its correlation with an increase of free radicals, and the correlation between the initiation and promotion of cancer and tissue injury by free radicals, which has induced the intake of antioxidant products as chemical factors that prevent the onset of the disease. Currently, the incidence of oxidative stress on the onset and evolution of more than 100 diseases is claimed by several researchers. All these are 'realities', which on the other hand, are lacking of more clinical evidence, are considered by both physicians and health regulatory bodies, either as 'myths' or of 'secondary' importance. In the attempts to destroy those myths, results of chemical, pre-clinical, and clinical works with a crude extract of mango (Mangifera indica L.) stem bark, which has been developed in Cuba, are reviewed, with a strong experimental evidence of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. (author)

  7. Total Content of Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity in Crispbreads with Plant By-product addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrade Daiga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable processing in food industry results in significant amount of by-products – peel, mark, bark, seeds still rich in bioactive compounds. Apple, carrot and pumpkin peel and mark may be used for production of crispbreads as functional ingredients. The objective of this study is to investigate the stability of total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity after high temperature and short time (HTST extrusion cooking of a wheat and rice-based crispbreads with addition of apple, carrot and pumpkin by-products obtained after juice extraxtion and dried. Raw materials for crispbread production were wheat flour, rice flour, wheat bran (72%, 24% and 4% respectively with addition of microwave–vacuum dried by-product powder in different amount (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%. Extrusion process was performed by using a laboratory singlescrew extruder GÖTTFERT 1 screw Extrusiometer L series (Germany. Total phenolic content (TPC was determined using the Folin Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH antioxidant scavenging activity using a modified colorimetric method. Comparing different raw formulations, it was observed that the TPC of the apple by-product flour was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than in carrot and pumpkin flour. TPC in cereal-based crispbread was 36.06±1.15 before extrusion and 13.90±1.01 mg GAEg-1 DW (milligram Gallic acid equivalent per 100 g of dry weight (mg GAE 100 g−1 DW after extrusion. Addition of apple BPF increased TPC in crispbreads to 106.25±2.08, carrot BPF 84.73±3.45 and pumpkin BPF to 108.82±1.04 mg GAEg−1 DW. Antioxidant activity of control sample was 1.07±0.01mg TE (Trolox equivalents g−1 DW but in samples with addition of 20% apple by-products, it reached 3.77±0.02 TE g−1 DW for samples wih 20% carrot by-products reached 2.52±0.03TE g−1 DW and for samples wih 20% pumpkin by-products reached 3.77±0.02 TE g−1 DW.

  8. Antioxidant therapy: myth or reality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Selles, Alberto J. [Center of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Havana (Cuba)]. E-mail: alberto@cqf.co.cu

    2005-07-15

    New terms such as oxidative stress, antioxidant products or pro-oxidant risks are becoming familiar and an increasing number of international scientific conferences and the publication of thousands of scientific articles is an indication of the growing interest that the subject awakens. The most publicized example is perhaps the French paradox, based on the apparent compatibility of a high fat diet with a low incidence of coronary atherosclerosis attributed to the regular consumption, by the French, of red wine and/or grape juice. Flavonoids, and other phenolic substances contained in red wine, are assigned with antioxidant properties, which lower the oxidation of low density lipoproteins and consequently, the risk of atherogenic diseases. Other examples are the aging process and its correlation with an increase of free radicals, and the correlation between the initiation and promotion of cancer and tissue injury by free radicals, which has induced the intake of antioxidant products as chemical factors that prevent the onset of the disease. Currently, the incidence of oxidative stress on the onset and evolution of more than 100 diseases is claimed by several researchers. All these are 'realities', which on the other hand, are lacking of more clinical evidence, are considered by both physicians and health regulatory bodies, either as 'myths' or of 'secondary' importance. In the attempts to destroy those myths, results of chemical, pre-clinical, and clinical works with a crude extract of mango (Mangifera indica L.) stem bark, which has been developed in Cuba, are reviewed, with a strong experimental evidence of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. (author)

  9. Emerging Role of Antioxidants in the Protection of Uveitis Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Umesh C S; Kalariya, Nilesh M; Ramana, Kota V

    2011-01-01

    Current understanding of the role of oxidative stress in ocular inflammatory diseases indicates that antioxidant therapy may be important to optimize the treatment. Recently investigated antioxidant therapies for ocular inflammatory diseases include various vitamins, plant products and reactive oxygen species scavengers. Oxidative stress plays a causative role in both non-infectious and infectious uveitis complications, and novel strategies to diminish tissue damage and dysfunction with antioxidant therapy may ameliorate visual complications. Preclinical studies with experimental animals and cell culture demonstrate significance of anti-inflammatory effects of a number of promising antioxidant agents. Many of these antioxidants are under clinical trial for various inflammatory diseases other than uveitis such as cardiovascular, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. Well planned interventional clinical studies of the ocular inflammation will be necessary to sufficiently investigate the potential medical benefits of antioxidant therapies for uveitis. This review summarizes the recent investigation of novel antioxidant agents for ocular inflammation, with selected studies focused on uveitis. PMID:21182473

  10. Effects of an immuno-enhanced diet containing antioxidants in esophageal cancer surgery following neoadjuvant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiko, S; Kumano, I; Yamanaka, N; Tsujimoto, H; Takahata, R; Maehara, T

    2012-02-01

    Neoadjuvant therapy-induced immunological deterioration may be a key factor in postoperative morbidity in patients with esophageal cancer. This study aimed to determine the effects of perioperative feeding with an immuno-enhanced diet on immune competence in patients treated with neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery. Because an immuno-enhanced diet that contained several antioxidants was used, perioperative oxidative stress and the effects of the immuno-enhanced diet on this stress were also investigated. Of 39 patients with esophageal cancer who underwent similar surgical procedures, 26 patients who received chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy before surgery were randomly divided into two groups: group 1 (n= 14) was given an immuno-enhanced diet for 5 days before surgery, and group 2 (n= 12) received no enteral feeding products before surgery. Group 3 (n= 13) consisted of patients that did not receive neoadjuvant therapy and received no enteral feeding products before surgery. Several markers for coagulation and fibrinolysis were determined and immunological assessments were performed for each patient. To measure reactive oxygen metabolites and the total antioxidant capacity, diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and OXY-adsorbent tests were performed using a free radical elective evaluator. Significant depression in lymphocyte numbers was observed in groups 1 and 2 before and early after surgery as compared to group 3. Numbers of B cells, CD4/CD8 ratio, and phytohemagglutinin-induced lymphocyte transformation tests were also significantly decreased in groups 1 and 2 on postoperative day 1. Fibrin and fibrinogen degradation products were significantly elevated in group 2 compared to group 1. d-ROMs and OXY-adsorbent test values were elevated before surgery and were decreased transiently early after surgery. Compared to groups 2 and 3, d-ROMs values were significantly lower in group 1 patients throughout the postoperative period, while OXY

  11. Influence of different extracts addition on total phenols, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of blackberry juice during storage

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    Blanka Bilić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigation of influence of different extracts addition on total phenols, anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity and percent of polymeric colour of blackberry juice during storage of 52 days at 4 °C. Anthocyanin content of control sample (blackberry juice without extracts addition was 149.91 mg/L. Samples with addition of extracts (olive leaf, pine bark PE 5:1, pine bark PE 95 %, green tea, red wine PE 30 %, red wine PE 4:1 and bioflavonoids had higher anthocyanin content (from 152.42 to 161.19 mg/L in comparison to control sample. Sample with addition of bioflavonoids had the highest anthocyanin content. Samples with addition of extracts had much higher total phenol content and antioxidant activity than control sample, what was expected since extracts are rich in phenols. During storage decrease of phenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity occurred in higher or lesser extent, depending on extract type addition. Anthocyanin content in control sample was 119.85 mg/L. Samples with addition of bioflavonoids, olive leaf, pine bark PE 5:1 and red wine PE 4:1 had lower (from 103.44 to 118.84 mg/L, while other samples had higher (from 131.99 to 135.57 mg/L anthocyanin content than control sample. After storage, decrease of anthocyanins was followed with increase of percent of polymeric colour, with exception of samples with addition of green tea.

  12. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in the Diagnosis and Therapy of Periodontitis

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    Tóthová, L'ubomíra; Celec, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. However, large interventional studies with antioxidants failed to show benefits in the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, or diabetes mellitus. Numerous clinical studies have confirmed the association of oxidative stress markers and periodontitis. Technical and biological variability is high for most of the analyzed markers and none of them seems to be optimal for routine clinical use. In a research setting, analysis of a palette of oxidative stress markers is needed to cover lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and the antioxidant status. The source of reactive oxygen species and their role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis remains unclear. Interventional experiments indicate that oxidative stress might be more than just a simple consequence of the inflammation. Small studies have confirmed that some antioxidants could have therapeutic value at least as an addition to the standard non-surgical treatment of periodontitis. A clear evidence for the efficiency of antioxidant treatment in large patient cohorts is lacking. Potentially, because lowering of oxidative stress markers might be a secondary effect of anti-inflammatory or antibacterial agents. As the field of research of oxidative stress in periodontitis gains attraction and the number of relevant published papers is increasing a systematic overview of the conducted observational and interventional studies is needed. This review summarizes the currently available literature linking oxidative stress and periodontitis and points toward the potential of adjuvant antioxidant treatment, especially in cases where standard treatment fails to improve the periodontal status. PMID:29311982

  13. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in the Diagnosis and Therapy of Periodontitis

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    L'ubomíra Tóthová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. However, large interventional studies with antioxidants failed to show benefits in the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, or diabetes mellitus. Numerous clinical studies have confirmed the association of oxidative stress markers and periodontitis. Technical and biological variability is high for most of the analyzed markers and none of them seems to be optimal for routine clinical use. In a research setting, analysis of a palette of oxidative stress markers is needed to cover lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and the antioxidant status. The source of reactive oxygen species and their role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis remains unclear. Interventional experiments indicate that oxidative stress might be more than just a simple consequence of the inflammation. Small studies have confirmed that some antioxidants could have therapeutic value at least as an addition to the standard non-surgical treatment of periodontitis. A clear evidence for the efficiency of antioxidant treatment in large patient cohorts is lacking. Potentially, because lowering of oxidative stress markers might be a secondary effect of anti-inflammatory or antibacterial agents. As the field of research of oxidative stress in periodontitis gains attraction and the number of relevant published papers is increasing a systematic overview of the conducted observational and interventional studies is needed. This review summarizes the currently available literature linking oxidative stress and periodontitis and points toward the potential of adjuvant antioxidant treatment, especially in cases where standard treatment fails to improve the periodontal status.

  14. Addition of anacardic acid as antioxidants in broiler chicken mortadella

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    Virgínia Kelly Gonçalves ABREU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe effect of anacardic acid on lipid stability and coloration of chicken mortadella was investigated. Antioxidants were added to chicken mortadellas, according to the treatments: no added antioxidant, 100 ppm butylated hydroxytoluene and 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm anacardic acid. The mortadellas were stored for 90 days at 4 °C, and the analysis of lipid oxidation and color were performed. For TBARS, there was linear reduction with increased anacardic acid. According to the means test, 200 ppm anacardic acid provided the lower TBARS values. The redness decreased during storage, and, as reported by the means test, mortadella containing 200 ppm anacardic acid had lower values. The lightness of mortadellas decreased during storage. Also in accordance with the means test, mortadellas containing antioxidants had same lightness than control. The yellowness of mortadellas increased during storage. Thus, the anacardic acid is a potential natural antioxidant that could be included in chicken mortadella formulations before cooking.

  15. The Influenced of Lactobacillus plantarum Starter Addition and The Length Time of Fermentation Process on The Activity of Seaweed Antioxidant Ulva lactuca from Krakal Beach, Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarsari, N. D.; Rushanti, I. R. P. A.; Setyaji, A.; Ningsih, T. R.; Nurhana, N.; Subekhi, I.; Dewi, E. N.

    2018-02-01

    Seaweed contains phenol compound functioning as antioxidant. Lactobacillus plantarum starter addition in a fermentation process was expected will increase the activity of antioxidant. The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of L. plantarum addition and the length of fermentation on the activity of antioxidant in U. lactuca. The experiment was conducted with factorial design. The first treatment consisted 2 different factors namely without L. plantarum addition and L. plantarum addition. While the second treatment were the different length fermentation time: 0, 12, 24, and 36 hours. Each treatment were done in thriplicate. The data was analyzed using ANOVA and BNJ test was applied if there any differences betweenthe treatments. The results showed that the fresh U. lactuca with L. plantarum addition for 36 hours fermentation had TPC BAL 9,83 CFU/ml, pH 4,26, phenol 231 ppm and antioxidant activity IC501375,12 ppm. Dried U. lactuca with L. plantarum addition that was fermentized for 36 hours had TPC BAL 9,10 CFU/ml, pH 4,75, phenol 166,24 ppm and antioxidant activity IC504070,32 ppm. The fresh U. lactuca with L. plantarum addition for 36 hours fermentation was the best treatment since the antioxidant activity is IC501375,12 ppm. Although the antioxidant activity was categorized as weak but it was still showed an increase compared to the result of antioxidant activity with maceration method using n-hexana dissolver which was 11213,76 ppm, ethyl acetate 9770,285 ppm, and ethanol extact 4921,79 ppm.

  16. The Assessment of the Integrated Antioxidant System of the Body in the Course of Radon Therapy: A Pilot Study

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    Jadwiga Kuciel-Lewandowska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The sources of Reactive Oxidative Species (ROS in the organism are the respiratory processes occurring in cells catalyzed by different enzymes. Operation of ROS is balanced by antioxidants, the compounds; although present in low concentrations, they significantly inhibit the degree of oxidation of particular molecules. The Aim of the Study. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in the integrated antioxidant system under the influence of radon therapy in osteoarthritis patients. Material and Methods. Observation included 35 patients suffering from degenerative joints and disc disease (mean age 56.5 years undergoing radon water therapy and control group that consisted of 15 osteoarthritis patients (mean age 54.2 without contact with radon water. Before therapy and after 18 days of treatment, serum total antioxidant status (TAS was assessed with the use of standard colorimetric assay. Results. In the study group, we observed trends to increase TAS concentration, whereas, in the control group, TAS concentration was decreasing. Conclusions. (1 Radon waters treatment influenced the level of TAS of osteoarthritis patients treated with the radon water. (2 The change in TAS concentrations in the study group may be the result of low doses of ionizing radiation, but further studies on larger patient’s groups are demanded. This study is registered with number NCT03274128.

  17. Improving Asphalt Mixtures Performance by Mitigating Oxidation Using Anti-Oxidants Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessouky, Samer; Diaz, Manuel

    Polymer modified additives are typically used to improve rheological properties of asphalt binder as well as mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mix. In this study, polymer-modified binder PG70-22 is mixing with two co-polymers enhanced with anti-oxidant agents namely; Solution Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SSBR) and Solution Ethylene-Butylene/Styrene (SEBS). The objective of this study is to characterize the effect of those additives into the rheological properties of the asphalt binder using temperature sweep test and mechanical properties of asphalt mixes. The aging index is determined to evaluate the role of additives to reduce brittleness after aging of the binder. The performance of asphalt mixes were characterized by Hamburg Wheel Tracking Test for moisture damage, Beam Fatigue Test for fatigue properties and Flow Number Test for rutting performance. It is found that the asphalt mixes with enhanced binders are improving its rutting and moisture resistance but decreased its fatigue life compared to the control mix.

  18. New Antioxidant Drugs for Neonatal Brain Injury

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    Maria Luisa Tataranno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain injury concept covers a lot of heterogeneity in terms of aetiology involving multiple factors, genetic, hemodynamic, metabolic, nutritional, endocrinological, toxic, and infectious mechanisms, acting in antenatal or postnatal period. Increased vulnerability of the immature brain to oxidative stress is documented because of the limited capacity of antioxidant enzymes and the high free radicals (FRs generation in rapidly growing tissue. FRs impair transmembrane enzyme Na+/K+-ATPase activity resulting in persistent membrane depolarization and excessive release of FR and excitatory aminoacid glutamate. Besides being neurotoxic, glutamate is also toxic to oligodendroglia, via FR effects. Neuronal cells die of oxidative stress. Excess of free iron and deficient iron/binding metabolising capacity are additional features favouring oxidative stress in newborn. Each step in the oxidative injury cascade has become a potential target for neuroprotective intervention. The administration of antioxidants for suspected or proven brain injury is still not accepted for clinical use due to uncertain beneficial effects when treatments are started after resuscitation of an asphyxiated newborn. The challenge for the future is the early identification of high-risk babies to target a safe and not toxic antioxidant therapy in combination with standard therapies to prevent brain injury and long-term neurodevelopmental impairment.

  19. Oxidative stress in the developing brain: effects of postnatal glucocorticoid therapy and antioxidants in the rat.

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    Emily J Camm

    Full Text Available In premature infants, glucocorticoids ameliorate chronic lung disease, but have adverse effects on long-term neurological function. Glucocorticoid excess promotes free radical overproduction. We hypothesised that the adverse effects of postnatal glucocorticoid therapy on the developing brain are secondary to oxidative stress and that antioxidant treatment would diminish unwanted effects. Male rat pups received a clinically-relevant tapering course of dexamethasone (DEX; 0.5, 0.3, and 0.1 mg x kg(-1 x day(-1, with or without antioxidant vitamins C and E (DEXCE; 200 mg x kg(-1 x day(-1 and 100 mg x kg(-1 x day(-1, respectively, on postnatal days 1-6 (P1-6. Controls received saline or saline with vitamins. At weaning, relative to controls, DEX decreased total brain volume (704.4±34.7 mm(3 vs. 564.0±20.0 mm(3, the soma volume of neurons in the CA1 (1172.6±30.4 µm(3 vs. 1002.4±11.8 µm(3 and in the dentate gyrus (525.9±27.2 µm(3 vs. 421.5±24.6 µm(3 of the hippocampus, and induced oxidative stress in the cortex (protein expression: heat shock protein 70 [Hsp70]: +68%; 4-hydroxynonenal [4-HNE]: +118% and nitrotyrosine [NT]: +20%. Dexamethasone in combination with vitamins resulted in improvements in total brain volume (637.5±43.1 mm(3, and soma volume of neurons in the CA1 (1157.5±42.4 µm(3 and the dentate gyrus (536.1±27.2 µm(3. Hsp70 protein expression was unaltered in the cortex (+9%, however, 4-HNE (+95% and NT (+24% protein expression remained upregulated. Treatment of neonates with vitamins alone induced oxidative stress in the cortex (Hsp70: +67%; 4-HNE: +73%; NT: +22% and in the hippocampus (NT: +35%. Combined glucocorticoid and antioxidant therapy in premature infants may be safer for the developing brain than glucocorticoids alone in the treatment of chronic lung disease. However, antioxidant therapy in healthy offspring is not recommended.

  20. [Impact of hypoxen therapy on postoperative course in gynecologic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugieva, M Z; Kotenko, K V; Morozova, K V

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the use of hypoxen (antihypoxant) during the early postoperative course in gynecologic patients. The patients were divided into two groups according to the treatment scheme. 339 patients of the control group were under the routine therapy after the laparatomic gynecologic operations. 52 patients were additionally treated with hypoxen (antioxidant) (the main group). The impact of hypoxen on the antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation and its preventive effect on prolongation of the postoperative pain syndrom were estimated. The results of the study showed that hypoxen inhibited lipid peroxidation and activated the antioxidant system in the postoperative patients vs. the control group. It was also observed that among the patients additionally treated with hypoxen the percentage of those with prolonged postoperative pains was statistically lower (pgynecologic operations. The additional use of hypoxen in the routine therapy of the gynecologic patients prevented prolongation of the postoperative pain syndrom.

  1. Antioxidant Approaches to Management of Ionizing Irradiation Injury

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    Joel Greenberger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing irradiation induces acute and chronic injury to tissues and organs. Applications of antioxidant therapies for the management of ionizing irradiation injury fall into three categories: (1 radiation counter measures against total or partial body irradiation; (2 normal tissue protection against acute organ specific ionizing irradiation injury; and (3 prevention of chronic/late radiation tissue and organ injury. The development of antioxidant therapies to ameliorate ionizing irradiation injury began with initial studies on gene therapy using Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (MnSOD transgene approaches and evolved into applications of small molecule radiation protectors and mitigators. The understanding of the multiple steps in ionizing radiation-induced cellular, tissue, and organ injury, as well as total body effects is required to optimize the use of antioxidant therapies, and to sequence such approaches with targeted therapies for the multiple steps in the irradiation damage response.

  2. Effect of addition of commercial grape seed tannins on phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Ana C; Spranger, Maria I; Zhao, Yuqing; Leandro, Maria C; Sun, Baoshan

    2010-11-24

    The effect of addition of grape seed tannins on the phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine was studied. Two highly pure commercial grape seed tannins (GSE100 and GSE300) were selected, and their phenolic compositions were determined. Two types of red wines were made with Castelão/Tinta Miúda (3/2, w/w) grapevine varieties by fermentation on skin using two different maceration times, which correspond to the wines rich and poor in polyphenols, respectively. Each of these wines was used for experimentation with the addition of GSE100 and GSE300 before and immediately after alcoholic fermentation. Phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of the finished red wines were analyzed by HPLC-DAD, CIElab 76 convention, and DPPH radical test, respectively. The results showed that the addition of grape seed tannins had obvious effects of increasing color intensity and antioxidant activity only in the wines poor in polyphenols. Although GSE300 contained much higher amounts of di- and trimer procyanidins and a lower amount of polymeric proanthocyanidins, it provided effects of increasing the color intensity and antioxidant activity of the wines poor in polyphenols similar to those of GSE100. Furthermore, GSE100 released more gallic acid to wines than GSE300, although no gallic acid was detected in GSE100. Tannins added after alcoholic fermentation had a better effect on phenolic composition of red wine than tannins added before alcoholic fermentation.

  3. Influence of Antioxidant Addition in Jatropha Biodiesel on the Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiasamy, Prabu; Ramachandran Bhagavathiammal, Anand

    2018-04-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted on a single-cylinder DI diesel engine, to evaluate the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of Jatropha biodiesel with the addition of antioxidants namely, Succinimide (C4H5NO2), N,N-Dimethyl p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (C8H14Cl2N2) and N-Phenyl- p-phenylenediamine (C6H5NHC6H4NH2) at 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm. The performance, combustion and emission characteristic tests are conducted at a constant speed of 1500 rpm, injection pressure of 215 bar, injection timing of 26° before top dead centre for the nine test fuels and the experimental results are compared with neat diesel and neat biodiesel as base fuels. The experimental results show that the addition of antioxidant in biodiesel suppresses the NO emission by quenching the OH radicals that are produced by the reaction of hydrocarbon radicals with molecular nitrogen. The maximum percentage reduction of NO emission by 5, 6 and 7% are observed for N-Phenyl- p-phenylenediamine, N,N-Dimethyl p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride and Succinimide blended test fuels at 2000 ppm antioxidant addition with biodiesel.

  4. Bioactive composition and antioxidant potential of different commonly consumed coffee brews affected by their preparation technique and milk addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niseteo, Tena; Komes, Draženka; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Horžić, Dunja; Budeč, Maja

    2012-10-15

    Coffee is one of the most popular beverages in the world, prepared and consumed in many different ways. Taste, aroma and composition of the coffee brew vary depending on the preparation method. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of different brewing methods on the polyphenol and methylxanthine composition and antioxidant capacity of thirteen different coffee brews. The content of total phenols and flavonoids was determined spectrophotometrically and the content of chlorogenic acid derivates (3-CQA, 4-CQA and 5-CQA) and caffeine using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-PDA). Antioxidant capacity of coffee brews was evaluated by using the ABTS (2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and FRAP (ferric-reducing antioxidant power) assays. Instant coffee brews showed the highest values in content of total phenols, chlorogenic acid derivates, caffeine and antioxidant capacity, which significantly decreased by milk addition. The antioxidant capacity of coffee brews was in compliance with the total phenol content and content of chlorogenic acid derivates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans.

  6. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral antioxidant supplement therapy in patients with dry eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jehn-Yu; Yeh, Po-Ting; Hou, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of oral antioxidant supplementation in the treatment of patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). A prospective, randomized, double-blinded study compared the effects of an antioxidant supplement (containing anthocyanosides, astaxanthin, vitamins A, C, and E, and several herbal extracts, including Cassiae semen and Ophiopogonis japonicus) with placebo on patients with DES. We assessed dry eye symptoms, visual acuity, Schirmer's test, tear film breakup time, cornea and conjunctiva fluorescein staining, serum anti-SSA/anti-SSB antibodies, and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tears. The supplementation period was 8 weeks and patients were followed up every 4 weeks for 16 weeks. A linear mixed model was used to compare the groups, while within-group differences were tested by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Forty-three patients, 20 and 23 in treatment and placebo groups, respectively, completed the study. Liver and renal functions were normal. Diastolic blood pressure decreased in the treatment group. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure, dry eye symptoms, serum anti-SSA and anti-SSB, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, or fluorescein corneal staining between the groups. Tear film breakup time scores and Schirmer's test without topical anesthesia significantly improved in the treatment group. Tear ROS level differed between the groups and decreased after treatment. Overall subjective impression revealed a significant improvement with treatment compared with placebo. Oral antioxidant supplementations may increase tear production and improve tear film stability by reducing tear ROS. The vegetable-based antioxidant supplement used in this study is safe and can be utilized as an adjuvant therapy to conventional artificial tear therapy for patients with DES.

  7. Addition of milk to tea infusions: Helpful or harmful? Evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies on antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidinejad, Ali; Birch, E John; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Everett, David W

    2017-10-13

    Tea consumption is practised as a tradition, and has shown potential to improve human health. Maximal uptake of tea antioxidants and milk proteins without a negative impact on tea flavor is highly desired by consumers. There is a conflicting evidence of the effect of milk addition to tea on antioxidant activity. Differences in the type of tea, the composition, type and amount of milk, preparation method of tea-milk infusions, the assays used to measure antioxidant activity, and sampling size likely account for different findings. Interactions between tea polyphenols and milk proteins, especially between catechins and caseins, could account for a decrease in antioxidant activity, although other mechanisms are also possible, given the similar effects between soy and bovine milk. The role of milk fat globules and the milk fat globule membrane surface is also important when considering interactions and loss of polyphenolic antioxidant activity, which has not been addressed in the literature.

  8. Effects of antioxidant additives on exhaust emissions reduction in compression ignition engine fueled with methyl ester of annona oil

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    Ramalingam Senthil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, biodiesel is a cleaner burning alternative fuel to the Neat diesel fuel. However, several studies are pointed out that increase in NOx emission for biodiesel when compared with the Neat diesel fuel. The aim of the present study is to analyze the effect of antioxidant (p-phenylenediamine on engine emissions of a Diesel engine fuelled with methyl ester of annona oil. The antioxidant is mixed in various concentrations (0.010 to 0.040% (w/w with methyl ester of annona oil. Result shows that antioxidant additive mixture (MEAO+P200 is effective in control of NOx and HC emission of methyl ester of annona oil fuelled engine without doing any engine modification.

  9. Antioxidant properties of catechins: Comparison with other antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesik, Michalina; Naparło, Katarzyna; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Sadowska-Bartosz, Izabela

    2018-02-15

    Antioxidant properties of five catechins and five other flavonoids were compared with several other natural and synthetic compounds and related to glutathione and ascorbate as key endogenous antioxidants in several in vitro tests and assays involving erythrocytes. Catechins showed the highest ABTS-scavenging capacity, the highest stoichiometry of Fe 3+ reduction in the FRAP assay and belonged to the most efficient compounds in protection against SIN-1 induced oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123, AAPH-induced fluorescein bleaching and hypochlorite-induced fluorescein bleaching. Glutathione and ascorbate were less effective. (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin were the most effective compounds in protection against AAPH-induced erythrocyte hemolysis while (-)-epicatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and (-)-epigallocatechin protected at lowest concentrations against hypochlorite-induced hemolysis. Catechins [(-)-epigallocatechin gallate and (-)-epicatechin gallate)] were most efficient in the inhibition of AAPH-induced oxidation of 2'7'-dichlorodihydroflurescein contained inside erythrocytes. Excellent antioxidant properties of catechins and other flavonoids make them ideal candidates for nanoformulations to be used in antioxidant therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. State of the Art Study on Aging of Asphalt Mixtures and Use of Antioxidant Additives

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    Okan Sirin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental effects of hardening in asphalt pavements were first recognized by pioneering pavement engineers in the 1900s and have been studied extensively during the last 70 years. This hardening process, referred to as asphalt aging, is generally defined as change in the rheological properties of asphalt binders/mixtures due to changes in chemical composition during construction and its service life period. Aging causes the asphalt material to stiffen and embrittle, which affects the durability and leads to a high potential for cracking. This paper presents the state of the art on asphalt and asphalt mixture aging and use of antioxidant additives to retard the aging. A picture of complex molecular structure of asphalt and its changes due to atmospheric condition and various protocols used to simulate aging in laboratory environment are also discussed. Emphasis is given on recent studies on simulation of aging of asphalt mixtures as there has been limited research on mixtures compared to the asphalt binder. Finally, this paper presents the application of antiaging techniques and its mechanism, use of various types of antioxidant additives to retard aging of asphalt and, hence, improve the performance of asphalt pavements.

  11. Real-time quantification of oxidative stress and the protective effect of nitroxide antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Cassie L; Bottle, Steven E; Gole, Glen A; Ward, Micheal S; Barnett, Nigel L

    2016-01-01

    Nitroxides have been exploited as profluorescent probes for the detection of oxidative stress. In addition, they deliver potent antioxidant action and attenuate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in various models of oxidative stress, with these results ascribed to superoxide dismutase or redox and radical-scavenging actions. Our laboratory has developed a range of novel, biostable, isoindoline nitroxide-based antioxidants, DCTEIO and CTMIO. In this study we compared the efficiency of these novel compounds as antioxidant therapies in reducing ROS both in vivo (rat model) and in vitro (661W photoreceptor cells), with the established antioxidant resveratrol. By assessing changes in fluorescence intensity of a unique redox-responsive probe in the rat retina in vivo, we evaluated the ability of antioxidant therapy to (1) ameliorate ROS production and (2) reverse the accumulation of ROS after complete, acute ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R). I/R injury induced a marked decrease in fluorescence intensity over 60 min of reperfusion, which was successfully ameliorated with each of the antioxidants. DCTEIO and CTMIO reversed the accumulation of ROS when administered intraocularly post ischemic insult, whereas, the effect of resveratrol was not significant. We also investigated our novel agents' capacity to prevent ROS-mediated metabolic dysfunction in the 661W photoreceptor cell line. Cellular stress induced by the oxidant, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, resulted in a loss of spare mitochondrial respiratory capacity (SMRC) and in the extracellular acidification rate in 661W cells. DCTEIO antioxidant administration successfully reduced the loss of SMRC. Together, these findings show we can quantify dynamic changes in cellular oxidative status in vivo and suggest that nitroxide-based antioxidants may provide greater protection against oxidative stress than the current state-of-the-art antioxidant treatments for ROS-mediated diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  12. Effect of the Addition of Propolis Extract on Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Craft Beer

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    Pablo A. Ulloa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant-rich foods and beverages play an essential role in the prevention of diseases. This study assessed the influence of the addition of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP to beer at different concentrations (0.05, 0.15, and 0.25 g/L. Total phenolic content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC were determined. Antioxidant activity (AA was evaluated by radical scavenging activity (DPPH and ABTS and reducing power (FRAP. The addition of EEP in beer resulted in a linear increase in the TPC with values of 4.5%, 16.7%, and 26.7% above a control (no EEP added; 242 mg gallic acid equivalent/L. A similar increase was observed with TFC values 16.0%, 49.7%, and 59.2% above the control (16.9 mg quercetin equivalent/L. The FRAP assay indicated linear increases in AA relative to control with values of 1555, 1705, and 1892 μmol Trolox equivalent/L following EEP additions. The incorporation of EEP resulted in increases in the bioactive compounds and AA in beer without altering the physicochemical parameters of golden ale beer. The results indicate a promising use of propolis extract as a functional ingredient in beer.

  13. The Implications of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Therapies in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Clinical Aspects and Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmus, Ioana Miruna; Ciobica, Alin; Trifan, Anca; Stanciu, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by alternating phases of clinical relapse and remission. The etiology of IBD remains largely unknown, although a combination of patient's immune response, genetics, microbiome, and environment plays an important role in disturbing intestinal homeostasis, leading to development and perpetuation of the inflammatory cascade in IBD. As chronic intestinal inflammation is associated with the formation of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), oxidative and nitrosative stress has been proposed as one of the major contributing factor in the IBD development. Substantial evidence suggests that IBD is associated with an imbalance between increased ROS and decreased antioxidant activity, which may explain, at least in part, many of the clinical pathophysiological features of both CD and UC patients. Hereby, we review the presently known oxidant and antioxidant mechanisms involved in IBD-specific events, the animal models used to determine these specific features, and also the antioxidant therapies proposed in IBD patients. PMID:26831601

  14. Long-term pain relief with optimized medical treatment including antioxidants and step-up interventional therapy in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalimar; Midha, Shallu; Hasan, Ajmal; Dhingra, Rajan; Garg, Pramod Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal pain is difficult to treat in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP). Medical therapy including antioxidants has been shown to relieve pain of CP in the short-term. Our aim was to study the long-term results of optimized medical and interventional therapy for pain relief in patients with CP with a step-up approach. All consecutive patients with CP were included prospectively in the study. They were treated medically with a well-balanced diet, pancreatic enzymes, and antioxidants (9000 IU beta-carotene, 0.54 g vitamin C, 270 IU vitamin E, 600 µg organic selenium, and 2 g methionine). Endoscopic therapy and/or surgery were offered if medical therapy failed. Pain relief was the primary outcome measure. A total of 313 patients (mean age 26.16 ± 12.17; 244 males) with CP were included; 288 (92%) patients had abdominal pain. The etiology of CP was idiopathic in 224 (71.6%) and alcohol in 82 (26.2%). At 1-year follow-up, significant pain relief was achieved in 84.7% of patients: 52.1% with medical therapy, 16.7% with endoscopic therapy, 7.6% with surgery, and 8.3% spontaneously. The mean pain score decreased from 6.36 ± 1.92 to 1.62 ± 2.10 (P pain free at those follow-up periods. Significant pain relief is achieved in the majority of patients with optimized medical and interventional treatment. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Pet Therapy: A New Way of Reaching Students with Additional Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockler, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses pet therapy, using therapy dogs, as a new way of reaching students with additional disabilities. Therapy dogs aid in instruction in a variety of ways. They are particularly suited to work with preschool-aged children and special needs populations where the curriculum most easily can incorporate a therapy dog…

  16. Chemical and Sensory Quality Preservation in Coated Almonds with the Addition of Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrauri, Mariana; Demaría, María Gimena; Ryan, Liliana C; Asensio, Claudia M; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Almonds provide many benefits such as preventing heart disease due to their high content of oleic fatty acid-rich oil and other important nutrients. However, they are susceptible to oxidation reactions causing rancidity during storage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical and sensory quality preservation of almonds coated with carboxymethyl cellulose and with the addition of natural and synthetic antioxidants during storage. Four samples were prepared: almonds without coating (C), almonds coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), almonds coated with CMC supplemented with peanut skins extract (E), and almonds coated with CMC and supplemented with butylhydroxytoluene (BHT). Proximate composition and fatty acid profile were determined on raw almonds. Almond samples (C, CMC, E and BHT) were stored at 40 °C for 126 d. Lipid oxidation indicators: peroxide value (PV), conjugated dienes (CD), volatile compounds (hexanal and nonanal), and sensory attributes were determined for the stored samples. Samples showed small but significant increases in PV, CD, hexanal and nonanal contents, and intensity ratings of negative sensory attributes (oxidized and cardboard). C had the highest tendency to deterioration during storage. At the end of storage (126 d), C had the highest PV (3.90 meqO2 /kg), and BHT had the lowest PV (2.00 meqO2 /kg). CMC and E samples had similar intermediate PV values (2.69 and 2.57 meqO2 /kg, respectively). CMC coating and the addition of natural (peanut skin extract) and synthetic (BHT) antioxidants provide protection to the roasted almond product. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Sensory attribute preservation in extra virgin olive oil with addition of oregano essential oil as natural antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Claudia M; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson R

    2012-09-01

    Four commercial varieties of oregano are farmed in Argentina: "Compacto,"Cordobes,"Criollo," y "Mendocino." Oregano essential oil is known for antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the intensities of positive and negative attributes in extra virgin olive oil with addition of essential oil obtained from the 4 Argentinean oregano types. Oregano essential oil was added into olive oil at 0.05% w/w. The samples were stored in darkness and light exposure during 126 d at room temperature. The intensity ratings of fruity, pungency, bitterness, oregano flavor, and rancid flavor were evaluated every 21 d by a trained sensory panel. In general, samples with addition of oregano essential oil in olive oil exhibited higher and lower intensity ratings of positive and negative attributes, respectively, during storage compared with the control samples. The first 2 principal components explained 72.3% of the variability in the olive oil samples. In general, positive attributes of olive oil were highly associated with the addition of oregano essential oil in darkness, whereas rancid flavor was negatively associated with them. Olive oil with oregano "Cordobes" essential oil was oppositely associated with light exposure treatments and negative attribute (rancid flavor) suggesting better performance as natural antioxidant of this essential oil in olive oil. The result of this study showed that the presence of oregano essential oil, specially "Cordobes" type, preserve sensory quality of extra virgin olive oil prolonging the shelf life of this product. Extra virgin olive oil is highly appreciated for its health benefits, taste, and aroma. These properties are an important aspect in this product quality and need to be preserved. The addition of natural additives instead of synthetic ones covers the present trend in food technology. This research showed that the addition of oregano essential oil preserved the intensity ratings of positive attributes

  18. Oral antioxidant therapy for marginal dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blades, K J; Patel, S; Aidoo, K E

    2001-07-01

    To assess the efficacy of an orally administered antioxidant dietary supplement for managing marginal dry eye. A prospective, randomised, placebo controlled trial with cross-over. Eye Clinic, Department of Vision Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University. Forty marginal dry eye sufferers composed of 30 females and 10 males (median age 53 y; range 38-69 y). Baseline assessments were made of tear volume sufficiency (thread test), tear quality (stability), ocular surface status (conjunctival impression cytology) and dry eye symptoms (questionnaire). Each subject was administered courses of active treatment, placebo and no treatment, in random order for 1 month each and results compared to baseline. Tear stability and ocular surface status were significantly improved following active treatment (Ptreatment (P>0.05). Absolute increase in tear stability correlated with absolute change in goblet cell population density. Tear volume was not improved following any treatment period and dry eye symptom responses were subject to placebo effect. Oral antioxidants improved both tear stability and conjunctival health, although it is not yet understood whether increased ocular surface health mediates increased tear stability or vice versa. This study was supported by a PhD scholarship funded by the Department of Vision Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Scotland. Antioxidant supplements and placebos were kindly donated by Vitabiotics.

  19. Dietary antioxidants for the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Mustafa; Lappalainen, Jani; Sen, Chandan K

    2006-06-01

    Physical exercise induces oxidative stress and tissue damage. Although a basal level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is required to drive redox signaling and numerous physiologic processes, excess ROS during exercise may have adverse implications on health and performance. Antioxidant nutrients may be helpful in that regard. Caution should be exercised against excess antioxidant supplements, however. This article presents a digest for sports practitioners. The following three recommendations are made: 1) it is important to determine the individual antioxidant need of each athlete performing a specific sport; 2) multinutrient preparations, as opposed to megadoses of any single form of nutrient, seem to be a more prudent path to choose; and 3) for outcomes of antioxidant supplementation, performance should not be the only criteria. Overall well being of the athlete, faster recovery, and minimization of injury time could all be affected by antioxidant therapy.

  20. Antioxidant effects of herbal therapies used by patients with inflammatory bowel disease: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmead, L; Dawson, C; Hawkins, C; Banna, N; Loo, S; Rampton, D S

    2002-02-01

    Herbal remedies used by patients for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease include slippery elm, fenugreek, devil's claw, Mexican yam, tormentil and wei tong ning, a traditional Chinese medicine. Reactive oxygen metabolites produced by inflamed colonic mucosa may be pathogenic. Aminosalicylates (5-ASA) are antioxidant and other such agents could be therapeutic. To assess the antioxidant effects of herbal remedies in cell-free oxidant-generating systems and inflamed human colorectal biopsies. Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence in a xanthine/xanthine oxidase cell-free system was used to detect superoxide scavenging by herbs and 5-ASA, and fluorimetry to define peroxyl radical scavenging using a phycoerythrin degradation assay. Chemiluminescence was used to detect herbal effects on generation of oxygen radicals by mucosal biopsies from patients with active ulcerative colitis. Like 5-ASA, all herbs, except fenugreek, scavenged superoxide dose-dependently. All materials tested scavenged peroxyl dose-dependently. Oxygen radical release from biopsies was reduced after incubation in all herbs except Mexican yam, and by 5-ASA. All six herbal remedies have antioxidant effects. Fenugreek is not a superoxide scavenger, while Mexican yam did not inhibit radical generation by inflamed biopsies. Slippery elm, fenugreek, devil's claw, tormentil and wei tong ning merit formal evaluation as novel therapies in inflammatory bowel disease.

  1. Micro-encapsulation of refined olive oil: influence of capsule wall components and the addition of antioxidant additives on the shelf life and chemical alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Patricia; Castaño, Angel Luís; Lozano, Mercedes; González-Gómez, David

    2012-10-01

    Although refined olive oils (ROOs) exhibit lower quality and less stability toward thermal stress than extra-virgin olive oils, these types of oil are gaining importance in the food industry. The inclusion of ROOs in processed food may alter the oxidative stability of the manufactured products, and therefore having technological alternatives to increase oil stability will be an important achievement. For this reason the main goal of this study was to assess the influence of the micro-encapsulation process on the ROO chemical composition and its oxidative stability. Factors such as microcapsule wall constituents and the addition of the antioxidant butyl hydroxytoluene were investigated in order to establish the most appropriate conditions to ensure no alteration of the refined olive oil chemical characteristics. The optimised methodology exhibited high encapsulation yield (>98%), with micro-encapsulation efficiency ranging from 35 to 69% according to the nature of the wall components. The encapsulation process slightly altered the chemical composition of the olive oil and protected the oxidative stability for at least 11 months when protein components were included as wall components. It was concluded that the presence of proteins constituents in the microcapsule wall material extended the shelf life of the micro-encapsulated olive oil regardless the use of antioxidant additives. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral antioxidant supplement therapy in patients with dry eye syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang JY

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jehn-Yu Huang, Po-Ting Yeh, Yu-Chih Hou Department of Ophthalmology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of oral antioxidant supplementation in the treatment of patients with dry eye syndrome (DES. Methods: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded study compared the effects of an antioxidant supplement (containing anthocyanosides, astaxanthin, vitamins A, C, and E, and several herbal extracts, including Cassiae semen and Ophiopogonis japonicus with placebo on patients with DES. We assessed dry eye symptoms, visual acuity, Schirmer’s test, tear film breakup time, cornea and conjunctiva fluorescein staining, serum anti-SSA/anti-SSB antibodies, and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS in tears. The supplementation period was 8 weeks and patients were followed up every 4 weeks for 16 weeks. A linear mixed model was used to compare the groups, while within-group differences were tested by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: Forty-three patients, 20 and 23 in treatment and placebo groups, respectively, completed the study. Liver and renal functions were normal. Diastolic blood pressure decreased in the treatment group. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure, dry eye symptoms, serum anti-SSA and anti-SSB, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, or fluorescein corneal staining between the groups. Tear film breakup time scores and Schirmer’s test without topical anesthesia significantly improved in the treatment group. Tear ROS level differed between the groups and decreased after treatment. Overall subjective impression revealed a significant improvement with treatment compared with placebo. Conclusion: Oral antioxidant supplementations may increase tear production and improve tear film stability by reducing tear ROS. The vegetable-based antioxidant supplement used in this study is safe and can be utilized as

  3. Effect of Herbal Combination and Natron Addition on the Antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-07-29

    Jul 29, 2017 ... Phenolic antioxidant contents were assessed using Total Phenolic Content (TPC) and Total ... preeclampsia. Phenolic compounds including flavonoids ..... of turmeric leaf, pandan leaf and torch ginger flower. Int. Food Res.

  4. The Addition of White Turmeric (Curcuma zedoaria Concentrated Base on Quality Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenol, Protein Content and Salt Content of Salted Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu’addimah Mu’addimah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research was to determine the effect of Curcuma zedoaria concentrated addition on quality antioxidant activity, total phenols, protein content and salt content of salted egg. The materials were duck’s egg, water, salt, and essence of white turmeric. The method was experiment using Complete Randomized Design (CRD with five treatments and three for replications. The Curcuma zedoaria juice research were divided into P0 (0%, P1 (10%, P2 (20%, P3 (30% and P4 (40%. Data was analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and then continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT, if it was found significant effect among treatmeants. The result showed that the addition of Curcuma zedoaria juice indicated highly significant different effect (P<0.01 on antioxidant activity, protein content and salt content, but significantly effect (P<0.05 on total phenol. The best treatment was the addition of Curcuma zedoaria juice 40% were indicated of antioxidant activity, total phenol, protein content and the salt content was 99.80 mg/g, 0.16%, 9.96%, 2.43% respectively.

  5. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, cell viability and enzymatic inhibitory of antioxidant polymers as biological macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Gahruie, Hadi; Niakousari, Mehrdad

    2017-11-01

    Polymeric antioxidants such as Catechinaldehyde Polycondensates, Catechin-acelaldehydepolycondensates, Flavonoid-grafted chitosan fibers, Ferulate hydrogel, Dextran ferulate hydrogel, Starch-quercetin conjugate, Gallic acid- and Caffeic acid-functionalized chitosan, Gallic acid - chitosan conjugate, Poly(rutin), Gallic acid grafted chitosan, Dextran-Catechin Conjugate belong to biological macromolecules. These kinds of compounds have stronger antioxidant potential and pharmacokinetic activities, as compared to similar low molecular weight preservatives. Most of these compounds sources are either antioxidants with low molecules polymerization, or polymers conjugation such as synthetic or natural preservatives. Additives are well known as being an important ingredient of food products due to their strong preservative potential. Many researchers and industries attempt to find synthesize materials with the same antioxidant potential and higher stability than the similar compounds with low molecular weight. Recently, macromolecular antioxidants have received wide attention as food additives and dietary supplements in functional foods. It seems that the main usage of these compounds is in the food packaging industry. Most of these compounds have strong antioxidant, antimicrobial, cell viability and enzymatic inhibitory properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical study of the improvement of butylphthalide combined with edaravone therapy on neural functional recovery in acute cerebral infarction after interventional therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Li Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the improvement value of butylphthalide combined with edaravone therapy on neural functional recovery in acute cerebral infarction after interventional therapy. Methods: Patients with acute cerebral infarction who received interventional therapy in our hospital from May 2012 to May 2015 were randomly divided into antioxidant group and control group, control group received conventional anti-platelet and lipid-lowering therapy, antioxidant group received butylphthalide and edaravone on the basis of conventional treatment, and the levels of serum oxygen free radicals, oxidation products, antioxidants and S100β were determined. Results: 3 d after treatment, serum •OH, •O2, NO• and •ONOO- content of both antioxidant group and control group were lower than those instantly after interventional therapy, and serum •OH, •O2, NO• and •ONOO- content of antioxidant group 3 d after treatment were lower than those of control group; 3 d after treatment, serum MDA and AOPP content of antioxidant group were significantly lower than those of control group while SOD and GSH content were significantly higher than those of control group; 3 d, 5 d and 7 d after treatment, serum S100β levels of both antioxidant group and control group were lower than those instantly after interventional therapy, and serum S100β levels of antioxidant group 3 d, 5 d and 7 d after treatment were lower than those of control group. Conclusion: Butylphthalide combined with edaravone therapy for acute cerebral infarction after interventional therapy can improve neural functional recovery, and the functioning molecular target of the treatment is to remove oxygen free radicals.

  7. Antioxidant treatment alters peripheral vascular dysfunction induced by postnatal glucocorticoid therapy in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio A Herrera

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal glucocorticoid therapy in premature infants diminishes chronic lung disease, but it also increases the risk of hypertension in adulthood. Since glucocorticoid excess leads to overproduction of free radicals and endothelial dysfunction, this study tested the hypothesis that adverse effects on cardiovascular function of postnatal glucocorticoids are secondary to oxidative stress. Therefore, combined postnatal treatment of glucocorticoids with antioxidants may diminish unwanted effects.Male rat pups received a course of dexamethasone (Dex, or Dex with vitamins C and E (DexCE, on postnatal days 1-6 (P1-6. Controls received vehicle (Ctrl or vehicle with vitamins (CtrlCE. At P21, femoral vascular reactivity was determined via wire myography. Dex, but not DexCE or CtrlCE, increased mortality relative to Ctrl (81.3 versus 96.9 versus 90.6 versus 100% survival, respectively; P<0.05. Constrictor responses to phenylephrine (PE and thromboxane were enhanced in Dex relative to Ctrl (84.7+/-4.8 versus 67.5+/-5.7 and 132.7+/-4.9 versus 107.0+/-4.9% Kmax, respectively; P<0.05; effects that were diminished in DexCE (58.3+/-7.5 and 121.1+/-4.3% Kmax, respectively; P<0.05. Endothelium-dependent dilatation was depressed in Dex relative to Ctrl (115.3+/-11.9 versus 216.9+/-18.9, AUC; P<0.05; however, this effect was not restored in DexCE (68.3+/-8.3, AUC. Relative to Ctrl, CtrlCE alone diminished PE-induced constriction (43.4+/-3.7% Kmax and the endothelium-dependent dilatation (74.7+/-8.7 AUC; P<0.05.Treatment of newborn rats with dexamethasone has detrimental effects on survival and peripheral vasoconstrictor function. Coadministration of dexamethasone with antioxidant vitamins improves survival and partially restores vascular dysfunction. Antioxidant vitamins alone affect peripheral vascular function.

  8. Molecular Strategies for Targeting Antioxidants to Mitochondria: Therapeutic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mitochondrial function and specifically its implication in cellular redox/oxidative balance is fundamental in controlling the life and death of cells, and has been implicated in a wide range of human pathologies. In this context, mitochondrial therapeutics, particularly those involving mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, have attracted increasing interest as potentially effective therapies for several human diseases. For the past 10 years, great progress has been made in the development and functional testing of molecules that specifically target mitochondria, and there has been special focus on compounds with antioxidant properties. In this review, we will discuss several such strategies, including molecules conjugated with lipophilic cations (e.g., triphenylphosphonium) or rhodamine, conjugates of plant alkaloids, amino-acid- and peptide-based compounds, and liposomes. This area has several major challenges that need to be confronted. Apart from antioxidants and other redox active molecules, current research aims at developing compounds that are capable of modulating other mitochondria-controlled processes, such as apoptosis and autophagy. Multiple chemically different molecular strategies have been developed as delivery tools that offer broad opportunities for mitochondrial manipulation. Additional studies, and particularly in vivo approaches under physiologically relevant conditions, are necessary to confirm the clinical usefulness of these molecules. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 686–729. PMID:25546574

  9. Dietary antioxidants and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; DeRuisseau, Keith C; Quindry, John; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2004-01-01

    Muscular exercise promotes the production of radicals and other reactive oxygen species in the working muscle. Growing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species are responsible for exercise-induced protein oxidation and contribute to muscle fatigue. To protect against exercise-induced oxidative injury, muscle cells contain complex endogenous cellular defence mechanisms (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, exogenous dietary antioxidants interact with endogenous antioxidants to form a cooperative network of cellular antioxidants. Knowledge that exercise-induced oxidant formation can contribute to muscle fatigue has resulted in numerous investigations examining the effects of antioxidant supplementation on human exercise performance. To date, there is limited evidence that dietary supplementation with antioxidants will improve human performance. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether regular vigorous exercise increases the need for dietary intake of antioxidants. Clearly, additional research that analyses the antioxidant requirements of individual athletes is needed.

  10. DL-3-n-butylphthalide-Edaravone hybrids as novel dual inhibitors of amyloid-β aggregation and monoamine oxidases with high antioxidant potency for Alzheimer's therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Xiaoming; Li, Yan; Yang, Xia; Luo, Li; Xu, Rui; Zheng, Yunxiaozhu; Cao, Zhongcheng; Tan, Zhenghuai; Deng, Yong

    2017-02-15

    Considering the complex etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), multifunctional agents may be beneficial for the treatment of this disease. A series of DL-3-n-butylphthalide-Edaravone hybrids were designed, synthesized and evaluated as novel dual inhibitors of amyloid-β aggregation and monoamine oxidases. Among them, compounds 9a-d exhibited good inhibition of self-induced Aβ 1-42 aggregation with inhibition ratio 57.7-71.5%. For MAO, these new hybrids exhibited good balance of inhibition for MAO-A and MAO-B. In addition, all target compounds retained the antioxidant activity of edaravone, showed equal or better antioxidant activity than edaravone. The results of the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay for blood-brain barrier indicated that compounds 9a-d would be able to cross the blood-brain barrier and reach their biological targets in the central nervous system. The promising results in all assays demonstrated that the strategy behind the designing of compounds was rational and favourable. Taken together, these preliminary findings suggested that the compounds with the strongest bioactivity deserves further investigated for pharmacological development in AD therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Autophagy as an essential cellular antioxidant pathway in neurodegenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Giordano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress including DNA damage, increased lipid and protein oxidation, are important features of aging and neurodegeneration suggesting that endogenous antioxidant protective pathways are inadequate or overwhelmed. Importantly, oxidative protein damage contributes to age-dependent accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria or protein aggregates. In addition, environmental toxins such as rotenone and paraquat, which are risk factors for the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, also promote protein oxidation. The obvious approach of supplementing the primary antioxidant systems designed to suppress the initiation of oxidative stress has been tested in animal models and positive results were obtained. However, these findings have not been effectively translated to treating human patients, and clinical trials for antioxidant therapies using radical scavenging molecules such as α-tocopherol, ascorbate and coenzyme Q have met with limited success, highlighting several limitations to this approach. These could include: (1 radical scavenging antioxidants cannot reverse established damage to proteins and organelles; (2 radical scavenging antioxidants are oxidant specific, and can only be effective if the specific mechanism for neurodegeneration involves the reactive species to which they are targeted and (3 since reactive species play an important role in physiological signaling, suppression of endogenous oxidants maybe deleterious. Therefore, alternative approaches that can circumvent these limitations are needed. While not previously considered an antioxidant system we propose that the autophagy-lysosomal activities, may serve this essential function in neurodegenerative diseases by removing damaged or dysfunctional proteins and organelles.

  12. Natural antioxidant extracts as food preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Sánchez, Norma F; Salas-Coronado, Raúl; Valadez-Blanco, Rogelio; Hernández-Carlos, Beatriz; Guadarrama-Mendoza, Paula C

    2017-01-01

    The food industry is becoming more specialized and processing methods are continuously being developed to meet consumer needs. Consumers demand products that are safe and preferably free of synthetic additives. These additives are associated with health effects, in most cases without reasonable justification. Consequently, consumers are looking for clearly labelled products that guarantee the absence of synthetic additives. This has led to the need to search for natural additives, which the food industry claims arenatural antioxidant preservatives. The sources of natural antioxidants can be extremely varied, because practically all plants contain antioxidants that allow them to protect themselves from solar radiation and pests, as well as to regulate the production of chemical energy. However, the best alternatives for the food industry are fruits and spices, because they are already foods themselves. This article will describe fruits and spices considered as important sources of phenolic antioxidants. The main medicinal properties are related to phenolic compounds and their uses as additives, depending on their chemical structure.

  13. Sequence Based Prediction of Antioxidant Proteins Using a Classifier Selection Strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Zhang

    Full Text Available Antioxidant proteins perform significant functions in maintaining oxidation/antioxidation balance and have potential therapies for some diseases. Accurate identification of antioxidant proteins could contribute to revealing physiological processes of oxidation/antioxidation balance and developing novel antioxidation-based drugs. In this study, an ensemble method is presented to predict antioxidant proteins with hybrid features, incorporating SSI (Secondary Structure Information, PSSM (Position Specific Scoring Matrix, RSA (Relative Solvent Accessibility, and CTD (Composition, Transition, Distribution. The prediction results of the ensemble predictor are determined by an average of prediction results of multiple base classifiers. Based on a classifier selection strategy, we obtain an optimal ensemble classifier composed of RF (Random Forest, SMO (Sequential Minimal Optimization, NNA (Nearest Neighbor Algorithm, and J48 with an accuracy of 0.925. A Relief combined with IFS (Incremental Feature Selection method is adopted to obtain optimal features from hybrid features. With the optimal features, the ensemble method achieves improved performance with a sensitivity of 0.95, a specificity of 0.93, an accuracy of 0.94, and an MCC (Matthew's Correlation Coefficient of 0.880, far better than the existing method. To evaluate the prediction performance objectively, the proposed method is compared with existing methods on the same independent testing dataset. Encouragingly, our method performs better than previous studies. In addition, our method achieves more balanced performance with a sensitivity of 0.878 and a specificity of 0.860. These results suggest that the proposed ensemble method can be a potential candidate for antioxidant protein prediction. For public access, we develop a user-friendly web server for antioxidant protein identification that is freely accessible at http://antioxidant.weka.cc.

  14. Beta-carotene Antioxidant Use During Radiation Therapy and Prostate Cancer Outcome in the Physicians' Health Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margalit, Danielle N.; Kasperzyk, Julie L.; Martin, Neil E.; Sesso, Howard D.; Gaziano, John Michael; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The safety of antioxidant supplementation during radiation therapy (RT) for cancer is controversial. Antioxidants could potentially counteract the pro-oxidant effects of RT and compromise therapeutic efficacy. We performed a prospective study nested within the Physicians’ Health Study (PHS) randomized trial to determine if supplemental antioxidant use during RT for prostate cancer is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. Methods and Materials: PHS participants (383) received RT for prostate cancer while randomized to receive beta-carotene (50 mg on alternate days) or placebo. The primary endpoint was time from RT to lethal prostate cancer, defined as prostate cancer death or bone metastases. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival probabilities and the log-rank test to compare groups. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the effect of beta-carotene compared with that of placebo during RT. Results: With a median follow-up of 10.5 years, there was no significant difference between risk of lethal prostate cancer with the use of beta-carotene during RT compared with that of placebo (hazard ratio = 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42–1.24; p = 0.24). After we adjusted for age at RT, prostate-specific antigen serum level, Gleason score, and clinical stage, the difference remained nonsignificant. The 10-year freedom from lethal prostate cancer was 92% (95% CI, 87–95%) in the beta-carotene group and 89% (95% CI, 84–93%) in the placebo group. Conclusion: The use of supplemental antioxidant beta-carotene during RT was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. This study suggests a lack of harm from supplemental beta-carotene during RT for prostate cancer.

  15. The Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A complex antioxidant system has been developed in mammals to relieve oxidative stress. However, excessive reactive species derived from oxygen and nitrogen may still lead to oxidative damage to tissue and organs. Oxidative stress has been considered as a conjoint pathological mechanism, and it contributes to initiation and progression of liver injury. A lot of risk factors, including alcohol, drugs, environmental pollutants and irradiation, may induce oxidative stress in liver, which in turn results in severe liver diseases, such as alcoholic liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Application of antioxidants signifies a rational curative strategy to prevent and cure liver diseases involving oxidative stress. Although conclusions drawn from clinical studies remain uncertain, animal studies have revealed the promising in vivo therapeutic effect of antioxidants on liver diseases. Natural antioxidants contained in edible or medicinal plants often possess strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities as well as anti-inflammatory action, which are also supposed to be the basis of other bioactivities and health benefits. In this review, PubMed was extensively searched for literature research. The keywords for searching oxidative stress were free radicals, reactive oxygen, nitrogen species, anti-oxidative therapy, Chinese medicines, natural products, antioxidants and liver diseases. The literature, including ours, with studies on oxidative stress and anti-oxidative therapy in liver diseases were the focus. Various factors that cause oxidative stress in liver and effects of antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases were summarized, questioned, and discussed.

  16. Synthesis and Biological Assessment of Racemic Benzochromenopyrimidinimines as Antioxidant, Cholinesterase, and Aβ1-42 Aggregation Inhibitors for Alzheimer's Disease Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dgachi, Youssef; Ismaili, Lhassane; Knez, Damijan; Benchekroun, Mohamed; Martin, Hélène; Szałaj, Natalia; Wehle, Sarah; Bautista-Aguilera, Oscar M; Luzet, Vincent; Bonnet, Alexandre; Malawska, Barbara; Gobec, Stanislav; Chioua, Mourad; Decker, Michael; Chabchoub, Fakher; Marco-Contelles, José

    2016-06-20

    Given the complex nature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), compounds that are able to simultaneously address two or more AD-associated targets show greater promise for development into drugs for AD therapy. Herein we report an efficient two-step synthesis and biological evaluation of new racemic benzochromene derivatives as antioxidants, inhibitors of cholinesterase and β-amyloid (Aβ1-42 ) aggregation. Based on the results of the primary screening, we identified 15-(3-methoxyphenyl)-9,11,12,15-tetrahydro-10H,14H-benzo[5,6]chromeno[2,3-d]pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-14-imine (3 e) and 16-(3-methoxyphenyl)-9,10,11,12,13,16-hexahydro-15H-benzo[5',6']chromeno[2',3':4,5]pyrimido[1,2-a]azepin-15-imine (3 f) as new potential multitarget-directed ligands for AD therapy. Further in-depth biological analysis showed that compound 3 f is a good human acetylcholinesterase inhibitor [IC50 =(0.36±0.02) μm], has strong antioxidant activity (3.61 μmol Trolox equivalents), and moderate Aβ1-42 antiaggregating power (40.3 %). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Additivity vs Synergism: Investigation of the Additive Interaction of Cinnamon Bark Oil and Meropenem in Combinatory Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shun-Kai; Yusoff, Khatijah; Mai, Chun-Wai; Lim, Wei-Meng; Yap, Wai-Sum; Lim, Swee-Hua Erin; Lai, Kok-Song

    2017-11-04

    Combinatory therapies have been commonly applied in the clinical setting to tackle multi-drug resistant bacterial infections and these have frequently proven to be effective. Specifically, combinatory therapies resulting in synergistic interactions between antibiotics and adjuvant have been the main focus due to their effectiveness, sidelining the effects of additivity, which also lowers the minimal effective dosage of either antimicrobial agent. Thus, this study was undertaken to look at the effects of additivity between essential oils and antibiotic, via the use of cinnamon bark essential oil (CBO) and meropenem as a model for additivity. Comparisons between synergistic and additive interaction of CBO were performed in terms of the ability of CBO to disrupt bacterial membrane, via zeta potential measurement, outer membrane permeability assay and scanning electron microscopy. It has been found that the additivity interaction between CBO and meropenem showed similar membrane disruption ability when compared to those synergistic combinations which was previously reported. Hence, results based on our studies strongly suggest that additive interaction acts on a par with synergistic interaction. Therefore, further investigation in additive interaction between antibiotics and adjuvant should be performed for a more in depth understanding of the mechanism and the impacts of such interaction.

  18. Additivity vs Synergism: Investigation of the Additive Interaction of Cinnamon Bark Oil and Meropenem in Combinatory Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Kai Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Combinatory therapies have been commonly applied in the clinical setting to tackle multi-drug resistant bacterial infections and these have frequently proven to be effective. Specifically, combinatory therapies resulting in synergistic interactions between antibiotics and adjuvant have been the main focus due to their effectiveness, sidelining the effects of additivity, which also lowers the minimal effective dosage of either antimicrobial agent. Thus, this study was undertaken to look at the effects of additivity between essential oils and antibiotic, via the use of cinnamon bark essential oil (CBO and meropenem as a model for additivity. Comparisons between synergistic and additive interaction of CBO were performed in terms of the ability of CBO to disrupt bacterial membrane, via zeta potential measurement, outer membrane permeability assay and scanning electron microscopy. It has been found that the additivity interaction between CBO and meropenem showed similar membrane disruption ability when compared to those synergistic combinations which was previously reported. Hence, results based on our studies strongly suggest that additive interaction acts on a par with synergistic interaction. Therefore, further investigation in additive interaction between antibiotics and adjuvant should be performed for a more in depth understanding of the mechanism and the impacts of such interaction.

  19. Effect of Additional Suji Leaves and Turmeric Extract on Physicochemical Characteristic and Antioxidant Activity of Arenga-Canna Noodle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftakhussolikhah; Ariani, D.; Herawati, ERN; Nastiti, A.; Angwar, M.; Pranoto, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Canna can be used as raw material for noodle but need a substitute material such as arenga starch. Arenga-canna noodle has dark appearance. Addition coloring agents from suji leaves and turmeric extract was done to improve product appearance and its functional characteristics. In this study, noodle was made with five variations of suji leaves and turmeric extract. Physical and chemical properties of noodle were analyzed. The results showed addition suji leaves extract and turmeric extract 0.4 g suji leaf/ml water and 0.06 g turmeric/ml water respectively, produce the best arenga-canna noodle quality. The addition of natural coloring agents increased antioxidant activity.

  20. Self-Assembly of Multi-nanozymes to Mimic an Intracellular Antioxidant Defense System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyan; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Chaoqun; Ju, Enguo; Zhang, Yan; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-06-01

    In this work, for the first time, we constructed a novel multi-nanozymes cooperative platform to mimic intracellular antioxidant enzyme-based defense system. V2 O5 nanowire served as a glutathione peroxidase (GPx) mimic while MnO2 nanoparticle was used to mimic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Dopamine was used as a linker to achieve the assembling of the nanomaterials. The obtained V2 O5 @pDA@MnO2 nanocomposite could serve as one multi-nanozyme model to mimic intracellular antioxidant enzyme-based defense procedure in which, for example SOD, CAT, and GPx co-participate. In addition, through assembling with dopamine, the hybrid nanocomposites provided synergistic antioxidative effect. Importantly, both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that our biocompatible system exhibited excellent intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) removal ability to protect cell components against oxidative stress, showing its potential application in inflammation therapy. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Experimental Hepatic Carcinogenesis: Oxidative Stress and Natural Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velid Unsal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in the world, and it is influenced by agents such as DEN, 2-AAF, phenobarbital, alcohol, aflatoxin B1 metabolite or hepatitis viruses (B and C. Oxidative stress is becoming recognized as a key factor in the progression of hepatocarcinogenesis. Reactive oxygen species can play a leading role in initiation and promotion of hepatic carcinogenesis. The metabolites of DEN Diethylnitrosamine (DEN mediate the binding of tumour promoters by covalently binding to the DNA with one or two oxidation-providing electrons. 2-AAF is the inducer of DEN, and it is involved in tumour formation in the bladder and liver. Reactive Oxygen species (ROS; carbohydrates, lipids, DNA and enzymes, such as affect all important structures. Additionally, an excessive amount of ROS is highly toxic to cells. Antioxidants are protects against ROS, toxic substances, carcinogens. This review focuses on the literature on studies of Hepatic Carcinogenesis, oxidative stress and antioxidant therapy.

  2. Modified Folin-Ciocalteu antioxidant capacity assay for measuring lipophilic antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berker, Kadriye Isil; Ozdemir Olgun, F Ayca; Ozyurt, Dilek; Demirata, Birsen; Apak, Resat

    2013-05-22

    The Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) method of performing a total phenolics assay, originally developed for protein determination, has recently evolved as a total antioxidant capacity assay but was found to be incapable of measuring lipophilic antioxidants due to the high affinity of the FC chromophore, that is, multivalent-charged phospho-tungsto-molybdate(V), toward water. Thus, the FC method was modified and standardized so as to enable simultaneous measurement of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in NaOH-added isobutanol-water medium. Optimal conditions were as follows: dilution ratio of aqueous FC reagent with iso-BuOH (1:2, v/v), final NaOH concentration of 3.5 × 10(-2) M, reaction time of 20 min, and maximum absorption wavelength of 665 nm. The modified procedure was successfully applied to the total antioxidant capacity assay of trolox, quercetin, ascorbic acid, gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rosmarinic acid, glutathione, and cysteine, as well as of lipophilic antioxidants such as α-tocopherol (vitamin E), butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, tertiary butylhydroquinone, lauryl gallate, and β-carotene. The modified FC method reliably quantified ascorbic acid, whereas the conventional method could not. The modified method was reproducible and additive in terms of total antioxidant capacity values of constituents of complex mixtures such as olive oil extract and herbal tea infusion. The trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities of the tested antioxidant compounds correlated well with those found by the Cupric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity reference method.

  3. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kozarski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  4. Evaluation of antioxidant drugs for the treatment of ochronotic alkaptonuria in an in vitro human cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, Laura; Spreafico, Adriano; Braconi, Daniela; Millucci, Lia; Bernardini, Giulia; Chellini, Federico; Cavallo, Giovanni; Selvi, Enrico; Galeazzi, Mauro; Marcolongo, Roberto; Gallagher, James A; Santucci, Annalisa

    2010-10-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, associated with deficiency of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase activity in the liver. This leads to an accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA) and its oxidized derivatives in polymerized form in connective tissues especially in joints. Currently, AKU lacks an appropriate therapy. Hence, we propose a new treatment for AKU using the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) administered in combinations with ascorbic acid (ASC) since it has been proven that NAC counteracts the side-effects of ASC. We established an in vitro cell model using human articular primary chondrocytes challenged with an excess of HGA (0.33 mM). We used this experimental model to undertake pre-clinical testing of potential antioxidative therapies for AKU, evaluating apoptosis, viability, proliferation, and metabolism of chondrocytes exposed to HGA and treated with NAC and ASC administered alone or in combination addition of both. NAC decreased apoptosis induced in chondrocytes by HGA, increased chondrocyte growth reduced by HGA, and partially restored proteoglycan release inhibited by HGA. A significantly improvement in efficacy was found with combined addition of the two antioxidants in comparison with NAC and ASC alone. Our novel in vitro AKU model allowed us to demonstrate the efficacy of the co-administration of NAC and ASC to counteract the negative effects of HGA for the treatment of ochronotic arthropathy. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. The curative and antioxidative efficiency of ivermectin and ivermectin + vitamin E-selenium treatment on canine Sarcoptes scabiei infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Suvendu Kumar; Dimri, Umesh; Singh, Shanker Kumar; Mohanta, Ranjan Kumar

    2011-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the curative and antioxidative efficacy of ivermectin and ivermectin + vitamin E-selenium, and the influence of these agents on oxidative stress parameters in canines infested by Sarcoptes scabiei. Twenty two sarcoptic mites infested dogs and nine healthy dogs of 6 months to 2 years of age were divided into three groups. Group I comprised of healthy dogs (n=9) whereas animals in group II (n=11) and III (n=11) were positive for scabies. Group II animals were treated with only 1% ivermectin @ 0.2 mg/kg SC whereas group III were additionally treated with Vitamin E and selenium (tocopherol 50 mg + Se 1.5 mg/ml) @ 0.5 ml/20 kg IM at weekly intervals for three times. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and 28 post therapy. The values for hemato-biochemical parameters and activities of antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased (Pdogs in comparison to the healthy dogs on day 0 which approached normalcy by day 28 post therapy. The dogs of group III showed better clinical recovery in comparison to group II at the end of therapy. Thus, administration of vitamin E and selenium in addition to standard therapy can alleviate these alterations hastening the clinical recovery of diseased dogs and can be recommended as an adjunct therapy with miticides for canine sarcoptic mange. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  6. Synthesis of Lipophilic Antioxidants by a Lipase-B-Catalyzed Addition of Peracids to the Double Bond of 4-Vinyl-2-methoxyphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Erika; Durand, Erwann; Barouh, Nathalie; Lecomte, Jérôme; Villeneuve, Pierre; Aouf, Chahinez

    2015-10-21

    4-Vinyl guaiacol (2) was lipophilized through the electrophilic addition of peracids to its vinylic double bond. Those peracids were formed in situ, by the Candida antarctica lipase-B-assisted perhydrolysis of carboxylic acids ranging from C2 to C18, in hydrogen peroxide solution. The addition of peracids with 4-8 carbons in their alkyl chains led to the formation of two regioisomers, with the prevalence of hydroxyesters bearing a primary free hydroxyl (4c-4e). This prevalence became more pronounced when peracids with longer alkyl chains (C10-C18) were used. In this case, only isomers 4f-4h were formed. The antioxidant activity of the resulting hydroxyesters was assessed by means of the conjugated autoxidizable triene (CAT) assay, and it was found out that the 4-vinyl guaiacol antioxidant activity was significantly increased by grafting alkyl chains with 2-8 carbons.

  7. Interplay Between Oncoproteins and Antioxidant Enzymes in Esophageal Carcinoma Treated Without and With Chemoradiotherapy: A Prospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Tranum; Gupta, Rajesh; Vaiphei, Kim; Kapoor, Rakesh; Gupta, N.M.; Khanduja, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze p53, bcl-2, c-myc, and cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression changes and examine their relationship with various antioxidant enzymes in esophageal carcinoma patients. Methods and Materials: Patients in Group 1 underwent transhiatal esophagectomy and those in Group 2 were administered chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery after 4 weeks of neoadjuvant therapy. Results: The relationship analysis among the various protein markers and antioxidant enzymes showed an inverse correlation between bcl-2 and superoxide dismutase/catalase in tumor tissues, irrespective of the treatment arm followed. An important positive association was observed between bcl-2 and reduced glutathione levels in the tumor tissue of patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy. Another apoptosis-modulating marker, c-myc, in the tumor tissue of Group 2 patients showed similar pattern levels (high and low) as that of superoxide dismutase/catalase. The association of cyclooxygenase-2 and p53 with various antioxidant enzymes showed a significant positive correlation between cyclooxygenase-2 expression and catalase activity and an inverse trend between p53 expression and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in the tumor tissue of patients given neoadjuvant therapy. In addition, patients with overexpressed p53 protein levels had lower glutathione peroxidase enzyme levels and vice versa in the tumor tissue of patients who had undergone surgery as their main mode of treatment. Conclusion: The results of this study broaden the insight into the relationships shared among oncoproteins and the antioxidant defense system, and this could be helpful in the clinical management of esophageal carcinoma

  8. Effect of Different Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease and Renal Replacement Therapies on Oxidant-Antioxidant Balance in Uremic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadja Fatima Tbahriti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress seems to be involved in the path physiology of cardiovascular complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD. In this study, we determined the effect of different stages of CKD and substitutive therapies on oxidative stress. One hundred sixty-seven patients (age: 44±06 years; male/female: 76/91 with CKD were divided into 6 groups according to the National Kidney Foundation classification. Prooxidant status was assessed by assaying thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides, and protein carbonyls. Antioxidant defence was performed by analysis of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, vitamin E, Iron, and bilirubin. TBARS and LPO were higher in HD patients compared to other groups (P<0.001, while protein carbonyls were more increased in PD patients. The antioxidant enzymes were declined already at severe stage of CKD and they were declined notably in HD patients (P<0.001. Similar observation was found for vitamin E, Fe, and bilirubin where we observed a significant decrease in the majority of study groups, especially in HD patients (P<0.001. The evolution of CKD was associated with elevated OS. HD accentuates lipid, while PD aggravates protein oxidation. However, the activity of antioxidant enzymes was altered by impaired renal function and by both dialysis treatments.

  9. Antioxidant properties of the mung bean flavonoids on alleviating heat stress.

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    Dongdong Cao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is a widespread belief in Asian countries that mung bean soup (MBS may afford a protective effect against heat stress. Lack of evidence supports MBS conferring a benefit in addition to water. RESULTS: Here we show that vitexin and isovitexin are the major antioxidant components in mungbean (more than 96% of them existing in the bean seed coat, and both of them could be absorbed via gavage into rat plasma. In the plasma of rats fed with mungbean coat extract before or after exposure to heat stress, the levels of malonaldehyde and activities of lactate dehydrogenase and nitric oxide synthase were remarkably reduced; the levels of total antioxidant capacity and glutathione (a quantitative assessment of oxidative stress were significantly enhanced. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that MBS can play additional roles to prevent heat stress injury. Characterization of the mechanisms underlying mungbean beneficial effects should help in the design of diet therapy strategies to alleviate heat stress, as well as provide reference for searching natural medicines against oxidative stress induced diseases.

  10. Effect of supplemented and topically applied antioxidant substances on human tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvin, M; Zastrow, L; Sterry, W; Lademann, J

    2006-01-01

    Systemic and topical application of antioxidant substances for the medical treatment and prophylaxis of many diseases as well as additional protection of the skin against the destructive action of free radicals and other reactive species has become very popular during the past years. Stimulated by the positive results of a fruit and vegetable diet in supporting medical treatment and in cosmetics, artificial and extracted antioxidant substances have been broadly applied. Surprisingly, not only positive but also strong negative results have been obtained by different authors. According to study reports artificial and extracted antioxidant substances support different kinds of medical therapies, if they are applied in mixtures of different compounds at low concentration levels. In the case of the application of high concentration of some single compounds, side effects were often observed. Regarding skin treatment by systemically applied antioxidant substances for cosmetic purposes, positive cosmetic effects as well as no effects, but almost no side effects, apart from a number of allergic reactions, were reported. One reason for this seems to be the lower concentration of systemically applied antioxidant substances in comparison with a medical application. Topical application of antioxidant substances is closely related to cosmetic treatment for skin protection and anti-aging. Positive results were also obtained in this case. The present review is an attempt to classify and summarize the published literature concerning the efficiency of action of systemic and topical applications of antioxidant substances, such as carotenoids and vitamins, on human organism and especially on the skin. The available literature on this topic is very extensive and the results are often contradictory. Nevertheless, there are some clear tendencies concerning systemic and topical application of antioxidant substances in medicine and cosmetics, and we summarize them in the present paper.

  11. Cooking methods employing natural anti-oxidant food additives effectively reduced concentration of nephrotoxic and carcinogenic aristolochic acids in contaminated food grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Chan, Chi-Kong; Wong, Yee-Lam; Chan, K K Jason; Chan, Ho Wai; Chan, Wan

    2018-10-30

    Emerging evidence suggests that aristolochic acids (AA) produced naturally by a common weed Aristolochia clematitis in the cultivation fields is contaminating the food products in Balkan Peninsula and acting as the etiological agent in the development of Balkan endemic nephropathy. In this study, we investigated the combined use of natural anti-oxidative "food additives" and different cooking methods to find a solution for the widespread contamination of AA in food products. The results indicated that the addition of healthy dietary supplements (such as cysteine, glutathione, ascorbic acid, citric acid and magnesium) during cooking, is a highly efficient method in lowering the concentration of AA in the final food products. Because previous observation indicated one of the toxicological mechanisms by which AA exert its toxicity is to induce oxidative stress in internal organs, it is anticipated that these added anti-oxidants will also help to attenuate the nephrotoxicity of AA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antioxidant enzymes as potential targets in cardioprotection and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Enzyme antioxidants: the next stage of pharmacological counterwork to the oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Vavaev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus in antioxidant research is on enzyme derivative investigations. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD is of particular interest, as it demonstrates in vivo the protective action against development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus. The reliable association of coronary artery disease with decreased level of heparin-released EC-SOD was established in clinical research. To create a base for and to develop antioxidant therapy, various SOD isozymes, catalase (CAT, methods of gene therapy, and combined applications of enzymes are used. Covalent bienzyme SOD-CHS-CAT conjugate (CHS, chondroitin sulphate showed high efficacy and safety as the drug candidate. There is an evident trend to use the components of glycocalyx and extracellular matrix for target delivery of medical substances. Development of new enzyme antioxidants for therapeutic application is closely connected with progress in medical biotechnology, pharmaceutical industry, and bioeconomy.

  13. Role of antioxidant enzymes and small molecular weight antioxidants in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Paulina; Kaarniranta, Kai; Blasiak, Janusz

    2013-10-01

    Cells in aerobic condition are constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may induce damage to biomolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. In normal circumstances, the amount of ROS is counterbalanced by cellular antioxidant defence, with its main components-antioxidant enzymes, DNA repair and small molecular weight antioxidants. An imbalance between the production and neutralization of ROS by antioxidant defence is associated with oxidative stress, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many age-related and degenerative diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), affecting the macula-the central part of the retina. The retina is especially prone to oxidative stress due to high oxygen pressure and exposure to UV and blue light promoting ROS generation. Because oxidative stress has an established role in AMD pathogenesis, proper functioning of antioxidant defence may be crucial for the occurrence and progression of this disease. Antioxidant enzymes play a major role in ROS scavenging and changes of their expression or/and activity are reported to be associated with AMD. Therefore, the enzymes in the retina along with their genes may constitute a perspective target in AMD prevention and therapy.

  14. From Radiation to Antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongphasak, J.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation induces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage cells. Antioxidants (AO) can decrease these damage. In addition to radiation, ROS is normally generated by metabolic processes in our bodies. Alteration of ROS and AO levels is related to several diseases and pathologic conditions e.g. cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer, AIDS, and aging. In addition, emotion such as stress can change ROS and AO levels. Antioxidants from nutrient and happy mind will make us healthy, decrease radiation-induced damage, reduce the medical cost, and consequently assist in the development of our economy

  15. Analysis of Two Methods to Evaluate Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasina, Florencia; Carabio, Claudio; Celano, Laura; Thomson, Leonor

    2012-01-01

    This exercise is intended to introduce undergraduate biochemistry students to the analysis of antioxidants as a biotechnological tool. In addition, some statistical resources will also be used and discussed. Antioxidants play an important metabolic role, preventing oxidative stress-mediated cell and tissue injury. Knowing the antioxidant content…

  16. Flavonoid, hesperidine, total phenolic contents and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additionally, the antioxidant activities were also determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. C. hystrix had the highest flavonoid and total phenolic contents while C. aurantifolia had the highest hesperidine content. The antioxidant activity of ...

  17. Comparison of Antioxidant Evaluation Assays for Investigating Antioxidative Activity of Gallic Acid and Its Alkyl Esters in Different Food Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phonsatta, Natthaporn; Deetae, Pawinee; Luangpituksa, Pairoj; Grajeda-Iglesias, Claudia; Figueroa-Espinoza, Maria Cruz; Le Comte, Jérôme; Villeneuve, Pierre; Decker, Eric A; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Panya, Atikorn

    2017-08-30

    The addition of antioxidants is one of the strategies to inhibit lipid oxidation, a major cause of lipid deterioration in foods leading to rancidity development and nutritional losses. However, several studies have been reported that conventional antioxidant assays, e.g., TPC, ABTS, FRAP, and ORAC could not predict antioxidant performance in several foods. This study aimed to investigate the performance of two recently developed assays, e.g., the conjugated autoxidizable triene (CAT) and the apolar radical-initiated conjugated autoxidizable triene (ApoCAT) assays to predict the antioxidant effectiveness of gallic acid and its esters in selected food models in comparison with the conventional antioxidant assays. The results indicated that the polarities of the antioxidants have a strong impact on antioxidant activities. In addition, different oxidant locations demonstrated by the CAT and ApoCAT assays influenced the overall antioxidant performances of the antioxidants with different polarities. To validate the predictability of the assays, the antioxidative performance of gallic acid and its alkyl esters was investigated in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, bulk soybean oils, and roasted peanuts as the lipid food models. The results showed that only the ApoCAT assay could be able to predict the antioxidative performances in O/W emulsions regardless of the antioxidant polarities. This study demonstrated that the relevance of antioxidant assays to food models was strongly dependent on physical similarities between the tested assays and the food structure matrices.

  18. Skin and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar

    2013-04-01

    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants.

  19. Effect of bismuth addition to the triple therapy of Helicobacter pylori eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezel Taşdemir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Success rates of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and proton-pump inhibitor therapy in the Helicobacter pylori (Hp eradication have been decreasing. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of bismuth subcitrate addition to triple therapy.Materials and methods: 148 patients diagnosed Hp infection with both histology and Hp stool antigen (HpSA tests were examined retrospectively. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the eradication therapy. The first group received triple therapy with claritromycine 2x 500 mg, amoxicilline 2x1 g and PPI 2x1 for 14 days (n=40. The second group had bismuth subcitrate 4x120 mg with triple therapy for 14 days (n=73. The third group received 14 days pretreatment with bismuth subcitrate 4x1 together with PPI 2x1 then had triple therapy for 14 days (n=35. (14C urea breath and HpSA tests were used to detect posttreatment H.pylori status.Results: There were no statistical difference between the groups in terms of gender and age (p > 0.05. In group one 12 patients, in group two 20 patients and in group three 10 patients were identified as Hp positive after treatment. Eradication rates were 70% for group one, 72.6% for group two and 71.4% for group three respectively. There was no statistical difference between the groups in terms of eradication rates of treatment (p > 0.05.Conclusions: The addition of bismuth to conventional triple therapy did not affect treatment success rates.

  20. The effect of filler addition and oven temperature to the antioxidant quality in the drying of Physalis angulata fruit extract obtained by subcritical water extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, R. F.; Christianto, G.

    2016-01-01

    Physalis angulata or ceplukan is medicinal herb, which grows naturally in Indonesia. It has been used in traditional medicine to treat several diseases. It is also reported to have antimycobacterial, antileukemic, antipyretic. In this research, Pysalis angulata fruit was investigated for its antioxidant capacity. In order to avoid the toxic organic solvent commonly used in conventional extraction, subcritical water extraction method was used. During drying, filler which is inert was added to the extract. It can absorb water and change the oily and sticky form of extract to powder form. The effects of filler types, concentrations and drying temperatures were investigated to the antioxidant quality covering total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity. The results showed that total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity were improved by addition of filler because the drying time was shorter compared to extract without filler. Filler absorbs water and protects extract from exposure to heat during drying. The combination between high temperature and shorter drying time are beneficial to protect the antioxidant in extract. The type of fillers investigation showed that aerosil gave better performance compared to Microcrystalline Celullose (MCC).

  1. Antioxidant activity of the microalga Spirulina maxima

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda M.S.; Cintra R.G.; Barros S.B.M.; Mancini-Filho J.

    1998-01-01

    Spirulina maxima, which is used as a food additive, is a microalga rich in protein and other essential nutrients. Spirulina contains phenolic acids, tocopherols and ß-carotene which are known to exhibit antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of a Spirulina extract. The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Spirulina was determined in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro antioxidant capacity was tested on a brain homogenate incubated ...

  2. Efficacy of Novel Carbon Nanoparticle Antioxidant Therapy in a Severe Model of Reversible Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke in Acutely Hyperglycemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderic H. Fabian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionWhile oxidative stress can be measured during transient cerebral ischemia, antioxidant therapies for ischemic stroke have been clinically unsuccessful. Many antioxidants are limited in their range and/or capacity for quenching radicals and can generate toxic intermediates overwhelming depleted endogenous protection. We developed a new antioxidant class, 40 nm × 2 nm carbon nanoparticles, hydrophilic carbon clusters, conjugated to poly(ethylene glycol termed PEG-HCCs. These particles are high-capacity superoxide dismutase mimics, are effective against hydroxyl radical, and restore the balance between nitric oxide and superoxide in the vasculature. Here, we report the effects of PEG-HCCs administered during reperfusion after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO by suture in the rat under hyperglycemic conditions. Hyperglycemia occurs in one-third of stroke patients and worsens clinical outcome. In animal models, this worsening occurs largely by accelerating elaboration of reactive oxygen species (ROS during reperfusion.MethodsPEG-HCCs were studied for their protective ability against hydrogen peroxide in b.End3 brain endothelial cell line and E17 primary cortical neuron cultures. In vivo, hyperglycemia was induced by streptozotocin injection 2 days before tMCAO. 58 Male Sprague-Dawley rats were analyzed. They were injected IV with PBS or PEG-HCCs (4 mg/kg 2× at the time of recanalization after either 90- or 120-min occlusion. Rats were survived for up to 3 days, and infarct volume characteristics and neurological functional outcome (modified Bederson Score were assessed.ResultsPEG-HCCs were protective against hydrogen peroxide in both culture models. In vivo improvement was found after PEG-HCCs with 90-min ischemia with reduction in infarct size (42%, hemisphere swelling (46%, hemorrhage score (53%, and improvement in Bederson score (70% (p = 0.068–0.001. Early high mortality in the 2-h in the PBS

  3. The effect of biologically active feed additives of humilid substances on the antioxidant system in liver mitochondria of gerbils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Dyomshina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are organelles that are most sensitive to the action of stressors on any cell of the entire organism and exposure to chemicals which can cause its dysfunction and cell death in general. Especially sensitive to adverse conditions are liver mitochondria, where the processes of biotransformation of endogenous and exogenous metabolites are formed, not only in the liver, but also in other organs and tissues. Mitochondrial dysfunction can cause instant hepatic cytolysis and steatosis. Therefore, early detection of mitochondrial toxicity is important during preclinical studies of new pharmacological agents, as this will help avoid remote negative effects. The biologically active feed additive Humilid, a complex of humic acids known for their antidiarrheal, analgesic, immune-stimulating, and antimicrobial properties; shows a corrective effect on the activity of the lysosomal cathepsin; enhances the positive effect of hematopoiesis on hemoglobin and its quality indicators consisting of red blood cells; and activates the synthesis and accumulation of fibronectin expression that takes part in the formation of immunological protection of animals. The objective of our experiment was to determine the effect of complex biologically active feed additives based on humic substances on the biochemical indicators of the liver mitochondrial antioxidant system of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus Milne-Edwards, 1867. The experiment was conducted on mature (6 months Mongolian gerbils. The data obtained showing the influence of the biologically active feed additives Humilid, alone or in combination with ascorbate and Eco-impulse Animal, on the antioxidant defense system of liver mitochondria of gerbils are presented in this article. The proven antioxidant effect of humic substances in the mitochondrial fraction of the liver which inhibits the accumulation of oxidized products in the cells is shown, confirmed by the decrease in the number of TBA

  4. Antioxidant Vitamins and Trace Elements in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekkoek, W A C Kristine; van Zanten, Arthur R H

    2016-08-01

    This comprehensive narrative review summarizes relevant antioxidant mechanisms, the antioxidant status, and effects of supplementation in critically ill patients for the most studied antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E and the enzyme cofactor trace elements selenium and zinc. Over the past 15 years, oxidative stress-mediated cell damage has been recognized to be fundamental to the pathophysiology of various critical illnesses such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and multiorgan dysfunction in sepsis. Related to these conditions, low plasma levels of antioxidant enzymes, vitamins, and trace elements have been frequently reported, and thus supplementation seems logical. However, low antioxidant plasma levels per se may not indicate low total body stores as critical illness may induce redistribution of antioxidants. Furthermore, low antioxidant levels may even be beneficial as pro-oxidants are essential in bacterial killing. The reviewed studies in critically ill patients show conflicting results. This may be due to different patient populations, study designs, timing, dosing regimens, and duration of the intervention and outcome measures evaluated. Therefore, at present, it remains unclear whether supplementation of antioxidant micronutrients has any clinical benefit in critically ill patients as some studies show clear benefits, whereas others demonstrate neutral outcomes and even harm. Combination therapy of antioxidants seems logical as they work in synergy and function as elements of the human antioxidant network. Further research should focus on defining the normal antioxidant status for critically ill patients and to study optimal supplement combinations either by nutrition enrichment or by enteral or parenteral pharmacological interventions. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  5. Examining food additives and spices for their anti-oxidant ability to counteract oxidative damage due to chronic exposure to free radicals from environmental pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raul A., III

    The main objective of this work was to examine food additives and spices (from the Apiaceae family) to determine their antioxidant properties to counteract oxidative stress (damage) caused by Environmental pollutants. Environmental pollutants generate Reactive Oxygen species and Reactive Nitrogen species. Star anise essential oil showed lower antioxidant activity than extracts using DPPH scavenging. Dill Seed -- Anethum Graveolens -the monoterpene components of dill showed to activate the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase , which helped attach the antioxidant molecule glutathione to oxidized molecules that would otherwise do damage in the body. The antioxidant activity of extracts of dill was comparable with ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and quercetin in in-vitro systems. Black Cumin -- Nigella Sativa: was evaluated the method 1,1-diphenyl2-picrylhhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were found between the total phenolic content in the black cumin extracts and their antioxidant activities. Caraway -- Carum Carvi: The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the scavenging effects of 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Caraway showed strong antioxidant activity. Cumin -- Cuminum Cyminum - the major polyphenolic were extracted and separated by HPTLC. The antioxidant activity of the cumin extract was tested on 1,1'-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging. Coriander -- Coriandrum Sativum - the antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property of the seeds was studied and also investigated whether the administration of seeds curtails oxidative stress. Coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of Peroxidative damage, but also significantly reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels. The seeds also showed scavenging activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals. The total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 galic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while the total flavonoid content

  6. Effect of antioxidant therapy with dl-alpha-tocopherol on cardiovascular structure in experimental renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Kerstin; Törnig, Johannes; Buzello, Mareike; Kuhlmann, Alexander; Gross, Marie-Luise; Adamczak, Marcin; Buzello, Moriz; Ritz, Eberhard

    2002-09-01

    Chronic renal failure is characterized by remodeling of the structure of the heart and the vasculature, for example, left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, capillary/myocyte mismatch, as well as thickening of intramyocardial arteries and of peripheral arteries and veins. Furthermore, uremia is a state of increased oxygen stress. It was the purpose of this study to examine whether these findings are interrelated. To investigate whether antioxidative therapy with dl-alpha-tocopherol (Toco; vitamin E) interferes with the development of abnormal cardiovascular structure in experimental renal failure, 28 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to partial renal ablation (subtotal nephrectomy, SNX) or to sham operation (sham). SNX were either left untreated or received the antioxidant Toco (2 x 1500 IE/kg BW/week in the pellets). Blood pressure was measured using tail plethysmography. The experiment was terminated after 12 weeks. Heart and left ventricular weight were determined and the following parameters were measured using morphometry and stereology: volume densities of cardiomyocytes, capillaries and non-vascular interstitium; length density and total length of cardiac capillaries, wall thickness of intramyocardial arterioles and of the aorta. Systolic blood pressure and body weight were comparable in all groups. Treatment with Toco led to significantly increased plasma concentrations of Toco. Left ventricular weight and wall thickness of intramyocardial arteries were significantly higher in both SNX groups compared to sham controls. Volume density of the cardiac interstitial tissue was significantly higher in untreated SNX than in Toco treated SNX and sham control rats. Length density of capillaries was significantly lower in untreated SNX than in control rats; however, the values were significantly higher, and even higher than in sham controls, when SNX were treated with Toco. Treatment with the antioxidant dl-alpha-tocopherol prevented cardiomyocyte

  7. Photobiomodulation Therapy Decreases Oxidative Stress in the Lung Tissue after Formaldehyde Exposure: Role of Oxidant/Antioxidant Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Silva Macedo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde is ubiquitous pollutant that induces oxidative stress in the lung. Several lung diseases have been associated with oxidative stress and their control is necessary. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT has been highlighted as a promissory treatment, but its mechanisms need to be better investigated. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of PBMT on the oxidative stress generated by FA exposure. Male Wistar rats were submitted to FA exposure of 1% or vehicle (3 days and treated or not with PBMT (1 and 5 h after each FA exposure. Rats treated only with laser were used as control. Twenty-four hours after the last FA exposure, we analyzed the effects of PBMT on the generation of nitrites and hydrogen peroxide, oxidative burst, glutathione reductase, peroxidase, S-transferase enzyme activities, the gene expression of nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase, superoxide dismutase, the catalase enzyme, and heme oxygenase-1. PBMT reduced the generation of nitrites and hydrogen peroxide and increased oxidative burst in the lung cells. A decreased level of oxidant enzymes was observed which were concomitantly related to an increased level of antioxidants. This study provides new information about the antioxidant mechanisms of PBMT in the lung and might constitute an important tool for lung disease treatment.

  8. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of polyphenols from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the medicinal plants were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against pathogenic micro organisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Esherichia coli and Candida albicans). The medicinal plants displayed different polyphenols contents and antioxidant activities. In addition, varying ...

  9. Plant Polyphenolic Antioxidants in Management of Chronic Degenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Das

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the over growing global population, degenerative diseases are on rise, despite using modern medicine for its cure. People prefer alternative systems of medicine like natural therapy and polyherbal therapy due to adverse effects of allopathic medication. According to W.H.O. report about 70% of world population relying on natural plant-based therapy. For a suitable, sustainable and cost effective cure use of polyphenolic natural antioxidants may be an appropriate tool. Now a day’s most food and pharmaceutical products contain synthetic antioxidants. But recent data indicating that, long term use of synthetic antioxidants could have carcinogenic effects on human cells. Thus, search for new natural and efficient antioxidants is need of the hour. Phenolic compounds (polyphenols are products of secondary metabolites and constitute one of the most widely distributed groups of substance in plant kingdom with more than 10,000 phenolic structures. Polyphenols are structurally characterized by the presence of one or more aromatic benzene ring compounds with one or more functional hydroxyl groups. Polyphenols are naturally occurring and most abundant antioxidants in human diets found largely in the fruits, vegetables and beverages. Plant flavonoids are the largest and best studied class of polyphenols which include more than 4000 compounds. Numerous studies confirm that, flavonoids exert a protective action on human health and are key components of a healthy and balanced diet. Epidemiological studies and associated meta-analysis correlate and strongly   suggest that, long term consumption of diets rich in plant flavonoids offer protection against development of chronic and degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases , diabetes , cancer, osteoporosis and neurodegenerative diseases. One of the main reasons for the age related diseases is linked with reduction in cellular oxidative stress. The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS in

  10. Additional information to the in vitro antioxidant activity of Ginkgo biloba L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugasi, A; Horvahovich, P; Dworschák, E

    The in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extract from Ginkgo biloba L. was examined in different systems. The extract showed hydrogen-donating ability, reducing power, copper-binding property, free radical scavenging activity in a H2O2/.OH-luminol system and it

  11. Antioxidant Capacity of Flavonoids in Hepatic Microsomes Is not Reflected by Antioxidant Effects In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Duthie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds with potential antioxidant activity via multiple reduction capacities. Oxidation of cellular lipids has been implicated in many diseases. Consequently, this study has assessed the ability of several dietary flavonoid aglycones to suppress lipid peroxidation of hepatic microsomes derived from rats deficient in the major lipid soluble antioxidant, dα-tocopherol. Antioxidant effectiveness was galangin > quercetin > kaempferol > fisetin > myricetin > morin > catechin > apigenin. However, none of the flavonoids were as effective as dα-tocopherol, particularly at the lowest concentrations used. In addition, there appears to be an important distinction between the in vitro antioxidant effectiveness of flavonoids and their ability to suppress indices of oxidation in vivo. Compared with dα-tocopherol, repletion of vitamin E deficient rats with quercetin, kaempferol, or myricetin did not significantly affect indices of lipid peroxidation and tissue damage. Direct antioxidant effect of flavonoids in vivo was not apparent probably due to low bioavailability although indirect redox effects through stimulation of the antioxidant response element cannot be excluded.

  12. The protective effect of plasma antioxidants during ozone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... In this study we investigated the possible protective effects of the plasma antioxidant defense system during O3-AHT. Venous blood from six ..... immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and a rationale for ozone therapy and other ...

  13. Antioxidant activity of dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination in neuroprotective therapy in glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Kurysheva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the antioxidant activity of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and timolol fixed combinations and to compare it with other fixed combinations.Methods: Antioxidant activity (AOA of dorzolamide/timolol (Cosopt, dorzolamide/timolol (Dorzopt Plus, latanoprost/timolol, brimonidine/timolol, travoprost/timolol and bimatoprost/timolol fixed combinations was measured in vitro using the model of oxida- tive hemolysis.Results: Dorzolamide/timolol (Cosopt AOA was higher than that of other fixed combinations and increased with the quantity of the drugs added to the model system: 40%, 52% and 75% in 30 μl, 60 μl and 90 μl respectively.Conclusion: these findings suggest that dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination has potential advantages over the other fixed combinations due to its high antioxidant activity and might be used as the neuroptotective agent for glaucoma treatment.

  14. Creation of a Databank for Content of Antioxidants in Food Products by an Amperometric Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina A. Fedina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress, i.e. excessive content of reactionary, oxygen, and nitrogen compounds (ROAC, including free radicals, is one of the causes of various dangerous diseases as well as premature aging. The adverse effect of free radicals can be neutralized by antioxidants. In order to carry out antioxidant therapy, one needs to know the contents of antioxidants in food products. We have created the databank for the contents of antioxidants in 1,140 food products, beverages, etc. Apart from water-soluble antioxidants, fat-soluble antioxidants in dairy and fish products, cacao, chocolate, nuts etc. were determined for the first time using an amperometric method.

  15. Co-ordinated stage-dependent enhancement of Plasmodium falciparum antioxidant enzymes and heat shock protein expression in parasites growing in oxidatively stressed or G6PD-deficient red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Sylke

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized red blood cells (RBCs are equipped with protective antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins (HSPs. The latter are only considered to protect against thermal stress. Important issues are poorly explored: first, it is insufficiently known how both systems are expressed in relation to the parasite developmental stage; secondly, it is unknown whether P. falciparum HSPs are redox-responsive, in view of redox sensitivity of HSP in eukaryotic cells; thirdly, it is poorly known how the antioxidant defense machinery would respond to increased oxidative stress or inhibited antioxidant defense. Those issues are interesting as several antimalarials increase the oxidative stress or block antioxidant defense in the parasitized RBC. In addition, numerous inhibitors of HSPs are currently developed for cancer therapy and might be tested as anti-malarials. Thus, the joint disruption of the parasite antioxidant enzymes/HSP system would interfere with parasite growth and open new perspectives for anti-malaria therapy. Methods Stage-dependent mRNA expression of ten representative P. falciparum antioxidant enzymes and hsp60/70–2/70–3/75/90 was studied by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in parasites growing in normal RBCs, in RBCs oxidatively-stressed by moderate H2O2 generation and in G6PD-deficient RBCs. Protein expression of antioxidant enzymes was assayed by Western blotting. The pentosephosphate-pathway flux was measured in isolated parasites after Sendai-virus lysis of RBC membrane. Results In parasites growing in normal RBCs, mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes and HSPs displayed co-ordinated stage-dependent modulation, being low at ring, highest at early trophozoite and again very low at schizont stage. Additional exogenous oxidative stress or growth in antioxidant blunted G6PD-deficient RBCs indicated remarkable flexibility of both systems, manifested by enhanced, co-ordinated mRNA expression of

  16. Co-ordinated stage-dependent enhancement of Plasmodium falciparum antioxidant enzymes and heat shock protein expression in parasites growing in oxidatively stressed or G6PD-deficient red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akide-Ndunge, Oscar Bate; Tambini, Elisa; Giribaldi, Giuliana; McMillan, Paul J; Müller, Sylke; Arese, Paolo; Turrini, Francesco

    2009-05-29

    Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized red blood cells (RBCs) are equipped with protective antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins (HSPs). The latter are only considered to protect against thermal stress. Important issues are poorly explored: first, it is insufficiently known how both systems are expressed in relation to the parasite developmental stage; secondly, it is unknown whether P. falciparum HSPs are redox-responsive, in view of redox sensitivity of HSP in eukaryotic cells; thirdly, it is poorly known how the antioxidant defense machinery would respond to increased oxidative stress or inhibited antioxidant defense. Those issues are interesting as several antimalarials increase the oxidative stress or block antioxidant defense in the parasitized RBC. In addition, numerous inhibitors of HSPs are currently developed for cancer therapy and might be tested as anti-malarials. Thus, the joint disruption of the parasite antioxidant enzymes/HSP system would interfere with parasite growth and open new perspectives for anti-malaria therapy. Stage-dependent mRNA expression of ten representative P. falciparum antioxidant enzymes and hsp60/70-2/70-3/75/90 was studied by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in parasites growing in normal RBCs, in RBCs oxidatively-stressed by moderate H2O2 generation and in G6PD-deficient RBCs. Protein expression of antioxidant enzymes was assayed by Western blotting. The pentosephosphate-pathway flux was measured in isolated parasites after Sendai-virus lysis of RBC membrane. In parasites growing in normal RBCs, mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes and HSPs displayed co-ordinated stage-dependent modulation, being low at ring, highest at early trophozoite and again very low at schizont stage. Additional exogenous oxidative stress or growth in antioxidant blunted G6PD-deficient RBCs indicated remarkable flexibility of both systems, manifested by enhanced, co-ordinated mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes and HSPs. Protein expression of

  17. Efficacy of Additional Canagliflozin Administration to Type 2 Diabetes Patients Receiving Insulin Therapy: Examination of Diurnal Glycemic Patterns Using Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Mihoko; Nakatani, Yuki; Tanka, Seiichi; Aoki, Chie; Sagara, Masaaki; Yanagi, Kazunori; Suzuki, Kunihiro; Aso, Yoshimasa

    2017-08-01

    The efficacy of administering a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor during insulin therapy has not been established. In this study, we examined its effects based on diurnal glycemic patterns using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). The subjects were 15 patients who had received insulin therapy for 1 year or more. A CGM device was attached to all subjects for 1 week. The administration of canagliflozin at 100 mg was started 4 days after attachment. The mean glucose concentrations, standard deviation (SD), mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE), mean of daily difference of blood glucose (MODD), and area under the curve (AUC) (≥180, glucose concentrations decreased from 161.1 to 139.1 mg/dL (P AUC of ≥180, i.e., the total area of blood glucose levels at or above 180 on the blood glucose curve of CGM, decreased from 339.1 to 113.6 mg/dL (P AUC of blood glucose levels below 70 on the blood glucose curve of CGM, slightly decreased from 1.6 to 0.3 mg/dL (P = 0.08). The total number of basal insulin units decreased from 128 to 76, and that of bolus insulin decreased from 266 to 154; the dose of insulin could be markedly decreased. In addition, the mean 8-OHdG level decreased from 11.4 to 10.8 ng/mg Cre (P blood glucose changes in type 2 diabetes using insulin. In addition, the results suggest its antioxidant actions. University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN no. 000019429).

  18. Effects of gamma irradiation on antioxidants and ultraviolet stabilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yoko; Miura, Makiko; Miura, Yukiko; Yamada, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on 18 kinds of antioxidants and 10 kinds of ultraviolet stabilizers, intact or in a polyethylene sheet, were studied. After irradiating at a 30kGy dose, the content of additives themselves did not change and new degradation products were not found. While most antioxidants in polyethylene had a decreased content after irradiation, most ultraviolet stabilizers did not change. During the migration tests with aqueous food simulants, additives were not released from either irradiated or unirradiated sheets. For the migration tests with n-heptane, however, all additives were released from the unirradiated sheet, while most of the antioxidants were not released or released only slightly. (author)

  19. Anti-Oxidative Polyphenolic Compounds of Cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed F; Sureda, Antoni; Daglia, Maria; Rezaei, Parizad; Nabavi, Seyed M

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of different serious chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders, etc. Recent research has been focused on the beneficial role of dietary antioxidants against oxidative stress both under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Theobroma cacao L. (cacao tree) is an evergreen tree which is native to South America. It is a plant of great economic importance and its seeds are commonly used to produce cocoa powder and chocolate. In addition to its uses in food industry, cocoa is a rich source of polyphenolic antioxidants. There is a plethora of in vitro and in vivo studies that report cocoa antioxidant capacity. The protective activity of cocoa seems to be due to its phytochemical constituents, especially catechins. However, bioavailability of cocoa polyphenolic constituents following oral administration is very low (nanomolar concentrations). In the present paper, we critically reviewed the available literature on the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of cocoa and its polyphenolic constituents. In addition to these, we provide brief information about cultivation, phytochemistry, bioavailability and clinical impacts of cocoa.

  20. Role of antioxidants in disease and cancer prevention: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.; Ishtiaq, S.

    2015-01-01

    This review was written on data collected from, review articles, cross-sectional studies, randomized control trials, open-label studies, critical reviews, Cochrane data base system reviews, meta-analysis, population based trials, different phase-I and phase-II trials reported in literature between 1993 to 2014. Web sites and other online resources of Medline, NCBI, Pub med, Medscape resource centers, American college of surgeons were used to extract the data. The debate about the role of antioxidant therapy in disease or cancer prevention has long-loomed. Oxidative damage induced by free radicals has been implicated in most inflammatory and degenerative diseases. Scientific research has reported that the antioxidants may have a role in carcinogenesis, while antioxidant-containing fruits, vegetables may protect against some of these diseases while the role of supplements containing antioxidants in the prevention of chronic diseases remains unproven. This review provides basic information about antioxidants and summarizes different studies reported in literature about the role antioxidants in disease or cancer prevention. (author)

  1. Irradiation of polyethylene in the presence of antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, E.; Kałuska, I.; Strzelczak-Burlińska, G.; Michalik, J.

    The radiation induced reactions in LDPE in the presence of phenolic type antioxidants have been studied. It was shown that various antioxidants can influence the polyethylene network formation and the radical yield in different ways. The dependence of network structure on absorbed doses was determined by gel analysis, hot-set test and extraction of antioxidants for samples irradiated with accelerated electrons. It was found that the antioxidants eluated from polyethylene in higher percentage influence polymer crosslinking to a smaller degree. The ESR studies of γ-irradiated blends of polyethylene with antioxidant indicate the presence of alkyl and phenoxyl radicals. The role of antioxidant molecules on radiation induced reactions in polyethylene-antioxidant systems is considered. The correlation between the network structure and the type of additive in polyethylene is also discussed.

  2. Effects of Estrogen Replacement Therapy on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Ovariectomized and Ovariectomized-Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı F. Ceylan-Işık

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Menopause and diabetes are conditions producing free radicals independently from each other. Estrogen replacement therapy which widely used in postmenopausal period has beneficial effects because of its antioxidant property. The study groups were as follows: ovariectomy (n=8, ovariectomy+17-östradiol (n=8, ovariectomy+diabetes (n=10 and ovariectomy+diabetes+17-östradiol (n=8. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (45 mg/kg i.p. and the treatment with 17-östradiol (0.1 mg/kg/day was started a week after ovariectomy. After–week long experimental period aortic and uterine tissues were collected from the animals and the malondialdehyde concentration, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were quantified. The treatment did not effect blood glucose concentrations, but increased plasma estradiol concentrations. Increased malondialdehyde concentrations were reduced by the treatment in aorta from diabetics and nondiabetics, but the treatment increased malondialdehyde concentrations in nondiabetic uterine while were reducing in diabetic uterine. The treatment also reduced the increased activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase in aorta from diabetics and nondiabetics, on the other hand the treatment increased the activities of those enzymes in uterine from diabetics and nondiabetics. Our results suggested that estrogen acts as an antioxidant or prooxidant depending on the tissues.

  3. Antidiarrhea and Antioxidant Activities of Honokiol Extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GSH-Px, 4.49 vs. 5.80). Additionally, total antioxidant capacity was increased by 60 % with 100 mg/kg ... honokiol extract on castor oil-induced diarrhea, on charcoal transit rate .... glutathione (GSH) concentration and total antioxidant capacity ...

  4. Interfacial behavior of common food contact polymer additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiserman, W M; Can, S Z; Walker, R A; Begley, T H; Limm, W

    2007-07-15

    Irganox 1076 (IN1076) and Irganox 1010 (IN1010), phenol containing species often used as antioxidant additives in food packaging polymers have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional groups. Consequently these additives are likely to absorb to surfaces where their free energy is minimized. Experiments described in this work examine the two-dimensional phase behavior and vibrational structure of IN1076 and IN1010 films adsorbed to the air/water interface. Surface pressure isotherms show that repeated compression of these films leads to continued irreversible loss of molecules and that on a per molecule basis, this loss is more pronounced for IN1076 than for IN1010. Differences in the surface properties of these two antioxidant additives are interpreted based on differences in molecular structure. Surface specific vibrational measurements of these organic films show very little conformational order, implying that even when closely packed, both antioxidant species have little affinity for forming highly organized domains. These findings have important ramifications for mechanisms that reduce antioxidant activity in polymers as well as descriptions of antioxidant blooming on polymer surfaces.

  5. Human Anti-Oxidation Protein A1M—A Potential Kidney Protection Agent in Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Ahlstedt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT has been in clinical use for 15 years to treat metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. PRRT is limited by reabsorption and retention of the administered radiolabeled somatostatin analogues in the proximal tubule. Consequently, it is essential to develop and employ methods to protect the kidneys during PRRT. Today, infusion of positively charged amino acids is the standard method of kidney protection. Other methods, such as administration of amifostine, are still under evaluation and show promising results. α1-microglobulin (A1M is a reductase and radical scavenging protein ubiquitously present in plasma and extravascular tissue. Human A1M has antioxidation properties and has been shown to prevent radiation-induced in vitro cell damage and protect non-irradiated surrounding cells. It has recently been shown in mice that exogenously infused A1M and the somatostatin analogue octreotide are co-localized in proximal tubules of the kidney after intravenous infusion. In this review we describe the current situation of kidney protection during PRRT, discuss the necessity and implications of more precise dosimetry and present A1M as a new, potential candidate for renal protection during PRRT and related targeted radionuclide therapies.

  6. Oxidative stress in bone remodeling: role of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domazetovic, Vladana; Marcucci, Gemma; Iantomasi, Teresa; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Vincenzini, Maria Teresa

    2017-01-01

    ROS are highly reactive molecules which consist of a number of diverse chemical species, including radical and non-radical oxygen species. Oxidative stress occurs as a result of an overproduction of ROS not balanced by an adequate level of antioxidants. The natural antioxidants are: thiol compounds among which GSH is the most representative, and non-thiol compounds such as polyphenols, vitamins and also various enzymes. Many diseases have been linked to oxidative stress including bone diseases among which one of the most important is the osteoporosis. The redox state changes are also related to the bone remodeling process which allows the continuous bone regeneration through the coordinated action of bone cells: osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes. Changes in ROS and/or antioxidant systems seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of bone loss. ROS induce the apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes, and this favours osteoclastogenesis and inhibits the mineralization and osteogenesis. Excessive osteocyte apoptosis correlates with oxidative stress causing an imbalance in favor of osteoclastogenesis which leads to increased turnover of bone remodeling and bone loss. Antioxidants either directly or by counteracting the action of oxidants contribute to activate the differentiation of osteoblasts, mineralization process and the reduction of osteoclast activity. In fact, a marked decrease in plasma antioxidants was found in aged or osteoporotic women. Some evidence shows a link among nutrients, antioxidant intake and bone health. Recent data demonstrate the antioxidant properties of various nutrients and their influence on bone metabolism. Polyphenols and anthocyanins are the most abundant antioxidants in the diet, and nutritional approaches to antioxidant strategies, in animals or selected groups of patients with osteoporosis or inflammatory bone diseases, suggest the antioxidant use in anti-resorptive therapies for the treatment and prevention of bone loss.

  7. Total anti-oxidant capacity of saliva in chronic periodontitis patients before and after periodontal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzaiy, M; Ansari, S M; Dehghan, J H; Ghaeni, S H

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal disease is among the most common inflammatory conditions which is associated with many different factors. One of the contributing factors to the pathogenesis of this condition may compromise the defensive mechanism of antioxidants. The present study evaluates the antioxidant capacity of saliva in periodontal patients before and after periodontal treatment. In this cross sectional study, 31 patients systemically healthy non smokers with chronic periodontitis were recruited. The antioxidant capacity of saliva was measured before the initial phase of periodontal therapy and after completion of the treatment. Data were analyzed using SPSS 19 software. Paired T-Test, Independent sample T-test and ANOVA tests were used as appropriated. The mean and standard deviation antioxidant capacity of the saliva after the treatment.(0.962± 0.287µM)was significantly higher than before the treatment (0.655 ± 0.281 µM ,pperiodontal treatment was higher among men than among women; however, the difference was not significant (P=0.07). The mean difference of salivary antioxidant capacity was not significantly differed among different ages (P=0.772). The antioxidant capacity of saliva was higher after periodontal therapy among patients with periodontal disease, however the change was not varied across the ages and gender. Therefore, the alterations in the defensive mechanism of antioxidants could be the key factors contribute to the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases.

  8. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and synergistic activities of tea polyphenols

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial resistance to antibiotics has become an increasing global problem and there is a need to find out novel potent antimicrobial agents with alternative modes of action as accessories to antibiotic therapy. This study investigated the antioxidant, antimicrobial and synergistic properties of tea polyphenols. The tea ...

  9. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant System in Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Andrukhov, Oleh; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease, which is initiated by bacterial infection and subsequently progressed by aberrant host response. It can result in the destruction of teeth supporting tissues and have an influence on systemic health. When periodontitis occurs, reactive oxygen species, which are overproduced mostly by hyperactive neutrophils, could not be balanced by antioxidant defense system and cause tissues damage. This is characterized by increased metabolites of lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and protein damage. Local and systemic activities of antioxidants can also be influenced by periodontitis. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index have been used to evaluate the oxidative stress associated with periodontitis. Studies have confirmed that inflammatory response in periodontitis is associated with an increased local and systemic oxidative stress and compromised antioxidant capacity. Our review focuses on increased oxidative stress in periodontal disease, specifically, on the relationship between the local and systemic biomarkers of oxidative stress and periodontitis and their association with the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Also, the relationship between periodontitis and systemic inflammation, and the effects of periodontal therapy on oxidative stress parameters will be discussed. PMID:29180965

  10. Additional weekend therapy may reduce length of rehabilitation stay after stroke: a meta-analysis of individual patient data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie English

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Questions: Among people receiving inpatient rehabilitation after stroke, does additional weekend physiotherapy and/or occupational therapy reduce the length of rehabilitation hospital stay compared to those who receive a weekday-only service, and does this change after controlling for individual factors? Does additional weekend therapy improve the ability to walk and perform activities of daily living, measured at discharge? Does additional weekend therapy improve health-related quality of life, measured 6 months after discharge from rehabilitation? Which individual, clinical and hospital characteristics are associated with shorter length of rehabilitation hospital stay? Design: This study pooled individual data from two randomised, controlled trials (n = 350 using an individual patient data meta-analysis and multivariate regression. Participants: People with stroke admitted to inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Intervention: Additional weekend therapy (physiotherapy and/or occupational therapy compared to usual care (5 days/week therapy. Outcome measures: Length of rehabilitation hospital stay, independence in activities of daily living measured with the Functional Independence Measure, walking speed and health-related quality of life. Results: Participants who received weekend therapy had a shorter length of rehabilitation hospital stay. In the un-adjusted analysis, this was not statistically significant (MD –5.7 days, 95% CI –13.0 to 1.5. Controlling for hospital site, age, walking speed and Functional Independence Measure score on admission, receiving weekend therapy was significantly associated with a shorter length of rehabilitation hospital stay (β = 7.5, 95% CI 1.7 to 13.4, p = 0.001. There were no significant between-group differences in Functional Independence Measure scores (MD 1.9 points, 95% CI –2.8 to 6.6, walking speed (MD 0.06 m/second, 95% CI –0.15 to 0.04 or health-related quality of life (SMD –0.04, 95% CI

  11. Additional weekend therapy may reduce length of rehabilitation stay after stroke: a meta-analysis of individual patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Coralie; Shields, Nora; Brusco, Natasha K; Taylor, Nicholas F; Watts, Jennifer J; Peiris, Casey; Bernhardt, Julie; Crotty, Maria; Esterman, Adrian; Segal, Leonie; Hillier, Susan

    2016-07-01

    Among people receiving inpatient rehabilitation after stroke, does additional weekend physiotherapy and/or occupational therapy reduce the length of rehabilitation hospital stay compared to those who receive a weekday-only service, and does this change after controlling for individual factors? Does additional weekend therapy improve the ability to walk and perform activities of daily living, measured at discharge? Does additional weekend therapy improve health-related quality of life, measured 6 months after discharge from rehabilitation? Which individual, clinical and hospital characteristics are associated with shorter length of rehabilitation hospital stay? This study pooled individual data from two randomised, controlled trials (n=350) using an individual patient data meta-analysis and multivariate regression. People with stroke admitted to inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Additional weekend therapy (physiotherapy and/or occupational therapy) compared to usual care (5 days/week therapy). Length of rehabilitation hospital stay, independence in activities of daily living measured with the Functional Independence Measure, walking speed and health-related quality of life. Participants who received weekend therapy had a shorter length of rehabilitation hospital stay. In the un-adjusted analysis, this was not statistically significant (MD -5.7 days, 95% CI -13.0 to 1.5). Controlling for hospital site, age, walking speed and Functional Independence Measure score on admission, receiving weekend therapy was significantly associated with a shorter length of rehabilitation hospital stay (β=7.5, 95% CI 1.7 to 13.4, p=0.001). There were no significant between-group differences in Functional Independence Measure scores (MD 1.9 points, 95% CI -2.8 to 6.6), walking speed (MD 0.06 m/second, 95% CI -0.15 to 0.04) or health-related quality of life (SMD -0.04, 95% CI -0.26 to 0.19) at discharge. Modest evidence indicates that additional weekend therapy might reduce

  12. Impacts of NOx reducing antioxidant additive on performance and emissions of a multi-cylinder diesel engine fueled with Jatropha biodiesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palash, S.M.; Kalam, M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Arbab, M.I.; Masum, B.M.; Sanjid, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Environmental benefits of JB blends were found but adverse impact on NO x . • Addition of 0.15% (m) DPPD in JB20, average reduction in NO up to 16.54%. • In some cases, engine power is reduced with DPPD additive. • Emissions of HC and CO for JB blends with DPPD were lower compared to diesel. • Addition of DPPD in JB blends reduction of EGT was found. - Abstract: Energy requirements are increasing rapidly due to fast industrialization and the increased number of vehicles on the road. The use of biodiesel in diesel engines instead of diesel results in the proven reduction of harmful exhaust emissions. However, most researchers have reported that they produce higher NO x emissions compared to diesel, which is a deterrent to the expansion of the market for these fuels. Several proposed pathways try to account for NO x formation during the combustion process. Among them, the Fenimore mechanism explains that fuel radicals formed during the combustion process react with nitrogen from the air to form NO x . It could be proposed that if these radical reactions could be terminated, the NO x formation rate for biodiesel combustion would decrease. An experimental study was conducted on a four-cylinder diesel engine to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of Jatropha biodiesel blends (JB5, JB10, JB15 and JB20) with and without the addition of N,N′-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (DPPD) antioxidant. For each tested fuel, the engine performance and emissions were measured at engine speeds 1000–4000 rpm at an interval of 500 rpm under the full throttle condition. The results showed that this antioxidant additive could reduce NO x emissions significantly with a slight penalty in terms of engine power and Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) as well as CO and HC emissions. However, when compared to diesel combustion, the emissions of HC and CO with the addition of the DPPD additive were found to be nearly the same or lower. By the

  13. Solvent effects on the antioxidant capacity of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants measured by CUPRAC, ABTS/persulphate and FRAP methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Saliha Esin; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Apak, Reşat

    2010-06-15

    Antioxidants are health beneficial compounds that can protect cells and macromolecules (e.g., fats, lipids, proteins, and DNA) from the damage of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Solvent effect is a crucial parameter on the chemical behaviour of antioxidant compounds but there has been limited information regarding its role on antioxidant capacity and its assays. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of some certain lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, measured in different solvent media such as ethanol (EtOH) (100%), methanol (MeOH) (100%), methanol/water (4:1, v/v), methanol/water (1:1, v/v), dichloromethane (DCM)/EtOH (9:1, v/v). The cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) values of selected antioxidants were experimentally reported in this work as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and compared to those found by reference TAC assays, i.e., 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)/persulphate (ABTS/persulphate) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The TAC values of synthetic mixtures of antioxidants were experimentally measured as trolox equivalents and compared to those theoretically found by making use of the principle of additivity of absorbances assuming no chemical interaction between the mixture constituents. Possible synergistic (e.g., BHT and BHA in DCM/EtOH) or antagonistic behaviours of these synthetic mixtures were investigated in relation to solvent selection.

  14. Liposomal Antioxidants for Protection against Oxidant-Induced Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharias E. Suntres

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS, including superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical, can be formed as normal products of aerobic metabolism and can be produced at elevated rates under pathophysiological conditions. Overproduction and/or insufficient removal of ROS result in significant damage to cell structure and functions. In vitro studies showed that antioxidants, when applied directly and at relatively high concentrations to cellular systems, are effective in conferring protection against the damaging actions of ROS, but results from animal and human studies showed that several antioxidants provide only modest benefit and even possible harm. Antioxidants have yet to be rendered into reliable and safe therapies because of their poor solubility, inability to cross membrane barriers, extensive first-pass metabolism, and rapid clearance from cells. There is considerable interest towards the development of drug-delivery systems that would result in the selective delivery of antioxidants to tissues in sufficient concentrations to ameliorate oxidant-induced tissue injuries. Liposomes are biocompatible, biodegradable, and nontoxic artificial phospholipid vesicles that offer the possibility of carrying hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and amphiphilic molecules. This paper focus on the use of liposomes for the delivery of antioxidants in the prevention or treatment of pathological conditions related to oxidative stress.

  15. Serum total antioxidant capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almira Hadžović-Džuvo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS. It is characterized by loss of myelin, the fatty tissue that surrounds and protects nerve fibres allowing them to conduct electrical impulses. Recent data indicate that oxidative stress (OS plays a major role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of this study was to estimate level of serum total antioxidative capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis. Our cross-sectional study included 33 patients with MS and 24 age and sex matched control subjects. All our patients had a Poser criteria for definite diagnostic categories of multiple sclerosis. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC was measured by quantitative colorimetric determination, using Total antioxidant Capacity-QuantiCromAntioxidant Assay Kit (BioAssay systems, USA; DTAC-100. Mean serum TAC in multiple sclerosis group of patients was 119.2 mM Trolox equivalents and was significantly lower (p<0.001 compared to the control group of subjects (167.1 mM Trolox equivalents. Our results showed that oxidative stress plays an important role in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. This finding, also, suggests the importance of antioxidants in diet and therapy of MS patients.

  16. Synthesis and Properties of New Polymer Having Hindered Phenol Antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taek Hyeon; Song, Yi Rang; Kim, Jae Nyoung

    2003-01-01

    Polymeric antioxidants was successfully prepared by the copolymerization of monomeric maleimide with MMA. The copolymers possess some stabilizing effect against thermal oxidation with oven aging in air at 120 .deg. C for 5 days and also have the some resistance to water extraction. It is well known that the addition of antioxidants is the most convenient and effective way to block the thermal oxidation of polyolefins. Hindered phenol antioxidants, which contain the 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol functional group, are very effective primary antioxidants. However, low molecular weight (MW) antioxidants are easily lost from the polymers by the physical loss such as migration, evaporation, and extraction by liquid. The effectiveness of low MW antioxidants is limited. Therefore a new trend for antioxidant development is to prepare antioxidant with higher MW. The copolymerization or homopolymerization of the functional monomer bearing hindered phenol antioxidants is a conventional method for preparing polymeric antioxidants

  17. Main approaches for delivering antioxidant vitamins through the skin to prevent skin ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gašperlin, Mirjana; Gosenca, Mirjam

    2011-07-01

    One of the major contributions to skin photoageing and diseases is oxidative stress, caused by UV radiation inducing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Successful prophylaxis and therapy would necessitate control of the oxidant/antioxidant balance at the affected site, which can be achieved through the external supply of endogenous antioxidants. This review discusses possible strategies for dermal delivery of the antioxidant vitamins E and C, as oral supplementation has proved insufficient. These antioxidants have low skin bioavailability, owing to their poor solubility, inefficient skin permeability, or instability during storage. These drawbacks can be overcome by various approaches, such as chemical modification of the vitamins and the use of new colloidal drug delivery systems. New knowledge is included about the importance of: enhancing the endogenous skin antioxidant defense through external supply; the balance between various skin antioxidants; factors that can improve the skin bioavailability of antioxidants; and new delivery systems, such as microemulsions, used to deliver vitamins C and E into the skin simultaneously. A promising strategy for enhancing skin protection from oxidative stress is to support the endogenous antioxidant system, with antioxidants containing products that are normally present in the skin.

  18. Phenolic content, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of selected natural sweeteners available on the Polish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabek-Lejko, Dorota; Tomczyk-Ulanowska, Kinga

    2013-01-01

    Seventeen natural sweeteners available on the Polish market were screened for total phenolic content, by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and for antioxidant activity, using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and the 2,2'-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation decolorization assay (ABTS(·+)). In addition, we analyzed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus strains: both those susceptible and those resistant to methicillin (MRSA). The results of the study showed that total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity differ widely among different samples of sweeteners. Phenolic content, expressed as a gallic acid equivalent, ranged from 0 mg kg(-1) in white, refined sugar, xylitol and wheat malt syrup to 11.4 g kg(-1) in sugarcane molasses. Antioxidant activity was lowest in refined white sugar, xylitol, brown beet sugar, liquid fructose, and rape honey; it was average in spelt syrup and corn syrup, and highest in sugar cane, beet molasses, date and barley syrups. Despite the great variety of sweeteners, a strong correlation was noted between the concentration of phenolics and antioxidant properties, as determined by the ABTS(·+) method (r = 0.97) and the FRAP assay (r = 0.77). The strongest antibacterial activity was observed in sugarcane molasses, which was lethal to S. aureus strains at 2 and 4% concentrations in medium for susceptible and MRSA strains respectively. Other sweeteners kill bacteria in 6-15% solutions, whereas some did not show any antibacterial activities against S. aureus strains, even at 20% concentrations. Due to their high antioxidant and antibacterial activities, some of the tested sweeteners have potential therapeutic value as supporting agents in antibiotic therapy.

  19. Natural Antioxidants in Foods and Medicinal Plants: Extraction, Assessment and Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Ya; Meng, Xiao; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Natural antioxidants are widely distributed in food and medicinal plants. These natural antioxidants, especially polyphenols and carotenoids, exhibit a wide range of biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-atherosclerosis and anticancer. The effective extraction and proper assessment of antioxidants from food and medicinal plants are crucial to explore the potential antioxidant sources and promote the application in functional foods, pharmaceuticals and food additive...

  20. Hen Egg as an Antioxidant Food Commodity: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Wu, Jianping

    2015-09-24

    Intake of antioxidants through diet is known to be important in reducing oxidative damage in cells and improving human health. Although eggs are known for their exceptional, nutritional quality, they are not generally considered as antioxidant foods. This review aims to establish the importance of eggs as an antioxidant food by summarizing the current knowledge on egg-derived antioxidants. Eggs have various natural occurring compounds including the proteins ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme in egg white, as well as phosvitin, carotenoids and free aromatic amino acids in egg yolk. Some lipophilic antioxidants such as vitamin E, carotenoids, selenium, iodine and others can be transferred from feed into egg yolk to produce antioxidant-enriched eggs. The bioactivity of egg antioxidants can be affected by food processing, storage and gastrointestinal digestion. Generally thermal processing methods can promote loss of antioxidant properties in eggs due to oxidation and degradation, whereas gastrointestinal digestion enhances the antioxidant properties, due to the formation of new antioxidants (free amino acids and peptides). In summary, in addition to its well-known nutritional contribution to our diet, this review emphasizes the role of eggs as an important antioxidant food.

  1. Nanomedicine and cancer therapies

    CERN Document Server

    Sebastian, Mathew; Ninan, Neethu

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology has the power to radically change the way cancer is diagnosed, imaged, and treated. The holistic approach to cancer involves noninvasive procedures that emphasize restoring the health of human energy fields. Presenting a wealth of information and research about the most potent cancer healing therapies, this forward-thinking book explores how nanomedicine, holistic medicine, and other cancer therapies play important roles in treatment of this disease. Topics include nanobiotechnology for antibacterial therapy and diagnosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and cancer, antioxidants and combinatorial therapies, and optical and mechanical investigations of nanostructures for biomolecular detection.

  2. Consequences of age on ischemic wound healing in rats: altered antioxidant activity and delayed wound closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moor, Andrea N; Tummel, Evan; Prather, Jamie L; Jung, Michelle; Lopez, Jonathan J; Connors, Sarah; Gould, Lisa J

    2014-04-01

    Advertisements targeted at the elderly population suggest that antioxidant therapy will reduce free radicals and promote wound healing, yet few scientific studies substantiate these claims. To better understand the potential utility of supplemental antioxidant therapy for wound healing, we tested the hypothesis that age and tissue ischemia alter the balance of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Using a bipedicled skin flap model, ischemic and non-ischemic wounds were created on young and aged rats. Wound closure and the balance of the critical antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione in the wound bed were determined. Ischemia delayed wound closure significantly more in aged rats. Lower superoxide dismutase 2 and glutathione in non-ischemic wounds of aged rats indicate a basal deficit due to age alone. Ischemic wounds from aged rats had lower superoxide dismutase 2 protein and activity initially, coupled with decreased ratios of reduced/oxidized glutathione and lower glutathione peroxidase activity. De novo glutathione synthesis, to restore redox balance in aged ischemic wounds, was initiated as evidenced by increased glutamate cysteine ligase. Results demonstrate deficiencies in two antioxidant pathways in aged rats that become exaggerated in ischemic tissue, culminating in profoundly impaired wound healing and prolonged inflammation.

  3. Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Duan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic stroke is a common and severe neurological disorder and is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity, especially for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress responses participate in the pathophysiological processes of secondary brain injury (SBI following ICH. The mechanisms involved in interoperable systems include endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, inflammation, and autophagy. In this review, we summarized some promising advances in the field of oxidative stress and ICH, including contained animal and human investigations. We also discussed the role of oxidative stress, systemic oxidative stress responses, and some research of potential therapeutic options aimed at reducing oxidative stress to protect the neuronal function after ICH, focusing on the challenges of translation between preclinical and clinical studies, and potential post-ICH antioxidative therapeutic approaches.

  4. Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidant Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaochun; Wen, Zunjia; Shen, Haitao; Shen, Meifen

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke is a common and severe neurological disorder and is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity, especially for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress responses participate in the pathophysiological processes of secondary brain injury (SBI) following ICH. The mechanisms involved in interoperable systems include endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, inflammation, and autophagy. In this review, we summarized some promising advances in the field of oxidative stress and ICH, including contained animal and human investigations. We also discussed the role of oxidative stress, systemic oxidative stress responses, and some research of potential therapeutic options aimed at reducing oxidative stress to protect the neuronal function after ICH, focusing on the challenges of translation between preclinical and clinical studies, and potential post-ICH antioxidative therapeutic approaches. PMID:27190572

  5. Interactions between macromolecule-bound antioxidants and Trolox during liposome autoxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Ecem Evrim; Amigo Rubio, Jose Manuel; Andersen, Mogens Larsen

    2017-01-01

    The interactions between free and macromolecule-bound antioxidants were investigated in order to evaluate their combined effects on the antioxidant environment. Dietary fiber (DF), protein and lipid-bound antioxidants, obtained from whole wheat, soybean and olive oil products, respectively and Tr...... of logistic function was successfully used for modelling the oxidation curve of liposomes. Principal component analysis revealed two separate phases of liposome autoxidation.......The interactions between free and macromolecule-bound antioxidants were investigated in order to evaluate their combined effects on the antioxidant environment. Dietary fiber (DF), protein and lipid-bound antioxidants, obtained from whole wheat, soybean and olive oil products, respectively...... of the simple addition effects of Trolox and bound antioxidants with measured values on lipid oxidation revealed synergetic interactions for DF and refined olive oil-bound antioxidants, and antagonistic interactions for protein and extra virgin olive oil-bound antioxidants with Trolox. A generalized version...

  6. Total Antioxidant Activity, and Hesperidin, Diosmin, Eriocitrin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The ferric reducing antioxidant power was applied to evaluation of antioxidant. Additionally quercetin, eriocitrin, diosmin and hesperidin contents were evaluated by high ... quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.27 µg mg-1 for hesperidine to 0.93 µg ml-1 for quercetin. ... HPLC for the purpose of developing a suitable.

  7. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Potential of One Hundred Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Waseem; Noreen, Hamsa; Rehman, Shakila; Gul, Shehnaz; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Kamdem, Jean Paul; Zaman, Bakht; da Rocha, Joao B T

    2017-01-01

    Reactive species are produced in biological system because of redox reactions. The imbalance in pro-oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis leads to the production of toxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species like hydrogen peroxide, organic peroxides, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion and nitric oxide. Inactivation of metabolic enzymes, oxidation of biomolecules and cellular damage are some of the prominent characteristics of reactive species. Similarly, oxidative stress has been associated with more than one hundred (100) pathologies such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, pancreatic and liver diseases, joint disorders, cardiac fibrosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, neurological diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disorder, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease), ageing and cancer etc. The toxicity of reactive species is balanced by the integrated antioxidant systems, which include enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Antioxidant therapies or defenses protect the biological sites by removing or quenching the free radicals (prooxidants). Medicinal plants can not only protect the oxidative damage, but also play a vital role in health maintenance and prevention of chronic degenerative diseases. This review will provide a valuable discussion of one hundred (100) well known medicinal plants, which may add to the optimization of antioxidants rank. Besides, some of the antioxidant evaluation techniques or mechanisms via which medicinal plants act as antioxidants are also described. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Natural Antioxidants in Foods and Medicinal Plants: Extraction, Assessment and Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Ya; Meng, Xiao; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-05

    Natural antioxidants are widely distributed in food and medicinal plants. These natural antioxidants, especially polyphenols and carotenoids, exhibit a wide range of biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-atherosclerosis and anticancer. The effective extraction and proper assessment of antioxidants from food and medicinal plants are crucial to explore the potential antioxidant sources and promote the application in functional foods, pharmaceuticals and food additives. The present paper provides comprehensive information on the green extraction technologies of natural antioxidants, assessment of antioxidant activity at chemical and cellular based levels and their main resources from food and medicinal plants.

  9. Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  10. Characterization of phenolics, glucosinolates and antioxidant activity of beverages based on apple juice with addition of frozen and freeze-dried curly kale leaves (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegańska-Marecik, Róża; Radziejewska-Kubzdela, Elżbieta; Marecik, Roman

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the polyphenols, glucosinolates and ascorbic acid content as well as antioxidant activity of beverages on the base of apple juice with addition of frozen and freeze-dried curly kale leaves. Upon enrichment with frozen (13%) and freeze-dried curly kale (3%), the naturally cloudy apple juice was characterized by an increase in phenolic compounds by 2.7 and 3.3-times, accordingly. The antioxidant activity of beverages with the addition of curly kale ranged from 6.6 to 9.4μmol Trolox/mL. The obtained beverages were characterized glucosinolates content at 117.6-167.6mg/L and ascorbic acid content at 4,1-31,9mg/L. The results of sensory evaluation of colour, taste and consistency of apple juice and beverages with the addition of kale did not differ significantly prior to pasteurization (P≤0.05), whereas after the pasteurization the evaluated factors decreased significantly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antioxidant Potential of Selected Korean Edible Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaejin Woo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of various plant extracts. A total of 94 kinds of edible plant extracts obtained from the Korea Plant Extract Bank were screened for cytotoxicity, following which the total phenolic content of 24 shortlisted extracts was determined. Of these, extracts from three plants, namely, Castanea crenata (CC leaf, Camellia japonica (CJ fruit, and Viburnum dilatatum (VD leaf, were examined for antioxidant capabilities by measuring radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity. In addition, cellular antioxidant activities of the three extracts were assessed by a cell-based dichlorofluorescein assay and antioxidant response element (ARE reporter activity assay. The results demonstrated that all three extracts concentration-dependently scavenged free radicals, inhibited lipid peroxidation, reduced the cellular level of reactive oxygen species, and increased ARE-luciferase activity, indicating antioxidant enzyme-inducing potential. In particular, CJ extract showed significantly greater antioxidative activity and antimigratory effect in a breast cancer cell line compared to CC and VD extracts. Hence, CJ extract deserves further study for its in vivo functionality or biologically active constituents.

  12. In Vitro Protective Effect and Antioxidant Mechanism of Resveratrol Induced by Dapsone Hydroxylamine in Human Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosyana V Albuquerque

    Full Text Available Dapsone (DDS hydroxylamine metabolites cause oxidative stress- linked adverse effects in patients, such as methemoglobin formation and DNA damage. This study evaluated the ameliorating effect of the antioxidant resveratrol (RSV on DDS hydroxylamine (DDS-NHOH mediated toxicity in vitro using human erythrocytes and lymphocytes. The antioxidant mechanism was also studied using in-silico methods. In addition, RSV provided intracellular protection by inhibiting DNA damage in human lymphocytes induced by DDS-NHOH. However, whilst pretreatment with RSV (10-1000 μM significantly attenuated DDS-NHOH-induced methemoglobinemia, but it was not only significantly less effective than methylene blue (MET, but also post-treatment with RSV did not reverse methemoglobin formation, contrarily to that observed with MET. DDS-NHOH inhibited catalase (CAT activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, but did not alter superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in erythrocytes. Pretreatment with RSV did not alter these antioxidant enzymes activities in erythrocytes treated with DDS-NHOH. Theoretical calculations using density functional theory methods showed that DDS-NHOH has a pro-oxidant effect, whereas RSV and MET have antioxidant effect on ROS. The effect on methemoglobinemia reversion for MET was significantly higher than that of RSV. These data suggest that the pretreatment with resveratrol may decrease heme-iron oxidation and DNA damage through reduction of ROS generated in cells during DDS therapy.

  13. Acetone Extract from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa: A Potent Natural Antioxidant

    OpenAIRE

    Lavanya, Goodla; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Towatana, Nongporn Hutadilok

    2012-01-01

    Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Myrtaceae) has been employed in traditional Thai medicine to treat colic diarrhoea, dysentery, abscesses, haemorrhage, and gynaecopathy. In addition, it has been used to formulate skin-whitening, anti-aging and skin beautifying agents. Ethnomedical activities of this plant may be due its antioxidant property. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate both in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of R. tomentosa leaf extract. In vitro antioxidant activity of the ex...

  14. Radioprotective effect of antioxidants on human blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingsuo; Gu Xuandi; Zhu Genbo; Feng Jixing; Su Liaoyuan

    1991-09-01

    By using an improved fluorometric method with 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) as fluorometric agent, the antiradiation effects of four kinds of antioxidants on 60 Co γ-ray irradiation inducing final products of lipid peroxides (LPO), i.e. malodialdehyde (MDA) content changes in human blood lymphocytes, were investigated with LPO value as an indicator. The results of the experiment were as following: (1)The radioprotective effect of exogenous antioxidants added to human blood lymphocytes on radiation-induced LPO damage of cellular membrane were remarkable; (2)The radioprotective beneficial sequences of four kinds of antioxidants were arranged like this: SOD > VE >VC, Se 4+ ; (3)Radioprotective effects of antioxidants on radiation-induced damage varied especially with the property of antioxidants, drug concentration, and pretreatment and monitoring time, etc., as well as irradiated dosage and various kinds of incubated cells. In addition, the mechanism of these antioxidants as radioprotectants on human blood lymphocytes is discussed in connection with LPO damage and radioprotection

  15. Widening and Elaboration of Consecutive Research into Therapeutic Antioxidant Enzyme Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Maksimenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Undiminishing actuality of enzyme modification for therapeutic purposes has been confirmed by application of modified enzymes in clinical practice and numerous research data on them. Intravenous injection of the superoxide dismutase-chondroitin sulfate-catalase (SOD-CHS-CAT conjugate in preventive and medicative regimes in rats with endotoxin shock induced with a lipopolysaccharide bolus has demonstrated that antioxidant agents not only effectively prevent damage caused by oxidative stress (as believed previously but also can be used for antioxidative stress therapy. The results obtained emphasize the importance of investigation into the pathogenesis of vascular damage and the role of oxidative stress in it. The effects of intravenous medicative injection of SOD-CHS-CAT in a rat model of endotoxin shock have demonstrated a variety in the activity of this conjugate in addition to prevention of NO conversion in peroxynitrite upon interaction with O2∙- superoxide radical. Together with the literature data, these findings offer a prospect for the study of NO-independent therapeutic effects of SOD-CHS-CAT, implying the importance of a better insight into the mechanisms of the conjugate activity in modeled cardiovascular damage involving vasoactive agents other than NO.

  16. Use of medicinal plants as the additional therapy of viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Ershova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dear colleagues, continuing the rubric of the journal about the treatment of infectious diseases by medicinal plants, we want to present the methods of using medicinal plants as an additional therapy for treatment of viral hepatitis in addition to the main treatment according to the generally clinical standards of antiviral therapy. Viral hepatitis compiles a large group of human infectious diseases characterized by a predominant liver damage. “Currently, viral hepatitis is recognized as a major public health problem requiring urgent action”, said Dr Margaret Chan, WHO Director-General (WHO Global hepatitis report, 2017. Treatment of viral hepatitis is a complex task and involves the use of generally clinical recommendations or standards. There are criteria for determining the need for pharmacotherapy and the most rational scheme for antiviral treatment in every case of viral hepatitis. The purpose of antiviral therapy is to achieve a stable virologic response, to prevent the progression of the disease, the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, at the present stage a stable virologic response in the general population of patients can be achieved in approximately 60 % of cases. In addition, standard antiviral drugs have side effects, are of high cost and are contraindicated in a number of clinical situations, for example, with a decrease in the number of blood elements (thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, anemia, at the stage of decompensated liver cirrhosis. Probably, all this induces to use alternative methods of therapy, which remain popular both among general practitioners and patients with this infection. The question of the treatment of viral hepatitis with medicinal herbs has been studied for a long time. According to some authors, there is no scientific evidence that hepatitis C can be cured by herbs. The only scientifically proven method of fighting the virus is antiviral therapy. However, there are other points

  17. Protection against ionizing radiation by antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Joseph F.; Landauer, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of antioxidants to reduce the cellular damage induced by ionizing radiation has been studied in animal models for more than 50 years. The application of antioxidant radioprotectors to various human exposure situations has not been extensive although it is generally accepted that endogenous antioxidants, such as cellular non-protein thiols and antioxidant enzymes, provide some degree of protection. This review focuses on the radioprotective efficacy of naturally occurring antioxidants, specifically antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals, and how they might influence various endpoints of radiation damage. Results from animal experiments indicate that antioxidant nutrients, such as vitamin E and selenium compounds, are protective against lethality and other radiation effects but to a lesser degree than most synthetic protectors. Some antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals have the advantage of low toxicity although they are generally protective when administered at pharmacological doses. Naturally occurring antioxidants also may provide an extended window of protection against low-dose, low-dose-rate irradiation, including therapeutic potential when administered after irradiation. A number of phytochemicals, including caffeine, genistein, and melatonin, have multiple physiological effects, as well as antioxidant activity, which result in radioprotection in vivo. Many antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals have antimutagenic properties, and their modulation of long-term radiation effects, such as cancer, needs further examination. In addition, further studies are required to determine the potential value of specific antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals during radiotherapy for cancer

  18. Enhancing CBT for Chronic Insomnia: A Randomised Clinical Trial of Additive Components of Mindfulness or Cognitive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mei Yin; Ree, Melissa J; Lee, Christopher W

    2016-09-01

    Although cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for insomnia has resulted in significant reductions in symptoms, most patients are not classified as good sleepers after treatment. The present study investigated whether additional sessions of cognitive therapy (CT) or mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) could enhance CBT in 64 participants with primary insomnia. All participants were given four sessions of standard CBT as previous research had identified this number of sessions as an optimal balance between therapist guidance and patient independence. Participants were then allocated to further active treatment (four sessions of CT or MBT) or a no further treatment control. The additional treatments resulted in significant improvements beyond CBT on self-report and objective measures of sleep and were well tolerated as evidenced by no dropouts from either treatment. The effect sizes for each of these additional treatments were large and clinically significant. The mean scores on the primary outcome measure, the Insomnia Severity Index, were 5.74 for CT and 6.69 for MBT, which are within the good-sleeper range. Treatment effects were maintained at follow-up. There were no significant differences between CT and MBT on any outcome measure. These results provide encouraging data on how to enhance CBT for treatment of insomnia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. CBT treatments for insomnia can be enhanced using recent developments in cognitive therapy. CBT treatments for insomnia can be enhanced using mindfulness-based treatments. Both cognitive therapy and mindfulness produce additional clinically significant change. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of two endemic plants from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition to the antioxidant activity of these plants, the total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were also measured in the extracts. ... that the extracts of A. scabriflorum and A. tchihatschewii possess antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and therefore, they can be used as a natural preservative ingredient in food

  20. Relationships among alcoholic liver disease, antioxidants, and antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Ho; Hashimoto, Naoto; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-01-07

    Excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages is a serious cause of liver disease worldwide. The metabolism of ethanol generates reactive oxygen species, which play a significant role in the deterioration of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Antioxidant phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, regulate the expression of ALD-associated proteins and peptides, namely, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. These plant antioxidants have electrophilic activity and may induce antioxidant enzymes via the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-NF-E2-related factor-2 pathway and antioxidant responsive elements. Furthermore, these antioxidants are reported to alleviate cell injury caused by oxidants or inflammatory cytokines. These phenomena are likely induced via the regulation of mitogen-activating protein kinase (MAPK) pathways by plant antioxidants, similar to preconditioning in ischemia-reperfusion models. Although the relationship between plant antioxidants and ALD has not been adequately investigated, plant antioxidants may be preventive for ALD because of their electrophilic and regulatory activities in the MAPK pathway.

  1. Assessment of Antioxidant Properties of Allium cepa on Serum Antioxidants and Spermatogenesis After Consuming Tartrazine in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseinpouran Manuchehr

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the antioxidant properties of onion on biochemical serum factors, antioxidants and testicular tissues in Wistar rats after consuming tartrazine. Materials and Methods: Forty male Wistar were divided into four groups of 10. The first group was used as the control group and were given only water without additives, group 2 were given tartrazine, group 3 were given tartrazine plus onion juice and the fourth group which was given only onion juice through gastric gavage. The experiment was conducted for 60 days, then the antioxidant activities superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and biochemical parameters namely high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL and testosterone together with the histopathological studies (sperm count and testicular weight were measured. Results: Tartrazine caused a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPX and a decrease in the level of testosterone and HDL and also a decrease in sperm count and testicular tissue weight. Tartrazine caused an increase in the LDL levels. Conclusion: Results showed that consumption of tartrazine is associated with production of free radicals and in turn causes significant decrease in antioxidant activities and biochemical serum factors which damage the cellular compartments of the testis. Onion as an antioxidant in this study reduces the damaging effects of tartrazine on the enzymatic activities of antioxidant and biochemical serum factors.

  2. Camel Milk as a Potential Therapy as an Antioxidant in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Y. AL-Ayadhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress plays a vital role in the pathology of several neurological diseases, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD; those studies proposed that GSH and antioxidant enzymes have a pathophysiological role in autism. Furthermore, camel milk has emerged to have potential therapeutic effects in autism. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of camel milk consumption on oxidative stress biomarkers in autistic children, by measuring the plasma levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and myeloperoxidase before and 2 weeks after camel milk consumption, using the ELISA technique. All measured parameters exhibited significant increase after camel milk consumption (. These findings suggest that camel milk could play an important role in decreasing oxidative stress by alteration of antioxidant enzymes and nonenzymatic antioxidant molecules levels, as well as the improvement of autistic behaviour as demonstrated by the improved Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS.

  3. Electrochemical study of the increased antioxidant capacity of flavonoids through complexation with iron(II) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porfírio, Demóstenes Amorim; Ferreira, Rafael de Queiroz; Malagutti, Andréa Renata; Valle, Eliana Maíra Agostini

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Metal-Flavonoid complexes exhibit greater antioxidant capacity than the free flavonoid;. • Voltammetric profile is an additional information for determining antioxidant capacity;. • Pyrogallol group is a stronger complex-forming group than the catechol;. • Morin, quercetin and fisetin increased their antioxidant capacity in 15%, 32% and 28%, respectively. - Abstract: Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that act as natural antioxidants in the human body through various mechanisms, with an emphasis on suppressing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation by inhibiting enzymes, the direct capture of ROS, and the regulation/protection of antioxidant defenses. Additionally, flavonoids can coordinate with transition metals to catalyze electron transport and promote free radical capture. Recently, metal ion chelation mechanisms have generated considerable interest, as experimental data show that flavonoids in metal complexes exhibit greater antioxidant activity than free flavonoids. However, few studies have correlated the complexing properties of flavonoids with their antioxidant capacity. Thus, the aim of this study was to use the CRAC (Ceric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity) electrochemical assay to measure the antioxidant capacity of five free flavonoids and Fe 2+ -flavonoid complexes. In addition, the interactions between the flavonoids and Fe 2+ were analyzed based on the oxidation peaks formed in their cyclic voltammograms

  4. Rapid screening and guided extraction of antioxidants from microalgae using voltammetric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiris, Koen; De Vreese, Peter; De Cooman, Luc; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2012-08-01

    Currently, microalgae draw much attention as a promising source of natural antioxidants to replace synthetic antioxidants for food applications. In this paper, the use of voltammetric techniques as a fast alternative for chemical assays to determine the antioxidant power of microalgal biomass is discussed. It was found that antioxidant activities determined by square wave voltammetry correlate well with the results from other established antioxidant assays, such as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (R(2) = 0.737), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (R(2) = 0.729), and AAPH-induced oxidation of linoleic acid (R(2) = 0.566). Besides yielding quantitative data on the antioxidant activity, square wave voltammetry provides additional information on the antioxidant profile of microalgal biomass as the peak potentials of antioxidant components are determined. Consequently, square wave voltammetry can be used as a tool for optimizing the extraction processes to recover antioxidant components from microalgae.

  5. Detection and measurement of antioxidant capacity in human sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bognar, G.; Koeteles, G.J.; Otos, M.

    1998-01-01

    The total antioxidant capacity of human sera was measured by the Randox TAS assay and an average value of 1.55 mmol/L was found from 87 healthy adult persons. Exogenous antioxidant added to the blood could be measured additively. Upon X-irradiation of whole blood samples, the antioxidant value decreased down to 1 Gy linearly. Further decrease after higher doses, however, could not be detected. Reductions of radiation-induced human lymphocyte micronucleus frequency as a cytogenetic end-point were observed upon increasing the exogenous antioxidant level in serum with a water-soluble form of alpha-tocopherol, or a plant extract from Sylibum marianum L. in vitro. (author)

  6. Assessment of Antioxidant Properties of Allium cepa on Serum Antioxidants and Spermatogenesis After Consuming Tartrazine in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Hoseinpouran Manuchehr; Khaki Arash; Nazem Habibollah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the antioxidant properties of onion on biochemical serum factors, antioxidants and testicular tissues in Wistar rats after consuming tartrazine. Materials and Methods: Forty male Wistar were divided into four groups of 10. The first group was used as the control group and were given only water without additives, group 2 were given tartrazine, group 3 were given tartrazine plus onion juice and the fourth group which was given only onion ju...

  7. Abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA): Is there a role for prevention and therapy using antioxidants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincemail, Joël; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Courtois, Audrey; Albert, Adelin; Cheramy-Bien, Jean-Paul; Sakalihasan, Natzi

    2017-09-18

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a degenerative disease that cause mortality in people aged > 65 years. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress seems to play a pivotal role in AAA pathogenesis. Several sources of ROS have been identified in aortic tissues using experimental models: inflammation, increased activity of NAD(P)H or NOX, over-expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), platelets activation and iron release from hemoglobin. Reducing oxidative stress by antioxidants has been shown to be a potential strategy for limiting AAA development. Human studies confirmed that oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction are well associated with AAA development. Unfortunately, there is currently no evidence showing that strategies using low molecular weight antioxidants (vitamins C and E, β-carotene) as target for ROS is effective to reduce human AAA progression. However, recent epidemiological data have highlighted the positive role of a diet enriched in fruits which contain high amounts of antioxidant polyphenols. By their ability to restore endothelial function but also their capacity to stimulate enzymatic antioxidants trough activation of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway, polyphenols can represent a promising treatment target for reducing human AAA progression. Clinical studies are therefore urgently necessary to confirm such a suggestion. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Effect of Free Radicals & Antioxidants on Oxidative Stress: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Shinde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently free radicals have attracted tremendous importance in the field of medicine including dentistry and molecular biology. Free radicals can be either harmful or helpful to the body. When there is an imbalance between formation and removal of free radicals then a condition called as oxidative stress is developed in body. To counteract these free radicals body has protective antioxidant mechanisms which have abilities to lower incidence of various human morbidities and mortalities. Many research groups in the past have tried to study and confirm oxidative stress. Many authors also have studied role of antioxidants in reducing oxidative stress. They have come across with controversial results and furthermore it is not yet fully confirmed whether oxidative stress increases the need for dietary antioxidants. Recently, an association between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has received considerable attention. Various forms of antioxidants have been introduced as an approach to fight dental diseases and improve general gingival health. The implication of oxidative stress in the etiology of many chronic and degenerative diseases suggests that antioxidant therapy represents a promising avenue for treatment. This study was conducted with the objective of reviewing articles relating to this subject. A Pub Med search of all articles containing key words free radicals, oxidative stress, and antioxidants was done. A review of these articles was undertaken.

  9. Dietary supplementation of antioxidants improves semen quality of IVF patients in terms of motility, sperm count, and nuclear vacuolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirleitner, Barbara; Vanderzwalmen, Pierre; Stecher, Astrid; Spitzer, Dietmar; Schuff, Maximilian; Schwerda, Delf; Bach, Magnus; Schechinger, Birgit; Herbert Zech, Nicolas

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of an oral antioxidative supplementation on sperm quality of in vitro fertilization (IVF) patients, as analyzed by sperm motility according to the WHO criteria and motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME). Semen samples were collected from 147 patients before undergoing an IVF/intracytoplasmic morphologically-selected sperm injection (IMSI) cycle and 2 - 12 months after an antioxidative supplementation. Semen analysis was evaluated according to WHO and MSOME criteria. Spermatozoa were grouped according to the size of nuclear vacuoles within the sperm's heads. Patients were divided into oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) and non-OAT men. Between first and second semen analysis, patients were supplemented orally with an antioxidative preparation. After the antioxidative therapy we observed a significant reduction in the percentage of immotile sperm cells in the patients. Additionally, the percentage of class I spermatozoa according to MSOME criteria was significantly higher after antioxidative supplementation. In OAT patients the percentage of class I sperm was found to be increased, although not significantly. However, we observed a drastic improvement in sperm motility as well as in total sperm count in this group. The results demonstrated a considerable improvement in semen quality, notably in OAT patients. Considering the putative relationship between semen quality on the one hand and reactive oxygen species on the other, the observed changes in the sperm parameters indicate that a decline in semen quality, and even subtle morphological changes, might be associated with oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that an antioxidative and micronutrient supplementation has a remarkable benefit for IVF patients having restricted sperm parameters, in particular.

  10. Protection against ionizing radiation by antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.F.; Landauer, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The potential of antioxidants to reduce the cellular damage induced by ionizing radiation has been studied in animal models for more than 50 years. The application of antioxidant radioprotectors to various human exposure situations has not been extensive although it is generally accepted that endogenous antioxidants, such as cellular non-protein thiols and antioxidant enzymes, provide some degree of protection. This review focuses on the radioprotective efficacy of naturally-occurring antioxidants, specifically antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals, and how they might influence various endpoints of radiation damage. Results from animal experiments indicate that antioxidant nutrients, such as vitamin E and selenium compounds, are protective against lethality and other radiation effects but to a lesser degree than most synthetic protectors. Some antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals have the advantage of low toxicity although they are generally protective when administered at pharmacological doses. Naturally-occurring antioxidants also may provide an extended window of protection against low-dose, low-dose-rate irradiation, including therapeutic potential when administered after irradiation. A number of phytochemicals, including caffeine, genistein, and melatonin, have multiple physiological effects, as well as antioxidant activity, which result in radioprotection in vivo. Many antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals have antimutagenic properties, and their modulation of long-term radiation effects, such as cancer, needs further examination. In addition, further studies are required to determine the potential value of specific antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals during radiotherapy for cancer

  11. Antioxidant enzymes activities in obese Tunisian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfar Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oxidant stress, expected to increase in obese adults, has an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. It results when free radical formation is greatly increased or protective antioxidant mechanisms are compromised. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant response to obesity-related stress in healthy children. Methods A hundred and six healthy children (54 obese and 52 controls, aged 6–12 years old, participated in this study. The collected data included anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and enzymatic antioxidants (Superoxide dismutase: SOD, Catalase: CAT and Glutathione peroxidase: GPx. Results The first step antioxidant response, estimated by the SOD activity, was significantly higher in obese children compared with normal-weight controls (p  Conclusions The obesity-related increase of the oxidant stress can be observed even in the childhood period. In addition to the complications of an increased BMI, obesity itself can be considered as an independent risk factor of free radical production resulting in an increased antioxidant response.

  12. Antioxidant modulation of nevirapine induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awodele Olufunsho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS related mortality has been dramatically reduced by the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART. However, ART presents with associated adverse effects. One of such adverse effects is hepatotoxicity observed with nevirapine (NVP containing ART. Since previous studies showed that NVP hepatotoxicity may be due to oxidative stress via generation of oxidative radicals, this study sought to evaluate the protective effects of antioxidants in alleviating NVP induced hepatotoxicity. Rats were divided into 6 groups with 8 animals per group and received doses of the antioxidants jobelyn (10.7 mg/kg/day, vitamin C (8 mg/kg/day, vitamin E (5 mg/kg/day and/or NVP (6 mg/kg/day for 60 days. The animals were sacrificed on day 61 by cervical dislocation, blood samples were collected for biochemical and hematological examination. The liver of the sacrificed animals was weighed and subjected to histopathological examination. There was a statistically significant (p<0.05 elevation in MDA level observed in the NVP group as compared with control. The results further showed non-significant decreases in the levels of MDA in the NVP plus antioxidant groups, except vitamin C, when compared with the NVP alone group. Vitamin E and Vitamin E plus C treated groups showed significantly (p<0.05 higher levels of SOD, CAT and GSH. The results also showed statistically significantly (p<0.05 lower levels of ALT and AST in the antioxidant treated groups There was an observed significantly (p<0.05 higher level of TP and urea in the antioxidant treated rats. A significantly (p<0.05 higher white blood cell count was observed in the antioxidant groups. Histopathological assessment of the liver extracted from the rats showed no visible pathology across the groups. Observations from this study suggest a potentially positive modulatory effect of antioxidants and may be indicative for the inclusion of antioxidants in nevirapine containing ART.

  13. Dietary antioxidants and their indispensable role in periodontal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurbani Kaur

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is an increasing area of interest due to its global prevalence. This inflammatory condition results due to the loss of the critical balance between the virulence factors produced by microorganisms and the inflammatory host response. A number of efforts have been made in the past to address this condition and regain periodontal health. Targeting the root cause by nonsurgical debridement has been considered the gold standard. However, research has shown the possible effects of nutrient deficiency and an imbalanced diet on the periodontium. Therefore, an effort toward the maintenance of optimal conditions as well as improvement of the oral health necessities the introduction of adjunctive nutritional therapy, which can benefit the patients. Antioxidants in the diet have some remarkable benefits and valuable properties that play an irreplaceable role in the maintenance of periodontal health. These have emerged as excellent adjuncts that can enhance the outcomes of conventional periodontal therapy. The aim of this review article is to highlight some of these dietary antioxidants that can make a notable difference by striking a balance between health and disease.

  14. Free Radical Scavenging and Cellular Antioxidant Properties of Astaxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose, Janina; Matsugo, Seiichi; Yokokawa, Haruka; Koshida, Yutaro; Okazaki, Shigetoshi; Seidel, Ulrike; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Rimbach, Gerald; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba

    2016-01-14

    Astaxanthin is a coloring agent which is used as a feed additive in aquaculture nutrition. Recently, potential health benefits of astaxanthin have been discussed which may be partly related to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. Our electron spin resonance (ESR) and spin trapping data suggest that synthetic astaxanthin is a potent free radical scavenger in terms of diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and galvinoxyl free radicals. Furthermore, astaxanthin dose-dependently quenched singlet oxygen as determined by photon counting. In addition to free radical scavenging and singlet oxygen quenching properties, astaxanthin induced the antioxidant enzyme paroxoanase-1, enhanced glutathione concentrations and prevented lipid peroxidation in cultured hepatocytes. Present results suggest that, beyond its coloring properties, synthetic astaxanthin exhibits free radical scavenging, singlet oxygen quenching, and antioxidant activities which could probably positively affect animal and human health.

  15. Natural antioxidants as food and feed additives to promote health benefits and quality of meat products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiang; Xiong, Youling L

    2016-10-01

    Fresh and processed meats offer numerous nutritional and health benefits and provide unique eating satisfaction in the lifestyle of the modern society. However, consumption of red meat including processed products is subjected to increasing scrutiny due to the health risks associated with cytotoxins that potentially could be generated during meat preparation. Evidence from recent studies suggests free radical pathways as a plausible mechanism for toxin formation, and antioxidants have shown promise to mitigate process-generated chemical hazards. The present review discusses the involvements of lipid and protein oxidation in meat quality, nutrition, safety, and organoleptic properties; animal production and meat processing strategies which incorporate natural antioxidants to enhance the nutritional and health benefits of meat; and the application of mixed or purified natural antioxidants to eliminate or minimize the formation of carcinogens for chemical safety of cooked and processed meats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Phenolic Compounds of Cereals and Their Antioxidant Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hung, Pham

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds play an important role in health benefits because of their highly antioxidant capacity. In this review, total phenolic contents (TPCs), phenolic acid profile and antioxidant capacity of the extracted from wheat, corn, rice, barley, sorghum, rye, oat, and millet, which have been recently reported, are summarized. The review shows clearly that cereals contain a number of phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, etc. The phytochemicals of cereals significantly exhibit antioxidant activity as measured by trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, reducing power, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and DNA, Rancimat, inhibition of photochemilumenescence (PCL), and iron(II) chelation activity. Thus, the consumption of whole grains is considered to have significantly health benefits in prevention from chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer because of the contribution of phenolic compounds existed. In addition, the extracts from cereal brans are considered to be used as a source of natural antioxidants.

  17. Impact of Consumption of Chicory Leaf Extract in Adjunct with Non-surgical Periodontal Therapy on Serum Antioxidant and Lipid Status in Patients with Periodontal Disease: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zare-Javid

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Periodontal disease is a chronic disorder with a high prevalence. There are few studies about the role of diet in prevention and treatment of periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of consumption of Chicory leaf extract in adjunct with non-surgical periodontal therapies on serum antioxidant and lipid status. Materials and Methods: This study was a double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial conducted on 40 patients in Sina Hospital of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (Iran in 2014. The intervention (n=20 and control groups (n=20 were allocated using blocked randomization. The intervention group received 2 capsules (2 g of Chicory leaf extract daily for 8 weeks. All subjects underwent non-surgical periodontal therapy during the intervention period. Anthropometric indices, 24-hour diet records, total antioxidant capacity, malate di-aldehyde (MDA, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG and HDL-c was measured before and after intervention. Results: The mean level of total antioxidant capacity (1.89 ± 0.49; 1.20 ± 0.25, respectively; P<0.001 and uric acid (7.15±1.98; 4.48±1.34, respectively; P<0.001 increased in the intervention group compared with the control group post intervention. The mean level of MDA decreased in the intervention group compared with the control group post-intervention (3.01±1.15; 3.97±1.19, respectively; P.d<0.001. Cholesterol difference was not significant pre- and post-intervention between the two groups (P=0.35. The mean level of serum triglyceride (TG was significantly lower in the intervention group compared with the control group post intervention (149.50±97.88; 109.35±58.00, respectively; P.d<0.001. The mean level of HDL-c was also significantly lower in the intervention group compared with the control group post treatment (42.25±8.47; 39.80±8.94, respectively; P.d<0.001. Conclusions: It seems that consumption of Chicory

  18. Oxidative Stress and the Use of Antioxidants in Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Shirley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Transient or permanent interruption of cerebral blood flow by occlusion of a cerebral artery gives rise to an ischaemic stroke leading to irreversible damage or dysfunction to the cells within the affected tissue along with permanent or reversible neurological deficit. Extensive research has identified excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death as key contributory pathways underlying lesion progression. The cornerstone of treatment for acute ischaemic stroke remains reperfusion therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA. The downstream sequelae of events resulting from spontaneous or pharmacological reperfusion lead to an imbalance in the production of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS over endogenous anti-oxidant protection strategies. As such, anti-oxidant therapy has long been investigated as a means to reduce the extent of injury resulting from ischaemic stroke with varying degrees of success. Here we discuss the production and source of these ROS and the various strategies employed to modulate levels. These strategies broadly attempt to inhibit ROS production or increase scavenging or degradation of ROS. While early clinical studies have failed to translate success from bench to bedside, the combination of anti-oxidants with existing thrombolytics or novel neuroprotectants may represent an avenue worthy of clinical investigation. Clearly, there is a pressing need to identify new therapeutic alternatives for the vast majority of patients who are not eligible to receive rt-PA for this debilitating and devastating disease.

  19. Caffeates as antioxidants in emulsions and the effect of tocopherols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Durand, E.; Villeneuve, P.

    Lipid oxidation is a major issue in foods containing LC PUFA. To protect these food products antioxidant addition can be a solution. Many food products are emulsions. According to the “polar paradox” hypothesis, polar compounds are more efficient as antioxidants in bulk oil, whereas lipophilic co...

  20. Antioxidant activity of the microalga Spirulina maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Miranda

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina maxima, which is used as a food additive, is a microalga rich in protein and other essential nutrients. Spirulina contains phenolic acids, tocopherols and ß-carotene which are known to exhibit antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of a Spirulina extract. The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Spirulina was determined in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro antioxidant capacity was tested on a brain homogenate incubated with and without the extract at 37oC. The IC50 (concentration which causes a 50% reduction of oxidation of the extract in this system was 0.18 mg/ml. The in vivo antioxidant capacity was evaluated in plasma and liver of animals receiving a daily dose of 5 mg for 2 and 7 weeks. Plasma antioxidant capacity was measured in brain homogenate incubated for 1 h at 37oC. The production of oxidized compounds in liver after 2 h of incubation at 37oC was measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS in control and experimental groups. Upon treatment, the antioxidant capacity of plasma was 71% for the experimental group and 54% for the control group. Data from liver spontaneous peroxidation studies were not significantly different between groups. The amounts of phenolic acids, a-tocopherol and ß-carotene were determined in Spirulina extracts. The results obtained indicate that Spirulina provides some antioxidant protection for both in vitro and in vivo systems.

  1. Macrophage antioxidant protection within atherosclerotic plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieseg, Steven P; Leake, David S; Flavall, Elizabeth M; Amit, Zunika; Reid, Linzi; Yang, Ya-Ting

    2009-01-01

    Macrophage cells within inflammatory lesions are exposed to a wide range of degrading and cytotoxic molecules including reactive oxygen species. Unlike neutrophils, macrophages do not normally die in this environment but continue to generate oxidants, phagocytose cellular remains, and release a range of cyto-active agents which modulate the immune response. It is this potential of the macrophage cell to survive in an oxidative environment that allows the growth and complexity of advanced atherosclerotic plaques. This review will examine the oxidants encountered by macrophages within an atherosclerotic plaque and describe some of the potential antioxidant mechanisms which enable macrophages to function within inflammatory lesions. Ascorbate, a-tocopherol, and glutathione appear to be central to the protection of macrophages yet additional antioxidant mechanisms appear to be involved. Gamma-Interferon causes macrophages to generate 7,8-dihydroneopterin, neopterin and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid both of which have antioxidant properties. Manganese superoxide dismutase is also upregulated in macrophages. The evidence that these antioxidants provide further protection, so allowing the macrophage cells to survive within sites of chronic inflammation such as atherosclerotic plaques, will be described.

  2. Mechanisms of Action Involved in Ozone Therapy: Is healing induced via a mild oxidative stress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagai Masaru

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The potential mechanisms of action of ozone therapy are reviewed in this paper. The therapeutic efficacy of ozone therapy may be partly due the controlled and moderate oxidative stress produced by the reactions of ozone with several biological components. The line between effectiveness and toxicity of ozone may be dependent on the strength of the oxidative stress. As with exercise, it is well known that moderate exercise is good for health, whereas excessive exercise is not. Severe oxidative stress activates nuclear transcriptional factor kappa B (NFκB, resulting in an inflammatory response and tissue injury via the production of COX2, PGE2, and cytokines. However, moderate oxidative stress activates another nuclear transcriptional factor, nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2. Nrf2 then induces the transcription of antioxidant response elements (ARE. Transcription of ARE results in the production of numerous antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD, GPx, glutathione-s-transferase(GSTr, catalase (CAT, heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1, NADPH-quinone-oxidoreductase (NQO-1, phase II enzymes of drug metabolism and heat shock proteins (HSP. Both free antioxidants and anti-oxidative enzymes not only protect cells from oxidation and inflammation but they may be able to reverse the chronic oxidative stress. Based on these observations, ozone therapy may also activate Nrf2 via moderate oxidative stress, and suppress NFκB and inflammatory responses. Furthermore, activation of Nrf2 results in protection against neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Mild immune responses are induced via other nuclear transcriptional factors, such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT and activated protein-1 (AP-1. Additionally, the effectiveness of ozone therapy in vascular diseases may also be explained by the activation of another nuclear transcriptional factor, hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1a, which is also induced via

  3. Structural, Chemical and Biological Aspects of Antioxidants for Strategies Against Metal and Metalloid Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaran J. S. Flora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress contributes to the pathophysiology of exposure to heavy metals/metalloid. Beneficial renal effects of some medications, such as chelation therapy depend at least partially on the ability to alleviate oxidative stress. The administration of various natural or synthetic antioxidants has been shown to be of benefit in the prevention and attenuation of metal induced biochemical alterations. These include vitamins, N-acetylcysteine, α-lipoic acid, melatonin, dietary flavonoids and many others. Human studies are limited in this regard. Under certain conditions, surprisingly, the antioxidant supplements may exhibit pro-oxidant properties and even worsen metal induced toxic damage. To date, the evidence is insufficient to recommend antioxidant supplements in subject with exposure to metals. Prospective, controlled clinical trials on safety and effectiveness of different therapeutic antioxidant strategies either individually or in combination with chelating agent are indispensable. The present review focuses on structural, chemical and biological aspects of antioxidants particularly related to their chelating properties.

  4. Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Wampee (Clausena lansium (Lour. Skeels Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nagendra Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activities of wampee peel extracts using five different solvents (ethanol, hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water were determined by using in-vitro antioxidant models including total antioxidant capability, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and superoxide scavenging activity. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF exhibited the highest antioxidant activity compared to other fractions, even higher than synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT. In addition, the EAF exhibited strong anticancer activities against human gastric carcinoma (SGC-7901, human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG-2 and human lung adenocarcinoma (A-549 cancer cell lines, higher than cisplatin, a conventional anticancer drug. The total phenolic content of wampee fraction was positively correlated with the antioxidant activity. This is the first report on the antioxidant and anticancer activities of the wampee peel extract. Thus, wampee peel can be used potentially as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants and a possible pharmaceutical supplement.

  5. Amniotic membrane transplantation ineffective as additional therapy in patients with aggressive Mooren's ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallenberg, Maurice; Westekemper, Henrike; Steuhl, Klaus-Peter; Meller, Daniel

    2013-12-17

    Mooren's ulcer is a severe ulcerative inflammation of the cornea. The exact pathogenesis remains unclear. Therefore many therapies of Mooren's ulcer are recommended in literature. To shed more light on the ongoing question of optimal treatment of severe progressive Mooren's ulcer, we here report on a retrospective case series of patients treated with systemic immunosuppressive therapy and additional amniotic membrane transplantation. Medical records from seven patients (eleven eyes), 4 male and 3 female, with severe progressive Mooren's ulcer were analysed retrospectively. The mean follow up was 88.4 ± 80.8 months (range 12-232 month). A HLA-typing was performed in all patients. A systemic immunosuppressive therapy was administered in all patients. The amniotic membrane was transplanted after the base of the ulcer was resected. Multiple amniotic membrane transplantations were necessary in six patients. The visual outcome of all patients was poor. No patient achieved a visual acuity better than 20/630 Snellen chart. Five patients were positive for HLA-DQ2 and four patients were positive for HLA-DR17(3). The aggressive and highly inflammatory form of Mooren's ulcer is difficult to treat and the progression of the disease is hard to influence positively even under systemic immunosuppressive therapy. Therefore, the main intention of therapy is to achieve a stable epithelialized corneal surface without the risk of perforation. Amniotic membrane transplantation is not able to cure severe forms of Mooren's ulcer. However it supports the immunosuppressive therapy in acute situations as in critical corneal thinning.

  6. Assessment of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of Mullein (Verbascum songaricum ecotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The Mullein genus is the largest genus of Scrophulariaceae family which has extensive natural habitat in southwest of Iran. Mullein contains compounds such as phenolic compounds, mucilage, saponins and anthocyanin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of mullein ecotypes in Iran. Methods: Six ecotypes of the Verbascum songaricum were evaluated. Determination of total flavonoid content was performed bythealuminium chloride colourimetric method. The antioxidant activity of the flower extracts was measured using the DPPH method. Results: The results showed that total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were different among ecotypes.  The highest and lowest amounts of total flavonoidwas obtained  from Shermard ecotype (13.42 mg rutin /g DW and Klar ecotypes(10.10 mg rutin /g DW, respectively. The highest amounts of antioxidant activity were obtained from the Shermard ecotype (IC50 246.35 μg/mL. The correlation analysis showed that a significant relation between flavonoid, antioxidant activity and habitat elevation. Conclusion: Total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of the samples were affected by habitat climatic.  The present data indicated that the highest antioxidant activity may be due to higher flavonoid content and the habitat elevation was effective on the flavonoid content. Due to the high amounts of flavonoid and antioxidant activity of mullein extract, it seems to be a good herbal option as an antioxidant in complementary therapies.

  7. Enrichment of antioxidants from soy sauce using macroporous resin and identification of 4-ethylguaiacol, catechol, daidzein, and 4-ethylphenol as key small molecule antioxidants in soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huipin; Lin, Lianzhu; Feng, Yunzi; Zhao, Mouming; Li, Xiuting; Zhu, Qiyuan; Xiao, Zuobing

    2018-02-01

    The adsorption and desorption characteristics of seven macroporous resins on the antioxidants in soy sauce were investigated. SP-207 and SP-825 resins possessing good adsorption and desorption capacities were studied further. The pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm models were demonstrated to be appropriate to describe the whole exothermic and physical adsorption processes of antioxidants onto resins. The 60% ethanol eluted fraction from soy sauce purified by SP-825 resin column possessed the strongest antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activities and contents of typical soy isoflavones, furanones, pyranones, and phenolic acids in soy sauce were determined. These compounds contributed to 50.02% of the total antioxidant activity of the SP-60% fraction. The key small molecule antioxidant compounds in soy sauce were identified as 4-ethylguaiacol, catechol, daidzein, and 4-ethylphenol by the antioxidants omission experiments. Additionally, the purified active fraction with high contents of antioxidants from soy sauce could be applied as bioactive ingredient in food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. "light-on" sensing of antioxidants using gold nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Lianzhe

    2014-05-20

    Depletion of intracellular antioxidants is linked to major cytotoxic events and cellular disorders, such as oxidative stress and multiple sclerosis. In addition to medical diagnosis, determining the concentration of antioxidants in foodstuffs, food preservatives, and cosmetics has proved to be very vital. Gold nanoclusters (Au-NCs) have a core size below 2 nm and contain several metal atoms. They have interesting photophysical properties, are readily functionalized, and are safe to use in various biomedical applications. Herein, a simple and quantitative spectroscopic method based on Au-NCs is developed to detect and image antioxidants such as ascorbic acid. The sensing mechanism is based on the fact that antioxidants can protect the fluorescence of Au-NCs against quenching by highly reactive oxygen species. Our method shows great accuracy when employed to detect the total antioxidant capacity in commercial fruit juice. Moreover, confocal fluorescence microscopy images of HeLa cells show that this approach can be successfully used to image antioxidant levels in living cells. Finally, the potential application of this "light-on" detection method in multiple logic gate fabrication was discussed using the fluorescence intensity of Au-NCs as output. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  9. Acetone Extract from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa: A Potent Natural Antioxidant

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    Goodla Lavanya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Myrtaceae has been employed in traditional Thai medicine to treat colic diarrhoea, dysentery, abscesses, haemorrhage, and gynaecopathy. In addition, it has been used to formulate skin-whitening, anti-aging and skin beautifying agents. Ethnomedical activities of this plant may be due its antioxidant property. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate both in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of R. tomentosa leaf extract. In vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was assessed by lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and metal chelating activity. R. tomentosa extract demonstrated its free radical scavenging effects in concentration dependent manner. In vivo antioxidant activity of the extract was conducted in Swiss Albino mice. Levels of thio-barbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, glutathione (GSH, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx in blood, liver, and kidney were analyzed using microtitre plate photometer. Administration of CCl4 caused significant increase in TBARS and decrease in GSH, SOD, CAT and GPx levels. In contrast, R. tomentosa extract (0.8 g/kg effectively prevented these alterations and maintained the antioxidant status. The results suggest that R. tomentosa extract can serve as a potent antioxidant.

  10. O-Hydroxyl- or o-amino benzylamine-tacrine hybrids: multifunctional biometals chelators, antioxidants, and inhibitors of cholinesterase activity and amyloid-β aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Fei; Huang, Ling; Luo, Zonghua; Liu, Anqiu; Lu, Chuanjun; Xie, Zhiyong; Li, Xingshu

    2012-10-01

    In an effort to identify novel multifunctional drug candidates for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a series of hybrid molecules were synthesised by reacting N-(aminoalkyl)tacrine with salicylic aldehyde or derivatives of 2-aminobenzaldehyde. These compounds were then evaluated as multifunctional anti-Alzheimer's disease agents. All of the hybrids are potential biometal chelators, and in addition, most of them were better antioxidants and inhibitors of cholinesterases and amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation than the lead compound tacrine. Compound 7c has the potential to be a candidate for AD therapy: it is a much better inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) than tacrine (IC(50): 0.55 nM vs 109 nM), has good biometal chelation ability, is able to inhibit Aβ aggregation and has moderate antioxidant activity (1.22 Trolox equivalents). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antioxidant Capacities of Fractions of Bamboo Shaving Extract and Their Antioxidant Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jinyan; Huang, Jun; Xiao, Gongnian; Chen, Feng; Lee, Bolim; Ge, Qing; You, Yuru; Liu, Shiwang; Zhang, Ying

    2016-07-30

    This research was conducted for evaluation of antioxidant activities of four fractions from bamboo shavings extract (BSE) and their antioxidant components. The antioxidant capacities of BSE and four fractions on ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and total antioxidant capacity assays exhibited the following descending order: DF > n-butanol fraction (BF) > BSE ≈ ethyl acetate fraction (AF) > water fraction (WF). Among the identified phenolic compounds, caffeic acid exhibited the highest antioxidant capacities on DPPH, FRAP and total antioxidant capacity assays. An extremely significant positive correlation between the antioxidant activities with the contents of total flavonoids, total phenolic acids, or total phenolics was observed in this study. The result indicated that the bamboo shaving extract and its solvent fractions could act as natural antioxidants in light of their potent antioxidant activities.

  12. Sensory and chemical stability in coated peanuts with the addition of essential oils and synthetic antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olmedo, R. H.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of essential oils on the oxidative stability of coated peanuts. Untreated coated peanuts (CP and treated coated peanuts with the addition of rosemary (CP-R, oregano (CP-O and laurel (CP-L essential oils and BHT (CPBHT were prepared. Peroxide values (PV and p-anisidine values (AV and the intensity ratings of sensory attributes by descriptive analysis were measured during 112 days of storage at room temperature (23°C. CP-BHT exhibited the lowest PV and AV increase. CP-R, CP-O and CP-L showed lower rates of increase in PV and AV than CP. The oxidized and cardboard flavor intensity ratings increased much more in CP during storage than the other studied products. CPBHT also showed the lowest increase in the intensity ratings of these sensory attributes. Three essential oils, namely, laurel, oregano and rosemary showed antioxidant activity and increased the shelf life of coated peanuts.

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto antioxidante de aceites esenciales sobre la estabilidad oxidativa en maní recubiertos. Se prepararon maníes recubiertos sin agregados (CP, y con el agregado de aceites esenciales de romero (CP-R, orégano (CP-O y laurel (CP-L y BHT (CPBHT. Se midieron, durante 112 días de almacenamiento, los valores de peróxidos (PV y p-anisidina (AV, y las intensidades de atributos sensoriales mediante análisis descriptivo. CP-BHT presentó el menor valor de PV y AV. CP-R, CP-O y CP-L tuvieron mayor PV y AV respecto a CP. Los valores de intensidad del sabor oxidado y cartón tuvieron un mayor incremento en CP durante el almacenamiento con respecto a los otros productos estudiados. La muestra CP-BHT también mostró los menores valores de intensidad de estos atributos sensoriales. Los aceites esenciales de laurel, orégano y romero presentaron actividad antioxidante e incrementaron la vida útil del maní recubierto.

  13. Carvedilol-mediated antioxidant protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiac mitochondrial toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Paulo J.; Bjork, James A.; Santos, Maria S.; Leino, Richard L.; Froberg, M. Kent; Moreno, Antonio J.; Wallace, Kendall B.

    2004-01-01

    The cardiotoxicity associated with doxorubicin (DOX) therapy limits the total cumulative dose and therapeutic success of active anticancer chemotherapy. Cardiac mitochondria are implicated as primary targets for DOX toxicity, which is believed to be mediated by the generation of highly reactive free radical species of oxygen from complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The objective of this study was to determine if the protection demonstrated by carvedilol (CV), a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist with strong antioxidant properties, against DOX-induced mitochondrial-mediated cardiomyopathy [Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 185 (2002) 218] is attributable to its antioxidant properties or its β-adrenergic receptor antagonism. Our results confirm that DOX induces oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and histopathological lesions in the cardiac tissue, all of which are inhibited by carvedilol. In contrast, atenolol (AT), a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist lacking antioxidant properties, preserved phosphate energy charge but failed to protect against any of the indexes of DOX-induced oxidative mitochondrial toxicity. We therefore conclude that the cardioprotective effects of carvedilol against DOX-induced mitochondrial cardiotoxicity are due to its inherent antioxidant activity and not to its β-adrenergic receptor antagonism

  14. Spectrophotometric Determination of Phenolic Antioxidants in the Presence of Thiols and Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Neslihan Avan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of easy, practical, and low-cost spectrophotometric methods is required for the selective determination of phenolic antioxidants in the presence of other similar substances. As electron transfer (ET-based total antioxidant capacity (TAC assays generally measure the reducing ability of antioxidant compounds, thiols and phenols cannot be differentiated since they are both responsive to the probe reagent. In this study, three of the most common TAC determination methods, namely cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC, 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt/trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (ABTS/TEAC, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, were tested for the assay of phenolics in the presence of selected thiol and protein compounds. Although the FRAP method is almost non-responsive to thiol compounds individually, surprising overoxidations with large positive deviations from additivity were observed when using this method for (phenols + thiols mixtures. Among the tested TAC methods, CUPRAC gave the most additive results for all studied (phenol + thiol and (phenol + protein mixtures with minimal relative error. As ABTS/TEAC and FRAP methods gave small and large deviations, respectively, from additivity of absorbances arising from these components in mixtures, mercury(II compounds were added to stabilize the thiol components in the form of Hg(II-thiol complexes so as to enable selective spectrophotometric determination of phenolic components. This error compensation was most efficient for the FRAP method in testing (thiols + phenols mixtures.

  15. Antioxidant activities of ginger extract and its constituents toward lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Wenhui; Chen, Yan Ping; Zhang, Jianhao; Chen, Zhen-Yu; Chung, Hau Yin

    2018-01-15

    Lipid oxidation-a major cause of food product deterioration-necessitates the use of food additives to inhibit food oxidation. Ginger extract (GE) has been reported to possess antioxidant properties. However, components isolated from ginger have been rarely reported to inhibit fat oxidation. Herein, antioxidant properties of GE and four pure components derived from it (6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol) were examined and their properties were compared to those of butylated hydroxytoluene. GE and the constituent components exhibited antioxidant properties that might be attributed to their hydroxyl groups and suitable solubilizing side chains. 6-Shogaol and 10-gingerol exhibited higher activity at 60°C than 6-gingerol and 8-gingerol. Low antioxidant activity was detected at high temperatures (120/180°C). Overall, GE displayed the strongest dose-dependent antioxidant properties, especially at high temperatures, thereby demonstrating that GE can be employed as a natural antioxidant in lipid-containing processed foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity assay for antioxidants in human serum and for hydroxyl radical scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Bektaşoğlu, Burcu; Bener, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    , for which the FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant potency) test is basically nonresponsive. The additivity of absorbances of all the tested antioxidants confirmed that antioxidants in the CUPRAC test do not chemically interact among each other so as to cause an intensification or quenching of the theoretically expected absorbance, and that a total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay of serum is possible. As a distinct advantage over other electron-transfer based assays (e.g., Folin, FRAP, ABTS, DPPH), CUPRAC is superior in regard to its realistic pH close to the physiological pH, favorable redox potential, accessibility and stability of reagents, and applicability to lipophilic antioxidants as well as hydrophilic ones. The CUPRAC procedure can also assay hydroxyl radicals, being the most reactive oxygen species (ROS). As a more convenient, efficient, and less costly alternative to HPLC/electrochemical detection techniques and to the nonspecific, low-yield TBARS test, we use p-aminobenzoate, 2,4- and 3,5-dimethoxybenzoate probes for detecting hydroxyl radicals generated from an equivalent mixture of [Fe(II)+EDTA] with hydrogen peroxide. The produced hydroxyl radicals attack both the probe and the water-soluble antioxidants in 37 degrees C-incubated solutions for 2 h. The CUPRAC absorbance of the ethylacetate extract due to the reduction of Cu(II)-neocuproine reagent by the hydroxylated probe decreases in the presence of (.)OH scavengers, the difference being proportional to the scavenging ability of the tested compound. The developed method is less lengthy, more specific, and of a higher yield than the classical TBARS assay.

  17. Micronutrient Antioxidants and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanliang Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the most important chronic liver diseases worldwide and has garnered increasing attention in recent decades. NAFLD is characterized by a wide range of liver changes, from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The blurred pathogenesis of NAFLD is very complicated and involves lipid accumulation, insulin resistance, inflammation, and fibrogenesis. NAFLD is closely associated with complications such as obesity, diabetes, steatohepatitis, and liver fibrosis. During the progression of NAFLD, reactive oxygen species (ROS are activated and induce oxidative stress. Recent attempts at establishing effective NAFLD therapy have identified potential micronutrient antioxidants that may reduce the accumulation of ROS and finally ameliorate the disease. In this review, we present the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and introduce some dietary antioxidants that may be used to prevent or cure NAFLD, such as vitamin D, E, and astaxanthin.

  18. Total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, and acceptance of synbiotic yoghurt with red ginger extract (Zingiberofficinale var. rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larasati, B. A.; Panunggal, B.; Afifah, D. N.; Anjani, G.; Rustanti, N.

    2018-02-01

    Antioxidant related to oxidative stress can caused the metabolic disorders. A functional food that high in antioxidant can be use as the alternative prevention. The addition of red ginger extract in yoghurt could form a functional food, that high in antioxidant, synbiotic and fiber. The influence of red ginger extract on yoghurt synbiotic against lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity and acceptance were analyzed. This was an experimental research with one factor complete randomized design, specifically the addition of red ginger extract 0%; 0,1%; 0,3% and 0,5% into synbiotic yoghurt. Total plate count method used to analyze the lactic acid bacteria, 1-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method for antioxidant activity, and acceptance analyzed with hedonic test. The higher the dose of extract added to synbiotic yoghurt, the antioxidant activity got significantly increased (ρ=0,0001), while the lactic acid bacteria got insignificantly decreased (ρ=0,085). The addition of 0,5% red ginger extract obtained the antioxidant activity of 71% and 4,86 × 1013 CFU/ml on lactic acid bacteria, which the requirement for probiotic on National Standard of Indonesia is >107 CFU/ml. The addition of extract had a significant effect on acceptance (ρ=0,0001) in flavor, color, and texture, but not aroma (ρ=0,266). The optimal product in this research was the yoghurt synbiotic with addition of 0,1% red ginger extract. To summarize, the addition of red ginger extract in synbiotic yoghurt had significant effect on antioxidant activity, flavor, color, and texture, but no significant effect on lactic acid bacteria and aroma.

  19. Rosemary as natural antioxidant to prevent oxidation in chicken burgers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane PEREIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis is known for their sensory characteristics and antioxidant properties, mainly due to the presence of several phenolic compounds. The aim of this work, was determine the antioxidant activity and apply the Rosemary lyophilized extract (RLE in chicken burger, for assess their ability to reduce the lipid oxidation. Total antioxidant capacity and phenolic compounds profile were analyzed by colorimetric tests and liquid chromatography analysis, respectively. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay was used to evaluate the ability of the RLE to prevent lipid peroxidation in chicken burger stored at 4 °C. Three treatments of chicken burgers were prepared (T1 – control, without addition of synthetic antioxidant BHT: butylated hydroxytoluene or RLE, T2 – with addition of BHT, and T3 – experimental, containing RLE. The high contents of total phenolic compounds (40.91 mg GAE g-1: Gallic Acid Equivalent and total flavonoids (24.26 mg QE g-1: Quercetin Equivalents were found in RLE. Rutin was the major phenolic compound identified in the RLE. The RLE showed strong antioxidant capacity and inhibited 48.29% of lipid oxidation (21 days of storage in comparison to the control (T1, with low production of malonaldehyde, which has potential to be used in chicken burgers.

  20. Antioxidant efficacy of caffeates in emulsions and the effect of tocopherols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Aleman, M.; Durand, E.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid oxidation is a major issue in foods containing LC PUFA. Lipid oxidation can be inhibited or reduced by the addition of antioxidants. Many food products are emulsions. According to the “polar paradox” hypothesis, polar compounds are more efficient as antioxidants in bulk oil, whereas lipophi...

  1. Combination chemoprevention with grape antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandra K; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A; El-Abd, Sabah; Mukhtar, Hasan; Ahmad, Nihal

    2016-06-01

    Antioxidant ingredients present in grape have been extensively investigated for their cancer chemopreventive effects. However, much of the work has been done on individual ingredients, especially focusing on resveratrol and quercetin. Phytochemically, whole grape represents a combination of numerous phytonutrients. Limited research has been done on the possible synergistic/additive/antagonistic interactions among the grape constituents. Among these phytochemical constituents of grapes, resveratrol, quercetin, kaempferol, catechin, epicatechin, and anthocyanins (cyanidin and malvidin) constitute more than 70% of the grape polyphenols. Therefore, these have been relatively well studied for their chemopreventive effects against a variety of cancers. While a wealth of information is available individually on cancer chemopreventive/anti-proliferative effects of resveratrol and quercetin, limited information is available regarding the other major constituents of grape. Studies have also suggested that multiple grape antioxidants, when used in combination, alone or with other agents/drugs show synergistic or additive anti-proliferative response. Based on strong rationale emanating from published studies, it seems probable that a combination of multiple grape ingredients alone or together with other agents could impart 'additive synergism' against cancer. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Mushrooms as Possible Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanić, Marijana; Ranković, Branislav; Dašić, Marko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine in-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the acetonic and methanolic extracts of the mushrooms Boletus aestivalis, Boletus edulis and Leccinum carpini. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. In addition, total content of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as pyrocatechol equivalent, and as rutin equivalent, respectively. As a result of the study acetonic extracts from Boletus edulis was more powerful antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 4.72 μg/mL which was similar or greater than the standard antioxidants, ascorbic acid (IC50 = 4.22 μg/mL), BHA (IC50 = 6.42 μg/mL) and α-tocopherol (IC50 = 62.43 μg/mL). Moreover, the tested extracts had effective reducing power. A significant relationship between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and their antioxidative activities was significantly observed. The antimicrobial activity of each extract was estimated by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration by using microdilution plate method against five species of bacteria and five species of fungi. Generally, the tested mushroom extracts had relatively strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration for both extracts related to the tested bacteria and fungi were 1.25 - 10 mg/ mL. The present study shows that tested mushroom species demonstrated a strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. It suggests that mushroom may be used as good sources of natural antioxidants and for pharmaceutical purposes in treating of various deseases. PMID:24250542

  3. Synthesis and Application of a New Amphiphilic Antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Hanaa M; Arafat, Shaker M; Basuny, Amany M; Shattory, Y El-

    2017-11-01

    described by Goodman et al. 3) . Also liver and kidney functions of those mice were checked. Thus it could be concluded that the addition of tannyl penta stearate to frying oils offers a good protection against oxidation. The effectiveness of tannyl penta stearate as lipid antioxidant has been attributed mainly to its stability at high temperature. And according to acute lethal toxicity test tannyl penta stearate was found to be a safe compound that can be used as food additive.

  4. Antioxidant factors, nitric oxide levels, and cellular damage in leprosy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taysa Ribeiro Schalcher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The immune response caused by Mycobacterium leprae is a risk factor for the development of oxidative stress (OS in leprosy patients. This study aimed to assess OS in leprosy patients before the use of a multidrug therapy. Methods We evaluated the nitric oxide (NO concentration; antioxidant capacity; levels of malondialdehyde, methemoglobin and reduced glutathione; and the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD in leprosy patients. Results We observed lower SOD activity in these leprosy patients; however, the NO levels and antioxidant capacity were increased. Conclusions The infectious process in response to M. leprae could primarily be responsible for the OS observed in these patients.

  5. Biology of Ageing and Role of Dietary Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in relationship between diet and ageing is growing. Research has shown that dietary calorie restriction and some antioxidants extend lifespan in various ageing models. On the one hand, oxygen is essential to aerobic organisms because it is a final electron acceptor in mitochondria. On the other hand, oxygen is harmful because it can continuously generate reactive oxygen species (ROS, which are believed to be the factors causing ageing of an organism. To remove these ROS in cells, aerobic organisms possess an antioxidant defense system which consists of a series of enzymes, namely, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and glutathione reductase (GR. In addition, dietary antioxidants including ascorbic acid, vitamin A, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and plant flavonoids are also able to scavenge ROS in cells and therefore theoretically can extend the lifespan of organisms. In this connection, various antioxidants including tea catechins, theaflavins, apple polyphenols, black rice anthocyanins, and blueberry polyphenols have been shown to be capable of extending the lifespan of fruit flies. The purpose of this review is to brief the literature on modern biological theories of ageing and role of dietary antioxidants in ageing as well as underlying mechanisms by which antioxidants can prolong the lifespan with focus on fruit flies as an model.

  6. Antioxidant potentialities and Antiradical Activities of Oxalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... biologically active chemicals of medical importance. These findings ... medicinal plant to treat different human ailments. A recent work by ..... antioxidants and nutrition. Nutr Res. ... from additive and synergistic combinations of.

  7. Acrylamide in bread. Effect of prooxidants and antioxidants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Granby, Kit; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2008-01-01

    . Increasing the addition of aqueous rosemary extract to 10% did not decrease the acrylamide content further compared to the addition of a 1% extract. The spice dittany showed less effect in wheat buns compared to rosemary and even increased acrylamide formation slightly. The effect of antioxidants...

  8. A preliminary study on the effects of star fruit consumption on antioxidant and lipid status in elderly Thai individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelarungrayub J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jirakrit Leelarungrayub,1 Araya Yankai,1 Decha Pinkaew,1 Rungthip Puntumetakul,2 James J Laskin,3 Richard J Bloomer4 1Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 2Research Center in Back, Neck, Other Joint Pain and Human Performance (BNOJPH, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 3School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, 4Cardiorespiratory/Metabolic Laboratory, School of Health Studies, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA Objective: The aims of this preliminary study were to evaluate the antioxidant and lipid status before and after star fruit juice consumption in healthy elderly subjects, and the vitamins in star fruit extracts.Methods: A preliminary designated protocol was performed in 27 elderly individuals with a mean (±SD age of 69.5±5.3 years, by planning a 2-week control period before 4 weeks of consumption of star fruit twice daily. Oxidative stress parameters such as total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, malondialdehyde, protein hydroperoxide, multivitamins such as L-ascorbic acid (Vit C, retinoic acid (Vit A, and tocopherol (Vit E, and the lipid profile parameters such as cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C were analyzed. Moreover, Vit C, Vit A, and Vit E levels were evaluated in the star fruit extracts during the 4-week period.Results: In the 2-week control period, all parameters showed no statistically significant difference; after 4 weeks of consumption, significant improvement in the antioxidant status was observed with increased total antioxidant capacity and reduced malondialdehyde and protein hydroperoxide levels, as well as significantly increased levels of Vit C and Vit A, when compared to the two-time evaluation during the baseline periods. However, glutathione and Vit E showed no statistical difference. In addition

  9. Antioxidants and Dementia Risk: Consideration through a Cerebrovascular Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Lam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of natural and chemical compounds that exert anti-oxidative properties are demonstrated to be beneficial for brain and cognitive function, and some are reported to reduce the risk of dementia. However, the detailed mechanisms by which those anti-oxidative compounds show positive effects on cognition and dementia are still unclear. An emerging body of evidence suggests that the integrity of the cerebrovascular blood-brain barrier (BBB is centrally involved in the onset and progression of cognitive impairment and dementia. While recent studies revealed that some anti-oxidative agents appear to be protective against the disruption of BBB integrity and structure, few studies considered the neuroprotective effects of antioxidants in the context of cerebrovascular integrity. Therefore, in this review, we examine the mechanistic insights of antioxidants as a pleiotropic agent for cognitive impairment and dementia through a cerebrovascular axis by primarily focusing on the current available data from physiological studies. Conclusively, there is a compelling body of evidence that suggest antioxidants may prevent cognitive decline and dementia by protecting the integrity and function of BBB and, indeed, further studies are needed to directly examine these effects in addition to underlying molecular mechanisms.

  10. Antioxidant Activity in Extracts of 27 Indigenous Taiwanese Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Yu Chao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan’s indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc, Lactuca indica (Li, and Perilla ocymoides (Po contained abundant quercetin (Que, while Artemisia lactiflora (Al and Gynura bicolor (Gb were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc and Sechium edule (Se-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr than other tested samples. Cyanidin (Cyan and malvidin (Mal were abundant in Gb, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench (Abe, Po, Anisogonium esculentum (Retz. Presl (Ane, Ipomoea batatas (Ib-purple, and Hemerocallis fulva (Hf-bright orange. Relatively high levels of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenger were generated from extracts of Toona sinensis (Ts and Po. Significant and positive correlations between antioxidant activity and polyphenols, anthocyanidins, Que, Myr, and morin were observed, indicating that these phytochemicals were some of the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of tested plants. The much higher antioxidant activity of Po, Ts, and Ib (purple leaf may be related to their higher Cyan, Que, and polyphenol content.

  11. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Primitivo wine: comparison among winemaking technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiano, A; Terracone, C; Gambacorta, G; La Notte, E

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of 9 winemaking technologies (traditional, delestage, saignée, delayed punching-down, addition of grape seed tannins, addition of ellagic-skin-seed tannins, heating of must-wine, cryo-maceration, and prolonged maceration) on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Primitivo musts and wines. Three methods for the determination of the antioxidant activity were compared: DPPH, beta-carotene bleaching assay, and ABTS. Oenological parameters and composition of the phenolic fraction of 1-y-aged wines was also determined. The addition of tannins allowed the increase of the phenolic content of musts and wines in a greater amount than the other technologies. The results concerning the antioxidant activity depended on the method applied. Concerning musts, the DPPH assay did not highlight great differences among technologies, whereas the addition of tannins allowed the obtainment of the highest antioxidant activity according to beta-carotene and ABTS assays. The wine aging determined an increase of the antioxidant activity, independently on the method applied. Wine obtained through traditional technology, saignée, and addition of tannins showed the highest antioxidant activities according to DPPH and beta-carotene. The highest correlation coefficients (0.961 and 0.932) were calculated between phenolic content and ABTS values of musts whereas the lowest values (0.413 and 0.517) were calculated between phenolic content and ABTS values of wines. Wines produced through traditional technology were the richest in anthocyanins. The addition of tannins allowed to obtain high content in monomeric anthocyanins, flavonoids, flavans reactive to vanillin, and coumaroylated malvidin and a low content in acetylated malvidin. Practical Applications: It is well known that a moderate consumption (equivalent to 2 glasses per day) of red wine is actually recommended since it appears associated with a decreased incidence of

  12. Antioxidant system for the preservation of vitamin A in Ultra Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao Olive; Lam, Jane; Diosady, Levente L; Jankowski, Shirley

    2009-03-01

    Ultra Rice grains are micronutrient-fortified, extruded rice grains designed to address specific nutritional deficiencies in populations where rice is a staple food. Vitamin A and some of the B vitamins, as well as iron and zinc, are target nutrients for fortification through Ultra Rice technology. Vitamin A is sensitive to degradation. Therefore, the original Ultra Rice formulations included stabilizers, some of which were not approved as food additives in all of the receiving markets. To develop a new antioxidant system for improving vitamin A storage stability in Ultra Rice grains, while complying with international food regulations. Ten formulations were prepared containing various combinations of hydrophilic and hydrophobic antioxidants, as well as moisture stabilizers. Accelerated vitamin A storage stability tests were conducted at 25 degrees, 35 degrees, and 45 degrees C with 70% to 100% relative humidity. The most stable samples contained one or more phenolic antioxidants, a water-soluble antioxidant, and stabilizing agents. The best results were obtained by using butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) in combination with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as the hydrophobic antioxidants and ascorbic acid as the hydrophilic antioxidant. Citric acid and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) were used to chelate metal ions and to stabilize moisture, respectively. The best formulations retained more than 85% and approximately 70% of the added vitamin A at 25 degrees and 45 degrees C, respectively, after 24 weeks storage. The best antioxidant system, composed of generally accepted food additives, improved vitamin A stability while reducing the price, thus greatly improving the commercial viability of Ultra Rice grains for use as a ricefortificant.

  13. Radiation recall dermatitis after docetaxel chemotherapy. Treatment by antioxidant ointment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncker-Rohr, Viola; Freund, Ulrich; Momm, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) is an acute skin toxicity caused by different anticancer or antibiotic drugs within a former completely healed irradiation field. Predictive factors for RRD are not known and its mechanisms are not completely understood. A case of RRD induced by docetaxel and successfully treated by an antioxidant ointment (Mapisal registered ) is presented here. Such an ointment might be useful not only in RRD therapy, but also in the treatment of high-grade dermatitis induced by radiotherapy and thus may contribute to the improvement of patients' quality of life and to the scheduled completion of cancer therapies. (orig.) [de

  14. Cysteine-containing peptides having antioxidant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicki, John K [Castro Valley, CA

    2008-10-21

    Cysteine containing amphipathic alpha helices of the exchangeable apolipoproteins, as exemplified by apolipoprotein (apo) A-I.sub.Milano (R173C) and apoA-I.sub.Paris, (R151C) were found to exhibit potent antioxidant activity on phospholipid surfaces. The addition of a free thiol, at the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface of an amphipathic alpha helix of synthetic peptides that mimic HDL-related proteins, imparts a unique antioxidant activity to these peptides which inhibits lipid peroxidation and protects phospholipids from water-soluble free radical initiators. These peptides can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, ischemia, bone disease and other inflammatory related diseases.

  15. The response of antioxidant systems in Nostoc sphaeroides against UV-B radiation and the protective effects of exogenous antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaohong; Hu, Chunxiang; Li, Dunhai; Zhang, Delu; Li, Xiaoyan; Chen, Kun; Liu, Yongding

    UV radiation is one of many harmful factors found in space that are detrimental to organisms on earth in space exploration. In the present work, we examined the role of antioxidant system in Nostoc sphaeroides Kütz (Cyanobacterium) and the effects of exogenously applied antioxidant molecules on its photosynthetic rate under UV-B radiation. It was found that UV-B radiation promoted the activity of antioxidant system to protect photosystem II (PSII) and exogenously applied antioxidant: sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) had an obvious protection on PSII activity under UV-B radiation. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) and content of MDA (malondialdehyde) and ASC (ascorbate) were improved by 0.5 mM and 1 mM SNP, but 0.1 mM SNP decreased the activity of antioxidant system. Addition of exogenous NAC decreased the activity of SOD, POD, CAT and the content MDA and ASC. In contrast, exogenously applied NAC increased GSH content. The results suggest that exogenous SNP and NAC may protect algae by different mechanisms: SNP may play double roles as both sources of reactive free radicals as well as ROS scavengers in mediating the protective role of PSII on algae under UV-B radiation. On the other hand, NAC functions as an antioxidant or precursor of glutathione, which could protect PSII directly from UV-B radiation.

  16. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in the Diagnosis and Therapy of Periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    L'ubomíra Tóthová; L'ubomíra Tóthová; Peter Celec; Peter Celec; Peter Celec

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. However, large interventional studies with antioxidants failed to show benefits in the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, or diabetes mellitus. Numerous clinical studies have confirmed the association of oxidative stress markers and periodontitis. Technical and biological variability is high for most of the analyzed markers and none of them seems to be optimal for routine clinical use. In a...

  17. Combinational chelation therapy abrogates lead-induced neurodegeneration in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Vidhu; Saxena, Geetu; Mehta, Ashish; Mishra, Deepshikha; Flora, Swaran J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Lead, a ubiquitous and potent neurotoxicant causes oxidative stress which leads to numerous neurobehavioral and physiological alterations. The ability of lead to bind sulfhydryl groups or compete with calcium could be one of the reasons for its debilitating effects. In the present study, we addressed: i) if chelation therapy could circumvent the altered oxidative stress and prevent neuronal apoptosis in chronic lead-intoxicated rats, ii) whether chelation therapy could reverse biochemical and behavioral changes, and iii) if mono or combinational therapy with captopril (an antioxidant) and thiol chelating agents (DMSA/MiADMSA) is more effective than individual thiol chelator in lead-exposed rats. Results indicated that lead caused a significant increase in reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and intracellular free calcium levels along with altered behavioral abnormalities in locomotor activity, exploratory behavior, learning, and memory that were supported by changes in neurotransmitter levels. A fall in membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, and DNA damage indicated mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. Most of these alterations showed significant recovery following combined therapy with captopril with MiADMSA and to a smaller extend with captopril + DMSA over monotherapy with these chelators. It could be concluded from our present results that co-administration of a potent antioxidant (like captopril) might be a better treatment protocol than monotherapy to counter lead-induced oxidative stress. The major highlight of the work is an interesting experimental evidence of the efficacy of combinational therapy using an antioxidant with a thiol chelator in reversing neurological dystrophy caused due to chronic lead exposure in rats.

  18. In vitro antioxidant activities of edible artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and effect on biomarkers of antioxidants in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Escrig, Antonio; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Daneshvar, Bahram; Pulido, Raquel; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2003-08-27

    Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.), an edible vegetable from the Mediterranean area, is a good source of natural antioxidants such as vitamin C, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavones. The antioxidant activity of aqueous-organic extracts of artichoke were determined using three methods: (a) free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(*)) scavenging, (b) ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and (c) inhibition of copper(II)-catalyzed in vitro human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. In addition, the present study was performed to investigate the ability of the edible portion of artichoke to alter in vivo antioxidative defense in male rats using selected biomarkers of antioxidant status. One gram (dry matter) had a DPPH(*) activity and a FRAP value in vitro equivalent to those of 29.2 and 62.6 mg of vitamin C and to those of 77.9 and 159 mg of vitamin E, respectively. Artichoke extracts showed good efficiency in the inhibition in vitro of LDL oxidation. Neither ferric-reducing ability nor 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonate) radical scavenging activity was modified in the plasma of the artichoke group with respect to the control group. Among different antioxidant enzymes measured (superoxide dismutase, gluthatione peroxidase, gluthatione reductase, and catalase) in erythrocytes, only gluthatione peroxidase activity was elevated in the artichoke group compared to the control group. 2-Aminoadipic semialdehyde, a protein oxidation biomarker, was decreased in plasma proteins and hemoglobin in the artichoke-fed group versus the control group. In conclusion, the in vitro protective activity of artichoke was confirmed in a rat model.

  19. Uric acid contributes greatly to hepatic antioxidant capacity besides protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, T; Sorimachi, M

    2017-12-20

    Uric acid is the end-product of purine nucleotide metabolism and an increase in uric acid concentration in the body results in hyperuricemia, ultimately leading to gout. However, uric acid is a potent antioxidant and interacts with reactive oxygen species (ROS) to be non-enzymatically converted to allantoin. Uric acid accounts for approximately 60 % of antioxidant capacity in the plasma; however, its contribution to tissue antioxidant capacity is unknown. In this study, the contribution of uric acid to tissue antioxidant capacity and its conversion to allantoin by scavenging ROS in tissue were examined. The results showed that a decrease in hepatic uric acid content via allopurinol administration significantly reduced hepatic total-radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) content in protein-free cytosol. Additionally, treating protein-free cytosol with uricase led to a further reduction of hepatic TRAP content. Allantoin was also detected in the solution containing protein-free cytosol that reacted with ROS. These findings suggest that in the absence of protein, uric acid contributes greatly to antioxidant capacity in the liver, where uric acid is converted to allantoin by scavenging ROS.

  20. DNA Damage Protecting Activity and Antioxidant Potential of Launaea taraxacifolia Leaves Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinortey, Michael Buenor; Ansah, Charles; Weremfo, Alexander; Adinortey, Cynthia Ayefoumi; Adukpo, Genevieve Etornam; Ameyaw, Elvis Ofori; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo

    2018-01-01

    The leaf extract of Launaea taraxacifolia commonly known as African Lettuce is used locally to treat dyslipidemia and liver diseases, which are associated with oxidative stress. Methanol extract from L. taraxacifolia leaves was tested for its antioxidant activity and its ability to protect DNA from oxidative damage. In vitro antioxidant potential of the leaf extract was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging assays. Ferric reducing power, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), metal chelating, and anti-lipid peroxidation ability of the extract were also examined using gallic acid, ascorbic acid, citric acid, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as standards. L. taraxacifolia leaves extract showed antioxidant activity with IC 50 values of 16.18 μg/ml (DPPH), 123.3 μg/ml (NO), 128.2 μg/ml (OH radical), 97.94 μg/ml (metal chelating), 80.28 μg/ml (TAC), and 23 μg/ml (anti-lipid peroxidation activity). L. taraxacifolia leaves extract exhibited a strong capability for DNA damage protection at 20 mg/ml concentration. These findings suggest that the methanolic leaf extract of L. taraxacifolia could be used as a natural antioxidant and also as a preventive therapy against diseases such as arteriosclerosis associated with DNA damage.

  1. Hyperactivity--Drug Therapy/Food Additives/Allergies. A Selective Bibliography. Exceptional Child Bibliography Series No. 602.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    The annotated bibliography on Hyperactivity--Drug Therapy/Food Additives/Allergies contains approximately 65 abstracts and associated indexing information for documents or journal articles published from 1968 to 1975 and selected from the computer files of the Council for Exceptional Children's Information Services and the Education Resources…

  2. High 15-F2t-Isoprostane Levels in Patients with a Previous History of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer: The Effects of Supplementary Antioxidant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betânia de Jesus e Silva de Almendra Freitas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Phase I of this study was aimed at comparing the profiles of oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with history of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC, previously treated with surgery, to the healthy subjects. Phase II aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementary antioxidant therapy on the levels of biomarkers in the case group. Materials and Methods. In Phase I, oxidative stress biomarkers were measured in blood samples obtained from 24 healthy subjects and 60 patients with history of NMSC previously treated with surgery. In Phase II, the 60 patients with history of NMSC were randomized into two subgroups, one receiving placebo (n=34 and the other (n=26 receiving vitamin C, vitamin E, and zinc supplementation for 8 weeks, followed by reevaluation of biomarkers. Results. In Phase I, patients with history of NMSC showed increased plasma concentrations of all biomarkers, but only 15-F2t-isoprostane was significantly higher than in the healthy subjects. Risk of NMSC increased by 4% for each additional 1 pg/mL increase in 15-F2t-isoprostane. In Phase II, supplementation did not significantly reduce levels of oxidative stress biomarkers. Conclusion. Patients with history of NMSC had significantly high 15-F2t-isoprostane plasma levels; supplementation did not result in significant reduction of oxidative stress biomarkers. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (ID NCT02248584.

  3. In vitro screening for anti-cholinesterase and antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of ayurvedic medicinal plants used for cognitive disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Mathew

    Full Text Available Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE is still considered as the main therapeutic strategy against Alzheimer's disease (AD. Many plant derived phytochemicals have shown AChE inhibitory activity in addition to the currently approved drugs for AD. In the present study, methanolic extracts of 20 plants used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for improving cognitive function were screened for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by Ellman's microplate colorimetric method. Out of 20 extracts, Emblica officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi, Nelumbo nucifera, Punica granatum and Raulfia Serpentina showed IC50 values <100 µg/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Antioxidant activities of these plants were assessed by DPPH scavenging assay. Among the extracts used, antioxidant activity was highest for Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis with IC50 values <10 µg/ml. Considering the complex multifactorial etiology of AD, these plant extracts will be safer and better candidates for the future disease modifying therapies against this devastating disease.

  4. In Vitro Screening for Anti-Cholinesterase and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants Used for Cognitive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Maya; Subramanian, Sarada

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is still considered as the main therapeutic strategy against Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Many plant derived phytochemicals have shown AChE inhibitory activity in addition to the currently approved drugs for AD. In the present study, methanolic extracts of 20 plants used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for improving cognitive function were screened for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by Ellman’s microplate colorimetric method. Out of 20 extracts, Emblica officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi, Nelumbo nucifera, Punica granatum and Raulfia Serpentina showed IC50 values <100 µg/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Antioxidant activities of these plants were assessed by DPPH scavenging assay. Among the extracts used, antioxidant activity was highest for Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis with IC50 values <10 µg/ml. Considering the complex multifactorial etiology of AD, these plant extracts will be safer and better candidates for the future disease modifying therapies against this devastating disease. PMID:24466247

  5. Effects of antioxidants on the lipase-catalyzed acidolysis during production of structured lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Timm Heinrich, Maike; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2005-01-01

    In the production process of structured lipids, the influence of the addition of antioxidants before enzymatic acidolysis was investigated. Eight different antioxidants were screened: butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, ascorbyl palmitate, citric acid, EDTA...... of the structured lipid produced....

  6. Effects of ionizing radiation on gelatine films added with antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraide, Felipe H.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2011-01-01

    This work evaluates the effect of ionizing radiation on the gelatin films in presence of antioxidant. Gelatin solutions of glycerine and poly vinil alcohol, with and without the addition were prepared until the complete homogenization. The films were irradiated with 20 and 40 kGy in a electron accelerator, in the presence of air and at the room temperature. The use of ionizing radiation and the addition of antioxidant changed the properties of the film. The result of water absorption test revealed that with increasing of radiation dose occurred a reduction in the absorption, suggesting that happen a reticulation

  7. Nephroprotective, Diuretic and Antioxidant Effects of Some Medicinal Herbs in Gentamicin-Nephrotoxic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abbas Shalaby

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: Aqueous extracts of Petroselinum sativum, Eruca sativa and Curcuma longa produce nephroprotective, diuretic and antioxidant effects in GM - nephrotoxic rats. These herbs may be beneficial for patients who suffer from kidney diseases and those on GM therapy. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 1-8

  8. Relevance of the Mention of Antioxidant Properties in Yogurt Labels: In Vitro Evaluation and Chromatographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-06-18

    The purpose of the inclusion of fruit (natural additives) in yogurt aims to increase its antioxidant activity and functionality. Herein, a comparative study of the antioxidant potential of yogurts with pieces of various fruits was performed, including yogurts with mention of antioxidant properties in the label. Free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were evaluated by in vitro assays, as were the contents in antioxidants such as phenolics, flavonoids, sugars and tocopherols. After analyzing thirteen yogurts containing fruit pieces and a natural one (control), the most interesting were yogurts with pieces of berries (for phenolics, flavonoids and 2,2-dipheny-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity), pineapple (for reducing power), blackberry (for β-carotene bleaching inhibition), blackberry "antioxidant" (for tocopherols) and cherry (for sugars). The mention of "antioxidant" in the label was relevant for tocopherols, sugars, DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power. No synergisms were observed in yogurts prepared with pieces of different fruits. Nevertheless, the addition of fruit pieces to yogurt was favorable for antioxidant content, increasing the protection of the consumer against diseases related to oxidative stress.

  9. Soluble antioxidant compounds regenerate the antioxidants bound to insoluble parts of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Ecem Evrim; Gökmen, Vural; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2013-10-30

    This study aimed to investigate the regeneration potential of antioxidant capacity of an insoluble food matrix. Investigations were performed in vitro with several food matrices rich in dietary fiber (DF) and bound antioxidants. After removal of the soluble fraction, the antioxidant capacity (AC) of the insoluble fraction was measured by the QUENCHER procedure using ABTS(•+) or DPPH(•) radicals. After measurement, the insoluble residue was washed out to remove the excess of radicals and treated with pure antioxidant solution or antioxidant-rich beverage to regenerate depleted antioxidants on the fiber. Results revealed that the antioxidant capacity of compounds chemically bound to the insoluble moiety could be reconstituted in the presence of other hydrogen-donating substances in the liquid phase. Regeneration efficiency was found to range between 21.5 and 154.3% depending on the type of insoluble food matrix and regeneration agent. Among the food matrices studied, cereal products were found to have slightly higher regeneration efficiency, whereas antioxidant-rich beverages were more effective than pure antioxidants as regeneration agents. Taking wheat bran as reference insoluble material, the regeneration abilities of beverages were in the following order: green tea > espresso coffee > black tea > instant coffee > orange juice > red wine. These results highlighted the possible physiological relevance of antioxidants bound to the insoluble food material in the gastrointestinal tract. During the digestion process they could react with the free radicals and at the same time they can be regenerated by other soluble antioxidant compounds present in the meal.

  10. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation as an additional treatment for women suffering from therapy-resistant provoked vestibulodynia: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallinga, Marleen S; Spoelstra, Symen K; Hemel, Inge L M; van de Wiel, Harry B M; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord C M

    2015-01-01

    The current approach to women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) comprises a multidimensional, multidisciplinary therapeutic protocol. As PVD is considered to be a chronic pain disorder, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) can be used as an additional therapy for women with otherwise therapy-resistant PVD. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether TENS has a beneficial effect on vulvar pain, sexual functioning, and sexually-related personal distress in women with therapy-resistant PVD and to assess the effect of TENS on the need for vestibulectomy. A longitudinal prospective follow-up study was performed on women with therapy-resistant PVD who received additional domiciliary TENS. Self-report questionnaires and visual analog scales (VASs) were completed at baseline (T1), post-TENS (T2), and follow-up (T3). Vulvar pain, sexual functioning, and sexually-related personal distress were the main outcome measures. Thirty-nine women with therapy-resistant PVD were included. Mean age was 27 ± 5.6 years (range: 19 to 41); mean duration between TENS and T3 follow-up was 10.1 ± 10.7 months (range: 2 to 32). Vulvar pain VAS scores directly post-TENS (median 3.4) and at follow-up (median 3.2) were significantly (P pain and the need for vestibulectomy. The long-term effect was stable. These results not only support our hypothesis that TENS constitutes a feasible and beneficial addition to multidimensional treatment for therapy-resistant PVD, but also the notion that PVD can be considered as a chronic pain syndrome. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  11. Chemical stabilization of polymers: Implications for dermal exposure to additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, N; Girard, M; Schneider, L; Weijgert, V Van De; Wilde, A; Kappenstein, O; Vieth, B; Hutzler, C; Luch, A

    2018-04-16

    Technical benefits of additives in polymers stand in marked contrast to their associated health risks. Here, a multi-analyte method based on gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was developed to quantify polymer additives in complex matrices such as low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and isolated human skin layers after dermal exposure ex vivo. That way both technical aspects and dermal exposure were investigated. The effects of polymer additivation on the material were studied using the example of LDPE. To this end, a tailor-made polymer was applied in aging studies that had been furnished with two different mixtures of phenol- and diarylamine-based antioxidants, plasticizers and processing aids. Upon accelerated thermo-oxidative aging of the material, the formation of LDPE degradation products was monitored with attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Compared to pure LDPE, a protective effect of added antioxidants could be observed on the integrity of the polymer. Further, thermo-oxidative degradation of the additives and its kinetics were investigated using LDPE or squalane as matrix. The half-lives of additives in both matrices revealed significant differences between the tested additives as well as between LDPE and squalane. For instance, 2-tert-butyl-6-[(3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)methyl]-4-methylphenol (Antioxidant 2246) showed a half-life 12 times lower when incorporated in LDPE as compared to squalane. As a model for dermal exposure of consumers, human skin was brought into contact with the tailor-made LDPE containing additives ex vivo in static Franz diffusion cells. The skin was then analyzed for additives and decomposition products. This study proved 10 polymer additives of diverse pysicochemical properties and functionalities to migrate out of the polymer and eventually overcome the intact human skin barrier during contact. Moreover, their individual distribution within

  12. Antioxidant Capacity of a Turkish Traditional Alcoholic Drink, Raki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Gorkem

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Raki is an aniseed flavoured traditional Turkish alcoholic drink. Antioxidant capacity of raki samples from different commercial brands were evaluated by CUPRAC, DPPH, TEAC and ORAC assays and correlations between these assays and total phenolic content were also investigated. Additionally, the one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests were performed to compare differences between values of the samples. Results indicated that different raki samples exhibited different antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content. The mean antioxidant capacity values of samples were in the order of: ORAC>TEAC>CUPRAC>DPPH. The correlations of total phenolic content of samples with their CUPRAC, TEAC and ORAC results were found statistically significant, while DPPH assay showed no significant correlation.

  13. Antioxidant activity of extracts and condensed tannins from Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessuto, Monica Bordin; Costa, Isis Casemiro da; Souza, Angelita Boldieri de; Nicoli, Fernanda Michely; Mello, Joao Carlos Palazzo de; Petereit, Frank; Luftmann, Heinrich

    2009-01-01

    Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reiss. Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae) is a native plant of South America and popularly known as 'espinheira-santa'. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of extracts and isolated compounds from this plant. The antioxidant activity of the crude and semipurified extracts and isolated compounds was evaluated through DPPH-radical and phosphomolybdenum-complex assays. By both methods, the ethyl-acetate fraction demonstrated better antioxidant capacity compared with vitamin C and trolox. In the compounds, the higher the number of hydroxyls, the greater the antioxidant activity. In addition, stereochemistry influenced antioxidant activity, i.e., compounds with 2 R,3 R showed greater activity than those with 2 R,3 S. (author)

  14. Antioxidant Activities of Selected Berries and Their Free, Esterified, and Insoluble-Bound Phenolic Acid Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    To explore the potential of berries as natural sources of bioactive compounds, the quantities of free, esterified, and insoluble-bound phenolic acids in a number of berries were determined. In addition, the antioxidant activities of the berries were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays, in addition to determination of their metal ion chelating activities. Furthermore, several phenolic compounds were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography. Of the 6 tested berries, black chokeberry and blackberry exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities, and the various berry samples were found to contain catechin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, epicatechin, vanillic acid, quercitrin, resveratrol, morin, naringenin, and apigenin. Moreover, the antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of the fractions containing insoluble-bound phenolic acids were higher than those containing the free and esterified phenolic acids. The results imply that the insoluble-bound fractions of these berries are important natural sources of antioxidants for the preparation of functional food ingredients and preventing diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:29662846

  15. Green Barley as an Ingredient in Pasta: Antioxidant Activity and Sensory Characteristics Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanišová Eva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study was to determine antioxidant activity, sensory properties as well as total polyphenol, flavonoid and chlorophyll content of raw and cooked pasta enriched by 1%, 3% and 5% addition of green barley powder. Results of antioxidant activity showed that increase of green barley addition increase antioxidant activity of pasta. The values in raw pasta obtained by DPPH ranged from 1.17 (control to 1.81 (5% addition mg TEAC/g DM, after cooking values ranged from 0.82 (control to 1.59 (5% addition mg TEAC/g DM. Similar tendency was signed by molybdenum reducing antioxidant power method. In enriched pasta was also found higher content of total polyphenol (0.19 in control raw sample and 1.81 mg GAE/g DM in pasta with 5 % of green barley addition; values of cooked pasta ranged from 0.10 in control sample to 0.73 mg GAE/g DM in pasta with 5 % of green barley addition as well as total flavonoid content (results of raw pasta were from 0.00 in control sample to 0.41 mg QE/g DM in pasta with 5% of green barley addition; values of cooked pasta were from 0.00 in control sample to 0.29 mg QE/g DM in variant with 5% green barley. Green barley also enriched pasta for chlorophyll with the best results in 5% addition. From prepared variants of enriched pasta the best overall acceptability was sign in 3% of green barley addition. Pastas enriched with plant-derived bioactive compounds such as green barley may confer health benefits to consumers.

  16. CURCUMIN IN COMBINATION WITH TRIPLE THERAPY REGIMES AMELIORATES OXIDATIVE STRESS AND HISTOPATHOLOGIC CHANGES IN CHRONIC GASTRITIS-ASSOCIATED HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judaki, Arezu; Rahmani, Asghar; Feizi, Jalil; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Hafezi Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) gastric infection is a main cause of inflammatory changes and gastric cancers. The aim of this study was finding the effects of curcumin on oxidative stress and histological changes in chronic gastritis associated with H. pylori. In a randomized clinical trial, patients were divided into two groups: a standard triple therapy group and triple therapy with curcumin group. Endoscopic and histological examinations were measured for all patients before and after 8 weeks. Triple therapy with curcumin treatment group significantly decreased malondialdehyde markers, glutathione peroxides and increased total antioxidant capacity of the gastric mucosa at the end of study compared to baseline and triple regimen groups. In addition, the oxidative damage to DNA was significantly decreased in triple therapy with curcumin group at the end of study compared to baseline and compared to triple therapy (Pgastritis associated by H. pylori.

  17. Systemic antioxidants and skin health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Gloria; Torres, Abel

    2012-09-01

    Most dermatologists agree that antioxidants help fight free radical damage and can help maintain healthy skin. They do so by affecting intracellular signaling pathways involved in skin damage and protecting against photodamage, as well as preventing wrinkles and inflammation. In today's modern world of the rising nutraceutical industry, many people, in addition to applying topical skin care products, turn to supplementation of the nutrients missing in their diets by taking multivitamins or isolated, man-made nutraceuticals, in what is known as the Inside-Out approach to skin care. However, ingestion of large quantities of isolated, fragmented nutrients can be harmful and is a poor representation of the kind of nutrition that can be obtained from whole food sources. In this comprehensive review, it was found that few studies on oral antioxidants benefiting the skin have been done using whole foods, and that the vast majority of current research is focused on the study of compounds in isolation. However, the public stands to benefit greatly if more research were to be devoted toward the impact that physiologic doses of antioxidants (obtained from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) can have on skin health, and on health in general.

  18. The mechanisms of protection of antioxidants on Nostoc sphaeroides against UV-B radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G. H.

    UV radiation is one of space harmful factor for earth organisms in space exploration In the present work we studied on the role of antioxidant system in Nostoc sphaeroides K u tz Cyanobacteria and the effects of exogenous antioxidant molecules on its photosynthetic rate under UV-B radiation It was found that UV-B radiation decreased the photosynthetic activity of cyanobacterium but promoted the activity of antioxidant system to protect photosystem II PSII and exogenous antioxidant sodium nitroprusside SNP N-acetylcysteine NAC had an obvious protection on PSII activity under UV-B radiation The activity of SOD Superoxide Dismutase EC 1 15 1 1 CAT Catalase EC 1 11 1 6 POD Peroxidase EC 1 11 1 7 and content of MDA and ASC were improved by 0 5mM and 1mM SNP but 0 1mM SNP decreased the activity of antioxide system Exogenous NAC addition decreased the activity of SOD POD CAT and the content MDA and ASC but exogenous NAC addition increased the content of GSH The results suggested that exogenous SNP and NAC may protect algae by different mechanisms in which SNP maybe play double roles as sources of reactive free radicals or ROS scavengers in formation of algae s protection of PSII under UV-B radiation while NAC does function as antioxidant reagent or precursor of glutathione which could protect PSII directly from UV-B radiation Keyword antioxidant system exogenous or endogenous antioxidant Nostoc sphaeroides photosynthesis UV-B radiation

  19. Establishment of a ternary network system for evaluating the antioxidant fraction of Danhong injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Jiang, Zhenzuo; Yang, Fan; Chai, Xin; Zhu, Yan; Zhao, Xiaoya; Jiang, Miaomiao; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Buchang; Qian, Ke; Wang, Yuefei

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in numerous cardiovascular diseases. As an effective therapy, Danhong injection (DHI) is considered to act through an antioxidant mechanism for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. In our study, we focused on the potential contribution of the antioxidant capacity of DHI fractions (Frs) and established an innovative screening method based on a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity assay. A ternary network evaluation system, which was constructed based on the radical scavenging activity, the area under the activity-concentration curve and the solid content of the fractions, was implemented to select the fractions that posed the greatest antioxidant effect. As a result, Frs 5-7 and Frs 17-19 were shown to exhibit superior antioxidant activity according to the regression area of the ternary network, which was >0.5. Furthermore, the active fractions were characterized by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with nuclear magnetic resonance. This study provided an effective method for the comprehensive evaluation of the antioxidant effect of DHI fractions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Reaction product of pyrogallol with methyl linoleate and its antioxidant potential for biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanto, H.; Ainny, L.; Lukman; Susanto, B. H.; Nasikin, M.

    2018-03-01

    The demand of biodiesel as an alternative fuel is increasing due to fossil fuel depletion. Biodiesel is a renewable diesel fuel in the form of fatty acid methyl ester or FAME as a result of an esterification of plant oils in a presence of catalyst. Compared to the conventional diesel fuel, biodiesel is more biodegradable, has higher lubricity, and lower toxic emissions. However, the high content of unsaturated fatty acid leads to a problem that biodiesel is prone to oxidation during storage period. This oxidation instability causes degradation of fuel quality and will affect engine performance. Pyrogallol and other phenolic derivatives have been used as the antioxidant additives to prevent biodiesel oxidation. As reported in many researches, pyrogallol is one of the best phenolic antioxidant. However, its low solubility in biodiesel needs an attention. Several reports indicate the increasing solubility of pyrogallol using molecule modification with the addition of alkyl groups to its benzene ring via electrophilic substitution. This paper discusses the idea about modification of pyrogallol molecule and methyl linoleate using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical in order to increase its solubility in biodiesel while keeping its antioxidant property. Three responses were analyzed to examine the antioxidant activity: iodine value, viscosity, and color intensity. The result shown that the addition of 0.1% reaction product exhibit antioxidant activity in biodiesel.

  1. Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes): A Species with Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory, and Hepatoprotective Activities in Hypercholesterolemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Jaweria; Mustafa, Imtiaz; Anwar, Haseeb; Sohail, Muhammad Umar; Hussain, Ghulam; Ullah, Muhammad Irfan; Faisal, Muhammad Naeem; Bukhari, Shazia Anwer; Basit, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Lentinus edodes is a culinary-medicinal mushroom that has an established history of use in Asian therapies. The mushroom offers well-documented beneficial health effects such as antihypercholesterolemic, antitumor, and antibacterial activities. In this study, dried powder of L. edodes fruiting bodies was used to evaluate immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, and antioxidant effects in hypercholesterolemic rats. Albino rats (n = 24) were divided into 3 groups: the control (CON) group, the hypercholesterolemia-only group (HCG), and the L. edodes group (LEG). Hypercholesterolemia was induced in rats in the HCG and LEG by feeding cholesterol and cholic acid in a chow maintenance diet (CMD) for 24 days. The CON group was fed the CMD throughout the experiment. The HCG continued on the high-cholesterol diet without any L. edodes supplement. The LEG was fed the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with L. edodes for an additional 42 days. Various biological health biomarkers, such as total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, arylesterase, paraoxonase activity, and liver enzymes in serum were studied to evaluate antioxidant and hepatoprotective responses. Cell-mediated immunity was evaluated in each group through a delayed type of hypersensitivity reaction. The total oxidant status decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) after administration of L. edodes in the diet. The cell-mediated immune response significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) in the LEG. The significant decrease in liver enzymes supports the hepatoprotective effect of L. edodes. In conclusion, the results show the immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, and antioxidant activities of L. edodes supplementation in hypercholesterolemic rats.

  2. Determination of total antioxidant capacity of milk by CUPRAC and ABTS methods with separate characterisation of milk protein fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çekiç, Sema Demirci; Demir, Aslı; Başkan, Kevser Sözgen; Tütem, Esma; Apak, Reşat

    2015-05-01

    Most milk-applied antioxidant assays in literature are based on the isolation and quantification of individual antioxidative compounds, whereas total antioxidant capacity (TAC) gives a more holistic picture due to cooperative action of antioxidants. Recently, the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method has been modified to measure the antioxidant capacities of thiol-containing proteins, where the classical ammonium acetate buffer - that may otherwise precipitate proteins- was replaced with concentrated urea buffer (able to expose embedded thiol groups of proteins to oxidative attack) adjusted to pH 7.0. Thus, antioxidant capacity of milk was investigated with two competing TAC assays, namely CUPRAC and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid))/persulphate, because only these assays were capable of evaluating protein contribution to the observed TAC value. As milk fat caused turbidity, experiments were carried out with skim milk or defatted milk samples. To determine TAC, modified CUPRAC method was applied to whole milk, separated and redissolved protein fractions, and the remaining liquid phase after necessary operations. Both TAC methods were investigated for their dilution sensitivity and antioxidant power assessment of separate milk fractions such as casein and whey. Proteins like β-lactoglobulin and casein (but not simple thiols) exhibited enhanced CUPRAC reactivity with surfactant (SDS) addition. Addition of milk protein fractions to whole skim milk produced significant 'negative-biased' deviations (up to -26% relative standard error) from TAC absorbance additivity in the application of the ABTS method, as opposed to that of the CUPRAC method less affected by chemical deviations from Beer's law thereby producing much smaller deviations from additivity (i.e. the property of additivity is valid when the measured TAC of a mixture is equal to the sum of individual antioxidant capacities of its constituents).

  3. Hormone therapy and cardiovascular risk markers and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susan H; Lokkegaard, Ellen; Ottesen, Bent

    2006-01-01

    therapy (HT), although an underlying healthy-user effect may account for these observations. Progestagens are added to protect against an increased risk of endometrial cancer observed with unopposed estrogen treatment. The inclusion of progestagen in HT has been associated with possible adverse......Biological studies have demonstrated estrogen's beneficial effect on cardiovascular risk factors, including plasma lipoproteins, atherogenesis, vascular reactivity, inflammation and antioxidative activity. Additionally, observational studies have supported a cardioprotective effect of hormone...... cardiovascular outcomes. Recent, large-scale, randomized clinical studies did not confirm a beneficial cardiovascular effect of HT. On the contrary, an increased risk was found with continuous combined estrogen-progestagen regimens. The progestagen used in these trials was medroxyprogesterone acetate and other...

  4. Invited review: Whey proteins as antioxidants and promoters of cellular antioxidant pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrochano, Alberto R; Buckin, Vitaly; Kelly, Phil M; Giblin, Linda

    2018-03-28

    Oxidative stress contributes to cell injury and aggravates several chronic diseases. Dietary antioxidants help the body to fight against free radicals and, therefore, avoid or reduce oxidative stress. Recently, proteins from milk whey liquid have been described as antioxidants. This review summarizes the evidence that whey products exhibit radical scavenging activity and reducing power. It examines the processing and treatment attempts to increase the antioxidant bioactivity and identifies 1 enzyme, subtilisin, which consistently produces the most potent whey fractions. The review compares whey from different milk sources and puts whey proteins in the context of other known food antioxidants. However, for efficacy, the antioxidant activity of whey proteins must not only survive processing, but also upper gut transit and arrival in the bloodstream, if whey products are to promote antioxidant levels in target organs. Studies reveal that direct cell exposure to whey samples increases intracellular antioxidants such as glutathione. However, the physiological relevance of these in vitro assays is questionable, and evidence is conflicting from dietary intervention trials, with both rats and humans, that whey products can boost cellular antioxidant biomarkers. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Blood antioxidant profile and lipid peroxides in dairy cows with clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Rathore

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate blood antioxidant profile and lipid peroxides in dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Materials and Methods: Twelve cases of clinical mastitis in cross-bred cows were selected based on physical examination of udder and milk, California Mastitis Test (CMT, Somatic Cell Count (SCC and confirmation by bacteriological examination of milk and requisite biochemical tests. Twelve lactating cows showing negative CMT reaction and SCC <2x105 cells/ml were considered as healthy control. Antioxidant parameters measured in blood were superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase activities and reduced glutathione (GSH concentration. Erythrocytic lipid peroxidation (LPO was measured in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA production. Results: Significant (P<0.05 decrease in blood SOD and catalase activities, GSH concentration and an increase in erythrocytic lipid peroxides was observed in cows with clinical mastitis. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is a compromise in antioxidant defense of the body in dairy cows with clinical mastitis resulting in oxidative damage, therefore, necessitate the use of antioxidants and other protective compounds along with conventional therapy for mastitis control. [Vet World 2013; 6(5.000: 271-273

  6. Conservative Nonhormonal Options for the Treatment of Male Infertility: Antibiotics, Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, and Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Aldo E; Condorelli, Rosita A; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; La Vignera, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    The nonhormonal medical treatment can be divided into empirical, when the cause has not been identified, and nonempirical, if the pathogenic mechanism causing male infertility can be solved or ameliorated. The empirical nonhormonal medical treatment has been proposed for patients with idiopathic or noncurable oligoasthenoteratozoospermia and for normozoospermic infertile patients. Anti-inflammatory, fibrinolytic, and antioxidant compounds, oligo elements, and vitamin supplementation may be prescribed. Infection, inflammation, and/or increased oxidative stress often require a specific treatment with antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and/or antioxidants. Combined therapies can contribute to improve sperm quality.

  7. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of Tagetes minuta essential oil in activated macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, Parastoo; Kavoosi, Gholamreza; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Tagetes minuta (T. minuta) essential oil. Methods In the present study T. minuta essential oil was obtained from leaves of T. minuta via hydro-distillation and then was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The anti-oxidant capacity of T. minuta essential oil was examined by measuring reactive oxygen, reactive nitrogen species and hydrogen peroxide scavenging. The anti-inflammatory activity of T. minuta essential oil was determined through measuring NADH oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-α mRNA expression in lipopolysacharide-stimulated murine macrophages using real-time PCR. Results Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the main components in the T. minuta essential oil were dihydrotagetone (33.86%), E-ocimene (19.92%), tagetone (16.15%), cis-β-ocimene (7.94%), Z-ocimene (5.27%), limonene (3.1%) and epoxyocimene (2.03%). The T. minuta essential oil had the ability to scavenge all reactive oxygen/reactive nitrogen species radicals with IC50 12-15 µg/mL, which indicated a potent radical scavenging activity. In addition, T. minuta essential oil significantly reduced NADH oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthaseand TNF-α mRNA expression in the cells at concentrations of 50 µg/mL, indicating a capacity of this product to potentially modulate/diminish immune responses. Conclusions T. minuta essential oil has radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities and could potentially be used as a safe effective source of natural anti-oxidants in therapy against oxidative damage and stress associated with some inflammatory conditions. PMID:25182441

  8. Combination Chemoprevention with Grape Antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Chandra K.; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A.; El-Abd, Sabah; Mukhtar, Hasan; Ahmad, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant ingredients present in grape have been extensively investigated for their cancer chemopreventive effects. However, much of the work has been done on individual ingredients, especially focusing on resveratrol and quercetin. Phytochemically, whole grape represents a combination of numerous phytonutrients. Limited research has been done on the possible synergistic/additive/antagonistic interactions among the grape constituents. Among these phytochemical constituents of grapes, resver...

  9. Bioactivity of essential oil from lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) as antioxidant agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraeni, Nenden Indrayati; Hidayat, Ika Wiani; Rachman, Saadah Diana; Ersanda

    2018-02-01

    Free radical induced oxidative stress that influences the occurrence of various degenerative diseases such as cancer, coronary heart disease and premature aging. In the case that body's antioxidant defense system does not have excessive antioxidants, additional natural antioxidant via food or other nutrients intake is needed. Stems of lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus Stapf are known to contain phenolic compounds that are known to have antioxidant activity. Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) plant is well known herb in Asia, espesially in Indonesia and used for cooking and has many health benefits. A study has been carried out to determine antioxidant potential of stems of lemongrass. In this the primary study is to examine essential oil Cymbopogon citratus Stapf from Cileles Jatinangor as an antioxidant agent. Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf was isolated from 1272 g of dried stem by using Karlsruhe steam distillation methods with 0.24% in yield. The product of essential oil was also tested against antioxidant activity DPPH and resulted low activity compare to ascorbic acid and lemongrass oil standard as reference material.

  10. Food Stabilizing Antioxidants Increase Nutrient Bioavailability in the in Vitro Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Magdalena; Wikiera, Agnieszka; Antończyk, Anna; Grabacka, Maja

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether antioxidants may enhance bioavailability of lipids and carbohydrates and therefore increase the risk of obesity development. We tested how supplementation with antioxidants (0.01% butylated hydroxytoluene [BHT], α-tocopherol, and green tea catechins) of a diet containing butter and wheat bread affects bioavailability of fats and carbohydrates. The absorption of the in vitro digested diet was estimated in the intestinal epithelia model of the Caco-2 cells cultured in Transwell chambers. In the case of the antioxidant-supplemented diets, we observed increased bioavailability of glucose, cholesterol, and lipids, as well as elevated secretion of the main chylomicron protein apoB-48 to the basal compartment. Importantly, we did not detect any rise in the concentrations of lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde, MDA) in the control samples prepared without antioxidants. Addition of antioxidants (in particular BHT) to the diet increases bioavailability of lipids and carbohydrates, which consequently may increase the risk of obesity development. The dose of antioxidants is a factor of fundamental importance, particularly for catechins: low doses increase absorption of lipids, whereas high doses exert the opposite effect.

  11. Impact of Antioxidants on Cardiolipin Oxidation in Liposomes: Why Mitochondrial Cardiolipin Serves as an Apoptotic Signal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhmatikov, Alexey V.; Voskoboynikova, Natalia; Cherepanov, Dmitry A.; Skulachev, Maxim V.; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen; Skulachev, Vladimir P.; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.

    2016-01-01

    Molecules of mitochondrial cardiolipin (CL) get selectively oxidized upon oxidative stress, which triggers the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In a chemical model most closely resembling the mitochondrial membrane—liposomes of pure bovine heart CL—we compared ubiquinol-10, ubiquinol-6, and alpha-tocopherol, the most widespread naturally occurring antioxidants, with man-made, quinol-based amphiphilic antioxidants. Lipid peroxidation was induced by addition of an azo initiator in the absence and presence of diverse antioxidants, respectively. The kinetics of CL oxidation was monitored via formation of conjugated dienes at 234 nm. We found that natural ubiquinols and ubiquinol-based amphiphilic antioxidants were equally efficient in protecting CL liposomes from peroxidation; the chromanol-based antioxidants, including alpha-tocopherol, were 2-3 times less efficient. Amphiphilic antioxidants, but not natural ubiquinols and alpha-tocopherol, were able, additionally, to protect the CL bilayer from oxidation by acting from the water phase. We suggest that the previously reported therapeutic efficiency of mitochondrially targeted amphiphilic antioxidants is owing to their ability to protect those CL molecules that are inaccessible to natural hydrophobic antioxidants, being trapped within respiratory supercomplexes. The high susceptibility of such occluded CL molecules to oxidation may have prompted their recruitment as apoptotic signaling molecules by nature. PMID:27313834

  12. Antioxidants inhibit SAA formation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release in a human cell model of alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreafico, Adriano; Millucci, Lia; Ghezzi, Lorenzo; Geminiani, Michela; Braconi, Daniela; Amato, Loredana; Chellini, Federico; Frediani, Bruno; Moretti, Elena; Collodel, Giulia; Bernardini, Giulia; Santucci, Annalisa

    2013-09-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an ultra-rare autosomal recessive disease that currently lacks an appropriate therapy. Recently we provided experimental evidence that AKU is a secondary serum amyloid A (SAA)-based amyloidosis. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the use of antioxidants to inhibit SAA amyloid and pro-inflammatory cytokine release in AKU. We adopted a human chondrocytic cell AKU model to evaluate the anti-amyloid capacity of a set of antioxidants that had previously been shown to counteract ochronosis in a serum AKU model. Amyloid presence was evaluated by Congo red staining. Homogentisic acid-induced SAA production and pro-inflammatory cytokine release (overexpressed in AKU patients) were evaluated by ELISA and multiplex systems, respectively. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by means of a fluorescence-based assay. Our AKU model allowed us to prove the efficacy of ascorbic acid combined with N-acetylcysteine, taurine, phytic acid and lipoic acid in significantly inhibiting SAA production, pro-inflammatory cytokine release and membrane lipid peroxidation. All the tested antioxidant compounds were able to reduce the production of amyloid and may be the basis for establishing new therapies for AKU amyloidosis.

  13. Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties of Phenolics Extracted from Ananas comosus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhikarimayum HARIPYAREE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenolics were extracted from the fruit tissues of Ananas comosus L. var. queen, cv. �Meitei Keehom�, a variety of pineapple grown in Manipur, India, after skin peeling, purified and their antioxidant properties were analyzed. The antioxidant properties were assessed based on the ability of fruit phenolics in absolute methanol to scavenge DPPH, superoxide anion radicals and hydroxyl radicals and compared to antioxidant compounds like ascorbic acid and pyragallol. Pineapple fruit phenolics scavenged DPPH, superioxide anion radicals and hydroxyl radicals in a dose dependent way. In DPPH assay, the IC50 values of pineapple phenolics, ascorbic acid and pyragallol were 12.2?g/ml, 17.82?g/ml and 15.92?g/ml respectively. In superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, the IC50 values of pineapple phenolics were 11.42?g/ml and 55.292?g/ml, for ascorbic acid 49.62?g/ml, 48.52?g/ml and that of pyragallol was 15.672?g/ml and 60.62?g/ml. The IC50 value was lowest in pineapple phenolics than ascorbic acid and pyragallol in DPPH and superoxide anion assays. But it is higher than ascorbic acid and lower than pyragallol in hydroxyl radical assay. The lower the IC50 values, the higher the antioxidant activities. The phenolics extracted from this variety of pineapple exhibit excellent free radical scavenging activity. The result shows that pineapple and its active constituents may be used in further antioxidative therapy.

  14. Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties of Phenolics Extracted from Ananas comosus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhikarimayum HARIPYAREE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenolics were extracted from the fruit tissues of Ananas comosus L. var. queen, cv. Meitei Keehom, a variety of pineapple grown in Manipur, India, after skin peeling, purified and their antioxidant properties were analyzed. The antioxidant properties were assessed based on the ability of fruit phenolics in absolute methanol to scavenge DPPH, superoxide anion radicals and hydroxyl radicals and compared to antioxidant compounds like ascorbic acid and pyragallol. Pineapple fruit phenolics scavenged DPPH, superioxide anion radicals and hydroxyl radicals in a dose dependent way. In DPPH assay, the IC50 values of pineapple phenolics, ascorbic acid and pyragallol were 12.2?g/ml, 17.82?g/ml and 15.92?g/ml respectively. In superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, the IC50 values of pineapple phenolics were 11.42?g/ml and 55.292?g/ml, for ascorbic acid 49.62?g/ml, 48.52?g/ml and that of pyragallol was 15.672?g/ml and 60.62?g/ml. The IC50 value was lowest in pineapple phenolics than ascorbic acid and pyragallol in DPPH and superoxide anion assays. But it is higher than ascorbic acid and lower than pyragallol in hydroxyl radical assay. The lower the IC50 values, the higher the antioxidant activities. The phenolics extracted from this variety of pineapple exhibit excellent free radical scavenging activity. The result shows that pineapple and its active constituents may be used in further antioxidative therapy.

  15. Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Capacity from Nypa fruticans Wurmb. Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Nagendra; Yang, Bao; Kong, Kin Weng; Khoo, Hock Eng; Sun, Jian; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Romli, Zulfiki Bin

    2013-01-01

    Nypa fruticans Wurmb. is one of the important underutilized fruit of Malaysia, which lacks scientific attention. Total phenolics, flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacities from endosperm extracts of Nypa fruticans (unripe and ripe fruits) were evaluated. Endosperm extract of unripe fruits (EEU) exhibited the highest phenolics (135.6 ± 4.5 mg GAE/g), flavonoid content (68.6 ± 3.1 RE/g), and antioxidant capacity. Free radical scavenging capacity of EEU as assessed by 2-2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals showed inhibitory activity of 78 ± 1.2% and 85 ± 2.6%, respectively. Beta carotene bleaching coefficient of EEU was higher (2550 ± 123), when compared to endosperm extract of ripe fruits (1729 ± 172). Additionally, EEU exhibited high antioxidant capacity by phosphomolybdenum method and ferric reducing antioxidant power values. Eight phenolic compounds from Nypa fruticans endosperm extracts were identified and quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. Chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, and kaempferol were the major phenolic compounds. Thus this fruit could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant. PMID:23710209

  16. The effect of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and their treatment on parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdamar, Hüsamettin; Demirci, Hüseyin; Yaman, Halil; Erbil, M Kemal; Yakar, Tolga; Sancak, Banu; Elbeg, Sehri; Biberoğlu, Gürsel; Yetkin, Ilhan

    2008-01-01

    Free radical-mediated oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of several autoimmune disorders. Also, there is growing evidence supporting the role of reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of thyroid disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and their treatments on the metabolic state of oxidative stress, and antioxidant status markers. A total of 20 newly diagnosed patients with overt hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 20 patients with overt hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease, and 20 healthy subjects as the control group were enrolled in the study. Fasting blood samples (12 h), taken at the initiation, after the 30th and 60th day of therapy were analyzed for malondialdehyde, nitrite, vitamin E, vitamin A, beta-carotene, ascorbate, and myeloperoxidase and superoxide dismutase activity. No patient presented additional risk factors for increased reactive oxygen species levels. Malondialdehyde, nitrite, vitamin E, and myeloperoxidase activity increased in patients with hypothyroidism. After 2 months, the levels of nitrite and vitamin E were reduced to control levels by treatment. The patients with hyperthyroidism had increased levels of malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase activity in comparison with the controls. Treatment with propylthiouracil attenuated these increments after 1 month. Our results reveal an increased generation of reactive oxygen species and impairment of the antioxidant system in patients with hyperthyroidism, and particularly in patients with hypothyroidism. These findings indicate that thyroid hormones have a strong impact on oxidative stress and the antioxidant system.

  17. The Effectiveness of Combined Use of Antioxidant and Glutamine in Abdominal Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Nazaretyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: the effectiveness of concomitant use of antioxidant therapy with antioxidant 2-ethyl-6- methyl-3-hydroxypyridine succinate (mexidol and intensive nutritional support with glutamine in patients with abdominal sepsis (AS. Materials and methods. 170 patients with abdominal sepsis (AS involved in the study were separated into two groups. Patients of group 1 (control group, n=70 received basic treatment. Patients from group 2 (n=100 were divided into 2 subgroups. Patients from the subgroup 21 (n=70, in additon to the basic treatment, received intravenously, by drop infusion, mexidol (2000 mg per day and dipeptiven (27.5 g per day, patients from subgroup 22 (n=30 additionally to that received per os glutamine. Survival analysis was carried out according to the Kaplan-Meier method with using of the Cox's F-test and Mantel-Cox test for testing of statistical hypotheses. Results. Treatment outcomes analysis showed that in the basic group 2, mortality was lower than in the control group 1. A statistically significant increase of cumulative part in the survivors was revealed using mexidol and glutamine. Conclusion. Concomitant intravenous administration of medications had positive effects on treatment outcomes. Following on from the analysis results, we may suggest that the pair mexidol + dipeptiven interrupts the cascade of development of abdominal sepsis and contributes to avoiding a critical condition during sepsis.

  18. Xanthone and Flavone Derivatives as Dual Agents with Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activity as Potential Anti-Alzheimer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Cruz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder that is associated with the elderly. The current therapy that is used to treat AD is based mainly on the administration of acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitors. Due to their low efficacy there is a considerable need for other therapeutic strategies. Considering that the malfunctions of different, but interconnected, biochemical complex pathways play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease, a promising therapy may consist in administration of drugs that act on more than a target on biochemical scenery of AD. In this work, the synthesis and evaluation of xanthone and flavone derivatives as antioxidants with AChE inhibitory activity were accomplished. Among the obtained compounds, Mannich bases 3 and 14 showed capacity to inhibit AChE and antioxidant property, exerting dual activity. Moreover, for the most promising AChE inhibitors, docking studies on the target have been performed aiming to predict the binding mechanism. The results presented here may help to identify new xanthone and flavone derivatives as dual anti-Alzheimer agents with AChE inhibitory and antioxidant activities.

  19. Relevance of the Mention of Antioxidant Properties in Yogurt Labels: In Vitro Evaluation and Chromatographic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the inclusion of fruit (natural additives) in yogurt aims to increase its antioxidant activity and functionality. Herein, a comparative study of the antioxidant potential of yogurts with pieces of various fruits was performed, including yogurts with mention of antioxidant properties in the label. Free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were evaluated by in vitro assays, as were the contents in antioxidants such as phenolics, flavon...

  20. Thyroid Hormones and Antioxidant Systems: Focus on Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mancini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In previous works we demonstrated an inverse correlation between plasma Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 and thyroid hormones; in fact, CoQ10 levels in hyperthyroid patients were found among the lowest detected in human diseases. On the contrary, CoQ10 is elevated in hypothyroid subjects, also in subclinical conditions, suggesting the usefulness of this index in assessing metabolic status in thyroid disorders. A Low-T3 syndrome is a condition observed in several chronic diseases: it is considered an adaptation mechanism, where there is a reduction in pro-hormone T4 conversion. Low T3-Syndrome is not usually considered to be corrected with replacement therapy. We review the role of thyroid hormones in regulation of antioxidant systems, also presenting data on total antioxidant capacity and Coenzyme Q10. Published studies suggest that oxidative stress could be involved in the clinical course of different heart diseases; our data could support the rationale of replacement therapy in low-T3 conditions.

  1. Anthocyanin, phenolics and antioxidant activity changes in purple waxy corn as affected by traditional cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakotr, Bhornchai; Suriharn, Bhalang; Tangwongchai, Ratchada; Scott, Marvin Paul; Lertrat, Kamol

    2014-12-01

    Antioxidant components, including anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and their changes during traditional cooking of fresh purple waxy corn were investigated. As compared to the raw corn, thermal treatment caused significant (p⩽0.05) decreases in each antioxidant compound and antioxidant activity. Steam cooking preserved more antioxidant compounds than boiling. Boiling caused a significant loss of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds into the cooking water. This cooking water is a valuable co-product because it is a good source of purple pigment. By comparing levels of antioxidant compounds in raw and cooked corn, we determined that degradation results in greater loss than leaching or diffusion into cooking water. Additionally, separation of kernels from the cob prior to cooking caused increased loss of antioxidant compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical structure, comparison antioxidant capacity and separation antioxidant of hen, duck and quail egg white protein hydrolysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatah, A.; Meihu, M.; Ning, Q.; Setiani, B. E.; Bintoro, V. P.

    2018-01-01

    Amino acid linkages as proteins are nutritional substance which important for diet intake. Purification protein procesing undergo heating procedure process followed by additional of proteolytic enzymes or acid had been resulting in protein hydrolysates. A protein hydrolysate describe as many free amino acids bound together through a complex mixture of peptides. Egg white protein hydrolysates is one of subject interested to study for human health or industry product. The objectives of the research are to determine and identification the antioxidant derived from egg white hydrolysate protein. Identification of chemical structure of albumen and albumen protein hydrolysate was examine using IR Spectrophotometry. While comparison of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant separation egg albumen was also investigate using FTIR method (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy). Hen, duck and quail albumen egg white and on hydrolisate form were used as research materials. The results were showing that different time and enzyme of hydrolysis were not influence at secondary structure of hydrolysate albumen protein. Phytochemical content such as alcohol and hydroxyl compound which have potential as functional group of antioxidant were detected in all of the samples. Their results of radical scavenging activities samples hydrolyzed by pepsin were respectively 89.40%, 50.25% and 85.13%. Whereas the radical scavenging activities of hydrolysates hydrolyzed by papain were 72.85%, 61% and 76.45% respectively.

  3. Effect of Iranian Propolis on Salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity in Gamma-irradiated Rats

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    Sara Aghel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of propolis were studied. Since saliva contains antioxidants and radiotherapy of the head and neck mainly affects the saliva, salivary antioxidant defensive mechanism is compromised with oxidative stress produced by radiation therapy. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of propolis on salivary total antioxidant capacity in irradiated rats. Materials and methods. The study was conducted on 28 rats, 7‒11 weeks of age (160±20 g, divided into four groups: saline with no radiation (S, saline and radiation (SR, propolis with no radiation (P [400 mg/kg IP], propolis and radiation (PR [400 mg/kg IP]. SP and PR were exposed to 15 Gy of gamma irradiation for 7 minutes and 39 seconds. The rats received intraperitoneal injections each day for 10 days, and their tongues and lips were daily examined for mucositis; saliva sample were also taken three times on days 0, 6, and 10. Results. Mucositis incidence appeared to be delayed in the PR compared to the SR, and the severity was significantly higher in the SR compared to the PR. No significant alterations were observed in salivary antioxidant levels during the experiment, except the SR group in which a significant reduction was found. Conclusion. Propolis might reduce and delay radiation-induced mucositis in animal models; it might be able to prevent the reduction in salivary antioxidant levels in irradiated rats as well.

  4. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF COMMON BEAN FLOUR ON THE COOKING QUALITY AND ANTIOXIDANT CHARACTERISTICS OF SPAGHETTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pasta is a nutritionally unbalanced food, due to its low fat and fiber and low value of its protein. It is considered an adequate vehicle for food supplementation with minerals, proteins and other healthy components such as bioactive compounds present in common beans. The effect of composite pasta (wheat – common bean; 30 % w/w on the cooking quality (optimal cooking time, cooking loss, weight loss, firmness, color, total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity by DPPH and ORAC assays and phenolic acid profile was investigated. According to the quality parameters, pasta added with bean flour was less hard with respect to the pasta made from durum wheat. The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity by DPPH and ORAC assays were higher in the pasta with common bean flour than in the pasta control. Also, more phenolic acids were identified in cooked pasta containing common bean flour as analyzed by HPLC.

  5. The addition of upper cervical manipulative therapy in the treatment of patients with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ibrahim M; Diab, Aliaa A

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate and long-term effects of a one-year multimodal program, with the addition of upper cervical manipulative therapy, on fibromyalgia management outcomes in addition to three-dimensional (3D) postural measures. This randomized clinical trial with one-year follow-up was completed at the research laboratory of our university. A total of 120 (52 female) patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and definite C1-2 joint dysfunction were randomly assigned to the control or an experimental group. Both groups received a multimodal program; additionally, the experimental group received upper cervical manipulative therapy. Primary outcomes were the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), whereas secondary outcomes included Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), algometric score, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and 3D postural measures. Measures were assessed at three time intervals: baseline, 12 weeks, and 1 year after the 12-week follow-up. The general linear model with repeated measures indicated a significant group × time effect in favor of the experimental group on the measures of 3D postural parameters (P < .0005), FIQ (P < .0005), PCS (P < .0005), algometric score (F = P < .0005), PSQI (P < .0005), BAI (P < .0005), and BDI (P < .0005). The addition of the upper cervical manipulative therapy to a multimodal program is beneficial in treating patients with FMS.

  6. Electrochemical quantification of the structure/antioxidant activity relationship of flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rafael de Queiroz; Greco, Sandro José; Delarmelina, Maicon; Weber, Karen Cacilda

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CRAC assay simply and rapidly quantifies the reducing capacity of antioxidant compounds based on the consumption of a standard oxidizer (Ce 4+ ). • The electronic properties of studied flavonoid compounds and their antioxidant activity can be well correlated by this three variables: (i) polarizability, (ii) change at carbon 3’ (iii) change at carbon 5. • Hierarchical antioxidant classification generated by CRAC assay: morin > kaempferol ≅ quercetin > fisetin > apigenin > luteolin > catechin > chrysin. • Antioxidant hierarchy for groups present in the studied flavonoids compound generated by CRAC assay: OH(C2′C4′) > OH(C4′) ≅ OH(C3′C4′) > C2=C3 + 4-oxo > OH(C3,C5) + 4-oxo > OH(C3) + 4-oxo > OH(C5) + 4-oxo > OH(C3,C5). - Abstract: Ceric Reducing/Antioxidant Capacity (CRAC) is an electrochemical test that has recently emerged as an alternative to the spectrophotometric tests employed in the determination of antioxidant capacity. CRAC simply and rapidly quantifies the reducing capacity of antioxidant compounds based on the consumption of a standard oxidizer (Ce 4+ ). In this study, eight samples of flavonoids from three distinct groups were evaluated and showed the following antioxidant hierarchy: morin > kaempferol ≅ quercetin > fisetin > apigenin > luteolin > catechin > chrysin. This hierarchy is correlated with the behavior expected according to the structure/antioxidant activity relationship (SAR) of these polyphenolic compounds. Additionally, other correlations were established using SAR to explain the antioxidant behavior of the compounds with unrelated groups: OH(C2′C4′) > OH(C4′) ≅ OH(C3′C4′) > C2 = C3 + 4-oxo > OH(C3,C5) + 4-oxo > OH(C3) + 4-oxo > OH(C5) + 4-oxo > OH(C3,C5). Therefore, the use of these two tools together is very important for the study of the antioxidant behavior of flavonoids, contributing uniquely to the understanding of electronic transfer mechanisms involved in the antioxidant processes

  7. Combination Cancer Therapy Can Confer Benefit via Patient-to-Patient Variability without Drug Additivity or Synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Adam C; Sorger, Peter K

    2017-12-14

    Combination cancer therapies aim to improve the probability and magnitude of therapeutic responses and reduce the likelihood of acquired resistance in an individual patient. However, drugs are tested in clinical trials on genetically diverse patient populations. We show here that patient-to-patient variability and independent drug action are sufficient to explain the superiority of many FDA-approved drug combinations in the absence of drug synergy or additivity. This is also true for combinations tested in patient-derived tumor xenografts. In a combination exhibiting independent drug action, each patient benefits solely from the drug to which his or her tumor is most sensitive, with no added benefit from other drugs. Even when drug combinations exhibit additivity or synergy in pre-clinical models, patient-to-patient variability and low cross-resistance make independent action the dominant mechanism in clinical populations. This insight represents a different way to interpret trial data and a different way to design combination therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Antioxidative activity of extracts from fenugreek seeds (trigonella foenum-graecum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukhari, S B; Bhanger, M I; Memon, S [University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan). Dept. of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry

    2008-12-15

    Spices and herbs possess antioxidant activity and can be applied for preservation of lipid peroxidation in biological systems. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an important spice; its dried seeds have wide application in food and beverages as a flavoring additive as well as in medicines. Crude extracts of fenugreek were prepared by soxhelt extraction method with different solvents such as methanol, ethanol, dichloromethane, acetone, hexane and ethyl acetate. Extracts were subjected for the measurement of total phenolic content (TPC) by Folin-Ciocalteu method as well as flavonoid content, chelating activity, reducing power and antioxidant/radical scavenging activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH degree) free radical scavenging activity). Results from different parameters were in agreement with each other. The results reveal that all extracts of the fenugreek exhibit antioxidant activity. These findings suggest that the fenugreek extracts could act as potent source of antioxidants. (author)

  9. Antioxidative activity of extracts from fenugreek seeds (trigonella foenum-graecum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhari, S.B.; Bhanger, M.I.; Memon, S.

    2008-01-01

    Spices and herbs possess antioxidant activity and can be applied for preservation of lipid peroxidation in biological systems. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an important spice; its dried seeds have wide application in food and beverages as a flavoring additive as well as in medicines. Crude extracts of fenugreek were prepared by soxhelt extraction method with different solvents such as methanol, ethanol, dichloromethane, acetone, hexane and ethyl acetate. Extracts were subjected for the measurement of total phenolic content (TPC) by Folin-Ciocalteu method as well as flavonoid content, chelating activity, reducing power and antioxidant/radical scavenging activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH degree) free radical scavenging activity). Results from different parameters were in agreement with each other. The results reveal that all extracts of the fenugreek exhibit antioxidant activity. These findings suggest that the fenugreek extracts could act as potent source of antioxidants. (author)

  10. Chemical rules on the assessment of antioxidant potential in food and food additives aimed at reducing oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Rafael; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva

    2017-11-15

    Antioxidants (aOXs) enlarge the useful life of products consumed by humans. Life requires oxidation of glucose/fatty acids and, therefore, "antioxidant" becomes an oxymoron when trying to define benefits in organisms living in an oxygen-rich atmosphere. According to basic physico-chemical principles, the in vivo aOX potential of food supplements is negligible when compared with the main aOX molecules in the animal Kingdom: glucose and fatty acids. Thus, the aOX assumption to improve life-quality is misleading as oxidative stress and exacerbation occur when oxidant foods (e.g. fava beans) are consumed. Evolution produced potent detoxification mechanisms to handle these situations. When age/genetic/environmental factors negatively impact on detoxification mechanisms, nutrition helps on providing metabolites/precursors needed for boosting innate resources. Ambiguous techniques that attempt to measure in vivo aOX power, should give way to measuring the level of supplements and their metabolites in body fluids/tissues, and to measure the efficacy on antioxidant boosting REDOX pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct antioxidant properties of bilirubin andbiliverdin. Is there a role for biliverdin reductase?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eJansen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS and signaling events are involved in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and represent a major contribution to vascular regulation. Molecular signaling is highly dependent on reactive oxygen species. But depending on the amount of ROS production it might have toxic or protective effects. Despite a large number of negative outcomes in large clinical trials (e.g. HOPE, HOPE-TOO, antioxidant molecules and agents are important players to influence the critical balance between production and elimination of RONS. However, chronic systemic antioxidant therapy lacks clinical efficacy, probably by interfering with important physiological redox signaling pathways. Therefore, it may be a much more promising attempt to induce intrinsic antioxidant pathways in order to increase the antioxidants not systemically but at the place of oxidative stress and complications. Among others, heme oxygenase (HO has been shown to be important for attenuating the overall production of ROS in a broad range of disease states through its ability to degrade heme and to produce carbon monoxide (CO, biliverdin/bilirubin, and the release of free iron with subsequent ferritin induction. With the present review we would like to highlight the important antioxidant role of the heme oxygenase system and especially discuss the contribution of the biliverdin, bilirubin and biliverdin reductase to these beneficial effects. The bilierdin reductase was reported to confer an antioxidant redox amplification cycle by which low, physiological bilirubin concentrations confer potent antioxidant protection via recycling of biliverdin from oxidized bilirubin by the biliverdin reductase, linking this sink for oxidants to the NADPH pool. To date the existence and role of this antioxidant redox cycle is still under debate and we present and discuss the pros and cons as well as our own findings on this topic.

  12. Modulation of antioxidant defences in digestive gland of Perna viridis (L.), on mercury exposures

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    by defense sys- tems. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and non enzymatic antioxidant molecules such as reduced glutathione (GSH...- sures include lipid peroxidation (LPX), protein carbonyl (PC), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), GSH, ascorbic acid (ASA) and antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT, GPX, GR and GST. In addition DNA strand breaks, as an index of genotoxic stress and MT...

  13. Soluble Antioxidant Compounds Regenerate the Antioxidants Bound to Insoluble Parts of Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celik, E.E.; Gökmen, V.; Fogliano, V.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the regeneration potential of antioxidant capacity of an insoluble food matrix. Investigations were performed in vitro with several food matrices rich in dietary fiber (DF) and bound antioxidants. After removal of the soluble fraction, the antioxidant capacity (AC) of

  14. Antiradical and antioxidant activities of new bio-antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancheva, V D; Saso, L; Angelova, S E; Foti, M C; Slavova-Kasakova, A; Daquino, C; Enchev, V; Firuzi, O; Nechev, J

    2012-02-01

    Antioxidants could be promising agents for management of oxidative stress-related diseases. New biologically active compounds, belonging to a rare class of natural lignans with antiangiogenic, antitumoral and DNA intercalating properties, have been recently synthesized. These compounds are benzo[kl]xanthene lignans (1,2) and dihydrobenzofuran neolignans (3,4). The radical scavenging and chain-breaking antioxidant activities of compounds 1-4 were studied by applying different methods: radical scavenging activity by DPPH rapid test, chain-breaking antioxidant activity and quantum chemical calculations. All studied compounds were found to be active as DPPH scavengers but reaction time with DPPH and compounds' concentrations influenced deeply the evaluation. The highest values of radical scavenging activity (%RSAmax) and largest rate constants for reaction with DPPH were obtained for compounds 2 and 3. Comparison of %RSAmax with that of standard antioxidants DL-α-tocopherol (TOH), caffeic acid (CA) and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) give the following new order of %RSA max: TOH (61.1%) > CA (58.6%) > 3 (36.3%) > 2 (28.1%) > 4 (6.7%) > 1 (3.6%) = BHT (3.6%). Chain-breaking antioxidant activities of individual compounds (0.1-1.0 mM) and of their equimolar binary mixtures (0.1 mM) with TOH were determined from the kinetic curves of lipid autoxidation at 80 °C. On the basis of a comparable kinetic analysis with standard antioxidants a new order of the antioxidant efficiency (i.e., protection factor, PF) of compounds 1-4 were obtained: 2 (7.2) ≥ TOH (7.0) ≥ CA (6.7) > 1 (3.1) > 3 (2.2) > ferulic acid FA (1.5) > 4 (0.6); and of the antioxidant reactivity (i.e. inhibition degree, ID): 2 (44.0) > TOH (18.7) > CA (9.3) > 1 (8.4) > 3 (2.8) > FA (1.0) > 4 (0.9). The important role of the catecholic structure in these compounds, which is responsible for the high chain-breaking antioxidant activity, is discussed and a reaction

  15. Evaluation of Chitosan/Fructose Model as an Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agent for Shelf Life Extension of Beef Meat During Freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Mohmed S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the effect of chitosan/fructose Maillard reaction products (CF-MRPs as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents was evaluated and applied on minced beef meat during frozen storage. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of chitosan-fructose complexes were tested. Anti-oxidant properties were measured by the DPPH, β-carotene and ABTS methods. These three methods showed the same profile of antioxidant activity. Chitosan with 4% fructose autoclaved for 45 min (CF9 showed to have the most effective antioxidant activity. It was demonstrated that the browning product exhibited antioxidant activity. For antimicrobial activity, most chitosan-fructose complexes were less effective than chitosan. Thus, MRPs derived from chitosan-sugar model system can be promoted as a novel antioxidant to prevent lipid oxidation in minced beef. Chitosan-sugar complex could be a potential alternative natural product for synthetic food additive replacement that would additionally meet consumer safety requirement.

  16. Reconvene and reconnect the antioxidant hypothesis in human health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P P; Chandra, Anu; Mahdi, Farzana; Roy, Ajanta; Sharma, Praveen

    2010-07-01

    human tissues ever experience the torrent of reactive species and that in chronic conditions with mildly enhanced generation of reactive species, the body can meet them squarely if antioxidants defense system in tissues is biochemically optimized. We are not yet certain about optimal levels of antioxidants in tissues. Two ways have been used to assess them: first by dietary intake and second by measuring plasma levels. Lately determination of plasma/serum level of antioxidants is considered better index for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. The recommended levels for vitamin A, E and C and beta carotene are 2.2-2.8 μmol/l; 27.5-30 μmol/l; 40-50 μmol/l and 0.4-0.5 μmol/l, respectively. The requirement and recommended blood levels of other dietary antioxidants are not established. The resolved issues are (1) essential to scavenge excess of radical species (2) participants in redox homeostasis (3) selective antioxidants activity against radical species (4) there is no universal antioxidant and 5) therapeutic value in case of deficiency. The overarching issues are (1) therapeutic value as adjuvant therapy in management of diseases (2) supplemental value in developing population (3) selective interactivity of antioxidant in different tissues and on different substrates (4) quantitative contribution in redox balance (5) mechanisms of adverse action on excess supplementation (6) advantages and disadvantages of prooxidant behavior of antioxidants (7) behavior in cohorts with polymorphic differences (8) interaction and intervention in radiotherapy, diabetes and diabetic complications and cardiovascular diseases (9) preventive behavior in neurological disorders (10) benefits of non-nutrient dietary antioxidants (11) markers to assess optimized antioxidants status (12) assessment of benefits of supplementation in alcoholics and heavy smokers. The unresolved and intriguing issues are (1) many compounds such as vitamin A and many others possessing both antioxidant and non-antioxidant

  17. Role of Natural Antioxidants for the Control of Coccidiosis in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiqaa Masood, Rao Zahid Abbas*, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Khalid Mansoor1, Zia-ud-Din Sindhu, Muhammad Anjum Zia2 and Junaid Ali Khan3

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Avian coccidiosis is thought to be the one of the most expensive infectious diseases of poultry. Thus far, chemoprophylaxis and anticoccidial feed additives have controlled the disease but situation has been complicated by the emergence of drug resistant strains against commonly used drugs. Immunization by using vaccines has been another effective approach, but, in poorly managed poultry production systems particularly in case of broiler birds, vaccines may result in the onset of severe reactions. The other drawback of using vaccines is diversity of Eimeria strains in different geographical distributions. Therefore, vaccine strain, effective in one geographical area may not be effective in other area. A solution to these problems could be the use of antioxidant rich plant products that function by mechanisms other than those of chemotherapeutics, with the additional advantage of a natural origin. Antioxidant compounds could hold promise for the control of Eimeria infections due to the association of coccidial infection with lipid peroxidation of the intestinal mucosa. This paper reviews the research on naturally occurring antioxidants including botanical antioxidants effective against avian coccidiosis. Information regarding antioxidant activity, doses and mechanism of action of vitamin A, vitamin E, Zinc, Selenium and herbal complexes such as saponins, flavonoids, tannins, aromatic plants and their essential oils is provided in this paper, which may serve as new beneficial anticoccidial compounds and an essential component of alternative strategies for control of resistant Eimeria strains.

  18. In Vitro Cultivars of Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae) are a Source of Antioxidant Phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Rodrigo A; Köhler, Hans; Pizarro, Marisol; Zúiga, Gustavo E

    2015-04-09

    The antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of six in vitro cultured blueberry seedlings were determined. Extracts were prepared in 85% ethanol from 30 days old in vitro cultured plants and used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities that included Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazin (DPPH•) scavenging ability, total polyphenols (TP) and the partial phenolic composition performed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD), liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS (ESI-QqQ)). All ethanolic extracts from in vitro blueberry cultivars displayed antioxidant activity, with Legacy, Elliott and Bluegold cultivars being the most active. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Our results suggest that the antioxidant activity of the extracts is related to the content of chlorogenic acid myricetin, syringic acid and rutin, and tissue culture of blueberry seedlings is a good tool to obtain antioxidant extracts with reproducible profile of compounds.

  19. In Vitro Cultivars of Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae are a Source of Antioxidant Phenolics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Contreras

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of six in vitro cultured blueberry seedlings were determined. Extracts were prepared in 85% ethanol from 30 days old in vitro cultured plants and used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities that included Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazin (DPPH• scavenging ability, total polyphenols (TP and the partial phenolic composition performed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS (ESI-QqQ. All ethanolic extracts from in vitro blueberry cultivars displayed antioxidant activity, with Legacy, Elliott and Bluegold cultivars being the most active. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Our results suggest that the antioxidant activity of the extracts is related to the content of chlorogenic acid myricetin, syringic acid and rutin, and tissue culture of blueberry seedlings is a good tool to obtain antioxidant extracts with reproducible profile of compounds.

  20. Trends in the use of natural antioxidants in active food packaging: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches-Silva, Ana; Costa, Denise; Albuquerque, Tânia G; Buonocore, Giovanna Giuliana; Ramos, Fernando; Castilho, Maria Conceição; Machado, Ana Vera; Costa, Helena S

    2014-01-01

    The demand for natural antioxidant active packaging is increasing due to its unquestionable advantages compared with the addition of antioxidants directly to the food. Therefore, the search for antioxidants perceived as natural, namely those that naturally occur in herbs and spices, is a field attracting great interest. In line with this, in the last few years, natural antioxidants such as α-tocopherol, caffeic acid, catechin, quercetin, carvacrol and plant extracts (e.g. rosemary extract) have been incorporated into food packaging. On the other hand, consumers and the food industry are also interested in active biodegradable/compostable packaging and edible films to reduce environmental impact, minimise food loss and minimise contaminants from industrial production and reutilisation by-products. The present review focuses on the natural antioxidants already applied in active food packaging, and it reviews the methods used to determine the oxidation protection effect of antioxidant active films and the methods used to quantify natural antioxidants in food matrices or food simulants. Lastly consumers' demands and industry trends are also addressed.

  1. The antioxidant master glutathione and periodontal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Bains

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione, considered to be the master antioxidant (AO, is the most-important redox regulator that controls inflammatory processes, and thus damage to the periodontium. Periodontitis patients have reduced total AO capacity in whole saliva, and lower concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH in serum and gingival crevicular fluid, and periodontal therapy restores the redox balance. Therapeutic considerations for the adjunctive use of glutathione in management of periodontitis, in limiting the tissue damage associated with oxidative stress, and enhancing wound healing cannot be underestimated, but need to be evaluated further through multi-centered randomized controlled trials.

  2. Antioxidant activity of dietary fruits, vegetables, and commercial frozen fruit pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Genovese, Maria Inés; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2005-04-20

    Fruits, vegetables, and commercial frozen pulps (FP) consumed in the Brazilian diet were analyzed for antioxidant activities using two different methods, one that determines the inhibition of copper-induced peroxidation of liposome and another based on the inhibition of the co-oxidation of linoleic acid and beta-carotene. The anthocyanin-rich samples showed the highest, concentration-dependent, antioxidant activities in both systems. In the liposome system, at both 10 and 50 microM gallic acid equivalent (GAE) addition levels, the neutral and acidic flavonoids of red cabbage, red lettuce, black bean, mulberry, Gala apple peel, jambolao, acai FP, mulberry FP, and the acidic flavonoids of acerola FP showed the highest antioxidant activities (>85% inhibition). In the beta-carotene bleaching system, the samples cited above plus red guava gave inhibition values >70%. On the other hand, some samples showed pro-oxidant activity in the liposome system coincident with a low antioxidant activity in the beta-carotene system. There was no relationship between total phenolics content, vitamin C, and antioxidant activity, suggesting that the antioxidant activity is a result of a combination of different compounds having synergic and antagonistic effects.

  3. [Change of blood antioxidant capacity of experimental animals during nutritional correction under oxidative stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basov, A A; Bykov, I M

    2013-01-01

    The effect of nutritional correction (a diet high in foods with antioxidant content) on blood parameters in laboratory animals with metabolic disorders associated with oxidative stress has been studied. In experimental models of laboratory animals (male rabbits weighing 3.5-4.0 kg, n = 40) with purulent septic diseases it has been demonstrated that the use of nutritive correction (replacement of 100 g of the cereal mixture through day on a mixture of cabbage 50 g, carrots 50 g, beet 25 g, apple 25 g, kiwi 10 g and garnet 10 g per 1 rabbit) is not inferior to its efficiency of glutathione use (2 g per day). The use of these antioxidants in laboratory animals significantly reduced the phenomenon of oxidative stress on the 5th day: blood antioxidant capacity significantly increased by 14.9 and 26.6%, and the area of the flash of luminol-dependent H2O2-induced chemiluminescence of blood plasma reduced by 44.2 and 48.6% in the experimental groups receiving respectively nutritive correction and glutathione. The low-molecula level of blood antioxidant capacity was restored and the balance of the activity of superoxide dismutase (decrease) and catalase (increase) was achieved on the 10th day of the experiment. These figures significantly (p < 0.05) differed from than in the group of animals receiving no antioxidant correction. The latter studied parameters of prooxidant-antioxidant system reached values comparable with those in intact animals (n = 10) only on the 30th day, confirming the advisability of appointing a complex antioxidant therapy.

  4. Aging Increases Susceptibility to High Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in C57BL/6 Mice: Improvement in Glycemic and Lipid Profile after Antioxidant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Nunes-Souza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has been considered a novel component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, with the oxidative stress participating in its progression. This study aimed to evaluate the metabolic profile in young and old mice with MetS, and the effects of apocynin and tempol on glycemic and lipid parameters. Young and old C57BL/6 mice with high fat diet- (HFD- induced MetS received apocynin and tempol 50 mg·kg−1/day in their drinking water for 10 weeks. After HFD, the young group showed elevated fasting glucose, worsened lipid profile in plasma, steatosis, and hepatic lipid peroxidation. Nevertheless, the old group presented significant increase in fasting insulin levels, insulin resistance, plasma and hepatic lipid peroxidation, and pronounced steatosis. The hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase activity did not differ between the groups. Tempol and apocynin seemed to prevent hepatic lipid deposition in both groups. Furthermore, apocynin improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in old mice. In summary, old mice are more susceptible to HFD-induced metabolic changes than their young counterparts. Also, the antioxidant therapy improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, and in addition, apocynin seemed to prevent the HFD-induced hepatic fat deposition, suggesting an important role of oxidative stress in the induction of NAFLD.

  5. Survival Advantage With the Addition of Radiation Therapy to Chemotherapy in Early Stage Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xi-Mei; Li, Ye-Xiong; Wang, Wei-Hu; Jin, Jing; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Song, Yong-Wen; Fang, Hui; Ren, Hua; Zhou, Li-Qiang; Liu, Xin-Fan; Yu, Zi-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Early stage peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) is rare. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of treatment as well as the potential role of radiation therapy in PTCL-NOS. Methods and Materials: Thirty-five patients with early stage PTCL-NOS were included. There were 13 patients with stage I disease and 22 with stage II. All patients except 1 received doxorubicin-based chemotherapy alone (n=13) or a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy (CMT) (n=21). Results: The 3-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates for the entire group were 41.3% and 25.7%, respectively. The addition of radiation therapy to chemotherapy significantly improved OS and PFS in early stage PTCL-NOS. The 3-year OS and PFS rates were 49.7% and 33.3% for CMT, compared with 23.1% (P=.042) and 15.4% (P=.035) for chemotherapy alone, respectively. The prognosis for patients who achieved a complete response (CR) was significantly better than that observed in those who did not achieve a CR. Conclusions: Despite the aggressive clinical course of early stage PTCL-NOS, additional radiation therapy has a significant impact on outcome. The integration of local radiation therapy into more effective systemic therapies may further improve survival

  6. Survival Advantage With the Addition of Radiation Therapy to Chemotherapy in Early Stage Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xi-Mei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institution, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Li, Ye-Xiong, E-mail: yexiong@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institution, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing (China); Wang, Wei-Hu; Jin, Jing; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Song, Yong-Wen; Fang, Hui; Ren, Hua [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institution, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing (China); Zhou, Li-Qiang [Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institution, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing (China); Liu, Xin-Fan; Yu, Zi-Hao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institution, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing (China)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Early stage peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) is rare. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of treatment as well as the potential role of radiation therapy in PTCL-NOS. Methods and Materials: Thirty-five patients with early stage PTCL-NOS were included. There were 13 patients with stage I disease and 22 with stage II. All patients except 1 received doxorubicin-based chemotherapy alone (n=13) or a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy (CMT) (n=21). Results: The 3-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates for the entire group were 41.3% and 25.7%, respectively. The addition of radiation therapy to chemotherapy significantly improved OS and PFS in early stage PTCL-NOS. The 3-year OS and PFS rates were 49.7% and 33.3% for CMT, compared with 23.1% (P=.042) and 15.4% (P=.035) for chemotherapy alone, respectively. The prognosis for patients who achieved a complete response (CR) was significantly better than that observed in those who did not achieve a CR. Conclusions: Despite the aggressive clinical course of early stage PTCL-NOS, additional radiation therapy has a significant impact on outcome. The integration of local radiation therapy into more effective systemic therapies may further improve survival.

  7. Physicochemical composition and antioxidant properties of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical composition and antioxidant properties of a sweetpotato variety ( Ipomoea batatas L) commercially sold in South Eastern Nigeria. ... Results show that this sweet potato variety has potentials of biological properties and could have wide utility in food, alcohol and sugar industries. In addition, it could serve as ...

  8. Development of antioxidative effect in ice cream with Kalakai (Stenochlaena palustris) water extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadhiwaluyo, Kristania; Rahmawati, Della; Gunawan Puteri, Maria D. P. T.

    2017-11-01

    Kalakai (Stenochlaena. palustris) extract was used to develop the ice cream. The antioxidant activity of the extracts and its stability over process and storage were evaluated through various antioxidant assay including DPPH assay, Folin-Ciocalteau assay and aluminum chloride colorimetric method. In general, the leaves of S. palustris had a significantly higher antioxidant activity (p ice cream without affecting the sensory properties of the ice cream. In addition, the high phenolic and flavonoid content also suggest the more compounds that were capable to act as an antioxidant. The result of the stability test also suggested the ability low temperature storage and processing in maintaining the stability of the antioxidant activity of the extract (p > 0.05) over processing and storage. Thus, this strengthen the feasibility of S. palustris to be used as a potential functional food ingredient that is low cost and easily accessible with an antioxidant activity and safe iron content that is beneficial to increase the quality of food produced including in ice cream.

  9. Effect of dietary antioxidants, training, and performance correlates on antioxidant status in competitive rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakhuis, Andrea J; Hopkins, Will G; Lowe, Timothy E

    2013-09-01

    The beneficial effects of exercise and a healthy diet are well documented in the general population but poorly understood in elite athletes. Previous research in subelite athletes suggests that regular training and an antioxidant-rich diet enhance antioxidant defenses but not performance. To investigate whether habitual diet and/or exercise (training status or performance) affect antioxidant status in elite athletes. Antioxidant blood biomarkers were assessed before and after a 30-min ergometer time trial in 28 male and 34 female rowers. The antioxidant blood biomarkers included ascorbic acid, uric acid, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), erythrocyte- superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase. Rowers completed a 7-d food diary and an antioxidant-intake questionnaire. Effects of diet, training, and performance on resting biomarkers were assessed with Pearson correlations, and their effect on exercise-induced changes in blood biomarkers was assessed by a method of standardization. With the exception of GPx, there were small to moderate increases with exercise for all markers. Blood resting TAC had a small correlation with total antioxidant intake (correlation .29; 90% confidence limits, ±.27), and the exercise-induced change in TAC had a trivial to small association with dietary antioxidant intake from vitamin C (standardized effect .19; ±.22), vegetables (.20; ±.23), and vitamin A (.25; ±.27). Most other dietary intakes had trivial associations with antioxidant biomarkers. Years of training had a small inverse correlation with TAC (-.32; ±.19) and a small association with the exercise-induced change in TAC (.27; ±.24). Training status correlates more strongly with antioxidant status than diet does.

  10. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral antioxidant supplement therapy in patients with dry eye syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jehn-Yu; Yeh, Po-Ting; Hou, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Jehn-Yu Huang, Po-Ting Yeh, Yu-Chih Hou Department of Ophthalmology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of oral antioxidant supplementation in the treatment of patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). Methods: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded study compared the effects of an antioxidant supplement (containing anthocyanosides, astaxanthin, vitamins A, C, and E, and several herbal extract...

  11. Application of MM wave therapy in radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, R.S. [Inst. of Radio Physics & Electronics, Ashtarack (Argentina); Gasparyan, L.V. [Republican Medical Centre Armenia, Yerevan (Argentina)

    1995-12-31

    The authors studied the effects of MM wave electromagnetic radiation influence on patients, affected by X-ray radiation during the reparation works after Chernobyl nuclear power plant exposure. They compared results of treatment of two groups of patients: (1) control group patients received only basis therapy; (2) testing group, 10 patients received basis therapy and MM wave influence. The authors used the wide band noise generator `Artsakh - 2` for local irradiation on the acupuncture points. Their data proved that low intensity MM waves have immunocorrective, antioxidant effects, and MM wave therapy is a perspective method for treatment of patients with radiological pathology.

  12. Total Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), Antioxidant Activity, and Acceptance of Synbiotic Yoghurt with Binahong Leaf Extract (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, R. P.; Nissa, C.; Afifah, D. N.; Anjani, G.; Rustanti, N.

    2018-02-01

    Alternative treatment for metabolic syndrome can be done by providing a diet consist of functional foods or beverages. Synbiotic yoghurt containing binahong leaf extract which high in antioxidant, total LAB and fiber can be selected to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome. The effect of binahong leaf extract in synbiotic yoghurt against total LAB, antioxidant activity, and acceptance were analyzed. The experiment was done with complete randomized design with addition of binahong leaf extract 0% (control); 0.12%; 0.25%; 0.5% in synbiotic yoghurt. Analysis of total LAB using Total Plate Count test, antioxidant activity using DPPH, and acceptance were analyzed by hedonic test. The addition of binahong leaf extract in various doses in synbiotic yoghurt decreased total LAB without significant effect (p=0,145). There was no effect of addition binahong leaf extract on antioxidant activity (p=0,297). The addition of binahong leaf extract had an effect on color, but not on aroma, texture and taste. The best result was yoghurt synbiotic with addition of 0,12% binahong leaf extract. Conclusion of the research was the addition of binahong leaf extract to synbiotic yogurt did not significantly affect total LAB, antioxidant activity, aroma, texture and taste; but had a significant effect on color.

  13. Preliminary phytochemical analysis, Antioxidant and cytotoxicity test of Carissa edulis Vahl dried fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowsiya, J.; Madhumitha, G.

    2017-11-01

    Plants are the main source of medicine which is used in traditional as well as modern medicine in recent years for curing many diseases. Carissa edulis Vahl is one of the traditional plants which have healing property on diarrhea, toothache and chest pain. The present work aims on phytochemical, antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxicity test of C. edulis dried fruits. The different solvent extracts obtained from petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, ethanol and water have been evaluated the presence of phytochemicals. Several assays were carried out like total antioxidant, DPPH, reducing power and thiobarbituric acid to investigate the free radical scavenging property. In addition, the cytotoxicity study also carried out on human lung cancer cells (A549). Among different solvent extract, ethanol exhibited strong antioxidant activity. Additionally, the in vitro cytotoxicity test of C. edulis on human lung cancer cell (A549) showed IC50 value 405.704 ± 2.42 μg/mL. Therefore, C. edulis could be useful as a potential preventive intervention for free radicals mediated diseases as well as an antioxidant drug in the pharmaceutical industry.

  14. Antioxidant Deactivation on Graphenic Nanocarbon Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xinyuan [ORNL; Sen, Sujat [Brown University; Liu, Jingyu [Brown University; Kulaots, Indrek [Brown University; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Kane, Agnes [Brown University; Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Palmore, G. Tayhas R. [Brown University; Hurt, Robert H. [Brown University

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a direct chemical pathway for antioxidant deactivation on the surfaces of carbon nanomaterials. In the absence of cells, carbon nanotubes are shown to deplete the key physiological antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in a reaction involving dissolved dioxygen that yields the oxidized dimer, GSSG, as the primary product. In both chemical and electrochemical experiments, oxygen is only consumed at a significant steady-state rate in the presence of both nanotubes and GSH. GSH deactivation occurs for single- and multi-walled nanotubes, graphene oxide, nanohorns, and carbon black at varying rates that are characteristic of the material. The GSH depletion rates can be partially unified by surface area normalization, are accelerated by nitrogen doping, and suppressed by defect annealing or addition of proteins or surfactants. It is proposed that dioxygen reacts with active sites on graphenic carbon surfaces to produce surface-bound oxygen intermediates that react heterogeneously with glutathione to restore the carbon surface and complete a catalytic cycle. The direct catalytic reaction between nanomaterial surfaces and antioxidants may contribute to oxidative stress pathways in nanotoxicity, and the dependence on surface area and structural defects suggest strategies for safe material design.

  15. Oxidative stress in organophosphate poisoning: role of standard antidotal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanova, Nela; Pejchal, Jaroslav; Herman, David; Dlabkova, Alzbeta; Jun, Daniel

    2018-08-01

    Despite the main mechanism of organophosphate (OP) toxicity through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) being well known over the years, some chronic adverse health effects indicate the involvement of additional pathways. Oxidative stress is among the most intensively studied. Overstimulation of cholinergic and glutamatergic nervous system is followed by intensified generation of reactive species and oxidative damage in many tissues. In this review, the role of oxidative stress in pathophysiology of OP poisoning and the influence of commonly used medical interventions on its levels are discussed. Current standardized therapy of OP intoxications comprises live-saving administration of the anticholinergic drug atropine accompanied by oxime AChE reactivator and diazepam. The capability of these antidotes to ameliorate OP-induced oxidative stress varies between both therapeutic groups and individual medications within the drug class. Regarding oxidative stress, atropine does not seem to have a significant effect on oxidative stress parameters in OP poisoning. In a case of AChE reactivators, pro-oxidative and antioxidative properties could be found. It is assumed that the ability of oximes to trigger oxidative stress is rather associated with their chemical structure than reactivation efficacy. The data indicating the potency of diazepam in preventing OP-induced oxidative stress are not available. Based on current knowledge on the mechanism of OP-mediated oxidative stress, alternative approaches (including antioxidants or multifunctional drugs) in therapy of OP poisoning are under consideration. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Effect of Sulfites on Antioxidant Activity, Total Polyphenols, and Flavonoid Measurements in White Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Mirella; Garaguso, Ivana

    2018-03-09

    Polyphenols content and antioxidant activity are directly related to the quality of wine. Wine also contains sulfites, which are added during the winemaking process. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of sulfites on the assays commonly used to measure the antioxidant activity and polyphenols and flavonoids content of white wines. The effects of sulfites were explored both in the standard assays and in white wine. The addition of sulfites (at 1-10 μg) in the standard assays resulted in a significant, positive interference in the Folin-Ciocalteu's assay used for polyphenols measurements and in both the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt radical cation decolorization assays, which were used for antioxidant activity evaluation. A negative interference of sulfites (at 1-20 μg) was observed for the colorimetric aluminium-chloride flavonoids assay. The addition of sulfites to organic white wines (at 25-200 mg/L wine) clearly resulted in a significant overestimation of antioxidant activity and polyphenols content, and in an underestimation of flavonoids concentration. To overcome sulfite interferences, white wines were treated with cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone. The total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity measurements obtained after polyvinylpyrrolidone treatment were significantly lower than those obtained in the untreated wines. Flavonoids were expected to be higher after polyvinylpyrrolidone treatment, but were instead found to be lower than for untreated wines, suggesting that in addition to sulfites, other non-phenolic reducing compounds were present in white wine and interfered with the flavonoid assay. In view of our results, we advise that a purification procedure should be applied in order to evaluate the quality of white wine.

  17. Antioxidant effects and phytochemical analysis of crude and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BCSInformatique

    2012-05-24

    May 24, 2012 ... as one of the antioxidant in the list of existing food additives in Japan. In the present study, the ... preservative effect of many plant species and herbs suggests the ... Algeria. Because of its fast growth and good quality, it is.

  18. Comparison of the antioxidant effects of carnosic acid and synthetic antioxidants on tara seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan-Jun; Yang, Feng-Jian; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuan-Gang

    2018-04-04

    In the present study, tara seed oil was obtained by supercritical fluid extraction and used to investigate the antioxidant strength of carnosic acid (CA) compared with conventional synthetic antioxidants. The antioxidants were added to the tara seed oil at 0.2 mg of antioxidant per gram of oil. The samples were then submitted to at 60 °C 15 days for an accelerated oxidation process, with samples taken regularly for analysis. After oxidation, the samples were analyzed to determine the peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, conjugated diene content, and free fatty acid content. CA was investigated at three purity levels (CA20, CA60, CA99), and compared with three synthetic antioxidants (butylatedhydroxyanisole, butylatedhydroxytoluene, and tert-butylhydroquinone). The oxidation indicators showed that CA was a strong antioxidant compared to the synthetic antioxidants. The antioxidant activities decreased in the order: tert-butylhydroquinone > CA99 > CA60 > CA20 > butylatedhydroxyanisole > butylatedhydroxytoluene. These results show that CA could be used to replace synthetic antioxidants in oil products, and should be safer for human consumption and the environment.

  19. Developing SyrinOX total antioxidant capacity assay for measuring antioxidants in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Endry N; Knes, Otto; Nyanhongo, Gibson S; Guebitz, Georg M

    2013-02-01

    Accurate monitoring of the antioxidant status or of oxidative stress in patients is still a big challenge in clinical laboratories. This study investigates the possibility of applying a newly developed total antioxidant capacity assay method based on laccase or peroxidase oxidized syringaldazine [Tetramethoxy azobismethylene quinone (TMAMQ)] which is referred to here as SyrinOX, as a diagnostic tool for monitoring both oxidative stress and antioxidant status in patients. Attempts to adapt the Randox total antioxidant procedure [simultaneous incubation of the radical generating system (metmyoglobin and H(2) O(2) ) and antioxidant sample] for SyrinOX were abandoned after it was discovered that the H(2) O(2) reacted with enzymatically generated TMAMQ and ABTS radicals at a rate of 6.4 × 10(-2) /μM/s and 5.7 × 10(-3) /μM/s respectively. Thus this study for the first time demonstrates the negative effects of H(2) O(2) in the Randox system. This leads to erroneous results because the total antioxidant values obtained are the sum of radicals reduced by antioxidants plus those reacting with the radical generating system. Therefore they should be avoided not only for this particular method but also when using other similar methods. Consequently, SyrinOX is best applied using a three-step approach involving, production of TMAMQ, recovery and purification (free from enzyme and other impurities) and then using TMAMQ for measuring the total antioxidant capacity of samples. Using this approach, the reaction conditions for application of SyrinOX when measuring the total antioxidant capacity of plasma sample were determined to be 50% (v/v) ethanol/50 mM sodium succinate buffer pH 5.5, between 20 and 25 °C for at least 1 h. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2012 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  20. Natural phenolic antioxidants in human fluids: analytical approaches and antioxidant capacity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, K.; Zuo, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are the most abundant natural antioxidants in our diet. Epidemiological studies have shown the possible prevention effects of consumption of fruits and vegetables rich in phenolic compounds on degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancers. However, there is a serious lack of fundamental knowledge on the uptake and metabolism of phenolic compounds in humans. It is clear that phenolic molecules, only absorbed by humans, can exert biological effects. This review presents a current knowledge on the analytical methods, antioxidant capacity measurements, as well as research strategies related to natural phenolic antioxidants on human health. Both GC-MS and LC-MS have proved to be very useful analytical techniques that can be employed to identify and quantitate targeted phenolic antioxidants and their metabolites in biofluids. Free radical quenching tests provide a direct measurement of antioxidant capacity but lack specificity and may oversimplify the in vivo human physiological environment. Research strategies are diverse and mainly focused on positive health effect of antioxidants. In the future studies, multiple potential bioactivities, both positive and negative, should be considered. (author)

  1. Natural antioxidants in chemoprevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragsted, L.O. [Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Soeberg (Denmark). Inst. of Toxicology

    1998-12-31

    It is well documented that diets rich in fruits and vegetables can reduce the risk of most common cancers, and that some food items from this class may be protective against heart disease. Several explanations have been offered, one of which relates to the natural presence of potent antioxidants in plant products. Destructive oxidation of lipids, proteins, DNA, and other important biomolecules, often involving radical chain reactions, affect vital cellular structures and their normal functions. Such processes are involved in the development of cancer as well as heart disease, and it seems logical to assume that antioxidants might be preventive. Large human trials with natural antioxidants have not provided a uniform support, however, for the hypothesis that antioxidation per se may prevent cancer or coronary heart disease (CHD). One reason is that other effects, unrelated to antioxidation, may compromise their preventive effects. Another reason may be that many potent antioxidants can also act as pro-oxidants under certain conditions. The interpretation of animal trials is likewise often compromised by the fact that most antioxidants have other physiological effects which might very well explain their protective action or lead to toxic side-effects. (orig.)

  2. Studies on Juice Quality Obtained from Pomegranate and Various Vegetables Additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Pop

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the interest in antioxidants, mainly present in fruits and vegetables, has prompted research in the field of commercial beverages. Taking into account new requirements to improve the quality of feeding behaviour by getting juices without added sugar, the consumer health benefits and high organoleptics properties, it was decided to study the correlation quality of raw pomegranates with other vegetables such as celery, carrot and sharon fruit in order to obtain pomegranate juice with vegetable additions. The vegetable raw materials were chosen in order to improve the quality and organoleptic properties of the pomegranate juice with vegetable additions by optimizing the “in-house” method, to obtaining a stable formulation. The main objectives of the study were characterization of raw and addition materials, studied by psycho-chemical analysis, evaluating of the antioxidant capacity of 4 types of pomegranate juice with additions in different proportions,  establish the best type of mixture juice. Consumer preference was established in sensory analysis  based on hedonic test with 9 point scale, the type of juice with additions with the following concentrations: pomegranate 50%, Sharon 10%, celery 30%, carrot 10%. Positive correlations were performed between antioxidant capacity and type of juice preferred by consumers.

  3. Antioxidant Vitamins and Their Use in Preventing Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Levy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis remains one of the leading causes of death in Western populations. Subsequent to the discovery that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, vitamins C and E, along with other antioxidants, were studied as potential therapies for the disease. However, while in vitro and in vivo studies showed promising antiatherogenic effects for vitamins C and E, clinical trials in which patients were given high doses of vitamin E or C showed no benefit and even possible harm. This review will attempt to summarize the known mechanistic data regarding the biochemical effects of vitamins C and E and their relevance to atherosclerosis, and offer an explanation for the failure of clinical trials to show that supplementation with these vitamins provides any benefit when given indiscriminately. We provide one example of how pharmacogenomics may be used to identify a sub-population which may indeed benefit from antioxidant supplementation.

  4. Possibility of determination of the level of antioxidants in human body using spectroscopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeeva, E; Gorbunova, E

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the processes of antioxidant defence against aggressive free radicals in human body were investigated theoretically; and the existing methods of diagnosis of oxidative stress and disturbance of antioxidant activity were reviewed. Also, the kinetics of free radical reactions in the oxidation of luminol and interaction antioxidants (such as chlorophyll in the multicomponent system of plant's leaves and ubiquinone) with the UV radiation were investigated experimentally by spectroscopic method. The results showed that this method is effective for recording the luminescence of antioxidants, free radicals, chemiluminescent reactions and fluorescence. In addition these results reveal new opportunities for the study of the antioxidant activity and antioxidant balance in a multicomponent system by allocating features of the individual components in spectral composition. A creation of quality control method for drugs, that are required for oxidative stress diagnosis, is a promising direction in the development of given work. (paper)

  5. Ozone Therapy on Rats Submitted to Subtotal Nephrectomy: Role of Antioxidant System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Calunga

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic renal failure (CRF represents a world health problem. Ozone increases the endogenous antioxidant defense system, preserving the cell redox state. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of ozone/oxygen mixture in the renal function, morphology, and biochemical parameters, in an experimental model of CRF (subtotal nephrectomy. Ozone/oxygen mixture was applied daily, by rectal insufflation (0.5 mg/kg for 15 sessions after the nephrectomy. Renal function was evaluated, as well as different biochemical parameters, at the beginning and at the end of the study (10 weeks. Renal plasmatic flow (RPF, glomerular filtration rate (GFR, the urine excretion index, and the sodium and potassium excretions (as a measurement of tubular function in the ozone group were similar to those in Sham group. Nevertheless, nephrectomized rats without ozone (positive control group showed the lowest RPF, GFR, and urine excretion figures, as well as tubular function. Animals treated with ozone showed systolic arterial pressure (SAP figures lower than those in the positive control group, but higher values compared to Sham group. Serum creatinine values and protein excretion in 24 hours in the ozone group were decreased compared with nephrectomized rats, but were still higher than normal values. Histological study demonstrated that animals treated with ozone showed less number of lesions in comparison with nephrectomized rats. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were significantly increased in nephrectomized and ozone-treated nephrectomized rats in comparison with Sham group. In the positive control group, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT showed the lowest figures in comparison with the other groups. However, ozone/oxygen mixture induced a significant stimulation in the enzymatic activity of CAT, SOD, and glutathione peroxidase, as well as reduced glutathione in relation with Sham and positive control groups. In this animal model of CRF, ozone

  6. Oxidant-Antioxidant Balance In Epileptic Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moawad, A.T.; Mohammed, A.A.; El-Maghraby, D.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    level in uncontrolled group was highly significantly decreased than in controlled group. In all epileptic children, a significant negative correlation between the duration of the drug intake and serum level of GST was recorded. On the other hand, there was significant positive correlation between the duration of the drug intake and plasma level of MDA. In conclusion, the oxidant-antioxidant balance in idiopathic epileptic children who received either VPA or CBZ or both was disturbed, so, the epileptic patients could need adequate supply of potent antioxidant as an adjuvant in antiepileptic therapy

  7. The proper time for antioxidant consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Michaël; Schaefer, H Martin

    2014-04-10

    Consuming food rich in antioxidants may help organisms to increase their antioxidant defences and avoid oxidative damage. Under the hypothesis that organisms actively consume food for its antioxidant properties, they would need to do so in view of other physiological requirements, such as energy requirements. Here, we observed that Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) consumed most seeds rich in antioxidants in the middle of the day, while their consumption of staple seeds more profitable in energy intake (and poor in antioxidants) was maximal in the morning and the evening. This consumption of seeds rich in antioxidants in the middle of the day may be explicable (1) because birds took advantage of a time window associated with relaxed energy requirements to ingest antioxidant resources, or (2) because birds consumed antioxidant resources as a response to the highest antioxidant requirements in the middle of the day. If the latter hypothesis holds true, having the possibility to ingest antioxidants should be most beneficial in terms of oxidative balance in the middle of the day. Even though feeding on seeds rich in antioxidants improved Gouldian finches' overall antioxidant capacity, we did not detect any diurnal effect of antioxidant intake on plasma oxidative markers (as measured by the d-ROM and the OXY-adsorbent tests). This indicates that the diurnal pattern of antioxidant intake that we observed was most likely constrained by the high consumption of staple food to replenish or build up body reserves in the morning and in the evening, and not primarily determined by elevated antioxidant requirements in the middle of the day. Consequently, animals appear to have the possibility to increase antioxidant defences by selecting food rich in antioxidants, only when energetic constraints are relaxed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Antioxidant properties of Taraxacum officinale leaf extract are involved in the protective effect against hepatoxicity induced by acetaminophen in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Dirleise; Arantes, Leticia Priscilla; Gubert, Priscila; da Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Teixeira Rocha, João Batista; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes

    2012-06-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity has been related to several cases of hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatic transplant. As APAP hepatotoxicity is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and excessive oxidative stress, natural antioxidant compounds have been tested as an alternative therapy to diminish the hepatic dysfunction induced by APAP. Taraxacum officinale Weber (Family Asteraceae), commonly known as dandelion, is used for medicinal purposes because of its choleretic, diuretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective properties. This study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of T. officinale leaf extract against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. T. officinale was able to decrease thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels induced by 200 mg/kg APAP (p.o.), as well as prevent the decrease in sulfhydryl levels caused by APAP treatment. Furthermore, histopathological alterations, as well as the increased levels of serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferases caused by APAP, were prevented by T. officinale (0.1 and 0.5 mg/mL). In addition, T. officinale extract also demonstrated antioxidant activity in vitro, as well as scavenger activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and nitric oxide radicals. Our results clearly demonstrate the hepatoprotective effect of T. officinale against the toxicity induced by APAP. The possible mechanisms involved include its scavenger activities against ROS and reactive nitrogen species, which are attributed to the content of phenolic compounds in the extract.

  9. Development of a PEGylated-Based Platform for Efficient Delivery of Dietary Antioxidants Across the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Carlos; Pinto, Miguel; Martins, Cláudia; Gomes, Maria João; Sarmento, Bruno; Oliveira, Paulo J; Remião, Fernando; Borges, Fernanda

    2018-05-16

    The uptake and transport of dietary antioxidants remains the most important setback for their application in therapy. To overcome the limitations, a PEGylated-based platform was developed to improve the delivery properties of two dietary hydroxycinnamic (HCA) antioxidants-caffeic and ferulic acids. The antioxidant properties of the new polymer-antioxidant conjugates (PEGAntiOxs), prepared by linking poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to the cinnamic acids by a one-step Knovenagel condensation reaction, were evaluated. PEGAntiOxs present a higher lipophilicity than the parent compounds (caffeic and ferulic acids) and similar, or higher, antioxidant properties. PEGAntiOxs were not cytotoxic at the tested concentrations in SH-SY5Y, Caco-2, and hCMEC/D3 cells. By contrast, cytotoxic effects in hCMEC/D3 and SH-SY5Y cells were observed, at 50 and 100 μM, for caffeic and ferulic acids. PEGAntiOxs operate as antioxidants against several oxidative stress-cellular inducers in a neuronal cell-based model, and were able to inhibit glycoprotein-P in Caco-2 cells. PEGAntiOxs can cross hCMEC/D3 monolayer cells, a model of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelial membrane. In summary, PEGAntiOxs are valid antioxidant prototypes that can uphold the antioxidant properties of HCAs, reduce their cytotoxicity, and improve their BBB permeability. PEGAntiOxs can be used in the near future as drug candidates to prevent or slow oxidative stress associated with neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. Renoprotective effect of the antioxidant curcumin: Recent findings☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Joyce; Chirino, Yolanda Irasema; Molina-Jijón, Eduardo; Andérica-Romero, Ana Cristina; Tapia, Edilia; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José

    2013-01-01

    For years, there have been studies based on the use of natural compounds plant-derived as potential therapeutic agents for various diseases in humans. Curcumin is a phenolic compound extracted from Curcuma longa rhizome commonly used in Asia as a spice, pigment and additive. In traditional medicine of India and China, curcumin is considered as a therapeutic agent used in several foods. Numerous studies have shown that curcumin has broad biological functions particularly antioxidant and antiinflammatory. In fact, it has been established that curcumin is a bifunctional antioxidant; it exerts antioxidant activity in a direct and an indirect way by scavenging reactive oxygen species and inducing an antioxidant response, respectively. The renoprotective effect of curcumin has been evaluated in several experimental models including diabetic nephropathy, chronic renal failure, ischemia and reperfusion and nephrotoxicity induced by compounds such as gentamicin, adriamycin, chloroquine, iron nitrilotriacetate, sodium fluoride, hexavalent chromium and cisplatin. It has been shown recently in a model of chronic renal failure that curcumin exerts a therapeutic effect; in fact it reverts not only systemic alterations but also glomerular hemodynamic changes. Another recent finding shows that the renoprotective effect of curcumin is associated to preservation of function and redox balance of mitochondria. Taking together, these studies attribute the protective effect of curcumin in the kidney to the induction of the master regulator of antioxidant response nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2 (Nrf2), inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction, attenuation of inflammatory response, preservation of antioxidant enzymes and prevention of oxidative stress. The information presented in this paper identifies curcumin as a promising renoprotective molecule against renal injury. PMID:24191240

  11. Renoprotective effect of the antioxidant curcumin: Recent findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Trujillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For years, there have been studies based on the use of natural compounds plant-derived as potential therapeutic agents for various diseases in humans. Curcumin is a phenolic compound extracted from Curcuma longa rhizome commonly used in Asia as a spice, pigment and additive. In traditional medicine of India and China, curcumin is considered as a therapeutic agent used in several foods. Numerous studies have shown that curcumin has broad biological functions particularly antioxidant and antiinflammatory. In fact, it has been established that curcumin is a bifunctional antioxidant; it exerts antioxidant activity in a direct and an indirect way by scavenging reactive oxygen species and inducing an antioxidant response, respectively. The renoprotective effect of curcumin has been evaluated in several experimental models including diabetic nephropathy, chronic renal failure, ischemia and reperfusion and nephrotoxicity induced by compounds such as gentamicin, adriamycin, chloroquine, iron nitrilotriacetate, sodium fluoride, hexavalent chromium and cisplatin. It has been shown recently in a model of chronic renal failure that curcumin exerts a therapeutic effect; in fact it reverts not only systemic alterations but also glomerular hemodynamic changes. Another recent finding shows that the renoprotective effect of curcumin is associated to preservation of function and redox balance of mitochondria. Taking together, these studies attribute the protective effect of curcumin in the kidney to the induction of the master regulator of antioxidant response nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2 (Nrf2, inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction, attenuation of inflammatory response, preservation of antioxidant enzymes and prevention of oxidative stress. The information presented in this paper identifies curcumin as a promising renoprotective molecule against renal injury.

  12. Structure-Based Design, Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Molecular Docking of Novel PDE10 Inhibitors with Antioxidant Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinxuan; Chen, Jing-Yi; Deng, Ya-Lin; Zhou, Qian; Wu, Yinuo; Wu, Deyan; Luo, Hai-Bin

    2018-05-01

    Phosphodiesterase 10 is a promising target for the treatment of a series of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Imbalance between oxidative stress and antioxidant defense systems as a universal condition in neurodegenerative disorders is widely studied as a potential therapy for CNS diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To discover multifunctional pharmaceuticals as a treatment for neurodegenerative diseases, a series of quinazoline-based derivatives with PDE10 inhibitory activities and antioxidant activities were designed and synthesized. Nine out of thirteen designed compounds showed good PDE10 inhibition at the concentration of 1.0 μM. Among these compounds, eight exhibited moderate to excellent antioxidant activity with ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) value above 1.0. Molecular docking was performed for better understanding of the binding patterns of these compounds with PDE10. Compound 11e, which showed remarkable inhibitory activity against PDE10 and antioxidant activity may serve as a lead for the further modification.

  13. A Review of Antioxidant Peptides Derived from Meat Muscle and By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant peptides are gradually being accepted as food ingredients, supplemented in functional food and nutraceuticals, to positively regulate oxidative stress in the human body against lipid and protein oxidation. Meat muscle and meat by-products are rich sources of proteins and can be regarded as good materials for the production of bioactive peptides by use of enzymatic hydrolysis or direct solvent extraction. In recent years, there has been a growing number of studies conducted to characterize antioxidant peptides or hydrolysates derived from meat muscle and by-products as well as processed meat products, including dry-cured hams. Antioxidant peptides obtained from animal sources could exert not only nutritional value but also bioavailability to benefit human health. This paper reviews the antioxidant peptides or protein hydrolysates identified in muscle protein and by-products. We focus on the procedure for the generation of peptides with antioxidant capacity including the acquisition of crude peptides, the assessment of antioxidant activity, and the purification and identification of the active fraction. It remains critical to perform validation experiments with a cell model, animal model or clinical trial to eliminate safety concerns before final application in the food system. In addition, some of the common characteristics on structure-activity relationship are also reviewed based on the identified antioxidant peptides.

  14. A Review of Antioxidant Peptides Derived from Meat Muscle and By-Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Xing, Lujuan; Fu, Qingquan; Zhou, Guang-Hong; Zhang, Wan-Gang

    2016-09-20

    Antioxidant peptides are gradually being accepted as food ingredients, supplemented in functional food and nutraceuticals, to positively regulate oxidative stress in the human body against lipid and protein oxidation. Meat muscle and meat by-products are rich sources of proteins and can be regarded as good materials for the production of bioactive peptides by use of enzymatic hydrolysis or direct solvent extraction. In recent years, there has been a growing number of studies conducted to characterize antioxidant peptides or hydrolysates derived from meat muscle and by-products as well as processed meat products, including dry-cured hams. Antioxidant peptides obtained from animal sources could exert not only nutritional value but also bioavailability to benefit human health. This paper reviews the antioxidant peptides or protein hydrolysates identified in muscle protein and by-products. We focus on the procedure for the generation of peptides with antioxidant capacity including the acquisition of crude peptides, the assessment of antioxidant activity, and the purification and identification of the active fraction. It remains critical to perform validation experiments with a cell model, animal model or clinical trial to eliminate safety concerns before final application in the food system. In addition, some of the common characteristics on structure-activity relationship are also reviewed based on the identified antioxidant peptides.

  15. The Effects of Different Types of Antioxidants (Se, Vitamin E and Carotenoids in Broiler Diets on the Growth Performance, Skin Pigmentation and Liver and Plasma Antioxidant Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Karadas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of the addition of different antioxidants to broiler diets on their live performance, liver antioxidant composition and concentrations, immune response, and meat and skin color. A total of 945 three-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both genders were randomly allocated to one of nine dietary treatments (n=105, with three replicates 35 chicks per pen, as follows: T1: control (commercially available corn-and soybean-based broiler diet; T2: selenium (control+0.5 mg/kg Sel-PlexTMSe yeast; T3: vitamin E (control+200 mg/kg Kavimix-E-50 a-tocopherol acetate; T4: lutein (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lutein Beads XB; T5: lycopene (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lyco Beads XB;T6: canthaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rRed;T7: apo-ester (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rYellow; T8: lutein+zeaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg Xamacol(r; and T9: b-carotene (control+100 mg/kg 10% Rovimix(r. Feed (starter, grower, developer and finisher phases and water were provided ad libitum for 42 days. Body weights, feed intake, feed conversion values and plasma carotene concentrations were recorded weekly, and liver antioxidant concentrations were recorded at the end of the experiment. Newcastle disease (LaSota vaccination was performed on day 22. HI titers were measured on days 14, 21, 35 and 42 to determine the effects of the antioxidants on the immune system. The addition of selenium, vitamin E, and carotenoid supplements to the commercial broiler diet significantly increased antioxidant accumulation in the liver and the plasma. All antioxidants assessed significantly improved the immune response. Selenium and vitamin E supplementation also significantly improved total carotenoid concentrations in the plasma. The carotenoids enhanced skin and meat color. None of the supplements tested influenced growth (p>0.05.

  16. Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of peanut protein hydrolysate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Tang

    Full Text Available Peanut protein and its hydrolysate were compared with a view to their use as food additives. The effects of pH, temperature and protein concentration on some of their key physicochemical properties were investigated. Compared with peanut protein, peanut peptides exhibited a significantly higher solubility and significantly lower turbidity at pH values 2-12 and temperature between 30 and 80°C. Peanut peptide showed better emulsifying capacity, foam capacity and foam stability, but had lower water holding and fat adsorption capacities over a wide range of protein concentrations (2-5 g/100 ml than peanut protein isolate. In addition, peanut peptide exhibited in vitro antioxidant properties measured in terms of reducing power, scavenging of hydroxyl radical, and scavenging of DPPH radical. These results suggest that peanut peptide appeared to have better functional and antioxidant properties and hence has a good potential as a food additive.

  17. SUPEROxIDE DISMUTASE AS A COMPONENT OF ANTIOxIDANT THERAPY: CURRENT STATE OF THE ISSUE AND PROSPECTS. A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Pushkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress, developing in many diseases, is an imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidant defense mechanisms of the body. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD play a key role in reduction of oxidative stress in vivo. Thus, a decrease in formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, as well as activation of lipid peroxidation (LPO due to exogenous SOD intake could be an effective method of prevention and treatment of some diseases. In this paper, we provide an overview of the results of experimental and clinical studies on the use of intravenous drugs and dietary supplements, containing SOD, in the treatment of inflammatory, infectious, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. As a result of SOD administration, the majority of authors observed an increase in the content of endogenous antioxidant enzymes (SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, i.e., stimulation of endogenous antioxidant defence and consequent reduction of oxidative stress, which may explain mechanisms of positive effects observed.

  18. Prevention of lipid oxidation in omega-3 enriched oofds by antioxidants and the use of delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Due to the health beneficial effects of marine omega-3 fatty acids there is an increasing interest in developing functional foods containing these healthy fatty acids. However, such foods are very susceptible to lipid oxidation, which will give rise to undesirable off-flavours and unhealthy...... oxidation products. Efficients strategies to prevent lipid oxidation are therefore required. Such strategies include addition of antioxidants or the use of omega-3 delivery emulsions. However, antioxidant efficacy in complex omega-3 enriched foods are influenced by many factors including the lipophilicity...... of the antioxidants. Selection of the optimal antioxidant system is therefore a major challenge. Likewise, a range of factors can influence the ability of omega-3 delivery systems to protect the omega-3 fatty acids against oxidation after addition to food systems. These challenges will be discussed...

  19. Role of micronutrients and natural antioxidants in fighting against HIV; a quick mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saeidnia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated in the progression of HIV to AIDS, since HIV usually replicates in a highly oxidized condition and CD4+ T lymphocytes can be activated via a cascade of internal oxidative pathways, which enhances the formation of proteins and enzymes. Thus, antioxidants should potentially be useful for the treatment and prevention of HIV infection as a new alternative strategy. Regarding the point that there are various approaches for treating the HIV-positive patients, antioxidant supplementation therapy alongside with other medications possesses many benefits. In fact, antioxidants and micronutrient supplements have been considered as a costly and short-term strategy to improve antioxidant deficiency. If diets come with sufficient education and scientific recommendations, they can provide a low-cost and long-term strategy to reduce oxidative stress, prevent micronutrient deficiency, and slow down HIV progression. This strategy may be applicable and beneficial particularly in countries around coast of Africa, where HIV is most common. Meantime these countries are rich of natural food resources. It seems that a healthy diet is the best way to insure proper nutrient intake, since it contains many nutrients not available in pills.

  20. Antioxidants in bakery products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanditha, B; Prabhasankar, P

    2009-01-01

    Fats impart taste and texture to the product but it is susceptible to oxidation leading to the development of rancidity and off-flavor. Since ancient times it has been in practice to use antioxidants in foods. Discovery of synthetic antioxidants has revolutionized the use of antioxidants in food. The effect of these antioxidants in bakery products were reviewed and found to be effective in enhancing the shelf life. Animal experimental studies have shown that some of the synthetic antioxidants had toxigenic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effects. Hence there is an increasing demand for the use of natural antioxidants in foods, especially in bakery products. Some of the natural antioxidants such as alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, and ascorbic acid were already used in bakery products. These natural antioxidants are found to be effective in enhancing the shelf life of bakery products but not to the extent of synthetic antioxidants. Baking processing steps may lower the antioxidative activity but techniques such as encapsulation of antioxidants can retain their activity. Antioxidative activity of the plant extracts such as garcinia, curcumin, vanillins, and mint were reviewed but studies on their role in bakery products were limited or very few. Hence there is a wide scope for study under this direction in depth.

  1. Structurally modified pectin for targeted lipid antioxidant capacity in linseed/sunflower oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celus, Miete; Salvia-Trujillo, Laura; Kyomugasho, Clare; Maes, Ine; Van Loey, Ann M; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2018-02-15

    The present work explored the lipid antioxidant capacity of citrus pectin addition to 5%(w/v) linseed/sunflower oil emulsions stabilized with 0.5%(w/v) Tween 80, as affected by pectin molecular characteristics. The peroxide formation in the emulsions, containing tailored pectin structures, was studied during two weeks of storage at 35°C. Low demethylesterified pectin (≤33%) exhibited a higher antioxidant capacity than high demethylesterified pectin (≥58%), probably due to its higher chelating capacity of pro-oxidative metal ions (Fe 2+ ), whereas the distribution pattern of methylesters along the pectin chain only slightly affected the antioxidant capacity. Nevertheless, pectin addition to the emulsions caused emulsion destabilization probably due to depletion or bridging effect, independent of the pectin structural characteristics. These results evidence the potential of structurally modified citrus pectin as a natural antioxidant in emulsions. However, optimal conditions for emulsion stability should be carefully selected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors affecting antioxidant activity of soybean meal and caseine protein hydrolysates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korczak, J.

    1998-01-01

    Antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysates was dependent on the raw material, condition of hydrolysis and lipid substrate used in model systems. Soybean meal hydrolysate was more active in lard and in linoleic acid emulsion than caseine hydrolysate, whereas caseine was more active in vegetable oils. Antioxidant activity of evaluated protein hydrolysates in all lipid systems, with or without oxidation catalysts, suggests them as natural food additives for lipid stabilization, thus for improvement of its nutritional value and sensory properties

  3. antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Belmimoun A, Meddah B, Meddah A.T.T and Sonnet P

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... been used historically in the pharmaceutical, food and perfume industries because of their antibacterial properties, culinary and fragrance, respectively. Antioxidants have been widely used as additives to avoid the degradation of foods. Also, are compounds that react with free radicals, neualizing them and ...

  4. Antioxidant effects of curcuminoids in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Khalili, Nahid; Sahebi, Ebrahim; Namazi, Soha; Karimian, Maryam Saberi; Majeed, Muhammed; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2017-02-01

    Oxidative stress has a key role in the pathogenesis of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its vascular complications. Antioxidant therapy has been suggested as a potential approach to blunt T2DM development and progression. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of supplementation with curcuminoids, which are natural polyphenolics from turmeric, on oxidative indices in diabetic individuals. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 118 subjects with T2DM were randomized to curcuminoids (1000 mg/day co-administered with piperine 10 mg/day) or matching placebo for a period of 8 weeks. Serum total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured at baseline and after the supplementation period. Curcuminoids supplementation caused a significant elevation in serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (p diabetic complications and cardiovascular endpoints.

  5. Radiation resistant polypropylene blended with mobilizer,. antioxidants and nucleating agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshad, A.; Basfar, A. A.

    2000-03-01

    Post-irradiation storage of medical disposables prepared from isotactic polypropylene renders them brittle due to degradation. To avoid this, isotactic polypropylene [(is)PP] was blended with a mobilizer, dioctyl pthallate (DOP), three antioxidants (hindered amines and a secondary antioxidant) and benzoic acid to obtain radiation-resistant, thermally-stable and transparent material. Different formulations prepared were subjected to gamma radiation to doses of 25 and 50 kGy. Tests of breakage on bending after ageing in an oven at 70°C up to 12 months have shown that the addition of DOP and the antioxidants imparts improved radiation and thermal stability as compared to (is)PP alone or its blend with DOP. All the formulations irradiated or otherwise demonstrated excellent colour stability even after accelerated ageing at 70°C for prolonged periods.

  6. Libidibia ferrea presents antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant effects in a colorectal cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Andreza Conceição Véras de Aguiar; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Araújo, Aurigena Antunes de; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre de Oliveira; Medeiros, Juliana Silva de; Cavalcante, Rômulo Dos Santos; Júnior, Raimundo Fernandes de Araújo

    2017-08-01

    Colorectal cancer is noted for being one of the most frequent of tumors, with expressive morbidity and mortality rates. In new drug discovery, plants stand out as a source capable of yielding safe and high-efficiency products. Well known in Brazilian popular medicine, Libidibia ferrea (Mart. Ex Tul.) L.P. Queiroz var. ferrea (better known as "ironwood" or "jucá"), has been used to treat a wide spectrum of conditions and to prevent cancer. Using methodologies that involved flow cytometry, spectrophotometry and RT-qPCR assays, crude extracts of the fruits of L. ferrea (20T, 40T, 60T and 80T) were evaluated at 24h and/or 48h for: their ability to inhibit cell proliferation; induce apoptosis through Bcl-2, caspase-3 and Apaf-1; their antioxidant activity and effects on important targets related to cell proliferation (EGFR and AKT) in the HT-29 human colorectal cancer lineage. The results revealed high antiproliferative potential as compared to the controls, induction of apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway, and probable tumor inhibition activity under the mediation of important targets in tumorigenesis. In addition, L. ferrea revealed antioxidant, lipid peroxidation and chemoprotective effects in healthy cells. Thus, L. ferrea derivatives have important anticancer effects, and may be considered promising candidate for colorectal cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-01-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC 50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries. - Highlights: ► Radiation was applied for the hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein. ► The degree of hydrolysis were increased by irradiation and the antioxidant activity of hydrolysate was higher than protein. ► This result suggest that radiation is useful method for the hydrolysis of protein.

  8. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Vaccinium corymbosum L. leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehnaz Pervin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the leaf extract of tropical medicinal herb and food plant Vaccinium corymbosum L. (V. corymbosum . Methods: Free radical scavenging activity on DPPH, ABTS, and nitrites were used to analyse phenolic and flavonoid contents of leaf extract. Other focuses included the determination of antioxidant enzymatic activity (SOD, CAT and GPx, metal chelating activity, reduction power, lipid peroxidation inhibition and the prevention of oxidative DNA damage. Antibacterial activity was determined by using disc diffusion method against seven strains of bacteria. Results: Results found that V. corymbosum leaf extract had significant antibacterial activity. The tested extract displayed the highest activity (about 23.18 mm inhibition zone against Salmonella typhymurium and the lowest antibacterial activity was observed against Enterococcus faecalis (about 14.08 mm inhibition zone at 10 mg/ disc. The IC 50 values for DPPH, ABTS and radical scavenging activity were 0.120, 0.049 and 1.160 mg/mL, respectively. V. corymbosum leaf extract also showed dose dependent reduction power, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage prevention and significant antioxidant enzymatic activity. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that leaf extract of V. corymbosum could be used as an alternative therapy for antibiotic-resistant bacteria and help prevent various free radical related diseases.

  9. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Vaccinium corymbosum L. leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, Mehnaz; Hasnat, Md Abul; Lim, Beong Ou

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the leaf extract of tropical medicinal herb and food plant Vaccinium corymbosum L. (V. corymbosum). Methods Free radical scavenging activity on DPPH, ABTS, and nitrites were used to analyse phenoic and flavonoid contents of leaf extract. Other focuses included the determination of antioxidant enzymatic activity (SOD, CAT and GPx), metal chelating activity, reduction power, lipid peroxidation inhibition and the prevention of oxidative DNA damage. Antibacterial activity was determined by using disc diffusion for seven strains of bacteria. Results Results found that V. corymbosum leaf extract had significant antibacterial activity. The tested extract displayed the highest activity (about 23.18 mm inhibition zone) against Salmonella typhymurium and the lowest antibacterial activity was observed against Enterococcus faecalis (about 14.08 mm inhibition zone) at 10 mg/ disc. The IC50 values for DPPH, ABTS and radical scavenging activity were 0.120, 0.049 and 1.160 mg/mL, respectively. V. corymbosum leaf extract also showed dose dependent reduction power, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage prevention and significant antioxidant enzymatic activity. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that leaf extract of V. corymbosum could be used as an alternative therapy for antibiotic-resistant bacteria and help prevent various free radical related diseases.

  10. Study on preparation of new antioxidants for radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex product. Antioxidant from keratin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Quoc Hien; Nguyen Van Toan; Vo Tan Thien; Le Hai

    2000-01-01

    The thermo-oxidative aging resistance of radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex (RVNRL) products should be adequately by using suitable antioxidants or new kind of effective antioxidant. This work presents the results of preparation of natural antioxidant from hair keratin. Characteristics and effectiveness of resultant antioxidant are also presented. The results obtained indicates that antioxidant made from hair keratin is safe and effective for rubber products from RVNRL. (author)

  11. Effect of natural antioxidants on the quality of frozen sardine fillets (Sardina pilchardus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Manuel Maneta Ganhão

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of new technologies / processes provides different benefits on seafood sector, namely by enhanced the shelf-life of fish products with high polyunsaturated fatty acid composition. This is particularly critical during some months of the year when fish (e.g. sardines are larger supply than demand by consumers. The aim of this study was to performed the optimization process of adding natural antioxidants on frozen sardine fillets and evaluated the effect of addition of two natural antioxidants on the lipid oxidation process during storage at -200C. To evaluate the effect of the addition of antioxidants in sardine fillets, the product matrix was chemical characterized, including by the evaluation of the fatty acid profile. The lipid oxidation process was followed by the primary products (peroxide value and secondary products (TBARS quantification, and also by the analysis of the sensory changes (instrumental assessment of color. Finally, it was done a hedonic preference test to know the opinion of consumers about the frozen fillets with and without antioxidant. The natural antioxidants used, tocopherol (54 mg/fillet and tocopherols (15 mg/fillet with rosemary extract (6.5 mg/fillet inhibited or retarded the oxidation over time of storage when compared with the control samples, that had advanced oxidation process. There was not statistically differences among the fillets treated with tocopherol in the presence and absence of rosemary extract. However, our laboratorial results shown slight tendency for the view that the antioxidant tocopherols and rosemary extract had a greater effect on the oxidative stability of fillets. This observation is in line with results of the hedonic test consumer preference. The use of natural antioxidants is an inexpensive solution which allows the complete use of products with less waste of fish products and with a great need for disposal. At the same time meets the consumer´s requirements.

  12. Uric acid, an important antioxidant contributing to survival in termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki, Eisuke; Sakurai, Hiroki; Nitao, Masaru; Matsuura, Kenji; Iuchi, Yoshihito

    2017-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated spontaneously in all organisms and cause oxidative damage to biomolecules when present in excess. Accumulated oxidative damage accelerates aging; enhanced antioxidant capacity may be a positive factor for longevity. Recently, numerous studies of aging and longevity have been performed using short-lived animals, however, longevity mechanisms remain unknown. Here we show that a termite Reticulitermes speratus that is thought to be long-lived eusocial insect than other solitary insects uses large quantities of uric acid as an antioxidant against ROS. We demonstrated that the accumulation of uric acid considerably increases the free radical-scavenging activity and resistance against ultraviolet-induced oxidative stress in laboratory-maintained termites. In addition, we found that externally administered uric acid aided termite survival under highly oxidative conditions. The present data demonstrates that in addition to nutritional and metabolic roles, uric acid is an essential antioxidant for survival and contributes significantly to longevity. Uric acid also plays important roles in primates but causes gout when present in excess in humans. Further longevity studies of long-lived organisms may provide important breakthroughs with human health applications. PMID:28609463

  13. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

  14. Effects of Puerariae Radix extract on the activity of antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joon Eun

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidative effects of Puerariae Radix extract. Method : Total antioxidant capacity (TAC, Total antioxidant response (TAR, Total phenolic content, Reactive oxygen species (ROS, 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activities, lipid peroxidation were examined. Result : Total antioxidant status was examined by total antioxidant capacity(TAC and total antioxidant response(TAR against potent free radical reactions. TAC and TAR of Puerariae Radix extract at the concentration of 5 mg/㎖ were 2.02 and 1.50 mM Trolox equivalents, respectively. Total phenolic content of Puerariae Radix extract at the concentration of 5mg/㎖ was 2.29 mM gallic acid equivalent. Concentration of Puerariae Radix extract at which DPPH radical scavenging activity was inhibited by 50% was 5.91 mg/㎖ as compared to 100% by pyrogallol solution as a reference. The inhibitory effect of the extract on lipid peroxidation was examined using rat liver mitochondria induced by FeSO4/ascorbic acid. Puerariae Radix extract at the concentration of 1 mg/㎖ slightly but significantly decreased TBARS concentration. The extract further prevented lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of Puerariae Radix extract on reactive oxygen species (ROS generation was examined using cell-free system induced by hydrogen peroxide/FeSO4. Addition of 1 mg/㎖ of Puerariae Radix extract significantly reduced dichloroflurescein (DCF fluorescence. The extract caused concentration-dependent attenuation of the increase in DCF fluorescence, indicating that the extract significantly prevented ROS generation in vitro. Thus antioxidant effects of Puerariae Radix extract seem to be due to, at least in part, the prevention from free radicals-induced oxidation, followed by inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Conclusion : As a result, Puerariae Radix seems to have antioxitative effect and antioxidant compount.

  15. Lipophilization of dihydrocaffeic acid affects its antioxidative properties in fish‐oil‐enriched emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Yang, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    their efficacy opens up new possibilities for producing new and more efficient antioxidants for food systems. However, the results also show that optimization of the chain length for each type of phenolic compound may be necessary. Since these compounds may have a much higher efficacy against lipid oxidation...... a lower amount of antioxidant will be necessary to obtain the same effect. This would decrease the costs. In addition, the use of synthetic antioxidants, that might have toxic effect in vivo, can be avoided. The raw materials used for the lipophilized compounds are natural compounds, however the fate...

  16. Comparative study of conventional therapy and additional yogasanas for knee rehabilitation after total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilima Bedekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amongst various modalities of post operative rehabilitation in a total knee replacement (TKR surgery, this study focuses on evaluating the effect of additional yoga therapy on functional outcome of TKR patients. Materials and Methods: A comparative study was done to compare the effects of conventional physiotherapy and additional yoga asanas, on 56 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty due to osteoarthritis. After obtaining written informed consent, the patients were alternately assigned to two groups: Conventional and experimental. Baseline WOMAC scores for pain and stiffness were taken on third post operative day. The subjects in conventional group received physiotherapy rehabilitation program of Sancheti Institute where the study was conducted, the experimental group received additional modified yoga asanas once daily by the therapist. After discharge from the hospital, patients were provided with written instructions and photographs of the asanas, two sets of WOMAC questionnaire with stamped and addressed envelopes and were instructed to perform yoga asanas 3 days/week. Subjects filled the questionnaire after 6 weeks and 3 months from the day of surgery and mailed back. The primary outcome measure was WOMAC questionnaire which consists of 24 questions, each corresponding to a visual analog scale, designed to measure patient′s perception of pain, stiffness and function. Results: The results suggest that there was a significant change (P<0.05 for all the groups for pain, stiffness and function subscales of WOMAC scale. The pain and stiffness was found to be less in experimental group receiving additional yoga therapy than in conventional group on 3 rd post operative day, 6 weeks and 3 months after the surgery. Conclusion: A combination of physiotherapy and yoga asana protocol works better than only physiotherapy protocol. Larger and blinded study is needed.

  17. Antioxidant activity of polyphenol-enriched apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šumić Zdravko M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that it is possible to improve antioxidant activity of apple juice by extraction of polyphenolic compounds from apple pomace, as waste, and their addition to the apple juice. Raw apple juice was prepared by pressing of apple mash. After thermal treatment of raw apple juice, depectinisation, additional clarification and filtration, the clarified juice was obtained. In raw and clarified apple juice soluble solids, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars and brown component content were determined, as well as total dry matter, ash, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars, total pectins, cellulose and starch content in apple mash and pomace. The total cotent of phenolics in clarified apple juice and apple pomace extract, determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin- Ciocalteu reagent, was 0.496 mg/ml and 6.505 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of clarified and polyphenol-enriched clarified juice (with addition of apple pomace extract in the concentrations 0.05 g, 0.1 g, 0.5 g and 1 g of phenolic compounds per liter of clarified apple juice was examined on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that polyphenol-enriched clarified juice was more effective on DPPH radicals than the clarified apple juice.

  18. Does green tea consumption improve the salivary antioxidant status of smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Somayyeh; Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Tennant, Marc; Kruger, Estie; Rajabibazl, Masoumeh; Daraei, Azam

    2017-06-01

    
Considering the higher rate of oral cancer, and reduction in salivary antioxidants in smokers as indicated in previous studies, antioxidant- containing nutrients such as green tea, seem to be beneficial in counteracting against oxidative stress in this group. This study assessed the salivary total antioxidant alteration in smokers compared to nonsmokers, after short-tem (7days) and long-term (3 weeks), green tea drinking. In this experimental study, 20 volunteer moderate-to-heavy male smokers, and 20 matched healthy non-smokers were selected to participate, according to the inclusion criteria. Participants were instructed to drink two cups of green tea per day, by dissolving 2g of green tea in 150ml of hot water for each cup. After saliva collection, antioxidant capacity of saliva was measured at baseline, after 7days, and after 21days. Statistical evaluation was done by SPSS 21, using paired samplet tests, one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests. 
 At day zero nonsmokers had a higher antioxidant capacity than smokers (686.6±62.22 vs. 338.8±59.9) mM/50μl, Psmokers and non-smokers over the study period (after tea drinking). In addition, a significant difference was found in total antioxidant capacity alteration in smokers compared to non-smokers from baseline to day 21. Results support the effectiveness of green tea consumption in salivary antioxidants enhancement in smokers, in both the short- and long term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antimicrobial, antiviral and antioxidant activities of "água-mel" from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Maria G; Faleiro, Leonor; Antunes, Maria D; Aazza, Smail; Duarte, Joana; Silvério, Ana R

    2013-06-01

    "Água-mel" is a honey-based product produced in Portugal for ancient times. Several attributes have been reported to "água-mel" particularly in the alleviation of simple symptoms of upper respiratory tract. Samples of "água-mel" from diverse beekeepers from different regions of Portugal were studied in what concerns antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiviral properties. The amounts of phenol and brown pigment were also evaluated and correlated with the antioxidant activities. A great variability on the levels of these compounds was found among samples which were responsible for the variability detected also on the antioxidant activities, independent on the method used. Generally, antioxidant activity correlated better with brown pigments' amount than with phenols' content. The antimicrobial activity found for "água-mel" samples confirm the virtues reported by popular findings. In addition, this work also reveals the antiviral properties of "água-mel" evidenced by a decrease on the infectivity of the Qβ bacteriophage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Validation of a scale for network therapy: a technique for systematic use of peer and family support in addition treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, D S; Galanter, M; Weinberg, S

    1997-02-01

    Substance abuse treatments are increasingly employing standardized formats. This is especially the case for approaches that utilize an individual psychotherapy format but less so for family-based approaches. Network therapy, an approach that involves family members and peers in the patient's relapse prevention efforts, is theoretically and clinically differentiated in this paper from family systems therapy for addiction. Based on these conceptual differences, a Network Therapy Rating Scale (NTRS) was developed to measure the integrity and differentiability of network therapy from other family-based approaches to addiction treatment. Seven addictions faculty and 10 third- and fourth-year psychiatry residents recently trained in the network approach used the NTRS to rate excerpts of network and family systems therapy sessions. Data revealed the NTRS had high internal consistency reliability when utilized by both groups of raters. In addition, network and nonnetwork subscales within the NTRS rated congruent therapy excerpts significantly higher than noncongruent therapy excerpts, indicating that the NTRS subscales measure what they are designed to measure. Implications for research and training are discussed.

  1. Antioxidants as a Potential Preventive and Therapeutic Strategy for Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzóska, Malgorzata M; Borowska, Sylwia; Tomczyk, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies provide a growing number of evidences that chronic exposure to relatively low levels of cadmium (Cd), nowadays taking place in industrialized countries, may cause health hazard. Thus, growing interest has been focused on effective ways of protection from adverse effects of exposure to this heavy metal. Because numerous effects to Cd's toxic action result from its prooxidative properties, it seems reasonable that special attention should be directed to agents that can prevent or reduce this metal-induced oxidative stress and its consequences in tissues, organs and systems at risk of toxicity, including liver, kidneys, testes, ears, eyes, cardiovascular system and nervous system as well as bone tissue. This review discusses a wide range of natural (plant and animal origin) and synthetic antioxidants together with many plant extracts (e.g. black and green tea, Aronia melanocarpa, Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Ocimum sanctum, Phoenix dactylifera, Physalis peruviana, Zingiber officinale) that have been shown to prevent from Cd toxicity. Moreover, some attention has been focused on the fact that substances not possessing antioxidative potential may also prevent Cd-induced oxidative stress and its consequences. So far, most of the data on the protective effects of the natural and synthetic antioxidants and plant extracts come from studies in animals' models; however, numerous of them seem to be promising preventive/therapeutic strategies for Cd toxicity in humans. Further investigation of prophylactic and therapeutic use of antioxidants in populations exposed to Cd environmentally and occupationally is warranted, given that therapeutically effective chelation therapy for this toxic metal is currently lacking.

  2. Antioxidant synergistic effects of Osmanthus fragrans flowers with green tea and their major contributed antioxidant compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Shuqin; Wang, Kaidi; Lei, Yukun; Yao, Shuting; Lu, Baiyi; Huang, Weisu

    2017-01-01

    The antioxidant synergistic effects of Osmanthus fragrans flowers with green tea were evaluated, and their major antioxidant compounds contributed to the total amount of synergy were determined. The antioxidant compounds in O. fragrans flowers with green tea were identified by LC-MS and quantified by UPLC-PDA. The synergistic antioxidant interactions between O. fragrans flowers with green tea and their antioxidant compounds were tested using the Prieto?s model after the simulated digestion. T...

  3. Administration of additional inactive iodide during radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease. Who might benefit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietlein, M.; Moka, D.; Reinholz, U.; Schmidt, M.; Schomaecker, K.; Schicha, H.; Wellner, U.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Graves' hyperthyroidism and antithyroid drugs empty the intrathyroid stores of hormones and iodine. The consequence is rapid 131 I turnover and impending failure of radioiodine therapy. Can administration of additional inactive iodide improve 131I kinetics? Patients, methods: Fifteen consecutive patients, in whom the 48 h post-therapeutically calculated thyroid dose was between 150 and 249 Gy due to an unexpectedly short half-life, received 3 x 200 μg inactive potassium-iodide ( 127 I) daily for 3 days (Group A), while 17 consecutive patients with a thyroid dose of = 250 Gy (Group B) served as the non-iodide group. 48 hours after 131 I administration (M1) and 4 or 5 days later (M2) the following parameters were compared: effective 131 I half-life, thyroid dose, total T3, total T4, 131 I-activity in the T3- and T4-RIAs. Results: In Group A, the effective 131 I half-life M1 before iodine (3.81 ± 0.93 days) was significantly (p 131 I half-life M2 (4.65 ± 0.79 days). Effective 131 I half-life M1 correlated with the benefit from inactive 127 I (r = -0.79): Administration of 127 I was beneficial in patients with an effective 131 I half-life M1 of 131 I activity of T3 and T4 showed lower specific 131 I activity after addition of inactive iodine compared with patients from the same group with a lower initial specific 131 I activity of T3 and T4 and compared with the patient group B who was given no additional inactive iodide. This correlation was mathematically described and reflected in the flatter gradient in Group A (y = 0.5195x + 0.8727 for 131 I T3 and y = 1.0827x - 0.4444 for 131 I T4) and steeper gradient for Group B (y = 0.6998x + 0.5417 for 131 I T3 and y = 1.3191x - 0.2901 for 131 I T4). Radioiodine therapy was successful in all 15 patients from Group A. Conclusion: The administration of 600 μg inactive iodide for three days during radioiodine therapy in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism and an unexpectedly short half-life of <3 or 4 days was a safe

  4. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of rice bran extracts using different antioxidant assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman Bajwa, Jawad -ur-

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the antioxidant activity of different solvent (100% methanol, 80% methanol, 100% acetone, 80% acetone extracts of rice bran was evaluated following different antioxidant assays and using sunflower oil as oxidation substrate. The rice bran extracts were evaluated from the estimate of % inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system, total phenolics content (TPC and loss of β-carotene in a linoleic acid system. Additionally, crude concentrated rice bran extracts were added into the sunflower oil samples and stored under ambient conditions. The extent of oxidative deterioration was followed by the measurement of peroxide-, p-anisidine-, conjugated diene-, and triene- values. The general order of antioxidant efficacy of rice bran extracts as determined by various antioxidant assays was 80% methanolic extract > 100% methanolic  extract > 80% acetone extract > 100% acetone extract. The results of the present comprehensive analysis demonstrate that rice bran extracts of the Super Kernel variety indigenous to Pakistan are a viable source of natural antioxidants and might be exploited for functional foods and nutraceutical applications.Se evalúa la actividad antioxidante diferentes extractos (100% metanol, 80% metanol, 100% acetona and 80% acetona de salvado de arroz -var. Super Kernel- mediante diferentes ensayos y utilizando aceite de girasol como substrato. Los ensayos utilizados fueron la estimación del % de inhibición de la peroxidación en sistemas con ácido linoleico, el contenido total en compuestos fenólicos y la pérdida de β-caroteno en sistemas con ácido linoleico. Adicionalmente, los concentrados de extractos de salvado de arroz se añadieron a aceite de girasol y las muestras se almacenaron a temperatura ambiente. La extensión de la oxidación se evaluó mediante el índice de peróxidos, el índice de p-anisidina, así como la formación de dienos y trienos conjugados. El orden de la eficacia antioxidante

  5. Oxidative Stress in Alzheimer’s Disease: Why Did Antioxidant Therapy Fail?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torbjörn Persson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common form of dementia in the elderly, with increasing prevalence and no disease-modifying treatment available yet. A remarkable amount of data supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress is an early and important pathogenic operator in AD. However, all clinical studies conducted to date did not prove a clear beneficial effect of antioxidant treatment in AD patients. In the current work, we review the current knowledge about oxidative stress in AD pathogeny and we suggest future paths that are worth to be explored in animal models and clinical studies, in order to get a better approach of oxidative imbalance in this inexorable neurodegenerative disease.

  6. Role of antioxidant therapy in ameliorating the side effects of post-operative radiotherapy on genetic material of cancer cervix patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korraa, S.; Elmaghraby, T.; Arian, F.; Mahfouz, M.

    2003-01-01

    The oxidative stress found in cancer patients and radiotherapy was resulted from the increased production of oxidants in the body and the inefficiency of endogenous antioxidant system to eliminate such oxidants. The present study was carried out to investigated whether supplementation of cancer cervix patients during radiotherapy with antioxidants can ameliorate the damaging effects of radiation on DNA of circulating lymphocytes or not. Accordingly, apoptosis, DNA-fragmentation, lipid peroxidation and the frequency of micronuclei among cancer cervix patient undergoing post-operative radiotherapy (n=40) were measured with and without the administration course of antioxidant antox (including 60 mg vitamin C 10 mg vitamin E, 1000 U I vitamin A and 50 mg selenium). Patients were divided into 2 groups each of 20 patients. The first group was administered the antioxidant antox, 200 mg per day, during radiotherapy and one week more post-cessation of radiotherapy , while the second group did not supplemented with antox. All parameters were investigated in a control group of 20 normal healthy women and in the 40 patient ones

  7. Antioxidant effect of Arabian coffee (Coffea arabica L) blended with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antioxidants (GSH, vitamins C and E) were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in mice administered. Arabian coffee ... cancer [9,10]. In addition ... HFD alone. IV. HFD + Arabian coffee + cardamom. V. HFD + Arabian coffee + cardamom + cloves.

  8. AAPH-mediated antioxidant reactions of secoisolariciresinol and SDG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinian, Farah S; Muir, Alister D; Westcott, Neil D; Krol, Ed S

    2007-02-21

    Secoisolariciresinol (SECO ) is the major lignan found in flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) and is present in a polymer that contains secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG ). SECO, SDG and the polymer are known to have a number of health benefits, including reduction of serum cholesterol levels, delay in the onset of type II diabetes and decreased formation of breast, prostate and colon cancers. The health benefits of SECO and SDG may be partially attributed to their antioxidant properties. To better understand their antioxidant properties, SECO and SDG were oxidized using 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane), an in vitro model of radical scavenging. The major lignan radical-scavenging oxidation products and their formation over time were determined. SDG was converted to four major products, which were the result of a phenoxyl radical intermediate. One of these products, a dimer of SDG, decomposed under the reaction conditions to form two of the other major products, and . SECO was converted to five major products, two of which were also the result of a phenoxyl radical intermediate. The remaining products were the result of an unexpected alkoxyl radical intermediate. The phenol oxidation products were stable under the reaction conditions, whereas two of the alcohol oxidation products decomposed. In general, only one phenol group on the lignans was oxidized, suggesting that the number of phenols per molecule may not predict radical scavenging antioxidant ability of lignans. Finally, SECO is a superior antioxidant to SDG, and it may be that the additional alcohol oxidation pathway contributes to its greater antioxidant ability.

  9. Microencapsulation of natural antioxidants for food application - The specific case of coffee antioxidants - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Joana Aguiar; Berta Nogueiro Estevinho; Lúcia Silveira Santos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Functional foods fortified with antioxidants are gaining more popularity since consumption alone of foods naturally rich in antioxidants is insufficient to reduce oxidative stress associated with various diseases. Despite their beneficial effects, natural antioxidants present in coffee are sensitive to heat, light and oxygen, limiting their application in the food industry. Although microencapsulation is able to protect the antioxidant from degradation, mask its taste and control ...

  10. Antioxidant films based on cross-linked methyl cellulose and native Chilean berry for food packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Rodríguez, Francisco; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, Maria José

    2016-01-20

    Development of antioxidant and antimicrobial active food packaging materials based on biodegradable polymer and natural plant extracts has numerous advantages as reduction of synthetic additives into the food, reduction of plastic waste, and food protection against microorganisms and oxidation reactions. In this way, active films based on methylcellulose (MC) and maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) berry fruit extract, as a source of antioxidants agents, were studied. On the other hand, due to the high water affinity of MC, this polymer was firstly cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) at different concentrations. The results showed that the addition of GA decreased water solubility, swelling, water vapor permeability of MC films, and the release of antioxidant substances from the active materials increased with the concentration of GA. Natural extract and active cross-linked films were characterized in order to obtain the optimal formulation with the highest antioxidant activity and the best physical properties for latter active food packaging application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of antioxidant substances in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennio La Notte

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are compounds present in food at low concentrations and able to both protect oxidable substrates and countenrbalance the negative effects that the reactive oxygen species (ROS cause in the human body (reduction of the risk to develop cardiovascular pathologies, cancer and degenerative diseases that accelerate the aging processes. In foods, lipid oxidation is a degradation regarding the unsaturated fatty acids that react with oxygen through several mechanisms such as chemical autoxidation, action of lipoxigenases, photoxidation, and others. Autoxidation is the main oxidation process and proceed via initiation, propagation, and termination steps leading to the hydroperoxide formation. Hydroperoxides could degraded into low molecular weigh compounds such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketons, acids and other low reactive compounds that negatively influence quality, nutritional value and shelf life of foods. Antioxidants are known to act at different levels of the lipid oxidation. They may act in several ways: they can decrease the oxygen concentration, intercept the singlet oxygen, slow the initiation step by scavenging the first free radicals, break the reaction chain to prevent the hydrogen subtraction, and decompose primary products of oxidation into non-radical products. This work reports the results of two studies on the phenolic fraction and potential antioxidant activity of virgin olive oils and red wines produced in Apulia region. Oils were extracted from olives produced at Cerignola and Torremaggiore using a two phase continuous system. Results showed a different phenolic composition of the oils and a good linear correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Wines were produced from Primitivo grapes pickled at the so-called technological maturity in a vineyard located at Manduria (Taranto. Nine different maceration techniques were applied. Results showed that the addition of tannins from skins and seeds and the saign

  12. Role of antioxidant substances in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Gambacorta

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are compounds present in food at low concentrations and able to both protect oxidable substrates and countenrbalance the negative effects that the reactive oxygen species (ROS cause in the human body (reduction of the risk to develop cardiovascular pathologies, cancer and degenerative diseases that accelerate the aging processes. In foods, lipid oxidation is a degradation regarding the unsaturated fatty acids that react with oxygen through several mechanisms such as chemical autoxidation, action of lipoxigenases, photoxidation, and others. Autoxidation is the main oxidation process and proceed via initiation, propagation, and termination steps leading to the hydroperoxide formation. Hydroperoxides could degraded into low molecular weigh compounds such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketons, acids and other low reactive compounds that negatively influence quality, nutritional value and shelf life of foods. Antioxidants are known to act at different levels of the lipid oxidation. They may act in several ways: they can decrease the oxygen concentration, intercept the singlet oxygen, slow the initiation step by scavenging the first free radicals, break the reaction chain to prevent the hydrogen subtraction, and decompose primary products of oxidation into non-radical products. This work reports the results of two studies on the phenolic fraction and potential antioxidant activity of virgin olive oils and red wines produced in Apulia region. Oils were extracted from olives produced at Cerignola and Torremaggiore using a two phase continuous system. Results showed a different phenolic composition of the oils and a good linear correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Wines were produced from Primitivo grapes pickled at the so-called technological maturity in a vineyard located at Manduria (Taranto. Nine different maceration techniques were applied. Results showed that the addition of tannins from skins and seeds and the saign

  13. Effect of vitamin D therapy in addition to amitriptyline on migraine attacks in pediatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Cayir,A.; Turan,M.I.; Tan,H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementary vitamin D therapy in addition to amitriptyline on the frequency of migraine attacks in pediatric migraine patients. Fifty-three children 8-16 years of age and diagnosed with migraine following the International Headache Society 2005 definition, which includes childhood criteria, were enrolled. Patients were classified into four groups on the basis of their 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels. Group 1 had normal 25(OH)D ...

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Major Constituents in Green Tea with Different Plucking Periods and Their Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Sook Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the plucking periods and the major constituents and the antioxidant activity in green tea. Green tea was prepared from leaves plucked from the end of April 2013 to the end of May 2013 at intervals of one week or longer. The contents of theanine, theobromine, caffeine, catechin (C, and gallocatechin gallate (GCg were significantly decreased, whereas those of epicatechin (EC, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg and epigallocatechin (EGC were significantly increased along with the period of tea leaf plucking. In addition, antioxidant activity of green tea and standard catechins was investigated using ABTS, FRAP and DPPH assays. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in relatively the oldest leaf, regardless of the assay methods used. Additionally, the order of antioxidant activity of standard catechins was as follows: EGCg ³ GCg ³ ECg > EGC ³ GC ³ EC ³ C. Moreover, the cis-catechins contents were the key factor affecting the antioxidant activity of green tea in all assays employed (ABTS, r = 0.731, p < 0.01; FRAP, r = 0.886, p < 0.01; DPPH, r = 0.778, p < 0.01.

  15. Relevance of the Mention of Antioxidant Properties in Yogurt Labels: In Vitro Evaluation and Chromatographic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the inclusion of fruit (natural additives in yogurt aims to increase its antioxidant activity and functionality. Herein, a comparative study of the antioxidant potential of yogurts with pieces of various fruits was performed, including yogurts with mention of antioxidant properties in the label. Free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were evaluated by in vitro assays, as were the contents in antioxidants such as phenolics, flavonoids, sugars and tocopherols. After analyzing thirteen yogurts containing fruit pieces and a natural one (control, the most interesting were yogurts with pieces of berries (for phenolics, flavonoids and 2,2-dipheny-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity, pineapple (for reducing power, blackberry (for β-carotene bleaching inhibition, blackberry “antioxidant” (for tocopherols and cherry (for sugars. The mention of “antioxidant” in the label was relevant for tocopherols, sugars, DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power. No synergisms were observed in yogurts prepared with pieces of different fruits. Nevertheless, the addition of fruit pieces to yogurt was favorable for antioxidant content, increasing the protection of the consumer against diseases related to oxidative stress.

  16. Accumulation of solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble antioxidant phenolics in edible bean sprouts: implication of germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-You Gan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Edible bean sprouts are popular fresh vegetables widely recognized for their nutritional quality. However, while their antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition in both solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble extracts has not been systematically evaluated. Methods: The antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition in both solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble fractions of 12 cultivars of edible bean sprouts were evaluated, and relationships of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content were also analyzed. Results: Sprouts demonstrated a wide range of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content, with lower but substantial antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content in the solvent-insoluble fractions. Highest levels were found in the green mung bean sprout. Phenolic compounds, such as catechin, ellagic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid and p-coumaric acid were widely detected in these sprouts. Additionally, a positive correlation was discovered between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content in these edible bean sprouts. Conclusions: Germination generally resulted in the accumulation of antioxidant phenolics in the most edible bean sprouts. Edible bean sprouts with high antioxidant phenolics can be valuable natural sources of dietary antioxidants for the prevention of oxidative stress-related chronic diseases.

  17. The Antioxidant Activities and Total Phenolic of Artemisia Martima, Achillea Millefolium and Matricaria Recutica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mirzaei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Consumption of plant derived antioxidant contributes to reducing risks of certain chronic and degenerative diseases. The aim of the present study was to study the antioxidant activities and total phenolic of Artemisia Martima, Achillea Millefolium and Matricaria Recutica Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009. The Stem and flower sample of plants were air-dried, and then grinded and were finally extracted by ethanol: water (70: 30 for 48 h in room temperature. Extracts were filtered and dried under vacuum system. The antioxidant activity of three ethanol extract of the medicinal plants, Artemisia martima, Achillea millefolium and Matricaria recutica, were analyzed by five different methods (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, 2, 20azinobis- (3-ethylbenzthiazoline -6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation,Ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP, phosphomolybdenum (PMB and reducing power ( RP. In addition, for determination of antioxidant components, the total phenolic content was also analyzed. The collected data was analyzed by SPSS software. Results: For all antioxidant activity assays, Artemisia martima had the highest antioxidant activity value and also total phenol content. Antioxidant capacity analyses revealed that the FRAP and DPPH had comparable results. Antioxidant activity at 1 mg/mL, in ABTS were in the order Artemisia martima> Achillea millefolium> Matricaria recutica. Similar trend was observed for PMB content. RP, FRAP and DPPH were in the order Artemisia martima> Matricaria recutica > Achillea millefolium . Conclusion: The extracts showed a variety of antioxidant activities in all antioxidant assay system. This study demonstrated that Artemisia martima crude extract exhibit significant antioxidant activity.

  18. Antioxidant and protective mechanisms against hypoxia and hypoglycaemia in cortical neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, José Joaquín; Roncero, César; Oset-Gasque, María Jesús; Naddaf, Ahmad; González, María Pilar

    2014-02-12

    In the present work, we have studied whether cell death could be induced in cortical neurons from rats subjected to different period of O2 deprivation and low glucose (ODLG). This "in vitro" model is designed to emulate the penumbra area under ischemia. In these conditions, cortical neurons displayed loss of mitochondrial respiratory ability however, nor necrosis neither apoptosis occurred despite ROS production. The absence of cellular death could be a consequence of increased antioxidant responses such as superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) and GPX3. In addition, the levels of reduced glutathione were augmented and HIF-1/3α overexpressed. After long periods of ODLG (12-24 h) cortical neurons showed cellular and mitochondrial membrane alterations and did not recuperate cellular viability during reperfusion. This could mean that therapies directed toward prevention of cellular and mitochondrial membrane imbalance or cell death through mechanisms other than necrosis or apoptosis, like authophagy, may be a way to prevent ODLG damage.

  19. Antioxidant and Protective Mechanisms against Hypoxia and Hypoglycaemia in Cortical Neurons in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Joaquín Merino

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we have studied whether cell death could be induced in cortical neurons from rats subjected to different period of O2 deprivation and low glucose (ODLG. This “in vitro” model is designed to emulate the penumbra area under ischemia. In these conditions, cortical neurons displayed loss of mitochondrial respiratory ability however, nor necrosis neither apoptosis occurred despite ROS production. The absence of cellular death could be a consequence of increased antioxidant responses such as superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1 and GPX3. In addition, the levels of reduced glutathione were augmented and HIF-1/3α overexpressed. After long periods of ODLG (12–24 h cortical neurons showed cellular and mitochondrial membrane alterations and did not recuperate cellular viability during reperfusion. This could mean that therapies directed toward prevention of cellular and mitochondrial membrane imbalance or cell death through mechanisms other than necrosis or apoptosis, like authophagy, may be a way to prevent ODLG damage.

  20. Determining antioxidant activities of lactobacilli cell-free supernatants by cellular antioxidant assay: a comparison with traditional methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Xing

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of lactic acid bacteria is associated with multiple health-protective effects. Traditional indexes of chemical antioxidant activities poorly reflect the antioxidant effects of these bacteria in vivo. Cellular antioxidant activity (CAA assay was used in this study to determine the antioxidant activity of cell-free supernatants (CFSs of 10 Lactobacillus strains. The performance of the CAA assay was compared with that of four chemical antioxidant activity assays, namely, DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging (HRS, reducing power (RP, and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (ILAP. Results of the CAA assay were associated with those of DPPH and ILAP assays, but not with those of RP and HRS assays. The inter- and intra-specific antioxidant activities of CFS were characterized by chemical and CAA assays. L. rhamnosus CCFM 1107 displayed a high antioxidative effect similar to positive control L. rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 in all of the assays. The CAA assay is a potential method for the detection of antioxidant activities of lactobacilli CFSs.

  1. Phenolic Content and Their Antioxidant Activity in Various Berries Cultivated in Romania

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    Zoriţa Diaconeasa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruits are a rich source of phenolic compounds with health benefits.  Phenolic compounds occur in berries mainly as a variety of conjugated forms, mostly with sugars.  The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the phenolic content and antioxidant potential in the most common fruits consumed in Romania: blueberry, blackberries, raspberry and cranberries. Folin-Ciocalteu method has been used in order to evaluate total phenolic content of analyzed berries. Antioxidant activity was determinate using ORAC assay which measures the decrease of AAPH-radical level by the scavenging action of the antioxidant substance. In addition, the vitamin C content and total tannins of the berries extracts were determined using spetophomotmetric methods. The phenolic contents and antioxidant potential of analyzed berries did not varied considerably. The highest amounts of TPC and the strongest antioxidant activities were found in blueberry and blackberries (678 GAE mg/100 g FW, 442 mg/100g FW respectively. Vitamin C content was found in higher concentration in raspberries 21.7 mg/100 g FW while the lower concentration was found in blackberry.  All berries contain higher levels of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols or tannins which are responsible for their antioxidant potential and bring their nutritional value, being highly recommended for daily consumption.

  2. Plasma total antioxidant capacity is associated with dietary intake and plasma level of antioxidants in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Davis, Catherine G; Kenny, Anne; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2012-12-01

    Increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been associated with a high consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, limited information is available on whether plasma TAC reflects the dietary intake of antioxidants and the levels of individual antioxidants in plasma. By using three different assays, the study aimed to determine if plasma TAC can effectively predict dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma antioxidant status. Forty overweight and apparently healthy postmenopausal women were recruited. Seven-day food records and 12-h fasting blood samples were collected for dietary and plasma antioxidant assessments. Plasma TAC was determined by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. TAC values determined by VCEAC were highly correlated with FRAP (r=0.79, Pantioxidants and represents more closely the plasma antioxidant levels than ORAC and FRAP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of γ-irradiation on acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber NBR seal materials with different antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Farida S.; Shafy, Mahmoud; Abd El-megeed, A.A.; Hegazi, Elham M.

    2012-01-01

    Seals made of acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber (NBR) are one of the classified seals used in nuclear facilities. But at high irradiation doses the physical and mechanical properties of NBR are adversely affected due to the degradation induced by radiation and hence affect the sealing performance reducing their service life. In order to improve the NBR sealing performance, antioxidants can be added to the NBR compounds. N-N-substituted p-phenylene diamines (PPDs) antioxidants are selected to improve the resistance of NBR seals against gamma irradiation up to 5 MGy. The effect of addition of different PPDs on the mechanical and physical properties of the NBR seals is investigated. Three types of antioxidants which are N-isopropyl-N′-phenyl-p-phenylene diamine (IPPD), phenyl B-naphthylamine (PBN), and N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N-phenyl-p-phenylene diamine (6PPD) are chosen. The physical and mechanical properties of these NBR compounds were evaluated by measuring crosslinking density, the tensile strength, and the percentage of elongation as well as hardness and abrasion resistance. The results of the present study show that the addition of 6PPD as a candidate antioxidant to NBR seal material gives the best physical and mechanical performance compared to the other studied antioxidants.

  4. Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of ellagic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Ismail; Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Bayrak, Yüksel

    2014-09-01

    Ellagic acid (EA, C14H6O8) is a natural dietary polyphenol whose benefits in a variety of diseases shown in epidemiological and experimental studies involve anti-inflammation, anti-proliferation, anti-angiogenesis, anticarcinogenesis and anti-oxidation properties. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of EA were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. EA inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 μg/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 69.8%, 66.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, EA had an effective DPPH• scavenging, ABTSrad + scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that EA can be used in the pharmacological, food industry and medicine because of these properties.

  5. Effect of nicotine on melanogenesis and antioxidant status in HEMn-LP melanocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delijewski, Marcin; Beberok, Artur; Otręba, Michał; Wrześniok, Dorota; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine is a natural ingredient of tobacco plants and is responsible for the addictive properties of tobacco. Nowadays nicotine is also commonly used as a form of smoking cessation therapy. It is suggested that nicotine may be accumulated in human tissues containing melanin. This may in turn affect biochemical processes in human cells producing melanin. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of nicotine on melanogenesis and antioxidant status in cultured normal human melanocytes HEMn-LP. Nicotine induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC 50 was determined to be 7.43 mM. Nicotine inhibited a melanization process in human light pigmented melanocytes and caused alterations of antioxidant defense system. Significant changes in cellular antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and in hydrogen peroxide content were stated. The obtained results may explain a potential influence of nicotine on biochemical processes in melanocytes in vivo during long term exposition to nicotine. - Graphical abstract: Nicotine inhibits melanogenesis and induces oxidative stress in HEMn-LP melanocytes. - Highlights: • Nicotine induces concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. • Nicotine in non-cytotoxic concentrations inhibits melanogenesis. • Nicotine in higher concentrations induces oxidative stress

  6. Effect of nicotine on melanogenesis and antioxidant status in HEMn-LP melanocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delijewski, Marcin; Beberok, Artur; Otręba, Michał; Wrześniok, Dorota; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa, E-mail: ebuszman@sum.edu.pl

    2014-10-15

    Nicotine is a natural ingredient of tobacco plants and is responsible for the addictive properties of tobacco. Nowadays nicotine is also commonly used as a form of smoking cessation therapy. It is suggested that nicotine may be accumulated in human tissues containing melanin. This may in turn affect biochemical processes in human cells producing melanin. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of nicotine on melanogenesis and antioxidant status in cultured normal human melanocytes HEMn-LP. Nicotine induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC{sub 50} was determined to be 7.43 mM. Nicotine inhibited a melanization process in human light pigmented melanocytes and caused alterations of antioxidant defense system. Significant changes in cellular antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and in hydrogen peroxide content were stated. The obtained results may explain a potential influence of nicotine on biochemical processes in melanocytes in vivo during long term exposition to nicotine. - Graphical abstract: Nicotine inhibits melanogenesis and induces oxidative stress in HEMn-LP melanocytes. - Highlights: • Nicotine induces concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. • Nicotine in non-cytotoxic concentrations inhibits melanogenesis. • Nicotine in higher concentrations induces oxidative stress.

  7. A case of multiple organ failure induced by postoperative radiation therapy probably evoking oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soejima, Akinori; Ishizuka, Shynji; Suzuki, Michihiko; Minoshima, Shinobu; Nakabayashi, Kimimasa; Kitamoto, Kiyoshi; Nagasawa, Toshihiko

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, several laboratories have suggested that serum levels of antioxidant activity and redox balance are reduced in patients with chronic renal failure. Some clinical reports have also proposed that defective serum antioxidative enzymes may contribute to a certain uremic toxicity through peroxidative cell damage. A 48-year-old woman was referred to us from the surgical department of our hospital because of consciousness disturbance, panctytopenia and acute acceleration of chronic azotemia after postoperative radiation therapy. We diagnosed acute acceleration of chronic renal failure with severe acidemia and started hemodialysis therapy immediately. Two days after admission to our department, she developed upper abdominal sharp pain and bradyarrhythmia. Serum amylase activity was elevated markedly and the ECG finding showed myocardial ischemia. On the 24th hospital day these complications were treated successfully with conservative therapy and hemodialysis. We considered that radiation therapy in this patient with chronic renal failure evoked marked oxidative stress and that deficiency of transferrin played an important role in peroxidative cell damage. (author)

  8. Salted herring brine as a coating or additive for herring (Clupea harengus) products — A source of natural antioxidants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertos, Irene; Gringer, Nina; Rico, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise herring brine and assess its use as natural antioxidant in herring preservation. Herring brines from different marinated products (brine from fillet-ripened spice-cured herring SC, traditional barrel-salted spice-cured herring TSp and brine from...

  9. Evaluation of in-vitro Antioxidant Properties of Hydroalcoholic Solution Extracts Urtica dioica L., Malva neglecta Wallr. and Their Mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güder, Aytaç; Korkmaz, Halil

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic solution extracts of Urtica dioica L. (UD), Malva neglecta Wallr. (MN) plants and their mixture. In this study, flower (UDF), root (UDR), seed (UDS) and leaf (UDL) parts of UD and flower (MNF) and leaf (MNL) parts of MN were used. The antioxidant properties of hydroalcoholic extracts and their mixture were evaluated using different antioxidant tests such as total antioxidant activity, reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, free radical scavenging, and metal chelating activity for comparison. In addition, total phenolic compounds in the extracts of both plants were determined as catechin equivalent. The various antioxidant activities were compared to natural and synthetic standard antioxidants such as BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol. According to FTC method, the both extracts exhibited strong total antioxidant activity. At the concentration of 100 μg/mL, Hydroalcoholic extracts of UDS, UDR, UDF, UDL, MNF, MNL, and UD-MN showed 81.7%, 79.8%, 78.3%, 76.4%, 77.3%, 74.1%, and 80.7%, respectively. Comparable, 100 μg/mL of standard antioxidants BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol exhibited 66.2%, 70.6%, and 50.1% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. In addition, UD-MN showed strong superoxide anion radical scavenging activity comparable with UDR, UDF, UDL, MNF, and MNL. Based on the findings, plants mixture was commonly found to have synergistically higher antioxidant activity.

  10. Antioxidant Profile of Trifolium pratense L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidy Schwartsova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the antioxidant properties of five different extracts of Trifolium pratense L. (Leguminosae leaves, various assays which measure free radical scavenging ability were carried out: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radical scavenger capacity tests and lipid peroxidation assay. In all of the tests, only the H2O and (to some extent the EtOAc extracts showed a potent antioxidant effect compared with BHT and BHA, well-known synthetic antioxidants. In addition, in vivo experiments were conducted with antioxidant systems (activities of GSHPx, GSHR, Px, CAT, XOD, GSH content and intensity of LPx in liver homogenate and blood of mice after their treatment with extracts of T. pratense leaves, or in combination with CCl4. Besides, in the extracts examined the total phenolic and flavonoid amounts were also determined, together with presence of the selected flavonoids: quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, naringenin and kaempferol, which were studied using a HPLC-DAD technique. HPLC-DAD analysis showed a noticeable content of natural products according to which the examined Trifolium pratense species could well be regarded as a promising new source of bioactive natural compounds, which can be used both as a food supplement and a remedy.

  11. Skin protection against UV light by dietary antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, Elisabet

    2014-09-01

    There is considerable interest in the concept of additional endogenous photoprotection by dietary antioxidants. A number of efficient micronutrients are capable of contributing to the prevention of UV damage in humans. These compounds protect molecular targets by scavenging reactive oxygen species, including excited singlet oxygen and triplet state molecules, and also modulate stress-dependent signaling and/or suppress cellular and tissue responses like inflammation. Micronutrients present in the diet such as carotenoids, vitamins E and C, and polyphenols contribute to antioxidant defense and may also contribute to endogenous photoprotection. This review summarizes the literature concerning the use of dietary antioxidants as systemic photoprotective agents towards skin damage induced by UVA and UVB. Intervention studies in humans with carotenoid-rich diets have shown photoprotection. Interestingly, rather long treatment periods (a minimum of 10 weeks) were required to achieve this effect. Likewise, dietary carotenoids exert their protective antioxidant function in several in vitro and in vivo studies when present at sufficiently high concentration. A combination of vitamins E and C protects the skin against UV damage. It is suggested that daily consumption of dietary polyphenols may provide efficient protection against the harmful effects of solar UV radiation in humans. Furthermore, the use of these micronutrients in combination may provide an effective strategy for protecting human skin from damage by UV exposure.

  12. Dietary antioxidants for chronic periodontitis prevention and its treatment: a review on current evidences from animal and human studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Varela-López

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Given the relationship between chronic periodontitis and high levels of oxidative stress, this review aims to clarify what role can played the dietary intake of different antioxidants in maintaining a healthy periodontium and in reducing chronic periodontitis risk, as well as possible use of dietary therapies based on them for this disease treatment. Methods: The database of the National Library of Medicine, Washington, DC (MEDLINE PubMed was used and all the studies in animals and humans are on the subject of interest in English writing online available from inception of the database until May 2015 were collected. Results: Antioxidants analyzed in this regard include vitamin C, vitamin A, carotenoids and some polyphenols, and coenzyme Q; as well as minerals iron, copper and zinc that are constituents of antioxidant enzymes. Still, there is a paucity of studies with few human studies, mostly observational. Among the various antioxidants, vitamin E and polyphenols seem to have more evidence for its beneficial effect, but in general the studies are insufficient to rule out or establish what antioxidants are useful and which are not. Conclusions: Overall, the data presented indicate that dietary antioxidants are beneficial for periodontal health, at least under certain circumstances. However more studies are needed to establish the relationship between chronic periodontitis and each specific antioxidant and to design useful dietary interventions for this disease management.

  13. Effectiveness of the Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus Peel Extract as the Colorant, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial on Beef Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri M Manihuruk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus peel extracts addition on beef sausages. Red dragon fruit peel extracts were obtained by maceration using solvent at pH 5. Phytochemical characteristics, total phenols, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity of the peel extracts were observed. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extracts were associated with high phytochemical compounds and total phenols contained in the extracts. Red dragon fruit peel extracts with various percentages (0%, 20%, 30%, and 40% were added on beef sausages, and their physicochemical characteristics, nutrients, antioxidant activity, and microbiological profile were analyzed. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test. Results showed that the addition of red dragon fruit peel extracts significantly reduced texture values, but increased intensity of luminosity, intensity of red color, and intensity of yellow color (P<0.05 beef sausages. It could be concluded that red dragon fruit peel extract containing phytochemical compounds was effective as an antibacterial agent and natural antioxidant. The addition of red dragon fruit peel extracts was effective in increasing the antioxidant activity and decreasing TBARS values. The addition of red dragon fruit peel extract did not affect the reddish colorization of beef sausages, but it was capable of increasing the yellowish colorization on beef sausage.

  14. Influence of drugs with antioxidant properties on the state of the sperm antioxidant system in men with excretory-toxic forms of infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Onufrovych

    2013-10-01

    in its excretory-toxic form, is the increase in activity of the peroxide oxygen lipids of the sperm membrane and decompensation of the enzyme activity of the glutathione antioxidant system. Our data indicate that the use as medicines of vitamin E, vitamin C and zinc sulfate combined with antibiotic therapy would be highly effective in the treatment of male infertility.

  15. A rapid method for evaluation of the oxidation stability of castor oil FAME: influence of antioxidant type and concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Susana V.; Luna, F. Murilo T.; Rola, Estelio M. Jr.; Azevedo, Diana C.S.; Cavalcante, Celio L. Jr. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Grupo de Pesquisa em Separacoes por Adsorcao - GPSA, Campus do Pici, 709, Fortaleza, CE, 60.455-900 (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    The oxidation stability of castor oil fatty methyl ester (FAME), doped with four different phenolic antioxidants, was evaluated using a rapid method of thermal and air-contact degradation. The methodology is based on the induction times observed when the samples are contacted with pure oxygen at elevated pressures and temperatures. The results indicate different performances of the antioxidants as well as synergisms between antioxidants and biodiesel. In general, the addition of antioxidants increased from 6-15 times the stability of castor oil FAME., with BHA (butylated hydroxyanisol) showing the best results for improving antioxidation in castor oil biodiesel. (author)

  16. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in primary bone and soft tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathan, Fatima M; Singh, Vivek A; Dhanoa, Amreeta; Palanisamy, Uma D

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress is characterised by an increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that disrupts the intracellular reduction-oxidation (redox) balance and has been implicated in various diseases including cancer. Malignant tumors of connective tissue or sarcomas account for approximately 1% of all cancer diagnoses in adults and around 15% of paediatric malignancies per annum. There exists no information on the alterations of oxidant/antioxidant status of sarcoma patients in literature. This study was aimed to determine the levels of oxidative stress and antioxidant defence in patients with primary bone and soft tissue sarcoma and to investigate if there exists any significant differences in these levels between both the sarcomas. The study cohort consisted of 94 subjects; 20 soft tissue sarcoma, 27 primary bone sarcoma and 47 healthy controls. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls were determined to assess their oxidative stress levels while antioxidant status was evaluated using catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), thiols and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Sarcoma patients showed significant increase in plasma and urinary MDA and serum protein carbonyl levels (p < 0.05) while significant decreases were noted in TEAC, thiols, CAT and SOD levels (p < 0.05). No significant difference in oxidative damage was noted between both the sarcomas (p > 0.05). In conclusion, an increase in oxidative stress and decrease in antioxidant status is observed in both primary bone and soft tissue sarcomas with a similar extent of damage. This study offers the basis for further work on whether the manipulation of redox balance in patients with sarcoma represents a useful approach in the design of future therapies for bone disease

  17. Lipid peroxidation in chicken meat during chilled storage as affected by antioxidants combined with low-dose gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanatt, S.R.; Paul, P.; D'Souza, S.F.; Thomas, P.

    1998-01-01

    TBA values and carbonyl content for irradiated samples of ground chicken meat were higher than for nonirradiated samples. Addition of antioxidants tocopherol (natural) or BHT (synthetic) resulted in retardation of oxidative rancidity (p0.05). Meat treated with antioxidants prior to irradiation had lower TBA values as compared to untreated irradiated counterparts. Free fatty acid (FFA) values decreased after irradiation. Addition of antioxidants prior to irradiation showed a synergistic effect in decreasing FFA content. TLC of muscle lipids indicated a reduction in the triacylglcerols content with concomitant increases in FFA of all samples during storage. All irradiated meats were acceptable for consumption up to 4 wk of storage

  18. Antioxidant Efficacies of Rutin and Rutin Esters in Bulk Oil and Oil-in-Water Emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lue, Bena-Marie; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    concentrations (25 and 200 µM) was assessed in bulk oil and in an o/w emulsion system without and with iron addition. All evaluated compounds revealed antioxidant effects. However, rutin and BHT were the most efficient antioxidants in bulk oil followed by rutin palmitate, whereas rutin laurate acted as either......The use of flavonoids as antioxidants in food formulations is limited due to their solubility and thereby their localization in the food products. However, enzymatic alkylation of flavonoids with lipophilic moieties alters their lipophilicity and thereby partitioning within different phases...... in a food product. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidative efficiency of two derivatives of rutin, namely rutin laurate (C12:0) and rutin palmitate (C16:0) compared with their parent compound rutin and with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Their efficiency as antioxidants at two different...

  19. [The role of vitamin D in the prevention and the additional therapy of cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Gábor

    2010-12-01

    The active metabolite of vitamin D apart from a crucial role in maintaining mineral homeostasis and skeletal functions, has antiproliferative, apoptosis and differentiation inducing as well as immunomodulatory effects in cancer. It is well known that with increasing sunshine exposure the incidence of breast, prostate and colorectal cancer is decreasing. A number of in vitro and in vivo experiments documented the effects of vitamin D in the inhibition of the tumorigenesis. In studying the role of vitamin D in cancer, it is imperative to examine the potential pathways that control local tissue levels of vitamin D. The enzyme 24-hydroxylase converts the active vitamin D to inactive metabolite. Extra-renal production of this enzyme is observed and has been increasingly recognized as present in cancer cells. This enzyme is rate limiting for the amount of local vitamin D in cancer tissues and elevated expression is associated with an adverse prognosis. 24-hydroxylase may be a predictive marker of vitamin D efficacy in patients with cancer as an adjunctive therapy. There are many vitamin D analogs with no pronounced hypercalcemizing effects. Some analogs are in phase 1 and 2 clinical test, and they might have a role in the therapy of several types of cancer. At present our main task is to make an effort to decrease the vitamin D deficiency in Hungary. Speer G. The D-day. The role of vitamin D in the prevention and the additional therapy of cancers.

  20. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. Pericarp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Jhong Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the water extract of longan pericarp (WLP. The results showed that WLP exhibited radical scavenging, reducing activity and liposome protection activity. In addition, WLP also inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO production in macrophages. Further, administration of WLP, in the range of 100–400 mg/kg, showed a concentration-dependent inhibition on paw edema development following carrageenan (Carr treatment in mice. The anti-inflammatory effects of WLP may be related to NO and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α suppression and associated with the increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Overall, the results showed that WLP might serve as a natural antioxidant and inflammatory inhibitor.

  1. Use of additives, scaffolds and extracellular matrix components for improvement of human pancreatic islet outcomes in vitro: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Natália Emerim; de Almeida Brondani, Letícia; Dieter, Cristine; Rheinheimer, Jakeline; Bouças, Ana Paula; Bauermann Leitão, Cristiane; Crispim, Daisy; Bauer, Andrea Carla

    2017-09-03

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is an established treatment to restore insulin independence in type 1 diabetic patients. Its success rates have increased lately based on improvements in immunosuppressive therapies and on islet isolation and culture. It is known that the quality and quantity of viable transplanted islets are crucial for the achievement of insulin independence and some studies have shown that a significant number of islets are lost during culture time. Thus, in an effort to improve islet yield during culture period, researchers have tested a variety of additives in culture media as well as alternative culture devices, such as scaffolds. However, due to the use of different categories of additives or devices, it is difficult to draw a conclusion on the benefits of these strategies. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to summarize the results of studies that described the use of medium additives, scaffolds or extracellular matrix (ECM) components during human pancreatic islets culture. PubMed and Embase repositories were searched. Of 5083 articles retrieved, a total of 37 articles fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. After data extraction, articles were grouped as follows: 1) "antiapoptotic/anti-inflammatory/antioxidant," 2) "hormone," 3) "sulphonylureas," 4) "serum supplements," and 5) "scaffolds or ECM components." The effects of the reviewed additives, ECM or scaffolds on islet viability, apoptosis and function (glucose-stimulated insulin secretion - GSIS) were heterogeneous, making any major conclusion hard to sustain. Overall, some "antiapoptotic/anti-inflammatory/antioxidant" additives decreased apoptosis and improved GSIS. Moreover, islet culture with ECM components or scaffolds increased GSIS. More studies are needed to define the real impact of these strategies in improving islet transplantation outcomes.

  2. Antioxidant Properties of Probiotic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress defines a condition in which the prooxidant–antioxidant balance in the cell is disturbed, resulting in DNA hydroxylation, protein denaturation, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis, ultimately compromising cells’ viability. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects, and the consumption of probiotics alone or in food shows that strain-specific probiotics can present antioxidant activity and reduce damages caused by oxidation. However, the oxidation-resistant ability of probiotics, especially the underling mechanisms, is not properly understood. In this view, there is interest to figure out the antioxidant property of probiotics and summarize the mode of action of probiotic bacteria in antioxidation. Therefore, in the present paper, the antioxidant mechanisms of probiotics have been reviewed in terms of their ability to improve the antioxidant system and their ability to decrease radical generation. Since in recent years, oxidative stress has been associated with an altered gut microbiota, the effects of probiotics on intestinal flora composition are also elaborated.

  3. Antioxidant Properties of Probiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wu, Yanping; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Han; Mei, Xiaoqiang; Yu, Dongyou; Wang, Yibing; Li, Weifen

    2017-05-19

    Oxidative stress defines a condition in which the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in the cell is disturbed, resulting in DNA hydroxylation, protein denaturation, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis, ultimately compromising cells' viability. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects, and the consumption of probiotics alone or in food shows that strain-specific probiotics can present antioxidant activity and reduce damages caused by oxidation. However, the oxidation-resistant ability of probiotics, especially the underling mechanisms, is not properly understood. In this view, there is interest to figure out the antioxidant property of probiotics and summarize the mode of action of probiotic bacteria in antioxidation. Therefore, in the present paper, the antioxidant mechanisms of probiotics have been reviewed in terms of their ability to improve the antioxidant system and their ability to decrease radical generation. Since in recent years, oxidative stress has been associated with an altered gut microbiota, the effects of probiotics on intestinal flora composition are also elaborated.

  4. Manipulative therapy in addition to usual medical care accelerates recovery of shoulder complaints at higher costs: economic outcomes of a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergman Gert JD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder complaints are common in primary care and have unfavourable long term prognosis. Our objective was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of manipulative therapy of the cervicothoracic spine and the adjacent ribs in addition to usual medical care (UMC by the general practitioner in the treatment of shoulder complaints. Methods This economic evaluation was conducted alongside a randomized trial in primary care. Included were 150 patients with shoulder complaints and a dysfunction of the cervicothoracic spine and adjacent ribs. Patients were treated with UMC (NSAID's, corticosteroid injection or referral to physical therapy and were allocated at random (yes/no to manipulative therapy (manipulation and mobilization. Patient perceived recovery, severity of main complaint, shoulder pain, disability and general health were outcome measures. Data about direct and indirect costs were collected by means of a cost diary. Results Manipulative therapy as add-on to UMC accelerated recovery on all outcome measures included. At 26 weeks after randomization, both groups reported similar recovery rates (41% vs. 38%, but the difference between groups in improvement of severity of the main complaint, shoulder pain and disability sustained. Compared to the UMC group the total costs were higher in the manipulative group (€1167 vs. €555. This is explained mainly by the costs of the manipulative therapy itself and the higher costs due sick leave from work. The cost effectiveness ratio showed that additional manipulative treatment is more costly but also more effective than UMC alone. The cost-effectiveness acceptability curve shows that a 50%-probability of recovery with AMT within 6 months after initiation of treatment is achieved at €2876. Conclusion Manipulative therapy in addition to UMC accelerates recovery and is more effective than UMC alone on the long term, but is associated with higher costs. International Standard

  5. Antioxidants in Raspberry: On-line analysis links antioxidant activity to a diversity of individual metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Jonker, H.H.; Hall, R.D.; Meer, van der I.M.; Vos, de C.H.

    2005-01-01

    The presence of antioxidant compounds can be considered as a quality parameter for edible fruit. In this paper, we studied the antioxidant compounds in raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruits by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to an on-line postcolumn antioxidant detection system. Both

  6. Albumin Antioxidant Response to Stress in Diabetic Nephropathy Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Navarro, Rafael; Corona-Candelas, Itzia; Barajas-González, Saúl; Díaz-Flores, Margarita; Durán-Reyes, Genoveva

    2014-01-01

    Background A new component of the protein antioxidant capacity, designated Response Surplus (RS), was recently described. A major feature of this component is the close relationship between protein antioxidant capacity and molecular structure. Oxidative stress is associated with renal dysfunction in patients with renal failure, and plasma albumin is the target of massive oxidation in nephrotic syndrome and diabetic nephropathy. The aim of the present study was to explore the albumin redox state and the RS component of human albumin isolated from diabetic patients with progressive renal damage. Methods/Principal Findings Serum aliquots were collected and albumin isolated from 125 diabetic patients divided into 5 groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In addition to clinical and biochemical variables, the albumin redox state, including antioxidant capacity, thiol group content, and RS component, were evaluated. The albumin antioxidant capacity and thiol group content were reciprocally related to the RS component in association with GFR reduction. The GFR decline and RS component were significantly negatively correlated (R = –0.83, palbumin to stress in relation to the progression of diabetic renal disease was evaluated. The findings confirm that the albumin molecular structure is closely related to its redox state, and is a key factor in the progression of diabetes nephropathy. PMID:25187963

  7. Pharmacologic therapy for acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambhampati, Swetha; Park, Walter; Habtezion, Aida

    2014-01-01

    While conservative management such as fluid, bowel rest, and antibiotics is the mainstay of current acute pancreatitis management, there is a lot of promise in pharmacologic therapies that target various aspects of the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Extensive review of preclinical studies, which include assessment of therapies such as anti-secretory agents, protease inhibitors, anti-inflammatory agents, and anti-oxidants are discussed. Many of these studies have shown therapeutic benefit and improved survival in experimental models. Based on available preclinical studies, we discuss potential novel targeted pharmacologic approaches that may offer promise in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. To date a variety of clinical studies have assessed the translational potential of animal model effective experimental therapies and have shown either failure or mixed results in human studies. Despite these discouraging clinical studies, there is a great clinical need and there exist several preclinical effective therapies that await investigation in patients. Better understanding of acute pancreatitis pathophysiology and lessons learned from past clinical studies are likely to offer a great foundation upon which to expand future therapies in acute pancreatitis. PMID:25493000

  8. Combination Therapy with Losartan and Pioglitazone Additively Reduces Renal Oxidative and Nitrative Stress Induced by Chronic High Fat, Sucrose, and Sodium Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Kong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently showed that combination therapy with losartan and pioglitazone provided synergistic effects compared with monotherapy in improving lesions of renal structure and function in Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a high-fat, high-sodium diet and 20% sucrose solution. This study was designed to explore the underlying mechanisms of additive renoprotection provided by combination therapy. Losartan, pioglitazone, and their combination were orally administered for 8 weeks. The increased level of renal malondialdehyde and expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunit p47phox and nitrotyrosine as well as the decreased total superoxide dismutase activity and copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase expression were tangible evidence for the presence of oxidative and nitrative stress in the kidney of model rats. Treatment with both drugs, individually and in combination, improved these abnormal changes. Combination therapy showed synergistic effects in reducing malondialdehyde level, p47phox, and nitrotyrosine expression to almost the normal level compared with monotherapy. All these results suggest that the additive renoprotection provided by combination therapy might be attributed to a further reduction of oxidative and nitrative stress.

  9. Emerging role of phenolic compounds as natural food additives in fish and fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Sajid; Benjakul, Soottawat; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2013-01-01

    Chemical and microbiological deteriorations are principal causes of quality loss of fish and fish products during handling, processing, and storage. Development of rancid odor and unpleasant flavor, changes of color and texture as well as lowering nutritional value in fish can be prevented by appropriate use of additives. Due to the potential health hazards of synthetic additives, natural products, especially antioxidants and antimicrobial agents, have been intensively examined as safe alternatives to synthetic compounds. Polyphenols (PP) are the natural antioxidants prevalent in fruits, vegetables, beverages (tea, wine, juices), plants, seaweeds, and some herbs and show antioxidative and antimicrobial activities in different fish and fish products. The use of phenolic compounds also appears to be a good alternative for sulphiting agent for retarding melanosis in crustaceans. Phenolic compounds have also been successfully employed as the processing aid for texture modification of fish mince and surimi. Thus, plant polyphenolic compounds can serve as potential additives for preventing quality deterioration or to retain the quality of fish and fish products.

  10. Purification, Characterization, and Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides Isolated from Cortex Periplocae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Yifei; Liu, Zhikai; Zhao, Mingqin; Liu, Pengfei

    2017-10-31

    In this study, crude Cortex Periplocae polysaccharides (CCPPs) were extracted with water. CCPPs were decolored with AB-8 resin and deproteinated using papain-Sevage methods. Then, they were further purified and separated through DEAE-52 anion exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography, respectively. Three main fractions-CPP1, CPP2, and CPP3, (CPPs)-were obtained. The average molecular weights, monosaccharide analysis, surface morphology, and chemical compositions of the CPPs were investigated by high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In addition, the antioxidant activities of these three polysaccharides were investigated. The results indicated that all of the CPPs were composed of rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, glucose, and galactose. These three polysaccharides exhibited antioxidant activities in four assays including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical, reducing power, and total antioxidant activity in vitro. The data indicated that these three polysaccharides could be utilized as potential natural sources of alternative additives in the functional food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries.

  11. Antioxidant defenses predict long-term survival in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Saino

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal and pathological processes entail the production of oxidative substances that can damage biological molecules and harm physiological functions. Organisms have evolved complex mechanisms of antioxidant defense, and any imbalance between oxidative challenge and antioxidant protection can depress fitness components and accelerate senescence. While the role of oxidative stress in pathogenesis and aging has been studied intensively in humans and model animal species under laboratory conditions, there is a dearth of knowledge on its role in shaping life-histories of animals under natural selection regimes. Yet, given the pervasive nature and likely fitness consequences of oxidative damage, it can be expected that the need to secure efficient antioxidant protection is powerful in molding the evolutionary ecology of animals. Here, we test whether overall antioxidant defense varies with age and predicts long-term survival, using a wild population of a migratory passerine bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica, as a model.Plasma antioxidant capacity (AOC of breeding individuals was measured using standard protocols and annual survival was monitored over five years (2006-2010 on a large sample of selection episodes. AOC did not covary with age in longitudinal analyses after discounting the effect of selection. AOC positively predicted annual survival independently of sex. Individuals were highly consistent in their relative levels of AOC, implying the existence of additive genetic variance and/or environmental (including early maternal components consistently acting through their lives.Using longitudinal data we showed that high levels of antioxidant protection positively predict long-term survival in a wild animal population. Present results are therefore novel in disclosing a role for antioxidant protection in determining survival under natural conditions, strongly demanding for more longitudinal eco-physiological studies of life-histories in

  12. Alterations in the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene in syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells pretreated with phenolic antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strniste, G.F.; Okinaka, R.T.; Chen, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Inhibition of chemical- or radiation-induced neoplasia has been observed in animals whose diets were supplemented with antioxidants commonly used as food additives. Inhibition of the carcinogenicity of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) or of 7,12-dimenthylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) - in rats has been achieved by the addition of the phenolic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) to the diet. Our data suggest that in SHE cells antioxidants inhibit the overall metabolism of BaP to its various oxidized moieties including 7,8-diol- and 7,8,9,10-tetrol-BaP. A plausible explanation for our results with SHE cells is that the antioxidants interact directly with AHH, thus inhibiting AHH metabolic capacity. From analysis of nuclear material from SHE cells (+- antioxidants) incubated for 36 hours with BaP at 1 μg/ml, it is calculated that 4.6, 2.4 and 2.9 pmol BaP are bound to the DNA isolated from 10 7 nuclei of control, BHA-(20 μg/ml) and p-MP-(10 μg/ml) treated cultures, respectively

  13. Effects of nutritional supplement of ginger root on antioxidant status in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid fartashvand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale is a medicinal plant and pungent food spice, which has antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ginger on antioxidant status of blood in healthy sheep. In this study, dried ginger root powder was added to the ration of 10 male yearling sheep (treatment group, at the rate of 1g/head/day for a period of 2 months. In the second group (n = 10 sheep, a single dose of vitamin E+selenium injection was administered intramuscularly (positive control group and the control group (n=10 sheep received no medication or special additives. Blood samples were collected regularly at 2 week intervals and enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalase (CAT and total antioxidant levels were measured. Ginger increased total antioxidant capacity of serum and blood levels of SOD, GPX and CAT, which was significant compared to the control group (p

  14. A Comparative Summary on Antioxidant-like Actions of Timolol with Other Antioxidants in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Belma

    2016-01-01

    Cellular signaling associated with cardiac β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) is composed of coupled mechanism among β 1-/β2-AR and Gs proteins with contribution of constitutive β3-AR coupling to Gi proteins. However, down-regulation of β-ARs in the heart under pathological conditions is mediated with a signaling G proteins-included mechanism. Additionally, there are serious conflicting data on this field in literature yet. Although some of these conflictions are generally related with either experimental protocols for different approaches or different animal models. To treat cardiovascular disorders, generally, various types of β-blockers are used while their action mechanisms are not fully known yet. Furthermore, although β-blockers are generally used to block the activated β-ARs, they can be used to scavenge free radicals under oxidative stress. Studies, in whole-system, organ or cellular levels, showed that some β-blockers, including timolol, have protective-actions against increased oxidative stress in diseased heart via ROSscavenging. Additionally, it has been mentioned that some β-blockers nicely prevented the development of heart failure in both experimental and clinical studies by restoring sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release channels, RyR2. Since diabetic cardiomyopathy is recognized due to its diminished responsiveness to β1-AR agonist stimulation in the heart with an up-regulation of β 3-AR, inducing a strong negative inotropic effect on left ventricular function, it has been shown that treatment of streptozotocin-diabetic rats with timolol provided a marked cardio-protection. Importantly, it has been also documented that timolol treatment-dependent cardio-protection in diabetic rats includes basically prevention of RyR2- hyperphosphorylation, which, in turn, block Ca(2+)-leakage from SR via scavenging oxidative agents to control redox-state of cardiomyocytes. This action of timolol in diabetic heart is very similar to other known

  15. Influence of the Addition of Selected Spices on Sensory Quality and Biological Activity of Honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Wilczyńska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bee honey is nutritious and has numerous health benefits, but its taste is for many people too bland. Honey with addition of spices could be important to the food industry as a functional product with positive health image and interesting taste. Such product would definitely meet health-driven consumers’ expectations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of addition of selected spices on sensory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties of honey. Results showed that the addition of spices significantly affected the taste and the smell of honey (p<0,05 and that honey with the cinnamon was the most desired and easily accepted product by the consumers. The addition of spices had no significant effect on texture and appearance. All tested samples showed the ability to inhibit the growth of bacteria and, contrary to the assumptions, the addition of spices did not cause an increase of antimicrobial activity. The results also showed that the kind and amount of added spice significantly affected the antioxidant activity: ability to scavenge free radicals and total phenolics content. The highest antioxidant activity revealed the honey with cinnamon and the lowest revealed the honey with cardamom addition.

  16. Quantitative combination of natural anti-oxidants prevents metabolic syndrome by reducing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingjing; Zhao, Zhen; Lv, Pengyu; Li, YuFang; Gao, Juntao; Zhang, Michael; Zhao, Baolu

    2015-12-01

    Insulin resistance and abdominal obesity are present in the majority of people with the metabolic syndrome. Antioxidant therapy might be a useful strategy for type 2 diabetes and other insulin-resistant states. The combination of vitamin C (Vc) and vitamin E has synthetic scavenging effect on free radicals and inhibition effect on lipid peroxidation. However, there are few studies about how to define the best combination of more than three anti-oxidants as it is difficult or impossible to test the anti-oxidant effect of the combination of every concentration of each ingredient experimentally. Here we present a math model, which is based on the classical Hill equation to determine the best combination, called Fixed Dose Combination (FDC), of several natural anti-oxidants, including Vc, green tea polyphenols (GTP) and grape seed extract proanthocyanidin (GSEP). Then we investigated the effects of FDC on oxidative stress, blood glucose and serum lipid levels in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, high fat diet (HFD)-fed rats which serve as obesity model, and KK-ay mice as diabetic model. The level of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) in the treated rats was studied and Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining or Oil red slices of liver and adipose tissue in the rats were examined as well. FDC shows excellent antioxidant and anti-glycation activity by attenuating lipid peroxidation. FDC determined in this investigation can become a potential solution to reduce obesity, to improve insulin sensitivity and be beneficial for the treatment of fat and diabetic patients. It is the first time to use the math model to determine the best ratio of three anti-oxidants, which can save much more time and chemical materials than traditional experimental method. This quantitative method represents a potentially new and useful strategy to screen all possible combinations of many natural anti-oxidants, therefore may help develop novel therapeutics with the potential to ameliorate the worldwide metabolic

  17. Antioxidant activity of lichen Cetraria aculeata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomović Jovica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the antioxidant properties of the lichen Cetraria aculeata. Antioxidant activity of the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of lichen was tested by different methods including determination of total phenolics content, determination of total antioxidant capacity, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, inhibitory activity towards lipid peroxidation, ferrous ion chelating ability and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. The extracts of the lichen C. aculeata showed significant antioxidant activity. The methanol extract showed higher values for total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity compared to the ethyl acetate extract, while the ethyl acetate extract demonstrated better results for DPPH radical scavenging, inhibitory activity towards lipid peroxidation, chelating ability and hydroxyl radical scavenging than the methanol extract. This is the first report of the antioxidant properties of Cetraria aculeata growing in Serbia. The results of antioxidant activity indicate the application of this lichen as source of natural antioxidants that could be used as a possible food supplement, in the pharmaceutical industry and in the treatment of various diseases.

  18. Effects of Xueshuantong combined with antioxidant drugs on nerve conduction function and oxidative stress in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Zhen Chu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of Xueshuantong combined with antioxidant drugs on nerve conduction function and oxidative stress in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Methods: 138 cases of patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy who were treated in endocrinology department of our hospital between June 2014 and October 2016 were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. The combination group received Xueshuantong combined with antioxidant drug therapy, and the control group received antioxidant drug therapy. Before and after treatment, the nerve conduction velocity as well as serum content of oxidative stress indexes and nerve cytokines was measured. Results: 4 weeks and 8 weeks after treatment, common peroneal nerve and median nerve MNCV and SNCV as well as serum SOD, GSH-Px, HO-1, CAT, CNTF, BDNF and SDF-1α levels of both groups were significantly higher than those before treatment while serum MDA, AOPP and 8-OHdG levels were significantly lower than those before treatment, and common peroneal nerve and median nerve MNCV and SNCV as well as serum SOD, GSH-Px, HO-1, CAT, CNTF, BDNF and SDF-1α levels of combination group were significantly higher than those of control group while serum MDA, AOPP and 8-OHdG levels were significantly lower than those of control group. Conclusion: Xueshuantong combined with antioxidant drugs can improve the nerve conduction function, inhibit oxidative stress response and improve neurotrophy status in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

  19. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Derriobtusone A Isolated from Lonchocarpus obtusus

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    Mayron Alves Vasconcelos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of derriobtusone A, a flavonoid isolated from Lonchocarpus obtusus, on two important pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, as well as its antioxidant activity and toxicity. Planktonic growth assays were performed, and the inhibition of biofilm formation was evaluated. In addition, antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging assay, ferrous ion chelating assay, ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay, and β-carotene bleaching assay. Toxicity was evaluated by the brine shrimp lethality test. Results showed that derriobtusone A completely inhibited the planktonic growth of S. aureus at 250 and 500 μg/mL; however, it did not have the same activity on E. coli. Derriobtusone A reduced the biomass and colony-forming unit (cfu of S. aureus biofilm at concentrations of 250 and 500 μg/mL. In various concentrations, it reduced the biofilm biomass of E. coli, and, in all concentrations, it weakly reduced the cfu. Derriobtusone A showed highly efficient antioxidant ability in scavenging DPPH radical and inhibiting β-carotene oxidation. The compound showed no lethality to Artemia sp. nauplii. In conclusion, derriobtusone A may be an effective molecule against S. aureus and its biofilm, as well as a potential antioxidant compound with no toxicity.

  20. The antioxidative effect of lipophilized rutin and dihydrocaffeic acid in fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Petersen, Lone Kirsten; de Diego, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The antioxidative effect of phenolipids was evaluated in fish oil enriched milk emulsions as a model for a complex food system. Two different phenolipids modified from dihydrocaffeic acid (with C8 or C18:1) and rutin (with C12 or C16) were evaluated. Both dihydrocaffeate esters and rutin laurate...... provides new knowledge that can be used to develop new antioxidant strategies to protect foods against lipid oxidation. However, the results indicate that both optimization of alkyl chain length for each type of phenolic, and optimization for each type of emulsion will be necessary in order to get the best...... oxidative stability of an emulsion with these phenolipids. Use of efficient antioxidants may lower the amount of antioxidant needed to protect against lipid oxidation and may in addition decrease the costs....

  1. Polyphenol Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Medlar (Mespilus germanica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhami Gülçin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Medlar is the fruit of Mespilus germanica L. in the family of Rosaceae. The present study outlines that the native medlar (Mespilus germanica L. fruits an extremely rich source of antioxidants. In this study, antioxidant and antiradical property of medlar fruits were evaluated. Total phenolics and flavonoids amounts in lyophilized extract of medlar (LEM fruits were calculated as gallic acid and quercetin equivalents, respectively. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of LEM were investigated using different in vitro assays including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH∙, N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD •+, and superoxide anion radicals (O 2 •- scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2, ferric ions (Fe 3+ and cupric ions (Cu 2+ reducing ability, Fe 3+-TPTZ reducing ability, ferrous ions (Fe 2+ chelating activity as trolox equivalent. In addition, quantitative amounts of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, syringic acid, ellagic acid, quercetin, α-tocopherol, pyrogallol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid and ascorbic acid in LEM were detected by high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The presence of these antioxidant compounds can be considered as a quality parameter for edible medlar fruits.

  2. Effects of 12-week combined exercise therapy on oxidative stress in female fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarıfakıoğlu, Banu; Güzelant, Aliye Yıldırım; Güzel, Eda Celik; Güzel, Savaş; Kızıler, Ali Rıza

    2014-10-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of exercise therapy on the oxidative stress in fibromyalgia patients and relationship between oxidative stress and fibromyalgia symptoms. Thirty women diagnosed with fibromyalgia according to the American College of Rheumatology preliminary criteria, and 23 healthy women whose age- and weight-matched women were enrolled the study. Pain intensity with visual analog scale (VAS), the number of tender points, the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck depression inventory (BDI) were evaluated. The oxidative stress parameters thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, and nitric oxide, and antioxidant parameters thiols and catalase were investigated in patients and control group. After, combined aerobic and strengthen exercise regimen was given to fibromyalgia group. Exercise therapy consisted of a warming period of 10 min, aerobic exercises period of 20 min, muscle strengthening exercises for 20 min, and 10 min cooling down period. Therapy was lasting 1 h three times per week over a 12-week period. All parameters were reevaluated after the treatment in the patient group. The oxidative stress parameters levels were significantly higher, and antioxidant parameters were significantly lower in patients with fibromyalgia than in the controls. VAS, FIQ, and BDI scores decreased significantly with exercise therapy. The exercise improved all parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters. Also, all clinical parameters were improved with exercise. We should focus on oxidative stress in the treatment for fibromyalgia with the main objective of reducing oxidative load.

  3. Tyrosinase Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities of Silk Cocoons and Mulberry Leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongphasuk, Jarunee; Thongphasuk, Piyanuch

    2005-10-01

    Silk cocoons and mulberry leaves have been used in the field of medicines, cosmetics, and foods. The objective of this study is to determine the antioxidant activities of silk cocoons and mulberry leaves using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical and thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and to determine tyrosinase inhibitory activities using dihydroxyphenylalanine. The water and ethanol extracts from silk cocoons (Nang Noi, U B1, and Lao) and mulberry leaves showed antioxidants and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. However, the extracts from all samples at 1,000 μg/reaction mixture inhibited tyrosinase in the range of 12.28-45.98%, which was much lower than the standard whitening agent kojic acid (IC50 0.45 μg/reaction mixture). The results from TLC showed that the ethanol extracts from the 3 species of cocoons contained flavonoids, but only the extract from Nang Noi contained carotenoid. In addition, the separation destroyed the fraction with high antioxidant activity. Therefore, the disadvantage of the extract separation is increased cost and decreased antioxidant activities

  4. Tyrosinase Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities of Silk Cocoons and Mulberry Leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thongphasuk, Jarunee [Office of Atoms for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand); Thongphasuk, Piyanuch [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Rangsit University, Pathumthani (Thailand)

    2005-10-15

    Silk cocoons and mulberry leaves have been used in the field of medicines, cosmetics, and foods. The objective of this study is to determine the antioxidant activities of silk cocoons and mulberry leaves using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical and thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and to determine tyrosinase inhibitory activities using dihydroxyphenylalanine. The water and ethanol extracts from silk cocoons (Nang Noi, U B1, and Lao) and mulberry leaves showed antioxidants and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. However, the extracts from all samples at 1,000 {mu}g/reaction mixture inhibited tyrosinase in the range of 12.28-45.98%, which was much lower than the standard whitening agent kojic acid (IC50 0.45 {mu}g/reaction mixture). The results from TLC showed that the ethanol extracts from the 3 species of cocoons contained flavonoids, but only the extract from Nang Noi contained carotenoid. In addition, the separation destroyed the fraction with high antioxidant activity. Therefore, the disadvantage of the extract separation is increased cost and decreased antioxidant activities.

  5. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation as an Additional Treatment for Women Suffering from Therapy-Resistant Provoked Vestibulodynia : A Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallinga, Marleen S.; Spoelstra, Symen K.; Hemel, Inge L. M.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.; Schultz, Willibrord C. M. Weijnnar

    IntroductionThe current approach to women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) comprises a multidimensional, multidisciplinary therapeutic protocol. As PVD is considered to be a chronic pain disorder, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) can be used as an additional therapy for women

  6. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Seeds Cultivated in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hwa; Lee, Yun Jin; Kim, Yeon Ho; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of quinoa cultivated in Korea and to compare it with imported quinoa from the USA and Peru. The highest amount of total flavonoid contents (TFC) with 20.91 mg quercetin equivalents/100 g was measured in quinoa seed extract cultivated in Korea, while the total phenolic contents (TPC) were significantly higher in quinoa from the USA (16.28 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g). In addition, quinoa extracts cultivated in Korea displayed a superior antioxidant ability in both, ferric reducing antioxidant power and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl values. There was a high correlation between TFC and antioxidant activity and a low correlation between TPC and antioxidant activity. The antimicrobial activity of the quinoa extracts was determined using a disc diffusion assay and optical density method. In both assays, the quinoa seed extracts did not have strong antimicrobial activity against foodborne bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus , Listeria monocytogenes , Bacillus cereus , Escherichia coli , Salmonella Typhimurium, and Campylobacter jejuni .

  7. Influence of garlic extract on antioxidant status of chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Jakubcova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the European Union banned the feeding of antibiotic growth promoters because of possible risk of drug resistance in human pathogens bacteria. This is the reason for the study of various phytogenic additives and their extracts as a natural source of biologically important compounds. Antimicrobial substances are a commonly included in chicken feed rations. They are used mainly as prevention against various diseases, and also to stimulate growth. The beneficial effects of garlic on animal organism resulting from their antimicrobial, antioxidative and antihypertensive properities. Studies focused on growth, conversion and meat quality of different types of animals indicate its positive effects. In our experiment we studied the influence of garlic extract in a dose of 0, 10 g and 15 g per 1 kg of chicken feed mixture. We focused on weight gains and antioxidant status of an organism. The experiment took 39 days. 54 seven-day-old chickens were included in the experiment. The chickens were weighed once a week, when aged 11, 17, 24, 31 and 38 days, at the same time of the day. The chickens had ad libitum access to feed ration and water. The chickens were taken blood sample at the end of the experiment when 39 days old. Their antioxidant status were measured using ABTS, FRAP and DPPH methods. Our results show that owing to higher concentration of garlic extract in feed ration the antioxidant status of observed chickens was increased. DPPH method showed an increase in antioxidant status of both experimental groups by 38% (a group with a dose of 10 g/kg of mixture and by 46% (a group with a dose of 15 g/kg of mixture compared to the control group. When using FRAP method, antioxidant status of both G10 and G15 groups increased by 24%, resp. 16%. No evidential differences in antioxidant activity between the experimental groups and control group were found using ABTS method. The supplement of garlic extract into a feed ration did not have any influence

  8. Determination of antioxidant content in biodiesel by fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Keurison F.; Caires, Anderson R.L. [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Grupo de Optica Aplicada; Oliveira, Samuel L. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), MS (Brazil). Grupo de Optica e Fotonica

    2011-07-01

    Full text. Biodiesel is an alternative fuel composed by mono-alkyl esters obtained from vegetable oils or animal fats. Due to its chemical structure, biodiesel is highly susceptible to oxidation which leads to formation of insoluble gums and sediments that can block the filter system of fuel injection. Biodiesel made from vegetable oils typically has a small amount of natural antioxidants so that it is necessary to add synthetic antioxidants to enhance its stability and retain their properties for a longer period. The main antioxidants are synthetic phenolic compounds such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) as well as natural antioxidants as tocopherols. The fluorescence spectroscopy has been applied for determination of phenolic compounds in oils. Here, a method based on fluorescence is proposed to quantify the BHA and TBHQ antioxidant concentration in biodiesel produced from sunflower and soybean oils. Soybean and sunflower biodiesel were obtained by transesterification of fatty alcohol in the presence of NaOH as catalyst. The reactions were carried out in the molar ratio of 6:1 methanol/oil. After the production and purification, biodiesel samples were stored. Biodiesel samples with BHA and TBHQ concentrations from 1000 to 8000 ppm (m/m) were pre- pared. These samples were diluted in ethanol (95%) in order to measure the fluorescence spectra. Fluorescence and excitation spectra of the solutions were recorded at room temperature using a spectrofluorimeter. The emission spectra were obtained under excitation at about 310nm and fluorescence in the 320-800nm range was evaluated. Biodiesel samples without BHA and TBHQ showed fluorescence band at about 420nm, which can be attributed to tocopherols inherent to the vegetable oils used in the biodiesel production. The addition of BHA and/or TBHQ is responsible for the appearance of a fluorescence band around 330nm. It was verified that the fluorescence

  9. An in vitro model to test relative antioxidant potential: Ultraviolet-induced lipid peroxidation in liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelle, E.; Maes, D.; Padulo, G.A.; Kim, E.K.; Smith, W.P.

    1990-01-01

    Since antioxidants have been shown to play a major role in preventing some of the effects of aging and photoaging in skin, it is important to study this phenomenon in a controlled manner. This was accomplished by developing a simple and reliable in vitro technique to assay antioxidant efficacy. Inhibition of peroxidation by antioxidants was used as a measure of relative antioxidant potential. Liposomes, high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), were dispersed in buffer and irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) light. Irradiated liposomes exhibited a significantly higher amount of hydroperoxides than liposomes containing antioxidants in a dose- and concentration-dependent manner. Lipid peroxidation was determined spectrophotometrically by an increase in thiobarbituric acid reacting substances. To further substantiate the production of lipid peroxides, gas chromatography was used to measure a decrease in PUFA substrate. In order of decreasing antioxidant effectiveness, the following results were found among lipophilic antioxidants: BHA greater than catechin greater than BHT greater than alpha-tocopherol greater than chlorogenic acid. Among hydrophilic antioxidants, ascorbic acid and dithiothreitol were effective while glutathione was ineffective. In addition, ascorbic acid was observed to act synergistically with alpha-tocopherol, which is in agreement with other published reports on the interaction of these two antioxidants. Although peroxyl radical scavengers seem to be at a selective advantage in this liposomal/UV system, these results demonstrate the validity of this technique as an assay for measuring an antioxidant's potential to inhibit UV-induced peroxidation

  10. Induction of Cell Death through Alteration of Oxidants and Antioxidants in Epithelial Cells Exposed to High Energy Protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Govindarajan; Wu, Honglu

    2012-01-01

    Radiation affects several cellular and molecular processes including double strand breakage, modifications of sugar moieties and bases. In outer space, protons are the primary radiation source which poses a range of potential health risks to astronauts. On the other hand, the use of proton radiation for tumor radiation therapy is increasing as it largely spares healthy tissues while killing tumor tissues. Although radiation related research has been conducted extensively, the molecular toxicology and cellular mechanisms affected by proton radiation remain poorly understood. Therefore, in the present study, we irradiated rat epithelial cells (LE) with different doses of protons and investigated their effects on cell proliferation and cell death. Our data showed an inhibition of cell proliferation in proton irradiated cells with a significant dose dependent activation and repression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants, glutathione and superoxide dismutase respectively as compared to control cells. In addition, apoptotic related genes such as caspase-3 and -8 activities were induced in a dose dependent manner with corresponding increased levels of DNA fragmentation in proton irradiated cells than control cells. Together, our results show that proton radiation alters oxidant and antioxidant levels in the cells to activate apoptotic pathway for cell death.

  11. Additive contributions of two manganese-cored superoxide dismutases (MnSODs to antioxidation, UV tolerance and virulence of Beauveria bassiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Qin Xie

    Full Text Available The biocontrol potential of entomopathogenic fungi against arthropod pests depends on not only their virulence to target pests but tolerance to outdoor high temperature and solar UV irradiation. Two Beauveria bassiana superoxide dismutases (SODs, BbSod2 and BbSod3, were characterized as cytosolic and mitochondrial manganese-cored isoenzymes (MnSODs dominating the total SOD activity of the fungal entomopathogen under normal growth conditions. To probe their effects on the biocontrol potential of B. bassiana, ΔBbSod2, ΔBbSod3, and three hairpin RNA-interfered (RNAi mutants with the transcripts of both BbSod2 and BbSod3 being suppressed by 91-97% were constructed and assayed for various phenotypic parameters in conjunction with ΔBbSod2/BbSod2, ΔBbSod3/BbSod3 and wild-type (control strains. In normal cultures, the knockout and RNAi mutants showed significant phenotypic alterations, including delayed sporulation, reduced conidial yields, and impaired conidial quality, but little change in colony morphology. Their mycelia or conidia became much more sensitive to menadione or H(2O(2-induced oxidative stress but had little change in sensitivity to the hyperosmolarity of NaCl and the high temperature of 45°C. Accompanied with the decreased antioxidative capability, conidial tolerances to UV-A and UV-B irradiations were reduced by 16.8% and 45.4% for ΔBbSod2, 18.7% and 44.7% for ΔBbSod3, and ∼33.7% and ∼63.8% for the RNAi mutants, respectively. Their median lethal times (LT(50s against Myzus persicae apterae, which were topically inoculated under a standardized spray, were delayed by 18.8%, 14.5% and 37.1%, respectively. Remarkably, the effects of cytosolic BbSod2 and mitochondrial BbSod3 on the phenotypic parameters important for the fungal bioncontrol potential were additive, well in accordance with the decreased SOD activities and the increased superoxide levels in the knockout and RNAi mutants. Our findings highlight for the first time that

  12. Genotypic and climatic influence on the antioxidant activity of flavonoids in Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietz, Michaela; Weckmüller, Annika; Schmidt, Susanne; Rohn, Sascha; Schreiner, Monika; Krumbein, Angelika; Kroh, Lothar W

    2010-02-24

    The influence of genotype and climatic factors, e.g. mean temperature and mean global radiation level, on the antioxidant activity of kale was investigated. Therefore, eight kale cultivars, hybrid and traditional, old cultivars, were grown in a field experiment and harvested at four different times. In addition to the investigation of the total phenolic content, the overall antioxidant activity was determined by TEAC assay and electron spin resonance spectrometry. A special aim was to characterize the contribution of single flavonoids to the overall antioxidant activity using an HPLC-online TEAC approach. The antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content were influenced by the genotype and the eco-physiological factors. The HPLC-online TEAC results showed that not all flavonol glycosides contribute to the overall antioxidant activity in the same manner. Taking the results of the structural analysis obtained by HPLC-ESI-MS(n) into account, distinct structure-antioxidant relationships have been observed.

  13. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2017-03-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  14. Antioxidant effects and phytochemical analysis of crude and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus globulus is extremely used in traditional medicine in Algeria and its leaf extract is included as one of the antioxidant in the list of existing food additives in Japan. In the present study, the crude extract from bark of this plant and its fractions obtained by Sephadex LH-20 column were studied to quantify their levels ...

  15. Characterization of cookies made from wheat flour blended with buckwheat flour and effect on antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Ulfat; Gani, Adil; Ahmad, Mudasir; Shah, Umar; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, F A; Maqsood, Sajid; Gani, Asir; Wani, Idress Ahmed; Wani, S M

    2015-10-01

    Buckwheat flour was incorporated into wheat flour at different levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 %) and the physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of the blended flour were studied. This study also investigated the effect of buckwheat on the retention of antioxidant properties of cookies during baking. The results showed significant variation in physicochemical and functional properties of the blended flour. The addition of buckwheat flour into wheat flour also increased the antioxidant properties of blended flour proportionally, but metal chelating properties decreased. The incorporation of buckwheat in wheat flour helped in better retention of antioxidant potential of cookies during baking process as buckwheat cookies (100 % buckwheat) showed greater percentage increase in antioxidant properties than control (100 % wheat). Quality characteristics of cookies such as hardness and spread ratio decreased, while as non-enzymatic browning (NEB) increased significantly with increase in the proportion of buckwheat flour in wheat flour. The Overall acceptability of cookies by sensory analysis was highest at 40 % level of blending. This study concluded that addition of buckwheat in wheat flour, may not only improve the physico-chemical and functional properties of the blended flour but may also enhance the nutraceutical potential of the product prepared from it.

  16. Natural Antioxidants: Fascinating or Mythical Biomolecules?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Van Staden

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on the use, properties, characteristics and sources of antioxidants especially phenolic compounds, flavonoids, vitamins, synthetic chemicals and some micronutrients began in the late 18th century. Since then antioxidant research has received considerable attention and over a hundred thousand papers have been published on the subject. This has led to a rampant use of antioxidants in order to try to obtain and preserve optimal health. A number of nutraceuticals and food supplements are frequently fortified with synthetic or natural antioxidants. However, some research outcomes have led to the belief that antioxidants exist as mythical biomolecules. This review provides a critical evaluation of some common in vitro antioxidant capacity methods, and a discussion on the role and controversies surrounding non-enzymatic biomolecules, in particular phenolic compounds and non-phenolic compounds, in oxidative processes in an attempt of stemming the tidal wave that is threatening to swamp the concept of natural antioxidants.

  17. Antioxidant Activity of Some Plant Extracts Towards Xanthine Oxidase, Lipoxygenase and Tyrosinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Yu Chen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural products have the potential to be developed into new drugs for the treatment of various diseases. The aim of the present study was to screen the antioxidant activities of some common edible fruits, garden plants and medicinal plants indigenous to Taiwan. This was performed by assessing the activities of lipoxygenase, xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase following incubation with extracts from these plants. A further aim was to use HPLC-DAD and tyrosinase to chromatographically identify the antioxidative constituents obtained from an extract exhibiting strong antioxidative properties. The acetone extracts of 27 cultivated plant species from Taiwan were tested for antioxidant activities towards xanthine oxidase, tyrosinase and lipoxygenase using spectrophotometric assays. Koelreuteria henryi, Prunus campanulata, and Rhodiola rosea showed the highest xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Camellia sinensis, Rhodiola rosea, and Koelreuteria henryi exhibited good tyrosinase inhibitory activities and potent anti-lipoxygenase activities. As Koelreuteria henryi had notable significant inhibitory activities towards xanthine oxidase, tyrosinase, and lipoxygenase, it was further tested with tyrosinase and HPLC-DAD. The results from this part of the study revealed that the more powerful the antioxidant capability of the extracted component, the greater the decrease in peak height obtained after reacting with tyrosinase. Additional studies are warranted to further characterize the compounds responsible for the antioxidant properties of the examined extracts.

  18. Content of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity in Fruits of Apricot Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Skutkova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health. In this study, we were interested in the evaluation of nutritional value expressed as content of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of new apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. genotypes resistant against Plum pox virus (PPV cultivated on Department of Fruit Growing of Mendel University in Brno. Fruits of twenty one apricot genotypes were collected at the onset of consumption ripeness. Antioxidant capacities of the genotypes were determined spectrometrically using DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radicals scavenging test, TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity, and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Powermethods. The highest antioxidant capacities were determined in the genotypes LE-3228 and LE-2527, the lowest ones in the LE-985 and LE-994 genotypes. Moreover, close correlation (r = 0.964 was determined between the TEAC and DPPH assays. Based on the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenols content, a clump analysis dendrogram of the monitored apricot genotypes was constructed. In addition, we optimized high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem electrochemical and spectrometric detection and determined phenolic profile consisting of the following fifteen phenolic compounds: gallic acid, 4-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, procatechin, salicylic acid, p-coumaric acid, the flavonols quercetin and quercitrin, the flavonol glycoside rutin, resveratrol, vanillin, and the isomers epicatechin, (–- and (+- catechin.

  19. Emerging therapies for Parkinson's disease: from bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazi, F I; Sahli, Z T; Wolny, M; Mousa, S A

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) increases with age and is projected to increase in parallel to the rising average age of the population. The disease can have significant health-related, social, and financial implications not only for the patient and the caregiver, but for the health care system as well. While the neuropathology of this neurodegenerative disorder is fairly well understood, its etiology remains a mystery, making it difficult to target therapy. The currently available drugs for treatment provide only symptomatic relief and do not control or prevent disease progression, and as a result patient compliance and satisfaction are low. Several emerging pharmacotherapies for PD are in different stages of clinical development. These therapies include adenosine A2A receptor antagonists, glutamate receptor antagonists, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, anti-apoptotic agents, and antioxidants such as coenzyme Q10, N-acetyl cysteine, and edaravone. Other emerging non-pharmacotherapies include viral vector gene therapy, microRNAs, transglutaminases, RTP801, stem cells and glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). In addition, surgical procedures including deep brain stimulation, pallidotomy, thalamotomy and gamma knife surgery have emerged as alternative interventions for advanced PD patients who have completely utilized standard treatments and still suffer from persistent motor fluctuations. While several of these therapies hold much promise in delaying the onset of the disease and slowing its progression, more pharmacotherapies and surgical interventions need to be investigated in different stages of PD. It is hoped that these emerging therapies and surgical procedures will strengthen our clinical armamentarium for improved treatment of PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fisetin: A Dietary Antioxidant for Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naghma; Syed, Deeba N.; Ahmad, Nihal

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Diet-derived antioxidants are now being increasingly investigated for their health-promoting effects, including their role in the chemoprevention of cancer. In general, botanical antioxidants have received much attention, as they can be consumed for longer periods of time without any adverse effects. Flavonoids are a broadly distributed class of plant pigments that are regularly consumed in the human diet due to their abundance. One such flavonoid, fisetin (3,3′,4′,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), is found in various fruits and vegetables, such as strawberry, apple, persimmon, grape, onion, and cucumber. Recent Advances: Several studies have demonstrated the effects of fisetin against numerous diseases. It is reported to have neurotrophic, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and other health beneficial effects. Critical Issues: Although fisetin has been reported as an anticarcinogenic agent, further in-depth in vitro and in vivo studies are required to delineate the mechanistic basis of its observed effects. In this review article, we describe the multiple effects of fisetin with special emphasis on its anticancer activity as investigated in cell culture and animal models. Future Directions: Additional research focused toward the identification of molecular targets could lead to the development of fisetin as a chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent against cancer and other diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 151–162. PMID:23121441

  1. Usefulness of antioxidant drugs in bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawad, F.H.; Atabee, H.G.A.; Sahib, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a clinical syndrome with possible correlation to oxidative stress, therefore the effectiveness of some antioxidant drugs has been studied in management of chronic bronchial asthma. Methods: This study was carried out in the Al- Kadhimia Teaching Hospital between December 2008 to May 2009 on 56 patients of both sexes who were randomly allocated to 7 groups, plus 10 healthy volunteers as control group. Each group was given one of the following drugs: vitamin E, vitamin C, combination of vitamin E and C, selenium, zinc, allopurinol and garlic oil, in addition to their classical treatment of asthma and their pulmonary function tests were conducted as well as measuring the levels of serum zinc, calcium, and malondialdehyde (MDA) before and after treatment. Results: All asthmatic patients were suffering from oxidative stress and this was detected by measuring the level of serum MDA which was 2-3 folds more than the control group, and all antioxidants except allopurinol showed a beneficial effect of different degrees in the pulmonary function tests accompanied with clinical improvement of patients' condition and marked decrease in the number of daily attacks. Antioxidants can compensate the oxidative stress that correlates with asthma, can reduce the symptoms of asthma, and improve pulmonary functions. (author)

  2. Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Burg

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides’ antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains’ interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca2+ had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides’ stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites.

  3. Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Ariela; Oshrat, Levy-Ontman

    2015-10-20

    Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides' antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains' interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca(2+) had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides' stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites.

  4. Antioxidant activity of the various extracts of cyclamen graecum link tubers and leaves from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metin, H.; Aydin, C.; Mammadov, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, antioxidant activities of various solvent extracts (methanol, ethanol, acetone and petroleum benzine) obtained from tubers and leaves of Cyclamen graecum Link (Primulaceae) were determined. Antioxidant properties of various extracts from C. graecum were evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and beta-carotene-linoleic acid assays. In addition, total phenolic contents in all the extracts of C. graecum tubers and leaves were determined as pyrocatechol equivalents. Leaves extracts of C. graecum exhibited higher antioxidant activity than tuber extracts with all the types of solvent used. All extracts of C. graecum tubers and leaves had effective free radical scavenging activity. The scavenging activity of C. graecum leaf-ethanol extract (97.3 +- 0.55%) was found more effective than BHT (92.30 +- 0.35%). A positive correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and amount of phenolic contents of the extracts. In this study, all types of extracts obtained from C. graecum have showed strong antioxidant activity. Therefore, this species can be used as a natural antioxidant in food processing and pharmaceutical industries. (author)

  5. Antioxidants for female subfertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showell, Marian G; Mackenzie-Proctor, Rebecca; Jordan, Vanessa; Hart, Roger J

    2017-07-28

    A couple may be considered to have fertility problems if they have been trying to conceive for over a year with no success. This may affect up to a quarter of all couples planning a child. It is estimated that for 40% to 50% of couples, subfertility may result from factors affecting women. Antioxidants are thought to reduce the oxidative stress brought on by these conditions. Currently, limited evidence suggests that antioxidants improve fertility, and trials have explored this area with varied results. This review assesses the evidence for the effectiveness of different antioxidants in female subfertility. To determine whether supplementary oral antioxidants compared with placebo, no treatment/standard treatment or another antioxidant improve fertility outcomes for subfertile women. We searched the following databases (from their inception to September 2016) with no language or date restriction: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group (CGFG) specialised register, the Cochrane Central Register of Studies (CENTRAL CRSO), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and AMED. We checked reference lists of appropriate studies and searched for ongoing trials in the clinical trials registers. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared any type, dose or combination of oral antioxidant supplement with placebo, no treatment or treatment with another antioxidant, among women attending a reproductive clinic. We excluded trials comparing antioxidants with fertility drugs alone and trials that only included fertile women attending a fertility clinic because of male partner infertility. Two review authors independently selected eligible studies, extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. The primary review outcome was live birth; secondary outcomes included clinical pregnancy rates and adverse events. We pooled studies using a fixed-effect model, and calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the dichotomous

  6. Antioxidants and the Comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemeli, Eduardo; Baumgartner, Adolf; Anderson, Diana

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted that antioxidants, either endogenous or from the diet, play a key role in preserving health. They are able to quench radical species generated in situations of oxidative stress, either triggered by pathologies or xenobiotics, and they protect the integrity of DNA from genotoxicants. Nevertheless, there are still many compounds with unclear or unidentified prooxidant/antioxidant activities. This is of concern since there is an increase in the number of compounds synthesized or extracted from vegetables to which humans might be exposed. Despite the well-established protective effects of fruit and vegetables, the antioxidant(s) responsible have not all been clearly identified. There might also be alternative mechanisms contributing to the protective effects for which a comprehensive description is lacking. In the last two decades, the Comet assay has been extensively used for the investigation of the effects of antioxidants and many reports can be found in the literature. The Comet assay, a relatively fast, simple, and sensitive technique for the analysis of DNA damage in all cell types, has been applied for the screening of chemicals, biomonitoring and intervention studies. In the present review, several of the most well-known antioxidants are considered. These include: catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, selenium, iron chelators, melatonin, melanin, vitamins (A, B, C and E), carotenes, flavonoids, isoflavones, tea polyphenols, wine polyphenols and synthetic antioxidants. Investigations showing beneficial as well as non-beneficial properties of the antioxidants selected, either at the in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo level are discussed.

  7. Comparison of the antioxidative components of some marine macroalgae from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, G.; Dere, E.; Dere, S.

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for natural antioxidant molecules to replace the synthetic additives currently used in the food industry. Therefore, in this study, the total phenolic contents, total antioxidant capacities (lipid-soluble and water-soluble), total protein contents, vitamin E contents and vitamin C contents of Ulva rigida C. Agardh, Codium tomentosum Stackhouse, Gracilaria gracilis (Stackhouse) M. Steentoft, L.M. Irvine et W.F. Farnham and Sphaerococcus coronopifolius Stackhouse were determined. According to our data, among the algae studied, the highest levels of bioactive components were found in U. rigida, followed by C. tomentosum, G. gracilis and S. coronopifolius. In particular, U. rigida and C. tomentosum showed the highest values for all of the parameters studied. Therefore, U. rigida and C. tomentosum could be considered as species possessing significant natural antioxidant molecules which might be useful for the food industry. (author)

  8. Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis Leaves: Analysis Of Proximate, Antioxidant Activities And Inorganic Compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiful Irwan Zubairi; Nurul Shahreda Jaies

    2014-01-01

    A variety of herbal plants species has been used in traditional medicine. Most of these plants contained several potent bio-active ingredients and nutrients that could give potential positive effects to the health such as antioxidant and antipyretic. Hibiscus rosa sinensis, commonly known as Bunga raya, have similar concoction characteristic to tea which contain antioxidants that help to control cholesterol. In addition, mucilage that was found in the leaves could helps to reduce extreme body heat during fever (which potentially acts as an antipyretic). Therefore, this preliminary study on the fresh and dried H. rosa sinensis leaves was carried out to analyze and identify the nutrients content, anti-oxidants and inorganic material. Total phenolic content (TPC) method was used for both fresh and dried leaves prior to the antioxidant activities of DPPH free radicals scavenging and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) as to confirm the existence of antioxidant constituents. Meanwhile, the composition of heavy metals was studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The proximate analysis of the fresh leaves showed the presence of moisture content (9.03 %), protein (10.44 %), fat (6.43 %), crude fiber (11.55 %), ash (11.22 %) and carbohydrate (51.33 %). Meanwhile, the inorganic contents are as follows: cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of FRAP and DPPH showed that dried leaves of H. rosa sinensis was higher than the fresh leaves (p < 0.05) irrespective of any solvent used. The positive correlation between TPC and two other antioxidant activities of DPPH and FRAP (p < 0.05) indicates the presence of antioxidant components in the acetone and water extracts. Therefore, the high availability of essential nutritional component, anti-oxidants and low concentration of hazardous inorganic matter in H. rosa sinensis leaves enable it to be used as one

  9. Exercise and oxidative stress: potential effects of antioxidant dietary strategies in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingitore, Alessandro; Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira; Mastorci, Francesca; Quinones, Alfredo; Iervasi, Giorgio; Vassalle, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Free radicals are produced during aerobic cellular metabolism and have key roles as regulatory mediators in signaling processes. Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between production of reactive oxygen species and an adequate antioxidant defense. This adverse condition may lead to cellular and tissue damage of components, and is involved in different physiopathological states, including aging, exercise, inflammatory, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. In particular, the relationship between exercise and oxidative stress is extremely complex, depending on the mode, intensity, and duration of exercise. Regular moderate training appears beneficial for oxidative stress and health. Conversely, acute exercise leads to increased oxidative stress, although this same stimulus is necessary to allow an up-regulation in endogenous antioxidant defenses (hormesis). Supporting endogenous defenses with additional oral antioxidant supplementation may represent a suitable noninvasive tool for preventing or reducing oxidative stress during training. However, excess of exogenous antioxidants may have detrimental effects on health and performance. Whole foods, rather than capsules, contain antioxidants in natural ratios and proportions, which may act in synergy to optimize the antioxidant effect. Thus, an adequate intake of vitamins and minerals through a varied and balanced diet remains the best approach to maintain an optimal antioxidant status. Antioxidant supplementation may be warranted in particular conditions, when athletes are exposed to high oxidative stress or fail to meet dietary antioxidant requirements. Aim of this review is to discuss the evidence on the relationship between exercise and oxidative stress, and the potential effects of dietary strategies in athletes. The differences between diet and exogenous supplementation as well as available tools to estimate effectiveness of antioxidant intake are also reported. Finally, we advocate the need

  10. Antioxidant vitamins in the context of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio da Veiga Ued

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on the importance of antioxidant vitamins, analyzed in the context of dietary intake, its plasma levels, and its current use as a supplementation treatment in obese children and adolescents with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. DATA SOURCES: The articles were identified in Lilacs, Ibecs, SciELO, PubMed/Medline, and Scopus databases. To conduct the survey, the "fatty liver" descriptor was associated to the following words: "children", "antioxidants" and "vitamins". The search was limited to articles written in Portuguese, Spanish and English, with publication date until December, 2012. DATA SYNTHESIS: Six studies were selected. The survey revealed a low dietary intake and low antioxidant vitamins serum levels in this population. The changes in lifestyle, with adequate dietary intake of vitamins, and the increase in physical activity were associated with a significant improvement in liver histology and in laboratory tests. Vitamin supplementation also improved the disease progression markers, as the alanine aminotransferase serum levels and the histological characteristics of lobular inflammation and hepatocellular damage. However, these improvements were not statistically significant in all studies. CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to recommend or to refute antioxidant supplementation in patients with simple steatosis or steatohepatitis. The changes in lifestyle seem to be, at the present time, the more advisable therapy.

  11. Effect of drying methods on total antioxidant capacity of bitter gourd (momordica charantia) fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ee Shian; Abdullah, Aminah; Maskat, Mohammad Yusof

    2013-11-01

    The effect of thermal and non-thermal drying methods on hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities of bitter gourd fruit was investigated in this study. The bitter gourd fruits were dried by following methods: (i) oven drying 40°C, (ii) oven drying 50°C, (iii) oven drying 60°C, (iv) microwave drying (medium low power), (v) microwave drying (medium power) and (vi) freeze drying. Pure acetone and hexane were used to extract the hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant compounds from dried bitter gourd fruits. Freeze dried extracts reported to have highest values in DPPH scavenging activity (hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions), FRAP (lipophilic fraction) and TPC (hydrophilic and lipophilic fraction). Thermal drying slightly increased the values of DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP and TPC assays for hydrophilic extracts. Results concluded bitter gourd fruit is a good source of natural antioxidants and its total antioxidant quality was most preserved by freeze drying. Additionally, the higher value reported in DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP and TPC assays for lipophilic extracts than the hydrophilic extracts suggested that the lipophilic antioxidant compounds of bitter gourd fruit might possess stronger antioxidant power than its counterpart.

  12. Phenolic content, antioxidant effect and cytotoxic activity of Leea indica leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Nidyaletchmy

    2012-08-01

    cells. Conclusions The data obtained in these testing systems clearly establish the antioxidant potency of the fractionated water extract of L. indica leaves. Additional studies should be carried out to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds in the fractionated water extract, in order to provide more convincing evidence.

  13. Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of Arisarum vulgare seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjer Kadri; Salah Eddine Djilani; Abdelouaheb Djilani

    2013-01-01

    Background.Arisarum vulgare is screened and its total phenolic compounds and total flavonoid contents were measured. In addition, the antioxidant capacity of the methanol-water (7:3) extract of this plant is evalu- ated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfon- ic)) tests expressed by Vitamin C Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (VCEAC). HPLC analyses are carried out to identify some polyphenols. The aim of this study is to identify, ...

  14. Chemical profiling and antioxidant activity of Bolivian propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina, Nélida; Quispe, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Theoduloz, Cristina; Giménez, Alberto; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    Propolis is a relevant research subject worldwide. However, there is no information so far on Bolivian propolis. Ten propolis samples were collected from regions with high biodiversity in the main honey production places in Bolivia and were analyzed for their total phenolics (TP), flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activity. The chemical profiles of the samples were assessed by TLC, HPLC-DAD, HPLC-DAD-MS/MS(n) and NMR analysis. TP, TF, TLC and NMR analysis showed significant chemical differences between the samples. Isolation of the main constituents by chromatography and identification by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS(n) achieved more than 35 constituents. According to their profiles, the Bolivian propolis can be classified into phenolic-rich and triterpene-rich samples. Propolis from the valleys (Cochabamba, Chuquisaca and Tarija) contained mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids, while samples from La Paz and Santa Cruz contained cycloartane and pentacyclic triterpenes. Phenolic-rich samples presented moderate to strong antioxidant activity while the triterpene-rich propolis were weakly active. High chemical diversity and differential antioxidant effects were found in Bolivian propolis. Our results provide additional evidence on the chemical composition and bioactivity of South American propolis. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effects of dietary antioxidant of tomato extract and lycopene on Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Montoya M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the effect on tegument pigmentation, survival, growth and antioxidant capacity in diets supplemented with tomato extract and lycopene as additives in experimental feed for Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus. Materials and methods. The additives were added in different concentrations to a basic diet. We performed beginning and an ending biometrics for 100% of the population in each bioassay. The growth and survival of organisms were evaluated. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by ABTS assay, both in the tomato extract sample as well as in foods used in different bioassays. The concentration of lycopene was determined in food and liver and muscle samples of fish fed with it. Acquired pigmentation of fish was assessed through photographs analyzed with Adobe Photoshop®. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance, and when differences were found (p0.05 on pigmentation and growth of the organisms under the established experimental conditions was obtained. Significant differences in antioxidant capacity (p<0.05 were obtained in foods with added lycopene. Conclusions. The inclusion of lycopene or tomato extract in food for the organisms used is not recommended to improve pigmentation, but further studies are needed to demonstrate antioxidant effect.

  16. Antioxidants impair anti-tumoral effects of Vorinostat, but not anti-neoplastic effects of Vorinostat and caspase-8 downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergadà, Laura; Yeramian, Andree; Sorolla, Annabel; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor, Vorinostat, applied as a single therapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation exhibits high anti-tumoral activity on endometrial carcinoma cell lines. In the present study, we have assessed the signalling processes underlying anti-tumoral effects of Vorinostat. Increasing evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species are responsible for histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced cell killing. We have found that Vorinostat induces formation of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage. To investigate the role of oxidative stress as anti-neoplastic mechanism, we have evaluated the effects of different antioxidants (Bha, Nac and Tiron) on endometrial carcinoma cell line Ishikawa treated with Vorinostat. We show that Bha, Nac and Tiron markedly inhibited the cytotoxic effects of Vorinostat, increasing cell viability in vitro. We found that all three antioxidants did not inhibited accumulation of acetyl Histone H4, so that antioxidants did not inhibit Vorinostat activity. Finally, we have evaluated the effects of antioxidants on anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat as monotherapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation in vivo. Interestingly, antioxidants blocked the reduction of tumour growth caused by Vorinostat, but they were unable to inhibit anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat plus caspase-8 inhibition.

  17. Carnosine may reduce lung injury caused by radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Yildiz; Turkcu, Ummuhani Ozel; Hicsonmez, Ayse; Andrieu, Meltem Nalca; Guney, H Zafer; Bilgihan, Ayse; Kurtman, Cengiz

    2006-01-01

    Ionising radiation is known one of the most effective tools in the therapy of cancer but in many thoracic cancers, the total prescribed dose of radiation that can be safely administered to the target volume is limited by the risk of complications arising in the normal lung tissue. One of the major reasons for cellular injury after radiation is the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Radiation pneumonitis is an acute phase side-effect which generally subsides after a few weeks and is followed by a chronic phase characterized by inflammation and fibrosis, that can develop months or years after irradiation. Carnosine is a dipeptide composed by the amino acids beta-histidine and l-alanine. The exact biological role of carnosine is not totally understood, but several studies have demonstrated that it possesses strong and specific antioxidant properties, protects against radiation damage,and promotes wound healing. The antioxidant mechanism of carnosine is attributed to its chelating effect against metal ions, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity, ROS and free radicals scavenging ability . Either its antioxidant or anti-inflammatuar properties, we propose that carnosine ameliorates irradiation-induced lung injury. Thus, supplementing cancer patients to whom applied radiation therapy with carnosine, may provide an alleviation of the symptoms due to radiation-induced lung injury. This issue warrants further studies.

  18. Melatonin as a Potent and Inducible Endogenous Antioxidant: Synthesis and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dun-Xian Tan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is a tryptophan-derived molecule with pleiotropic activities. It is present in almost all or all organisms. Its synthetic pathway depends on the species in which it is measured. For example, the tryptophan to melatonin pathway differs in plants and animals. It is speculated that the melatonin synthetic machinery in eukaryotes was inherited from bacteria as a result of endosymbiosis. However, melatonin’s synthetic mechanisms in microorganisms are currently unknown. Melatonin metabolism is highly complex with these enzymatic processes having evolved from cytochrome C. In addition to its enzymatic degradation, melatonin is metabolized via pseudoenzymatic and free radical interactive processes. The metabolic products of these processes overlap and it is often difficult to determine which process is dominant. However, under oxidative stress, the free radical interactive pathway may be featured over the others. Because of the complexity of the melatonin degradative processes, it is expected that additional novel melatonin metabolites will be identified in future investigations. The original and primary function of melatonin in early life forms such as in unicellular organisms was as a free radical scavenger and antioxidant. During evolution, melatonin was selected as a signaling molecule to transduce the environmental photoperiodic information into an endocrine message in multicellular organisms and for other purposes as well. As an antioxidant, melatonin exhibits several unique features which differ from the classic antioxidants. These include its cascade reaction with free radicals and its capacity to be induced under moderate oxidative stress. These features make melatonin a potent endogenously-occurring antioxidant that protects organisms from catastrophic oxidative stress.

  19. Effect of nature based antioxidant from Zingiber officinale Rosc. on the oxidation stability, engine performance and emission characteristics with neem oil methyl ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthickeyan, V.

    2018-05-01

    In past few years, the demand for energy increased drastically due to excess utilization of the natural reserves. Thus, it leads to extinction of non-renewable energy resources. Today, the world turning over renewable source of energy for power production (like wind energy, tidal energy, biodiesel, biomass and so on). In the present study, raw neem oil was taken and converted into biodiesel using transesterification process. Nature based antioxidant namely ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) was used as an antioxidant instead of synthetic antioxidants. An anti-oxidants were added in various proportions like G5 (0.5% additive), G10 (1% additive) and G15 (1.5% additive) with B20 (20% neem oil methyl ester with 80% diesel). B20G15 sample showed higher induction period than other samples. Thus, it was considered as an optimum blend with oxidation stability test using Rancimat instrument. Diesel showed higher Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) than biodiesel samples. On the other hand, B20G15 showed higher BTE than B20. Higher CO, HC and smoke emissions were observed for B20 with an antioxidant than other fuel samples. B20 with an antioxidant showed lower NOx emissions than diesel and B20. Thus, the nature based antioxidant was considered as the most promising alternative for NOx emission reduction.

  20. Mud-Bath Therapy in Addition to Usual Care in Bilateral Knee Osteoarthritis: An Economic Evaluation Alongside a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, Oriana; Pascarelli, Nicola Antonio; Giannitti, Chiara; Galeazzi, Mauro; Meregaglia, Michela; Fattore, Giovanni; Fioravanti, Antonella

    2017-07-01

    To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of mud-bath therapy (MBT) in addition to usual treatment compared to usual treatment alone in patients with bilateral knee osteoarthritis (OA). An economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial was conducted. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either a 2-week cycle of MBT in addition to their usual treatment or to continue routine care alone. The EuroQol 5-domain questionnaire was administered at baseline, 2 weeks, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Direct health care resource consumption data up until 12 months were derived from a daily diary given to patients and returned at prescheduled followup visits. A total of 103 patients were included (n = 53 for MBT patients; n = 50 for controls). Overall, patients in the MBT group accrued mean ± SD 0.835 ± 0.10 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) compared to 0.753 ± 0.11 in the control group (P < 0.001). Average direct costs per patient (€303 versus €975; P < 0.001) were higher in the control group, primarily because of hospitalization for total knee replacement and use of intraarticular hyaluronic acid. Bootstrapping replications of costs and QALY sample distributions consistently indicated that the MBT therapy combined with standard therapy represents a dominant strategy as compared with standard therapy alone. The probability of MBT being cost-effective at standard cost-effectiveness thresholds (e.g., €20,000/QALY) is 100%. The results of this cost-effectiveness analysis support the use of MBT as midterm complementary therapy in the management of knee OA. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  1. Effects of incorporating germinated brown rice on the antioxidant properties of wheat flour chapatti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujral, H Singh; Sharma, P; Bajaj, R; Solah, V

    2012-02-01

    Brown rice after germinating for 24 and 48 h was milled into flour and incorporated in whole wheat flour at a level of 10% to prepare chapattis. The objective was to use chapatti as a delivery vehicle for germinated brown rice. The flour blends and chapattis made from the flour blends were evaluated for their antioxidant properties. Incorporating germinated brown rice flour increased the total phenolic content of the flour blend from 1897 to 2144 µg FAE/g. The total flavonoids content increased significantly from 632.3 to1770.9 µg CAE/g and metal chelating activity significantly increased by 71.62%. Antioxidant activity increased significantly by the addition of brown rice flour and addition of 24- and 48-h germinated brown rice flour further increased the antioxidant activity significantly. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids content decrease significantly in all the blends after baking the flour into chapatti. A decrease of 3% to 29% was observed in the total phenolic content and a decrease of 25% to 42% was observed in the total flavonoids content. However, baking of the flour blends into chapatti increased the reducing power, metal chelating activity by three folds and antioxidant activity from 64% to 104%.

  2. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Liquidambar Orientalis Mill. Various Extracts Against Bacterial Pathogens Causing Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülten Ökmen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is being constantly developed worldwide. Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS and Staphylococcus aureus are common causes of bovine subclinical mastitis. Bioactive compound of medicinal plants shows anti-microbial, anti-mutagenic and anti-oxidant effects. The anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant activities of Liquidambar orientalis (L. orientalis extracts on subclinical mastitis causing bacteria in cows have not been reported to date. The aim of the present study was to examine anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant effects of L. orientalis leaf extracts on S. aureus and CNS isolated from cows with subclinical mastitis symptoms. In this study, 3.2 mg/mL minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of ethanol extracts of L. orientalis has shown to be a most potent anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant for all isolated bacterial species from mastitis cows. In this study, it was investigated anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant potentials of acetone, methanol and ethanol extracts of the L. orientalis. The acetone extract showed maximum inhibition zone against S. aureus numbered 17 (12 mm. In addition to anti-bacterial properties, anti-oxidant activity of L. orientalis extract was examined by ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] free radical assay. Trolox was used as a positive control anti-oxidant. Ethanol extract exhibited a strong anti-oxidant activity like Trolox anti-oxidant which was effective at 2.58 mM concentration. Bioactive compounds of sweet gum may be useful to screening mastitis causing bacteria for clinical applications.

  3. Effects of Tai Chi Training on Antioxidant Capacity in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attakorn Palasuwan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of oxidative stress-related metabolic diseases increases with menopause and physical inactivity. We hypothesized that an 8-week Tai Chi (TC training program (2 sessions in class; 2 sessions at home; 1-1:15/session would improve antioxidant capacity and reduce cardiovascular risks in both pre- (n=8 and postmenopausal (n=7 sedentary women. Selected measures of physical fitness and blood parameters were analyzed before and after the program. Besides the well-known effects of TC on balance, flexibility, and maximum leg extensor strength, TC (1 increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity—an aerobic training-responsive antioxidant enzyme—and plasma total antioxidant status and (2 decreased plasma total homocysteine, a cardiovascular risk marker. In addition to being a low-velocity, low-impact, and relatively safe, TC is a suitable physical activity design for pre- and postmenopausal women to increase antioxidant defenses. Investigating breathing effects during TC movements would be an interesting area for further research in diseases prevention.

  4. Effects of tai chi training on antioxidant capacity in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palasuwan, Attakorn; Suksom, Daroonwan; Margaritis, Irène; Soogarun, Suphan; Rousseau, Anne-Sophie

    2011-04-11

    The risk of oxidative stress-related metabolic diseases increases with menopause and physical inactivity. We hypothesized that an 8-week Tai Chi (TC) training program (2 sessions in class; 2 sessions at home; 1-1:15/session) would improve antioxidant capacity and reduce cardiovascular risks in both pre- (n = 8) and postmenopausal (n = 7) sedentary women. Selected measures of physical fitness and blood parameters were analyzed before and after the program. Besides the well-known effects of TC on balance, flexibility, and maximum leg extensor strength, TC (1) increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity-an aerobic training-responsive antioxidant enzyme-and plasma total antioxidant status and (2) decreased plasma total homocysteine, a cardiovascular risk marker. In addition to being a low-velocity, low-impact, and relatively safe, TC is a suitable physical activity design for pre- and postmenopausal women to increase antioxidant defenses. Investigating breathing effects during TC movements would be an interesting area for further research in diseases prevention.

  5. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Yousr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein by-products from the extraction of lecithin from egg yolk can be converted into value-added products, such as bioactive hydrolysates and peptides that have potential health enhancing antioxidant, and antihypertensive properties. In this study, the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities of peptides isolated and purified from egg yolk protein were investigated. Defatted egg yolk was hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin and sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration, followed by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fractions (EYGF. Of these, two fractions, EYGF-23 and EYGF-33, effectively inhibited the peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS in an oxidizing linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant mechanism involved superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and ferrous chelation. The presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine (Y and tryptophan (W, in sequences identified by LC-MS as WYGPD (EYGF-23 and KLSDW (EYGF-33, contributed to the antioxidant activity and were not significantly different from the synthetic BHA antioxidant. A third fraction (EYGF-56 was also purified from egg yolk protein by gel filtration and exhibited high ACE inhibitory activity (69% and IC50 value (3.35 mg/mL. The SDNRNQGY peptide (10 mg/mL had ACE inhibitory activity, which was not significantly different from that of the positive control captopril (0.5 mg/mL. In addition, YPSPV in (EYGF-33 (10 mg/mL had higher ACE inhibitory activity compared with captopril. These findings indicated a substantial potential for producing valuable peptides with antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity from egg yolk.

  6. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousr, Marwa; Howell, Nazlin

    2015-12-07

    Protein by-products from the extraction of lecithin from egg yolk can be converted into value-added products, such as bioactive hydrolysates and peptides that have potential health enhancing antioxidant, and antihypertensive properties. In this study, the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of peptides isolated and purified from egg yolk protein were investigated. Defatted egg yolk was hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin and sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration, followed by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fractions (EYGF). Of these, two fractions, EYGF-23 and EYGF-33, effectively inhibited the peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in an oxidizing linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant mechanism involved superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and ferrous chelation. The presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine (Y) and tryptophan (W), in sequences identified by LC-MS as WYGPD (EYGF-23) and KLSDW (EYGF-33), contributed to the antioxidant activity and were not significantly different from the synthetic BHA antioxidant. A third fraction (EYGF-56) was also purified from egg yolk protein by gel filtration and exhibited high ACE inhibitory activity (69%) and IC50 value (3.35 mg/mL). The SDNRNQGY peptide (10 mg/mL) had ACE inhibitory activity, which was not significantly different from that of the positive control captopril (0.5 mg/mL). In addition, YPSPV in (EYGF-33) (10 mg/mL) had higher ACE inhibitory activity compared with captopril. These findings indicated a substantial potential for producing valuable peptides with antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity from egg yolk.

  7. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities and Effect of 1-Hexadecene Addition on Palmarumycin C2 and C3 Yields in Liquid Culture of Endophytic Fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Mou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two spirobisnaphthalenes, namely palmarumycins C2 and C3, were isolated from cu